The study aimed at identifying the factors that influence the enrolment of students for science subjects and strategies that can be used to improve the enrolment with the view of improving the population of science students in Oluyole Local Government Area, Ibadan. Descriptive survey research design was employed in the ...
Eric G. Devine
Full Text Available Clinical trials within the US face an increasing challenge with the recruitment of quality candidates. One readily available group of subjects that have high rates of participation in clinical research are subjects who enroll in multiple trials for the purpose of generating income through study payments. Aside from issues of safety and generalizability, evidence suggests that these subjects employ methods of deception to qualify for the strict entrance criteria of some studies, including concealing information and fabricating information. Including these subjects in research poses a significant risk to the integrity of data quality and study designs. Strategies to limit enrollment of subjects whose motivation is generating income have not been systematically addressed in the literature. The present paper is intended to provide investigators with a range of strategies for developing and implementing a study protocol with protections to minimize the enrollment of subjects whose primary motivation for enrolling is to generate income. This multifaceted approach includes recommendations for advertising strategies, payment strategies, telephone screening strategies, and baseline screening strategies. The approach also includes recommendations for attending to inconsistent study data and subject motivation. Implementing these strategies may be more or less important depending upon the vulnerability of the study design to subject deception. Although these strategies may help researchers exclude subjects with a higher rate of deceptive practices, widespread adoption of subject registries would go a long way to decrease the chances of subjects enrolling in multiple studies or more than once in the same study.
Full Text Available The goal of this study is to investigate associations between subjective memory complaint and objective cognitive performance in older people with previous major depression-a high-risk sample for cognitive impairment and later dementia. A cross-sectional study was carried out in people aged 60 or over with previous major depression but not fulfilling current major depression criteria according to DSM-IV-TR. People with dementia or Mini-Mental State Examination score less than 17 were excluded. Subjective memory complaint was defined on the basis of a score ≧4 on the subscale of Geriatric Mental State schedule, a maximum score of 8. Older people aged equal or over 60 without any psychiatric diagnosis were enrolled as healthy controls. Cognitive function was evaluated using a series of cognitive tests assessing verbal memory, attention/speed, visuospatial function, verbal fluency, and cognitive flexibility in all participants. One hundred and thirteen older people with previous major depression and forty-six healthy controls were enrolled. Subjective memory complaint was present in more than half of the participants with depression history (55.8%. Among those with major depression history, subjective memory complaint was associated with lower total immediate recall and delayed verbal recall scores after adjustment. The associations between subjective memory complaint and worse memory performance were stronger in participants with lower depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score<7. The results suggest subjective memory complaint may be a valid appraisal of memory performance in older people with previous major depression and consideration should be given to more proactive assessment and follow-up in these clinical samples.
Karlawish, Jason; Rubright, Jonathan; Casarett, David; Cary, Mark; Ten Have, Thomas; Sankar, Pamela
Research that seeks to enroll noncompetent patients with Alzheimer's disease without presenting any potential benefit to participants is the source of substantial ethical controversy. The authors used hypothetical Alzheimer's disease studies that included either a blood draw or a blood draw and lumbar puncture to explore older persons' attitudes on this question. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 538 persons age 65 and older. Questions explored participants' understanding of research concepts, their views on enrolling persons with Alzheimer's disease in research, and their preferences regarding having a proxy decision maker, granting advance consent, and granting their proxy leeway to override the participant's decision. Additional questions assessed altruism, trust, value for research, and perceptions of Alzheimer's disease. The majority (83%) were willing to grant advance consent to a blood draw study, and nearly half (48%) to a blood draw plus lumbar puncture study. Most (96%) were willing to identify a proxy for research decision making, and most were willing to grant their proxy leeway over their advance consent: 81% for the blood draw study and 70% for the blood draw plus lumbar puncture study. Combining the preferences for advance consent and leeway, the proportion who would permit being enrolled in the blood draw and lumbar puncture studies, respectively, were 92% and 75%. Multivariate models showed that willingness to be enrolled in research was most strongly associated with a favorable attitude toward biomedical research. Older adults generally support enrolling noncompetent persons with Alzheimer's disease into research that does not present a benefit to subjects. Willingness to grant their proxy leeway over advance consent and a favorable attitude about biomedical research substantially explain this willingness.
Pareek, Manan; Bhatt, Deepak L; Vaduganathan, Muthiah
population-based cohort study of 1324 subjects without a previous cardiovascular event, who underwent baseline echocardiography and biomarker assessment between 2002 and 2006. The clinical endpoint was the composite of myocardial infarction, invasively treated stable/unstable ischemic heart disease, heart...
Mori, Mihoko; Matsumoto, Yuuki; Kushino, Nanae; Morimatsu, Yoshitaka; Hoshiko, Michiko; Saga, Tsuyoshi; Yamaki, Koh-ichi; Ishitake, Tatsuya
This study aimed to evaluate students' subjective symptoms associated with exposure to low levels of formaldehyde (FA) during a gross anatomy course and to survey how the risk of subjective symptoms was affected by exposure to FA. We conducted three questionnaire surveys of 125 students enrolled in an anatomy course (FA exposure group) and 124 students not enrolled in the course (FA nonexposure group) before, during, and 6 months after the course. The questionnaire included questions inquiring about subjective symptoms, sex, age, and allergies. We analyzed differences in the prevalence of subjective symptoms in distinct survey periods. Furthermore, we analyzed the relationship between the subjective symptoms and exposure to FA after adjusting for allergy, sex, and age using multiple logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of some of the ocular, nasal, and nonspecific symptoms in the FA exposure group was low before the course, increased during the course and decreased 6 months after the course. A significant positive relationship was observed between exposure to FA and some symptoms after adjusting for allergy, sex, and age. We identified some concrete symptoms associated with exposure to FA. We suggest that the exposure to low levels of FA influences students' subjective symptoms.
Erin M. Scherer
Full Text Available Although licensed human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines are most efficacious in persons never infected with HPV, they also reduce infection and disease in previously infected subjects, indicating natural immunity is not entirely protective against HPV re-infection. The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the B cell memory elicited by HPV infection and evaluate whether vaccination merely boosts antibody (Ab levels in previously infected subjects or also improves the quality of B cell memory. Toward this end, the memory B cells (Bmem of five unvaccinated, HPV-seropositive subjects were isolated and characterized, and subject recall responses to a single HPV vaccine dose were analyzed. Vaccination boosted Ab levels 24- to 930-fold (median 77-fold and Bmem numbers 3- to 27-fold (median 6-fold. In addition, Abs cloned from naturally elicited Bmem were generally non-neutralizing, whereas all those isolated following vaccination were neutralizing. Moreover, Ab and plasmablast responses indicative of memory recall responses were only observed in two subjects. These results suggest HPV vaccination augments both the magnitude and quality of natural immunity and demonstrate that sexually active persons could also benefit from HPV vaccination. This study may have important public policy implications, especially for the older ‘catch-up’ group within the vaccine's target population.
Ranek, L; Dalhoff, K; Poulsen, H E
To test the hypothesis that halothane hepatitis is caused by a combination of altered drug metabolism and an immunoallergic disposition, the metabolism of antipyrine, metronidazole, sparteine, phenytoin, and racemic R- and S-mephenytoin was investigated in seven subjects with previous halothane...... hepatitis. The HLA tissue types and the complement C3 phenotypes were also determined. The metabolism of antipyrine and metronidazole was within normal range in all subjects, and they were all fast or extensive metabolizers of sparteine, mephenytoin, and phenytoin. HLA tissue types were unremarkable. Five...
Puetz, John; Soucie, J. Michael; Kempton, Christine L.; Monahan, Paul E.
Summary Background Several risk factors for inhibitors have recently been described for hemophilia A. It has been assumed that similar risk factors are also relevant for hemophilia B, but there is limited data to confirm this notion. Objectives To determine the prevalence of and risk factors associated with inhibitors in hemophilia B Methods The database of the Universal Data Collection (UDC) project of the Centers for Disease Control for the years 1998 – 2011 was queried to determine the prevalence of inhibitors in hemophilia B subjects. In addition, disease severity, race/ethnicity, age, factor exposure, and prophylaxis usage were evaluated to determine their impact on inhibitor prevalence. Results Of the 3800 male subjects with hemophilia B enrolled in the UDC database, 75 (2%) were determined to have an inhibitor at some point during the study period. Severe disease (OR 13.1, 95% CI 6.2-27.7), black race (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.1), and age less than 11 (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.5-4.0) were found to be significantly associated with having an inhibitor. There was insufficient data to determine if type of factor used and prophylaxis were associated with inhibitors. Conclusions Inhibitors in hemophilia B are much less prevalent than hemophilia A, especially in patients with mild disease. Similar factors associated with inhibitors in hemophilia A also seem to be present for hemophilia B. The information collected by this large surveillance project did not permit evaluation of potential risk factors related to treatment approaches and exposures, and additional studies will be required. PMID:23855900
Kirima, Teresia Mugure; Kinyua, Susan Muthoni
This study examined teacher related factors influencing students' enrollment in Biology subject in public secondary schools in Meru Central Sub County in Kenya. The study utilized the descriptive survey research design on a target population of 9,859 respondents consisting of 9,748 Biology students, 62 trained Biology teachers and 49 Heads of…
Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase (CPT I or CPT II) Deficiency; Very Long Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase (VLCAD) Deficiency; Long-chain 3-hydroxy-acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase (LCHAD) Deficiency; Trifunctional Protein (TFP) Deficiency; Carnitine-acylcarnitine Translocase (CACT) Deficiency
Full Text Available Background: To determine whether botulinum toxin treatment history affected the outcomes of a study comparing the safety and efficacy of incobotulinumtoxinA with placebo in subjects with cervical dystonia (CD.Methods: This was a prospective, double‐blind, randomized, placebo‐controlled, multicenter trial in botulinum toxin‐treated or toxin‐naïve CD subjects. Subjects received a fixed dose of either 120 U or 240 U of incobotulinumtoxinA or placebo. The primary outcome measure was change from baseline to Week 4 in the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS total score. Treatment‐emergent adverse events (TEAEs were also evaluated. This report represents a subgroup analysis of botulinum toxin‐treated or toxin‐naïve subjects.Results: Participants (N = 233; 38.6% toxin‐naïve had a mean age of 52.8 years. IncobotulinumtoxinA significantly improved TWSTRS total scores from baseline to Week 4 in both dose groups versus placebo, and the improvement persisted through the end of the study (≤20 weeks. Both the previously toxin‐treated and toxin‐naïve subjects demonstrated significant improvements in TWSTRS total scores at Week 4 compared to baseline. The most frequent TEAEs in the incobotulinumtoxinA groups were dysphagia, neck pain, and muscular weakness, which were generally mild. TEAEs were more common in the 240 U group and toxin‐naïve subjects. Discussion: Overall, incobotulinumtoxinA was safe and effective in CD, regardless of toxin therapy history. A lower starting dose may be better tolerated among toxin‐naïve subjects without sacrificing efficacy.
Biermasz, N R; Joustra, S D; Donga, E; Pereira, A M; van Duinen, N; van Dijk, M; van der Klaauw, A A; Corssmit, E P M; Lammers, G J; van Kralingen, K W; van Dijk, J G; Romijn, J A
Fatigue and excessive sleepiness have been reported after treatment of nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFMA). Because these complaints may be caused by disturbed nocturnal sleep, we evaluated objective sleep characteristics in patients treated for NFMA. We conducted a controlled cross-sectional study. We studied 17 patients (8 women; mean age, 54 yr) in remission of NFMA during long-term follow-up (8 yr; range, 1-18 yr) after surgery (n = 17) and additional radiotherapy (n = 5) without comorbidity except for hypopituitarism and 17 controls matched for age, gender, and body mass index. Sleep was assessed by nocturnal polysomnography, sleep and diurnal movement patterns by actigraphy, and quality of life and subjective sleep characteristics by questionnaires. Compared to controls, patients had reduced sleep efficiency, less rapid eye movement sleep, more N1 sleep, and more awakenings in the absence of excessive apnea or periodic limb movements. Actigraphy revealed a longer sleep duration and profound disturbances in diurnal movement patterns, with more awakenings at night and less activity during the day. Patients scored higher on fatigue and reported impaired quality of life. Patients previously treated for NFMA suffer from decreased subjective sleep quality, disturbed distribution of sleep stages, and disturbed circadian movement rhythm. These observations indicate that altered sleep characteristics may be a factor contributing to impaired quality of life and increased fatigue in patients treated for NFMA.
Carozzi, Francesca Maria; Bisanzi, Simonetta; Falini, Patrizia; Sani, Cristina; Venturini, Giulia; Lopes Pegna, Andrea; Bianchi, Roberto; Ronchi, Cristina; Picozzi, Giulia; Mascalchi, Mario; Carrozzi, Laura; Baliva, Filomena; Pistelli, Francesco; Tavanti, Laura; Falaschi, Fabio; Grazzini, Michela; Innocenti, Florio; Paci, Eugenio
The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of a grid of molecular genetic markers detectable in sputum and plasma samples of individuals enrolled in a lung cancer screening program with low-dose CT. Subjects enrolled in the baseline screening round of the ITALUNG (randomised) screening trial were invited to provide biological specimens for molecular analysis (1356 subjects out of 1406). We included 98 subjects in this analysis. There was a highly statistically significant difference between proportion of subjects with a negative baseline CT screening test who were positive to allelic imbalance, and those with a non-calcified nodule (NCN greater than or equal to 5mm), the reason of recall for all suspects at CT Scan (chi(2): 22.9; P or = 5 mm. In subjects recalled for NCN > or = 5 mm, LOH, K-ras mutations and high levels of free plasma DNA (>5ng/ml plasma) might be important to support clinical decision making for further follow-up and repeated screening. This study, embedded in an early diagnosis randomised trial, suggests that a multi-screening approach integrating imaging technique and a biomolecular marker panel is worth of further investigation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND: Warm-up and stretching are suggested to increase hamstring flexibility and reduce the risk of injury. This study examined the short-term effects of warm-up, static stretching and dynamic stretching on hamstring flexibility in individuals with previous hamstring injury and uninjured controls. METHODS: A randomised crossover study design, over 2 separate days. Hamstring flexibility was assessed using passive knee extension range of motion (PKE ROM). 18 previously injured individuals and 18 uninjured controls participated. On both days, four measurements of PKE ROM were recorded: (1) at baseline; (2) after warm-up; (3) after stretch (static or dynamic) and (4) after a 15-minute rest. Participants carried out both static and dynamic stretches, but on different days. Data were analysed using Anova. RESULTS: Across both groups, there was a significant main effect for time (p < 0.001). PKE ROM significantly increased with warm-up (p < 0.001). From warm-up, PKE ROM further increased with static stretching (p = 0.04) but significantly decreased after dynamic stretching (p = 0.013). The increased flexibility after warm-up and static stretching reduced significantly (p < 0.001) after 15 minutes of rest, but remained significantly greater than at baseline (p < 0.001). Between groups, there was no main effect for group (p = 0.462), with no difference in mean PKE ROM values at any individual stage of the protocol (p > 0.05). Using ANCOVA to adjust for the non-significant (p = 0.141) baseline difference between groups, the previously injured group demonstrated a greater response to warm-up and static stretching, however this was not statistically significant (p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: Warm-up significantly increased hamstring flexibility. Static stretching also increased hamstring flexibility, whereas dynamic did not, in agreement with previous findings on uninjured controls. The effect of warm-up and static stretching on flexibility was greater in those with reduced
Lamy, Elsa; Simões, Carla; Rodrigues, Lénia; Costa, Ana Rodrigues; Vitorino, Rui; Amado, Francisco; Antunes, Célia; do Carmo, Isabel
Saliva is a non-invasive source of biomarkers useful in the study of physiological mechanisms. Moreover, this fluid has diverse functions, among which food perception and ingestion, making it particularly suitable for the study of obesity. The aims of this study were to assess changes in salivary proteome among morbidly obese women, with a view to provide information about mechanisms potentially related to the development of obesity, and to evaluate whether these changes persist after weight loss. Mixed saliva samples from morbidly obese women (N = 18) who had been either subjected (group O-BS) or not (group O) to bariatric surgery and women with normal weight (N = 14; group C) were compared for protein profiles, alpha-amylase abundance and enzymatic activity, and carbonic anhydrase (CA) VI abundance. Differences in salivary obese profiles were observed for 23 different spots. Zinc-alpha-2 glycoprotein-containing spots showed higher abundance in group O only, whereas cystatin S-containing spots presented higher abundance in the two groups of obese subjects. Most of the spots identified as salivary amylase were present at lower levels in group O-BS. With regard to the amylase enzymatic activity, increases were observed for group O and decreases for group O-BS. One interesting finding was the high correlation between levels of CA VI and body mass index in group O, which was not observed for groups O-BS or C. The differences between groups, mainly regarding salivary proteins involved in taste sensitivity and metabolism, point to the potential of using saliva in the study of obesity development.
Luciene Pereira da Rocha
Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar o consumo de suplementos em indivíduos praticantes de exercícios físicos em academias de Niterói e São Gonçalo (RJ. O grupo de estudo (GE constituiu-se de 160 indivíduos (10 por academia, selecionados ao acaso e que responderam a um questionário. As academias foram escolhidas de acordo com a localização e receptividade para a realização do levantamento. Verificou-se que 51 indivíduos (32% faziam uso de algum tipo de suplemento e 109 não (68%. O grupo de usuários de suplementos compunha-se por indivíduos entre 20 e 30 anos, sendo 35 do sexo masculino e 16 do feminino; 17 praticantes de musculação, 15 de ginástica, 10 de várias modalidades e 9 de ginástica e musculação. Vinte oito pessoas usavam um tipo de suplemento e 23 mais de um, sendo que dois indivíduos usavam seis tipos diferentes. Os praticantes de musculação usavam preferentemente aminoácidos e proteínas, além de produtos de composição mista, bem como "energéticos" e "estimulantes". Os praticantes de ginástica usavam mais suplementos deste último tipo, além de vitaminas e minerais. Os praticantes de ginástica associada à musculação e várias modalidades usavam praticamente todos os tipos de suplemento. A maioria dos usuários consumia suplementos diariamente (82,3% sendo a dose variada, muitos relatando o uso recomendado no rótulo. Trinta e dois participantes relataram que receberam orientação para o consumo dos suplementos. As autoras discutem os resultados encontrados e apresentam uma breve revisão sobre os efeitos do uso de suplementos para a melhoria da saúde ou do desempenho físico.This is a survey on the use of nutritional supplements by subjects enrolled in physical fitness schools in Niterói and São Gonçalo (RJ. The study group had 160 subjects (10 for school, selected at random, who answered a questionnaire. Schools were chosen occording to localization and receptivity to answering the
Peklaj, Cirila; Podlesek, Anja; Pecjak, Sonja
The aim of the study was to examine the relationships between gender, previous knowledge, different personality traits, subject-specific motivational dimensions and students' math grade in secondary school. A total of 386 first-year students (142 boys and 244 girls) from secondary schools in Slovenia (mean age was 15.7 years) participated in the…
Bartle, Naomi C; Harvey, Kate
Breastfeeding confers important health benefits to both infants and their mothers, but rates are low in the United Kingdom and other developed countries despite widespread promotion. This study examined the relationships between personal and vicarious experience of infant feeding, self-efficacy, the theory of planned behaviour variables of attitudes and subjective norm, and the likelihood of breastfeeding at 6-8 weeks post-natally. A prospective questionnaire study of both first-time mothers (n = 77) and experienced breastfeeders (n = 72) recruited at an antenatal clinic in South East England. Participants completed a questionnaire at 32 weeks pregnant assessing personal and vicarious experience of infant feeding (breastfeeding, formula-feeding, and maternal grandmother's experience of breastfeeding), perceived control, self-efficacy, intentions, attitudes (to breastfeeding and formula-feeding), and subjective norm. Infant feeding behaviour was recorded at 6-8 weeks post-natally. Multiple linear regression modelled the influence of vicarious experience on attitudes, subjective norm, and self-efficacy (but not perceived control) and modelled the influence of attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and past experience on intentions to breastfeed. Logistic regression modelled the likelihood of breastfeeding at 6-8 weeks. Previous experience (particularly personal experience of breastfeeding) explained a significant amount of variance in attitudes, subjective norm, and self-efficacy. Intentions to breastfeed were predicted by subjective norm and attitude to formula-feeding and, in experienced mothers, self-efficacy. Breastfeeding at 6 weeks was predicted by intentions and vicarious experience of formula-feeding. Vicarious experience, particularly of formula-feeding, has been shown to influence the behaviour of first-time and experienced mothers both directly and indirectly via attitudes and subjective norm. Interventions that reduce exposure to formula
Sipola, Petri; Heikkinen, Jari; Laaksonen, David E; Kettunen, Raimo
Hypertrophy of the left ventricle is a diagnostic dilemma in subjects who engage in regular endurance exercise. We studied prospectively whether endurance training in previously sedentary young and middle-aged men and women can alter left ventricular (LV) characteristics. We recruited 33 healthy young and middle-aged subjects (18 women, 15 men, ages 21 to 59 years) to undergo 12 weeks of home-based brisk walking and jogging at a target heart rate > or =120 beats/min for > or =30 minutes 3 times a week. LV characteristics were measured by cine magnetic resonance imaging. Training intensity as estimated by heart rate correlated positively with the increase in LV myocardial area (r = 0.51, p = 0.005) in the 28 men and women completing the study. In the 13 men and women who trained with heart rate of > or =120 beats/min, LV myocardial area was larger after than before training (17.7 +/- 2.9 vs 16.8 +/- 2.8 cm(2), p intensity (p moderate-to-vigorous endurance training at moderate volumes does not influence LV end-diastolic volume or ejection fraction, but has a minor influence on LV hypertrophy in previously sedentary young and middle-aged men and women.
Larsson, S; Englund, M; Struglics, A; Lohmander, L S
To explore potential associations between proinflammatory cytokines in synovial fluid and progression of osteoarthritis (OA) in meniscectomized subjects. We studied 132 subjects on average 18 years after meniscectomy, with a second examination 4-10 years later. We measured concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, -8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α by multiplex immunoassay, graded radiographic features of tibiofemoral and patellofemoral OA according to the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) atlas, scored patient-reported outcomes using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and used logistic regression (adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, and time between examinations) for assessment of associations. Higher first examination concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α were associated with increased risk for subsequent osteophyte progression (odds ratios (OR); 95% confidence intervals 1.05; 1.00-1.09 and 1.35; 1.03-1.75). Higher second examination concentrations of TNF-α were associated with having progressed in loss of joint space (OR 1.70; 1.15-2.52) or having worsened in the activity of daily living subscale of KOOS (OR 1.50; 1.07-2.09) in the preceding years. Subjects with increasing concentrations of IL-6 or TNF-α between examinations were five times more likely to have progressed in joint space narrowing between the same examinations, as compared to those with stable or decreasing concentrations (OR 5.17; 1.54-17.32 and 5.01; 1.32-18.92). In subjects with previous meniscectomy, higher or over time increasing synovial fluid levels of IL-6 and TNF-α seems to be associated with increased risk for progression of radiographic OA. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jesús Vega Encabo
Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation.
Maria E. Ceballos-Villegas
Full Text Available The Hoffmann reflex (H-wave is produced by alpha-motoneuron activation in the spinal cord. A feature of this electromyography response is that it exhibits fluctuations in amplitude even during repetitive stimulation with the same intensity of current. We herein explore the hypothesis that physical training induces plastic changes in the motor system. Such changes are evaluated with the fractal dimension (FD analysis of the H-wave amplitude-fluctuations (H-wave FD and the cross-covariance (CCV between the bilateral H-wave amplitudes. The aim of this study was to compare the H-wave FD as well as the CCV before and after track training in sedentary individuals and athletes. The training modality in all subjects consisted of running three times per week (for 13 weeks in a concrete road of 5 km. Given the different physical condition of sedentary vs. athletes, the running time between sedentary and athletes was different. After training, the FD was significantly increased in sedentary individuals but significantly reduced in athletes, although there were no changes in spinal excitability in either group of subjects. Moreover, the CCV between bilateral H-waves exhibited a significant increase in athletes but not in sedentary individuals. These differential changes in the FD and CCV indicate that the plastic changes in the complexity of the H-wave amplitude fluctuations as well as the synaptic inputs to the Ia-motoneuron systems of both legs were correlated to the previous fitness history of the subjects. Furthermore, these findings demonstrate that the FD and CCV can be employed as indexes to study plastic changes in the human motor system.
Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Yáñez-Vico, Rosa-María; Moreno-Manteca, Blanca; Moreno-Fernández, Ana María; Mendoza-Mendoza, Asunción; Solano-Reina, Enrique
The aim of the present case-control study was to determine--using the 10 most recent annual listings of the most beautiful black and white people--whether any common, measurable esthetic parameter could be extracted from both groups. A total of 80 women (40 white and 40 black), who had been included in the list of People magazine's 100 most beautiful people during the previous 10 years, were selected. Lateral photographs of all 80 subjects were obtained from Internet databases, oriented, and sized. A modified photogrammetric analysis was performed on the lateral view of each subject to obtain the angle and proportion measurements. Differences between the 2 groups were compared with 95% significance using the Student t test for independent samples. Facial similarities in the 2 ethnic groups were observed for the angle of the inferior facial third, labiomental angle, angle of facial convexity, and cervicomental angle. These results point to a similar conformation of the lower part of the face in relation to the neck that was shared by both groups of beautiful women. Additionally, both groups showed similar results for the lower lip projection. Likewise, similar proportional measurements were found for the upper lip proportion, notwithstanding differences in protrusion. Modern society is changing the classic concept of facial beauty because of globalization and the prevalence of multiethnic communities in the developed world. Independently of ethnic origin, beautiful women tend to have similar facial features that are a mixture of both black and white features. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kanny, M. Allison
This chapter examines the experiences of five high school students previously enrolled in dual enrollment courses, and discusses the perceived benefits and disadvantages of these experiences from the student perspective.
Bailey, HH; Kim, K; Verma, A; Sielaff, K; Larson, PO; Snow, S; Lenaghan, T; Viner, JL; Douglass, J; Dreckschmidt, N; Hamielec, M; Pomplun, M; Sharata, HH; Puchalsky, D; Berg, ER; Havighurst, T; Carbone, PP
Preclinical studies have shown the inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) by α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and resultant decreases in tissue concentrations of polyamines (putrescine & spermidine) prevents neoplastic developments in many tissue types. Clinical studies of oral DFMO at 500 mg/m2/day revealed it to be safe and tolerable and resulted in significant inhibition of phorbol ester-induced skin ODC activity. Two hundred and ninety-one participants (mean 61 y.o., 60% male) with a history of prior non-melanoma skin cancer (mean 4.5 skin cancers) were randomized to oral DFMO (500 mg/m2/day) or placebo for 4–5 years. There was a trend toward a history of more prior skin cancers in subjects randomized to placebo, but all other characteristics including sunscreen and NSAID use were evenly distributed. Evaluation of 1200-person years of follow-up revealed a new non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) rate of 0.5 events/person/year. The primary endpoint, new NMSC’s, was not significantly different between subjects taking DFMO and placebo (260 vs. 363 cancers, p=0.069, two-sample t test). Evaluation of basal cell (BCC) and squamous cell (SCC) cancers separately revealed very little difference in SCC between treatment groups but a significant difference in new BCC (DFMO 163 cancers; Placebo 243 cancers; expressed as event rate 0.28 BCC/person/year vs. 0.40 BCC/person/year, p=0.03). Compliance with DFMO was >90% and it appeared to be well tolerated with evidence of mild ototoxicity as measured by serial audiometric examination when compared to placebo subjects. Analysis of normal skin biopsies revealed a significant (pskin cancer taking daily DFMO had an insignificant reduction (p=0.069), in new NMSC that was predominantly due to a marked reduction in new BCC. Based on these data, the potential of DFMO, alone or in combination, to prevent skin cancers should be explored further. PMID:20051371
Larsson, S; Englund, M; Struglics, A
concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, -8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α by multiplex immunoassay, graded radiographic features of tibiofemoral and patellofemoral OA according to the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) atlas, scored patient-reported outcomes using the Knee Injury...... (odds ratios (OR); 95% confidence intervals 1.05; 1.00-1.09 and 1.35; 1.03-1.75). Higher second examination concentrations of TNF-α were associated with having progressed in loss of joint space (OR 1.70; 1.15-2.52) or having worsened in the activity of daily living subscale of KOOS (OR 1.50; 1.......07-2.09) in the preceding years. Subjects with increasing concentrations of IL-6 or TNF-α between examinations were five times more likely to have progressed in joint space narrowing between the same examinations, as compared to those with stable or decreasing concentrations (OR 5.17; 1.54-17.32 and 5.01; 1...
Lind, Douglas A.
The use of subjective probability as a theoretical model for enrollment forecasting is proposed, and the results of an application of subjective probability to enrollment forecasting at the University of Toledo are reported. Subjective probability can be used as an enrollment forecasting technique for both headcount and full-time equivalent using…
A single-arm, investigator-initiated study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of intravitreal aflibercept injection in subjects with exudative age-related macular degeneration previously treated with ranibizumab or bevacizumab (ASSESS study: 12-month analysis
Full Text Available Rishi P Singh, Sunil K Srivastava, Justis P Ehlers, Fabiana Q Silva, Rumneek Bedi, Andrew P Schachat, Peter K Kaiser Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA Summary statement: In subjects with active exudative age-related macular degeneration, treating with a fixed intravitreal aflibercept injection dosing regimen for 12 months demonstrated improved anatomic and vision endpoints from baseline.Purpose: Switching therapies in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD may offer an advantage for some patients. This study evaluates the efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept injection (IAI in subjects previously treated with ranibizumab and/or bevacizumab.Methods: Subjects (n=26 were given monthly 2 mg of IAI for 3 months, followed by 2 mg once in every 2 months for up to 12 months. The mean absolute change from baseline in central subfield thickness (CST measured by optical coherence tomography and the mean change from baseline in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA early treatment in diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS letter score were obtained. Additionally, the percentage of subjects who gained or lost ≥15 letters of vision and the percentage of subjects who are 20/40 or better or 20/200 or worse were evaluated.Results: There was a mean decrease in CST of -50.3 µm (P<0.001 and a mean increase in ETDRS BCVA of +9.2 letters (P<0.001. Twenty-seven percent of subjects experienced a ≥15-letter improvement in visual acuity, and no subject lost ≥3 lines of vision from baseline. Fifty percent of subjects were 20/40 or better, and 11.5% of subjects were 20/200 or worse at month 12.Conclusion: Fixed IAI dosing regimen for 12 months demonstrated improved anatomic and vision endpoints in subjects with active exudative AMD. Keywords: aflibercept, age-related macular degeneration, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, vascular endothelial growth factors
... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enrollment of enrolled actuary fee. 300.7... AND ADMINISTRATION USER FEES § 300.7 Enrollment of enrolled actuary fee. (a) Applicability. This section applies to the initial enrollment of enrolled actuaries with the Joint Board for the Enrollment of...
Robinson, Tammy Renee'
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between appearance management, created appearance, body cathexis, and clothing behavior for a group of women enrolled in a commercial weight loss program. Subjects were 171 females enrolled in Weight WatchersÂ® programs in Christiansburg, Virginia. No previous research had investigated clothing behavior, appearance management, created appearance, and body cathexis of women in a weight loss program. Because clothing is such an integra...
EVE et École
IMPORTANT DATES Enrolments 2017-2018 Enrolments for the school year 2017-2018 to the Nursery, the Kindergarten and the School will take place on 6, 7 and 8 March 2017 from 10 am to 1 pm at EVE and School. Registration forms will be available from Thursday 2nd March. More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/.
... enrolled agent or enrolled retirement plan agent. 10.4 Section 10.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of... to Practice § 10.4 Eligibility for enrollment as enrolled agent or enrolled retirement plan agent. (a) Enrollment as an enrolled agent upon examination. The Director of the Office of Professional Responsibility...
... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enrollment of enrolled agent fee. 300.5 Section... ADMINISTRATION USER FEES § 300.5 Enrollment of enrolled agent fee. (a) Applicability. This section applies to the initial enrollment of enrolled agents with the IRS Office of Professional Responsibility pursuant to 31...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Enterprise Data and Analytics has developed a new interactive Medicare Enrollment Dashboard, which provides current information on the number of...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The maps show the distribution of consumers in a state who enrolled in marketplace plans through federally facilitated, partnership, and supported state-based...
Barker, Abigail R; McBride, Timothy D; Kemper, Leah M; Mueller, Keith J
Our previous analysis of 2015 Health Insurance Marketplace (HIM) data on plan availability and premiums in comparison to 2014 showed only modest premium increases in many rural areas and increased firm participation in most areas. To determine whether HIM enrollment also shows a positive trend, we analyzed county-level HIM enrollment data for 2015 by geographic categories, population density, premium, and firm participation, comparing enrollment outcomes in rural places to those in urban places. Key Findings. (1) In the Northeast, Midwest, and West census regions, estimated enrollment rates in rural (micropolitan and noncore) counties were similar to estimated rates in urban counties, while in the South, rural rates lagged behind urban rates. (2) Estimated enrollment rates at the rating area level increased as the population density of the rating area increased. (3) Various measures of rurality and geography indicate that HIMs performed well in many rural areas; however, this analysis suggests that in some rural areas, enrollment outcomes may have been weak due to factors such as the geographic scope of the rating areas, plan availability in these rating areas, or potentially fewer resources devoted to outreach and enrollment efforts. (4) In general, county-level, enrollment-weighted average premiums differed more by census region than by metropolitan, micropolitan, and noncore status. (5) Low enrollment rates at the rating area level were associated with a lower numbers of firms participating in HIMs. When three or more firms participated, enrollment rates were close to or above average.
Dennis, Marguerite J.
Building on the principles of Enrollment Management (EM) and Strategic Enrollment Management (SEM), Anticipatory Enrollment Management (AEM) offers another level of managing enrollment: anticipating future enrollment. AEM is grounded in the basic principles of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and includes strategic out-reach to parents and…
Dowling, Earl E.
"While community college enrollment has generally declined by about 2 or 3 percent annually in recent years--due to some extent to the improving economy--some colleges have bucked the trend" (Ashford 2015). What made the difference? Like many community colleges, College of DuPage has been concerned with access and affordability. The…
Tremblay, Christopher W.
Most current professionals who serve in an enrollment management leadership capacity likely were trained "on the job," or at professional development events, primarily because credit-bearing credentials, degrees, and other formal programs were nonexistent (Phair 2014). However, that landscape has since changed, and now there are multiple…
Harney, John O.
Since New England Board of Higher Education (NEBHE) began publishing tables and charts exploring "Trends & Indicators" in New England higher education more than a half-century ago, few figures have grabbed as much attention as college "enrollment" data. These local, state, regional and national data go beyond simple…
Functional performance and physical activity levels of subjects enrolled at an Open University of the Third Age at the School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities of the University of São Paulo (UnATI EACH-USP
Ruth Caldeira de Melo
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional performance, according to the physical activity levels, of the students of UnATI EACH-USP. The study included 269 subjects, of both sexes, aged between 50 and 80 years-old. The most active group showed better functional performance in balance, mobility and lower limb strength tests compared with the sedentary group. On the other hand, perform physical activities in an irregular fashion was not associated to better functional performance in middleaged/older subjects.
Piele, Philip; Wright, Darrell
Enrollment forecasting is a subject for scholars of varied interests and concerns. The literature reflects several perspectives, including those of school administrators, facilities planners, mathematicians, statisticians, demographers, and computer programmers. This pamphlet contains an analysis and annotated bibliographies of 29 publications on…
Cardiac Safety of Rupatadine in a Single-Ascending-Dose and Multiple-Ascending-Dose Study in Healthy Japanese Subjects, Using Intensive Electrocardiogram Assessments-Comparison With the Previous White Caucasian Thorough QT Study.
Täubel, J; Ferber, G; Fernandes, S; Santamaría, E; Izquierdo, I
A thorough QT/QTc study in healthy white Caucasian subjects demonstrated that rupatadine has no proarrhythmic potential and raised no cardiac safety concerns. The present phase 1 study aimed to confirm the cardiac safety of rupatadine in healthy Japanese subjects. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 27 healthy Japanese subjects were administered single and multiple escalating rupatadine doses of 10, 20, and 40 mg or placebo. Triplicate electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings were performed on days -1, 1, and 5 at several points, and time-matched pharmacokinetic samples were also collected. Concentration-effect analysis based on the change in the QT interval corrected using Fridericia's formula (QTcF) from average baseline was performed. Data from the formal TQT study in white Caucasian subjects was used for a comparison analysis. The ECG data for rupatadine at doses up to 40 mg did not show an effect on the QTc interval of regulatory concern. The sensitivity of this study to detect small changes in the QTc interval was confirmed by demonstrating a significant shortening of QTcF on days 1 and 5 four hours after a standardized meal. The data from this study exhibited no statistically significant differences in the QTc effect between Japanese and white Caucasian subjects. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.
... enrolled agent or enrolled retirement plan agent. 10.5 Section 10.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of... to Practice § 10.5 Application for enrollment as an enrolled agent or enrolled retirement plan agent. (a) Form; address. An applicant for enrollment as an enrolled agent or enrolled retirement plan agent...
This study provides an understanding of how administrative leaders make decisions regarding enrollment management within academic units at a major research university in the southwestern United States. Key enrollment management functions of recruiting, admissions, marketing, orientation, financial aid/scholarships, academic advising, student…
Paxton, Bob; Perez-Greene, Margot
Describes Iowa Central Community College's approach to enrollment management, citing seven keys to its success: (1) the president's personal leadership; (2) a college-wide commitment to excellence; (3) strong administrative support; (4) high expectations for personnel; (5) well-defined enrollment management strategies; (6) participation by…
Alworth, Robert M.; Freed, Judee
Fall 1974 enrollment in the Los Angeles Community Colleges reached an historical high of 124,839--a 14.6% increase over the previous fall. Enrollment increases were greater among day students (17.6 percent) than evening students (10.9 percent), reversing the pattern of last year. Female enrollment increased more sharply than male enrollment and…
Karp, Melinda Mechur
This chapter contextualizes and extends the previous chapters by addressing the intertwined issues of structural systems reform and college completion, as well as the role dual enrollment can play in ensuring equitable postsecondary outcomes for underrepresented students.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This report is composed annually and profiles enrollment statistics on Medicaid managed care programs on a plan-specific level. This report also provides...
Nicholson, Starr; Mulvey, Patrick J.
Undergraduate astronomy enrollments in the US continue to rise with junior and senior level enrollments exceeding the previous year's all-time high. The increasing undergraduate enrollments have produced 428 bachelor's in the 2013-14 academic year, also an all-time high. Undergraduate astronomy degree production will continue to rise given the…
Hospice is considered the "gold standard" for end-of-life care, providing dying patients and their families access to a broad array of services across settings. Despite its comprehensive approach, hospice care remains underutilized; many patients who might benefit from hospice do not enroll, or enroll only in the last days of life. This Issue Brief summarizes a series of studies that shed light on the decision making process about hospice, and describes a simple, effective way to improve referrals to hospice among nursing home residents.
... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Enrollment process. 423.32 Section 423.32 Public... Enrollment process. (a) General rule. A Part D eligible individual who wishes to enroll in a PDP may enroll... approved by CMS. (c) Timely process an individual's enrollment request. A PDP sponsor must timely process...
Abraham, Jessy; Barker, Katrina
This study investigates the predictive influences of achievement motivational variables that may sustain students' engagement in physics and influence their future enrolment plans in the subject. Unlike most studies attempting to address the decline of physics enrolments through capturing students' intention to enrol in physics before ever…
... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 300 RIN 1545-BJ65 User Fees Relating to Enrolled Agents and Enrolled... regulations relating to the imposition of user fees for enrolled agents and enrolled retirement plan agents. The proposed regulations separate the enrolled retirement plan agent user fees from the enrolled agent...
... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Renewal of enrollment of enrolled actuary fee...) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION USER FEES § 300.8 Renewal of enrollment of enrolled actuary fee. (a) Applicability. This section applies to the renewal of enrollment of enrolled actuaries with the Joint Board for...
... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Renewal of enrollment of enrolled agent fee...) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION USER FEES § 300.6 Renewal of enrollment of enrolled agent fee. (a) Applicability. This section applies to the renewal of enrollment of enrolled agents with the IRS Office of...
National Student Clearinghouse, 2014
Current Term Enrollment Estimates, published every December and May by the National Student Clearinghouse Research Center, include national enrollment estimates by institutional sector, state, enrollment intensity, age group, and gender. Enrollment estimates are adjusted for Clearinghouse data coverage rates by institutional sector, state, and…
Enrollments 2012-2013 Monday 5, Tuesday 6, and Wednesday 7 March From 8.00 to 10.00 at the Nursery School Registration forms will be available from 2nd March onwards: – At the Nursery School, from the Secretary, tel : 73604. Catherine.Regelbrugge@cern.ch. – At the Nursery School, from the Headmistress, tel : 77925. Brigitte.Pillionnel@cern.ch. – On the pages of the Nursery School website http://cern.ch/kindergarten/docs/cond%20gales%2012-2013%20EN.pdf.
The main objective of the study was to determine the relationship between availability and use of teaching/learning resources and enrolment in the subject. The study adopted a survey design. The target population consisted of Form III students, geography teachers and the head teachers of the thirty-one public secondary ...
This study focuses on students enrolled in academic CPR workshops in the summer of 2002. The goal of the study is to examine changes in the population of students with academic problems. The CPR workshops are a requirement for students that are subject to dismissal. The study was conducted in the summer of 2003 on the telephone with a random…
This study investigated the perceived indictors influencing enrolment of students in Physical Education subject in Secondary Schools in Obudu LGA of Cross River State, Nigeria. To achieve this objective, two null hypotheses were formulated and tested in the study. A Sample of 100(6.2%) of the population was randomly ...
This essay addresses the hitches and glitches in the hybrid instruction system of teaching and learning for large-enrollment courses. This new instructional methodology asks facilitators to redesign their entire traditional teaching and learning practices. The nature of subject to be taught via the hybrid mode further affects the success rate of…
... Service 26 CFR Part 300 RIN 1545-BJ65 User Fees Relating to Enrolled Agents and Enrolled Retirement Plan... document contains amendments to the regulations relating to the imposition of user fees for enrolled agents and enrolled retirement plan agents. The final regulations lower the initial enrollment and renewal of...
Lichtenberger, Eric; Witt, M. Allison; Blankenberger, Bob; Franklin, Doug
The use of dual credit has been expanding rapidly. Dual credit is a college course taken by a high school student for which both college and high school credit is given. Previous studies provided limited quantitative evidence that dual credit/dual enrollment is directly connected to positive student outcomes. In this study, predictive statistics…
... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Enrollment process. 460.152 Section 460.152 Public...) Participant Enrollment and Disenrollment § 460.152 Enrollment process. (a) Intake process. Intake is an intensive process during which PACE staff members make one or more visits to a potential participant's place...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enrollment process. 1467.7 Section 1467.7 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.7 Enrollment process. (a... of NRCS' intent to continue the enrollment process on their land unless otherwise notified by the...
Bloom, Melanie; Chambers, Laura
Dual enrollment is now a nation-wide phenomenon as all 50 states currently offer some form of dual-enrollment program to secondary-school students (Karp, Bailey, Hughes, and Fermin 2005). However, dual enrollment itself is often difficult to define as programs vary from school to school (Jordan, Cavalluzzo, and Corallo 2006). Therefore, language…
Selewski, David T; Herreshoff, Emily G; Gipson, Debbie S
Advances in medical care and biomedical research depend on the participation of human subjects. Poor patient enrollment in research has limited past clinical and translational research endeavors in nephrology. Simultaneously, patients and their caregivers are seeking better diagnostic, monitoring, and therapeutic approaches to improve or restore kidney and overall health. This manuscript will discuss a framework and strategies to optimize patient enrollment within nephrology research and provide examples of success from existing nephrology research programs. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 300 RIN 1545-BJ65 User Fees Relating to Enrolled Agents and Enrolled... enrolled agents and enrolled retirement plan agents. DATES: The public hearing, originally scheduled for...
Sole, Mary Lou; Middleton, Aurea; Deaton, Lara; Bennett, Melody; Talbert, Steven; Penoyer, Daleen
Enrollment challenges for critical care research are common. Contributing factors include short enrollment windows, the crisis nature of critical illness, lack of research staff, unavailable legal proxy, family dynamics, and language barriers. To describe enrollment statistics for an ongoing critical care nursing trial, barriers to recruitment, and strategies to enhance enrollment. Two years' worth of recruitment and enrollment data from an oral care intervention trial in critically ill adults receiving mechanical ventilation at 1 hospital were analyzed. Recruitment logs include number of patients screened, eligible, enrolled, and declined and patients' sex, race, and ethnicity. Target enrollment (15.5 patients per month) was based on experience and historical data. Strategies implemented to promote enrollment included providing study personnel at least 18 hours per day for 7 days per week, regular rounds, communication with direct care staff, and Spanish consent processes. In 2 years, 6963 patients were screened; 1551 (22%) were eligible. Consent was sought from 366 (24% of eligible patients). Enrollment averaged 13.3 patients per month (86% of projected target). The main factor impeding enrollment was unavailability of a legal proxy to provide consent (88%). The refusal rates of white (11%), black (13%), and Hispanic (16%) patients did not differ significantly. However, those classified as Asian or as more than 1 race declined significantly more often (35%) than did white or black patients (P = .02). Unavailability of a legal proxy within a short enrollment window was the major challenge to enrollment. Various factors influenced consent decisions. Clinical study design requires more conservative estimates. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.
... that provides the lower level of coverage in the Service Benefit Plan. If the employee has a self only... written authorization to do so, may enroll or change the enrollment for the employee. (e) Change to self only. (1) Subject to two exceptions, an employee may change the enrollment from self and family to self...
Lasiewski, Doreen Kovacsofsky
Lack of growth in the science talent pool raises concerns about the ability of colleges and universities to meet the demands of the nation's labor market for scientists and engineers. Previous research has focused on ways to improve the K--16 learning environment and increase retention rates of undergraduate students in the sciences. This study extends previous work by considering the next stage in the educational pipeline---the transition to graduate study. The purpose of this study is to develop a model of factors related to science, mathematics, and engineering (SME) undergraduate degree recipients' subsequent enrollment in graduate study. This research utilizes 1994 data from the first follow-up of the 1993 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study by the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES). Four groups of factors were examined---pre-college characteristics, personal characteristics, institutional characteristics, and the college experience. Analyses were conducted on the overall sample and by gender and race/ethnicity. Male and female subjects were equally likely to enroll in graduate school. White and non-White subjects were equally likely to enroll in graduate school. The best factor to predict enrollment in graduate study for all samples was cumulative grade point average. The models suggested, however, two different journeys taken by SME bachelor's degree recipients. Along one path taken by male and White students, factors associated with graduate school enrollment included having well-educated parents, at least a middle class family background, a good mathematics grade point average, being satisfied with the undergraduate curriculum, being less than twenty-three years old, and having participated in community service. Women and minority students, however, traveled a different path, where marriage negatively influenced enrollment in graduate study. In addition, having children and being over the age of twenty-three were negative factors for
Copeland, Michael; Tietjen-Smith, Tara; Waller, Lee Rusty; Waller, Sharon Kay
The researchers examined part-time enrollment within public two-year, degree-granting community colleges by the degree of urbanization classifications of city, suburban, town, and rural for fall 2003 and 2005. Findings indicate no statistical differences in part-time enrollment between city and suburban institutions. No statistical differences…
May 1, 2017 ... between boys and girls to enrol in school, especially among poor households. Even when the household has the ... The under-representation of girls in primary school system in many developing ... It is therefore obvious from the literature that the preference of parents in enrolment decision is influenced by ...
The benefits of equal enrolment and retention in primary schools cannot be underestimated for developing countries in particular. This underscores the need for studies that shed light on enrolment inequalities. Applying binary probit model to cross-sectional data from 384 respondents randomly drawn from rural and urban ...
Kalsbeek, David H.; Hossler, Donald
Enrollment management, the authors suggested in earlier essays, is a deliberate process of achieving an institution's preferred enrollment profile, starting by identifying the strategic purposes and mission of the institution, and then orchestrating the marketing, recruitment, admissions, pricing and aid, retention programs, academic support…
... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Department of Defense Federal Employees Health Benefits Program... 2001. Eligible beneficiaries will be able to enroll for coverage, change enrollment tiers (e.g., self...
Lines, Patricia M.
Home-based programs provide opportunities at a level far beyond what a traditional public school program can offer. To stem enrollment losses to homeschooling, or simply to help families interested in home-based option, public schools are enrolling children and sending them home, where they follow the school's curriculum under their parents'…
Gotlieb, Melissa R.; McLaughlin, Bryan; Cummins, R. Glenn
As with previous years, enrollments in journalism and mass communication programs in the United States have continued to decline. In 2015, such decline among undergraduate student enrollments was particularly prevalent in journalism sequences; in contrast, undergraduate enrollments in strategic communication sequences have seen some growth since…
Comparison of survival among eligible patients not enrolled versus enrolled in the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) randomized trial of pre-enucleation radiation of large choroidal melanoma.
Gilson, Marta M; Diener-West, Marie; Hawkins, Barbara S
To compare survival between patients enrolled in the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) randomized trial of pre-enucleation radiation therapy (PERT) for large choroidal melanoma and eligible patients who did not enroll. COMS clinical center personnel prospectively reported to the COMS Coordinating Center all patients with choroidal melanoma examined between November 1986 and December 1994. Deaths of enrolled patients were reported prospectively by clinical center personnel. In a COMS ancillary study, we retrospectively searched medical records of participating clinical centers, the Social Security Death Index, and the National Death Index to determine vital status of eligible patients not enrolled. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to compare survival within 10 years of baseline reporting and before July 31, 2000, of enrolled patients versus eligible patients not enrolled. Clinical centers that received local institutional review board approval to participate in this ancillary study prospectively reported on 129 of 299 eligible patients not enrolled in the COMS PERT trial. The baseline characteristics of the 129 patients included in this ancillary study were similar to those of the 170 patients not included; 73 patients were reported as deceased. Previously identified prognostic covariates, i.e., age and longest tumor diameter, were confirmed to predict survival in both enrolled patients and eligible patients not enrolled; trial enrollment was not predictive. After adjusting for prognostic covariates and stratifying by clinical center, the estimated hazard ratio (enrolled vs. not-enrolled) was 1.12 (95% confidence interval: 0.83 to 1.51). The results of the COMS PERT trial should be generalizable to all patients with choroidal melanoma meeting the eligibility criteria for that trial. While the methods we used may not be generalizable to all clinical trials because of unique features of the COMS, other researchers may be able to use similar methods
Becker, Lee Bernard; Vlad, Tudor; Simpson, Holly Anne
Enrollments in journalism and mass communication programs in the United States in the fall of 2013 were down from a year earlier for the third year in a row. Enrollments dropped at the bachelor's, master's, and doctoral levels, and the number of freshmen and sophomores were down dramatically from a year earlier. Enrollments in the…
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — School enrollment data are used to assess the socioeconomic condition of school-age children. Government agencies also require these data for funding allocations...
Mandava, Amulya; Millum, Joseph
Researchers can design recruitment and consent processes so that potential participants are more likely to decide to enroll. These strategies work by subtly manipulating the participants. But how much manipulation is acceptable?
Baker, Courtney N; Arnold, David H; Meagher, Susan
Low levels of enrollment and attendance in parent training programs present major problems for researchers and clinicians. The literature on enrollment and attendance in prevention programs is especially limited, and these constructs may be particularly difficult to address in this context. Further, most previous research has not made the distinction between enrollment and attendance. This study describes predictors of enrollment and attendance in a behavioral parent training program intended to prevent conduct problems in preschoolers. Information was gathered from 106 preschoolers, their parents, and their teachers. Parent socioeconomic status (SES), single parent status, ethnicity, child externalizing behavior, parent depressive symptoms, and parent social support were investigated as possible predictors of families' enrollment and attendance. Only 48% of the families that had already provided informed consent and completed demographic questionnaires actually enrolled in the parent training program; parents with lower incomes and lower levels of social support were less likely to enroll. In addition, African-American and Puerto Rican families were less likely to enroll than Caucasian families. The average attendance rate for enrolled parents was 61%; dual parents and parents with children evidencing externalizing behavior problems attended more parent training sessions. Parent depression was not associated with enrollment or attendance. Significant relationships were maintained when controlling for other predictors including SES and when accounting for center-level variance. In addition, three distinct patterns of attendance were observed, which may have practical implications related to retention strategies.
Yang, Xishan; Liu, Hui; Yang, Fangfang; Dong, Pingshuan; Fa, Xianen; Zhang, Qingyong; Li, Li; Wang, Zhikuan; Zhao, Di
This study was designed to determine the SYNTAX score under different fasting plasma glucose (FPG) states in Chinese patients undergoing coronary angiography, particularly subjects with impaired FPG. Four hundred and forty-six subjects undergoing coronary angiography were enrolled in this study and divided into four groups based on the FPG level or a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM): normal FPG, impaired FPG, known and previously unknown T2DM. The angiographic SYNTAX scores were higher in the subjects with known (pimportance of achieving better glycemic control in order to prevent coronary atherosclerosis and improve the cardiovascular prognosis.
Mulvey, Patrick; Nicholson, Starr
Interest in astronomy degrees in the U.S. remains strong, with astronomy enrollments at or near all-time highs for the 2012-13 academic year. The total number of students taking an introductory astronomy course at a degree-granting physics or astronomy department is approaching 200,000. Enrollments in introductory astronomy courses have been…
Santoro, Dana S.
Enrollment management plans have been researched and documented for the last fifty years and literature verifies that the use of these plans has only become more relevant in the 21st century. Strategies and activities for managing enrollment have been defined and shared for most types of institutions, however, there is limited research on the best…
proper maintenance and use of the structural units and facilities are quite accurate and imperative. A well designed functional school building provides effective delivery of the school's curriculum and is positively related to enrolment of the students. (Ogbodo, 1995). Adesina (1981) stated that it is becoming increasingly ...
Kizior, Ronald J.; Hidding, Gezinus J.
The paper describes a proposal to increase enrollments in undergraduate Information Systems programs in Business Schools. In the face of Y2K overhang, the dot com bubble, and the popular press describing the off-shoring of Information Technology, this paper describes a proposal to stimulate interest in Information Systems as an undergraduate field…
ALDEN, JOHN D.
TECHNICIAN ENROLLMENTS AND GRADUATES WERE SURVEYED (1965-66) IN FIVE CLASSIFICATIONS WITH VARYING EDUCATIONAL REQUIREMENTS--(1) ENGINEERING TECHNICIAN, (2) PHYSICIAL SCIENCE TECHNICIAN, (3) INDUSTRIAL TECHNICIAN, (4) PRE-ENGINEERING TRANSFER, AND (5) BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY. THE DATA WERE USED TO DETERMINE PRESENT TRENDS IN MANPOWER TRAINING AND…
Engineers Joint Council, New York, NY. Engineering Manpower Commission.
Engineering and technician enrollments for Fall 1969 are reported for associate and bachelor's degree programs in engineering technology and industrial technology, and for engineering degrees at the bachelor's, master's, and doctor's levels. Statistical tables were produced by a computer analysis of data from 269 engineering schools and 558 other…
Iowa Department of Education, 2015
This document contains data from the Community College Management Information System and other sources with summative data on topics of interest. Data gathered through the Division of Community College's Management Information System (MIS) indicates that in the 2013-14 academic year 42,996 students enrolled in almost 337,000 credit hours through…
Sweeney, Deborah H.; And Others
This report presents data on the number of students enrolled and the number of bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees awarded in academic year 1981-82 from 72 United States institutions offering degree programs in nuclear engineering or nuclear options within other engineering fields. Presented as well are historical data for the last decade…
Jehu-Appiah, Caroline; Aryeetey, Genevieve; Spaan, Ernst; de Hoop, Thomas; Agyepong, Irene; Baltussen, Rob
To improve equity in the provision of health care and provide risk protection to poor households, low-income countries are increasingly moving to social health insurance. Using data from a household survey of 3301 households conducted in 2009 this study aims to evaluate equity in enrollment in the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana and assess determinants of demand across socio-economic groups. Specifically by looking at how different predisposing (age, gender, education, occupation, family size, marital status, peer pressure and health beliefs etc) enabling (income, place of residence) need (health status) and social factors (perceptions) affect household decision to enrol and remain in the NHIS. Equity in enrollment is assessed by comparing enrollment between consumption quintiles. Determinants of enrolling in and dropping out from NHIS are assessed using a multinomial logit model after using PCA to evaluate respondent's perceptions relating to schemes, providers and community health 'beliefs and attitudes'. We find evidence of inequity in enrollment in the NHIS and significant differences in determinants of current and previous enrollment across socio-economic quintiles. Both current and previous enrollment is influenced by predisposing, enabling and social factors. There are, however, clear differences in determinants of enrollment between the rich and the poor. Policy makers need to recognize that extending enrollment will require recognition of all these complex factors in their design of interventions to stimulate enrollment. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen
A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...
Dodgshun, Andrew J; De Silva, Mandy P; Bradbeer, Peter; Cross, Siobhan
Clinical trials contribute to the establishment of the best therapy for children with cancer. This study looks at rates of enrollment in therapeutic clinical trials over a 2-year period in New Zealand and examines the reasons for nonenrollment. All new diagnoses of cancer in children aged 16 or younger over the period of 1 January, 2009 to 31 December, 2010 were identified through the New Zealand Child Cancer Registry. Clinical trial enrollment status was identified from the medical records. For those not enrolled, the reason for nonenrollment was ascertained. A total of 28% of children diagnosed with cancer who received chemotherapy with curative intent in this time period were enrolled on clinical trials. The 2 most common reasons for nonenrollment in this study were that no study was open locally in which to enroll children (27%) or that previously open-clinical trials were closed to accrual at the time of the child's diagnosis (20%). In New Zealand, enrollment rates on clinical trials for children with cancer are lower than expected.
Full Text Available Jianmin Jin,1 Shuling Li,2 Wenling Yu,2 Xiaofang Liu,1 Yongchang Sun1,3 1Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 2Department of Radiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 3Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China Background: Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB is a risk factor for COPD, but the clinical characteristics and the chest imaging features (emphysema and bronchiectasis of COPD with previous PTB have not been studied well.Methods: The presence, distribution, and severity of emphysema and bronchiectasis in COPD patients with and without previous PTB were evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT and compared. Demographic data, respiratory symptoms, lung function, and sputum culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also compared between patients with and without previous PTB.Results: A total of 231 COPD patients (82.2% ex- or current smokers, 67.5% male were consecutively enrolled. Patients with previous PTB (45.0% had more severe (p=0.045 and longer history (p=0.008 of dyspnea, more exacerbations in the previous year (p=0.011, and more positive culture of P. aeruginosa (p=0.001, compared with those without PTB. Patients with previous PTB showed a higher prevalence of bronchiectasis (p<0.001, which was more significant in lungs with tuberculosis (TB lesions, and a higher percentage of more severe bronchiectasis (Bhalla score ≥2, p=0.031, compared with those without previous PTB. The overall prevalence of emphysema was not different between patients with and without previous PTB, but in those with previous PTB, a higher number of subjects with middle (p=0.001 and lower (p=0.019 lobe emphysema, higher severity score (p=0.028, higher prevalence of panlobular emphysema (p=0.013, and more extensive centrilobular emphysema (p=0.039 were observed. Notably, in patients with
... subject matter conducted by a qualifying sponsor. (i) Core subject matter is program content designed to... for actuarial services. (ii) Non-core subject matter is program content designed to enhance the...., course syllabus and/or textbook; (iv) The dates attended; (v) The credit hours claimed and whether core...
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pre-enrolled Access Lane. 287.11 Section...; POWERS AND DUTIES § 287.11 Pre-enrolled Access Lane. (a) Pre-enrolled Access Lane (PAL). A PAL is a... enrolled participants and their passengers in vehicles authorized by the Service to pass through the...
Utah System of Higher Education, 2016
This end-of-year enrollment report is divided into three sections. Section A focuses on Utah System of Higher Education (USHE) 2015-16 enrollment. Section B provides statistical tables on USHE 2015-16 FTE enrollment by level of instruction. Finally, Section C provides data on USHE 2015-16 end-of-year FTE enrollment by level of instruction…
The Relationships among Individual Characteristics, High School Characteristics, and College Enrollment: Using Enrollment Propensity as a Baseline for Evaluating Strategic Enrollment Management Efforts
Pike, Gary R.; Robbins, Kirsten
The current study examined the relationships among student and high school characteristics and the decision to enroll in either a two- or four-year college or university. The purpose of the research was to assess the feasibility of using enrollment propensity (i.e., the likelihood of enrolling in college) as a baseline to evaluate the…
Little, J R; Shirley, D L; Blair, L M
This report presents data on the number of students enrolled and the degrees awarded in academic year 1980-81 from 61 U.S. universities offering degree programs in radiation protection or related areas that would enable students to work in the health physics field. The report includes historical survey data for the last decade and provides information such as trends by degree level, foreign national student participation, female and minority student participation, and placement of graduates. Also included is a listing of the universities by type of program and number of students.
The underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) college programs is a troublesome local, national and global phenomenon. The topic of this doctoral thesis specifically focused on the underrepresentation of women in the field of engineering and more specifically on the factors that women may perceive as chiefly motivating them to choose engineering as a college major. By not choosing to major in engineering, women forego intellectual opportunities and the financial rewards that engineering careers can provide. Their absence means that the field of engineering also suffers from the lack of contributions from a diverse workforce. Women who graduated from a specific community college's engineering program in the United States were the focus of this qualitative study. Grounded in achievement motivation theory, and in particular expectancy-value theory of academic and career choice, this research was guided by two questions: How do women perceive their academic self-efficacies and expectations for success as influencing their decisions to enroll in engineering? How do women perceive their subjective task values as influencing their decisions to enroll in engineering? This single, holistic case study with one main unit of analysis incorporated a written questionnaire, individual interviews and a focus group meeting as the three instruments used to collect data. The qualitative data, cyclically coded, shed light on the complex mechanisms of academic and career choice.
Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.
Baarnes, Camilla Boslev; Hansen, A V; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli
BACKGROUND: Poor adherence with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) is a major problem in asthma and according to previous studies not least during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess if enrolment in an asthma management program, and by that close monitoring, can improve self-reported and docum......BACKGROUND: Poor adherence with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) is a major problem in asthma and according to previous studies not least during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess if enrolment in an asthma management program, and by that close monitoring, can improve self...
Vieira, Jean Mendes de Lucena; Lima, Elisangela da Costa; Land, Marcelo Gerardin Poirot; Ventura, Miriam; Coelho, Helena Lutescia Luna
This study aimed to characterize the clinical trials with medicines enrolling Brazilian children and adolescents, registered in the databases of Clinical Trials and the Brazilian Clinical Trials Network (ReBEC) from 1994 to 2014. Only 462 clinical trials enrolled Brazilian children and adolescents. There was an increase in registrations beginning in 2003, with an important drop in 2011. Among these trials, 35.5% were hosted in Brazil. The international clinical trials were mostly conducted by North American companies. In both cases, multinational industry was the principal source of funding. The clinical trials were predominantly phase III with injectable and solid oral pharmaceutical forms of antiviral drugs. Domestic clinical trials showed wider variation in the pharmaceutical forms and higher percentage of liquid formulations, when compared to the international trials. In addition to heavy external dependence for conducting clinical trials, the study emphasized the challenge for pediatric care in Brazil, which presents epidemiological peculiarities in an environment prone to the use of unlicensed medicines for children.
Masood, Samina S
We have collected and analyzed the relevant data from public schools in greater Houston area of Texas. Based and analyzed. Since the data is only limited to a few school, we are still working on getting more data so that we can compare and contrast the results adequately and understand the core of the enrollment issue at the national level. However, based on the raw data and partial analysis, we propose a few recommendations towards the improvement of science education in Texas Schools, in general, and greater Houston area schools in particular. Our results indicate that the quality of science education can be improved significantly if we focus on the improvement of high school education or even intermediate schools when students are first time exposed to science in a little technical way. Simply organizing teacher training programs at K-12 level as school education plays a pivotal role in the decrease in physics enrollment at the higher level. Similar analysis can actually be generalized to other states to f...
Liapis, Angelos; Bakas, Panagiotis; Creatsas, Georgios
Data about the use of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) in the management of recurrent urodynamic stress incontinence (RUSI) after previous failed midurethral sling procedure (MUSP) are limited. Assessment of the efficacy and the indications of the TVT procedure in the management of patients with RUSI after failed previous MUSP. Thirty-one patients with RUSI after previous failed MUSP were prospectively enrolled at a single tertiary academic center. Preoperatively and postoperatively, patients were assessed with physical examination, urinalysis, urine culture, bladder diary for 2-3 d, Q-tip test, uroflow, filling and voiding cystometry, urethral profilometry, and 1-h pad test. Mean follow-up was at 18.6 mo (range: 12-28 mo). Overall, the objective cure rate based on the pad test findings was 74%, the improvement rate was 6.5%, and the failure rate was 19.5%. The objective cure rate based on cough stress test during filling cystometry was 77.4%, and the subjective cure rate based on patients' answers was 71%. The study could have some limitations. The relatively small number of patients enrolled could affect the findings of study to some degree. Additionally, because urethral pressure profiles show a significant degree of directional dependence when side-hole microtip transducers are used, as in the present study, the orientation of the transducer could affect the values measured. The TVT procedure as a second operation could provide an overall cure rate of 74% with a low complication rate in female patients with RUSI after previous failed midurethral tape procedures.
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields are critical for meeting ever-increasing demands in the U.S. for STEM and related skills, and for ensuring the global competitiveness of the United States in technological advancement and scientific innovation. Nonetheless, few U.S. students consider a STEM degree after high school and fewer STEM students end up graduating with a STEM degree. In 2012, the United States ranked 35th in math and 27th in science out of 64 participating countries in the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), sponsored by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Considering the significant role physics and engineering play in technological advancement, this work investigates the attitudes of students and recent enrollment trends in these important subject areas.
Abraham, Jessy; Barker, Katrina
Currently there is a need for measures to examine the issue of sustaining students' enrolment intentions over an extended period of study in physics, a subject which is generally perceived as hard and demanding by students. This paper addresses this gap in research by describing the development and the assessment of psychometric properties of the…
van den Bor, Rutger M.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Oosterman, Bas J.; Vaessen, Petrus W J; Roes, Kit C.B.
Failure to meet subject recruitment targets in clinical trials continues to be a widespread problem with potentially serious scientific, logistical, financial and ethical consequences. On the operational level, enrollment-related issues may be mitigated by careful site selection and by allocating
Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC. Div. of Labor Relations.
The demand for radiation protection personnel has increased during the past several years and can be expected to continue to increase for several years to come. This document gives the results of the latest survey of institutions offering degree programs in this field. Such a small segment of the total college enrollment is represented in health…
Park, Hye Won; Han, Seungbong; Lee, Ji Young; Chang, Hye-Sook; Choe, Jaewon; Choi, Yunsik; So, Hoonsub; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Myung, Seung-Jae; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Kim, Jin-Ho; Byeon, Jeong-Sik
Current guidelines for the surveillance colonoscopy interval are largely based on the most recent colonoscopy findings. We aimed to evaluate differences in the probability of high-risk neoplasm recurrence according to the two previous colonoscopy findings. This was a retrospective cohort study from a tertiary-care center. A total of 4,143 subjects who underwent three or more colonoscopies for screening or surveillance purposes from January 2001 to December 2011 were enrolled. We compared the probability of high-risk neoplasm detection on follow-up colonoscopies after the second colonoscopy based on risk categories in both the second and first colonoscopies. At the final colonoscopy, 370 participants (8.9 %) had high-risk neoplasms. In patients with a normal second colonoscopy, the probability of high-risk neoplasm recurrence was different between those with normal, low-risk, and high-risk findings at the first colonoscopy (3.8, 6.8, and 17.7 %, respectively). The hazard ratio of a high-risk neoplasm at the final colonoscopy for patients with a normal second and low-risk first colonoscopy over a normal second and normal first colonoscopy was 3.07 (95 % CI 2.04-4.64, P neoplasm at the final colonoscopy for patients with a normal second and high-risk first colonoscopy over a normal second with normal first colonoscopy was 7.88 (95 % CI 4.90-12.67, P neoplasm recurrence differs according to the two previous colonoscopy findings. Therefore, surveillance intervals could be adjusted not just only by the most recent colonoscopy findings but also by considering two previous colonoscopy findings.
Sugarman, Jeremy; Sitlani, Colleen; Andrusiek, Dug; Aufderheide, Tom; Bulger, Eileen M.; Davis, Daniel P.; Hoyt, David B.; Idris, Ahamed; Kerby, Jeffrey D.; Powell, Judy; Schmidt, Terri; Slutsky, Arthur S.; Sopko, George; Stephens, Shannon; Williams, Carolyn; Nichol, Graham
Background Concerns have been raised about the enrollment of racial and ethnic minorities in research in the emergency setting when it is not possible to obtain informed consent. However, there is a paucity of data related to the validity of such claims. Methods Retrospective comparison of registry enrollment (4/1/06–3/31/07) and trial enrollment (4/1/07–3/31/08) from 3 sites in the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium. Subjects compared met the following criteria: 1) Shock, defined by blunt or penetrating force to the body with either systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≤ 70 mmHg or SBP 71–90 mmHg and heart rate ≥ 108 beats/min; and/or 2) Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), defined by blunt force to the head with out-of- hospital Glasgow Coma Score ≤ 8. Results Overall, compared to a registry there were no differences in the percent of racial or ethnic groups enrolled in the clinical trial [Odds Ratio (OR) for Blacks versus Whites: 0.87, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.65–1.16, p=.34; OR for Hispanics versus Whites 1.04; CI 0.72–1.49, p=.85]. However, Blacks were less likely than Whites to be enrolled in the TBI cohort [OR 0.58 (0.34–0.97); p=.04]. Conclusions Despite some discordance in subgroups, there was no overall difference in the racial and ethnic distribution of subjects enrolled in a multi-center clinical trial of severe trauma compared to a registry accounting for study entry criteria. These findings help address justice concerns about enrollment of racial and ethnic minorities in trauma research performed using an exception from informed consent under emergency circumstances. PMID:19395144
... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Previous Participation Certification AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer... digital submission of all data and certifications is available via HUD's secure Internet systems. However...: Previous Participation Certification. OMB Approval Number: 2502-0118. Form Numbers: HUD-2530 . Description...
Stephan, Jennifer L.; Rosenbaum, James E.
Despite planning college, disadvantaged students are less likely to enroll in college, particularly 4-year colleges. Beyond cost and academic achievement, previous research finds that a lack of college-related social resources poses barriers. However, little research investigates whether schools can help. We examine whether, how, and for whom a…
... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Enrollment and marketing costs. 417.538 Section 417... PREPAYMENT PLANS Medicare Payment: Cost Basis § 417.538 Enrollment and marketing costs. (a) Principle. Costs incurred by an HMO or CMP in performing the enrollment and marketing activities described in subpart k of...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retired enrolled individuals coinsurance... Charges, Physician Charges, and FEHB Benefit Payments § 890.906 Retired enrolled individuals coinsurance payments. (a) A retired enrolled individual's coinsurance responsibility for inpatient hospital services is...
Curtin, Joseph A.
The question of course rigor is often raised in connection with Concurrent Enrollment courses when compared to their on-campus equivalents. Over one-third of all Utah high school juniors and seniors enroll in at least one concurrent enrollment course, courses in which students earn both high school credit for graduation and college credit…
... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expenditures for enrollment broker services. 438... Participation § 438.810 Expenditures for enrollment broker services. (a) Terminology. As used in this section... phone or in person; Enrollment broker means an individual or entity that performs choice counseling or...
Wong, K F; Lee, L Y K; Lee, J K L
To explore Hong Kong nurses' perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care, and to investigate the relationship between their perceptions and their demographic characteristics. Many studies suggest that spirituality is the essence of human being and plays an important role in people's lives. Although studies have documented the positive relationship between spiritual care and patients' health outcomes, it has also been shown that the implementation of spiritual care is uncommon in nursing practice. Furthermore, there is little discussion on practising nurses' perception of spirituality and spiritual care in Hong Kong. This study adopted a cross-sectional descriptive design to investigate nurses' perception of spirituality and spiritual care in Hong Kong. A convenience sample of 429 practising enrolled nurses were invited to complete the Spirituality and Spiritual Care Rating Scale (SSCRS) (response rate 91%). Subjects showed satisfactory understanding of spirituality and appreciated providing spiritual care to patients. The mean scores for the SSCRS and its four subscales were greater than half of the maximum score. There were significant differences in the perceptions of spirituality between subjects with different education levels and religious affiliations. The findings suggest increasing the emphasis of spirituality both in undergraduate education and in continuing-development levels. Recommendations are also made regarding the implementation of spiritual care in nursing practice. Despite having a convenience sample, the present study has contributed to stimulating awareness and discussion among nurses on spirituality and spiritual care.
Bathum, Lise; Depont Christensen, René; Engers Pedersen, Lars
This study aimed to investigate the association of lipoprotein and triglyceride levels with all-cause mortality in a population free from diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) at baseline. The European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention state that in general total cholesterol (TC...
Becker, Lee B.; Vlad, Tudor; Simpson, Holly Anne
Enrollments in journalism and mass communication programs in the United States have declined over the last two years, reversing a pattern of growth that has sustained the field for twenty years. It is a decline at a time of continued growth in enrollments at universities generally. It is a decline at a time when enrollments have been growing in…
Niles, Stefanie D.
As the field of enrollment management has developed and changed, so has the role of the chief enrollment officer. This position is often considered among the most critical in senior level university administration today. Thomas Huddleston stated that "an enrollment manager's efforts are intended to shape and influence particular units…
Bourlière, Marc; Gordon, Stuart C; Flamm, Steven L; Cooper, Curtis L; Ramji, Alnoor; Tong, Myron; Ravendhran, Natarajan; Vierling, John M; Tran, Tram T; Pianko, Stephen; Bansal, Meena B; de Lédinghen, Victor; Hyland, Robert H; Stamm, Luisa M; Dvory-Sobol, Hadas; Svarovskaia, Evguenia; Zhang, Jie; Huang, K C; Subramanian, G Mani; Brainard, Diana M; McHutchison, John G; Verna, Elizabeth C; Buggisch, Peter; Landis, Charles S; Younes, Ziad H; Curry, Michael P; Strasser, Simone I; Schiff, Eugene R; Reddy, K Rajender; Manns, Michael P; Kowdley, Kris V; Zeuzem, Stefan
Patients who are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and who do not have a sustained virologic response after treatment with regimens containing direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have limited retreatment options. We conducted two phase 3 trials involving patients who had been previously treated with a DAA-containing regimen. In POLARIS-1, patients with HCV genotype 1 infection who had previously received a regimen containing an NS5A inhibitor were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either the nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir, the NS5A inhibitor velpatasvir, and the protease inhibitor voxilaprevir (150 patients) or matching placebo (150 patients) once daily for 12 weeks. Patients who were infected with HCV of other genotypes (114 patients) were enrolled in the sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-voxilaprevir group. In POLARIS-4, patients with HCV genotype 1, 2, or 3 infection who had previously received a DAA regimen but not an NS5A inhibitor were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-voxilaprevir (163 patients) or sofosbuvir-velpatasvir (151 patients) for 12 weeks. An additional 19 patients with HCV genotype 4 infection were enrolled in the sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-voxilaprevir group. In the three active-treatment groups, 46% of the patients had compensated cirrhosis. In POLARIS-1, the rate of sustained virologic response was 96% with sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-voxilaprevir, as compared with 0% with placebo. In POLARIS-4, the rate of response was 98% with sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-voxilaprevir and 90% with sofosbuvir-velpatasvir. The most common adverse events were headache, fatigue, diarrhea, and nausea. In the active-treatment groups in both trials, the percentage of patients who discontinued treatment owing to adverse events was 1% or lower. Sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-voxilaprevir taken for 12 weeks provided high rates of sustained virologic response among patients across HCV genotypes in whom treatment with a DAA regimen
Farooqui, Mohammed Z H; Valdez, Janet; Martyr, Sabrina
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) with TP53 aberrations respond poorly to first-line chemoimmunotherapy, resulting in early relapse and short survival. We investigated the safety and activity of ibrutinib in previously untreated and relapsed or refractory CLL with TP53...... enrolled 51 patients; 47 had CLL with deletion 17p13.1 and four carried a TP53 mutation in the absence of deletion 17p13.1. All patients had active disease requiring therapy. 35 enrolled patients had previously untreated CLL and 16 had relapsed or refractory disease. Median follow-up was 24 months (IQR 12.......9-27.0). 33 previously untreated patients and 15 patients with relapsed or refractory CLL were evaluable for response at 24 weeks. 32 (97%; 95% CI 86-100) of 33 previously untreated patients achieved an objective response, including partial response in 18 patients (55%) and partial response with lymphocytosis...
Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC. Office of Industrial Relations.
This document presents statistical data concerning enrollments for fall 1973 and degrees granted 1965-June 1973 in nuclear engineering. Highlights of this survey of educational institutions indicated: (1) Ph.D.'s decreased to 126 from 149 in 1971-72 and from 181 in 1969-70. (2) MS's increased to 442 from 428 in 1971-72. (3) BS's increased to 551…
Politei, J M; Cabrera, G; Amartino, H; Valdez, R; Masllorens, F; Ripeau, D; Antongiovanni, N; Soliani, A; Luna, P; Cedrolla, M; Fernandez, S; Fainboim, A
Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked inborn error of metabolism caused by alpha-galactosidase A deficiency. The Fabry Registry is an ongoing, global observational database that compiles clinical data from patients with FD. Demographic and baseline clinical characteristics of Fabry Registry patients enrolled in Argentina were analysed and compared with patients enrolled in the rest of the world (ROW). Baseline clinical parameters included chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage, urine protein-to-creatinine ratio and left ventricular posterior wall thickness. Only data from untreated patients were included. As of 1 October 2010, 3752 patients were enrolled in the Registry, 70 patients from Argentina and 3682 from the ROW. Argentinean male subjects were younger than Fabry Registry male subjects enrolled in ROW: mean current age 32.5 years vs. 39.0 years for men (p = 0.0257 by t-test). The current age (mean ± standard deviation) of female subjects enrolled in Argentina was not significantly different from that of female subjects enrolled in the ROW: 40.1 ± 17.28 vs. 43.2 ±17.95 years respectively (p = 0.2967). Overall, a smaller percentage of patients from Argentina received ERT compared with patients in the ROW (54% vs. 58% respectively). When evaluated by gender, more men and fewer women in Argentina received ERT compared with ROW (85% vs. 79% for men and 27% vs. 38% for women). A larger proportion of patients in ROW had severe CKD (stage 4 or 5) compared with Argentina (9.8% vs. 0%), most likely because of the older age of the ROW population. The enrolment of Argentinean patients into the Fabry Registry has steadily increased, as has the inclusion of female and paediatric patients with FD. The medical community in Argentina should be aware of FD in these populations, as awareness will facilitate prompt diagnosis and initiation of treatment, thus leading to improved outcomes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Thomas, Kevin J A
This study examines whether previous findings of an immigrant schooling advantage among Blacks in the United States reflect a declining significance of race in the enrollment patterns of immigrants’ children. Using data from the 2000 US census, the study finds that, despite their advantage within the Black population, the children of Black Africans are collectively disadvantaged relative to the children of White Africans. Disparate enrollment trajectories are found among children in Black and White African families. Specifically, between the first and second generations, enrollment outcomes improved among the children of White Africans but declined among Black Africans’ children. The results also suggest that among immigrants from African multi-racial societies, pre-migration racial schooling disparities do not necessarily disappear after immigration to the United States. Additionally, the children of Black Africans from these contexts have worse outcomes than the children of other Black African immigrants and their relative disadvantage persists even after other factors are controlled.
The perceptions of educational manag ers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools in the Nelson Mandela Metropole regarding the issue of empowerment are outlined and the perceptions of educational managers in terms of various aspects of empowerment at different levels reflected. A literature study ...
Information obtained included demographic characteristics, knowledge of and previous use of contraception. Results: Respondents displayed a high level of contraceptive knowledge, as 277 (91.7%) were aware of it. The condom and the combined oral pill were the two contraceptive methods most commonly known, by 254 ...
Nijkamp, J. W.; Korteweg, F. J.; Holm, J. P.; Timmer, A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; van Pampus, M. G.
Objective: A history of foetal death is a risk factor for complications and foetal death in subsequent pregnancies as most previous risk factors remain present and an underlying cause of death may recur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome after foetal death and to
Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.
In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)
Wade Nelson, Owen Wade Nelson Jr
Those students who work while enrolled in college are investing in their human capital, and therefore, corporations looking to employ new workers entering the labor market may favor these types of students, and create incentives for non-working students to seek employment. Using NLSY97 data, this paper finds that working while enrolled in college decreases the wages one receives. Therefore, students who are not working while enrolled in school may have higher grades and graduate more freq...
Dr. Don Johnson
The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2010 and August 31, 2011. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2011. The enrollment and degree data include students majoring in nuclear engineering or in an option program equivalent to a major. Thirty-two academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2011, and data was received from all thirty-two programs. The data for two nuclear engineering programs include enrollments and degrees in health physics options that are also reported in the health physics enrollments and degrees data.
The 2014 survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2013 and August 31, 2014, and enrollments for fall 2014. There are three academic programs new to this year's survey. Thirty-five academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2014, and data were provided by all thirty-five. The enrollments and degrees data include students majoring in nuclear engineering or in an option program equivalent to a major. Two nuclear engineering programs have indicated that health physics option enrollments and degrees are also reported in the health physics enrollments and degrees survey.
The 2015 Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey reports degrees granted between September 1, 2014 and August 31, 2015. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2015. The enrollments and degrees data comprises students majoring in nuclear engineering or in an option program equivalent to a major. Thirty-five academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2015, and data was received from all thirty-five programs. The report includes enrollment information on undergraduate students and graduate students and information by degree level for post-graduation plans.
The 2015 Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey reports degrees granted between September 1, 2014 and August 31, 2015. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2015. Twenty-two academic programs were included in the survey universe, with all 22 programs providing data. The enrollments and degrees information comprises students majoring in health physics or in an option program equivalent to a major. The report includes enrollment information on undergraduate students and graduate students and information by degree level for post-graduation plans.
Barker, Abigail R; McBride, Timothy D; Kemper, Leah M; Mueller, Keith J
Since passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), much attention has been focused on the functioning of Health Insurance Marketplaces (HIMs). In this brief, cumulative county-level enrollment in HIMs through March 2015 is presented for state HIMs operated as Federally Facilitated Marketplaces (FFMs) and Federally Supported State-Based Marketplaces (FS-SBMs). We provide comparisons between enrollment in urban and rural areas of each state and corresponding percentages of "potential market" participants enrolled. Given differences in populations eligible for HIM enrollment, we analyzed Medicaid expansion states separately. This analysis provides a gauge of how well outreach and enrollment efforts are proceeding in the states. Key Findings. (1) Overall, people living in metropolitan areas were more likely to enroll in HIMs than were people in non-metropolitan areas, as 38.9 percent of potentially eligible metropolitan residents in Medicaid expansion states and 47.5 percent in non-expansion states were enrolled in HIMs, compared to 33.9 percent and 37.3 percent in nonmetropolitan areas, respectively. (2) Estimated enrollment rates varied considerably across the United States. In particular, estimated enrollment rates in non-metropolitan areas are higher than in metropolitan areas in Illinois, Maine, Michigan, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Wisconsin, and Wyoming. (3) The states with the highest rural enrollment percentages were Maine, Michigan, Montana, North Carolina, New Hampshire, South Carolina, and Wisconsin. States with high absolute rural enrollment were about as likely to be Medicaid expansion states to be as non-expansion states, and they were slightly less likely to belong to the South census region.
Quaranta, Alessandro; Assenza, Bartolomeo; D'Isidoro, Orlando; Profili, Fabia; Polimeni, Antonella; Vozza, Iole
To evaluate the impact of smoking and previous periodontal disease on peri-implant microbiota and health in medium to long-term maintained patients. A retrospective evaluation of partial edentulous patients restored with dental implants and enrolled in a regular supportive therapy was performed. Inclusion criteria were: medium to long-term periodontal and implant maintenance (at least 5 years), a minimum of 2 implants placed in each patient, absence of systemic diseases that may affect osseointegration. 30 implants in 15 patients were included in the study. Subjects were divided in smokers or non-smokers and between patients previously affected by periodontal disease and periodontally healthy. Peri-implant and periodontal parameters were assessed (PD,BoP, mPI). Microbiological samples were collected around implant and an adjacent tooth. Real- Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was performed. In all the three groups no differences in bacterial counts between dental and implant sites were observed. Non smoker, healthy patients: healthy clinical parameters, significant counts of spirochetes in isolated patients. Non smokers with previous periodontal disease: occasional positive BoP values, significant high counts of pathogenic bacteria. Smokers with previous periodontal disease: clinical signs of inflammation including deep pockets and slight bone resorption, significant counts of pathogenic bacteria. Over a follow-up of 5 to 7 years, it is possible to state that the absence of smoking habit and previous periodontal disease positively influences the peri-implant microbiological and clinical conditions in partial edentulous patients restored with dental implants and enrolled in a strict regular supportive therapy.
When customers are facing job loss or tighter budgets, prospects are attempting to negotiate tuition fees, and subsidies are being cut, smart child care managers are studying the essential moves directors must take to increase and retain enrollment despite the volatile economy. Instead of using a tough economy as a reason enrollment drops, they…
Figueroa, Carmen I.; Morales, Betsy; Sharma, Anand D.
The academic programs at the graduate level are increasingly interested about the enrollment management challenges in terms of international student mobility. Understanding fundamental enrollment concepts to attract international students provides the essential key to consider the competitive environment concerning university resources, academic…
This paper examines the effect of the subsidized students' loan on university enrolment in Ghana between 1988-2008 using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) framework. It was discovered that the subsidized student loan had positive and significant impact on university enrolment. Per capita gross domestic product ...
Swiger, Caroline Martin
Numerous studies model whether students enroll in higher education, but few have investigated how students decide where to attend. Even fewer studies have considered how community college students make this nearly first noncompulsory human capital investment decision. This research focuses on the enrollment decisions of students whose first…
Student retention is an important part of a strategic enrollment management plan. Many scholars have written about the challenges of helping students not only enroll in college but also complete their degree programs. Among students pursuing a doctoral degree in higher education administration, student retention is a popular topic. Many doctoral…
Johnson, Saralyn S.
Factors affecting enrollment in agricultural education at the secondary level were determined in a two-part study. One part focused on factors influencing students' decisions to enroll in agricultural education; the other examined 64 recruitment and retention practices teachers use. Purposive sampling ensured geographic and demographic…
A trend is emerging to open enrollment for honors and AP classes to all students who wish to take them. Teachers of these open enrollment classes may be facing several dilemmas. How can the high standards and academic rigor of the course be maintained? How can students who struggle to learn be supported in their endeavors to keep up with the…
Johnson, Matthew T.
This paper adds to the understanding of student decisions about graduate school attendance by studying the magnitude of the effect of business cycle fluctuations on enrollment. I use data on graduate school enrollment from the Current Population Survey and statewide variation in unemployment rates across time to proxy for changes in business cycle…
Hoy, John C.
New England is experiencing globalization at a rapid pace, including enrollment of foreign college and university students. If the area is to reap the economic and cultural advantages of foreign enrollment, it must maintain a hospitable climate for both foreign trade and foreign students. This process can be enhanced by the admissions and alumni…
St. Cyr, Robert
This research was conducted as a qualitative comparative case study of two Northern New England school districts that were in the process of responding to declining enrollments. The purpose of the study was to explore decision-making through the lens of declining enrollments. An award winning rural school in an affluent town with high performing…
Lowe, Sarah R.; Rhodes, Jean E.
In this study, we explored predictors of community college re-enrollment after Hurricane Katrina among a sample of low-income women (N = 221). It was predicted that participants' pre-hurricane educational optimism would predict community college re-enrollment a year after the hurricane. The influence of various demographic and additional resources…
Endacott, Ruth; O'Connor, Margaret; Williams, Allison; Wood, Pamela; McKenna, Lisa; Griffiths, Debra; Moss, Cheryle; Della, Phillip; Cross, Wendy
The aims of the study were: To determine, from the perspectives of Enrolled Nurses (ENs) and Registered Nurses (RNs), the current scope of EN practice and To identify the activities that most ENs frequently performed in their workplace. Enrolled Nurse scope of practice in Australia has evolved and expanded over the past decade. However, the unclear role, function and competency differentiation between EN and RN leads to role confusion and ongoing professional debate. A cross-sectional online survey of ENs and RNs across Australia was conducted examining their levels of agreement on statements related to the scope of practice and the clinical and nonclinical activities that ENs were required to perform in their workplace. Valid responses were received from 892 ENs and 1198 RNs. ENs mostly agreed that they understood their scope of practice; did not undertake roles for which they were unprepared; sometimes undertook activities other than direct patient care and believed that they operated equally to many Registered Nurses (RNs). The majority of ENs reported that they performed tasks mostly related to basic patient care in their workplace. There were a number of significant differences between perspectives of RNs and ENs CONCLUSIONS: Clarifying the roles and scope of practice between the RN and the EN is important and explicit differences in responsibility and accountability between their roles must be clearly articulated in order to harmonise perceptions about role and capability. Health service providers, policy makers and education providers need to work collaboratively to ensure that facets of EN education and scope of practice in line with regulation are affirmed by all concerned. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Brevik, Eric C.; Abit, Sergio; Brown, David; Dolliver, Holly; Hopkins, David; Lindbo, David; Manu, Andrew; Mbila, Monday; Parikh, Sanjai J.; Schulze, Darrell; Shaw, Joey; Weil, Ray; Weindorf, David
Soil science student enrollment was on the decline in the United States from the early 1990s through the early 2000s. Overall undergraduate student enrollment in American colleges and universities rose by about 11% over the same time period. This fact created considerable consternation among the American soil science community. As we head into the International Year of Soil, it seemed to be a good time to revisit this issue and examine current enrollment trends. Fourteen universities that offer undergraduate and/or graduate programs in soil science were surveyed for their enrollments over the time period 2007-2014 (the last seven academic years). The 14 schools represent about 20% of the institutions that offer soil science degrees/programs in the United States. Thirteen institutions submitted undergraduate data and 10 submitted graduate data, which was analyzed by individual institution and in aggregate. Simple linear regression was used to find the slope of best-fit trend lines. For individual institutions, a slope of ≥ 0.5 (on average, the school gained 0.5 students per year or more) was considered to be growing enrollment, ≤ -0.5 was considered shrinking enrollment, and between -0.5 and 0.5 was considered to be stable enrollment. For aggregated data, the 0.5 slope standard was multiplied by the number of schools in the aggregated survey to determine whether enrollment was growing, shrinking, or stable. Over the period of the study, six of the 13 schools reporting undergraduate data showed enrollment gains, five of the 13 showed stable enrollments, one of the 13 showed declining enrollments, and one of the 13 discontinued their undergraduate degree program. The linear regression trend line for the undergraduate schools' composite data had a slope of 55.0 students/year (R2 = 0.96), indicating a strong overall trend of undergraduate enrollment growth at these schools. However, the largest school had also seen large growth in enrollment. To ensure that this one
Li, Mi; Wang, Gang; Feng, Lei; Fu, Bingbing; Zhong, Ning
Objective To explore working memory and the ability to process different emotional stimuli in patients with first-onset and untreated minor (mild or moderate) depression. Methods Patients with first-onset and previously untreated minor depression, and healthy controls, were enrolled. Using a modified Sternberg working memory paradigm to investigate the combined effects of emotional stimuli with working memory, participants were exposed to experimental stimuli comprising pictures that represented positive, neutral and negative emotions. Working memory ability was measured using reaction time and accuracy, and emotion-processing ability was measured using pupil diameter. Results Out of 36 participants (18 patients with minor depression and 18 controls), there were no statistically significant between-group differences in response time and accuracy. Positive stimuli evoked changes in pupil diameter that were significantly smaller in patients with minor depression versus controls, but changes in pupil diameter evoked by negative stimuli were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions Healthy subjects showed a stronger emotional response to positive emotional stimuli than patients with first onset and previously untreated minor depression, but there were no differences in response to negative emotions. There were no statistically significant between-group differences in terms of speed of cognitive response, but this may have been due to the relatively small samples sizes assessed. Studies with larger sample populations are required to further investigate these results. PMID:27091861
Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios
For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.
Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.
Goldberg, Fred; Price, Edward; Robinson, Stephen; Boyd-Harlow, Danielle; McKean, Michael
We report on the adaptation of the small enrollment, lab and discussion based physical science course, "Physical Science and Everyday Thinking" (PSET), for a large-enrollment, lecture-style setting. Like PSET, the new "Learning Physical Science" (LEPS) curriculum was designed around specific principles based on research on learning to meet the…
Griffin, Russell L; Davis, Gregory G; Levitan, Emily B; MacLennan, Paul A; Redden, David T; McGwin, Gerald
Research has reported that a strong risk factor for traumatic injury is having a previous injury (i.e., recidivism). To date, the only study examining the relationship between recidivism and homicide reported strong associations, but was limited by possible selection bias. The current matched case-control study utilized coroner's data from 2004 to 2008. Subjects were linked to trauma registry data to determine whether the person had a previous traumatic injury. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between homicide and recidivism. Homicide risk was increased for those having a previous traumatic injury (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.09-2.99) or a previous intentional injury (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.24-5.17). These results suggest an association between homicide and injury recidivism, and that trauma centers may be an effective setting for screening individuals for secondary prevention efforts of homicide through violence prevention programs. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Cooke, Colin R; Erickson, Sara E; Watkins, Timothy R; Matthay, Michael A; Hudson, Leonard D; Rubenfeld, Gordon D
Little is known about the participation of racial/ethnic minorities, women, and the elderly into critical care clinical trials. We sought to characterize the representation of racial and ethnic minorities, women, and older patients in clinical trials of patients with acute lung injury and to determine the reasons for nonenrollment. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of pooled screening logs from 44 academic hospitals participating in three multicentered, randomized, controlled trials conducted by the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network from 1996 to 2005. None. We calculated odds ratios of enrollment for age, sex, racial groups, and the odds ratio for the presence of each exclusion criterion by age, sex, and race adjusted for demographics, acute lung injury risk factor, study, and study center. A total of 10.4% of 17,459 screened patients with acute lung injury were enrolled. The median (range) enrollment by center was 15% (2% to 88%). Older patients of both sexes were less likely to be enrolled, but older women were more likely to be enrolled than older men. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for enrollment among men > or =75 yrs of age was 0.59 (0.45 to 0.77) and for women > or =75 yrs of age was 0.45 (0.32 to 0.62) compared with men enrollment among all racial/ethnic groups. Older patients and men were less likely to be enrolled because of medical comorbidity. Among all patients who were not enrolled, black patients and their families refused participation more often than white patients. Older patients are less likely to be enrolled in acute lung injury clinical trials. There is no evidence that women or racial/ethnic minorities are underrepresented in acute lung injury clinical trials.
Pellegrini, Lawrence C; Geissler, Kimberley H
To examine the relationship between Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) enrollment and health care employment. State-year level data from government and other publicly available sources for all states (2000-2014). Population-weighted linear regression analyses model associations between each health care employment measure and each SSDI enrollment measure (i.e., SSDI overall, physical, or mental health enrollment rates), controlling for factors associated with health care employment, state fixed effects, and secular time trends. Data are gathered from publicly available sources. A one standard deviation increase in SSDI enrollment per 100,000 population is associated with a statistically significant 2.6 and 4.5 percent increase in the mean employment rate per 100,000 population for health care practitioner and technical occupations and health care support occupations, respectively. The size of this relationship varies by the type of disabling condition for SSDI enrollment (physical versus mental health). Social Security Disability Insurance enrollment is significantly associated with health care employment at the state level. Quantifying the magnitude of this relationship is important given high SSDI enrollment rates as well as evolving policy and demographic shifts related to the SSDI program. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Tirakotai, Wuttipong; Sure, Ulrich; Yin, Yuhua; Benes, Ludwig; Schulte, Dirk Michael; Bien, Siegfried; Bertalanffy, Helmut
To perform a retrospective study on the patients who underwent aneurysmal surgery following endovascular treatment. We performed a retrospective study on eight patients who underwent aneurysmal surgery following endovascular treatment (-attempts) with gugliemi detachable coils (GDCs). The indications for surgery, surgical techniques and clinical outcomes were analyzed. The indications for surgical treatment after GDC coiling of aneurysm were classified into three groups. First group: surgery of incompletely coiled aneurysms (n=4). Second group: surgery of mass effect on the neural structures due to coil compaction or rebleeding (n=2). Third group: surgery of vascular complications after endovascular procedure due to parent artery occlusion or thrombus propagation from aneurysm (n=2). Aneurysm obliterations could be performed in all cases confirmed by postoperative angiography. Six patients had an excellent outcome and returned to their profession. Patient's visual acuity was improved. One individual experienced right hemiparesis (grade IV/V) and hemihypesthesia. Microsurgical clipping is rarely necessary for previously coiled aneurysms. Surgical treatment is uncommonly required when an acute complication arises during endovascular treatment, or when there is a dynamic change of a residual aneurysm configuration over time that is considered to be insecure.
Wai, Phoong Seuk; Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul
The increases of demand on knowledge-based and production-based market force the growth of higher education. International students' enrollment contributes to economic growth and increase country's income, university reputation and name; promote the competitive of education and training markets. This paper used multilevel analysis to study the international students' enrollment in Malaysia public university. Student's background variables and institution background variables were study in this paper and the relationship among them also been investigated. Result shows that institution type is a significance factor on international students' enrollment in Malaysia public university.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Chemical gas weapons especially nitrogen mustard which was used in Iraq-Iran war against Iranian troops have several harmful effects on skin. Some other chemical agents also can cause acne form lesions on skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of acneform in previously chemically damaged soldiers and non chemically damaged persons. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 180 chemically damaged soldiers, who have been referred to dermatology clinic between 2000 – 2004, and forty non-chemically damaged people, were chosen randomly and examined for acneform lesions. SPSS software was used for statistic analysis of the data. Results: The mean age of the experimental group was 37.5 ± 5.2 and that of the control group was 38.7 ± 5.9 years. The mean percentage of chemical damage in cases was 31 percent and the time after the chemical damage was 15.2 ± 1.1 years. Ninety seven cases (53.9 percent of the subjects and 19 people (47.5 percent of the control group had some degree of acne. No significant correlation was found in incidence, degree of lesions, site of lesions and age of subjects between two groups. No significant correlation was noted between percentage of chemical damage and incidence and degree of lesions in case group. Conclusion: Incidence of acneform lesions among previously chemically injured peoples was not higher than the normal cases.
Rabiee, Anahita; Nikayin, Sina; Hashemi, Seyed Reza; Mohaghegh, Mostafa; Amini, Marzieh; Rabiee, Roozbeh; Merat, Shahin
Hepatitis A is often asymptomatic in children, however it can become a serious disease in adults. For countries that do not have a universal vaccination strategy targeted vaccination for high risk groups is recommended. Health workers could be at a higher risk of infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) compared to the general population. The aim of this study is to investigate the seroprevalence of hepatitis A among enrolled students in Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2011. This study included all students enrolled in Tehran University of Medical Sciences during 2011. We checked serum samples for anti-HAV antibody and participants completed a simple questionnaire. SFrom 1864 health sciences students enrolled in Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 1813 samples were analyzed for anti-HAV IgG antibody. The results showed that 970 (53.5%) were seronegative, 722 (39.8%) were seropositive, and 121 (6.7%) were equivocal. There were significantly higher seropositive results for males (54%) compared to females (37%; RR = 1.46; 95% CI: 1.31-1.62). The seroprevalence of HAV among enrolled medical science students is considerably lower than previous reports from Iran. Targeted vaccination for health sciences students prior to exposure should be seriously considered.
Rocks, Tetyana; Pelly, Fiona; Slater, Gary; Martin, Lisa A
The prevalence of disordered eating has been frequently reported in university students; however, the prevalence amongst Australian undergraduate students studying degrees with a focus on nutrition is uncertain. The aims of this study were to: (i) assess eating attitudes and behaviours of students enrolled in nutrition and dietetics, (ii) compare those to students enrolled in another health degree of occupational therapy (OT) and (iii) explore possible relationships between eating attitudes and behaviours and other characteristics of both cohorts. This cross-sectional observational study investigated self-reported anthropometric characteristics, eating attitudes and behaviours and self-esteem using a series of questionnaires. Participants included 137 students (119 females, 18 males) with a mean age of 27.1 ± 8.7 years. Fourteen percent of nutrition and dietetics and 11% of OT students had disordered eating attitudes scores that were symptomatic of an eating disorder. Mean eating attitude scores did not differ between the degrees of study. Students in nutrition and dietetics showed significantly higher levels of cognitive restraint and less emotional eating than OT students. Enrolment in the first year of study was the strongest predictor of symptomatic eating attitudes. These findings support previously expressed concern about presence of disordered eating in nutrition and dietetics undergraduates. Collaboratively developed support mechanisms for preventing and managing disordered relationships with food would be of benefit to students enrolled in nutrition degrees to ensure ongoing professional integrity. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This detailed Excel document accompanies the PDF report on national trends in Medicare-Medicaid dual enrollment from 2006 through the year prior to the current year....
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Findings reported in Ever Enrolled Medicare Population Estimates from the MCBS Access to Care (ATC) Files, published in Volume 4, Issue 2 of the Medicare and...
Peterson, Paul V.
Describes methodology and results of a survey of college and university students indicating that, overall, college and university enrollments in journalism and mass communications have reached a plateau. (HTH)
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Advantage (MA) - Part D Contract and Enrollment Data section serves as a centralized repository for publicly available data on contracts and plans,...
Ní Bhrolcháin, Máire; Beaujouan, Eva
The rise in educational enrolment is often cited as a possible cause of the trend to later childbearing in developed societies but direct evidence of its contribution to the aggregate change in fertility tempo is scarce. We show that rising enrolment, resulting in later ages at the end of education, accounts for a substantial part of the upward shift in the mean age at first birth in the 1980s and 1990s in Britain and in France. The postponement of first birth over that period has two components: a longer average period of enrolment and a post-enrolment component that is also related to educational level. The relationship between rising educational participation and the move to later fertility timing is almost certainly causal. Our findings therefore suggest that fertility tempo change is rooted in macro-economic and structural forces rather than in the cultural domain.
Joan Josep Solaz-Portolés
Full Text Available In this paper an experiment was carried out to test the theory of mental models of Johnson-Laird, which classifies subjects according to their previous knowledge. The subjects of the experiment were high school students of Valencia (Spain, to whom a problem solving test was administered. The results found seem to confirm that an inverse relation between the number of mental models implied in the problem and the percentage of subjects that solve it correctly, as the theory predicts. Moreover, subjects of higher previous knowledge do not always solve problems significantly better.
Ahn, June; McEachin, Andrew
We utilize state data of nearly 1.7 million students in Ohio to study a specific sector of online education: K-12 schools that deliver most, if not all, education online, lack a brick-and-mortar presence, and enroll students full-time. First, we explore e-school enrollment patterns and how these patterns vary by student subgroups and geography.…
Arria, Amelia M; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Vincent, Kathryn B; Winick, Emily R; Baron, Rebecca A; O'Grady, Kevin E
This study examined the prospective relationship of substance use and mental health problems with risk of discontinuous enrollment in college. Participants were 1,145 students at a large public university who were interviewed annually for four years beginning at college entry in 2004 (year 1). Discontinuous enrollment was defined as a gap in enrollment of one or more semesters during the first two years (early discontinuity) or the second two years (late discontinuity) versus continuous enrollment throughout all four years. Explanatory variables measured in year 1 were scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory, childhood conduct problems, cannabis use, number of illicit drugs used, and alcohol consumption. In years 3 and 4, participants reported lifetime history of clinically diagnosed attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, and anxiety, including age at diagnosis. Multinomial logistic regression models were developed to evaluate the association between the independent variables and discontinuous enrollment while holding constant background characteristics. Higher BDI scores predicted early discontinuity but not late discontinuity, whereas cannabis and alcohol use predicted only late discontinuity. Receiving a depression diagnosis during college was associated with both early and late discontinuity. Self-reported precollege diagnoses were not related to discontinuous enrollment once background characteristics were taken into account. Students who experience depressive symptoms or seek treatment for depression during college might be at risk of interruptions in their college enrollment. Cannabis use and heavy drinking appear to add to this risk. Students entering college with preexisting psychiatric diagnoses are not necessarily at risk of enrollment interruptions.
The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2012 and August 31, 2013. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2013. Twenty-two academic programs were included in the survey universe, with all 22 programs providing data. Since 2009, data for two health physics programs located in engineering departments are also included in the nuclear engineering survey. The enrollments and degrees data includes students majoring in health physics or in an option program equivalent to a major.taoi_na
The 2014 survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2013 and August 31, 2014. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2014. Twenty-two academic programs were included in the survey universe, with all 22 programs providing data. Since 2009, data for two health physics programs located in engineering departments are also included in the nuclear engineering survey. The enrollments and degrees data includes students majoring in health physics or in an option program equivalent to a major.
Blay, Nicole; Donoghue, Judith
The objective of this study was to examine whether the position of 'after hours clinical support enrolled nurse' is embracing clinical skill extension in the acute surgical area. Experienced enrolled nurses employed in a supernumerary capacity documented all activities with which they were engaged over a six-month period. Six surgical wards within a tertiary referral hospital, Sydney, Australia. Enrolled nurses working after hours in an extended support role in a supernumerary capacity. Data demonstrated that, in this study, the 'after hours clinical support enrolled nurse' was primarily performing routine nursing activities. Although the number of extended skills (n=13) performed could be considered diverse for an enrolled nurse, many were seldom performed. The most frequently performed extended skills were patient escorts and undertaking bladder ultrasounds with a mobile scanner. Medication administration was rarely performed. The role primarily incorporates basic nursing care with minimal scope for extended skills. The paper recommends that basic nursing practices be delegated to assistants in nursing to enable the 'after hours clinical support enrolled nurse' to effectively support registered nurses and extend their own practice.
McMorrow, Stacey; Kenney, Genevieve M; Waidmann, Timothy; Anderson, Nathaniel
To provide updated information on the potential substitution of public for private coverage among low-income children by examining the type of coverage held by children before they enrolled in Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) and exploring the extent to which children covered by CHIP had access to private coverage while they were enrolled. We conducted a major household telephone survey in 2012 of enrollees and disenrollees in CHIP in 10 states. We used the survey responses and Medicaid/CHIP administrative data to estimate the coverage distribution of all new enrollees in the 12 months before CHIP enrollment and to identify children who may have had access to employer coverage through one of their parents while enrolled in CHIP. About 13% of new enrollees had any private coverage in the 12 months before enrolling in CHIP, and most were found to have lost that coverage as a result of parental job loss. About 40% of CHIP enrollees had a parent with an employer-sponsored insurance (ESI) policy, but only half reported that the policy could cover the child. Approximately 30% of new enrollees had public coverage during the year before but were uninsured just before enrolling. Access to private coverage among CHIP enrollees is relatively limited. Furthermore, even when there is potential access to ESI, affordability is a serious concern for parents, making it possible that many children with access to ESI would remain uninsured in the absence of CHIP. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. All rights reserved.
This is a supplement to International Energy: Subject Thesaurus (ETDE/PUB--2(Rev.1)), which replaced DOE/TIC-7000--the EDB Subject Thesaurus. This supplement is provided periodically to keep International Energy: Subject Thesaurus recipients up-to-date on valid vocabulary terms (descriptors) used in building and maintaining several international energy information databases. Each issue contains all new terms added since the publication of the Thesaurus. Each supplement is a cumulative listing of the new terms, so that each issue replaces the previous one.
Full Text Available Kristina A Monteiro, Paul George, Richard Dollase, Luba Dumenco Office of Medical Education, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA Abstract: The use of multiple academic indicators to identify students at risk of experiencing difficulty completing licensure requirements provides an opportunity to increase support services prior to high-stakes licensure examinations, including the United States Medical Licensure Examination (USMLE Step 2 clinical knowledge (CK. Step 2 CK is becoming increasingly important in decision-making by residency directors because of increasing undergraduate medical enrollment and limited available residency vacancies. We created and validated a regression equation to predict students’ Step 2 CK scores from previous academic indicators to identify students at risk, with sufficient time to intervene with additional support services as necessary. Data from three cohorts of students (N=218 with preclinical mean course exam score, National Board of Medical Examination subject examinations, and USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 CK between 2011 and 2013 were used in analyses. The authors created models capable of predicting Step 2 CK scores from academic indicators to identify at-risk students. In model 1, preclinical mean course exam score and Step 1 score accounted for 56% of the variance in Step 2 CK score. The second series of models included mean preclinical course exam score, Step 1 score, and scores on three NBME subject exams, and accounted for 67%–69% of the variance in Step 2 CK score. The authors validated the findings on the most recent cohort of graduating students (N=89 and predicted Step 2 CK score within a mean of four points (SD=8. The authors suggest using the first model as a needs assessment to gauge the level of future support required after completion of preclinical course requirements, and rescreening after three of six clerkships to identify students who might benefit from
Lea T. Drye
Full Text Available Background: The Alzheimer’s Disease Anti-inflammatory Prevention Trial (ADAPT tested whether non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs can prevent Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The results were null. We analyzed ADAPT data to examine if the effects of NSAIDs on AD risk differed depending upon APOE genotype or age as has been suggested by previous observational studies. Methods: ADAPT randomized 2,528 cognitively intact older adults to either celecoxib, naproxen sodium or placebo; 2,388 participants provided blood samples for APOE genotyping. Proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the effects of naproxen or celecoxib versus placebo on incident AD by age at enrollment and APOE genotype. Results: The proportion of subjects providing a biological sample did not differ between the treatment groups. In models of AD risk, none of the tests for 2-way interactions between either NSAID and age or APOE genotype were significant (p > 0.05. Conclusions: The data did not support the hypothesis that the association between NSAIDs and AD risk differed by age or APOE genotype.
Martinez, Michelle E; Kearney, David J; Simpson, Tracy; Felleman, Benjamin I; Bernardi, Nicole; Sayre, George
Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is associated with reduced depressive symptoms, quality of life improvements, behavioral activation, and increased acceptance among veterans. This study was conducted to increase the reach and impact of a veterans' MBSR program by identifying barriers to enrollment and participation to inform modifications in program delivery. Verify or challenge suspected barriers, and identify previously unrecognized barriers, to enrollment and participation in MBSR among veterans. A retrospective qualitative analysis of semistructured interviews. VA Puget Sound Health Care System (Seattle, WA). 68 interviewed, and 48 coded and analyzed before reaching saturation. Content analysis of semistructured interviews. Of the participants who enrolled, most (78%) completed the program and described MBSR positively. Veterans identified insufficient or inaccurate information, scheduling issues, and an aversion to groups as barriers to enrollment. Participants who discontinued the program cited logistics (e.g., scheduling and medical issues), negative reactions to instructors or group members, difficulty understanding the MBSR practice purposes, and struggling to find time for the practices as barriers to completion. Other challenges (cohort dynamics, teacher impact on group structure and focus, instructor lack of military service, and physical and psychological challenges) did not impede participation; we interpreted these as growth-facilitating challenges. Common conditions among veterans (chronic pain, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression) were not described as barriers to enrollment or completion. Women-only MBSR groups and tele-health MBSR groups could improve accessibility to MBSR for veterans by addressing barriers such as commute anxiety, time restrictions, and an aversion to mixed gender groups among women. Educating MBSR teachers about veteran culture and health challenges faced by veterans, adding psychoeducation materials that
Marie-Louise H. Hansen
Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.
Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans
Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566
Rodriquez, A A; Agre, J C; Franke, T M
To compare strength and endurance variables obtained in the quadriceps muscles of postpolio and control subjects over a 7-year interval with macro and single fiber electromyography (EMG) variables. A controlled inception cohort study. Neuromuscular research laboratory of a university hospital. A cohort of 23 postpolio and 14 control subjects. All postpolio subjects had a history, physical examination, and EMG consistent with previous poliomyelitis, and had greater than antigravity strength in the quadriceps muscle tested. Unstable postpolio subjects acknowledged new quadriceps weakness over the 7-year period of the study (n = 11), and stable postpolio subjects denied new weakness of the quadriceps over the same period (n = 12). All subjects had tests of neuromuscular function of the quadriceps muscles at the onset of this study and yearly over a 7-year period. EMG variables were determined on a separate day after the seventh year of neuromuscular measurements. Neuromuscular variables measured were isometric knee extension peak torque, isometric endurance (time to inability to maintain knee extensor contraction at 40% of maximal torque), tension time index (TTI) (product of isometric endurance time and 40% of maximal torque), and recovery of torque at 10 minutes after the endurance test. EMG variables were macro EMG and single fiber EMG (jitter, fiber density, and percent blocking). Unstable postpolio subjects did not lose strength more rapidly than stable postpolio subjects or control subjects. Unstable postpolio subjects were significantly weaker, had decreased TTI, larger macro EMG amplitude, greater jitter, blocking, and fiber density in comparison with stable postpolio subjects (all p postpolio group (p .05) with neuromuscular or EMG variables in control, stable, or unstable postpolio subjects.
Davidson, Kamila; Vidgen, Helen
Despite the high prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity enrolment to weight management programs remains difficult, time consuming, costly and has limited effectiveness. The aim of this paper was to explore parents' perspectives on factors that influence their decision to enrol in a program to address their child's weight. Semi-structured qualitative telephone interviews were undertaken with 21 parents of primary school aged children above the healthy weight range who had enrolled in a healthy lifestyle program. Questions were developed and analysed using the Theory of Planned Behaviour. They addressed parental reasons for enrolment, expectations of the program and apprehensions regarding enrolling. Prior to deciding to enrol, parents tended to be aware of the child's weight status, had attempted to address it themselves and had sought help from a number of people including health professionals. Parental decision to enrol was influenced by their evaluation of their previous attempts and their child's emotional state. Awareness of their child's weight status is an important first step in parents taking action at this health issue however it is unlikely to be sufficient on its own. Parental decision to join a childhood obesity management program can be complex and is likely to be made after numerous and unsuccessful attempts to address the child's weight. Strategies to encourage parents to enrol in programs should include activities beyond awareness of weight status. Health professionals should use contact time with parents to raise awareness of the child's weight status and to provide encouragement to address overweight and obesity. Parents must be supported in their attempts to address their child's overweight and obesity whether they choose to manage it themselves or within a program.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the high prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity enrolment to weight management programs remains difficult, time consuming, costly and has limited effectiveness. The aim of this paper was to explore parents’ perspectives on factors that influence their decision to enrol in a program to address their child’s weight. Methods Semi-structured qualitative telephone interviews were undertaken with 21 parents of primary school aged children above the healthy weight range who had enrolled in a healthy lifestyle program. Questions were developed and analysed using the Theory of Planned Behaviour. They addressed parental reasons for enrolment, expectations of the program and apprehensions regarding enrolling. Results Prior to deciding to enrol, parents tended to be aware of the child’s weight status, had attempted to address it themselves and had sought help from a number of people including health professionals. Parental decision to enrol was influenced by their evaluation of their previous attempts and their child’s emotional state. Conclusions Awareness of their child’s weight status is an important first step in parents taking action at this health issue however it is unlikely to be sufficient on its own. Parental decision to join a childhood obesity management program can be complex and is likely to be made after numerous and unsuccessful attempts to address the child’s weight. Strategies to encourage parents to enrol in programs should include activities beyond awareness of weight status. Health professionals should use contact time with parents to raise awareness of the child’s weight status and to provide encouragement to address overweight and obesity. Parents must be supported in their attempts to address their child’s overweight and obesity whether they choose to manage it themselves or within a program.
Full Text Available Introduction: Education plays a vital role to developing a nation. In India, urban slums constituting about 22.6% of the urban population are the poor and socially disadvantaged. This slum community is least concerned for school enrolment of their children inspite of the fact that primary education is compulsory and is free in public schools. In urban areas schools available are mostly of private sector that are not free and beyond affordability to slums; government and corporation schools are few, but beyond reach. Motive of the parents is to involve children in income generating activities and the girls are more deprived of school enrolment in poorer society. Objectives: 1 assess the enrolment status of slum children and 2 determine the factors influencing school enrolment.Methodology: The data was collected during 2011-12 from 15 randomly selected slums out of 227 in which a total of 893 families were contacted and mothers with children aged 5-15 years interrogated. In addition to child history on age, sex and school enrolment, the family background characteristics were e.g. religion, caste, and family size as well as age, education and occupation of both mother & father were recorded.Results: Out of 1145 children, male and female equal represented; mostly (90.9% were Hindus and half were SC/ST class. About 30% father and 57.2% mothers were illiterate; about half fathers were unskilled-worker and 96.0% mother’s house wife. Overall 31.3% children were not enrolled and were decreasing from 49.2% to 24.3% to 21.4% in the age groups 5-6, 7-9 and 10-15 years respectively. Enrolment was poor in Muslims (50.0% compared to Hindus (29.4%; enrolment was similar irrespective of child sex among Hindus, but in Muslims 62.5% male and 35.4% female children were only enrolled. Similar was the situation as one move from SC/ST (67.6% to OBC (73.4% and general caste (77.9%. Education of father and mother had significant role to enrolment but not the age and
Kristoffersen, Jannie H. Grøne; Humlum, Maria Knoth; Vejlin, Rune Majlund
It is likely that the extent of progression in the educational system affects whether or not one decides to start a family at a given point in time. We estimate the effect of enrolling in college in the year of application on later family formation decisions such as the probability of being...... family formation decisions. For example, we find that the effect of enrolling in college on the probability of being a parent at age 27 is about 9 percentage points, corresponding to an increase of about 70 percent....
Duarte Sosa, Daysi; Fink Eriksen, Erik
Background and purpose - Bone fragility is determined by bone mass, bone architecture, and the material properties of bone. Microindentation has been introduced as a measurement method that reflects bone material properties. The pathogenesis of underlying stress fractures, in particular the role of impaired bone material properties, is still poorly understood. Based on the hypothesis that impaired bone material strength might play a role in the development of stress fractures, we used microindentation in patients with stress fractures and in controls. Patients and methods - We measured bone material strength index (BMSi) by microindentation in 30 women with previous stress fractures and in 30 normal controls. Bone mineral density by DXA and levels of the bone markers C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type-1 collagen (CTX) and N-terminal propeptide of type-1 procollagen (P1NP) were also determined. Results - Mean BMSi in stress fracture patients was significantly lower than in the controls (SD 72 (8.7) vs. 77 (7.2); p = 0.02). The fracture subjects also had a significantly lower mean bone mineral density (BMD) than the controls (0.9 (0.02) vs. 1.0 (0.06); p = 0.03). Bone turnover-as reflected in serum levels of the bone marker CTX-was similar in both groups, while P1NP levels were significantly higher in the women with stress fractures (55 μg/L vs. 42 μg/L; p = 0.03). There was no correlation between BMSi and BMD or bone turnover. Interpretation - BMSi was inferior in patients with previous stress fracture, but was unrelated to BMD and bone turnover. The lower values of BMSi in patients with previous stress fracture combined with a lower BMD may contribute to the increased propensity to develop stress fractures in these patients.
Rutger M. van den Bor
Full Text Available Failure to meet subject recruitment targets in clinical trials continues to be a widespread problem with potentially serious scientific, logistical, financial and ethical consequences. On the operational level, enrollment-related issues may be mitigated by careful site selection and by allocating monitoring or training resources proportionally to the anticipated risk of poor enrollment. Such procedures require estimates of the expected recruitment performance that are sufficiently reliable to allow centers to be sensibly categorized. In this study, we investigate whether information obtained from feasibility questionnaires can potentially be used to predict which centers will and which centers will not meet their enrollment targets by means of multivariable logistic regression analysis. From a large set of 59 candidate predictors, we determined the subset that is optimal for predictive purposes using Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO regularization. Although the extent to which the results are generalizable remains to be determined, they indicate that the prediction accuracy of the optimal model is only a marginal improvement over the intercept-only model, illustrating the difficulty of prediction in this setting.
Full Text Available Daniel Bender,* Patrick Haubruck,* Sonja Boxriker, Sebastian Korff, Gerhard Schmidmaier, Arash Moghaddam Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Center for Orthopedics, Trauma Surgery and Spinal Cord Injury, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: In this level 1 diagnostic study, we analyzed the validity of subjective smoking status and, as secondary research question, the smoking cessation adherence in orthopedic patients during a routine hospital stay of nonunion patients by measuring serum cotinine. Methods: We included patients undergoing revision surgery due to nonunion of long bones. Patients were interviewed about their smoking status. Blood samples were taken from all the patients prior to surgery and for an additional 6 weeks following surgery. Serum levels of cotinine were measured, and coherence between subjective smoking status and objective cotinine analysis was evaluated. Results: Between March 2012 and August 2014, we enrolled 136 patients. Six of the 26 “previous smokers” (23% and four of the 65 “nonsmokers” (6% had serum cotinine above cutoff levels. In self-labeled smokers, serum cotinine levels averaged at 2,367.4±14,885.9 ng/mL (with a median of 100 ng/mL, whereas in previous smokers the levels averaged at 4,270±19,619.4 ng/mL (with a median of 0 ng/mL and in the nonsmokers group the levels averaged at 12±53.9 ng/mL (with a median of 0.03 ng/mL. Overall, the subjective smoking status matched serum cotinine testing in 88% of the cases. Sensitivity was 79.6% and specificity was 93.1%. Ninety-one percent of the patients with preoperative positive serum values were still positive at follow-up. Conclusion: In this study, we could show that subjective smoking status in orthopedic patients is predominantly reliable as validated by objective cotinine measurements; however, patients who declare themselves as “previous smokers” are at elevated risk
Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other.
This study examines that motivational effect of enrollment in a study abroad program on English achievement. Three months after signing up, Michigan English Placement Test scores of Japanese college students about to go abroad were compared to those of a stratified random sample of students not enrolled. An independent one-tailed t-test with a 0.05 region of rejection was conducted on the means with the results being p=.27. Since the resulting probability was greater than 0.05. the null hypot...
Guimbert, Stephane; Miwa, Keiko; Nguyen, Duc Thanh
One of the first achievements of post-conflict Afghanistan was to bring almost 4 million children back to school. Issues remain daunting, however, with low primary enrollment especially for girls and in rural areas and very weak learning achievements. We review some key features of the education system in Afghanistan. By matching household and…
This paper examines the growing trend of demographic changes in the admission process in the educational sector in Nigeria. It is an analysis of the admission trend in privately owned Universities, using Fountain University, Osogbo as a case study. It was discovered that the number of female enrolment is on the rise.
Narodowski, Mariano; Moschetti, Mauro
During the second half of the twentieth century, a process of privatization took place in the Argentine education system. This paper seeks to explain the growth of private enrollments in Argentina over the last years. Drawing on the concept of quasi-monopoly, we run a random-effects estimation on panel data to analyze the determinants of the…
Assessment of the Attitude of Prospective Teachers Enrolled in Postgraduate Diploma in Teaching: The Case of Wollega University. ... Moreover, an attempt was made to explore prospective teachers' attitude towards teaching in terms of some variables: gender, family income, parents' level of education, reasons for ...
Successful planning in educational administration is highly dependent on accurate student numbers. An interactive enrolment projection model is described which begins with pre-school age children to project the expected number of first grade entrants. These cohorts are then progressed through the school system. The model described can be implemented on a microcomputer and uses an interactive technique which enables human intervention in order to take full account of local knowledge in predicting the numbers in each year group. Control is maintained by allowing groups of schools to be amalgamated and then by applying to these larger groups the same techniques used to obtain the initial individual school enrolments. Adjustments to individual school enrolments are then possible following the reconciliation of larger group figures with known demographic statistics. This counteracts the effects of student mobility across wider areas and overcomes many of the problems associated with simple aggregation of individual school projections. The model provides a valuable planning tool when enrolment figures are needed for decision making.
Reyes, Marcela; Domina, Thurston
Background: Virtually all high schools offer a range of courses to allow students to enroll in four years of high school mathematics. However, only two thirds of U.S. high school graduates took mathematics courses each school year. Purpose/Research Question: This study addresses three research questions: First, how do students' math course…
Fallon, Mary A. C.
Enrollment managers will be watching to see how recruitment strategies change when higher education's sleeping giant--net price calculators (NPCs)--wakes in the fall of 2011. Some predict yield projections may be more difficult and reputations will be challenged as prospective students, their families, high school counselors, and independent…
Contemporary strategic enrollment management entails planning, implementing, and developing administrative structures to develop and support strategies and tactics to regulate patterns of students entering the institution and through to graduation. It must do so in a way that is both predictable and consistent with the institution's mission and…
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurement of concurrent... Reserve Course Assessment § 21.7673 Measurement of concurrent enrollments. (a) Conversion of units of... reservist's training time. (Authority: 10 U.S.C. 16136(b); 38 U.S.C. 3688) (b) Conversion of clock hours to...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurement of concurrent... (Montgomery GI Bill-Active Duty) Course Assessment § 21.7172 Measurement of concurrent enrollments. (a..., VA will convert the credit hours to clock hours to determine the veteran's training time. (Authority...
Shapiro, Joel; Bray, Christopher
This article describes a model that can be used to analyze student enrollment data and can give insights for improving retention of part-time students and refining institutional budgeting and planning efforts. Adult higher-education programs are often challenged in that part-time students take courses less reliably than full-time students. For…
Bartlett, Stacy A.
Low student retention and persistence continues to be a major problem within American higher education (Elkins, Braxton, & James, 2000; Kalsbeek & Hossler, 2010; Kezar, 2004; Tinto, 2006-2007). Less is known about the institutional organizational behavior influence on student persistence (Berger, 2001-2002); and while enrollment management…
Haug, C.; Haug, J.T.
We describe a possible new defensive behaviour of larval stages of mantis shrimps (Stomatopoda). Mantis shrimp larvae are rarely observed in nature, thus the study is based on postures of museum material and functional morphological aspects. Specimens described here are tightly enrolled, their pleon
Alonso, Manuel; Stella, Carlos; Galagovsky, Lydia
Enrollments into first-year university biology courses may be very large, and therefore evaluating student learning can represent quite a challenge. In this article, we present our experience in assessing students by means of an assessment instrument called "Understand Before Choosing" (UBC). It has been used for six semesters, and its performance…
Nicholas, Lauren Hersch
To assess the relationship between Medicare Advantage (MA) plan rebates and enrollment and simulate the effects of Affordable Care Act (ACA) payment reforms. First difference regressions of county-level MA payment and enrollment data from CMS from 2006 to 2010. A $10 decrease in the per member/per month rebate to MA plans was associated with a 0.20 percentage point (0.9%) decrease in MA penetration (P penetration and a 10% decrease in risk score. ACA reforms are predicted to reduce the level of rebates in lower-spending counties, leading to enrollment decreases of 1.7 to 1.9 percentage points in the lowest-spending counties. The simulation predicts that the disenrollment would come from MA enrollees with higher risk scores. MA enrollment responds to availability of supplemental benefits supported by rebates. ACA provisions designed to lower MA spending will predominantly affect Medicare beneficiaries living in counties where MA plans may be unable to offer a comparable product at a price similar to that of traditional Medicare.
Traces the development of the New World School of the Arts in Florida from a cooperative dual-enrollment visual and performing arts program involving Dade County Public Schools and Miami-Dade Community College to an independent institution. Discusses curriculum development, auditions, faculty, credits, costs, funding, scheduling, student success,…
This study was aimed at researching the reasons why mothers enrol their children in malaria clinical research and how family members or relatives are involved in the decision-making process. Issues related to informed consent were also a particular focus of this study. A total of 81 participants took part in 8 focus group ...
Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.
This study investigated the feasibility of collecting enrollment data on distance learning programs sponsored by private institutions within and outside of Washington State. E-commerce developments have allowed in-state independent providers and out-of-state public institutions to serve residents of Washington State, and many nontraditional…
Students who chose physical science explained the source of their motivation in terms of high self-concept and perception of selfefficacy especially in ... Students also reported building enough self-confidence to enrol in physical science by the encouragement they received through informal contact with physics lecturers.
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enrollment criteria and selection process. 1469.6 Section 1469.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT... areas for nutrient or pest management; (iv) Targeting program participation for locally important...
Supplee, Janice L.
Rising costs, burgeoning debt, and falling credit ratings are among the financial challenges faced by small, tuition-dependent private colleges, including many members of the Council for Christian Colleges & Universities (CCCU). In their efforts to generate more revenue, most of these institutions have focused on enrollment strategies as the…
Hérault, Nicolas; Zakirova, Rezida
This paper contributes to the literature by separately analysing the course enrolment and completion effects of vocational education and training (VET) as well as higher education. Moreover, we investigate the persistence of these wage effects over time while controlling for two potential selection biases. We take advantage of the Longitudinal…
Pacheco, Gail A.; Cruickshank, Amy A.
This paper empirically examines the impact of minimum wages on educational enrollments in New Zealand. A significant reform to the youth minimum wage since 2000 has resulted in some age groups undergoing a 91% rise in their real minimum wage over the last 10 years. Three panel least squares multivariate models are estimated from a national sample…
Smith, Matthew Lee; Wilson, Kelly L.
Background: Many programs emphasize subsequent pregnancy prevention and high school graduation among teenage mothers; however, less is known about their ability to increase financial earnings from employment opportunities while concurrently enrolled in school. This study evaluates factors influencing employment status among teenage mothers after…
Vaught, James Ward, Jr.
School enrollment trends and how leaders respond are critical to the sustainability of Christian schools. This study applied quantitative and qualitative approaches to address the question, are there significant differences in the mean scores for behavioral factors or in the mean scores for transactional and transformational leadership styles for…
Multistage sampling procedure was used to select the respondents. Binary logit model was used to estimate the determinants of enrolment to the scheme. The findings show that factors such as age, occupation, place of residence, income and wealth, play an important role in shaping individuals' and households' decision ...
ALDEN, JOHN D.
THIS REPORT SUMMARIZES IMPORTANT DATA OF THE ENROLLMENT SURVEY CONDUCTED BY THE ENGINEERING MANPOWER COMMISSION OF ENGINEERS JOINT COUNCIL IN THE FALL OF 1967. QUESTIONNAIRES WERE SENT TO ALL KNOWN UNITED STATES TECHNICAL INSTITUTES, JUNIOR COLLEGES, AND OTHER INSTITUTIONS OFFERING ENGINEERING OR INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY. MORE THAN 97…
... Bill (Pub. L. 110-246, the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008), which allows that the... requirements, Soil conservation, Technical assistance, Water resources, Wildlife. For the reasons explained... Part 1410 RIN 0560-AH80 Conservation Reserve Program, Re-Enrollment AGENCY: Commodity Credit...
Young, Lee D.
Describes how telemarketing can be vital part of college's or university's enrollment management campaign if it is done wisely and nonintrusively. Shares author's experience as coordinator of telemarketing activity at one university. Concludes that development of effective telemarketing program can enhance the institution's ability to achieve its…
Sep 12, 2005 ... NPWAWN OF MARK~OV~AN MODELTO SCHOOL ENROLMENT PROJECTION &E&. , 11 and. Similarly, and. 3.0. Application. To estimate the parameters of this inodel, data for B.Sc Statistics with Computer Science Part - Time programme in the ljniversity of Benin, Nigeria, for the period between ...
And that Governments at all levels, National University Commission (NUC), Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and University administrators should institute endowments and scholarship awards to encourage more female enrolment into science-based courses. Gender and Behaviour Vol. 4(1) 2006: 493-507 ...
The convergence between the tuberculosis (TB) and HIV epidemics has led to studies investigating strategies for integrated HIV and TB care. We present the experiences of a cohort of 17 patients enrolled in the first integrated TB and HIV treatment pilot programme, conducted in Durban, South Africa, as a precursor to a ...
To assess what characteristics of children and their communities are associated with lower dental service use rates, to support development of strategies to target subgroups of children with lower utilization. The Medicaid Analytic Extract (MAX) 5-percent sample file, known as Mini- MAX 2008. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between enrollee and county characteristics and dental preventive and treatment service utilization. There is substantial variation in service use by age. Relative to a 9-year-old, a 2-year-old is 28 percentage points less likely, and a 15-year-old is 15 percentage points less likely, to receive a preventive dental service. Children enrolled in Medicaid for only part of the year were significantly less likely to receive a preventive or a treatment service relative to children covered by Medicaid for the full year. For preventive care, children enrolled for nine months were 15 percentage points less likely to have a service. Those enrolled for six months were 30 points less likely; those enrolled for three months were 41 points less likely. Children eligible for Medicaid based on disability were 9 and 6 percentage points less likely to receive a preventive or treatment service, respectively, than their counterparts who were eligible based on income alone. This study identifies some subgroups of children who are particularly underserved and for whom states may need to devote more attention.
Therefore affirmative action plan is recommended at all levels of mine work planning that will ensure inclusion of such feminine virtues to impact profitably and propel growth of the mining industry in Ghana. Keywords: Enrolment Regimes, Gender Differences, Gender-Equity Discourse, University of Mines and Technology, ...
Background: In Tanzania, enrolment into care and treatment centers (CTC) for those in need of anti-retroviral therapy is estimated to be 22.2%, indicating that the gateway to accessing CTC services is being underutilized. It is well-known that barriers to accessing these services affect women disproportionately, particularly ...
Berger, Michael A.
Although educational leaders have been coping with declining enrollment for almost a decade, educational researchers have begun to focus on the topic only recently. The first part of this introduction to a special issue of the Peabody Journal of Education briefly summarizes the contents of the subsequent essays, which are intended to bridge the…
Sobel, Andrew D; Reid, Daniel B; Blood, Travis D; Daniels, Alan H; Cruz, Aristides I
Hoverboards pose a significant risk of musculoskeletal injury to pediatric riders. A prospectively enrolled cohort yielded 9 pediatric patients injured while riding hoverboards in 2016. Eight of the injuries involved the upper extremity, and one involved the lower extremity. No riders wore any safety equipment and injury patterns modeled those seen in skateboard riders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
American Geological Inst., Washington, DC.
Presented in table format are student enrollment data for geoscience disciplines at colleges and universities in the United States and Canada. Subfields for both countries include: geology; geophysics; oceanography; marine science; geological engineering; geophysical engineering; geochemistry; hydrology; mineralogy; paleontology; soil science;…
Bager, Torben; Jensen, Kent Wickstrøm; Schou Nielsen, Pia
Purpose: Entrepreneurial learning through formal growth-oriented training programs for SME managers promises to enhance the growth competences and growth intentions of the enrolled managers. The impact of such programs, however, depends on who enrolls since initial competence and growth-intention......Purpose: Entrepreneurial learning through formal growth-oriented training programs for SME managers promises to enhance the growth competences and growth intentions of the enrolled managers. The impact of such programs, however, depends on who enrolls since initial competence and growth......-intention levels vary significantly. Potential participants may suffer from limited ability to transform new knowledge into practice, absence of growth intention and too high or too low a prior competence level to be able to benefit substantially. Selection and self-selection processes therefore have a bearing...... on the extent to which such programs result in additionality, i.e. improved growth performance compared to non-intervention. Design/methodology Selection and self-selection processes are explored through a study of a large-scale training program for growth oriented managers of small Danish firms. This program...
Participants who screened at the clinical research sites (CRSs) had their names, SA identity or passport number and fingerprints captured onto BCEPS after comprehensive education and discussion. This information was verified at all study visits. If a participant attempted to screen or co-enrol at multiple CRSs, the system ...
Grein, H-J; Schmidt, O; Ritsche, A
Reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement is limited by various factors. The main factors affecting reproducibility include the characteristics of the measurement method and of the subject and the examiner. This article presents the results of a study on this topic, focusing on the reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement in healthy eyes. The results of previous studies are not all presented in the same way by the respective authors and cannot be fully standardized without consulting the original scientific data. To the extent that they are comparable, the results of our study largely correspond largely with those of previous investigations: During repeated subjective refraction measurement, 95% of the deviation from the mean value was approximately ±0.2 D to ±0.65 D for the spherical equivalent and cylindrical power. The reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement in healthy eyes is limited, even under ideal conditions. Correct assessment of refraction results is only feasible after identifying individual variability. Several measurements are required. Refraction cannot be measured without a tolerance range. The English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink (under supplemental).
R. Sh. Saitgareev
Full Text Available Heart Transplantation (HTx to date remains the most effective and radical method of treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. The defi cit of donor hearts is forcing to resort increasingly to the use of different longterm mechanical circulatory support systems, including as a «bridge» to the follow-up HTx. According to the ISHLT Registry the number of recipients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery increased from 40% in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 49.6% for the period from 2009 to 2015. HTx performed in repeated patients, on the one hand, involves considerable technical diffi culties and high risks; on the other hand, there is often no alternative medical intervention to HTx, and if not dictated by absolute contradictions the denial of the surgery is equivalent to 100% mortality. This review summarizes the results of a number of published studies aimed at understanding the immediate and late results of HTx in patients, previously underwent open heart surgery. The effect of resternotomy during HTx and that of the specifi c features associated with its implementation in recipients previously operated on open heart, and its effects on the immediate and long-term survival were considered in this review. Results of studies analyzing the risk factors for perioperative complications in repeated recipients were also demonstrated. Separately, HTx risks after implantation of prolonged mechanical circulatory support systems were examined. The literature does not allow to clearly defi ning the impact factor of earlier performed open heart surgery on the course of perioperative period and on the prognosis of survival in recipients who underwent HTx. On the other hand, subject to the regular fl ow of HTx and the perioperative period the risks in this clinical situation are justifi ed as a long-term prognosis of recipients previously conducted open heart surgery and are comparable to those of patients who underwent primary HTx. Studies
Becker, Lee B.; Vlad, Tudor; Huh, Jisu; Daniels, George L.
Provides the key findings of the 2001 Annual Survey of Journalism and Mass Communication Enrollments. Shows that undergraduate enrollments continued to grow while graduate enrollments declined. Discusses degrees granted and race, ethnicity, and gender factors. (PM)
Nicholson, Starr; Mulvey, Patrick J.
The number of both astronomy bachelor's degrees and PhDs awarded in the class of 2016 represent all-time highs. Astronomy bachelors have been increasing steadily for the last 15 years, with 469 degrees awarded in the class of 2016. With undergraduate astronomy enrollments continuing to grow, the trend is expected to continue for at least the next…
Waite, Alison J; Coombs, Robert C; McKenzie, Angela; Daman-Willems, Charlotte; Cohen, Marta C; Campbell, Michael J; Carpenter, Robert G
To report mortality in babies enrolled on a community-based programme, Care of Next Infant Plus (CONI PLUS), which primarily supports parents anxious because of previous sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) in their extended family or following an apparent life threatening event (ALTE) in their baby. Prospective observational study from 1996 to 2010 in the UK. Of 6487 babies enrolled, 37 died (5.7 per 1000). There were 2789 (43.0%) SUDI related babies of whom, six died suddenly and unexpectedly (2.15 per 1000). Four babies were sharing a sofa at night or a bed with parent(s) who smoked or had consumed alcohol. Of the 1882 (29.0%) babies enrolled following an ALTE, five died suddenly and unexpectedly (2.66 per 1000): four unexplained and one due to infection. None occurred while sharing a sleep surface, and at least three died during the day. The remaining 1816 (28%) babies were enrolled for other reasons. Seven died suddenly and unexpectedly (3.85 per 1000), two were unexplained and none associated with bed sharing. The number of SUDI deaths in babies enrolled on CONI PLUS is higher than expected from UK averages. Deaths in babies enrolled because of family history of SUDI were mostly associated with inappropriate sharing of a sleep surface at night and mostly outside the peak age range for sudden infant death. The opposite is true for those enrolled following an ALTE. The number of deaths is small but findings suggest a different mechanism for death in these two groups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Lee, M; Hill, S; Scullin, J
The purpose of this study was to examine the responses of normal living subjects to the application of anteroposterior forces to the ribcage. Seventeen subjects aged between 25 and 37 years were tested during slow oscillatory loading while breath-holding at the end of a normal expiration. The mean stiffness coefficient was found to be 9.4 N mm(-1) (SD 2.9) and the mean gradient of the force-strain relation was 1888 N (SD 646). Comparison with previously published cadaver data indicates that the embalmed cadaver ribcage stiffness is in the order of three times stiffer than living subjects, while fresh cadavers showed comparable stiffness to living subjects. A number of studies have used models to predict and understand the behaviour of the thoracic spine. Validation of the behaviour of models which include the thoracic spine and ribcage depends on comparison of model response predictions with observed responses of human subjects. The present study provides data on the anteroposterior compressibility of the ribcage of living subjects which may be suitable for use in model validation studies. Copyright © 1994. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Benson, Etienne S
Argument In recent decades, through the work of Jane Goodall and other ethologists, the practice of giving personal names to nonhuman animals who are the subjects of scientific research has become associated with claims about animal personhood and scientific objectivity. While critics argue that such naming practices predispose the researcher toward anthropomorphism, supporters suggest that it sensitizes the researcher to individual differences and social relations. Both critics and supporters agree that naming tends to be associated with the recognition of individual animal rights. The history of the naming of research animals since the late nineteenth century shows, however, that the practice has served a variety of purposes, most of which have raised few ethical or epistemological concerns. Names have been used to identify research animals who play dual roles as pets, workers, or patients, to enhance their market value, and to facilitate their identification in the field. The multifaceted history of naming suggests both that the use of personal names by Goodall and others is less of a radical break with previous practices than it might first appear to be and that the use of personal names to recognize the individuality, sentience, or rights of nonhuman animals faces inherent limits and contradictions.
Humlum, Maria; Kristoffersen, Jannie H. G.; Vejlin, Rune Majlund
The level of progression of an individual’s educational or labor market career is a potentially important factor for family formation decisions. We address this issue by considering the effects of a particular college admission system on family formation. We show that the admission system affects...... mainly the timing of college enrollment and not the college - going decision. As such, we consider a specific type of career interruption and its consequences for relationship formation and fertility decisions. Specifically, we employ a regression discontinuity design based on the college admission...... system to estimate the effect of being above the admission requirement in the year of application on later family formation decisions. We find that the admission system has substantial effects on the timing of family formation and, specifically, that the timing of college enrollment is an important...
Alyse C. Hachey
Full Text Available Online education is becoming an increasingly important component of higher education. The Sloan Foundation 2010 Survey of Online Learning reports that more than 30% of all students take at least one online course during their college career. Because of this, attention is now turning to the quality of student outcomes that this instructional method provides. However, there is a huge gap in empirical investigations devoted to the link between technology and performance indicators such as grade performance, re-enrollment and course completion (Nora & Plazas Snyder, 2008. This study found that prior online course experience is strongly correlated with future online course success. In fact, knowing a student’s prior online course success explains 13.2% of the variation in retention and 24.8% of the variation in online success in our sample, a large effect size. Students who have not successfully completed any previous online courses have very low success and retention rates, and students who have successfully completed all prior online courses have fairly high success and retention rates. Therefore, this study suggests that additional support services need to be provided to previously unsuccessful online learners, while students who succeed online should be encouraged to enroll in additional online courses in order to increase retention and success rates in online learning.
Gaynor, John F.; Wolking, William D.
Potential users of Keller's personalized college classroom method might find it impractical to provide student proctors from the ranks of those who had previously mastered the course material. An alternative is to let currently enrolled students proctor and tutor each other. Such a method imposes the burden of showing that its effectiveness is not a function of (1) student collaboration or (2) the effects of “practice” received by students who listen to the performance of others before their own performance. The present study compared students proctored by previously trained students (Control) with students who received proctoring from classmates (Experimental). Experimental group performance was superior to Control group performance. The effects of “practice” and collaboration were ruled out as determinants of the difference between groups. It is hypothesized that the superior performance of the Experimental students was related to their activities as proctors. PMID:4436174
This paper investigates reasons for practices and policies that are designed to promote higher levels of enrollment by women in scientific disciplines. It challenges the assumptions and problematic arguments of a recent article questioning their legitimacy. Considering the motivations for and merits of such programs suggests a practical response to the question of whether there should be programs to attract female science and engineering students.
Declercq, Koen; Verboven, Frank
Many countries organize their higher education system with limited or no ex ante admission standards. They instead rely more heavily on an ex post selection mechanism, based on the students' performance during higher education. We analyze how a system with ex post selection affects initial enrollment and final degree completion, using a rich dataset for Belgium (region of Flanders). We develop a dynamic discrete choice model of college/university and major choice, where the outcome of the enr...
Humlum, Maria Knoth; Kristoffersen, Jannie H. G.; Vejlin, Rune Majlund
The level of progression of an individual’s educational or labor market career is a potentially important factor for family formation decisions. We address this issue by considering the effects of a particular college admission system on family formation. We show that the admission system affects mainly the timing of college enrollment and not the college-going decision. As such, we consider a specific type of career interruption and its consequences for relationship formation ...
Nicholas Trachter; Ali Ozdagli
Psychic costs are the most important component of the papers that are trying to match empirical facts related with college enrollment and dropout decisions of high school graduates. The absense of psychic cost requires very high levels of risk aversion to duplicate the same facts. However, psychic costs lack any economic meaning and treated as an obscure idiosyncratic component of utility function in influential papers such as Keane and Wolpin (1997) and Carneiro, Hansen, Heckman (2003). In t...
This paper examines three outcomes characterizing different aspects of post 9/11 veterans' economic reintegration to civilian life: unemployment, earnings and college enrollment, using Current Population Survey data from 2005 to 2011. Analyses include interactions of veteran status with sex, race/ethnicity and educational attainment to evaluate whether diverse veterans experience diverse consequences of service. In brief, I find that the basic unemployment differences between veterans and non-veterans often reported in the media understate the effect of military service on unemployment for men, since veterans have other characteristics that are associated with higher employment rates. Female veterans appear to suffer a steeper employment penalty than male veterans, but black veterans appear to suffer less of a penalty than white veterans. But on two other measures, earnings and college enrollment, veterans appear to be doing better than their civilian peers. Veterans with a high school education or less outearn their civilian peers, but veterans with at least some college education appear to lose some or all of the veteran earnings advantage compared to veterans with a high school degree, suggesting the greatest wage returns to military service accrue among the least educated. Veterans with at least a high school education are more likely to be enrolled in college than their civilian peers. Treating veterans as a monolithic block obscures differences in the consequences of military service across diverse groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cesarini, Lisa McHugh
The purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of various enrollment management functions at a subset of four-year public institutions. Specifically, this study compared perceptions of academic administrators with enrollment managers as they related to the availability, need, and effectiveness of certain enrollment management functions. In…
Becker, Lee B.; Vlad, Tudor; Kalpen, Konrad
Enrollments in journalism and mass communication programs declined in the autumn of 2011, compared to a year earlier. Enrollments were down slightly at the senior and junior levels and substantially at the freshman level. Enrollment increased at the sophomore level. The majority of administrators say they have made curricular changes in the past…
Tennessee Department of Education, 2015
The Tennessee Department of Education explored course enrollment patterns in an effort to better understand in which courses students are enrolling and whether course enrollment policies and procedures are promoting students' interests. This report focuses on math course enrollment patterns throughout high school by following the 2013-14 twelfth…
Baldin, Antoinette M.
With the changing landscape in enrollment options for potential community college students, community college administrators are looking for ways to forecast enrollment by using strategic enrollment management models. Today, community colleges' administration is challenged to develop, use, and implement enrollment models that support their…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Receipt of information concerning enrolled... Suspension or Termination of Enrollment § 901.32 Receipt of information concerning enrolled actuaries. If an... Guaranty Corporation, or a member of the Joint Board has reason to believe that an enrolled actuary has...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long may a student be enrolled in Job..., Selection and Assignment, and Enrollment § 670.490 How long may a student be enrolled in Job Corps? (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a student may remain enrolled in Job Corps for no...
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Level of expenditures for students enrolled in private... Enrolled in Private Schools § 76.655 Level of expenditures for students enrolled in private schools. (a... funds on: (1) A student enrolled in a private school who receives benefits under the program; and (2) A...
Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan
Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.
Ozgor, Faruk; Kucuktopcu, Onur; Sarılar, Omer; Toptas, Mehmet; Simsek, Abdulmuttalip; Gurbuz, Zafer Gokhan; Akbulut, Mehmet Fatih; Muslumanoglu, Ahmet Yaser; Binbay, Murat
In this study, we aim to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of PNL in patients with a history of open renal surgery or PNL by comparing with primary patients and to compare impact of previous open renal surgery and PNL on the success and complications of subsequent PNL. Charts of patients, who underwent PNL at our institute, were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into three groups according to history of renal stone surgery. Patients without history of renal surgery were enrolled into Group 1. Other patients with previous PNL and previous open surgery were categorized as Group 2 and Group 3. Preoperative characteristic, perioperative data, stone-free status, and complication rates were compared between the groups. Stone-free status was accepted as completing clearance of stone and residual fragment smaller than 4 mm. Eventually, 2070 patients were enrolled into the study. Open renal surgery and PNL had been done in 410 (Group 2) and 131 (Group 3) patients, retrospectively. The mean operation time was longer (71.3 ± 33.5 min) in Group 2 and the mean fluoroscopy time was longer (8.6 ± 5.0) in Group 3 but there was no statistically significant difference between the groups. Highest stone clearance was achieved in primary PNL patients (81.62%) compared to the other groups (77.10% in Group 2 and 75.61% in Group 3). Stone-free rate was not significantly different between Group 2 and Group 3. Fever, pulmonary complications, and blood transfusion requirement were not statically different between groups but angioembolization was significantly higher in Group 2. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is a safe and effective treatment modality for patients with renal stones regardless history of previous PNL or open renal surgery. However, history of open renal surgery but not PNL significantly reduced PNL success.
Höller, Yvonne; Kronbichler, Martin; Bergmann, Jürgen; Crone, Julia Sophia; Schmid, Elisabeth Verena; Golaszewski, Stefan; Ladurner, Gunther
In previous studies event-related potentials and oscillations in response to subject's own name have been analyzed extensively on group-level in healthy subjects and in patients with a disorder of consciousness. Subject's own name as a deviant produces a P3. With equiprobable stimuli, non-phase-locked alpha oscillations are smaller in response to subject's own name compared to other names or subject's own name backwards. However, little is known about replicability on a single-subject level. Seventeen healthy subjects were assessed in an own-name paradigm with equiprobable stimuli of subject's own name, another name, and subject's own name backwards. Event-related potentials and non-phase locked oscillations were analyzed with single-subject, non-parametric statistics. No consistent results were found either for ERPs or for the non-phase locked changes of oscillatory activities. Only 4 subjects showed a robust effect as expected, that is, a lower activity in the alpha-beta range to subject's own name compared to other conditions. Four subjects elicited a higher activity for subject's own name. Thus, analyzing the EEG reactivity in the own-name paradigm with equiprobable stimuli on a single-subject level yields a high variance between subjects. In future research, single-subject statistics should be applied for examining the validity of physiologic measurements in other paradigms and for examining the pattern of reactivity in patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Thekkumkara Surendran Nair Anish
Full Text Available Context: There is enough documented evidence to prove the benefits of early and appropriate initiation of education among children with cerebral palsy (CP. Aim: To find out the proportion of children with CP who are enrolled for some kind of formal education and to study the determinants of the same. Setting and Design: This cross sectional study was done among children, attending the special clinics at government medical college, Thiruvananthapuram. Materials and Methods: Children between 3 and 12 years of age diagnosed with CP were subjects for the study. Statistical Analysis Used: Enrollment for any form of formal education was the major outcome variable. The factors associated with initiation of formal education were tested using Chi-square test or Fischer′s exact test. Independent association of each factor was evaluated through binary logistic Regression analysis. Results and Conclusions: The mean (SD age of the children (n = 86 was 5.7 (2.3 years with forty-six (53.5% of them being girls. Diplegia was the commonest limb abnormality found. Fifty-two (60.5% children were undergoing some kind of schooling. Those children who were less dependent physically and those who had achieved better language development were regular school goers. After binary logistic regression the ability of a child to speak in sentences (P = 0.008 and ambulatory level of the child (P = 0.019 were factors which favored, whereas delay in attaining the adaptive developmental milestone of transferring objects from one hand to another (P = 0.014 was found to be detrimental for school enrollment.
Marzuillo, Pierluigi; Guarino, Stefano; Grandone, Anna; Di Somma, Allegra; Della Vecchia, Nicoletta; Esposito, Tiziana; Macchini, Giulia; Marotta, Rosaria; Apicella, Andrea; Diplomatico, Mario; Rambaldi, Pier Francesco; Perrone, Laura; Miraglia Del Giudice, Emanuele; La Manna, Angela; Polito, Cesare
We evaluated the clinical course of patients prenatally diagnosed and enrolled early with congenital solitary functioning kidney, and identified the risk factors for renal injury. We retrospectively evaluated 322 patients with congenital solitary functioning kidney according to the inclusion criteria of 1) prenatal diagnosis of solitary kidney; 2) first evaluation at 1 to 3 months of life with confirmation of congenital solitary functioning kidney, and evaluation of possible associated congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract by abdominal ultrasound, renal scintigraphy and cystography; and 3) absence of any condition potentially affecting renal function in the neonatal period as well as absence of renal injury at enrollment (1 to 3 months of life) confirmed by a normal estimated glomerular filtration rate, lack of proteinuria and hypertension. Followup of 306 patients was evaluated. Median followup was 7.2 years (range 1 to 23) and 1 or more signs of renal injury were found in 12 of 306 patients (3.9%). Considering the entire population the cumulative proportion of patients free from renal injury at 17 years old was 93.7%, vs 81.3% and 95.9% for subjects with and those without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract of congenital solitary functioning kidney (p enrolled early with congenital solitary functioning kidney with a prenatal diagnosis, excluding those with neonatal onset of renal damage, the prevalence of renal damage was 3.9%. Among congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, congenital solitary functioning kidney represented the major risk factor. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chen, Xiaodong; Lupi, Frank; An, Li; Sheely, Ryan; Viña, Andrés; Liu, Jianguo
Conservation investments are increasingly being implemented through payments for ecosystem services (PES) for the protection and restoration of ecosystem services around the world. Previous studies suggested that social norms have substantial impacts on environmental behaviors of humans, including enrollment of PES programs. However, it is still not well understood how social norms are affected by the design of PES programs and how the evolution of social norms may affect the efficiency of conservation investments. In this paper, we developed an agent-based simulation model to demonstrate the evolution and impacts of social norms on the enrollment of agricultural land in a PES program. We applied the model to land plots that have been enrolled in China’s Grain-to-Green Program (GTGP) to examine reenrollment in an alternative payment program when the current payments ceased. The study was conducted in Wolong Nature Reserve where several thousand plant and animal species, including giant pandas, may benefit from the reenrollment. We found that over 15% more GTGP land can be reenrolled at the same payment if social norms were leveraged by allowing more than ten rounds of interactions among landholders regarding their reenrollment decisions. With only three rounds of interactions, an additional 7.5% GTGP land was reenrolled at the same payment due to the effects of social norms. In addition, the effects of social norms were largest at intermediate payments and were smaller at much higher or much smaller payments. Even in circumstances where frequent interactions among landholders about their enrollment decisions are not feasible, policy arrangements that divide households into multiple waves for sequential enrollment can enroll over 11% more land at a given payment level. The approach presented in this paper can be used to improve the efficiency of existing PES programs and many other conservation investments worldwide. PMID:22389548
Panayiotou, Chrys A.; Seeber, Fred P.
During the last 15 years most of the electronics engineering technology programs across the nation have experienced a constant decline in enrollment. Today's high school students do not seem to consider a career in electronics engineering appealing enough to commit to a field of study in desperate need of new students. They still associate electronics programs with the electronics section of a department store; televisions, stereo systems, DVD and VCR players, and other disposable electronics. While the downward trend continues across the nation, Indian River Community College (IRCC) has been able not only to stop it but to reverse it by attracting a new generation of students. By introducing high school students to new and emerging technologies, their perception of established degrees has changed and their interest has been stimulated. Photonics is one of those technologies capturing students' attention. IRCC, a partner college in the National Center for Optics and Photonics Education (OP-TEC), with the assistance of other colleges like Camden County College which already offers an Associate in Applied Science degree in Photonics, has created a Photonics specialization under the Electronics Engineering Technology program. The targeted marketing of this new specialization has led to an increase in enrollment of 50% in 2005, 80% in 2006, and for 2007 it is projected it to be over 100%. An interesting comparison can be made concerning enrollment at colleges with a full AAS program in photonics like Camden County College and IRCC which uses photonics as an enabling technology. This analysis could lead to a new approach in restructuring engineering technology degrees with the infusion of photonics throughout many technology fields. This presentation will discuss the plan of action that made possible this initiative at Indian River Community College and new program directions at Camden County College, Blackwood, New Jersey.
Wege, N; Muth, T; Li, J; Angerer, P
The study identifies the prevalence of common mental disorders according to the patient health questionnaire (PHQ) and the use of psychotropic substances in a sample of currently enrolled medical students. A cross-sectional survey with a self-administrated questionnaire. All newly enrolled medical students at the University of Dusseldorf, with study beginning either in 2012 or 2013, respectively, were invited to participate. The evaluation was based on 590 completed questionnaires. Mental health outcomes were measured by the PHQ, including major depression, other depressive symptoms (subthreshold depression), anxiety, panic disorders and psychosomatic complaints. Moreover, information about psychotropic substances use (including medication) was obtained. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate associations between sociodemographic and socio-economic factors and mental health outcomes. The prevalence rates, measured by the PHQ, were 4.7% for major depression, 5.8% for other depressive symptoms, 4.4% for anxiety, 1.9% for panic disorders, and 15.7% for psychosomatic complaints. These prevalence rates were higher than those reported in the general population, but lower than in medical students in the course of medical training. In all, 10.7% of the students reported regular psychotropic substance use: 5.1% of students used medication 'to calm down,' 4.6% 'to improve their sleep,' 4.4% 'to elevate mood,' and 3.1% 'to improve cognitive performance.' In the fully adjusted model, expected financial difficulties were significantly associated with poor mental health (odds ratio [OR]: 2.14; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31-3.48), psychosomatic symptoms (OR:1.85; 95% CI: 1.11-3.09) and psychotropic substances use (OR: 2.68; 95% CI: 1.51-4.75). The high rates of mental disorders among currently enrolled medical students call for the promotion of mental health, with a special emphasis on vulnerable groups. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public
Gove, R.M.; Little, J.R.; Shirley, D.L.
Public concern over the effects of low-level radiation and other aspects of the use of nuclear energy has grown in recent years, and the demand for radiation protection has continued to increase. Radiation Protection Enrollments and Degrees presents the results of the latest survey of institutions offering degree programs in this field. Students obtaining such degrees are vital to the development of industry, medicine, research, power production, construction, and agriculture. These surveys assist state and federal governments in their search for such personnel.
Atiq, Atiq-ur-Rehman; Anis, Hafsa; Khan, Saud Ahmed
Higher Education is believed to be a very important determinant of economic growth. The growth can be optimized with a suitable combination of skills in various subjects. A mismatch between required combination of skills and available combination of skills carries heavy costs for developing economies since import of skill from foreign is much more in expensive for such economies. We compare skill shortage in Pakistan with the subjects choice of students recently enrolled in institutes of high...
Sanossian, Nerses; Liebeskind, David S; Eckstein, Marc; Starkman, Sidney; Stratton, Samuel; Pratt, Franklin D; Koenig, William; Hamilton, Scott; Kim-Tenser, May; Conwit, Robin; Saver, Jeffrey L
Emergency medical services routing of patients with acute stroke to designated centers may increase the proportion of patients receiving care at facilities meeting national standards and augment recruitment for prehospital stroke research. We analyzed consecutive patients enrolled within 2 hours of symptom onset in a prehospital stroke trial, before and after regional Los Angeles County Emergency Medical Services implementation of preferentially routing patients with acute stroke to approved stroke centers (ASCs). From January 2005 to mid-November 2009, patients were transported to the nearest emergency department, whereas from mid-November 2009 to December 2012, patients were preferentially transported to first 9, and eventually 29, ASCs. There were 863 subjects enrolled before and 764 after emergency medical service preferential routing, with implementation leading to an increase in the proportion cared for at an ASC from 10% to 91% (Prouting were immediate and included an increase in proportion of receiving ASC care (from 17% to 88%; P9 in 10, with no clinically significant increase in prehospital care times and enhanced recruitment of patients into a prehospital treatment trial. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00059332. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Kelly, Mary C; Caplan, Daniel J; Bern-Klug, Mercedes; Cowen, Howard J; Cunningham-Ford, Marsha A; Marchini, Leonardo; Momany, Elizabeth T
The primary objective of this study was to determine whether the utilization rate of preventive oral health care services while senior adults were community-dwelling differed from the rate after those same senior adults were admitted to nursing facilities. A secondary objective was to evaluate other significant predictors of receipt of preventive oral health procedures after nursing facility entry. Iowa Medicaid claims from 2007-2014 were accessed for adults who were 68+ years upon entry to a nursing facility and continuously enrolled in Medicaid for at least three years before and at least two years after admission (n = 874). Univariate, bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted. During the five years that subjects were followed, 52.8% never received a dental exam and 75.9% never received a dental hygiene procedure. More Medicaid-enrolled senior adults received ≥1 preventive dental procedure in the two years while residing in a nursing facility compared to the three years before entry. In multivariable analyses, the strongest predictor of preventive oral health care utilization after entry was the receipt of preventive oral health services before entry (p < 0.01). The strongest predictor of receipt of dental procedures in the two years after nursing facility entry was the receipt of dental procedures in the three years before entry while community-dwelling. This underscores the importance of the senior adult establishing a source of dental care while community-dwelling. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Bakaeen, Faisal G; Reda, Domenic J; Gelijns, Annetine C; Cornwell, Lorraine; Omer, Shuab; Al Jurdi, Rayan; Kougias, Panos; Anaya, Daniel; Berger, David H; Huang, Grant D
Surgical clinical trials have played a critical role in shaping clinical practice, yet their launch and conduct remain challenging. Innovative approaches to carrying out such studies can not only help transform how trials produce definitive evidence but also move the field toward increased participation in trials. To review a recently launched pilot program aimed at enhancing patient enrollment and improving surgical trial operations at individual sites and nationally. After a solicitation to create a national network focused on making the conduct of clinical trials more efficient, 10 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) sites were selected. These sites, collectively called the Cooperative Studies Program (CSP) Network of Dedicated Enrollment Sites (NODES), were evaluated with regard to their previous participation in CSP multisite trials, the strength of the local clinical research environment, and presentation of innovative plans to coordinate and enhance the operations of local CSP studies and share best practices with other centers. Node accountability was also emphasized and involved metrics that tracked productivity and efficiency. Building from available CSP experience in a range of clinical trials, including ones involving surgical interventions, NODES provides VA surgeons with resources for facilitating timely study initiation, determining patient availability, and addressing enrollment barriers. Such resources are particularly important for surgical studies, which often face challenges in patient recruitment and retention. In addition, NODES can maintain qualified and trained personnel at sites to support surgeons with limited time to fulfill the numerous administrative and regulatory responsibilities that often fall to the investigators. The VA's approach to enhancing trial efficiency may reinvigorate interest in surgical trials by offering a redesigned cooperative framework that builds on a core of high-yield sites and could mitigate traditional
Biermasz, N. R.; Joustra, S. D.; Donga, E.; Pereira, A. M.; van Duinen, N.; van Dijk, M.; van der Klaauw, A. A.; Corssmit, E. P. M.; Lammers, G. J.; van Kralingen, K. W.; van Dijk, J. G.; Romijn, J. A.
Context and Objective: Fatigue and excessive sleepiness have been reported after treatment of nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFMA). Because these complaints may be caused by disturbed nocturnal sleep, we evaluated objective sleep characteristics in patients treated for NFMA. Design: We
Abraham, Jessy; Barker, Katrina
Although substantial gender differences in motivation, engagement and enrolment behaviour are frequently reported in the international physics education literature, the majority of studies focus on students who intend to choose physics for their future study. The present multi-occasional study examines the gender difference in motivation, engagement and enrolment behaviour among senior secondary students from New South Wales schools who have already chosen to study physics. It examines whether the differences reflect differences of degree in these dimensions, or differences of kind for these students. Fine-grained analyses at module-specific level of the senior secondary physics curriculum indicated that the differences do not represent differences of kind. That is, girls' and boys' perceptions of the key facets of motivation, sustained engagement and choice intentions in relation to physics seemed to be qualitatively the same. However, there were differences in the degree to which boys and girls are motivated, although the pattern was inconsistent across the four modules of the senior secondary physics curriculum. Girls' motivation, engagement and sustained enrolment plans in relation to physics were found equal to or higher than boys' at various time points through the course. These findings highlight the need to change the existing gender-biased stereotype that students perceive physics as a male domain and that subjective motivation, engagement and enrolment plans will always report higher measures for males. The results have implications for intervention strategies aimed at sustaining student motivation in physics. The potential implications of the findings for practitioners and researchers are discussed.
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...
Bone infarction involving the orbit in sickle cell disease is not common. Bilateral orbital infarction in a previously undiagnosed sickle cell hemoglobinopathy has not been previously reported. In this report, we present a case of an 11‑year‑old previously undiagnosed sickle cell disease Nigerian girl with severe acute bilateral ...
Many people hold this truth to be self-evident that universities should enroll more female students in science and engineering; the main question then being how. Typical arguments include possible benefits to women, possible benefits to the economy, and the unfairness of the current female under-representation. However, when clearly stated and scrutinized these arguments in fact lead to the conclusion that there should be more women in scientific disciplines in higher education in the sense that we should expect more women (which various kinds of discrimination may prevent), not that we should actively enroll more women. Outreach programs towards high school students may therefore be logically incompatible with the arguments supposed to justify them. They should purport to allow women to graduate in a field congruent with her abilities and desires, rather than try to draw as many of them to scientific disciplines as possible: one cannot try to 'recruit' as many female students as possible while claiming to help them choose more freely.
Olsson, Sven-Eric; Kjaer, Susanne K; Sigurdsson, Kristján
Objective: In the quadrivalent (types 6/11/16/18) HPV vaccine (GARDASIL((R))/SILGARD((R))) clinical program, 73% of women aged 16-26 were naïve to all vaccine HPV types. In these women, prophylactic administration of the vaccine was highly effective in preventing HPV 6/11/16/18-related cervical...... disease. Of the remaining women, 15% of had evidence of past infection with one or more vaccine HPV types (seropositive and DNA negative) at the time of enrollment. Here we present an analysis in this group of women to determine the efficacy of the HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine against new cervical and external...... anogenital disease related to the same vaccine HPV type which had previously been cleared. Vaccine tolerability in this previously infected population was also assessed. Results: Subjects were followed for an average of 40 months. Seven subjects in the placebo group developed cervical disease, and eight...
Nhung, N. V.; Hoa, N. B.; Thuy, H. T.; Takarinda, K. C.; Tayler-Smith, K.; Harries, A. D.
Setting: The programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in Viet Nam has been rapidly scaled up since 2009. Objectives: To document the annual numbers of patients enrolled for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment during 2010–2014 and to determine characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients initiating treatment during 2010–2012. Design: A retrospective cohort study using national reports and data from the national electronic data system for drug-resistant TB. Results: The number of patients enrolled annually for MDR-TB treatment increased from 97 in 2010 to 1522 in 2014. The majority of patients were middle-aged men who had pulmonary disease and had failed a retreatment regimen; 77% had received ⩾2 courses of TB treatment. Favourable outcomes (cured and treatment completed) were attained in 73% of patients. Unfavourable outcomes included loss to follow-up (12.5%), death (8%) and failure (6.3%). Having had ⩾2 previous treatment courses and being human immunodeficiency virus-positive were associated with unfavourable outcomes. Conclusion: Increasing numbers of patients are being treated for MDR-TB each year with good treatment outcomes under national programme management in Viet Nam. However, there is a need to increase case detection—currently at 30% of the estimated 5100 MDR-TB cases per year, reduce adverse outcomes and improve monitoring and evaluation. PMID:27051608
Phuong, N T M; Nhung, N V; Hoa, N B; Thuy, H T; Takarinda, K C; Tayler-Smith, K; Harries, A D
The programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in Viet Nam has been rapidly scaled up since 2009. To document the annual numbers of patients enrolled for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment during 2010-2014 and to determine characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients initiating treatment during 2010-2012. A retrospective cohort study using national reports and data from the national electronic data system for drug-resistant TB. The number of patients enrolled annually for MDR-TB treatment increased from 97 in 2010 to 1522 in 2014. The majority of patients were middle-aged men who had pulmonary disease and had failed a retreatment regimen; 77% had received ⩾2 courses of TB treatment. Favourable outcomes (cured and treatment completed) were attained in 73% of patients. Unfavourable outcomes included loss to follow-up (12.5%), death (8%) and failure (6.3%). Having had ⩾2 previous treatment courses and being human immunodeficiency virus-positive were associated with unfavourable outcomes. Increasing numbers of patients are being treated for MDR-TB each year with good treatment outcomes under national programme management in Viet Nam. However, there is a need to increase case detection-currently at 30% of the estimated 5100 MDR-TB cases per year, reduce adverse outcomes and improve monitoring and evaluation.
Isabel M. Whitehead
Full Text Available Hispanics are rapidly becoming the predominant ethnic group in Texas. While many secondary agriculture programs have seen increased participation by Hispanic students, in comparison to the demographics of Texas secondary school enrollment, Hispanics are underrepresented in agricultural education. As a result, agricultural education programs should continue to become more diverse and provide curriculum engaging to a wide variety of students. The purpose of this descriptive, correlational study was to determine the agricultural literacy rates and perceptions of agriculture among Hispanic and non-Hispanic high school agriculture students enrolled in agriculture programs in Texas counties bordering Mexico. Results showed both groups have agricultural literacy rates congruent with previous studies; however, Hispanic students tended to have lower knowledge scores in all areas except agricultural career knowledge, as well as lower perceptions of agriculture. Agricultural career knowledge scores were the lowest area for all respondents. Recommendations include: 1 more research should be conducted to better determine levels of agricultural literacy in minority agricultural education students in Texas and other areas, and 2 more emphasis on agricultural career knowledge should be incorporated into agriscience courses to better inform students about postsecondary education and career options within the agricultural industry.
Carrie Y. Barron Ausbrooks
Full Text Available This article chronicles the evolution of legislation for Texas open-enrollment charter schools to their implementation by demonstrating how these schools have (or have not used their freedom from state-mandated requirements to develop innovative learning environments as well as to bring innovative curricula into the classroom. The investigative focus was on an analysis of Texas open-enrollment charter school legislation, from 1995 (74th legislative session to the 77th legislative session in 2001, and the characteristics of the state's 159 open-enrollment charter schools that were in operation during the 2001-2002 academic year. The authors found that charter school legislation has changed in response to concerns of all involved, and focuses on the need for balance between choice, innovation, and public accountability. Although charter schools are free from most state regulations, legislators were clearly interested in ensuring that this freedom does not impede charter schools' ability to provide a quality education to all students who attend them. The currently operating open-enrollment charter schools in Texas are more racially and economically segregated than other public schools in the state, and charter schools that targeted students most at risk for dropping out of school (and returning students who had previously dropped out differ from other schools in their stated teaching methods. Teacher turnover remains significantly greater than that for other public schools in the state. However, it does not appear to be specifically associated with schools that target disadvantaged students or minority students. The schools' mission statements suggest that innovative school environments are a factor in school design. Texas is poised to continue along the public education choice model. Charter school legislation provides a framework upon which charter schools may build to meet the educational needs of the students who choose to attend them
Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.
Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions, and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must...
Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.
Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must ...
van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Janneke; van Wijbergen-Huitink, Janneke; Meier, Cécile
This introductory chapter traces some of the considerations on the basis of which relativistic approaches to subjective meaning became en vogue. In doing so, the chapter provides an overview of the relevant linguistic and philosophical issues when developing a treatment of subjectivity. In addition,
The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the
J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)
textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed
Full Text Available We report on the adaptation of the small enrollment, lab and discussion based physical science course, Physical Science and Everyday Thinking (PSET, for a large-enrollment, lecture-style setting. Like PSET, the new Learning Physical Science (LEPS curriculum was designed around specific principles based on research on learning to meet the needs of nonscience students, especially prospective and practicing elementary and middle school teachers. We describe the structure of the two curricula and the adaptation process, including a detailed comparison of similar activities from the two curricula and a case study of a LEPS classroom implementation. In LEPS, short instructor-guided lessons replace lengthier small group activities, and movies, rather than hands-on investigations, provide the evidence used to support and test ideas. LEPS promotes student peer interaction as an important part of sense making via “clicker” questions, rather than small group and whole class discussions typical of PSET. Examples of student dialog indicate that this format is capable of generating substantive student discussion and successfully enacting the design principles. Field-test data show similar student content learning gains with the two curricula. Nevertheless, because of classroom constraints, some important practices of science that were an integral part of PSET were not included in LEPS.
Ivanova, Anastasia; Wang, Yunfei; Foster, Matthew C
We propose a dose-finding design for Phase I oncology trials where each new patient is assigned to the dose most likely to be the target dose given observed data. The main model assumption is that the dose-toxicity curve is non-decreasing. This method is beneficial when it is desirable to assign a patient to a dose as soon as the patient is enrolled into a study. To prevent assignments to doses with limited toxicity information in fast accruing trials we propose a conservative rule that assigns temporary fractional toxicities to patients still in follow-up. We also recommend always using a safety rule in any fast accruing dose-finding trial. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Fawcett, Chris; Hoos, Holger; Chiarandini, Marco
Timetabling tasks form a widely studied type of resource scheduling problem, with important real-world applications in schools, universities and other educational settings. In this work, we focus on postenrollment course timetabling, the problem that was covered by Track 2 of the recent 2nd...... International Timetabling Competition (ITC2007). Following an approach that makes strong use of automated exploration of a large design space of modular and highly parameterised stochastic local search algorithms for this problem, we have obtained a solver that achieves consistently better performance than...... the top-ranked solver from the competition. This represents a substantial improvement in the state of the art for post-enrollment course timetabling....
No research has previously been done regarding the phenomenon of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism present behavioral problems like aggressive outbursts, depression, “ psychosis” or suicide attempts, that could lead to suicide. In the phenomenonanalysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews were performed with the respondents and their parents. The respond...
Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dimensions of a single integrated reality. Subject and object constitute an integrated whole. The mind sees them as separate and independent. Or it views one as completely subordinate to the other. Unbiased approach to the study of all human experiences may prove that subject and object are interdependent dimensions or elements of reality.
Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.
... Medicare or Medicaid programs or Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP); revalidating their Medicare... Health Insurance Programs; Additional Screening Requirements, Application Fees, Temporary Enrollment..., Medicaid, and Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) provider enrollment processes. Specifically, and...
... Health Insurance Programs; Provider Enrollment Application Fee Amount for 2011 AGENCY: Centers for... with comment period entitled: ``Medicare, Medicaid, and Children's Health Insurance Programs... Health Insurance Program (CHIP) provider enrollment processes. Specifically, and as stated in 42 CFR 424...
... Party Authorization Form AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request... comments concerning EFTPS Individual Enrollment with Third Party Authorization Form. DATES: [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: EFTPS Individual Enrollment with Third Party...
This study is a literary critical analysis of post-1960s Native American fiction and its engagement in the concepts of subject-ivity and identity in relation to both tribal- and Euroamerican -generated socio-cultural discourses and paradigms. This study adds to the critical enquiry of previous
This article considers whether it is fortunate that data protection rules, as a starting point, apply to all physical persons as data subjects, or whether it would be better to differentiate between kinds of persons on grounds of their ability to act as a data subject. In order to protect all...... persons, it is argued that a principle of care should be part of data protection law....
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft not previously registered anywhere... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft Registration § 47.33 Aircraft not previously registered anywhere. (a) A person who is the owner of an aircraft that has not been registered...
... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 220.40 Section 220.40 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-21) § 220.40 Relationship to previous issuance. (a...
... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 230.45 Section 230.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.45 Relationship to previous issuance. (a...
... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215 Section 1.215 Grants and Agreements ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction toSubtitle A § 1.215 Relationship to previous issuances. Although some of the guidance was...
Background: Large bowel obstruction is rarely caused by adhesions. To our knowledge, the few cases reported in literature are secondary to previous abdomino-pelvic surgery, and are in female patients. Case Reports: We report two cases of large bowel obstruction due to adhesions in males with no previous abdominal ...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT: STATUS: Closed meeting. PLACE: 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC. DATE AND TIME OF PREVIOUSLY ANNOUNCED MEETING: Thursday...
Ozgor, Faruk; Kucuktopcu, Onur; Ucpinar, Burak; Sarilar, Omer; Erbin, Akif; Yanaral, Fatih; Sahan, Murat; Binbay, Murat
Our aim was to demonstrate the effect of insicion of renal parenchyma during open renal stone surgery (ORSS) on percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) outcomes. Patients with history of ORSS who underwent PNL operation between June 2005 and June 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups according to their type of previous ORSS. Patients who had a history of ORSS with parenchymal insicion, such as radial nephrotomies, anatrophic nephrolithotomy, lower pole resection, and partial nephrectomy, were included in Group 1. Other patients with a history of open pyelolithotomy were enrolled in Group 2. Preoperative characteristics, perioperative data, stone-free status, and complications were compared between the groups. Stone-free status was defined as complete clearance of stone(s) or presence of residual fragments smaller than 4 mm. The retrospective nature of our study, different experience level of surgeons, and lack of the evaluation of anesthetic agents and cost of procedures were limitations of our study. 123 and 111 patients were enrolled in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. Preoperative characteristics were similar between groups. In Group 1, the mean operative time was statistically longer than in Group 2 (p=0.013). Stone-free status was significantly higher in Group 2 than in Group 1 (p=0.027). Complication rates were similar between groups. Hemorrhage requiring blood transfusion was the most common complication in both groups (10.5% vs. 9.9%). Our study demonstrated that a history of previous ORSS with parenchymal insicion significantly reduces the success rates of PNL procedure.
Witenko, Vanessa; Mireles-Rios, Rebeca; Rios, Victor M.
Using affiliation network data collected at a large high school, this study examined differences between who encourages Latina/o and White students to enroll in advanced courses. Previous research has shown a positive association between emotional support and academic achievement, and thus, this study shifts the focus from who informs students to…
Hillman, Nicholas W.; Orians, Erica Lee
This study uses fixed-effects panel data techniques to estimate the elasticity of community college enrollment demand relative to local unemployment rates. The findings suggest that community college enrollment demand is counter-cyclical to changes in the labor market, as enrollments rise during periods of weak economic conditions. Using national…
An, Brian P.
I examine whether academic motivation and engagement--conditions that advocates consider mechanisms for the effect of dual enrollment--account for the relationship between dual enrollment and academic performance. Few studies examine the claimed mechanisms that account for the impact of dual enrollment, which leaves the processes through which…
Ng, Peggy; Galbraith, Craig
The purpose of this study is to examine how the dimensions of strategic enrolment management (SEM) tie to the success metrics in the area of enrolment, retention and graduation from senior and programme management perspectives of a self-financed institution in Hong Kong. The literature on SEM has demonstrated that managing enrolment is a global…
Becker, Lee B.; Vlad, Tudor; Huh, Jisu; Prine, Joelle
Finds that journalism and mass communication programs appear to be entering another period of rapid enrollment growth, swept up by overall increases in enrollments at United States universities. Finds that only about four in ten of the journalism and mass communication programs report enrollments by race, suggesting many administrators are not…
The purpose of this study was to identify factors affecting Migrant Head Start (MHS) children's dental health. Enrollment duration (number of years and weeks enrolled) and individual and family factors were considered. Children (N = 931) who enrolled in Michigan Migrant Head Start during 2012-2013 were selected for the study sample and classified…
... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special rules for beneficiaries enrolled in MA MSA... Advantage Organizations § 422.314 Special rules for beneficiaries enrolled in MA MSA plans. (a... the beneficiary is enrolled in the MSA plan. (2) CMS deposits the full amount to which a beneficiary...
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Participation of students enrolled in private schools... Participation of students enrolled in private schools. If the authorizing statute for a program requires a grantee to provide for participation by students enrolled in private schools, the grantee shall provide a...
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale or other transfer of an enrolled... ACT REGULATIONS § 29.11 Sale or other transfer of an enrolled vehicle. Upon the transferral of ownership of an enrolled vehicle, the transferring owner must completely remove the program decals, change...
National Center for Education Statistics, 2014
Postsecondary enrollment in distance education courses, particularly those offered online, has rapidly increased in recent years (Allen and Seaman 2013). Traditionally, distance education offerings and enrollment levels have varied across different types of institutions. For example, researchers have found that undergraduate enrollment in at least…
Poulin, Russ; Straut, Terri Taylor
Over the past few years, Distance Education enrollments grew each year, even as overall higher education enrollments have declined. Even so, the overall Distance Education enrollment numbers do not tell the whole story. Based on data accumulated by the U.S. Department of Education's Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) surveys…
... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enrollment in telecommunications and correspondence... Student Eligibility § 668.38 Enrollment in telecommunications and correspondence courses. (a) If a student..., or graduate degree. (b)(1) For purposes of this section, a student enrolled in a telecommunications...
... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Enrollment and... your type of enrollment, (b) Decreasing your type of enrollment means going from: (1) Self and family to self plus one; (2) Self and family to self only; or (3) Self plus one to self only. (c) You may...
... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Enrollment and... your type of enrollment. (b) Increasing your type of enrollment means going from: (1) Self only to self plus one; (2) Self only to self and family; or (3) Self plus one to self and family. (c) You may...
...) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE PROGRAM Coverage and... types of enrollment: (a) Self only, which covers only the enrolled employee or annuitant; (b) Self plus one, which covers the enrolled employee or annuitant plus one eligible family member; and (c) Self and...
Ozuna, A G Cino; Rowland, R R R; Nietfeld, J C; Kerrigan, M A; Dekkers, J C M; Wyatt, C R
Weaned pigs from a line bred for increased feed efficiency were enrolled in a study of the role of host genes in the response to infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV). Four of the pigs were euthanatized early in the study due to weight loss with illness and poor body condition; 2 pigs before PRRSV infection and the other 2 pigs approximately 2 weeks after virus inoculation. The 2 inoculated pigs failed to produce PRRSV-specific antibodies. Gross findings included pneumonia, absence of a detectable thymus, and small secondary lymphoid tissues. Histologically, lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, and Peyer's patches were sparsely cellular with decreased to absent T and B lymphocytes.
Vilara Maria Mesquita Mendes Pires
Full Text Available High Blood Pressure (HBP occupies a prominent position, due to its high incidence and prevalence, as a multifactorial disease and mostly asymptomatic, that fundamentally endangers the promote life’s quality. The study aimed to portray the understanding of bearer’s users enrolled and monitored by the HIPERDIA program, in Family Health Units, about their pathology and thus be able to establish strategies that may be closer to their reality to propose policies to encourage the promotion of health. The study with qualitative approach, conducted in the municipality of Jequié -Bahia, with 08 Family Health Teams, with 152 users with hypertension. We used the semi-structured interview and the collective subject speech technique, which enabled us to reconstruct 04 speeches: DSC 01: "To me it is a terrible disease", DSC 02 "do not eat salt, do not eat fat”, DSC 03 "it is to have headaches, vertigo, it causes heart attack, it causes stroke" DSC 04 "I do not know what it exactly is", they reflect the understanding of the study subjects about their pathology. This leads us to think of health actions aimed at health education emerging the need for change in the approach and use of a common language between professionals and service users, ensuring the promotion of life’s quality and, consequently, the co-responsibility in the treatment adherence.
Hall, Andrew; Kirby, Helen
A cluster survey of the age, sex and enrolment status of all school-age children 5-14 years old was undertaken in 2006 in a remote rural sub-district of the Northwest Frontier Province, Pakistan about a year after a devastating earthquake. Information was collected on the characteristics of children, their households and parents, and on reasons for non-enrolment. The health and nutritional status of a randomly selected child in each household was assessed and enrolled and non-enrolled children were compared by sex. A total of 2032 children were recorded in 925 households, 845 girls and 1187 boys, a sex ratio of 71 girls/100 boys. Half of all girls were not enrolled in school compared with a fifth of all boys. There was no common reason for non-enrolment and they differed between the sexes. The randomly selected children (n = 897) were moderately malnourished: 43% were stunted, 12% were thin and 46% were anaemic. 66% of a sub-sample of children (n = 269) had a low urinary iodine concentration, which could contribute to a low IQ and impaired hearing. There were no statistically significant differences in the nutritional status or health of non-enrolled and enrolled girls. These data contribute towards an understanding of how to improve the education and health of school-age children in a conservative, rural province of Pakistan. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Athanasou, James A.
This paper examines the relationships between interests and subject choice in senior secondary schooling, and between interests and occupational choices. Career interest results (N = 7477) were obtained from the "Career Interest Test" ("Version 3.1") administered on the Federal Government's "My Future" website…
Gupta, P; Elmardi, A; Bathula, U; Chandru, S; Charlesworth, D
We conducted a postal survey of NHS obstetric consultants working in England regarding their own practice and views on induction of labour in women with one previous caesarean section. Out of 480 consultant obstetricians across England, 322 replied, giving a response rate of 67%. Our survey has revealed a wide variation in practice of consultants across England, regarding induction of labour at term or post-term in women with one previous caesarean section. Hence, we feel that there is a need for a national audit of induction of labour in women with one previous caesarean section, with uterine rupture following induction of labour in such women as an auditable standard.
Full Text Available No research has previously been done regarding the phenomenon of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism present behavioral problems like aggressive outbursts, depression, “ psychosis” or suicide attempts, that could lead to suicide. In the phenomenonanalysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews were performed with the respondents and their parents. The respondents were requested to write a naïve sketch about their life. After completion of the data-control, guidelines for nursing staff were set.
Carmona-Sánchez, R; Remes-Troche, J M; Gómez-Escudero, O; Icaza-Chávez, M E; García-Leiva, J
Subjects seeking medical care for constipation were evaluated to find out: a) how they describe their complaint, b) their symptoms and colonic transit (CT) time, and c) determine what factors may allow to detect colonic inertia (CI) or obstructive defecation (OD). MATERIAL AND METHODS Patients demographics and medical history were collected and the modular Rome III questionnaire was applied. A screening CT with radioopaque markers was performed in all subjects. Those with an abnormal result underwent a multiple-pellet CT . Factors associated with CI and OD were analyzed. 105 patients were enrolled (92 females, mean age 36.7 years). Seventy patients described constipation as a bowel movement involving straining or being less frequently than expected (67%). The screening CT was normal in 79 patients (75%). Multiple-pellet CT was performed in 23 patients (9 normal, CI in 6, OD in 8). Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) criteria were met by 79 subjects (75%) and functional constipation by 26 (25%). A greater proportion of patients with CI or OD had attended the Emergency Room, used suppositories or enemas and interfered their activities due to constipation, during the previous year to the survey (p<0.05). Most patients described constipation as straining or lower frequency (67%) than expected. CT was normal in 84% of the patients, but it detected 6 cases of CI and 8 of OD. Patients that attended the Emergency Room, used suppositories or enemas and those whom activities were interfered turned out with CI or OD more frequently.
Juan Pedro Peña-Martín
Full Text Available This work presents a mentoring program for first year engineering students in the Telecommunications Engineering College (ETSIT at the University of Malaga (UMA. Actors involved in the program are professors from staff, veterans mentoring students and, of course, freshmen. All of them has been organized trough the Moodle based Virtual Learning Environment Platform of the UMA. The program has gone through several phases over three years. This paper shows the main objectives of this mentoring program, the initial design to get them where professors played mentor role, and successive changes made to try to improve the results, including the assumption of the mentor role by senior students (peer mentoring. The tools used for program evaluation are shown too. Despite the low participation, it has been a framework for the development of various educational and socializing activities (for mentors and mentees focused on developing generic competences. Furthermore, it has been a research tool to get a better understanding of problems affecting students newly enrolled.
Testimony in recent geothermal power plant siting cases in the Geysers-Calistoga KGRA has established that nine local school districts have reached or exceeded the design which induces immigration into these impacted districts will aggravate the situation. Several power plant applicants have agreed to provide annual mitigation payments to local school districts which can document adverse student enrollment impacts. The Lake County agreements with Occidental Geothermal, Inc. and the California Department of Water Resources require mitigation fees for students having at least one parent who either works directly with the power plant or works indirectly with the geothermal-service industry. An adjustment is made each year so that the applicant only pays a one-time fee for each student. An annual student survey is used to help identify students qualifying for mitigation payments. This paper presents an algorithms which CEC staff will propose to be used in the event that a power plant applicant and an impacted school district are unable to negotiate a mitigation agreement. The algorithm provides a basis for calculating an annual mitigation payment which would be used to help construct new permanent facilities and to purchase additional school buses.
Verani, Jennifer R; Baqui, Abdullah H; Broome, Claire V; Cherian, Thomas; Cohen, Cheryl; Farrar, Jennifer L; Feikin, Daniel R; Groome, Michelle J; Hajjeh, Rana A; Johnson, Hope L; Madhi, Shabir A; Mulholland, Kim; O'Brien, Katherine L; Parashar, Umesh D; Patel, Manish M; Rodrigues, Laura C; Santosham, Mathuram; Scott, J Anthony; Smith, Peter G; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Tate, Jacqueline E; Victor, J Chris; Whitney, Cynthia G; Zaidi, Anita K; Zell, Elizabeth R
Case-control studies are commonly used to evaluate effectiveness of licensed vaccines after deployment in public health programs. Such studies can provide policy-relevant data on vaccine performance under 'real world' conditions, contributing to the evidence base to support and sustain introduction of new vaccines. However, case-control studies do not measure the impact of vaccine introduction on disease at a population level, and are subject to bias and confounding, which may lead to inaccurate results that can misinform policy decisions. In 2012, a group of experts met to review recent experience with case-control studies evaluating the effectiveness of several vaccines; here we summarize the recommendations of that group regarding best practices for planning, design and enrollment of cases and controls. Rigorous planning and preparation should focus on understanding the study context including healthcare-seeking and vaccination practices. Case-control vaccine effectiveness studies are best carried out soon after vaccine introduction because high coverage creates strong potential for confounding. Endpoints specific to the vaccine target are preferable to non-specific clinical syndromes since the proportion of non-specific outcomes preventable through vaccination may vary over time and place, leading to potentially confusing results. Controls should be representative of the source population from which cases arise, and are generally recruited from the community or health facilities where cases are enrolled. Matching of controls to cases for potential confounding factors is commonly used, although should be reserved for a limited number of key variables believed to be linked to both vaccination and disease. Case-control vaccine effectiveness studies can provide information useful to guide policy decisions and vaccine development, however rigorous preparation and design is essential. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.
Data were collected from female junior high school students (N=94) to identify the determinants of their intentions to enroll in at least one elective physical science course (e.g., physical science, chemistry physics) in high school. The model used in the study was Fishbein and Ajzen's Theory of Reasoned Action. According to the model it is supposed that the intention to perform a certain behavior is a function of the weighted attitude toward performing the behavior and the weighted subjective norm. The effects of external variables (e.g., science grades, academic ability) on females' intentions to enroll in at least one elective physical science course in high school are mediated by the model's theoretical constructs. The findings provide support for several hypotheses derived from the model. The females' intentions to enroll in at least one elective physical science course in high school were found to be a function of both attitude toward performing the behavior and subjective norm. Attitude toward performing the behavior and subjective norm, in combination, were found to predict behavioral intention with a high degree of accuracy. Attitude toward performing the behavior was also found to carry more weight than subjective norm in the multiple regression on behavioral intention. In contrast, academic ability, science grades, and attitude toward science failed to predict behavioral intentions, just as they were unrelated to the females' attitudes toward performing the behavior and subjective norms.
Gibreel, Ahmed; El-Adawi, Noha; Elgindy, Eman; Al-Inany, Hesham; Allakany, Nasser; Tournaye, Herman
The purpose of this study was to find out whether endometrial scratching could improve live birth rate in women with previous IVF failure undergoing fresh IVF cycle. In a randomized controlled trial, 387 women with previous IVF failure were divided into two groups. Group A (193 women) was subjected to endometrial biopsy procedure twice. Group B (194 women) was subjected to a placebo procedure. Our results showed no difference in live birth rate between the two groups of women (47.2% versus 38.1%, p = 0.08). However, regression analysis revealed that endometrial scratching was an independent predictor of live birth in the subgroup of women with two or more previous failure after control of other independent predictors (odds ratio (OR) 3.4, p = 0.005). We conclude that endometrial scratching does not improve live birth rate in women undergoing IVF treatment with previous one IVF failure. Nevertheless, it may improve live birth in women with two or more previous IVF failures.
such as concepts, aboutness, topic, isness and ofness are also briefly presented. The conclusion is that the most fruitful way of defining “subject” (of a document) is the documents informative or epistemological potentials, that is, the documents potentials of informing users and advance the development......This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...
Ulcerative colitis may not necessarily be rare as previously thought in tropical and subtropical Africa. With increasing westernized life style, greater utilization and accessibility to modern medical practice,availability of tertiary level health care di.
... participation can influence perceptions of PA among the students. Physical activity promotion programmes should consider the role of these factors which should be emphasised from childhood. Keywords: physical activity, students, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, previous participation, sedentary lifestyle, Rwanda
Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans; Olsson, Ann
Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema,
Jahn, R G; Dunne, B J
Over the greater portion of its long scholarly history, the particular form of human observation, reasoning, and technical deployment we properly term "science" has relied at least as much on subjective experience and inspiration as it has on objective experiments and theories. Only over the past few centuries has subjectivity been progressively excluded from the practice of science, leaving an essentially secular analytical paradigm. Quite recently, however, a compounding constellation of newly inexplicable physical evidence, coupled with a growing scholarly interest in the nature and capability of human consciousness, are beginning to suggest that this sterilization of science may have been excessive and could ultimately limit its epistemological reach and cultural relevance. In particular, an array of demonstrable consciousness-related anomalous physical phenomena, a persistent pattern of biological and medical anomalies, systematic studies of mind/brain relationships and the mechanics of human creativity, and a burgeoning catalogue of human factors effects within contemporary information processing technologies, all display empirical correlations with subjective aspects that greatly complicate, and in many cases preclude, their comprehension on strictly objective grounds. However, any disciplined re-admission of subjective elements into rigorous scientific methodology will hinge on the precision with which they can be defined, measured, and represented, and on the resilience of established scientific techniques to their inclusion. For example, any neo-subjective science, while retaining the logical rigor, empirical/theoretical dialogue, and cultural purpose of its rigidly objective predecessor, would have the following requirements: acknowledgment of a proactive role for human consciousness; more explicit and profound use of interdisciplinary metaphors; more generous interpretations of measurability, replicability, and resonance; a reduction of ontological
Droeser, Raoul A; Ottosson, Johan; Muth, Andreas; Hultin, Hella; Lindwall-Åhlander, Karin; Bergenfelz, Anders; Almquist, Martin
Case reports suggest that patients with previous gastric bypass have an increased risk of severe hypocalcemia after total thyroidectomy, but there are no population-based studies. The prevalence of gastric bypass before thyroidectomy and the risk of hypocalcemia after thyroidectomy in patients with previous gastric bypass were investigated. By cross-linking The Scandinavian Quality Registry for Thyroid, Parathyroid and Adrenal Surgery with the Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry patients operated with total thyroidectomy without concurrent or previous surgery for hyperparathyroidism were identified and grouped according to previous gastric bypass. The risk of treatment with intravenous calcium during hospital stay, and with oral calcium and vitamin D at 6 weeks and 6 months postoperatively was calculated by using multiple logistic regression in the overall cohort and in a 1:1 nested case-control analysis. We identified 6115 patients treated with total thyroidectomy. Out of these, 25 (0.4 %) had undergone previous gastric bypass surgery. In logistic regression, previous gastric bypass was not associated with treatment with i.v. calcium (OR 2.05, 95 % CI 0.48-8.74), or calcium and/or vitamin D at 6 weeks (1.14 (0.39-3.35), 1.31 (0.39-4.42)) or 6 months after total thyroidectomy (1.71 (0.40-7.32), 2.28 (0.53-9.75)). In the nested case-control analysis, rates of treatment for hypocalcemia were similar in patients with and without previous gastric bypass. Previous gastric bypass surgery was infrequent in patients undergoing total thyroidectomy and was not associated with an increased risk of postoperative hypocalcemia.
What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...... practices. Through this dialogue, it develops an original trans-disciplinary critical theory and practice of collective subjectivity for which the ongoing construction and overcoming of common sense, or ideology, is central. It also points to ways of relating discourse with agency, and fertilizing insights...... from interactionism and ideology theories in a cultural-historical framework....
Mordant, P; Pages, P-B; Foucault, C; Badia, A; Fabre, E; Dujon, A; Le Pimpec Barthes, F; Riquet, M
The increase in the number of cancer survivors, together with the improvement of their follow-up, lead to the frequent diagnosis of resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients with history of previous malignancy. We sought to analyse the outcomes of these patients. Patients undergoing surgical resection for NSCLC between January 1980 and December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. For each patient, the presence of previous malignancy was noted, and classified into five groups: oro-pharyngeal cancer, lung cancer, haematopoietic malignancy, other organ malignancy, and more than two cancers. The overall population included 5846 patients. Among them, 1243 (21%) had a history of previous malignancy, of whom 383 (31%) presented with synchronous cancer. Patients with history of previous malignancy were more often female, older, with more adenocarcinomas, more limited disease, less pneumonectomies, but higher postoperative morbidity and mortality. Overall survival was worse in patients with a history of previous malignancy than in patients without (median, 5 and 10 year: 33 months, 34.3%, 17.8% versus 47 months, 44.6%, 28.8%). A history of previous malignancy impacted significantly the prognosis of patients operated on for limited NSCLC. However, only surgical resection led to improved long-term survival at 5 years. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Filevich, Elisa; Vanneste, Patricia; Brass, Marcel; Fias, Wim; Haggard, Patrick; Kühn, Simone
The subjective feeling of free choice is an important feature of human experience. Experimental tasks have typically studied free choice by contrasting free and instructed selection of response alternatives. These tasks have been criticised, and it remains unclear how they relate to the subjective feeling of freely choosing. We replicated previous findings of the fMRI correlates of free choice, defined objectively. We introduced a novel task in which participants could experience and report a graded sense of free choice. BOLD responses for conditions subjectively experienced as free identified a postcentral area distinct from the areas typically considered to be involved in free action. Thus, the brain correlates of subjective feeling of free action were not directly related to any established brain correlates of objectively-defined free action. Our results call into question traditional assumptions about the relation between subjective experience of choosing and activity in the brain’s so-called voluntary motor areas. PMID:24021855
Many, Gina M; Kendrick, Zachary; Deschamps, Chelsea L; Sprouse, Courtney; Tosi, Laura L; Devaney, Joseph M; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Barfield, Whitney; Hoffman, Eric P; Houmard, Joseph A; Pescatello, Linda S; Vogel, Hans J; Shearer, Jane; Hittel, Dustin S
Studies of physical activity behaviours have increasingly shown the importance of heritable factors such as genetic variation. Nonsynonymous polymorphisms of alpha-actinin 3 (ACTN3) and the β-adrenergic receptors 1 and 3 (ADRB1 and ADRB3) have been previously associated with exercise capacity and cardiometabolic health. We thus hypothesized that these polymorphisms are also related to physical activity behaviours in young adults. To test this hypothesis we examined relationships between ACTN3 (R577X), ARDB1 (Arg389Gly), ADRB3 (Trp64Arg), and physical activity behaviours in university students. We stratified for student enrollment in kinesiology degree programs compared with nonmajors as we previously found this to be a predictor of physical activity. We did not identify novel associations between physical activity and ACTN3. However, the minor alleles of ADRB1 and ADRB3 were significantly underrepresented in kinesiology students compared with nonmajors. Furthermore, carriers of the ADRB1 minor allele reported reduced participation in moderate physical activity and increased afternoon fatigue compared with ancestral allele homozygotes. Together, these findings suggest that the heritability of physical activity behaviours in young adults may be linked to nonsynonymous polymorphisms within β-adrenergic receptors.
Moke, Diana J; Oberley, Matthew J; Bhojwani, Deepa; Parekh, Chintan; Orgel, Etan
While early studies reported superior survival for cancer patients enrolled on clinical trials, recent findings are inconclusive. We investigated the association between enrollment on contemporary trials and event-free survival (EFS) in pediatric B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). In a retrospective cohort of 274 children (1-21 years) treated for B-ALL from 2008 to 2015, 55.5% enrolled with no disparity in enrollment by age, sex, or ethnicity. Three-year EFS was similar for enrolled and not enrolled patients (90.1% [95% CI, 82.5-94.5] versus 86.5% [95% CI, 77.7-92.0]). Clinical trial enrollment did not affect pediatric B-ALL survival, albeit in a limited-size cohort treated at a single academic institution. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Krams, Indrikis; Daukste, Janina; Kivleniece, Inese; Krama, Tatjana; Rantala, Markus J
Immune defenses of insects show either broad reactions or specificity and durability of induced protection against attacking parasites and pathogens. In this study, we tested whether encapsulation response against nylon monofilament increases between two attempts of activation of immune system in mealworm beetles Tenebrio molitor, and whether previous exposure to nylon monofilament may also increase protection against an entomopathogenic fungus. We found that survival of beetles subjected to immune activation by nylon implant and subsequent fungal exposure a week later was significantly higher than survival of beetles which had been subjected to fungal infection only. This result suggests that previous immune activation by the nylon implant may be considered as broad spectrum "immune priming" which helps to fight not only the same intruder but also other parasites. © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Casarett, David; Karlawish, Jason; Asch, David A
CONTEXT Cash payments are often used to compensate subjects who participate in research. However, ethicists have argued that these payments might constitute an undue inducement. OBJECTIVES To determine whether potential subjects agree with theoretical arguments that a payment could be an undue inducement. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS Survey of 350 prospective jurors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Belief that a $500 payment for research participation would impair their own, and others' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of a clinical trial. RESULTS Two hundred sixty-one jurors (74.6%) believed that a $500 payment would impair subjects' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of research. Ninety-six of 120 (80%) expressed this concern about subjects with a low income ($50,000). In contrast, only 69 (19.7%) of jurors believed that a $500 payment would influence them. Jurors who believed that this payment would influence them reported lower incomes and less education. CONCLUSION Members of the general public share ethical concerns about the influence of payments for research, although they believe that these concerns are more applicable to others than to themselves.
Rensink, Arend; Bézivin, J.; Heckel, R.
Discussions about model-driven approaches tend to be hampered by terminological confusion. This is at least partially caused by a lack of formal precision in defining the basic concepts, including that of "model" and "thing being modelled" - which we call subject in this paper. We propose a minimal
Three models are proposed to describe the strategy applied by a subject when he is confronted with two successive time intervals and is required to deal with some relation between them, for example, by telling which was the longer by adjusting the second to match the first. (Author)
Jansen, MA, Robert
Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.
Ooi, Poh Veh
Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.
Ooi, Poh Veh
Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.
O'Connor, Nina R; Dougherty, Meredith; Harris, Pamela S; Casarett, David J
Textbooks report that patients with ESRD survive for 7-10 days after discontinuation of dialysis. Studies describing actual survival are limited, however, and research has not defined patient characteristics that may be associated with longer or shorter survival times. The goals of this study were to determine the mean life expectancy of patients admitted to hospice after discontinuation of dialysis, and to identify independent predictors of survival time. Data for demographics, clinical characteristics, and survival were obtained from 10 hospices for patients with ESRD who discontinued dialysis before hospice admission. Data were collected for patients admitted between January 1, 2008 and May 15, 2012. All hospices were members of the Coalition of Hospices Organized to Investigate Comparative Effectiveness network, which obtains de-identified data from an electronic medical record. Of 1947 patients who discontinued dialysis, the mean survival after hospice enrollment was 7.4 days (range, 0-40 days). Patients who discontinued dialysis had significantly shorter survival compared with other patients (n=124,673) with nonrenal hospice diagnoses (mean survival 54.4 days; hazard ratio, 2.96; 95% confidence interval, 2.82 to 3.09; P<0.001). A Cox proportional hazards model identified seven independent predictors of earlier mortality after dialysis discontinuation, including male sex, referral from a hospital, lower functional status (Palliative Performance Scale score), and the presence of peripheral edema. Patients who discontinue dialysis have significantly shorter survival than other hospice patients. Individual survival time varies greatly, but several variables can be used to predict survival and tailor a patient's care plan based on estimated prognosis.
Full Text Available Target detection performance is known to be influenced by events in the previous trials. It has not been clear, however, whether this bias effect is due to the previous sensory stimulus, motor response, or decision. Also it remains open whether or not the previous trial effect emerges via the same mechanism as the effect of knowledge about the target probability. In the present study, we asked normal human subjects to make a decision about the presence or absence of a visual target. We presented a pre-cue indicating the target probability before the stimulus, and also a decision-response mapping cue after the stimulus so as to tease apart the effect of decision from that of motor response. We found that the target detection performance was significantly affected by the probability cue in the current trial and also by the decision in the previous trial. While the information about the target probability modulated the decision criteria, the previous decision modulated the sensitivity to target-relevant sensory signals (d-prime. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we also found that activation in the left intraparietal sulcus was decreased when the probability cue indicated a high probability of the target. By contrast, activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus was increased when the subjects made a target-present decision in the previous trial, but this change was observed specifically when the target was present in the current trial. Activation in these regions was associated with individual-difference in the decision computation parameters. We argue that the previous decision biases the target detection performance by modulating the processing of target-selective information, and this mechanism is distinct from modulation of decision criteria due to expectation of a target.
The CTEPP subject recruitment procedures for the daycare center component are described in the SOP. There are two stages in this phase of CTEPP subject recruitment. The objective of the first stage is to enroll daycare centers for the study. Six target counties in each state ar...
In this paper, 11 narratives about former experiences in learning of mathematics written by nursing students are thematically analyzed. Most students had a positive relationship with the subject in primary school, when they found mathematics fun and were able to master the subject. For some, a change occurred in the transition to lower secondary school. The reasons for this change was found in the subject (increased difficulty), the teachers (movement of teachers, numerous substitute teachers), the class environment and size (many pupils, noise), and the student him- or herself (silent and anonymous pupil). This change was also found in the transition from lower to higher secondary school. By contrast, some students had experienced changes that were positive, and their mathematics teacher was a significant factor in this positive change. The paper emphasizes the importance of previous experiences in learning mathematics to nursing students when learning about drug calculation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Acar, Banu Torun; Akdemir, Mehmet Orcun; Acar, Suphi
To compare the biomechanical properties of the cornea in eyes with no previous surgery, with keratoconus with previous penetrating keratoplasty (PK) and with keratoconus with previous deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) using the Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA). One hundred twenty eyes of 120 patients were included in this prospective comparative study. Forty eyes were with no previous ocular surgery (group 1), 40 eyes were with previous PK for keratoconus (group 2), and 40 eyes were with previous DALK for keratoconus (group 3). Corneal hysteresis (CH) and the corneal resistance factor (CRF) were measured with ORA. The CH and CRF values in group 2 were significantly lower than in group 1 and group 3 (p = 0.001). The CH and CRF values were similar in group 1 and group 3. There was no statistically significant difference between group 1 and 3. Although the post-PK keratoconus cornea has weaker biomechanical properties, post-DALK keratoconus cornea is similar to normal cornea. A cornea weakened by keratoconus can be strengthened with lamellar keratoplasty.
Luoni, Chiara; Canevini, Maria Paola; Capovilla, Giuseppe; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Galimberti, Carlo Andrea; Gatti, Giuliana; Guerrini, Renzo; La Neve, Angela; Mazzucchelli, Iolanda; Rosati, Eleonora; Specchio, Luigi Maria; Striano, Salvatore; Tinuper, Paolo; Perucca, Emilio
To evaluate direct medical costs and their predictors in patients with refractory epilepsy enrolled into the SOPHIE study (Study of Outcomes of PHarmacoresistance In Epilepsy) in Italy. Adults and children with refractory epilepsy were enrolled consecutively at 11 tertiary referral centers and followed for 18 months. At entry, all subjects underwent a structured interview and a medical examination, and were asked to keep records of diagnostic examinations, laboratory tests, specialist consultations, treatments, hospital admissions, and day-hospital days during follow-up. Study visits included assessments every 6 months of seizure frequency, health-related quality of life (Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory 31), medication-related adverse events (Adverse Event Profile) and mood state (Beck Depression Inventory-II). Cost items were priced by applying Italian tariffs. Cost estimates were adjusted to 2013 values. Of 1,124 enrolled individuals, 1,040 completed follow-up. Average annual cost per patient was € 4,677. The highest cost was for antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment (50%), followed by hospital admissions (29% of overall costs). AED polytherapy, seizure frequency during follow-up, grade III pharmacoresistance, medical and psychiatric comorbidities, and occurrence of status epilepticus during follow-up were identified as significant predictors of higher costs. Age between 6 and 11 years, and genetic (idiopathic) generalized epilepsies were associated with the lowest costs. Costs showed prominent variation across centers, largely due to differences in the clinical characteristics of cohorts enrolled at each center and the prescribing of second-generation AEDs. Individual outliers associated with high costs related to hospital admissions had a major influence on costs in many centers. Refractory epilepsy is associated with high costs that affect individuals and society. Costs differ across centers in relation to the characteristics of patients and the extent of
Slota, Christina; Ulrich, Connie M; Miller-Davis, Claiborne; Baker, Karen; Wallen, Gwenyth R
Palliative care is a vital component of patient-centered care. It has increasingly become central to the management and care of seriously ill patients by integrating physical, psychosocial, and spiritual supportive services. Through qualitative inquiry, this paper examines cancer patients' perceptions of the process and outcomes of the pain and palliative care consultative services they received while enrolled in a clinical trial. A qualitative analysis of open-ended questions was conducted from a sub-sample of patients (n = 34) with advanced cancers enrolled in a randomized controlled trial exploring the efficacy of a palliative care consult service. Two open-ended questions focused on patient perceptions of continued participation on their primary cancer clinical trials and their perceptions of interdisciplinary communication. THREE OVERARCHING THEMES EMERGED WHEN ASKED WHETHER RECEIVING PAIN AND PALLIATIVE CARE SERVICES MADE THEM MORE LIKELY TO REMAIN ENROLLED IN THEIR PRIMARY CANCER CLINICAL TRIAL: patients' past experiences with care, self-identified personal characteristics and reasons for participation, and the quality of the partnership. Four themes emerged related to interdisciplinary communication including: the importance of developing relationships, facilitating open communication, having quality communication, and uncertainty about communication between the cancer clinical trial and palliative care teams. Our findings suggest the importance of qualitative inquiry methods to explore patient perceptions regarding the efficacy of palliative care services for cancer patients enrolled in a cancer clinical trial. Validation of patient perceptions through qualitative inquiry regarding their pain and palliative care needs can provide insight into areas for future implementation research. NIH Office of Human Subjects Research Protection OHSRP5443 and University of Pennsylvania 813365.
Full Text Available AIM:To assess the quantitative association between anisometropia magnitude and the losses of resolution and contrast sensitivity; and to exemplify how the function of fusion and stereopsis vary with anisometropia magnitude (AM in previously untreated anisometropic amblyopes.METHODS:A total of 57 patients with previously untreated anisometropic amblyopia without strabismus (range:8-35 years, were measured refractive error, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, fusion and stereopsis, and 48 patients have completed contrast sensitivity function test. AM was determined by dioptric vector addition model, and the amblyopia depth was determined by the difference of BCVA in logMAR units between the amblyopic and fellow eyes.RESULTS: AM was significantly correlated with both amblyopia depth (Pearson R=0.728, PPPCONCLUSION: In the patients with previously untreated anisometropia amblyopia, higher degree of anisometropia is significantly associated with deeper amblyopia, worse contrast sensitivity, fusion and stereopsis functions.
Laugesen, Caroline Schmidt; Ostri, Christoffer; Brynskov, Troels
PURPOSE: There is little information about the efficacy of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition in vitrectomized eyes. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anti-VEGF (ranibizumab) on diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes. METHODS: A nationwide...... retrospective review of medical records from 2010 to 2013. RESULTS: We identified 33 previously vitrectomized eyes in 28 patients treated with ranibizumab injections for diabetic macular oedema. Median follow-up was 323 days (interquartile range 72-1404 days). Baseline mean visual acuity was 0.57 logMAR (95% CI......). The mean reduction in CFT was 14% (95% CI 4-24%, p = 0.01). Sixteen eyes (48.5%) became devoid of oedema on the last OCT scan. Despite the significant reduction in CFT, the visual acuity remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Intravitreal ranibizumab can be effective in previously vitrectomized eyes with diabetic...
Blake, Sarah C; Andes, Karen; Hilb, Laura; Gaska, Karie; Chien, Linien; Flowers, Lisa; Adams, E Kathleen
Although cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates have declined in the USA, African American women have a higher incidence rate of cervical cancer and a higher percentage of late-stage diagnosis than white women. Previous analyses by the authors showed that, even after adjusting for age, provider location, and availability, African American women were almost half as likely as white women to be diagnosed or enter Medicaid while at an early stage of their cervical cancer. To understand why these differences exist, we undertook a qualitative examination of the cervical cancer experiences of women enrolled in Georgia's Women's Health Medicaid Program (WHMP). Life history interviews were conducted with 24 WHMP enrollees to understand what factors shaped their cervical cancer experiences, from screening through enrollment in Medicaid. We also examined whether these factors differed by race in order to identify opportunities for increasing awareness of cervical cancer screening among underserved women. Results suggest that many women, especially African Americans, lacked understanding and recognition of early symptoms of cervical cancer, which prevented them from receiving a timely diagnosis. Additionally, participants responded positively to provider support and good communication but wished that their doctors explained their diagnosis more clearly. Finally, women were able to enroll in Medicaid without difficulty due largely to the assistance of clinical staff. These findings support the need to strengthen provider education and public health efforts to reach low-income and minority communities for screening and early detection of cervical cancer.
Bloze, Gintautas; Skak, Morten
Favouring homeownership is an important part of housing policies in many countries. Although this may be explained by the preferences of the majority of voters, it may also be because homeownership is believed to have positive effects on individuals’ behaviour and welfare. Previous research seems...... and subjective well-being....
Ward, Annie W.; Barlow, Gene
It is feasible for school districts to develop and use subject area tests as reliable as those previously available only from commercial publishers. Three projects in local item development in a large school district are described. The first involved only Algebra 1. The second involved life science and career education at the elementary level; and…
Potvin, S; Aubin, G; Stip, E
Given the extent, magnitude and functional significance of the neurocognitive deficits of schizophrenia, growing attention has been paid recently to patients' self-awareness of their own deficits. Thus far, the literature has shown either that patients fail to recognize their cognitive deficits or that the association between subjective and objective cognition is weak in schizophrenia. The reasons for this lack of consistency remain unexplained but may have to do, among others, with the influence of potential confounding clinical variables and the choice of the scale used to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits. In the current study, we sought to examine the relationships between subjective and objective cognitive performance in schizophrenia, while controlling for the influence of sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Eighty-two patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (DSM-IV criteria) were recruited. Patients' subjective cognitive complaints were evaluated with the Subjective Scale to Investigate Cognition in Schizophrenia (SSTICS), the most frequently used scale to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Neurocognition was evaluated with working memory, planning and visual learning tasks taken from Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The Stroop Color-Word test was also administered. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. The relationships between subjective and objective cognition were evaluated with multivariate hierarchic linear regression analyses, taking into consideration potential confounders such as sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Finally, a factor analysis of the SSTICS was performed. For the SSTICS total score, the regression analysis produced a model including two predictors, namely visual learning and Stoop interference performance, explaining a moderate portion of the variance
Educators seek to guide students through appropriate programs and courses that prepare them for future success, in more advanced coursework and in other challenges of life. Some middle schools offer Challenge, or honors, courses for students who have demonstrated high ability. High schools often offer Advanced Placement (AP) courses, which are taught at the college level. This study examined the correlation between enrollment in middle school Challenge courses and subsequent AP exam category scores in social studies and science in a suburban school district. The independent variables were the number of years of enrollment in middle school social studies or science Challenge courses. The dependent variables were the AP exam category scores in the eight social studies AP courses or the six science AP courses. The sample sizes were limited to the number of students who took an AP social studies or science exam and also attended the middle school of study. The null hypothesis was that there was no relationship between the two variables. This study included eight social studies AP courses and six science AP courses. A significant positive correlation was indicated in only two of the courses, U.S. Government and Comparative Government, supporting the claim that enrollment in middle school Challenge social studies was correlated with success, at least on these two AP exams. In the remaining 12 courses, there was not enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis. Therefore, enrollment in middle school Challenge science and social studies courses generally did not seem to correlate with AP exam category scores. Results of this study call into question the validity of the claim by the district that enrollment in Challenge courses helps prepare students for rigorous coursework in high school. Several factors, including student readiness, teacher training, familiarity with course content, and previous AP experience may contribute more to a student's AP exam category score
Perez, A J; Avis, J L S; Holt, N L; Gokiert, R; Chanoine, J-P; Legault, L; Morrison, K M; Sharma, A M; Ball, G D C
Few children with obesity who are referred for weight management end up enroled in treatment. Factors enabling enrolment are poorly understood. Our purpose was to explore reasons for and facilitators of enrolment in paediatric weight management from the parental perspective. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents of 10- to 17-year-olds who were referred to one of four Canadian weight management clinics and enroled in treatment. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Manifest/inductive content analysis was used to analyse the data, which included the frequency with which parents referred to reasons for and facilitators of enrolment. In total, 65 parents were interviewed. Most had a child with a BMI ≥95th percentile (n = 59; 91%), were mothers (n = 55; 85%) and had completed some post-secondary education (n = 43; 66%). Reasons for enrolment were related to concerns about the child, recommended care and expected benefits. Most common reasons included weight concern, weight loss expectation, lifestyle improvement, health concern and need for external support. Facilitators concerned the referral initiator, treatment motivation and barrier control. Most common facilitators included the absence of major barriers, parental control over the decision to enrol, referring physicians stressing the need for specialized care and parents' ability to overcome enrolment challenges. Healthcare providers might optimize enrolment in paediatric weight management by being proactive in referring families, discussing the advantages of the recommended care to meet treatment expectations and providing support to overcome enrolment barriers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Miyaji, Karina Takesaki; Avelino-Silva, Vivian Iida; Simões, Marisol; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Medeiros, Carlos Roberto de; Braga, Patrícia Emilia; Neves, Maria Angélica Acalá; Lopes, Marta Heloisa; Kallas, Esper Georges; Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends one single dose of the Yellow Fever (YF) vaccine based on studies of antibody persistency in healthy adults. We assessed the prevalence and titers of YF virus neutralizing antibodies in previously vaccinated persons aged 60 years, in comparison to younger adults. We also evaluated the correlation between antibody titers and the time since vaccination among participants who received one vaccine dose, and the seropositivity among participants vaccinated prior to or within the past 10 years. previously vaccinated healthy persons aged 18 years were included. YF virus neutralizing antibody titers were determined by means of the 50% Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. 46 persons aged 60 years and 48 persons aged 18 to 59 years were enrolled. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of YF virus neutralizing antibodies between the two groups (p = 0.263). However, titers were significantly lower in the elderly (p = 0.022). There was no correlation between YF virus neutralizing antibody titers and the time since vaccination. There was no significant difference in seropositivity among participants vaccinated prior to or within the past 10 years. the clinical relevance of the observed difference in YF virus neutralizing antibody titers between the two groups is not clear.
Lundgaard Andersen, Linda
Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make...... sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity...... are important filters for fieldwork. In general, fieldwork can be understood as processes where field reports and field analysis are determined by how the researcher interacts with and experiences the field, the events and informants in it, and how she subsequently develops an ethnography. However, fieldwork...
/reading subject) manifests itself in the material mark on the page. The study shows how this indexical reference to a ‘subject’ is manipulated and used as a mask through which a writer/painter can perform a certain ‘subject’. Through analyses of the various levels on which the ‘subject’ is represented...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...
Depalma, Darlene M.
A problem within science education in the United States persists. U.S students rank lower in science than most other students from participating countries on international tests of achievement (National Center for Education Statistics, 2003). In addition, U.S. students overall enrollment rate in high school Advanced Placement (AP) physics is still low compared to other academic domains, especially for females. This problem is the background for the purpose of this study. This investigation examined cognitive and motivational variables thought to play a part in the under-representation of females in AP physics. Cognitive variables consisted of mathematics, reading, and science knowledge, as measured by scores on the 10th and 11th grade Florida Comprehensive Assessment Tests (FCAT). The motivational factors of attitude, stereotypical views toward science, self-efficacy, and epistemological beliefs were measured by a questionnaire developed with questions taken from previously proven reliable and valid instruments. A general survey regarding participation in extracurricular activities was also included. The sample included 12th grade students from two high schools located in Seminole County, Florida. Of the 106 participants, 20 girls and 27 boys were enrolled in AP physics, and 39 girls and 20 boys were enrolled in other elective science courses. Differences between males and females enrolled in AP physics were examined, as well as differences between females enrolled in AP physics and females that chose not to participate in AP physics, in order to determine predictors that apply exclusively to female enrollment in high school AP physics and predictors of an anticipated science related college major. Data were first analyzed by Exploratory Factor Analysis, followed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), independent t-tests, univariate analysis, and logistic regression analysis. One overall theme that emerged from this research was findings that refute the ideas that
Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea). F Salmerón, J.C. Báez, D Macías, L Fernandez-Peralta, A Ramos ...
Context: Effective contraceptive use is important after a caesarean or operative delivery because of the possible risks a woman may face in subsequent pregnancies. Objectives: The objective of the present study was to determine the uptake and choices of contraception among women with previous operative delivery.
... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 225.45 Section 225.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR STATE, LOCAL, AND INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.45 Relationship to...
Versluis, Dennis; McPherson, Kyle; Passel, van Mark W.J.; Smidt, Hauke; Sipkema, Detmer
Sponges often harbour a dense and diverse microbial community. Presently, a large discrepancy exists between the cultivable bacterial fraction from sponges and the community in its natural environment. Here, we aimed to acquire additional insights into cultivability of (previously uncultured)
van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; van de Berg, W.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831611; van Meijgaard, E.
A new Antarctic accumulation distribution, based on regional model output calibrated with 1900 in-situ observations, is used to re-assess accumulation in 24 Antarctic ice drainage basins. When compared to the previous compilation, good agreement is found for 19 of the 24 basins, representing 93% of
... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.352 Use of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352 Section 9701.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT...
Objective. To compare the outcome of suburethral sling procedures (tension-free vaginal tape (TVT), obturator tape (Ob-tape)) for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women with previous surgery for SUI or pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Methods. A comparative, descriptive, retrospective study was done using information ...
... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Certification... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Previously accepted state filings. 1710.552 Section 1710.552 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...
An 8-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 3 weeks history of headache, neck stiffness, deafness, fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. She had documented hearing loss and was referred to tertiary-level care after treatment with fluconazole did not improve her neurological ...
Ronit, Andreas; Berg, Ronan M G; Bruunsgaard, Helle
Non-serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are extremely rare causes of acute bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 14-year-old boy, who was previously healthy and had been immunised against H influenzae serotype b (Hib...
The impact of previous knowledge and experience on the entrepreneurial attitudes of Grade 12 learners. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, ...
Ryan, C.J.; Smith, M.R.; Bono, J. De; Molina, A.; Logothetis, C.J.; Souza, P. de; Fizazi, K.; Mainwaring, P.; Piulats, J.M.; Ng, S.; Carles, J.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Basch, E.; Small, E.J.; Saad, F.; Schrijvers, D.; Poppel, H. van; Mukherjee, S.D.; Suttmann, H.; Gerritsen, W.R.; Flaig, T.W.; George, D.J.; Yu, E.Y.; Efstathiou, E.; Pantuck, A.; Winquist, E.; Higano, C.S.; Taplin, M.E.; Park, Y.; Kheoh, T.; Griffin, T.; Scher, H.I.; Rathkopf, D.E.
BACKGROUND: Abiraterone acetate, an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor, improves overall survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer after chemotherapy. We evaluated this agent in patients who had not received previous chemotherapy. METHODS: In this double-blind study, we
Background: A previous ceasarean section is an important variable that influences patient management in subsequent pregnancies. A trial of vaginal delivery in such patients is a feasible alternative to a secondary section, thus aiding to reduce the ceasarean section rate and its associated co-morbidities. Objective: To ...
R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); N.G. Hartwig (Nico); T.M. Bestebroer (Theo); B. Niemeyer (Berend); J.H. Simon (James); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); J.C. de Jong (Jan)
textabstractThe etiology of acute respiratory tract illnesses is sometimes unclear due to limitations of diagnostic tests or the existence of as-yet-unidentified pathogens. Here we describe the identification and characterization of a not previously recognized coronavirus obtained from an 8-mo-old
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Previously designated depositaries. 202.5 Section 202.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE DEPOSITARIES AND FINANCIAL AGENTS...
The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North-West Province. Evans's theory of job satis- faction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixed- methods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues ...
The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North-West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixedmethods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with ...
Gellad, Walid F; Zhao, Xinhua; Thorpe, Carolyn T; Thorpe, Joshua M; Sileanu, Florentina E; Cashy, John P; Mor, Maria; Hale, Jennifer A; Radomski, Thomas; Hausmann, Leslie R M; Fine, Michael J; Good, Chester B
a previously undocumented safety risk for veterans dually enrolled in VA and Medicare.
Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most common of all congenital anomalies, and represent a significant global health problem. Involvement of medical professionals of different profiles has led to drastic changes in survival and quality of life of children with CHD. The motivation for the implementation of the first large population studies on this subject was not only to obtain answers to the question on the level of incidence of CHD, but the harmoniza...
Subject sensitive invariantism is the view that whether a subject knows depends on what is at stake for that subject: the truth-value of a knowledge-attribution is sensitive to the subject's practical interests. I argue that subject sensitive invariantism cannot accept a very plausible principle for
Sen, Hanim; Tandjung, Kenneth; Basalus, Mounir W Z; Löwik, Marije M; van Houwelingen, Gert K; Stoel, Martin G; Louwerenburg, Hans W; de Man, Frits H A F; Linssen, Gerard C M; Nijhuis, Rogier; Nienhuis, Mark B; Verhorst, Patrick M J; van der Palen, Job; von Birgelen, Clemens
The TWENTE trial recently enrolled more than 80% of all eligible patients, who were randomised to zotarolimus-eluting Resolute or everolimus-eluting XIENCE V stents. In the present study, we investigated whether eligible, non-enrolled patients differed from the randomised TWENTE trial population in baseline characteristics and one-year outcome. Characteristics of 1,709 eligible patients were analysed. Independent external adjudication of clinical events was likewise performed for non-enrolled (n=318) and randomised patients (n=1,391). Non-enrolled and randomised patients did not differ in gender distribution, diabetes mellitus, and clinical presentation, but differed significantly in age and cardiovascular history. Nevertheless, clinical outcome after one year did not differ in the primary composite endpoint target-vessel failure (TVF; 9.8% vs. 8.1%; p=0.34), and its components cardiac death (1.6% vs. 1.2%; p=0.61), target vessel-related myocardial infarction (4.7% vs. 4.6%; p=0.92), and target-vessel revascularisation (3.8% vs. 3.0%; p=0.48). Previous bypass surgery predicted TVF in non-enrolled patients (p=0.001); removal of these patients resulted in identical TVF rates for non-enrolled and randomised patients (7.3% vs. 7.3%; p=0.99). Despite some differences in baseline characteristics, non-enrolled and randomised patients did not differ in one-year outcome, which was favourable for both populations and may be related to the drug-eluting stents used.
... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility to enroll in an HMO or CMP. 417.422... Eligibility to enroll in an HMO or CMP. Except as specified in §§ 417.423 and 417.424, an HMO or CMP must... the geographic area served by the HMO or CMP; (c) Is not enrolled in any other HMO or CMP that has...
Lisa Giddings; Mieke Meurs; Tilahun Temesgen
Preschool can contribute importantly to human capital development, especially among poor children. In socialist countries, preschool enrolment rates have declined since transition. We examine changed preschool enrolment in Kyrgyzstan. We evaluate demand- and supply-side explanations for changing enrolments, and use household survey data to develop a simple, logit model of preschool attendance. We find that access plays the most important role in attendance, despite an apparent excess capacity...
Green, Jill E; Saveanu, Radu V; Bornstein, Robert A
The authors' goal was to study the potential effect on cognitive function of an interaction of HIV infection and a history of alcohol abuse. The subjects were 30 HIV-negative and 50 HIV-positive men with and without a past history of alcohol abuse. Thirty-three of the men (12 HIV negative and 21 HIV positive) had a past history of alcohol abuse, and 47 (18 HIV negative and 29 HIV positive) had never abused alcohol. Each subject's history of alcohol use was obtained by using a syndromal approach based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R and a quantitative approach. Each subject was given a battery of neuropsychological tests assessing verbal reasoning, reaction time, intelligence, memory, and dexterity. The subjects were then compared on a summary neuropsychological impairment rating. There were no significant differences in CD4 level, age, education, depression, anxiety, or other drug abuse history between the HIV-positive and HIV-negative groups with and without a history of alcohol abuse. Significant effects on cognitive function were found for past alcohol abuse and HIV infection, with significant interactions in verbal reasoning, auditory processing, and reaction time. This demonstrates that HIV infection and a history of alcohol abuse have independent effects on some aspects of higher cognitive function but may have synergistic effects on other cognitive domains. In the HIV-negative subjects there were no differences in cognitive function between subjects with and without a history of alcohol abuse. Among the HIV-positive subjects, those with a history of alcohol abuse performed more poorly on tests of verbal IQ, verbal reasoning, and reaction time. There are both additive and interactive effects of previous alcohol abuse and HIV infection on cognition. Individuals with a history of past alcohol abuse may be at greater risk for cognitive dysfunction in the context of HIV infection.
Jerant, Anthony; Chapman, Benjamin; Duberstein, Paul; Robbins, John; Franks, Peter
Objectives Personality factors parsimoniously capture the variation in dispositional characteristics that affect behaviours, but their value in predicting medication non-adherence is unclear. We investigated the relationship between five-factor model personality factors (Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, Agreeableness, Extraversion, and Openness) and medication non-adherence among older participants during a six-year randomized placebo-controlled trial (RCT). Design Observational cohort data from 771 subjects aged ≥72 years enrolled in the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory study, a RCT of Ginkgo biloba for prevention of dementia. Methods Random effects logistic regression analyses examined effects of NEO Five-Factor Inventory scores on medication non-adherence, determined via pill counts every 6 months (median follow-up 6.1 years) and defined as taking personality factor associated with non-adherence: a 1 SD increase was associated with a 3.8% increase in the probability of non-adherence (95% CI [0.4, 7.2]). Lower cognitive function was also associated with non-adherence: a 1 SD decrease in mental status exam score was associated with a 3.0% increase in the probability of non-adherence (95% CI [0.2, 5.9]). Conclusions Neuroticism was associated with medication non-adherence over 6 years of follow-up in a large sample of older RCT participants. Personality measurement in clinical and research settings might help to identify and guide interventions for older adults at risk for medication non-adherence. PMID:21226789
To present a theoretical approach to understanding the potential vulnerability to depression in previously infertile new mothers. This approach was developed by synthesizing results of a series of grounded theory studies of experiences of infertility and pregnancy and of parenting after infertility. These results were further synthesized with the relational cultural theory (RCT). Previously infertile new mothers have experienced repeated and sustained interferences with significant relationships over the course of their infertility, which could lead to depression. Implications of this theoretical perspective include: (a) it is a new approach to understanding a significant and sometimes minimized issue in women's health; (b) it is a basis for designing an intervention for women coping with infertility and its aftermath; and (c) it might be applied to other women's health issues.
Musumeci, Maria; Bellin, Milena; Maltese, Adriana; Aragona, Pasquale; Bucolo, Claudio; Musumeci, Salvatore
Chitin is abundant in the structural coatings of fungi, insects, and parasitic nematodes. The host defense against chitin-containing pathogens includes production of chitinases. An acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) is produced in human epithelial cells of lower airways through a TH2-specific, interleukin-13-dependent pathway and appears to be associated with allergic asthma. The role of AMCase in allergic ocular pathologies has never been studied previously. Six patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC), 7 patients with season allergic conjunctivitis (SAC), and 8 healthy controls (4 children and 4 adults) were enrolled in this study. AMCase activity was measured in tears, RNA was extracted from epithelial cells of the conjunctiva, and AMCase mRNA expression was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. AMCase activity was increased in patients affected by VKC (33.7 +/- 10.8 nmol/mL/h) and SAC (7.3 +/- 4.1 nmol/mL/h) compared with healthy controls (1.6 +/- 0.2 nmol/mL/h), and AMCase activity was higher in subjects with VKC (P = 0.0001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the sensitivity and specificity were 100%, addressing the use of AMCase assay in the biochemical diagnosis of VKC and SAC. AMCase mRNA was detected in epithelial cells of the conjunctiva, and the expression was significantly higher in VKC and SAC. AMCase may be an important mediator in the pathogenesis of TH2 inflammation eye diseases, suggesting a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target in these pathologies.
Tsui, Johnson F; Feuerstein, Michael; Jazayeri, Seyed Behzad; Samadi, David B
Operative management of prostate cancer in a patient who has undergone previous open suprapubic simple prostatectomy poses a unique surgical challenge. Herein, we describe a case of intermediate risk prostate cancer in a man who had undergone simple prostatectomy ten years prior to presentation. The patient was found to have Gleason 7 prostate cancer on MRI fusion biopsy of the prostate for elevated PSA and underwent an uncomplicated robot assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.
Johnson F. Tsui
Full Text Available Operative management of prostate cancer in a patient who has undergone previous open suprapubic simple prostatectomy poses a unique surgical challenge. Herein, we describe a case of intermediate risk prostate cancer in a man who had undergone simple prostatectomy ten years prior to presentation. The patient was found to have Gleason 7 prostate cancer on MRI fusion biopsy of the prostate for elevated PSA and underwent an uncomplicated robot assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.
Keerthi Kocherla; Vasantha Kocherla
Patau syndrome is the least common and most severe of the viable autosomal trisomies with median survival of fewer than 3 days was first identified as a cytogenetic syndrome in 1960. Patau syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 13. In this case report, we present antenatal imaging findings and gross foetal specimen correlation of foetus with Patau syndrome confirmed by karyotyping in third gravida who had significant previous obstetric history of gastrochisis in monochorionic and...
Lee, Myung Soo; Craigie, Robert
Integration of a DNA copy of the viral genome into a host chromosome is an essential step in the retrovirus life cycle. The machinery that carries out the integration reaction is a nucleoprotein complex derived from the core of the infecting virion. To successfully integrate into host DNA, the viral DNA within this complex must avoid self-destructive integration into itself, a reaction termed autointegration. We have previously shown [Lee, M. S. and Craigie, R. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U...
Rafael Isaac Estrada-Danell
Full Text Available This article aims to analyze how data mining (DM optimizes the enrollment process, with the intention of designing a predictive model to manage private enrollment for higher education institutions of Mexico. It analyzes the current status of the higher education institutions in relation to its enrollment process and the application of the DM. With a correlational method, a dataset (DS was used to model an entropy decision tree with the help of Rapid Miner software. The results show that it is possible to build and test a predictive model management of private enrollment for higher education institutions of Mexico as the ZAM&EST model proposed by the authors.
The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2012 and August 31, 2013. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2013. The enrollments and degrees data include students majoring in nuclear engineering or in an option program equivalent to a major. Thirty-two academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2013, and data was received from all thirty-two programs. The data for two nuclear engineering programs include enrollments and degrees in health physics options that are also reported in the health physics enrollments and degrees data.
VanEpps, Eric M; Volpp, Kevin G; Halpern, Scott D
Interventions informed by behavioral economics can address barriers to patient enrollment in clinical trials and improve recruitment efforts. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Ponjuan, Luis; Palomin, Leticia; Calise, Angela
This chapter examines Latino male ethnic subgroups and their college enrollment and degree completion patterns. The chapter also offers recommendations to improve Latino male ethnic subgroups' educational achievement.
Puac-Polanco, Victor D.; Lopez-Soto, Victor A.; Kohn, Robert; Xie, Dawei; Richmond, Therese S.
Objectives. We analyzed a probability sample of Guatemalans to determine if a relationship exists between previous violent events and development of mental health outcomes in various sociodemographic groups, as well as during and after the Guatemalan Civil War. Methods. We used regression modeling, an interaction test, and complex survey design adjustments to estimate prevalences and test potential relationships between previous violent events and mental health. Results. Many (20.6%) participants experienced at least 1 previous serious violent event. Witnessing someone severely injured or killed was the most common event. Depression was experienced by 4.2% of participants, with 6.5% experiencing anxiety, 6.4% an alcohol-related disorder, and 1.9% posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Persons who experienced violence during the war had 4.3 times the adjusted odds of alcohol-related disorders (P < .05) and 4.0 times the adjusted odds of PTSD (P < .05) compared with the postwar period. Women, indigenous Maya, and urban dwellers had greater odds of experiencing postviolence mental health outcomes. Conclusions. Violence that began during the civil war and continues today has had a significant effect on the mental health of Guatemalans. However, mental health outcomes resulting from violent events decreased in the postwar period, suggesting a nation in recovery. PMID:25713973
Glass, R Thomas; Conrad, Robert S; Bullard, James W; Goodson, Leigh B; Mehta, Naresh; Lech, Stanley J; Loewy, Zvi G
Although there are many product claims that address the issue of denture sanitization, controlled scientific studies on previously worn dentures have not been performed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate procedures directed at sanitizing previously worn contaminated dentures from two regions of the United States. This study examined 51 previously worn dentures from two regions. An established method of denture retrieval, sectioning, and culturing was used, including isolation of anaerobes. Evaluation of microbial contamination posttreatment was used to determine the effects of soaking dentures in Polident (US and European formulations) for varying periods of times/temperatures, microwaving dentures with varying temperatures, sonicating dentures, and immersing the dentures while using a vacuum. A combination of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and general linear model (GLM) of the SPSS was used to analyze the data with P sanitization rather than sterilization. Denture-borne microorganisms can be significantly reduced by using a Polident solution for 8 hours at room temperature or for 5 minutes at 65 degrees C. Microwaving, sonication, and use of a vacuum were less effective. ClLINICAL IMPLICATIONS The importance of daily use of Polident solution for 8 hours or for 5 minutes at 65 degrees C to sanitize worn prostheses must be stressed.
Nelson, David B; Casey, Brian M; McIntire, Donald D; Cunningham, F Gary
To evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcomes in women previously identified during an index pregnancy to have subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). From 2000 to 2003, thyroid analytes were measured in 17,298 women. Using their index pregnancy thyroid-analyte classification, pregnancy outcomes were compared between the returning cohorts. There were 6,985 women previously screened and subsequently delivered at our hospital though 2011 with 230 (3.3%) designated to have SCH and 6,645 (95.1%) euthyroid. Significant differences between the two cohorts included risk for diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2 to 2.7, p = 0.005), gestational diabetes (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.69, p = 0.015), and stillbirth (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.05 to 11.68, p = 0.042). After adjustment, the increased likelihood of diabetes (adjusted OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.40, p = 0.032) and stillbirth (adjusted OR 3.41, 95% CI 1.01 to 11.49, p = 0.048) persisted. Women identified during a previous pregnancy with SCH are at increased risk for some adverse perinatal outcomes during a subsequent pregnancy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Saxton, J.; Malyuta, R.; Semenenko, I.; Pilipenko, T.; Tereshenko, R.; Kulakovskaya, E.; Adejnova, I.; Kvasha, L.; Thorne, C.
BACKGROUND Ukraine has the highest antenatal HIV prevalence in Europe. The national prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) programme has reduced the MTCT rate, but less attention has been given to the prevention of unintended pregnancy among HIV-positive women. Our objectives were to describe the reproductive health, condom use and family planning (FP) practices of HIV-positive childbearing Ukrainian women and to identify factors associated with different methods of post-natal contraception. METHODS HIV-infected childbearing women, diagnosed before or during pregnancy, were enrolled prospectively in a post-natal cohort study in four regional HIV/AIDS centres in Ukraine from December 2007. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with post-natal FP practices. RESULTS Data were available for 371 women enrolled by March 2009; 82% (n = 303) were married or cohabiting, 27% (97 of 363) reported a current HIV-negative sexual partner and 69% were diagnosed with HIV during their most recent pregnancy. Overall, 21% (75 of 349) of women were not using contraception post-natally (of whom 80% reported no current sexual activity), 50% (174 of 349) used condoms, 20% (74 of 349) relied solely/partially on coitus interruptus and 4% used hormonal methods or intrauterine device. Among married/cohabiting women, consistent use of condoms in the previous pregnancy [AOR 1.96 (95%CI 1.06–3.62)], having an HIV-positive partner [AOR 0.42 (0.20–0.87)], current sexual activity [AOR 4.53 (1.19–17.3)] and study site were significantly associated with post-natal condom use; 16% of those with HIV-negative partners did not use condoms. Risk factors for non-use of FP were lack of affordability [AOR 6.34 (1.73–23.2)] and inconsistent use of condoms in the previous pregnancy [AOR 7.25 (1.41–37.2)]. CONCLUSIONS More than 40% of HIV-positive women in this population are at risk of unintended pregnancy and the one in six women in HIV-discordant couples not
Adrian H. Zai
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to validate a previously developed heart failure readmission predictive algorithm based on psychosocial factors, develop a new model based on patient-reported symptoms from a telemonitoring program, and assess the impact of weight fluctuations and other factors on hospital readmission. Clinical, demographic, and telemonitoring data was collected from 100 patients enrolled in the Partners Connected Cardiac Care Program between July 2008 and November 2011. 38% of study participants were readmitted to the hospital within 30 days. Ten different heart-failure-related symptoms were reported 17,389 times, with the top three contributing approximately 50% of the volume. The psychosocial readmission model yielded an AUC of 0.67, along with sensitivity 0.87, specificity 0.32, positive predictive value 0.44, and negative predictive value 0.8 at a cutoff value of 0.30. In summary, hospital readmission models based on psychosocial characteristics, standardized changes in weight, or patient-reported symptoms can be developed and validated in heart failure patients participating in an institutional telemonitoring program. However, more robust models will need to be developed that use a comprehensive set of factors in order to have a significant impact on population health.
Full Text Available Abstract Background: Despite the importance of functional-performance deficits in athletes with history of ankle sprain few, studies have been carried out in this area. The aim of this research was to study relationship between previous ankle sprains and functional-performance deficits in athletes. Materials and methods: The subjects were 40 professional athletes selected through random sampling among volunteer participants in soccer, basketball, volleyball and handball teams of Lorestan province. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: Injured group (athletes with previous ankle sprains and healthy group (athletes without previous ankle sprains. In this descriptive study we used Functional-performance tests (figure 8 hop test and side hop test to determine ankle deficits and limitations. They participated in figure 8 hop test including hopping in 8 shape course with the length of 5 meters and side hop test including 10 side hop repetitions in course with the length of 30 centimeters. Time were recorded via stopwatch. Results: After data gathering and assessing information distributions, Pearson correlation was used to assess relationships, and independent T test to assess differences between variables. Finally the results showed that there is a significant relationship between previous ankle sprains and functional-performance deficits in the athletes. Conclusion: The athletes who had previous ankle sprains indicated functional-performance deficits more than healthy athletes in completion of mentioned functional-performance tests. The functional-performance tests (figure 8 hop test and side hop test are sensitive and suitable to assess and detect functional-performance deficits in athletes. Therefore we can use the figure 8 hop and side hop tests for goals such as prevention, assessment and rehabilitation of ankle sprains without spending too much money and time.
Yim, Cindi K; Barrón, Yolanda; Moore, Stanley; Murtaugh, Chris; Lala, Anuradha; Aldridge, Melissa; Goldstein, Nathan; Gelfman, Laura P
Patients with advanced heart failure (HF) enroll in hospice at low rates, and data on their acute medical service utilization after hospice enrollment is limited. We performed a descriptive analysis of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries, with at least one home health claim between July 1, 2009, and June 30, 2010, and at least 2 HF hospitalizations between July 1, 2009, and December 31, 2009, who subsequently enrolled in hospice between July 1, 2009, and December 31, 2009. We estimated panel-negative binomial models on a subset of beneficiaries to compare their acute medical service utilization before and after enrollment. Our sample size included 5073 beneficiaries: 55% were female, 45% were ≥85 years of age, 13% were non-white, and the mean comorbidity count was 2.38 (standard deviation 1.22). The median number of days between the second HF hospital discharge and hospice enrollment was 45. The median number of days enrolled in hospice was 15, and 39% of the beneficiaries died within 7 days of enrollment. During the study period, 11% of the beneficiaries disenrolled from hospice at least once. The adjusted mean number of hospital, intensive care unit, and emergency room admissions decreased from 2.56, 0.87, and 1.17 before hospice enrollment to 0.53, 0.19, and 0.76 after hospice enrollment. Home health care Medicare beneficiaries with advanced HF who enrolled in hospice had lower acute medical service utilization after their enrollment. Their pattern of hospice use suggests that earlier referral and improved retention may benefit this population. Further research is necessary to understand hospice referral and palliative care needs of advanced HF patients. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Fong, Kenneth; Tee, Shang-Ian; Ho, Madeline S L; Pan, Jiun Yit
Protothecosis is an uncommon condition resulting from infection by achlorophyllous algae of the Prototheca species. Immunocompromised individuals are generally most susceptible to protothecal infection and tend to develop severe and disseminated disease. However, the association between protothecosis and HIV-induced immunosuppression is not clear, with only a handful of cases having been described to date. Here we report a case of cutaneous protothecosis in a Chinese man with previously undiagnosed HIV infection that responded well to oral itraconazole. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.
Multerer, Sara; Berkenbosch, John W; Das, Bibhuti; Johnsrude, Christopher
We are reporting a previously healthy adolescent who developed atrial fibrillation after being tased. He has a structurally normal heart on echocardiogram, normal electrolyte level and thyroid function test results, and a urine toxicology screen positive for marijuana. The patient ultimately required external defibrillation to convert his cardiac rhythm to normal sinus rhythm and has had no recurrent arrhythmias since hospital discharge (approximately 1 year). This is the first reported case of atrial fibrillation developing after a Taser shot, occurring in an adolescent without other risk factors. This case illustrates the arrhythmogenic potential of a Taser in otherwise healthy young individuals, and further study of occurrence of Taser-induced arrhythmias is warranted.
Kim, Taik-Kun; Cha, Sang Hoon; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Kim, Jung Hyuck; Kim, Baek Hyun; Chung, Hwan Hoon [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan Hospital, 516 Kojan-Dong, Ansan City, Kyungki-Do 425-020 (Korea); Eun, Baik-Lin [Department of Pediatrics, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)
A previously healthy 24-day-old boy presented with a 2-day history of fever and had a convulsion on the day of admission. MRI showed abnormal signal in the thalami, caudate nuclei and central white matter. Acute necrotising encephalopathy was diagnosed, other causes having been excluded after biochemical and haematological analysis of blood, urine and CSF. He recovered, but with spastic quadriparesis. At the age of 28 months, he suffered sudden deterioration of consciousness and motor weakness of his right limbs. MRI was consistent with an acute cerebrovascular accident. Angiography showed bilateral middle cerebral artery stenosis or frank occlusion with numerous lenticulostriate collateral vessels consistent with moyamoya disease. (orig.)
Trpkov, Cvetan; Nath, Ermin; Moon, Michael; Windram, Jonathan; Graham, Michelle M
Purulent pericarditis is a rare acutely life-threatening condition. Initial symptoms, signs, and investigations can be nonspecific. Echocardiography is invaluable for establishing the diagnosis and initial management. We present a case of a previously healthy patient with purulent pericarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in the absence of a primary focus of infection. The patient deteriorated rapidly with cardiac tamponade and septic shock and was managed successfully by a combined medical and surgical approach. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A primordial aspect of the Sartrian critique of alienation concerns understanding the analytic ideology as the domination of materiality over the symbolic, in other words as the reification of the human, and therefore as anticulture. In the context of contemporary nihilism, the decoding of the mechanisms which consign praxis to the practico-inert requires a critique of the relations between the social sciences and philosophy, which in its turn implies a new theory of the relation between what Sartre calls the "notion" (the area of subjectivity and the "concept" (objectivity, From this perspective, the deconstruction of the established frontiers between the social sciences and philosophy, and between the conceptual and the narrative, is corelative to a redefinition of the relation between theory and practice.
Løkke, Anders; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Dahl, Ronald
, with bronchodilator and, if necessary, corticosteroids in order to confirm a diagnosis of COPD. Results: A total of 4.049 (49% females) subjects were included; mean age 58 yrs, BMI 27, and 32 pack-years. The COPD prevalence was 21.7%; 8.3% in subjects younger than 48 years. Most patients were classified in GOLD......Background and Aim: Under-diagnosis of COPD is a widespread problem. This study aimed to identify previously undiagnosed cases of COPD in a high-risk population identified through general practice. Methods: Participating GPs (n = 241) recruited subjects with no previous diagnosis of lung disease......, >35 yrs, and at least one respiratory symptom. Age, smoking status, pack-years, BMI, dyspnoea score (MRC), and pre-bronchodilator spirometry data was obtained. Subjects with airway obstruction (FEV1/FVC ≤ 0.7) at initial spirometry were tested for reversibility, according to Danish COPD guidelines...
Delker, Sarah; Livingstone, Elisabeth; Schimming, Tobias; Schadendorf, Dirk; Griewank, Klaus G
Laser therapy has become a routine procedure in dermatological practice and is frequently also used for pigmented lesions. Few reports exist of melanomas diagnosed in lesions previously treated by laser therapy. Between 2007 and 2014, we identified 11 patients who presented to our department with a melanoma diagnosed in a region previously treated by laser therapy. The course of events until the diagnosis of melanoma was assessed as well as patient outcome including treatment for disease progression. No histological assessment had been performed prior to laser therapy in nine of 11 (82%) cases. Benign melanocytic lesions had been diagnosed by biopsy prior to laser therapy in the other two cases. Time from laser therapy to diagnosis of melanoma ranged from less than 1 to 10 years. Stage of disease at diagnosis varied from stage IA to IIIC. Four patients progressed to stage IV disease, of whom at least one died of melanoma. We conclude that laser treatment of pigmented lesions can complicate the diagnosis of melanoma and lead to diagnosis delay with potentially fatal consequences. Considering this risk, we believe laser therapy for pigmented lesions should either be avoided entirely or at a minimum performed only after prior histological assessment. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.
Hegmann, Theresa; Iverson, Katie
Healthcare experience is used by many physician assistant (PA) programs to rank applicants. Despite a large healthcare literature base evaluating admissions factors, little information is available on the relationship of healthcare experience and educational outcomes. We aimed to test whether previous healthcare experience is associated with increased success during the clinical portion of the PA educational process. Hours of direct healthcare experience reported on Central Application Service for Physician Assistants applications for 124 students in the classes of 2009 through 2013 were associated with a calculated average preceptor evaluation score for each student and with average standardized-patient examination scores for a subset of students. Average student age was 28.7 years and median healthcare experience was 2,257 hours (range 390-16,400). Previous healthcare experience was not significantly correlated with preceptor evaluations or standardized-patient examination scores. This 5-year single institution pilot study did not support the hypothesis that healthcare experience is associated with improved clinical year outcomes.
Full Text Available An unaware event referred to as kidnapping makes the estimation result of localization incorrect. In a previous unknown environment, incorrect localization result causes incorrect mapping result in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM by kidnapping. In this situation, the explored area and unexplored area are divided to make the kidnapping recovery difficult. To provide sufficient information on kidnapping, a framework to judge whether kidnapping has occurred and to identify the type of kidnapping with filter-based SLAM is proposed. The framework is called double kidnapping detection and recognition (DKDR by performing two checks before and after the “update” process with different metrics in real time. To explain one of the principles of DKDR, we describe a property of filter-based SLAM that corrects the mapping result of the environment using the current observations after the “update” process. Two classical filter-based SLAM algorithms, Extend Kalman Filter (EKF SLAM and Particle Filter (PF SLAM, are modified to show that DKDR can be simply and widely applied in existing filter-based SLAM algorithms. Furthermore, a technique to determine the adapted thresholds of metrics in real time without previous data is presented. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.
Crane, Catherine; Shah, Dhruvi; Barnhofer, Thorsten; Holmes, Emily A
This study sought to replicate previous findings of vivid suicide-related imagery in previously suicidal patients in a community sample of adults with a history of depression. Twenty-seven participants were interviewed regarding suicidal imagery. Seventeen participants reported prior suicidal ideation or behaviour in the clinical assessment, and the vast majority of these also reported experiencing suicide-related imagery when at their most depressed and despairing, in many cases in the form of flash-forwards to imagined future suicidal acts. Interestingly, five of the 10 participants who did not report suicidal ideation or behaviour in the clinical interview also described prominent imagery related to themes of death and suicide, but in several cases, these images were associated with meanings that seemed to act to reduce the likelihood of subsequent suicidal acts. Severity of prior suicidality was associated with lower levels of imagery-related distress and higher levels of imagery-related comfort. These findings support the idea that suicide-related imagery is an important component in the phenomenology of depression and despair and hint at potentially important differences in the meaning associated with such imagery between those individuals who report experiencing suicidal ideation or behaviour when depressed and those who do not. The findings are consistent with Joiner's model of acquired capability for suicide through habituation to pain and fear of suicide and suggest that it may be useful to tackle such imagery directly in the treatment of suicidal patients. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Goñi-Sarriés, Adriana; Blanco, Miriam; Azcárate, Leire; Peinado, Rubén; López-Goñi, José J
A previous suicide attempt is a clinically relevant factor for completed suicide. In this paper people who committed suicide on their first attempt are compared with those who did so after previous attempts. A review of the Computerised Clinical Histories in the Navarro Health Service-Osasunbidea (2010-2013) in Spain. Of the 166 cases, 31.9% (n = 53) presented at least one prior attempt. Of these 53, 65.3% modified the method of suicide. Women presented significantly more attempts (χ2 = 14.3; df = 3; p = .002). Three sub-samples were identified according to the attempts and diagnoses. The diagnoses of personality disorders (90.9%; n = 10) and women under 51 years of age with a diagnosis of affective, anxiety, or substance abuse disorders (82.4%; n = 14) presented the highest numbers of attempts. People without a psychiatric diagnosis and with psychotic or organic mental disorders presented the smallest proportion of attempts (13.2%; n = 10) together with people over 51 years of age diagnosed with affective, anxiety, or substance abuse disorders (22.5%; n = 9). Prior attempts are suicide risk factors only in specific clinical sub-samples. Prevention and intervention programs should consider these results.
Talbot, Anna-Lisa; Dorrian, Jillian; Chapman, Janine
Nurses are often the first point of contact for patients hospitalized due to alcohol-related causes. Alcohol dependence is highly stigmatized and as a result healthcare professionals often have low behavioural intentions, meaning low willingness to care for these patients. This can have a direct influence on quality of care. The purpose of this study was to explore enrolled nursing students' intention to care for patients with alcohol dependence and the antecedents, preliminary factors, that predict this within the Theory of Planned Behaviour; specifically attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy and controllability. The study was a cross-sectional survey using the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Two Technical and Further Education South Australia campuses across metropolitan Adelaide. n=86 enrolled nursing students completed the survey (62% response rate). Enrolled nursing students' intention, attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy and controllability were measured using a Theory of Planned Behaviour Questionnaire. The Short Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire investigated attitudes in more detail and a short knowledge scale assessed alcohol-related knowledge. Subjective norms and attitudes had a significant, positive effect on intention to care within the final model, accounting for 22.6% of the variance, F2,83=12.12, penrolled nursing students' intention to care for alcohol dependent patients. These findings can assist in developing tailored alcohol training for students, to increase attitudes and foster behavioural change, in order to improve the quality of care for these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Polsky, Daniel; Stein, Rebecca; Nicholson, Sean; Bundorf, M Kate
To determine how the characteristics of the health benefits offered by employers affect worker insurance coverage decisions. The 1996-1997 and the 1998-1999 rounds of the nationally representative Community Tracking Study Household Survey. We use multinomial logistic regression to analyze the choice between own-employer coverage, alternative source coverage, and no coverage among employees offered health insurance by their employer. The key explanatory variables are the types of health plans offered and the net premium offered. The models include controls for personal, health plan, and job characteristics. When an employer offers only a health maintenance organization married employees are more likely to decline coverage from their employer and take-up another offer (odds ratio (OR)=1.27, pemployer and less likely to be uninsured (OR=0.650, pemployer and remaining uninsured for both married (OR=1.023, pemployer offers affects whether its employees take-up insurance, but has a smaller effect on overall coverage rates for workers and their families because of the availability of alternative sources of coverage. Relative to offering only a non-HMO plan, employers offering only an HMO may reduce take-up among those with alternative sources of coverage, but increase take-up among those who would otherwise go uninsured. By modeling the possibility of take-up through the health insurance offers from the employer of the spouse, the decline in coverage rates from higher net premiums is less than previous estimates.
Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most common of all congenital anomalies, and represent a significant global health problem. Involvement of medical professionals of different profiles has led to drastic changes in survival and quality of life of children with CHD. The motivation for the implementation of the first large population studies on this subject was not only to obtain answers to the question on the level of incidence of CHD, but the harmonization of criteria and protocols for monitoring and treatment of certain defects as well as the planning of medical staff dealing with children with CHD. Data on the incidence varies from 4-10/1000 live births. Fetal echocardiography can have potential impact on decrease of CHD incidence. The increase in incidence may be due to the possibility that children with CHD will grow up and have offsprings. Owing to the progress that has been made, an increasing number of patients experiences adulthood, creating an entirely new and growing population of patients: patients with "adult" CHD. Survivors suffer morbidity resulting from their circulatory abnormalities as well as from medical and surgical therapies they have been subjected to. Application of the achievements of human genome projects will in time lead to drastic changes in the approach to the patients with CHD. Until the time when it is possible, the goal will be further improvement of the existing system of service: networking in a unique, multicenter clinical registry of patients with CHD, as well as upgrading of technical and non-technical conditions for the treatment of patients with CHD. We are in an unprecedented time of change, but are actually at the end of the beginning of making pediatric cardiac care a highly reliable institution.
Full Text Available Congenital heart defects (CHD are the most common of all congenital anomalies, and represent a significant global health problem. Involvement of medical professionals of different profiles has led to drastic changes in survival and quality of life of children with CHD. The motivation for the implementation of the first large population studies on this subject was not only to obtain answers to the question on the level of incidence of CHD, but the harmonization of criteria and protocols for monitoring and treatment of certain defects as well as the planning of medical staff dealing with children with CHD. Data on the incidence varies from 4-10/1000 live births. Fetal echocardiography can have potential impact on decrease of CHD incidence. The increase in incidence may be due to the possibility that children with CHD will grow up and have offsprings. Owing to the progress that has been made, an increasing number of patients experiences adulthood, creating an entirely new and growing population of patients: patients with “adult” CHD. Survivors suffer morbidity resulting from their circulatory abnormalities as well as from medical and surgical therapies they have been subjected to. Application of the achievements of human genome projects will in time lead to drastic changes in the approach to the patients with CHD. Until the time when it is possible, the goal will be further improvement of the existing system of service: networking in a unique, multicenter clinical registry of patients with CHD, as well as upgrading of technical and non-technical conditions for the treatment of patients with CHD. We are in an unprecedented time of change, but are actually at the end of the beginning of making pediatric cardiac care a highly reliable institution.
The marketing technique of benefit segmentation may be effective in increasing enrollment in adult educational programs, according to a study at College of DuPage, Glen Ellyn, Illinois. The study was conducted to test applicability of benefit segmentation to enrollment generation. The measuring instrument used in this study--the course improvement…
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation of enrollment management at two public universities. The theoretical framework was conceptual and centered on the effectiveness of the implementation process as a pivotal factor in the development of a comprehensive enrollment management operation. This multi-site case study included 14…
Gender and area of specialization vis-à-vis students' enrolments in undergraduate degree programmes by platform in Public Universities in Kenya. ... The analysis undertook majorly the quantitative pathway using percentages and Chi Square. The overall findings have shown a discrepancy in students' enrolment per ...
... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Student Verification of Enrollment) Activity Under OMB Review....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Student Verification of Enrollment, VA Form 22-8979. OMB Control Number: 2900... of information abstracted below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and comment...
Bachour, Candi C; Bachmann, Gloria A; Foster, David C; Wan, Jim Y; Rawlinson, Leslie A; Brown, Candace S
Successful recruitment in clinical trials for chronic pain conditions is challenging, especially in women with provoked vulvodynia due to reluctance in discussing pain associated with sexual intercourse. The most successful recruitment methods and the characteristics of women reached with these methods are unknown. To compare the effectiveness and efficiency of four recruitment methods and to determine socioeconomic predictors for successful enrollment in a National Institutes of Health-sponsored multicenter clinical trial evaluating a gabapentin intervention in women with provoked vulvodynia. Recruitment methods utilized mass mailing, media, clinician referrals and community outreach. Effectiveness (number of participants enrolled) and efficiency (proportion screened who enrolled) were determined. Socioeconomic variables including race, educational level, annual household income, relationship status, age, menopausal status and employment status were also evaluated regarding which recruitment strategies were best at targeting specific cohorts. Of 868 potential study participants, 219 were enrolled. The most effective recruitment method in enrolling participants was mass mailing ( p recruitment methods ( p = 0.11). Relative to clinician referral, black women were 13 times as likely to be enrolled through mass mailing (adjusted odds ratio 12.5, 95% confidence interval, 3.6-43.1) as white women. There were no differences in enrollment according to educational level, annual income, relationship status, age, menopausal status, or employment status and recruitment method. In this clinical trial, mass mailing was the most effective recruitment method. Race of participants enrolled in a provoked vulvodynia trial was related to the recruitment method.
Vonk, Garrett B.
United States Government scrutiny of enrollment practices at for-profit colleges has caused significant decreases in profitability at career colleges. The phenomenological problem explored in this study was the declining enrollment at career colleges. Systems theory and Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory formed the conceptual framework for this…
The purpose of this study was to investigate nationwide enrollment in high school music courses from 1982 until 2009 to determine what trends in music enrollment existed and whether these trends were affected by the passage and implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). With data from 10 separate nationally representative high…
Spence, David S.; Joyner, L. Felix
Funding and enrollment issues facing higher education are considered in two articles. In "Funding for Higher Education Enrollment Shifts in the 80s," David S. Spence outlines the decline in number of traditional college-age students; the trend to older, part-time, place-bound students; the increasing demands for remedial, continuing, and…
Kim, Kyung-Nyun; Baker, Rose M.
This study investigates the effects of adults' enrollment in and graduation from a two-year college on their hourly wages and occupational status in U.S. by employing a growth curve model and a piecewise model. College enrollment reduced hourly wages and occupational status by 13.8% and 2.74 points, respectively. Less-educated workers whose wages…
Young, Robert D., Jr.
Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which differences were present in dual credit course enrollment. Specifically examined were whether differences were present in the first semester GPA and at the end of the first two semesters for students who enrolled in dual credit courses while in high school from…
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enrolling non-full-blood children. 111.2 Section 111.2... CAPITA PAYMENTS § 111.2 Enrolling non-full-blood children. Where an Indian woman was married to a white... though she left it after marriage and lived away from the reservation, the children of such a marriage...
Nebraska Coordinating Commission for Postsecondary Education, Lincoln.
A survey of 53 private career institutions in Nebraska (56 percent located in the Omaha area) revealed the following statistics for the period July 1, 1990 to June 30, 1991: (1) 9,275 students were enrolled; (2) business programs enrolled the largest percentage (35 percent) of the total student population, with business, trade, and technical…
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which enrollment management models have been successfully implemented within the 28 Florida community colleges. The study also sought to determine when enrollment management structures began and whether expected benefits were achieved. Analysis of the data collected in this study indicated…
... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget and enrollment forecast and interim reports... forecast and interim reports. (a) Annual submittal. The HMO or CMP must submit an annual operating budget and enrollment forecast, in the form and detail required by CMS, at least 90 days before the beginning...
Lassila, Nathan E.
Empirical studies exploring the impact of student aid on postsecondary enrollment often stop short of the specific examination of institutional tuition discounting. This research uses separate empirical ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models to examine three questions using public choice theory, positing that enrollment decisions may be…
Alabi, Goski; Alabi, Joshua; Mohammed, Ibrahim
The paper undertook a snapshot of the demand for various academic programmes on the labour market and compared this with national policy norms for enrolment in public universities in Ghana. The objective was to ascertain whether national higher education enrolments are responsive to the national policy target of 60:40 (Sciences : Humanities) or…
Liedtke, Richard W.
Higher education like many sectors is experiencing financial instability during recent turbulent economic conditions. Many institutions of higher education rely on tuition dollars as a major portion of the operating budget and therefore need to manage enrollment effectively. With enrollment management being critical to the viability of an…
Sanders, Neill F.; Poynter, David J.
Data from a survey of admissions directors at urban, public universities and local (Wichita, Kansas) economic indicators were analyzed for possible relationships between the local economy and adult enrollment. Results suggest enrollments do move with the local economy, but average credit hours increase rather than decrease as the economy slows.…
... SERVICES GRANTS HEALTH EDUCATION ASSISTANCE LOAN PROGRAM The School § 60.53 Notification to lender or holder of change in enrollment status. Each school must notify the holder of a HEAL loan of any change in... failure to enroll as scheduled for any academic period as a full-time student, the student's latest known...
Analyzed 1990 U.S. Census data on the educational enrollment of 15-17-year-old immigrants. Results partially supported predictions from the segmented-assimilation and immigrant-optimism hypotheses. Most immigrant adolescents, particularly Asians, were as likely as native born adolescents to be enrolled in high school. Mexican teenagers had the…
... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Smart Traveler Enrollment Program ACTION: Notice of request... 1995, we are requesting comments on this collection from all interested individuals and organizations...: Smart Traveler Enrollment Program (STEP) OMB Control Number: 1405-0152 Type of Request: Extension...
... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Smart Traveler Enrollment Program ACTION: Notice of request... comments on this collection from all interested individuals and organizations. The purpose of this Notice... Information Collection: Smart Traveler Enrollment Program (STEP). OMB Control Number: 1405-0152. Type of...
Students from low-income families are underrepresented in higher education, despite the fact that many of them are well qualified to enroll. When low-income students do enroll in college, they tend to be overrepresented in public community colleges and for-profit institutions, or if they attend four-year institutions, tend to attend regional state…
Glewwe, Paul; Jacoby, Hanan
This study investigated why the primary school enrollment of children in poor countries is often delayed despite the prediction made by human capital theory that schooling will begin at the earliest possible age. Using data from the 1988-89 Ghana Living Standards Survey household questionnaire, the study examined the age of enrollment,…
D'Amico, Mark M.; Morgan, Grant B.; Katsinas, Stephen G.; Adair, J. Lucas; Miller, Michael T.
Noncredit community college enrollment accounts for approximately 40% of all enrollment in the two-year sector, or five million students (American Association of Community Colleges, 2016). Yet, this population is seldom discussed in the higher education literature due to inconsistent definitions, funding, and data reporting at the state level.…
Chaplin, Duncan D.; Turner, Mark D.; Pape, Andreas, D.
Estimates the effects of higher minimum wages on school enrollment using the Common Core of Data. Controlling for local labor market conditions and state and year fixed effects, finds some evidence that higher minimum wages reduce teen school enrollment in states where students drop out before age 18. (23 references) (Author/PKP)
Rawlins, Brad L.; Soenksen, Roger; Jensen, Matt
Some programs in journalism and mass communication have been forced to incorporate limited enrollment strategies, as undergraduate interest in these programs continues to grow. After 4 years of moderate growth, undergraduate enrollments in journalism and mass communication programs increased dramatically in the year 2000. Some of the limited…
Esters, Levon T.
The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that influenced the postsecondary education enrollment behaviors of students who graduated from an urban agricultural education program. Students indicated that parents and/or guardians had the most influence on their decisions to enroll in a postsecondary education program of agriculture.…
Horton, Robert Wayne
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the score differences on the Texas Academic Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) Reading and Mathematics measures among students in Grades 10 and 11 as a function of music enrollment. Specifically, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and enrollment in choir, band, or orchestra or no music enrollment…
Ewing, Kris M.; Beckert, Kim A.; Ewing, Bradley T.
This paper estimates the extent and magnitude of US college and university enrollment responses to unanticipated changes in macroeconomic activity. In particular, we consider the relationship between enrollment, economic growth, and inflation. A time series analysis known as a vector autoregression is estimated and impulse response functions are…
Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari
Background: In developed countries, it is challenging for teachers to select pedagogical practices that encourage students to enrol in science and technology courses in upper secondary school. Purpose: Aiming to understand the enrolment dynamics, this study analyses sample-based data from Finland's National Assessment in Science to determine…
Background/Context: In light of increasingly common, non-traditional pathways to college enrollment and potential importance of post-secondary education for family wellbeing, this article examines maternal college enrollment. I employ a sociological application of rational action theory in which costs of reentry, probability of success, and…
Despite the scale up of HIV/AIDS care and treatment services in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA), characteristics of individuals enrolled for care and the continuum of care remains less well described. This thesis aimed to describe the characteristics and outcomes of individuals enrolled for HIV/AIDS care
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How should grantees report on participants who are co-enrolled? 641.680 Section 641.680 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... participants who are co-enrolled? Referrals from a regular SCSEP grantee to a 502(e) only grantee that result...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual enrolled under supplementary medical insurance plan. 255.9 Section 255.9 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT RECOVERY OF OVERPAYMENTS § 255.9 Individual enrolled under...
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope of inspection for enrolled vessels. 8.545 Section 8.545 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL INSPECTION ALTERNATIVES Streamlined Inspection Program § 8.545 Scope of inspection for enrolled...
Zhumasheva, Anara; Zhumabaeva, Zaida; Sakenov, Janat; Vedilina, Yelena; Zhaxylykova, Nuriya; Sekenova, Balkumis
The current study focuses on the research topic of creating a theoretical model of development of information competence among students enrolled in elective courses. In order to examine specific features of the theoretical model of development of information competence among students enrolled in elective courses, we performed an analysis of…
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility to elect FERS coverage during... COVERAGE 1998 Open Enrollment Elections Who May Elect § 846.711 Eligibility to elect FERS coverage during... this chapter or § 846.722) may elect FERS coverage during the 1998 open enrollment period. ...
Weissman, Evan; Cerna, Oscar; Cullinan, Dan; Baldiga, Amanda
Evidence shows that financial aid increases college enrollment. For many students at low-cost community colleges, this aid is intended to cover more than tuition and fees; after those are paid, the remainder is paid out, or "refunded," to students to help with their living expenses while they are enrolled in school. Often, however, the…
The downturn in the economy has coincided with enrollment increases at many community colleges. However, although enrollment at two-year institutions is up, several states have trimmed--or even chopped--appropriations for higher education. Florida, New Mexico, Rhode Island, and Tennessee have each cut financing for 2009 by at least 5 percent,…
Wilson, Kristina; Durantini, Marta R; Albarracín, Julia; Crause, Candi; Albarracín, Dolores
Aspects of Latino culture (e.g., machismo, marianism) can act as barriers to enrollment in HIV-prevention programs. To lift these barriers, a culturally appropriate meta-intervention was designed to increase intentions to enroll in HIV-prevention counseling by Latinos. Latino participants (N=41) were recruited from the community and randomly assigned to either an experimental or control meta-intervention condition that varied the introduction to a HIV-prevention counseling program. Following the meta-intervention, participants were issued an invitation to take part in HIV-prevention counseling. The outcome measure was the intention to enroll in a HIV-prevention counseling session. Findings indicated that enrollment intentions were higher in the experimental meta-intervention condition (96%) than in the control meta-intervention condition (53%). In addition, the effects of the meta-intervention were comparable across genders and participant ages. Findings suggest that the use of a culturally appropriate meta-intervention may be an effective strategy for increasing Latino enrollment in HIV-prevention programs. These promising findings warrant further investigation into the efficacy and effectiveness of this meta-intervention.
Damm, P; Kühl, C; Hornnes, P
response) at all time points investigated; this was also found when only nonobese glucose-tolerant women were examined. Low insulin secretion during pregnancy together with a high fasting plasma glucose level at the diagnostic OGTT in pregnancy and hyperglycemia during the postpartum OGTT were predictive......OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether plasma insulin or glucagon predicts later development of diabetes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The subjects studied were 91 women with diet-treated GDM and 33 healthy women. Plasma insulin and glucagon during a 50...... at follow-up (2 had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, 13 had non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and 12 had impaired glucose tolerance). Compared with the control subjects, women with previous GDM had relatively impaired insulin secretion (decreased insulinogenic index and delayed peak insulin...
Damm, P; Kühl, C; Hornnes, P
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether plasma insulin or glucagon predicts later development of diabetes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The subjects studied were 91 women with diet-treated GDM and 33 healthy women. Plasma insulin and glucagon during a 50...... at follow-up (2 had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, 13 had non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and 12 had impaired glucose tolerance). Compared with the control subjects, women with previous GDM had relatively impaired insulin secretion (decreased insulinogenic index and delayed peak insulin...... for subsequent development of overt diabetes (logistic regression analysis). CONCLUSIONS: Women who develop GDM have a relative insulin secretion deficiency, the severity of which is predictive for later development of diabetes. Furthermore, our data indicate that their relatively reduced beta-cell function may...
Brown, Charles I., Ed.
The major theme of Report Card 1 is enrollment projections. Reports in this section include: Barwick and Stafford's "Statewide Enrollment Projections for North Carolina, 1975-80"; Reiman's "Assumption-Based Model for Developing Institutional Enrollment Projections"; Rajasekhara's "Enrollment Projection," dealing with alternative methods;…
... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individuals who enrolled or reenrolled before April... MEDICAL INSURANCE Amount of Monthly Premiums § 408.24 Individuals who enrolled or reenrolled before April 1, 1981 or after September 30, 1981. (a) Enrollment. For an individual who first enrolled before...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May I be enrolled in more than one dental... PROGRAM Coverage and Types of Enrollment § 894.204 May I be enrolled in more than one dental or vision plan at a time? You may be enrolled in a FEDVIP dental plan and a separate FEDVIP vision plan at the...
... be enrolled in Job Corps? 670.480 Section 670.480 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... considered to be enrolled in Job Corps? (a) To become enrolled as a Job Corps student, an applicant selected... transportation are considered to be enrolled on their dates of departure by such transportation. (b) Center...
Robert, Caroline; Long, Georgina V; Brady, Benjamin; Dutriaux, Caroline; Maio, Michele; Mortier, Laurent; Hassel, Jessica C; Rutkowski, Piotr; McNeil, Catriona; Kalinka-Warzocha, Ewa; Savage, Kerry J; Hernberg, Micaela M; Lebbé, Celeste; Charles, Julie; Mihalcioiu, Catalin; Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna; Mauch, Cornelia; Cognetti, Francesco; Arance, Ana; Schmidt, Henrik; Schadendorf, Dirk; Gogas, Helen; Lundgren-Eriksson, Lotta; Horak, Christine; Sharkey, Brian; Waxman, Ian M; Atkinson, Victoria; Ascierto, Paolo A
Nivolumab was associated with higher rates of objective response than chemotherapy in a phase 3 study involving patients with ipilimumab-refractory metastatic melanoma. The use of nivolumab in previously untreated patients with advanced melanoma has not been tested in a phase 3 controlled study. We randomly assigned 418 previously untreated patients who had metastatic melanoma without a BRAF mutation to receive nivolumab (at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram of body weight every 2 weeks and dacarbazine-matched placebo every 3 weeks) or dacarbazine (at a dose of 1000 mg per square meter of body-surface area every 3 weeks and nivolumab-matched placebo every 2 weeks). The primary end point was overall survival. At 1 year, the overall rate of survival was 72.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 65.5 to 78.9) in the nivolumab group, as compared with 42.1% (95% CI, 33.0 to 50.9) in the dacarbazine group (hazard ratio for death, 0.42; 99.79% CI, 0.25 to 0.73; Psurvival was 5.1 months in the nivolumab group versus 2.2 months in the dacarbazine group (hazard ratio for death or progression of disease, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.56; Psurvival benefit with nivolumab versus dacarbazine was observed across prespecified subgroups, including subgroups defined by status regarding the programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Common adverse events associated with nivolumab included fatigue, pruritus, and nausea. Drug-related adverse events of grade 3 or 4 occurred in 11.7% of the patients treated with nivolumab and 17.6% of those treated with dacarbazine. Nivolumab was associated with significant improvements in overall survival and progression-free survival, as compared with dacarbazine, among previously untreated patients who had metastatic melanoma without a BRAF mutation. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb; CheckMate 066 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01721772.).
Brevik, Eric C.; Vaughan, Karen L.; Parikh, Sanjai J.; Dolliver, Holly; Lindbo, David; Steffan, Joshua J.; Weindorf, David; McDaniel, Paul; Mbila, Monday; Edinger-Marshall, Susan
Studies indicate that soil science enrollment in the USA was on the decline in the 1990s and into the early 2000s (Baveye et al., 2006; Collins, 2008). However, a recent study indicated that in the seven years from 2007 through 2014 the number of soil science academic majors, at both the undergraduate and graduate levels, was on the increase (Brevik et al., 2014). However, the Brevik et al. (2014) study only looked at the number of soil science majors, it did not look at other important trends in soil science enrollment. Therefore, this study was developed to investigate enrollment numbers in individual soil science classes. To investigate this, we collected data from ten different American universities on the enrollment trends for seven different classes taught at the undergraduate level, introduction to soil science, soil fertility, soil management, pedology, soil biology/microbiology, soil chemistry, and soil physics, over a 10 year time period (2004-2005 to 2013-2014 academic years). Enrollment in each individual class was investigated over five (2009-2010 to 2013-2014) and 10 (2004-2005 to 2013-2014) year trends. All classes showed increasing enrollment over the five year study period except for soil physics, which experienced a modest decline in enrollment (-4.1% per year). The soil chemistry (23.2% per year) and soil management (10.1% per year) classes had the largest percentage gain in enrollment over the five year time period. All classes investigated experienced increased enrollment over the 10 year study period except soil biology/microbiology, which had an essentially stable enrollment (0.8% enrollment gain per year). Soil physics (28.9% per year) and soil chemistry (14.7% per year) had the largest percentage gain in enrollment over the 10 year time period. It is worth noting that soil physics enrollments had a large increase from 2004-2005 through 2009-2010, then dropped to and stabilized at a level that was lower than the 2009-2010 high but much
Hawken, Scott R; Herrel, Lindsey A; Ellimoottil, Chandy; Montgomery, Zachary A; Ye, Zaojun; Miller, David C
To anticipate the effects of accountable care organizations (ACOs) on surgical care, we examined pre-enrollment utilization, outcomes, and costs of inpatient surgery among hospitals currently enrolled in Medicare ACOs vs nonenrolling facilities. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2007 to 2011), we compared patient and hospital characteristics, distributions of surgical specialty care, and the most common inpatient surgeries performed between ACO-enrolling and nonenrolling hospitals before implementation of Medicare ACOs. We used multivariable regression to compare pre-enrollment inpatient mortality, length of stay (LOS), and costs. Hospitals now participating in Medicare ACO programs were more frequently nonprofit (P institutions (P = .01) that performed more specialty procedures (P vs nonenrolling hospitals. Medicare ACO hospitals had pre-enrollment outcomes that were similar to nonparticipating facilities. Future studies will determine whether ACO participation yields differential changes in surgical quality or costs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Habib, Ihab S.
The problem studied in this research project was the enrollment of female STEM Engineering Technology students and the impact of professional mentoring and financial incentives on their enrollment, retention, and completion of engineering curriculum. Several tasks were presented in researchers' professional position; to recruit more students to the program, especially female as a minority in the Engineering Technology Department, make appropriate changes to the curriculum, and make improvements in mentoring students to improve rates of enrollment, retention, and completion of the program. A survey was created to study the effects of Science Engineering Technology and Mathematics for Engineering Technology (STEM ENGT) students' perceptions, mentorship, and scholarships availability, enrollment, retention, and program completion by enrolled student gender. Other studies have discovered that more scholarship and faculty mentorship support provided for female students resulted in improved diversity within engineering curricula student bodies (Sorcinelli, 2007).
Eriksson, Karin; Forsgren, Emma; Hartelius, Lena; Saldert, Charlotta
To evaluate the effect of a communication partner training programme directed to enrolled nurses working with people with communication disorders in nursing homes, using an individualised approach. Five dyads consisting of a person with stroke-induced aphasia (n = 4) or Parkinson's disease (PD) (n = 1) living in different nursing homes and his/her enrolled nurse participated in the study, which had a replicated single-subject design with multiple baselines across individuals. The main element of the intervention was supervised analysis of video-recorded natural interaction in everyday nursing situations and the formulation of individual goals to change particular communicative strategies. Outcome was measured via blinded assessments of filmed natural interaction obtained at baseline, intervention and follow-up and showed an increased use of the target communicative strategies. Subjective measures of goal attainment by the enrolled nurses were consistent with these results. Measures of perceived functional communication on behalf of the persons with communication disorders were mostly positive; four of five participants with communication disorders and two of five enrolled nurses reported improved functional communication after intervention. The use of an individualised communication partner training programme led to significant changes in natural interaction, which contributes importantly to a growing body of knowledge regarding communication partner training. Communication partner training can improve the communicative environment of people with communication disorders. For people with communication disorders who live in institutions, the main conversation partner is likely to be a professional caretaker. An individualised approach for communication partner training that focussed on specific communication patterns was successful in increasing the use of supportive strategies that enrolled nurses used in natural interaction with persons with communication disorders
O. A. Kravtsova
Full Text Available Aim. To study the characteristics of renin profile and parameters of central pulse wave and arterial stiffness in patients with previously untreated arterial hypertension (HT. Material and methods. Patients (n=83; 39 males (47%; age 57.3±7.6 years with untreated uncomplicated 1-2 degree HT without associated clinical conditions and diabetes, with glomerular filtration rate>60 ml/min/1.73m2 were enrolled into the study. Plasma renin activity (PRA, plasma renin level and angiotensin II level were evaluated. The analysis of the central pulse wave, and pulse wave velocity (PWV measurements were performed.Results. The incidence of volume-dependent HT (PRA <0.65 ng/mL/h was 69%, and the renin-dependent HT with normal PRA (0.65-6.5 ng/ml/h – 31% in patients with untreated uncomplicated HT. Patients with low PRA are characterized by older age, higher systolic blood pressure (BP and higher arterial stiffness (increased PWV, increment pressure, augmentation index with a decrease in pulse pressure amplification after adjustment for these factors.Conclusion. The presence of volume-dependent HT is associated with older age, higher level of systolic BP and increase in arterial stiffness independent of age and BP.
O. A. Kravtsova
Full Text Available Aim. To study the characteristics of renin profile and parameters of central pulse wave and arterial stiffness in patients with previously untreated arterial hypertension (HT. Material and methods. Patients (n=83; 39 males (47%; age 57.3±7.6 years with untreated uncomplicated 1-2 degree HT without associated clinical conditions and diabetes, with glomerular filtration rate>60 ml/min/1.73m2 were enrolled into the study. Plasma renin activity (PRA, plasma renin level and angiotensin II level were evaluated. The analysis of the central pulse wave, and pulse wave velocity (PWV measurements were performed.Results. The incidence of volume-dependent HT (PRA <0.65 ng/mL/h was 69%, and the renin-dependent HT with normal PRA (0.65-6.5 ng/ml/h – 31% in patients with untreated uncomplicated HT. Patients with low PRA are characterized by older age, higher systolic blood pressure (BP and higher arterial stiffness (increased PWV, increment pressure, augmentation index with a decrease in pulse pressure amplification after adjustment for these factors.Conclusion. The presence of volume-dependent HT is associated with older age, higher level of systolic BP and increase in arterial stiffness independent of age and BP.
Hjelm Brandt Kristensen, Frans
vascular state. While it is biologically plausible that these changes may induce long-term consequences, the insight into morbidity as well as mortality in patients with previous hyperthyroidism is limited. The reasons for this are a combination of inadequately powered studies, varying definitions......,400 non-hyperthyroid control individuals (matched for age and sex), all identified from a random 5% sample of the Danish background population (n=339,481). In the second study population, 625 same-sex twin pairs, discordant for hyperthyroidism, were included. For each individual, the degree of co......-up (>10 years) as well as control for co-morbidity and genetic confounding. The results provide a number of interesting insights into the long-term consequences of hyperthyroidism. Firstly, hyperthyroidism is associated with an approximately 30% increased all-cause mortality. The all-cause mortality does...
McEntee, Margaret C; Page, Rodney L; Théon, Alain; Erb, Hollis N; Thrall, Donald E
In this retrospective study of 57 dogs irradiated for oral acanthomatous epulis, 2 (3.5%) dogs developed a second tumor (sarcoma, osteosarcoma) in the radiation treatment field at 5.2 and 8.7 years after the end of radiation therapy. As opposed to previous reports, no second epithelial tumors developed in the radiation treatment field. There is a risk of radiation-induced carcinogenesis, but it appears that it is a relatively low risk and an event that occurs years after radiation therapy. Radiation-induced tumors are of more concern in younger dogs that undergo radiation therapy for tumors that are radioresponsive, such as acanthomatous epulis, where long-term survival is expected. The only statistically significant variable in the survival analysis was age, with dogs less than 8.3 years old having a significantly longer median overall survival (2322 days) than dogs older than 8.3 years (1106 days; P<0.0001).
Finckenor, Miria; Pippin, H. Gary; Frey, George
Many different passive thermal control materials were flown as part of the Materials on International Space Station Experiment (MISSE), including inorganic coatings, anodized aluminum, and multi-layer insulation materials. These and other material samples were exposed to the low Earth orbital environment of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, thermal cycling, and hard vacuum, though atomic oxygen exposure was limited for some samples. Materials flown on MISSE-1 and MISSE-2 were exposed to the space environment for nearly four years. Materials flown on MISSE-3, MISSE-4, and MISSE-5 were exposed to the space environment for one year. Solar absorptance, infrared emittance, and mass measurements indicate the durability of these materials to withstand the space environment. Effects of short duration versus long duration exposure on ISS are explored, as well as comparable data from previous flight experiments, such as the Passive Optical Sample Assembly (POSA), Optical Properties Monitor (OPM), and Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF).
Anecdotal comparisons frequently are made between expeditions of the past and future space missions. From an engineering perspective, the differences between future and past expeditions are considerable. Spacecraft are far more complex than sailing ships, and one of the factors that drives the complexity is the requirement to support the crew in the hostile environment of space. The technological differences are significant, but from a behavioral perspective, are the differences really that great between confinement in a small wooden ship locked in the polar ice cap and confinement in a small high-technology ship hurtling through interplanetary space? The psychological differences probably are few. This paper discusses some of the most salient behavioral and technical lessons from previous expeditions that can be applied to facilitate the human explora- tion of Mars.
Keene, Melissa; Roston, Alicia; Keith, Louis; Patel, Ashlesha
The objective was to compare contraceptive method selection in women undergoing their first pregnancy termination versus women undergoing repeat pregnancy termination in an urban abortion clinic. We hypothesized that women undergoing repeat abortions will select highly effective contraceptives (intrauterine device, subdermal implant, tubal ligation) more often than patients undergoing their first abortion. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all women undergoing first-trimester surgical abortion at John H. Stroger, Jr., Hospital of Cook County from October 1, 2009, to October 31, 2011. We compared contraceptive method selection in the postabortion period after receipt of contraceptive counseling for 7466 women, stratifying women by history of no prior abortion versus one or more abortions. Of the 7466 women, 48.6% (3625) had no history of previous abortion. After controlling for age, race and number of living children, women with a history of abortion were more likely to select a highly effective method [odds ratio (OR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.33]. Most significantly, having living children was the strongest predictor of a highly effective method with an OR of 3.17 (95% CI 2.69-3.75). In women having a first-trimester abortion, the factors most predictive of selecting a highly effective method for postabortion contraception include history of previous abortion and having living children. The latter holds true independent of abortion history. This paper is unique in its ability to demonstrate the high interest in highly effective contraceptive selection in high-risk, low-income women with prior abortion history. Efforts to integrate provision of highly effective methods of contraception for postabortion care are essential for the reduction of future unintended pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Templeton, Jennifer E L; Taylor, Duncan; Handt, Oliva; Linacre, Adrian
Fingermarks are a source of human identification both through the ridge patterns and DNA profiling. Typing nuclear STR DNA markers from previously enhanced fingermarks provides an alternative method of utilising the limited fingermark deposit that can be left behind during a criminal act. Dusting with fingerprint powders is a standard method used in classical fingermark enhancement and can affect DNA data. The ability to generate informative DNA profiles from powdered fingerprints using direct PCR swabs was investigated. Direct PCR was used as the opportunity to generate usable DNA profiles after performing any of the standard DNA extraction processes is minimal. Omitting the extraction step will, for many samples, be the key to success if there is limited sample DNA. DNA profiles were generated by direct PCR from 160 fingermarks after treatment with one of the following dactyloscopic fingerprint powders: white hadonite; silver aluminium; HiFi Volcano silk black; or black magnetic fingerprint powder. This was achieved by a combination of an optimised double-swabbing technique and swab media, omission of the extraction step to minimise loss of critical low-template DNA, and additional AmpliTaq Gold(®) DNA polymerase to boost the PCR. Ninety eight out of 160 samples (61%) were considered 'up-loadable' to the Australian National Criminal Investigation DNA Database (NCIDD). The method described required a minimum of working steps, equipment and reagents, and was completed within 4h. Direct PCR allows the generation of DNA profiles from enhanced prints without the need to increase PCR cycle numbers beyond manufacturer's recommendations. Particular emphasis was placed on preventing contamination by applying strict protocols and avoiding the use of previously used fingerprint brushes. Based on this extensive survey, the data provided indicate minimal effects of any of these four powders on the chance of obtaining DNA profiles from enhanced fingermarks. Copyright © 2017
Karanas, Yvonne L; Leong, Darren S; Da Lio, Andrew; Waldron, Kathleen; Watson, James P; Chang, Helena; Shaw, William W
The incidence of breast cancer is increasing each year. Concomitantly, cosmetic breast augmentation has become the second most often performed cosmetic surgical procedure. As the augmented patient population ages, an increasing number of breast cancer cases among previously augmented women can be anticipated. The surgical treatment of these patients is controversial, with several questions remaining unanswered. Is breast conservation therapy feasible in this patient population and can these patients retain their implants? A retrospective review of all breast cancer patients with a history of previous augmentation mammaplasty who were treated at the Revlon/UCLA Breast Center between 1991 and 2001 was performed. During the study period, 58 patients were treated. Thirty patients (52 percent) were treated with a modified radical mastectomy with implant removal. Twenty-eight patients (48 percent) underwent breast conservation therapy, which consisted of lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and radiotherapy. Twenty-two of the patients who underwent breast conservation therapy initially retained their implants. Eleven of those 22 patients (50 percent) ultimately required completion mastectomies with implant removal because of implant complications (two patients), local recurrences (five patients), or the inability to obtain negative margins (four patients). Nine additional patients experienced complications resulting from their implants, including contracture, erosion, pain, and rupture. The data illustrate that breast conservation therapy with maintenance of the implant is not ideal for the majority of augmented patients. Breast conservation therapy with explantation and mastopexy might be appropriate for rare patients with large volumes of native breast tissue. Mastectomy with immediate reconstruction might be a more suitable choice for these patients.
Holmfeldt, Karin; Solonenko, Natalie; Shah, Manesh; Corrier, Kristen; Riemann, Lasse; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Sullivan, Matthew B
Viruses are fundamental to ecosystems ranging from oceans to humans, yet our ability to study them is bottlenecked by the lack of ecologically relevant isolates, resulting in "unknowns" dominating culture-independent surveys. Here we present genomes from 31 phages infecting multiple strains of the aquatic bacterium Cellulophaga baltica (Bacteroidetes) to provide data for an underrepresented and environmentally abundant bacterial lineage. Comparative genomics delineated 12 phage groups that (i) each represent a new genus, and (ii) represent one novel and four well-known viral families. This diversity contrasts the few well-studied marine phage systems, but parallels the diversity of phages infecting human-associated bacteria. Although all 12 Cellulophaga phages represent new genera, the podoviruses and icosahedral, nontailed ssDNA phages were exceptional, with genomes up to twice as large as those previously observed for each phage type. Structural novelty was also substantial, requiring experimental phage proteomics to identify 83% of the structural proteins. The presence of uncommon nucleotide metabolism genes in four genera likely underscores the importance of scavenging nutrient-rich molecules as previously seen for phages in marine environments. Metagenomic recruitment analyses suggest that these particular Cellulophaga phages are rare and may represent a first glimpse into the phage side of the rare biosphere. However, these analyses also revealed that these phage genera are widespread, occurring in 94% of 137 investigated metagenomes. Together, this diverse and novel collection of phages identifies a small but ubiquitous fraction of unknown marine viral diversity and provides numerous environmentally relevant phage-host systems for experimental hypothesis testing.
Iaia, F. M.; Perez-Gomez, J.; Nordsborg, Nikolai
(HI; approximately 3 min) or low (LO; approximately 2 h) intensity. Compared with CON, performance during EX2 was reduced (P... during a repeated high-intensity exercise lasting 1/2-2 min.......The present study examined how metabolic response and work capacity are affected by previous exhaustive exercise. Seven subjects performed an exhaustive cycle exercise ( approximately 130%-max; EX2) after warm-up (CON) and 2 min after an exhaustive bout at a very high (VH; approximately 30 s), high...
Murray-Parahi, P; Edgar, V; Descallar, J; Comino, E; Johnson, M
A continuing shift of healthcare delivery from hospital to the community has increased the acuity and complexity of care provided in the home. Global financial crises and nursing shortages have prompted policies supporting two tiers of nursing and expansion of the licensed practical nurse, second level or enrolled nurse role and evoked debate surrounding roles traditionally undertaken by registered nurses. Community nursing offers unique challenges for enrolled nurses wanting to enact their full scope of practice. To compare and describe registered and enrolled nurse opinions of their current and potential enrolled nurse scope of practice in the community health setting. A cross-sectional survey of 136 nurses (115 registered and 21 enrolled nurses) was undertaken within a large community nursing team in Australia. Participants reported their opinions of enrolled nurse scope of practice based on 27 core community nursing skills. Although substantial agreement was evident, there were statistically significant differences between registered nurse and enrolled nurse opinions in core skill areas; 'Patient Education' and 'Clinical Observation'. Registered nurses identified some specialized skills-catheter and gastrostomy care-that could be undertaken by enrolled nurses with further education. We confirm that registered nurses do agree with extending the skills of enrolled nurses. Education approaches that build shared confidence in enrolled nurse advanced skills are recommended. The future supply of nurses is at risk. There are limited resources and increasing demand for quality health care where people live and work. While there may be opportunities internationally to improve productivity through advanced nursing roles, these policies should prioritize efficiency by firstly promoting the full enactment of nursing skills in these settings. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.
Macnamara, Annmarie; Ochsner, Kevin N; Hajcak, Greg
To examine whether reappraisal modifies responses to subsequent encounters with stimuli, participants viewed neutral and unpleasant pictures that were preceded by negative or neutral descriptions which served as reappraisal frames. A half an hour later, the same pictures were presented, without preceding frames; EEG was recorded and participants rated each picture on arousal and valence. In line with previous work, unpleasant compared to neutral pictures elicited more positive early- (359 ms), mid- (1074 ms) and late-latency (2436 ms) centrally-distributed ERP components. Pictures previously preceded by negative compared to neutral reappraisal frames were rated as more unpleasant and more emotionally arousing; these pictures elicited a larger mid-latency (1074 ms) occipital positivity. Together, the data suggest that reappraisal exerts an enduring effect on both subjective and neural responses to stimuli.
Raridon, M.H. (ed.)
The International Energy Subject Thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary to indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured to build and maintain energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) staff representing the more than ninety countries and organizations recording and indexing information for the international nuclear information community. ETDE member countries are also members of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). Nuclear information indexed and recorded for INIS by these ETDE member countries is also included in the ETDE Energy Data Base, and indexing terminology is therefore cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of international energy research, development, and technological programs and encompasses terminology derived not only from the basic sciences but also from the areas of energy resources, conservation, safety, environmental impact, and regulation.
Vinogradov, G. P.
The problem of constructing a choice model of an agent with endogenous purposes of evolution is under debate. It is demonstrated that its solution requires the development of well-known methods of decision-making while taking into account the relation of action mode motivation to an agent’s ambition to implement subjectively understood interests and the environment state. The latter is submitted for consideration as a purposeful state situation model that exists only in the mind of an agent. It is the situation that is a basis for getting an insight into the agent’s ideas on the possible selected action mode results. The agent’s ambition to build his confidence in the feasibility of the action mode and the possibility of achieving the desired state requires him to use the procedures of forming an idea model based on the measured values of environment state. This leads to the gaming approach for the choice problem and its solution can be obtained on a set of trade-off alternatives.
Full Text Available The specific aspects which determined the way some groups of students conducted their work in a university laboratory, made us understand the articulation of these groups´s dynamics, from elements that were beyond the reach of cognition. In more specific terms the conduction and the maintenance of the groups student´s dynamics were explicited based on a intergame between the non conscious strategies, shared anonymously, and the efforts of the individuals in working based on their most objective task. The results and issues we have reached so far, using a reference the work developed by W.R.Bion, with therapeutical groups, gave us the possibility for understanding the dynamics of the student´s experimental work through a new approach that approximates the fields of cognition and subjectivity. This approximation led us to a deeper reflection about the issues which may be involved in the teaching process, particularly in situations which the teacher deals with the class, organised in groups.
Sharma, Chanderdeep; Soni, Anjali; Gupta, Amit; Verma, Ashok; Verma, Suresh
To compare oral mifepristone (400 mg) with trans-cervical balloon catheter for induction of labor (IOL) in post date women with previous one cesarean section (CS). In this randomized trial, post date pregnant women (gestation 40 weeks 5 days), with previous one low segment CS (no previous vaginal delivery) were induced either with oral mifepristone (400 mg) or balloon catheter [Foley's catheter (16 Fr); bulb filled with 30 ml normal saline]. They were re-assessed 24 and 48 h later. If at any time Bishop Score was >6; amniotomy was done, followed by oxytocin infusion. Primary outcome of the study was labor onset after first manoeuvre. Secondary outcomes were cervical ripening, need of oxytocin, vaginal delivery and CS, in two groups. From June 2012 to September 2015, we enrolled 107 women. Out of these, 57 received oral tablet mifepristone (400 mg) and 50 were inserted with balloon catheter. Labor onset after first manoeuvre was statistically significantly more in mifepristone group (37/57 vs. 13/50, respectively; p value 0.000). Bishop Score after 24 h was better in balloon catheter (p value 0.000). More women with balloon catheter required oxytocin for IOL (37/50 vs. 20/57, respectively; p value 0.000) along with higher dose [840 (320) mU vs 560 (120) mU, respectively, p value 0.000]. Failure of induction was statistically significantly higher in balloon catheter group (8 out of 50 vs. 2 out of 57, respectively, p value 0.043). There was no statistically significant difference in normal delivery or CS in either group (p value 0.242 and 0.331, respectively). Oral mifepristone (400 mg) is associated with statistically significantly higher incidence of labor onset in post date pregnant women with previous one CS, as compared to balloon catheter. Both methods are primarily for cervical ripening and oxytocin should not be delayed in the absence of onset of labor. Clinical Trials Registry-India, www.ctri.nic.in , CTRI/2012/05/003634.
Tremlett, Helen; Paty, Donald; Devonshire, Virginia
To investigate disease progression and risk factors in a large geographically based population with multiple sclerosis (MS), using two different inception points--clinical onset and date of birth. The authors reviewed a database of subjects with definite MS and symptom onset prior to July 1988. The main outcome was sustained progression to Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 6 (requires a cane), using the date of birth and date of MS onset as inception points in separate analyses. Risk factors examined were sex, relapsing vs primary progressive course, onset age, and onset symptoms. The study included 2,837 patients, followed prospectively for 22,723 patient years. The median time to EDSS 6 was 27.9 years, 15 years after onset; only 21% reached EDSS 6, and by age 50, 28% required a cane. Men progressed 38% more quickly than women from onset (p men and 60.1 for women (p = 0.082). A younger onset age predicted a slower progression, but those older at onset were consistently older when reaching EDSS 6. A primary progressive course predicted a more rapid progression from both onset (p multiple sclerosis (MS) accrued more slowly than found in earlier longitudinal studies. The authors also challenged two fundamental concepts in MS, demonstrating that neither male sex nor older onset age was associated with worse disease outcome.
Pombo, F. de O.
Nuclear physics is a branch of physics that about a century occupies an important space in the theoretical, experimental and scientific fields. Currently, its relevance in application is concentrated in several areas such as energy production, diagnostic processes and medical treatment and nuclear bombs, high destructive power. Whereas, according to legal regulations, the teaching of physics must make the student competent in the understanding of the world and assuming the perspective of Paulo Freire (2011) that education is not done on the subject, but together with him, in dialogue with his point of departure, his prior knowledge, we established the general objective of raising students prior knowledge of the third year of high School at Nair Ferreira Neves school, in São Sebastião-SP, about nuclear physics. We concluded that the school has not fulfilled its role in relation to nuclear physics, because students have information from other means of information and these knowledge are stereotyped and mistaken, damaging the world's reading and exercising full citizenship.
Edward M. Corrado
Larkin, James; Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna; Gonzalez, Rene; Grob, Jean Jacques; Cowey, C. Lance; Lao, Christopher D.; Schadendorf, Dirk; Dummer, Reinhard; Smylie, Michael; Rutkowski, Piotr; Ferrucci, Pier Francesco; Hill, Andrew; Wagstaff, John; Carlino, Matteo S.; Haanen, John B.; Maio, Michele; Marquez-Rodas, Ivan; McArthur, Grant A.; Ascierto, Paolo A.; Long, Georgina V.; Callahan, Margaret K.; Postow, Michael A.; Grossmann, Kenneth; Sznol, Mario; Dreno, Brigitte; Bastholt, Lars; Yang, Arvin; Rollin, Linda M.; Horak, Christine; Hodi, F. Stephen; Wolchok, Jedd D.
Background The results of phase 1 and phase 2 studies suggest that nivolumab (a PD-1 checkpoint inhibitor) and ipilimumab (a CTLA-4 checkpoint inhibitor) have complementary activity in metastatic melanoma. In this randomized, double-blind, phase 3 study, nivolumab alone or nivolumab combined with ipilimumab versus ipilimumab alone were evaluated in patients with metastatic melanoma. Methods We randomly assigned 945 previously untreated patients with unresectable stage III or IV melanoma, in 1:1:1 ratio, to nivolumab alone (3 mg per kilogram of body weight every 2 weeks), or to nivolumab (at a dose of 1 mg per kilogram) plus ipilimumab (at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram) every 3 weeks for 4 doses followed by nivolumab (3 mg per kilogram every 2 weeks), or to ipilimumab alone (3 mg per kilogram every 3 weeks for 4 doses). Progression-free and overall survival were co-primary end points. Patients continue to be followed for overall survival. Results Median progression-free survival was 11.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.9 to 16.7) for nivolumab plus ipilimumab as compared with 2.9 months (95% CI, 2.8 to 3.4) for ipilimumab alone (hazard ratio, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.57; Pnivolumab alone (hazard ratio in the comparison with ipilimumab alone, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.76; Pnivolumab plus ipilimumab and nivolumab alone groups, but in PD-L1-negative patients, progression-free survival was longer with the combination as compared with nivolumab alone (11.2 months [95% CI, 8.0 to not reached] versus 5.3 months [95% CI, 2.8 to 7.1]). Grade 3–4 drug-related adverse events occurred in 16.3%, 55.0%, and 27.3% of patients in the nivolumab, nivolumab plus ipilimumab, and ipilimumab alone groups, with 1, 0, and 1 drug-related deaths, respectively. Conclusions Nivolumab alone or combined with ipilimumab significantly improved progression-free survival, as compared with ipilimumab, among previously untreated patients with metastatic melanoma. Results with the combination
Halbert, Steven C; French, Benjamin; Gordon, Ram Y; Farrar, John T; Schmitz, Kathryn; Morris, Patti B; Thompson, Paul D; Rader, Daniel J; Becker, David J
Currently, no consensus has been reached regarding the management of hyperlipidemia in patients who develop statin-associated myalgia (SAM). Many statin-intolerant patients use alternative lipid-lowering therapies, including red yeast rice. The present trial evaluated the tolerability of red yeast rice versus pravastatin in patients unable to tolerate other statins because of myalgia. The study was conducted in a community-based setting in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. A total of 43 adults with dyslipidemia and a history of statin discontinuation because of myalgia were randomly assigned to red yeast rice 2,400 mg twice daily or pravastatin 20 mg twice daily for 12 weeks. All subjects were concomitantly enrolled in a 12-week therapeutic lifestyle change program. The primary outcomes included the incidence of treatment discontinuation because of myalgia and a daily pain severity score. The secondary outcomes were muscle strength and plasma lipids. The incidence of withdrawal from medication owing to myalgia was 5% (1 of 21) in the red yeast rice group and 9% (2 of 22) in the pravastatin group (p = 0.99). The mean pain severity did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. No difference was found in muscle strength between the 2 groups at week 4 (p = 0.61), week 8 (p = 0.81), or week 12 (p = 0.82). The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level decreased 30% in the red yeast rice group and 27% in the pravastatin group. In conclusion, red yeast rice was tolerated as well as pravastatin and achieved a comparable reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in a population previously intolerant to statins. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Lowery, Maeve A; Kelsen, David P; Capanu, Marinela; Smith, Sloane C; Lee, Jonathan W; Stadler, Zsofia K; Moore, Malcolm J; Kindler, Hedy L; Golan, Talia; Segal, Amiel; Maynard, Hannah; Hollywood, Ellen; Moynahan, MaryEllen; Salo-Mullen, Erin E; Do, Richard Kinh Gian; Chen, Alice P; Yu, Kenneth H; Tang, Laura H; O'Reilly, Eileen M
BRCA-associated cancers have increased sensitivity to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPis). This single arm, non-randomised, multicentre phase II trial evaluated the response rate of veliparib in patients with previously treated BRCA1/2- or PALB2-mutant pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Patients with stage III/IV PDAC and known germline BRCA1/2 or PALB2 mutation, 1-2 lines of treatment, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 0-2, were enrolled. Veliparib was dosed at a volume of 300 mg twice-daily (N = 3), then 400 mg twice-daily (N = 15) days 1-28. The primary end-point was to determine the response rate of veliparib; secondary end-points included progression-free survival (PFS), duration of response, overall survival (OS) and safety. Sixteen patients were enrolled; male N = 8 (50%). Median age was 52 years (range 43-77). Five (31%) had a BRCA1 and 11 (69%) had a BRCA2 mutation. Fourteen (88%) patients had received prior platinum-based therapy. No confirmed partial responses (PRs) were seen: one (6%) unconfirmed PR was observed at 4 months with disease progression (PD) at 6 months; four (25%) had stable disease (SD), whereas 11 (69%) had PD as best response including one with clinical PD. Median PFS was 1.7 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.57-1.83) and median OS was 3.1 months (95% CI 1.9-4.1). Six (38%) patients had grade III toxicity, including fatigue (N = 3), haematology (N = 2) and nausea (N = 1). Veliparib was well tolerated, but no confirmed response was observed although four (25%) patients remained on study with SD for ≥ 4 months. Additional strategies in this population are needed, and ongoing trials are evaluating PARPis combined with chemotherapy (NCT01585805) and as a maintenance strategy (NCT02184195). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A hybrid coevolution particle swarm optimization algorithm with dynamic multispecies strategy based on K-means clustering and nonrevisit strategy based on Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree (called MCPSO-PSH is proposed. Previous search history memorized into the Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree can effectively restrain the individuals’ revisit phenomenon. The whole population is partitioned into several subspecies and cooperative coevolution is realized by an information communication mechanism between subspecies, which can enhance the global search ability of particles and avoid premature convergence to local optimum. To demonstrate the power of the method, comparisons between the proposed algorithm and state-of-the-art algorithms are grouped into two categories: 10 basic benchmark functions (10-dimensional and 30-dimensional, 10 CEC2005 benchmark functions (30-dimensional, and a real-world problem (multilevel image segmentation problems. Experimental results show that MCPSO-PSH displays a competitive performance compared to the other swarm-based or evolutionary algorithms in terms of solution accuracy and statistical tests.