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Sample records for subjects performed logical

  1. Preliminary experiments using subjective logic for the polyrepresentation of information needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Ingwersen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    -resentation was mathematically expressed using subjective logic [12], where the potential suitability of each representation for improving retrieval performance was formalised through degrees of belief and uncertainty [15]. No experimental evidence or practical application has so far validated this model. We extend the work......) independence or (b) dependence between the information objects that are combined. We focus on the polyrepresentation of different types of context relating to user information needs (i.e. work task, user background knowledge, ideal answer) and show that the subjective logic model can predict their optimal...

  2. Preliminary experiments using subjective logic for the polyrepresentation of information needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Ingwersen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    of polyrepresentation was mathematically expressed using subjective logic [12], where the potential suitability of each representation for improving retrieval performance was formalised through degrees of belief and uncertainty [15]. No experimental evidence or practical application has so far validated this model. We...... assuming either (a) independence or (b) dependence between the information objects that are combined. We focus on the polyrepresentation of different types of context relating to user information needs (i.e. work task, user background knowledge, ideal answer) and show that the subjective logic model can...

  3. On the Optimality of Trust Network Analysis with Subjective Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARK, Y.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Building and measuring trust is one of crucial aspects in e-commerce, social networking and computer security. Trust networks are widely used to formalize trust relationships and to conduct formal reasoning of trust values. Diverse trust network analysis methods have been developed so far and one of the most widely used schemes is TNA-SL (Trust Network Analysis with Subjective Logic. Recent papers claimed that TNA-SL always finds the optimal solution by producing the least uncertainty. In this paper, we present some counter-examples, which imply that TNA-SL is not an optimal algorithm. Furthermore, we present a probabilistic algorithm in edge splitting to minimize uncertainty.

  4. The Quantification of Consistent Subjective Logic Tree Branch Weights for PSHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, A. K.; Scherbaum, F.

    2012-04-01

    The development of quantitative models for the rate of exceedance of seismically generated ground motion parameters is the target of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). In regions of low to moderate seismicity, the selection and evaluation of source- and/or ground-motion models is often a major challenge to hazard analysts and affected by large epistemic uncertainties. In PSHA this type of uncertainties is commonly treated within a logic tree framework in which the branch weights express the degree-of-belief values of an expert in the corresponding set of models. For the calculation of the distribution of hazard curves, these branch weights are subsequently used as subjective probabilities. However the quality of the results depends strongly on the "quality" of the expert knowledge. A major challenge for experts in this context is to provide weight estimates which are logically consistent (in the sense of Kolmogorov's axioms) and to be aware of and to deal with the multitude of heuristics and biases which affect human judgment under uncertainty. For example, people tend to give smaller weights to each branch of a logic tree the more branches it has, starting with equal weights for all branches and then adjusting this uniform distribution based on his/her beliefs about how the branches differ. This effect is known as pruning bias.¹ A similar unwanted effect, which may even wrongly suggest robustness of the corresponding hazard estimates, will appear in cases where all models are first judged according to some numerical quality measure approach and the resulting weights are subsequently normalized to sum up to one.2 To address these problems, we have developed interactive graphical tools for the determination of logic tree branch weights in form of logically consistent subjective probabilities, based on the concepts suggested in Curtis and Wood (2004).3 Instead of determining the set of weights for all the models in a single step, the computer driven

  5. Adaptive optics simulation performance improvements using reconfigurable logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basden, Alastair

    2007-02-20

    A technique used to accelerate an adaptive optics simulation platform using reconfigurable logic is described. The performance of parts of this simulation has been improved by up to 600 times (reducing computation times by this factor) by implementing algorithms within hardware and enables adaptive optics simulations to be carried out in a reasonable time scale. This demonstrates that it is possible to use reconfigurable logic to accelerate computational codes by very large factors when compared with conventional software approaches, and this has relevance for many computationally intensive applications. The use of reconfigurable logic for high performance computing is currently in its infancy and has never before been applied to this field.

  6. INDONESIA PUBLIC BANKS PERFORMANCE EVALUATION USING FUZZY LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiarto Sugiarto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Return on Asset (ROA is a variable that has the greatest ability in predicting public banks stock prices in Indonesia. The coefficient of determination of ROA on public banks stock prices in Indonesia reached 54.8%. ROA has a significant positive influence on public bank stock prices in Indonesia. Fuzzy logic process on the performance of the 15 public banks in Indonesia have been carried out using the data of ROA for the period 2010 up to 2013. Bank reference performance according to ROA is based on Bank Indonesia Letter No. 6 / 23DPNP / 2011. The performance of each bank was analyzed by conventional methods and as a comparison used fuzzy logic. The evaluation with fuzzy logic method able to provide added value to the currently enforced performance evaluation method. There is significant difference in conclusion between the determination of fuzzy logic models and conventional method

  7. Application of fuzzy logic in performance management: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Gurrea

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Performance management has become in a key success factor for any organization. Traditionally, performance management has focused uniquely in financial measures, mainly using quantitative measures, but two decades ago they were extended towards an integral view of the organization, appearing qualitative measures. This type of extended view and associated measures have a degree of uncertainty that needs to be bounded. One of the essential tools for uncertainty bounding is the fuzzy logic and, therefore,the main objective of this paper is the analysis of the literature about the application of fuzzy logic in performance measurement systems operating within uncertainty environments with the aim of categorizing, conceptualizing and classifying the works written so far. Finally, three categories are defined according to the different uses of fuzzy logic within performance management concluding that the most important application of fuzzy logic that counts with a higher number of studies is uncertainty bounding.

  8. Data Recording in Performance Management: Trouble With the Logics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth Andersson, Signe; Denvall, Verner

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, performance management (PM) has become a buzzword in public sector organizations. Well-functioning PM systems rely on valid performance data, but critics point out that conflicting rationale or logic among professional staff in recording information can undermine the quality of the data. Based on a case study of social service…

  9. A Rewriting Framework and Logic for Activities Subject to Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-28

    the health of subjects, CIs are rigorously regulated by policies elaborated by governmental agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA...mark transition between positive and negative phases. A key property of LLF is that it allows one to construct macro-rules that introduce synthetic ...is proportional to the number of clocks involved. Their states can be conceived of as the result of the horizontal time cut, since all ingredients of a

  10. Fuzzy Logic Approach to Diagnosis of Feedwater Heater Performance Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yeon Kwan; Kim, Hyeon Min; Heo, Gyun Young [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Sang, Seok Yoon [Engineering and Technical Center, Korea Hydro, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Since failure in, damage to, and performance degradation of power generation components in operation under harsh environment of high pressure and high temperature may cause both economic and human loss at power plants, highly reliable operation and control of these components are necessary. Therefore, a systematic method of diagnosing the condition of these components in its early stages is required. There have been many researches related to the diagnosis of these components, but our group developed an approach using a regression model and diagnosis table, specializing in diagnosis relating to thermal efficiency degradation of power plant. However, there was a difficulty in applying the method using the regression model to power plants with different operating conditions because the model was sensitive to value. In case of the method that uses diagnosis table, it was difficult to find the level at which each performance degradation factor had an effect on the components. Therefore, fuzzy logic was introduced in order to diagnose performance degradation using both qualitative and quantitative results obtained from the components' operation data. The model makes performance degradation assessment using various performance degradation variables according to the input rule constructed based on fuzzy logic. The purpose of the model is to help the operator diagnose performance degradation of components of power plants. This paper makes an analysis of power plant feedwater heater by using fuzzy logic. Feedwater heater is one of the core components that regulate life-cycle of a power plant. Performance degradation has a direct effect on power generation efficiency. It is not easy to observe performance degradation of feedwater heater. However, on the other hand, troubles such as tube leakage may bring simultaneous damage to the tube bundle and therefore it is the object of concern in economic aspect. This study explains the process of diagnosing and verifying typical

  11. Indonesia Public Banks Performance Evaluation Using Fuzzy Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiarto, Sugiarto; Pandiangan, Tumpal

    2016-01-01

    Return on Asset (ROA) is a variable that has the greatest ability in predicting public banks stock prices in Indonesia. The coefficient of determination of ROA on public banks stock prices in Indonesia reached 54.8%. ROA has a significant positive influence on public bank stock prices in Indonesia. Fuzzy logic process on the performance of the 15 public banks in Indonesia have been carried out using the data of ROA for the period 2010 up to 2013. Bank reference performance according to ROA is...

  12. Performance analysis of a majority logic multiplex system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseng, T.

    1980-09-01

    The code division multiplexing (CDM) of digitally modulated baseband signals is normally referred to as majority logic multiplexing (MLM). The employment of MLM techniques in spread spectrum multiple access (SSMA) systems is especially attractive because it allows many different types of baseband channels to be easily combined. The traffic level can be gradually reduced to obtain a desired increase in processing gain, without affecting the active channels' share of the transmitter power. The code integrity and the processing gain of the SSMA equipment can be preserved by suitable design. This paper contains a general performance analysis of an MLM system that uses random codes. The basic MLM principle is extended to handle the combining of traffic channels with different bit rates. Calculated values of performance deterioration due to noise are compared with experimental results and found to be in close agreement.

  13. A Subjective Logic Formalisation of the Principle of Polyrepresentation for Information Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Schütze, Hinrich

    2010-01-01

    Interactive Information Retrieval refers to the branch of Information Retrieval that considers the retrieval process with respect to a wide range of contexts, which may affect the user's information seeking experience. The identification and representation of such contexts has been the object...... on it. One reason may be that it has not yet been formalised mathematically. In this paper we propose an up-to-date and flexible mathematical formalisation of the principle of Polyrepresentation for information needs. Specifically, we apply Subjective Logic to model different representations...

  14. Toward high-performance digital logic technology with carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulevski, George S; Franklin, Aaron D; Frank, David; Lobez, Jose M; Cao, Qing; Park, Hongsik; Afzali, Ali; Han, Shu-Jen; Hannon, James B; Haensch, Wilfried

    2014-09-23

    The slow-down in traditional silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) scaling (Moore's law) has created an opportunity for a disruptive innovation to bring the semiconductor industry into a postsilicon era. Due to their ultrathin body and ballistic transport, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the intrinsic transport and scaling properties to usher in this new era. The remaining challenges are largely materials-related and include obtaining purity levels suitable for logic technology, placement of CNTs at very tight (∼5 nm) pitch to allow for density scaling and source/drain contact scaling. This review examines the potential performance advantages of a CNT-based computing technology, outlines the remaining challenges, and describes the recent progress on these fronts. Although overcoming these issues will be challenging and will require a large, sustained effort from both industry and academia, the recent progress in the field is a cause for optimism that these materials can have an impact on future technologies.

  15. Novel nano materials for high performance logic and memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saptarshi

    After decades of relentless progress, the silicon CMOS industry is approaching a stall in device performance for both logic and memory devices due to fundamental scaling limitations. In order to reinforce the accelerating pace, novel materials with unique properties are being proposed on an urgent basis. This list includes one dimensional nanotubes, quasi one dimensional nanowires, two dimensional atomistically thin layered materials like graphene, hexagonal boron nitride and the more recently the rich family of transition metal di-chalcogenides comprising of MoS2, WSe2, WS2 and many more for logic applications and organic and inorganic ferroelectrics, phase change materials and magnetic materials for memory applications. Only time will tell who will win, but exploring these novel materials allow us to revisit the fundamentals and strengthen our understanding which will ultimately be beneficial for high performance device design. While there has been growing interest in two-dimensional (2D) crystals other than graphene, evaluating their potential usefulness for electronic applications is still in its infancies due to the lack of a complete picture of their performance potential. The fact that the 2-D layered semiconducting di-chalcogenides need to be connected to the "outside" world in order to capitalize on their ultimate potential immediately emphasizes the importance of a thorough understanding of the contacts. This thesis demonstrate that through a proper understanding and design of source/drain contacts and the right choice of number of MoS2 layers the excellent intrinsic properties of this 2D material can be harvested. A comprehensive experimental study on the dependence of carrier mobility on the layer thickness of back gated multilayer MoS 2 field effect transistors is also provided. A resistor network model that comprises of Thomas-Fermi charge screening and interlayer coupling is used to explain the non-monotonic trend in the extracted field effect

  16. Performance evaluation of the distance education system with fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaǧan, Hamit; Yiǧit, Tuncay

    2017-07-01

    Distance education is a kind of education that brought together course advisor, student and educational materials in a different time and place through communicational technologies. In this educational system the success of education is directly related to audio, video and interaction. In this study, a model is created by using fuzzy logic with the success of distance education students and the components of distance education. This study is made by MATLAB fuzzy logic toolbox. Audio, video, educational technology, student achievement are used as parameters in the evaluation. System assessment is carried out depending on parameter.

  17. Logical labyrinths

    CERN Document Server

    Smullyan, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    This book features a unique approach to the teaching of mathematical logic by putting it in the context of the puzzles and paradoxes of common language and rational thought. It serves as a bridge from the author's puzzle books to his technical writing in the fascinating field of mathematical logic. Using the logic of lying and truth-telling, the author introduces the readers to informal reasoning preparing them for the formal study of symbolic logic, from propositional logic to first-order logic, a subject that has many important applications to philosophy, mathematics, and computer science. T

  18. Manipulation of logical structure of chemistry problems and its effect on student performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor; Robinson, William R.

    It has been shown previously that manipulation of the M demand (amount of information needed for processing) of chemistry problems affects student performance, which suggests that manipulation of logical structure of chemistry problems could also lead to significant changes in performance. The objective of this study is to investigate the following: Given the opportunity for training, what is the effect of increasing (manipulation) the complexity of logical structure of chemistry problems on student performance, and to what extent can cognitive variables explain changes in performance. Results obtained show that (a) even a small increase in the logical structure of a problem can change the role of cognitive variables (mental capacity and formal reasoning) to the extent that increase in logical complexity outweighs the advantage students may have gained through training on a similar problem; (b) the use of algorithms and training on particular types of chemistry problems could lead to a situation in which formal reasoning is the only cognitive variable that explains variance in performance significantly; and (c) after having solved very similar problems on two different occasions with improving performance, the improvement is not retained if the logical structure of a third problem increases considerably. It is concluded that when dealing with significant changes in logical complexity of chemistry problems, developmental level of students is the most consistent predictor of success. A model for the qualitative analysis of logical complexity of chemistry problems is presented.

  19. Subjective performance evaluations and employee careers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Lange, Fabian; Kriechell, Ben

    Firms commonly use supervisor evaluations to assess the performance of employees who work in complex environments. Doubts persist whether their subjective nature invalidates using these performance measures to learn about careers of individuals and to inform theory in personnel economics. We...... examine personnel data from six large companies and establish how subjective ratings, interpreted as ordinal rankings of employee performances within narrowly defined peer-groups, correlate with objective career outcomes. We find many similarities across firms in how subjective ratings correlate with base...

  20. A formalized design process for bacterial consortia that perform logic computing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyue Ji

    Full Text Available The concept of microbial consortia is of great attractiveness in synthetic biology. Despite of all its benefits, however, there are still problems remaining for large-scaled multicellular gene circuits, for example, how to reliably design and distribute the circuits in microbial consortia with limited number of well-behaved genetic modules and wiring quorum-sensing molecules. To manage such problem, here we propose a formalized design process: (i determine the basic logic units (AND, OR and NOT gates based on mathematical and biological considerations; (ii establish rules to search and distribute simplest logic design; (iii assemble assigned basic logic units in each logic operating cell; and (iv fine-tune the circuiting interface between logic operators. We in silico analyzed gene circuits with inputs ranging from two to four, comparing our method with the pre-existing ones. Results showed that this formalized design process is more feasible concerning numbers of cells required. Furthermore, as a proof of principle, an Escherichia coli consortium that performs XOR function, a typical complex computing operation, was designed. The construction and characterization of logic operators is independent of "wiring" and provides predictive information for fine-tuning. This formalized design process provides guidance for the design of microbial consortia that perform distributed biological computation.

  1. Domino logic designs for high-performance and leakage-tolerant applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moradi, Farshad; Vu Cao, Tuan; Vatajelu, Elena Ioana

    2013-01-01

    by utilizing proposed techniques. According to the simulations in TSMC 65 nm CMOS process, the proposed circuits increase noise immunity for wide OR gates by at least 3.5X and shows performance improvement of up to 20% compared to conventional domino logic circuits. For FinFET simulation TCAD tools have been......Robustness of high fan-in domino circuits is degraded by technology scaling due to exponential increase in leakage. In this paper, we propose several domino logic circuit techniques to improve the robustness and performance along with leakage power. Lower total power consumption is achieved...

  2. Performance Limits of Nanoelectromechanical Switches (NEMS-Based Adiabatic Logic Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Houri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper qualitatively explores the performance limits, i.e., energy vs. frequency, of adiabatic logic circuits based on nanoelectromechanical (NEM switches. It is shown that the contact resistance and the electro-mechanical switching behavior of the NEM switches dictate the performance of such circuits. Simplified analytical expressions are derived based on a 1-dimensional reduced order model (ROM of the switch; the results given by this simplified model are compared to classical CMOS-based, and sub-threshold CMOS-based adiabatic logic circuits. NEMS-based circuits and CMOS-based circuits show different optimum operating conditions, depending on the device parameters and circuit operating frequency.

  3. Multi-level logic gate operation based on amplified aptasensor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lingyan; Lyu, Zhaozi; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Mayer, Dirk

    2015-06-22

    Conventional electronic circuits can perform multi-level logic operations; however, this capability is rarely realized by biological logic gates. In addition, the question of how to close the gap between biomolecular computation and silicon-based electrical circuitry is still a key issue in the bioelectronics field. Here we explore a novel split aptamer-based multi-level logic gate built from INHIBIT and AND gates that performs a net XOR analysis, with electrochemical signal as output. Based on the aptamer-target interaction and a novel concept of electrochemical rectification, a relayed charge transfer occurs upon target binding between aptamer-linked redox probes and solution-phase probes, which amplifies the sensor signal and facilitates a straightforward and reliable diagnosis. This work reveals a new route for the design of bioelectronic logic circuits that can realize multi-level logic operation, which has the potential to simplify an otherwise complex diagnosis to a "yes" or "no" decision. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Subjective performance evaluations and employee careers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Lange, Fabian; Kriechel, Ben

    Firms commonly use supervisor ratings to evaluate employees when objective performance measures are unavailable. Supervisor ratings are subjective and data containing supervisor ratings typically stem from individual firm level data sets. For both these reasons, doubts persist on how useful...... such data are for evaluating theories in personnel economics and whether findings from such data generalize to the labor force at large. In this paper, we examine personnel data from six large companies and establish how subjective ratings, interpreted as ordinal rankings of employees within narrowly...

  5. Fuzzy Logic Controller Based Distributed Generation Integration Strategy for Stochastic Performance Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish Prasad Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the restructured environment, distributed generation (DG is considered as a very promising option due to a high initial capital cost of conventional plants, environmental concerns, and power shortage. Apart from the above, distributed generation (DG has also abilities to improve performance of feeder. Most of the distribution feeders have radial structure, which compel to observe the impact of distributed generations on feeder performance, having different characteristics and composition of time varying static ZIP load models. Two fuzzy-based expert system is proposed for selecting and ranking the most appropriated periods to an integration of distributed generations with a feeder. Madami type fuzzy logic controller was developed for sizing of distributed generation, whereas Sugeno type fuzzy logic controller was developed for the DG location. Input parameters for Madami fuzzy logic controller are substation reserve capacity, feeder power loss to load ratio, voltage unbalance, and apparent power imbalances. DG output, survivability index, and node distance from substation are chosen as input to Sugeno type fuzzy logic controller. The stochastic performance of proposed fuzzy expert systems was evaluated on a modified IEEE 37 node test feeder with 15 minutes characteristics time interval varying static ZIP load models.

  6. Simulation-Based Fuzzy Logic Approach to Assessing the Effect of Project Quality Management on Construction Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto A. Corona-Suárez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the development of an approach to integrate the appropriate modeling techniques for estimating the effect of project quality management (PQM on construction performance. This modeling approach features a causal structure that depicts the interaction among the PQM factors affecting quality performance in a given construction operation. In addition, it makes use of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic in order to incorporate the subjectivity and uncertainty implicit in the performance assessment of these PQM factors to discrete-event simulation models. The outcome is a simulation approach that allows experimenting with different performance levels of the PQM practices implemented in a construction project and obtaining the corresponding productivity estimates of the construction operations. These estimates are intended to facilitate the decision making regarding the improvement of a PQM system implemented in a construction project. A case study is used to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed simulation approach for evaluating diverse performance improvement alternatives for a PQM system.

  7. Online Search + Logic Programming = Subject Bibliography: An Expert Systems Approach to Bibliographic Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lirov, Yuval; Lirov, Viktor

    1990-01-01

    Describes the development of a knowledge-based system, REX, that creates subject bibliographies by downloading reference material from an online bibliographic service. The expert systems architecture is explained, use of Prolog is described, and creation of the subject knowledge base and an author index are discussed. (10 references) (LRW)

  8. Subject to Form: Research Interviews, Performative Subjectivity, Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, I analyze teacher, literacy coach and researcher subjectivities in a five-year study of on-site professional development with middle-grade Language Arts teachers in a school designated by its district and state as severely underperforming. Interested in the role of research interviews as both research method and cultural…

  9. A logic of “linking learning”: Leadership practices across schools, subject departments and classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Melville

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the roles of school leaders, a departmental-level leader and a teacher in implementing a reform within a school, and the nature of the relations between the groups and individuals that attended this process. Drawing upon Bourdieu’s “thinking tools”, the article analyses the nature of the leadership practices surrounding the implementation of a single-sex mathematics class from the perspective of key participants in the change process: two school-level leaders, one departmental chair, and the teacher charged with teaching the class. By considering a secondary school and one of its constituent departments as a field and sub-field, respectively, we argue that even as there is evidence of contestation over the nature of the practices that influence or potentially influence the leadership practices at play within the field and sub-field as a whole, there are also significant learnings in relation to student learning on the part of those involved which serve as “links” between the leadership practices at the school and department levels, and the leadership of learning of the teacher implementing the reform. In this way, a logic of “linking learning”, guided by an ethic of concern for students’ success, was evident across school, department and classroom.

  10. [Logic of delusional person misidentification. "Mental illness" as disorder of subjective time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitterauer, B

    1983-01-01

    The two types of delusional misinterpretation of persons described by Pauleikhoff (1954) are here examined under the hypothesis that the so-called mental illnesses are disruptions of the subjective conceptions of time. It is assumed that concrete subjective time normally develops from the dialectic relationship between predictive-emanative and retrospective-evolutive time structures. The delusional misinterpretation of an unknown person as a familiar person arises from the exclusively emanative interpretation of the perception of another individual (who is developing evolutively). In the delusional misinterpretation of a known person as an unknown person, on the other hand, other persons cannot be perceived as independent subjects developing evolutively. In addition the sick person produces a purely emanative interpretation by experiencing the person perceived as his own physical area of reality. Such considerations, especially when applied to endogenous psychoses, open new avenues for the study of subjective time-pathologies.

  11. The dynamics of interaction of reflexive subjects operating with the two-valued versus many-valued logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa, Koji; Igamberdiev, Abir U

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we aim to approach a model of interacting subjects with the opposite types of reflexion that belong to the Western (W) and Eastern (E) reflexive modes according to Vladimir Lefebvre (1992). The model represents an expansion of the previously developed model of the Double Homunculus (Sawa and Igamberdiev, 2016) that describes reflexive agents as holding "the image of the self in the image of the self". A dialogue model between the two homunculus agents estimating their own reflexion in the opposite ways (generating the two-valued versus many-valued logic and loosely approximated as belonging to the W and E Lefebvre's types) is evolved. At the same time, the argument also unveils the relationship between a difference equation which is the key notion of the model and an emergence of logic. This can be a powerful tool for describing intercommunication of reflexive agents in the social environment as well as interactions between the entire social systems of different types. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Performance Analysis of a Semiactive Suspension System with Particle Swarm Optimization and Fuzzy Logic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Abroon Jamal; de Silva, Clarence W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a quarter model of an automobile having passive and semiactive suspension systems to develop a scheme for an optimal suspension controller. Semi-active suspension is preferred over passive and active suspensions with regard to optimum performance within the constraints of weight and operational cost. A fuzzy logic controller is incorporated into the semi-active suspension system. It is able to handle nonlinearities through the use of heuristic rules. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is applied to determine the optimal gain parameters for the fuzzy logic controller, while maintaining within the normalized ranges of the controller inputs and output. The performance of resulting optimized system is compared with different systems that use various control algorithms, including a conventional passive system, choice options of feedback signals, and damping coefficient limits. Also, the optimized semi-active suspension system is evaluated for its performance in relation to variation in payload. Furthermore, the systems are compared with respect to the attributes of road handling and ride comfort. In all the simulation studies it is found that the optimized fuzzy logic controller surpasses the other types of control. PMID:24574868

  13. Performance analysis of a semiactive suspension system with particle swarm optimization and fuzzy logic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Abroon Jamal; de Silva, Clarence W; Khan, Afzal; Khan, Muhammad Tahir

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses a quarter model of an automobile having passive and semiactive suspension systems to develop a scheme for an optimal suspension controller. Semi-active suspension is preferred over passive and active suspensions with regard to optimum performance within the constraints of weight and operational cost. A fuzzy logic controller is incorporated into the semi-active suspension system. It is able to handle nonlinearities through the use of heuristic rules. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is applied to determine the optimal gain parameters for the fuzzy logic controller, while maintaining within the normalized ranges of the controller inputs and output. The performance of resulting optimized system is compared with different systems that use various control algorithms, including a conventional passive system, choice options of feedback signals, and damping coefficient limits. Also, the optimized semi-active suspension system is evaluated for its performance in relation to variation in payload. Furthermore, the systems are compared with respect to the attributes of road handling and ride comfort. In all the simulation studies it is found that the optimized fuzzy logic controller surpasses the other types of control.

  14. Performance Analysis of a Semiactive Suspension System with Particle Swarm Optimization and Fuzzy Logic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abroon Jamal Qazi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a quarter model of an automobile having passive and semiactive suspension systems to develop a scheme for an optimal suspension controller. Semi-active suspension is preferred over passive and active suspensions with regard to optimum performance within the constraints of weight and operational cost. A fuzzy logic controller is incorporated into the semi-active suspension system. It is able to handle nonlinearities through the use of heuristic rules. Particle swarm optimization (PSO is applied to determine the optimal gain parameters for the fuzzy logic controller, while maintaining within the normalized ranges of the controller inputs and output. The performance of resulting optimized system is compared with different systems that use various control algorithms, including a conventional passive system, choice options of feedback signals, and damping coefficient limits. Also, the optimized semi-active suspension system is evaluated for its performance in relation to variation in payload. Furthermore, the systems are compared with respect to the attributes of road handling and ride comfort. In all the simulation studies it is found that the optimized fuzzy logic controller surpasses the other types of control.

  15. 76 FR 14392 - GeoLogics Corporation; Transfer of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... perform work for OPP, and access to this information will enable GeoLogics Corporation to fulfill the... when GeoLogics Corporation has completed its work. List of Subjects Environmental protection, Business... AGENCY GeoLogics Corporation; Transfer of Data AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION...

  16. Performance of an autotrophic nitrogen removing reactor: Diagnosis through fuzzy logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Mutlu, Ayten Gizem

    Autotrophic nitrogen removal through nitritation-anammox in one stage SBRs is an energy and cost efficient alternative to conventional treatment methods. Intensification of an already complex biological system challenges our ability to observe, understand, diagnose, and control the system. A fuzzy...... logic diagnosis tool was developed, utilizing stoichiometric and concentration ratio measurements and removal efficiencies, along with rules derived from process knowledge. The tool could accurately determine the overall performance of the system and can therefore serve as a powerful tool to provide...

  17. The Validity of Subjective Performance Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kenneth J.; Winter, Søren C.; O'Toole, Laurence J.

    2015-01-01

    Public management studies are increasingly using survey data on managers’ perceptions of performance to measure organizational performance. The perceptual measures are tempting to apply because archival performance data or surveys of target group outcomes and satisfaction are often lacking, costly...... to provide, and are highly policy specific rendering generalization difficult. But are perceptual performance measures valid, and do they generate unbiased findings? We examine these questions in a comparative study of middle managers in schools in Texas and Denmark. The findings are remarkably similar...... the resources it has. Even worse, the use of perceptual performance measures seems to provide biased estimates when examining how management affects performance....

  18. Fuzzy logic based sensor performance evaluation of vehicle mounted metal detector systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeynayake, Canicious; Tran, Minh D.

    2015-05-01

    Vehicle Mounted Metal Detector (VMMD) systems are widely used for detection of threat objects in humanitarian demining and military route clearance scenarios. Due to the diverse nature of such operational conditions, operational use of VMMD without a proper understanding of its capability boundaries may lead to heavy causalities. Multi-criteria fitness evaluations are crucial for determining capability boundaries of any sensor-based demining equipment. Evaluation of sensor based military equipment is a multi-disciplinary topic combining the efforts of researchers, operators, managers and commanders having different professional backgrounds and knowledge profiles. Information acquired through field tests usually involves uncertainty, vagueness and imprecision due to variations in test and evaluation conditions during a single test or series of tests. This report presents a fuzzy logic based methodology for experimental data analysis and performance evaluation of VMMD. This data evaluation methodology has been developed to evaluate sensor performance by consolidating expert knowledge with experimental data. A case study is presented by implementing the proposed data analysis framework in a VMMD evaluation scenario. The results of this analysis confirm accuracy, practicability and reliability of the fuzzy logic based sensor performance evaluation framework.

  19. The Entrepreneurial Orientation-Dominant Logic-Performance Relationship in New Ventures: an Exploratory Quantitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Solé Parellada

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO has received substantial conceptual and empirical attention, representing one ofthe few areas in entrepreneurship research in which a cumulative body of knowledge is developing. Nonetheless,an important message from past research is that simply examining the direct effect of EO on firm performanceprovides an incomplete picture, especially in the case of new ventures. This study examined the influence ofDominant Logic (DL on the relationship between EO and firm performance. Results based on a sample of 149new manufacturing ventures indicated that DL mediates the EO-performance relationship, and risk taking,aggressiveness and innovativeness had the highest correlations with the internal and external conceptualizationof DL. The empirical evidence suggests that new ventures must foster DL implementing appropriate strategicprocesses in order to maximize the effect of EO on performance.

  20. All-day performance variations in normal and narcoleptic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbout, R; Montplaisir, J

    1986-01-01

    This study compared the performance of narcoleptic and control subjects on one psychomotor task, examined the recuperative power of naps in narcoleptic subjects, and evaluated the respective recuperative values of REM and NREM sleep. Ten untreated narcoleptic and eight control subjects repeatedly responded to a choice reaction time task during days with and days without napping. Narcoleptic subjects exhibited low performance levels relative to control subjects on all variables. Napping improved the performance of narcoleptic subjects except for the number of long latency (reaction time greater than 1,000 ms) responses. Finally, performance, particularly on accuracy measures, was better, although not significantly, after NREM naps when compared with REM naps.

  1. Subjective performance evaluation and gender discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, V.S.; Torres-Gonzalez, R.

    2011-01-01

    Gender discrimination continues to be a problem in organizations. It is therefore important that organizations use performance evaluation methods that ensure equal opportunities for men and women. This article reports the results of an experiment to investigate whether and, if so, how the gender of

  2. Occupational performance of women subjected to mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamylle Silva de Brito

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the several therapeutic approaches to combat breast cancer, mastectomy is the most feared by women, not only because of its aggressive invasive characteristics to the female body, but also because of its biological, functional, emotional, and social repercussions. The objective of the present study was to outline the occupational performance profile through the description of daily life, productive and leisure activities of women that have undergone mastectomy. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study with 21 women carried out at a school hospital in Recife, Pernambuco state, Brazil, from June to September, 2011. We used a sociodemographic questionnaire and occupational assessment by the Canadian Model of Occupational Performance (CMOP. In the occupational performance evaluation, Productivity was the most compromised area, followed by Leisure. Taking care of the body after mastectomy was not a restraint to the development of the daily-life, productive and leisure activities for the operated women, although some reorganization was needed to maintain a satisfactory performance.

  3. Occupational performance of women subjected to mastectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Jamylle Silva de Brito; Juliana Fonsêca de Queiroz Marcelino

    2014-01-01

    Among the several therapeutic approaches to combat breast cancer, mastectomy is the most feared by women, not only because of its aggressive invasive characteristics to the female body, but also because of its biological, functional, emotional, and social repercussions. The objective of the present study was to outline the occupational performance profile through the description of daily life, productive and leisure activities of women that have undergone mastectomy. This is a descriptive ...

  4. Performance pinned down: studying subjectivity and the language of performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaekers, C.; Keegan, A.

    2010-01-01

    We draw on Lacan’s notion of language to study employee subjectivity in a public sector organization (Publica) in the Netherlands. Our main contribution lies in using Lacan’s theorization of language and subjectivity as a basis for a detailed textual analysis of how local organizational discourses

  5. Data Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer

    A Gentle introduction to logical languages, logical modeling, formal reasoning and computational logic for computer science and software engineering students......A Gentle introduction to logical languages, logical modeling, formal reasoning and computational logic for computer science and software engineering students...

  6. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  7. Many-valued Logic and Fuzzy Logic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2011), s. 315-324 ISSN 0970-7794 R&D Projects: GA ČR GEICC/08/E018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : many valued logic * fuzzy logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  8. Performance analysis of an all-optical logic gate based on a single I/Q modulator with direct detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yaxue; Tang, Xianfeng; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Xi, Lixia; Zhang, Wenbo

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates the performance of an all-optical logic gate scheme based on a single in-phase and quadrature (I/Q) modulator with direct detection. The proposed scheme of an all-optical logic gate is simple, high speed, and easily reconfigured to realize 24 logic states by adjusting bias voltages, peak-to-peak voltages of the driven RF signals, and the phase shift. As the scheme to realize logic gates is based on the irregular use of a commercially available I/Q modulator and laser source, a specialized logic gate system including a laser, I/Q modulator, and driven RF module should be optimally designed to obtain the best performance. With the system's extinction ratio (ER) and Q-factor as metrics, the performance of the proposed logic gate scheme is analyzed theoretically and numerically in this paper. We first give a new theoretical model of the I/Q modulator. Next, taking the OR gate as an example, the simulations are carried out to analyze performance under the influence of some key factors in the system. Results show that the extinction ratio of the whole system is affected by the phase shift between the two arms of the I/Q modulator and the extinction ratios of two Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZMs), while Q-factor is further influenced by the output power of the laser and the insertion loss of the MZMs in the I/Q modulator. For an I/Q modulator with MZMs having an extinction ratio of 20 dB, the minimum laser output power to obtain a system's ER higher than 16 dB is 3 dBm, while in order to obtain a Q-factor higher than 6, the output power of the laser must not be <10  dBm.

  9. Performance concept through a Service-Dominant Logic in Tunisian manufacturing companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejla Kerfai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to discuss the meaning and the aims of transitions to Service-Dominant Logic (SDL concept especially in Tunisian manufacturing companies. It also aims to observe the performance perception, measurement and practices by these manufacturing companies. A literature review revealed that SDL share some ideas with other concepts such as corporate social responsibility, resource based view and product service system. Therefore a conceptual model of the transition to SDL in manufacturing companies was proposed. Then an interview-based study was employed to explore the extent of the SDL as well as the performance perception measurement and practices in the Tunisian manufacturing companies. An interview guideline was developed and used in the interviews across some of Tunisian companies. A qualitative data analysis revealed that the studied Tunisian manufacturing companies consider the performance as the combination of Quality-Cost-Time, they uses mostly technical and quality indicators and give importance to practices concerning quality management. The presented results are limited by the low response rate and the small sample size. Since the respondents belong to manufacturing companies, the research results could be only indicative of this type of companies. This research is an attempt to explore the service transitions that many manufacturing companies seek to undertake in order to contribute in the development of manufacturing companies’ networks to provide grounds to be more competitive and preferment.

  10. The Impact of Help Seeking on Individual Task Performance: The Moderating Effect of Help Seekers' Logics of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Dvora; Bamberger, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from achievement-goal theory and the social psychological literature on help seeking, we propose that it is the variance in the logic underpinning employees' help seeking that explains divergent findings regarding the relationship between help seeking and task performance. Using a sample of 110 newly hired customer contact employees, a…

  11. Representation of type I heterostructure junctionless tunnel field effect transistor for high-performance logic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaei Imen Abadi, Rouzbeh; Sedigh Ziabari, Seyed Ali

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a gate-all-around junctionless tunnel field effect transistor (JLTFET) based on heterostructure of compound and group III-V semiconductors is introduced and simulated. In order to blend the high tunneling efficiency of narrow band gap material JLTFETs and the high electron mobility of III-V JLTFETs, a type I heterostructure junctionless TFET adopting Ge-AlxGa1- xAs-Ge system has been optimized by numerical simulation in terms of aluminum (Al) composition. To improve device performance, we considered a nanowire structure, and it was illustrated that high-performance logic technology can be achieved by the proposed device. The optimal Al composition founded to be around 20 % ( x = 0.2). The numerical simulation results demonstrate that the proposed device has low leakage current I OFF of ~1.9 × 10-17, I ON of 4 µA/µm, I ON/ I OFF current ratio of 1.7 × 1011 and subthreshold swing SS of 12.6 mV/decade at the 40 nm gate length and temperature of 300 K.

  12. Performance Comparison of Conventional Controller with Fuzzy Logic Controller using Chopper Circuit and Fuzzy Tuned PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Shoeb Mohiuddin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is often difficult to develop an accurate mathematical model of DC motor due to unknown load variation, unknown and unavoidable parameter variations or nonlinearities due to saturation temperature variations and system disturbances. Fuzzy logic application can handle such nonlinearities so that the controller design is fundamentally robust which is not possible in conventional controllers. The knowledge base of a fuzzy logic controller (FLC encapsulates expert knowledge and consists of the Data base (membership functions and Rule-Base of the controller. Optimization of both these knowledge base components is critical to the performance of the controller and has traditionally been achieved through a process of trial and error. Such an approach is convenient for FLCs having low numbers of input variables however for greater numbers of inputs, more formal methods of knowledge base optimization are required. In this work, we study the challenging task of controlling the speed of DC motor. The feasibility of such controller design is evaluated by simulation in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. In this study Conventional Proportional Integral Derivative controller, Fuzzy logic controller using a chopper circuit and Fuzzy tuned PID controller are analyzed and compared. Simulation software like MATLAB with Simulink has been used for modeling and simulation purpose. The performance comparison of conventional controller with Fuzzy logic controller using chopper circuit and Fuzzy tuned PID controller has been done in terms of several performance measures Such as Settling time, Rise time and Overshoot.

  13. A Community Health Worker "logic model": towards a theory of enhanced performance in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimoli, Joseph F; Frymus, Diana E; Wuliji, Tana; Franco, Lynne M; Newsome, Martha H

    2014-10-02

    There has been a resurgence of interest in national Community Health Worker (CHW) programs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). A lack of strong research evidence persists, however, about the most efficient and effective strategies to ensure optimal, sustained performance of CHWs at scale. To facilitate learning and research to address this knowledge gap, the authors developed a generic CHW logic model that proposes a theoretical causal pathway to improved performance. The logic model draws upon available research and expert knowledge on CHWs in LMICs. Construction of the model entailed a multi-stage, inductive, two-year process. It began with the planning and implementation of a structured review of the existing research on community and health system support for enhanced CHW performance. It continued with a facilitated discussion of review findings with experts during a two-day consultation. The process culminated with the authors' review of consultation-generated documentation, additional analysis, and production of multiple iterations of the model. The generic CHW logic model posits that optimal CHW performance is a function of high quality CHW programming, which is reinforced, sustained, and brought to scale by robust, high-performing health and community systems, both of which mobilize inputs and put in place processes needed to fully achieve performance objectives. Multiple contextual factors can influence CHW programming, system functioning, and CHW performance. The model is a novel contribution to current thinking about CHWs. It places CHW performance at the center of the discussion about CHW programming, recognizes the strengths and limitations of discrete, targeted programs, and is comprehensive, reflecting the current state of both scientific and tacit knowledge about support for improving CHW performance. The model is also a practical tool that offers guidance for continuous learning about what works. Despite the model's limitations and several

  14. Subjective performance evaluations and reciprocity in principal-agent relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Walzl, Markus

    2014-01-01

    . In contrast to existing models of reciprocity, we find that agents tend to sanction whenever the feedback of principals is below their subjective self-evaluations even if agents' pay-offs are independent of it. In turn, principals provide more positive feedback (relative to their actual performance assessment......We conduct a laboratory experiment with agents working on, and principals benefiting from, a real effort task in which the agents' performance can only be evaluated subjectively. Principals give subjective performance feedback to agents, and agents have an opportunity to sanction principals...

  15. Entorhinal cortex volume measured with 3T MRI is positively correlated with the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised logical/verbal memory score for healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Masami; Abe, Osamu; Miyati, Tosiaki; Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Hayashi, Naoto; Takao, Hidemasa; Inano, Sachiko; Kabasawa, Hiroyuki; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Aoki, Shigeki; Ino, Kenji; Iida, Kyouhito; Yano, Keiichi; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies revealed a correlation between local brain volume and cognitive function. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between local gray matter volume and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) logical/verbal memory (WMS-R-verbal) score in healthy adults using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained in 1,169 healthy adults. The T1-weighted images in native space were bias-corrected, spatially normalized, and segmented into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid images with Statistical Parametric Mapping 5. To investigate regionally the specific effects of the WMS-R-verbal score on the gray matter images, simple regression analysis was performed by VBM treating age, total intracranial volume, and gender as confounding covariates. A P value of less than 0.05 corrected with false discovery rate in voxel difference was considered to be statistically significant. Our study showed a significant positive correlation between the WMS-R-verbal score and the bilateral entorhinal cortex volume. In the right entorhinal, T value is 4.75, and the size of the clusters is 155 voxels. In the left entorhinal, T value is 4.08, and the size of the clusters is 23 voxels. A significant negative correlation was not found. To our knowledge, this is the first VBM study showing that entorhinal cortex volume is positively correlated with the WMS-R-verbal score for healthy subjects. Therefore, in our structural neuroimaging study, we add evidence to the hypothesis that the entorhinal cortex is involved in verbal memory processing.

  16. Entorhinal cortex volume measured with 3T MRI is positively correlated with the Wechsler memory scale-revised logical/verbal memory score for healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Masami [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Radiological Technology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kanazawa University, Tsunomatyou, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa (Japan); Abe, Osamu; Takao, Hidemasa; Inano, Sachiko; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Miyati, Tosiaki [Kanazawa University, Tsunomatyou, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa (Japan); Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Hayashi, Naoto [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Computational Diagnostic Radiology and Preventive Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kabasawa, Hiroyuki [GE Healthcare, Japan Applied Science Laboratory, Hino (Japan); Aoki, Shigeki [Juntendo University, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Ino, Kenji; Iida, Kyouhito; Yano, Keiichi [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Radiological Technology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    Previous studies revealed a correlation between local brain volume and cognitive function. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between local gray matter volume and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) logical/verbal memory (WMS-R-verbal) score in healthy adults using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were obtained in 1,169 healthy adults. The T1-weighted images in native space were bias-corrected, spatially normalized, and segmented into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid images with Statistical Parametric Mapping 5. To investigate regionally the specific effects of the WMS-R-verbal score on the gray matter images, simple regression analysis was performed by VBM treating age, total intracranial volume, and gender as confounding covariates. A P value of less than 0.05 corrected with false discovery rate in voxel difference was considered to be statistically significant. Our study showed a significant positive correlation between the WMS-R-verbal score and the bilateral entorhinal cortex volume. In the right entorhinal, T value is 4.75, and the size of the clusters is 155 voxels. In the left entorhinal, T value is 4.08, and the size of the clusters is 23 voxels. A significant negative correlation was not found. To our knowledge, this is the first VBM study showing that entorhinal cortex volume is positively correlated with the WMS-R-verbal score for healthy subjects. Therefore, in our structural neuroimaging study, we add evidence to the hypothesis that the entorhinal cortex is involved in verbal memory processing. (orig.)

  17. Relations between subjective evaluations of memory and objective memory performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, I.W; Berg, I.J; Deelman, B.G

    2001-01-01

    Several explanations for the weak relations between subjective memory judgments and objective memory performance were investigated in two groups of normal older adults. Group 1 sampled a general population (mean age 61.6 yr., range 46-891, while Group 2 sampled subjects who were on a waiting Est for

  18. A beginner's guide to mathematical logic

    CERN Document Server

    Smullyan, Raymond M

    2014-01-01

    Combining stories of great philosophers, quotations, and riddles with the fundamentals of mathematical logic, this new textbook for first courses in mathematical logic was written by the subject's creative master. Raymond Smullyan offers clear, incremental presentations of difficult logic concepts with creative explanations and unique problems related to proofs, propositional logic and first-order logic, undecidability, recursion theory, and other topics.

  19. Performance of Pekin ducks subjected to qualitative feed restriction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of Pekin ducks subjected to qualitative feed restriction at various ages during the rearing period. Different diets low in lysine were fed to ducklings of various ages in three separate trials to investigate the effect of these diets on bodymass and subsequent reproductive performance. The results showed that when ...

  20. Optimal contracts based on subjective performance evaluations and reciprocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Walzl, Markus

    2015-01-01

    As demonstrated in a recent laboratory experiment (see Sebald & Walzl, 2014), individuals tend to sanction others who subjectively evaluate their performance whenever this assessment falls short of the individuals’ self-evaluation. Interestingly, this is the case even if the individuals’ earnings...... are unaffected by the subjective performance appraisal. Hence, performance feedback which falls short of agents’ self- evaluations can be interpreted as an unkind act that triggers a negatively reciprocal response not only if the assessment determines agents’ earnings but also when it lacks monetary consequences...

  1. Design of a Single Input Fuzzy Logic Controller Based SVC for Dynamic Performance Enhancement of Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    DR.D. PADMA SUBRAMANIAN

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a design of a Single Input Fuzzy Logic Controller (SFLC) based Static VAR Compensator (SVC) for Dynamic performance enhancement of power systems. The SFLC uses only one input which is the signed distance and has the advantage of reduced number of rules. Improvement of dynamic response by the controller is illustrated in a bifurcation perspective. Bifurcation diagrams of steady state as well as periodic solutions are constructed using continuation method. From the bifurcati...

  2. Fuzzy logic congestion control in IEEE 802.11 wireless local area networks: A performance evaluation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nyirenda, CN

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available to the wireless network. Therefore, the implementation of a congestion control mechanism in Access Points promises to be a suitable solution. Recently, a particle swarm optimized Fuzzy Logic Congestion Detection (FLCD) was proposed for IP networks. This algorithm...

  3. A fuzzy-logic based diagnosis and control of a reactor performing complete autotrophic nitrogen removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Gernaey, Krist

    2013-01-01

    This contribution explores the use of diagnosis and control modules based on fuzzy set theory and logic for bioreactor monitoring and control. With this aim, two independent modules were used jointly to carry out first the diagnosis of the state of the system and then use transfer this information...

  4. What is mathematical logic?

    CERN Document Server

    Crossley, J N; Brickhill, CJ; Stillwell, JC

    2010-01-01

    Although mathematical logic can be a formidably abstruse topic, even for mathematicians, this concise book presents the subject in a lively and approachable fashion. It deals with the very important ideas in modern mathematical logic without the detailed mathematical work required of those with a professional interest in logic.The book begins with a historical survey of the development of mathematical logic from two parallel streams: formal deduction, which originated with Aristotle, Euclid, and others; and mathematical analysis, which dates back to Archimedes in the same era. The streams beg

  5. Optical Logic Gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Fresne, E. R.; Dowler, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    Logic gates for light signals constructed from combinations of prisms, polarizing plates, and quarterwave plates. Optical logic gate performs elementary logic operation on light signals received along two optical fibers. Whether gate performs OR function or exclusive-OR function depends on orientation of analyzer. Nonbinary truth tables also obtained by rotating polarizer or analyzer to other positions or inserting other quarter-wave plates.

  6. Dedekind’s logicism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klev, Ansten

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2017), s. 341-368 ISSN 0031-8019 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Philosophy of mathematics * logicism * Richard Dedekind Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.419, year: 2016

  7. Performance, Pinned Down: A Lacanian Analysis of Subjectivity at Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M.W. Hoedemaekers (Casper)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis study seeks to create an account of how the performing subject comes into being within a specific organizational context. It looks at some of the ways in which managerial practices impact upon the selfhood of employees by means of the language in which they are couched. Drawing

  8. Denial Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Lengyel, Florian; St-Pierre, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Denial Logic DL, a system of justification logic, is the logic of an agent whose justified beliefs are false, who cannot avow his own propositional attitudes or believe tautologies, but who can believe contradictions. Using Artemov's natural semantics for justification logic JL, in which justifications are interpreted as sets of formulas, we provide an inductive construction of models of DL, and show that DL is sound and complete. Some notions developed for JL, such as constant specifications...

  9. Implicational (semilinear) logics III: completeness properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr; Noguera, Carles

    First Online: 31 July 2017 (2018) ISSN 0933-5846 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 689176 - SYSMICS Institutional support: RVO:67985807 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic * protoalgebraic logics * implicational logics * disjunctional logics * semilinear logics * non-classical logics * completeness theorems * rational completeness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UTIA-B) Impact factor: 0.394, year: 2016

  10. Mathematical logic

    CERN Document Server

    Kleene, Stephen Cole

    1967-01-01

    Undergraduate students with no prior instruction in mathematical logic will benefit from this multi-part text. Part I offers an elementary but thorough overview of mathematical logic of 1st order. Part II introduces some of the newer ideas and the more profound results of logical research in the 20th century. 1967 edition.

  11. Factor structure of trunk performance data for healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y; Kuo, C

    2000-05-01

    To examine the factor structure of various measurements of trunk muscle performance for healthy subjects. A total of 22 performance scores were collected and their univariate and multi-variate relationships were examined. Extensive literature exists on the measurement of trunk performance data and the relationships between measurements but what needs to be collected to realize a true performance score remains unclear. Trunk muscle performance scores of 150 subjects (71 males and 79 females) were obtained on an Isostation B-200 Dynamometer. Twenty-two parameters measuring range of motion, isometric strength, velocity, and endurance on all three planes of motion were collected. The factor structures were constructed using Principal Components Analysis. Clear-cut factor patterns (explained 96.3% of the total variance) suggests that the five-factor structure might be valid and appropriate for this population. The major loading on each factor indicated that: Factor 1 could be labeled as a static strength measure; Factor 2 as velocity; Factor 3 as flexibility; and Factors 4 and 5 as fatigue-resistance. No single mode of measurement can provide a good representation of a total trunk muscle performance. RelevanceFor the realization of trunk muscle performance, clinics have to measure all modes of isometric strength, velocity, range of motion, and endurance. Care must be taken in eliminating any parameter.

  12. Association of Chronic Subjective Tinnitus with Neuro- Cognitive Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudwani, Sunita; Munjal, Sanjay K; Panda, Naresh K; Kohli, Adarsh

    2017-12-01

    Chronic subjective tinnitus is associated with cognitive disruptions affecting perception, thinking, language, reasoning, problem solving, memory, visual tasks (reading) and attention. To evaluate existence of any association between tinnitus parameters and neuropsychological performance to explain cognitive processing. Study design was prospective, consisting 25 patients with idiopathic chronic subjective tinnitus and gave informed consent before planning their treatment. Neuropsychological profile included (i) performance on verbal information, comprehension, arithmetic and digit span; (ii) non-verbal performance for visual pattern completion analogies; (iii) memory performance for long-term, recent, delayed-recall, immediate-recall, verbal-retention, visualretention, visual recognition; (iv) reception, interpretation and execution for visual motor gestalt. Correlation between tinnitus onset duration/ loudness perception with neuropsychological profile was assessed by calculating Spearman's coefficient. Findings suggest that tinnitus may interfere with cognitive processing especially performance on digit span, verbal comprehension, mental balance, attention & concentration, immediate recall, visual recognition and visual-motor gestalt subtests. Negative correlation between neurocognitive tasks with tinnitus loudness and onset duration indicated their association. Positive correlation between tinnitus and visual-motor gestalt performance indicated the brain dysfunction. Tinnitus association with non-auditory processing of verbal, visual and visuo-spatial information suggested neuroplastic changes that need to be targeted in cognitive rehabilitation.

  13. Which one Enhances Muscular Performance in ACL Reconstructed Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harput, Gulcan; Ulusoy, Burak; Atay, Ahmet Ozgur; Baltacı, Gul

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of functional knee brace and kinesiotaping on muscular performance in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects who reached return to sport phase of the rehabilitation. Methods: Twenty (17 males, 3 females, Age: 24.7±7.1 years, Body weight: 74.4±12.0 kg, Height: 177.9±6.5 cm, BMI: 23.9±3.6 kg/m2) subjects who underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by using hamstring tendon auto graft were included in this study. When the subjects reached the return to sports phase of rehabilitation which was 6th months after surgery, knee muscle strength, jump performance and balance tests were performed 3 times: bare, with knee brace and with kinesio taping. The order of the tests were randomized to eliminate the effects of fatigue and motor learning. Quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength was measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at 180 °/s and 60°/s angular velocities. Vertical Jump (VJ) and One Leg Hop Tests (OLHT) were used to assess jump performance. Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) with anterior, posteromedial and posterolateral reach distance was used to assess the dynamic balance. When all tests were performed, the subjects were asked under which test condition they felt more confident. Repeated measures of ANOVA was used to analyze the difference among three test conditions (bare, kinesiotaping, knee brace). Bonferroni post hoc test was used for pairwise comparison. Results: SEBT posteromedial (PM)and posterolateral (PL) reach distances were found significantly different among three test conditions(PM: F(2,38)=3.42,p=0.04), PL: F(2,38)=4.37,p=0.02). Kinesiotaping increased posteromedial reach distance (p=0.03). On the other hand, brace decreased posterolateral reach distance (p=0.04). VJ and OLHT performance were also found significantly different between three test conditions (VJ: F (2,38)=3.44,p=0.04, OLHT: (F(2,38)=4.04,p=0.02). Kinesio taping increased one leg hop distance

  14. A study of fuzzy logic ensemble system performance on face recognition problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, A.; Lipinskiy, L.

    2017-02-01

    Some problems are difficult to solve by using a single intelligent information technology (IIT). The ensemble of the various data mining (DM) techniques is a set of models which are able to solve the problem by itself, but the combination of which allows increasing the efficiency of the system as a whole. Using the IIT ensembles can improve the reliability and efficiency of the final decision, since it emphasizes on the diversity of its components. The new method of the intellectual informational technology ensemble design is considered in this paper. It is based on the fuzzy logic and is designed to solve the classification and regression problems. The ensemble consists of several data mining algorithms: artificial neural network, support vector machine and decision trees. These algorithms and their ensemble have been tested by solving the face recognition problems. Principal components analysis (PCA) is used for feature selection.

  15. Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device

    KAUST Repository

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al

    2016-03-29

    In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme.

  16. Logic and declarative language

    CERN Document Server

    Downward, M

    2004-01-01

    Logic has acquired a reputation for difficulty, perhaps because many of the approaches adopted have been more suitable for mathematicians than computer scientists. This book shows that the subject is not inherently difficult and that the connections between logic and declarative language are straightforward. Many exercises have been included in the hope that these will lead to a much greater confidence in manual proofs, therefore leading to a greater confidence in automated proofs.

  17. Ethographic ubiquity: original fake, expanded codex, transurban subject, performative doll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Canevacci

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available My essay presents the emerging of fake as a concept that does not mean false, but a post-dualistic mix of false/truth. The relation between digital culture and ubiquitous subjectivity is fundamental during its process; in the same way, the relation between aura and reproducibility cannot be determined dialectically as Benjamin did. Digital auratic reproducibility is the contemporary context and communicational metropolis is characterized by spontaneous and public performance: so, my conclusion is an analysis of some “living” doll and their uncanny presence.

  18. Dispositional logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zadeh, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of conventional mathematical analysis (based on the combination of two-valued logic and probability theory) to problems in which human judgment, perception, or emotions play significant roles is considered theoretically. It is shown that dispositional logic, a branch of fuzzy logic, has particular relevance to the common-sense reasoning typical of human decision-making. The concepts of dispositionality and usuality are defined analytically, and a dispositional conjunctive rule and dispositional modus ponens are derived. 7 references.

  19. An opportunity cost model of subjective effort and task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzban, Robert; Duckworth, Angela; Kable, Joseph W; Myers, Justus

    2013-12-01

    Why does performing certain tasks cause the aversive experience of mental effort and concomitant deterioration in task performance? One explanation posits a physical resource that is depleted over time. We propose an alternative explanation that centers on mental representations of the costs and benefits associated with task performance. Specifically, certain computational mechanisms, especially those associated with executive function, can be deployed for only a limited number of simultaneous tasks at any given moment. Consequently, the deployment of these computational mechanisms carries an opportunity cost--that is, the next-best use to which these systems might be put. We argue that the phenomenology of effort can be understood as the felt output of these cost/benefit computations. In turn, the subjective experience of effort motivates reduced deployment of these computational mechanisms in the service of the present task. These opportunity cost representations, then, together with other cost/benefit calculations, determine effort expended and, everything else equal, result in performance reductions. In making our case for this position, we review alternative explanations for both the phenomenology of effort associated with these tasks and for performance reductions over time. Likewise, we review the broad range of relevant empirical results from across sub-disciplines, especially psychology and neuroscience. We hope that our proposal will help to build links among the diverse fields that have been addressing similar questions from different perspectives, and we emphasize ways in which alternative models might be empirically distinguished.

  20. The Logical and Psychological Structure of Physical Chemistry and Its Relevance to Graduate Students' Opinions about the Difficulties of the Major Areas of the Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaparlis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    In a previous publication, Jensen's scheme for the logical structure of chemistry was employed to identify a logical structure for physical chemistry, which was further used as a tool for analyzing the organization of twenty physical chemistry textbooks. In addition, science education research was considered for the study of the psychological…

  1. Growth performance of pigs subjected to multiple concurrent environmental stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Y; Ellis, M; Riskowski, G; Johnson, R W

    1998-03-01

    The effects of many single stressors have been reported, but how pigs perform when subjected to more than one or two stressors at a time, as is common in commercial swine production, has not. To study this, 256 Yorkshire x Hampshire or purebred Duroc pigs (34.7+/-.5 kg) were subjected to one of the eight treatment combinations (2 x 2 x 2 factorial) of ambient temperature (constant thermoneutral [24 degrees C] or high cycling temperature [28 to 34 degrees C]), stocking density (.56 or .25 m2/pig), and social group (static group or regrouped at the start of wk 1 and 3) during a 4-wk experiment. The temperature regimens were imposed in two adjacent mechanically ventilated rooms, and each temperature was imposed in each room across two trials. Four barrows and four gilts were assigned to each of the eight pens in the two rooms, and they always had free access to water and a corn-soybean meal-based diet. Treatments were imposed after a 7-d acclimation period at 24 degrees C and .56 m2/pig. Weight gain and feed intake were measured weekly. The main effects of each of the stressors for 4-wk ADG and ADFI were significant (P stressor interactions for ADG, ADFI, and gain:feed (G:F), there were no significant three-way interactions and only six two-way interactions, suggesting that the effects of the individual stressors were additive. Accordingly, the growth rate of pigs subjected to the single stressor of high cycling temperature, restricted space allowance, or regrouping was depressed 10, 16, and 11%, respectively, and ADG of pigs subjected to all three stressors simultaneously was depressed by 31%. Stressor additivity was further corroborated by examining the effect of stressor order, or the number of stressors imposed simultaneously. As the number of stressors increased from 0 to 3, ADG, ADFI, and G:F decreased linearly. These data suggest that multiple concurrent stressors affect growth performance of pigs in a predictable fashion (i.e., additively) and indicate that

  2. Logic Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Tugué, Tosiyuki; Slaman, Theodore

    1989-01-01

    These proceedings include the papers presented at the logic meeting held at the Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Kyoto University, in the summer of 1987. The meeting mainly covered the current research in various areas of mathematical logic and its applications in Japan. Several lectures were also presented by logicians from other countries, who visited Japan in the summer of 1987.

  3. Improvement of Performance Range of Centrifugal Compressors Gas by Surge Line Modification Using Active Controller Based on Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezhman Mohammadi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, surge of prevention is a critical problem in oil and gas industries, particularly when return gas flow or gas flow reduces in transportation of gas pipelines. This paper is illustrated new results about surge control of centrifugal compressors .surge phenomenon is flow unsteady state in compressors which causes damages seriously in compressor construction. Furthermore, it also demonstrates in comparison with anti surge control ،active surge control expands stability range.Active surge control which based on fuzzy logic،is the main idea that used in this investigation. Using fuzzy controller causes an improvement in compressor's condition and increase performance range of the compressor, in addition to prevention of any instability in compressor. The simulation results is also satisfactory.

  4. Making the user visible: analysing irrigation practices and farmers’ logic to explain actual drip irrigation performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benouniche, M.; Kuper, M.; Hammani, A.; Boesveld, H.

    2014-01-01

    The actual performance of drip irrigation (irrigation efficiency, distribution uniformity) in the field is often quite different from that obtained in experimental stations. We developed an approach to explain the actual irrigation performance of drip irrigation systems by linking measured

  5. Active structural control by fuzzy logic rules: An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Y.

    1995-07-01

    An introduction to fuzzy logic control applied to the active structural control to reduce the dynamic response of structures subjected to earthquake excitations is presented. It is hoped that this presentation will increase the attractiveness of the methodology to structural engineers in research as well as in practice. The basic concept of the fuzzy logic control are explained by examples and by diagrams with a minimum of mathematics. The effectiveness and simplicity of the fuzzy logic control is demonstrated by a numerical example in which the response of a single-degree-of-freedom system subjected to earthquake excitations is controlled by making use of the fuzzy logic controller. In the example, the fuzzy rules are first learned from the results obtained from linear control theory; then they are fine tuned to improve their performance. It is shown that the performance of fuzzy logic control surpasses that of the linear control theory. The paper shows that linear control theory provides experience for fuzzy logic control, and fuzzy logic control can provide better performance; therefore, two controllers complement each other.

  6. Active structural control by fuzzy logic rules: An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yu [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Reactor Engineering Div.; Wu, Kung C. [Texas Univ., El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A zeroth level introduction to fuzzy logic control applied to the active structural control to reduce the dynamic response of structures subjected to earthquake excitations is presented. It is hoped that this presentation will increase the attractiveness of the methodology to structural engineers in research as well as in practice. The basic concept of the fuzzy logic control are explained by examples and by diagrams with a minimum of mathematics. The effectiveness and simplicity of the fuzzy logic control is demonstrated by a numerical example in which the response of a single- degree-of-freedom system subjected to earthquake excitations is controlled by making use of the fuzzy logic controller. In the example, the fuzzy rules are first learned from the results obtained from linear control theory; then they are fine tuned to improve their performance. It is shown that the performance of fuzzy logic control surpasses that of the linear control theory. The paper shows that linear control theory provides experience for fuzzy logic control, and fuzzy logic control can provide better performance; therefore, two controllers complement each other.

  7. Working memory performance and thalamus microstructure in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, F; Caltagirone, C; Spalletta, G

    2010-12-01

    Research on the neural basis of working memory (WM) has generally focused on cortical regions, specifically frontal and parietal areas. Comparatively, evidence of a possible involvement of deep gray matter structures, that are parts of cortico-cortical circuits linking anterior and posterior cortical areas, is far less clear. The goal of the present study is to test the hypothesis that individual structural variations within deep gray matter structures may affect the cortical networks involved in WM. To this aim, a large sample (n=181) of healthy subjects underwent a high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scan protocol. Data of micro- (mean diffusivity, MD) and macro- (volume) structural variations of six bilateral deep gray matter structures (thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen, hippocampus, amygdala and pallidum) and lateral ventriculi volume were analyzed in association with score in a WM (the so-called n-back task) and other neuropsychological tasks. Results showed that increased MD of bilateral thalami was the only structural parameter that significantly correlated with reduced WM performance. In particular, a voxel-by-voxel analysis revealed that the greater percentage of voxels showing significant anticorrelation between WM score and MD values were localized in those thalamic nuclei projecting to prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices. Results highlight the specific involvement of thalamus microstructure, not volume, in modulating WM performance, possibly by regulating the connections among cortical areas that are recruited during WM tasks. Copyright © 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Viscoelastic performance of dielectric elastomer subject to different voltage stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Junjie; Zhang, Yuqing; Liu, Lei; Li, Bo; Chen, Hualing

    2017-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer (DE) is capable of giant deformation subject to an electric field, and demonstrates significant advantages in the potentially application of soft machines with muscle-like characteristics. Due to an inherent property of all macromolecular materials, DE exhibits strong viscoelastic properties. Viscoelasticity could cause a time-dependent deformation and lower the response speed and energy conversion efficiency of DE based actuators, thus strongly affect its electromechanical performance and applications. Combining with the rheological model of viscoelastic relaxation, the viscoelastic performance of a VHB membrane in a circular actuator configuration undergoing separately constant, ramp and sinusoidal voltages are analyzed both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical results indicated that DE could attain a big deformation under a small constant voltage with a longer time or under a big voltage with a shorter time. The model also showed that a higher critical stretch could be achieved by applying ramping voltage with a lower rate and the stretch magnitude under sinusoidal voltage is much larger at a relatively low frequency. Finally, experiments were designed to validate the simulation and show well consistent with the simulation results.

  9. Multi source feedback based performance appraisal system using Fuzzy logic decision support system

    OpenAIRE

    Meenakshi, G.

    2012-01-01

    In Multi-Source Feedback or 360 Degree Feedback, data on the performance of an individual are collected systematically from a number of stakeholders and are used for improving performance. The 360-Degree Feedback approach provides a consistent management philosophy meeting the criterion outlined previously. The 360-degree feedback appraisal process describes a human resource methodology that is frequently used for both employee appraisal and employee development. Used in employee performance...

  10. Marketing Logics, Ambidexterity and Influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollin, Karin; Schmidt, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    in four CMOs have taken on this challenge, or adopted a marketing logic which could be referred to as ambidextrous. Furthermore, the study shows that this logic exerts a stronger impact on marketing's influence, compared to logics related to assuring brand consistency and measuring the performance...... of marketing processes. Three other ways to enact marketing management were also revealed, namely: an innovation; a communication; and a supporting marketing logic. This leads us to conclude that the influence of companies' marketing functions show up a heterogeneous picture within which the marketing logics...

  11. Performance Analysis of Extracted Rule-Base Multivariable Type-2 Self-Organizing Fuzzy Logic Controller Applied to Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shou-Zen; Shieh, Jiann-Shing

    2014-01-01

    We compare type-1 and type-2 self-organizing fuzzy logic controller (SOFLC) using expert initialized and pretrained extracted rule-bases applied to automatic control of anaesthesia during surgery. We perform experimental simulations using a nonfixed patient model and signal noise to account for environmental and patient drug interaction uncertainties. The simulations evaluate the performance of the SOFLCs in their ability to control anesthetic delivery rates for maintaining desired physiological set points for muscle relaxation and blood pressure during a multistage surgical procedure. The performances of the SOFLCs are evaluated by measuring the steady state errors and control stabilities which indicate the accuracy and precision of control task. Two sets of comparisons based on using expert derived and extracted rule-bases are implemented as Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results indicate that type-2 SOFLCs outperform type-1 SOFLC while handling the various sources of uncertainties. SOFLCs using the extracted rules are also shown to outperform those using expert derived rules in terms of improved control stability. PMID:25587533

  12. Stepping Theories of Active Logic with Two Kinds of Negation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail M. Vinkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates a stepping theory formalism with two kinds of negation dealing with one of the areas of Active Logic, a new kind of logic aimed at performing practical tasks in real time knowledge-based AI systems. In addition to the standard logical negation, the proposed formalism uses the so-called subjective negation interpreted as inability to arrive at some conclusion through reasoning by a current time. The semantics of the proposed formalism is defined as an~argumentation structure.

  13. Four logics of governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friche, Nanna; Normann Andersen, Vibeke

    and well-being of students enrolled in the VETs must be strengthened. We focus on target 1, 2 and 4. The reform is being implemented in a field of VET that can be characterized by four logics of governance. Firstly, a governance logic characterized by institutional independence of vocational colleges...... combined with state funding through a taximeter scheme (pay per student). Secondly, party governance system involving labor market partners at both national and local level formalized through a national Council for Vocational Training and 50 local trade committees as well as local education committees...... at each college. The third governance logic is based on a decentralized quality management system at each college. Each college has set up its own system of quality developments and quality assurances. The fourth governance logic is performance management conducted by the national level towards...

  14. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  15. Expressivist Perspective on Logicality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arazim, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 4 (2017), s. 409-419 ISSN 1661-8297 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-15645S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : logical constant * expressivism * topic-neutrality * proof-theory * conservativity Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  16. Carbon nanotube high-performance logic technology - challenges and current progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shu-Jen

    2015-03-01

    In the last four decades, we have witnessed a tremendous information technology revolution originated from the relentless scaling of Si complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) devices. CMOS scaling provides ever-improved transistor performance, density, power and cost, and will continue to bring new applications and functions to our daily life. However, the conventional homogeneous scaling of silicon devices has become very difficult, firstly due to the unsatisfactory electrostatic control from the gate dielectric. In addition, as we look forward to the technology nodes with sub-10 nm channel length, non-Si based channel materials will be required to provide continuous carrier velocity enhancement when the conventional strained-Si techniques run out of steam. Single-walled carbon nanotubes are promising to replace silicon as the channel material for high-performance electronics near the end of silicon scaling roadmap, with their superb electrical properties, intrinsic ultrathin body, and nearly transparent contact with certain metals. This talk discusses recent advances in modeling and experimental works that reveal the properties and potential of ultra-scaled nanotube transistors, separation and assembly techniques for forming nanotube arrays with high semiconducting nanotube purity and tight pitch separation, and engineering aspects of their implementation in integrated circuits and functional systems. A concluding discussion highlights most significant challenges from technology points of view, and provides perspectives on the future of carbon nanotube based nanoelectronics.

  17. Performance of FRCM strengthened beams subject to fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-31

    Fabric Reinforced Cementitious Matrix (FRCM) systems have been developed to strengthen or rehabilitate existing concrete and masonry structures subject to damage, steel reinforcement corrosion or requiring resistance capacity improvements due to incr...

  18. Logicism Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Bueno

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I develop a new defense of logicism: one that combines logicism and nominalism. First, I defend the logicist approach from recent criticisms; in particular from the charge that a crucial principle in the logicist reconstruction of arithmetic, Hume's Principle, is not analytic. In order to do that, I argue, it is crucial to understand the overall logicist approach as a nominalist view. I then indicate a way of extending the nominalist logicist approach beyond arithmetic. Finally, I argue that nominalist can use the resulting approach to provide a nominalization strategy for mathematics. In this way, mathematical structures can be introduced without ontological costs. And so, if this proposal is correct, we can say that ultimately all the nominalist needs is logic (and, rather loosely, all the logicist needs is nominalism.

  19. Fuzzy-logic-based network for complex systems risk assessment: application to ship performance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou, Seraphin C

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, a new interpretation of intuitionistic fuzzy sets in the advanced framework of the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence is extended to monitor safety-critical systems' performance. Not only is the proposed approach more effective, but it also takes into account the fuzzy rules that deal with imperfect knowledge/information and, therefore, is different from the classical Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy system, which assumes that the rule (the knowledge) is perfect. We provide an analytical solution to the practical and important problem of the conceptual probabilistic approach for formal ship safety assessment using the fuzzy set theory that involves uncertainties associated with the reliability input data. Thus, the overall safety of the ship engine is investigated as an object of risk analysis using the fuzzy mapping structure, which considers uncertainty and partial truth in the input-output mapping. The proposed method integrates direct evidence of the frame of discernment and is demonstrated through references to examples where fuzzy set models are informative. These simple applications illustrate how to assess the conflict of sensor information fusion for a sufficient cooling power system of vessels under extreme operation conditions. It was found that propulsion engine safety systems are not only a function of many environmental and operation profiles but are also dynamic and complex. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The impact of subjectivity in performance evaluation practices on public sector managers' motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rinsum, M.; Verbeeten, F.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    We conduct an explorative study to investigate the effect of subjectivity in performance evaluation practices on managerial motivation in public sector organisations. Increased subjectivity can enhance motivation if supervisors are able to provide better informational feedback. However, subjectivity

  1. An Algebraic View of Super-Belnap Logics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Albuquerque, H.; Přenosil, Adam; Rivieccio, U.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 6 (2017), s. 1051-1086 ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Grant - others:EU(XE) PIRSES- GA-2012-31898 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Super-Belnap logics * Four-valued logic * Paraconsistent logic * Belnap–Dunn logic * FDE * Logic of Paradox * Kleene logic * Exactly True logic * De Morgan algebras * Abstract Algebraic Logic * Leibniz filters * Strong versions of logics Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.589, year: 2016

  2. Fuzzy logic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Erdei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors present the usefulness of fuzzy logic in controlling engineering processes or applications. Although fuzzy logic does not represent a novelty for the scientific and engineering field, it enjoys a great appreciation from those involved in the two domains. The fact that fuzzy logic uses sentences kindred with the natural language make it easier to comprehend that a complex mathematical model required by the classic control theory. In MatLab software there are dedicated toolboxes to this subject that make the design of a fuzzy controller a facile one. In the paper design methods of a fuzzy controller are being presented both in Simulink and MatLab.

  3. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    OpenAIRE

    Annemarie eBoschloo; Lydia eKrabbendam; Sanne eDekker; Lee, Nikki C.; Renate ede Groot; Jelle eJolles

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness – ‘I feel sleepy during the first hours at school’ – appeared to predict both school grades and self-repor...

  4. Logics of Business Education for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Pernilla; Öhman, Johan

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores various kinds of logics of "business education for sustainability" and how these "logics" position the subject business person, based on eight teachers' reasoning of their own practices. The concept of logics developed within a discourse theoretical framework is employed to analyse the teachers' reasoning.…

  5. Separation Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynolds, John C.

    2002-01-01

    In joint work with Peter O'Hearn and others, based on early ideas of Burstall, we have developed an extension of Hoare logic that permits reasoning about low-level imperative programs that use shared mutable data structure. The simple imperative programming language is extended with commands (not...

  6. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11–18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school

  7. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sam- ple of 561 adolescents aged 11–18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school

  8. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, A.; Krabbendam, L.; Dekker, S.; Lee, N.; Groot, R. de; Jolles, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school

  9. The Completion of the Emergence of Modern Logic from Boole's The Mathematical Analysis of Logic to Frege's Begriffsschrift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetli, Priyedarshi

    Modern logic begins with Boole's The Mathematical Analysis of Logic when the algebra of logic was developed so that classical logic syllogisms were proven as algebraic equations and the turn from the logic of classes to propositional logic was suggested. The emergence was incomplete as Boole algebraised classical logic. Frege in Begriffsschrift replaced Aristotelian subject-predicate propositions by function and argument and displaced syllogisms with an axiomatic propositional calculus using conditionals, modus ponens and the law of substitution. Further Frege provided the breakthrough to lay down the groundwork for the development of quantified logic as well as the logic of relations. He achieved all of this through his innovative formal notations which have remained underrated. Frege hence completed the emergence of modern logic. Both Boole and Frege mathematised logic, but Frege's goal was to logicise mathematics. However the emergence of modern logic in Frege should be detached from his logicism.

  10. Toward the 5nm technology: layout optimization and performance benchmark for logic/SRAMs using lateral and vertical GAA FETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh-Bao, Trong; Ryckaert, Julien; Sakhare, Sushil; Mercha, Abdelkarim; Verkest, Diederik; Thean, Aaron; Wambacq, Piet

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present a layout and performance analysis of logic and SRAM circuits for vertical and lateral GAA FETs using 5nm (iN5) design rules. Extreme ultra-violet lithography (EUVL) processes are exploited to print the critical features: 32 nm gate pitch and 24 nm metal pitch. Layout architectures and patterning compromises for enabling the 5nm node will be discussed in details. A distinct standard-cell template for vertical FETs is proposed and elaborated for the first time. To assess electrical performances, a BSIM-CMG model has been developed and calibrated with TCAD simulations, which accounts for the quasi-ballistic transport in the nanowire channel. The results show that the inbound power rail layout construct for vertical devices could achieve the highest density while the interleaving diffusion template can maximize the port accessibility. By using a representative critical path circuit of a generic low power SoCs, it is shown that the VFET-based circuit is 40% more energy efficient than LFET designs at iso-performance. Regarding SRAMs, benefits given by vertical channel orientation in VFETs has reduced the SRAM area by 20%~30% compared to lateral SRAMs. A double exposures with EUV canner is needed to reach a minimum tip-to-tip (T2T) of 16 nm for middle-of-line (MOL) layers. To enable HD SRAMs with two metal layers, a fully self-aligned gate contact for LFETs and 2D routing of the top electrode for VFETs are required. The standby leakage of vertical SRAMs is 4~6X lower than LFET-based SRAMs at iso-performance and iso-area. The minimum operating voltage (Vmin) of vertical SRAMs is 170 mV lower than lateral SRAMs. A high-density SRAM bitcell of 0.014 um2 can be obtained for the iN5 technology node, which fully follows the SRAM scaling trend for the 45nm nodes and beyond.

  11. Simulation Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    congruence of bi-implication induced on the local word algebras by the local logics. The only operators not already covered in previous modal algebraic...above the local modal algebra carrier sets are necessary. Lemma 2.4.7 shows that the replacement property for the bi-implication congruence holds for...and J. Rosicky, “Locally Presentable and Accessible Categories,” London Mathe - matical Society, 1994, lecture Note Series 189. [2] Allwein, G. and J

  12. Logical independence and quantum randomness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterek, T; Kofler, J; Aspelmeyer, M; Zeilinger, A; Brukner, C [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prevedel, R; Klimek, P [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: tomasz.paterek@univie.ac.at

    2010-01-15

    We propose a link between logical independence and quantum physics. We demonstrate that quantum systems in the eigenstates of Pauli group operators are capable of encoding mathematical axioms and show that Pauli group quantum measurements are capable of revealing whether or not a given proposition is logically dependent on the axiomatic system. Whenever a mathematical proposition is logically independent of the axioms encoded in the measured state, the measurement associated with the proposition gives random outcomes. This allows for an experimental test of logical independence. Conversely, it also allows for an explanation of the probabilities of random outcomes observed in Pauli group measurements from logical independence without invoking quantum theory. The axiomatic systems we study can be completed and are therefore not subject to Goedel's incompleteness theorem.

  13. Performativity / Expressivity: The Mobile Micro Screen and Its Subject.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241603471

    2014-01-01

    Informed by a tradition of cinema and visual culture studies on the one hand, and science and technology studies and new materialism on the other, we mobilize Peircean semiotics in order to theorize new media technologies and related practices. Our question is, in what way performativity and

  14. Subjective Sleepiness and Sleep Quality in Adolescents are Related to Objective and Subjective Measures of School Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11–18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness – “I feel sleepy during the first hours at school” – appeared to predict both school grades and self-repo...

  15. Interactions of task and subject variables among continuous performance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Colin B; Rapport, Mark D; Chung, Kyong-Mee

    2005-04-01

    Contemporary models of working memory suggest that target paradigm (TP) and target density (TD) should interact as influences on error rates derived from continuous performance tests (CPTs). The present study evaluated this hypothesis empirically in a typically developing, ethnically diverse sample of children. The extent to which scores based on different combinations of these task parameters showed different patterns of relationship to age, intelligence, and gender was also assessed. Four continuous performance tests were derived by combining two target paradigms (AX and repeated letter target stimuli) with two levels of target density (8.3% and 33%). Variations in mean omission (OE) and commission (CE) error rates were examined within and across combinations of TP and TD. In addition, a nested series of structural equation models was utilized to examine patterns of relationship among error rates, age, intelligence, and gender. Target paradigm and target density interacted as influences on error rates. Increasing density resulted in higher OE and CE rates for the AX paradigm. In contrast, the high density condition yielded a decline in OE rates accompanied by a small increase in CEs using the repeated letter CPT. Target paradigms were also distinguishable on the basis of age when using OEs as the performance measure, whereas combinations of age and intelligence distinguished between density levels but not target paradigms using CEs as the dependent measure. Different combinations of target paradigm and target density appear to yield scores that are conceptually and psychometrically distinguishable. Consequently, developmentally appropriate interpretation of error rates across tasks may require (a) careful analysis of working memory and attentional resources required for successful performance, and (b) normative data bases that are differently stratified with respect to combinations of age and intelligence.

  16. The psychophysics of workload - A second look at the relationship between subjective measures and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopher, D.; Chillag, N.; Arzi, N.

    1985-01-01

    Load estimates based upon subjective and performance indices were compared for subjects performing size matching and letter typing tasks under 6 levels of priorities, in single and dual task conditions. Each half of the group used a different task as reference in their subjective judgement. The results are interpreted to indicate that subjective measures are especially sensitive to voluntary allocation of attention and to the load on working memory. Association with performance is expected whenever these two factors are main determinants of performance efficiency, otherwise the two are likely to dissociate.

  17. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie eBoschloo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness – ‘I feel sleepy during the first hours at school’ – appeared to predict both school grades and self-reported school performance. Sleep quality on the other hand – as a measure of (uninterrupted sleep and/or problems falling asleep or waking up – predicted parent-reported school performance. Self- and parent-reported school performance correlated only moderately with school grades. So it turns out that the measures used to measure either sleep or school performance impacts whether or not a relation is found. Further research on sleep and school performance should take this into account. The findings do underscore the notion that sleep in adolescence can be important for learning. They are compatible with the hypothesis that a reduced sleep quality can give rise to sleepiness in the first hours at school which results in lower school performance. This notion could have applied value in counseling adolescents and their parents in changing adolescents’ sleep behavior.

  18. Subjective Sleepiness and Sleep Quality in Adolescents are Related to Objective and Subjective Measures of School Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; de Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness - "I feel sleepy during the first hours at school" - appeared to predict both school grades and self-reported school performance. Sleep quality on the other hand - as a measure of (un)interrupted sleep and/or problems falling asleep or waking up - predicted parent-reported school performance. Self- and parent-reported school performance correlated only moderately with school grades. So it turns out that the measures used to measure either sleep or school performance impacts whether or not a relation is found. Further research on sleep and school performance should take this into account. The findings do underscore the notion that sleep in adolescence can be important for learning. They are compatible with the hypothesis that a reduced sleep quality can give rise to sleepiness in the first hours at school which results in lower school performance. This notion could have applied value in counseling adolescents and their parents in changing adolescents' sleep behavior.

  19. Nanoelectromechanical resonator for logic operations

    KAUST Repository

    Kazmi, Syed N. R.

    2017-08-29

    We report an electro-thermally tunable in-plane doubly-clamped nanoelectromechanical resonator capable of dynamically performing NOR, NOT, XNOR, XOR, and AND logic operations. Toward this, a silicon based resonator is fabricated using standard e-beam lithography and surface nanomachining of a highly conductive device layer of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. The performance of this logic device is examined at elevated temperatures, ranging from 25 °C to 85 °C, demonstrating its resilience for most of the logic operations; thereby paving the way towards nano-elements-based mechanical computing.

  20. Advances in Modal Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    is the proceedings of the conference of record in its fi eld, Advances in Modal Logic. Its contributions are state-of-the-art papers. The topics include decidability and complexity results for specifi c modal logics, proof theory of modal logic, logics for reasoning about time and space, provability logic, dynamic...

  1. Performance evaluation of multi-input–single-output (MISO production process using transfer function and fuzzy logic: Case study of a brewery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidozie Chukwuemeka Nwobi-Okoye

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports an improved and novel new method of evaluating the performance of multi input single output (MISO processes, as exemplified by a brewery. This new method involves the combination of transfer function modeling and fuzzy logic and was used in evaluating the six years performance of a brewery. Of the six years, the period 2010–2011 with a performance rating λ of 0.810 which corresponds to the linguistic variable ‘Good’ recorded the best performance while the period 2008–2009 with a performance rating λ of 0.381 which corresponds to the linguistic variable ‘Fair’ recorded the worst performance. The result of this study is expected to open new ways of improving maintenance effectiveness, utilization of raw materials and efficiency of multi input single output (MISO production processes.

  2. A multilevel approach to relating subjective workload to performance after shifts in task demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mracek, Derek L; Arsenault, Matthew L; Day, Eric Anthony; Hardy, Jay H; Terry, Robert A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this laboratory experiment was to demonstrate how taking a longitudinal, multilevel approach can be used to examine the dynamic relationship between subjective workload and performance over a given period of activity involving shifts in task demand. Subjective workload and conditions of the performance environment are oftentimes examined via cross-sectional designs without distinguishing within-from between-person effects. Given the dynamic nature of performance phenomena, multilevel designs coupled with manipulations of task demand shifts are needed to better model the dynamic relationships between state and trait components of subjective workload and performance. With a sample of 75 college students and a computer game representing a complex decision-making environment, increases and decreases in task demand were counterbalanced and subjective workload and performance were measured concurrently in regular intervals within performance episodes. Data were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. Both between- and especially within-person effects were dynamic. Nevertheless, at both levels of analysis, higher subjective workload reflected performance problems, especially more downstream from increases in task demand. As a function of cognitive-energetic processes, shifts in task demand are associated with changes in how subjective workload is related to performance over a given period of activity. Multilevel, longitudinal approaches are useful for distinguishing and examining the dynamic relationships between state and trait components of subjective workload and performance. The findings of this research help to improve the understanding of how a sequence of demands can exceed a performer's capability to respond to further demands.

  3. Determinants of Girls' Performance in Science, Mathematics and Technology Subjects in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musau, Lydia Mbaki; Migosi, Joash; Muola, James Matee

    2013-01-01

    There has been incessant low academic performance in Science, Mathematics and Technology (SMT) subjects especially among girls at form four level in Kitui Central District over the years. The aim of this study was to investigate the determinants of girls' performance in SMT subjects in public secondary schools. Using ex-post-facto survey research…

  4. Stochastic coalgebraic logic

    CERN Document Server

    Doberkat, Ernst-Erich

    2009-01-01

    Combining coalgebraic reasoning, stochastic systems and logic, this volume presents the principles of coalgebraic logic from a categorical perspective. Modal logics are also discussed, including probabilistic interpretations and an analysis of Kripke models.

  5. Paraconsistent Computational Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    In classical logic everything follows from inconsistency and this makes classical logic problematic in areas of computer science where contradictions seem unavoidable. We describe a many-valued paraconsistent logic, discuss the truth tables and include a small case study.......In classical logic everything follows from inconsistency and this makes classical logic problematic in areas of computer science where contradictions seem unavoidable. We describe a many-valued paraconsistent logic, discuss the truth tables and include a small case study....

  6. Logic programming extensions of Horn clause logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Sigal

    1988-11-01

    Full Text Available Logic programming is now firmly established as an alternative programming paradigm, distinct and arguably superior to the still dominant imperative style of, for instance, the Algol family of languages. The concept of a logic programming language is not precisely defined, but it is generally understood to be characterized buy: a declarative nature; foundation in some well understood logical system, e.g., first order logic.

  7. Impact of glucose metabolism and birth size on cognitive performance in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paile-Hyvärinen, Maria; Räikkönen, Katri; Kajantie, Eero; Darby, David; Ylihärsilä, Hilkka; Salonen, Minna K; Osmond, Clive; Eriksson, Johan G

    2009-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the impact of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance on cognitive performance and to explore the association between birth weight and cognitive performance among diabetic subjects. We performed a standard oral glucose tolerance test and a computerised test for assessment of cognitive performance (CogState) in 1243 subjects; 173 of them had type 2 diabetes. At the time of cognitive testing the mean age of the subjects was 64 years. Subjects with type 1 diabetes or a history of stroke were excluded. Subjects with known diabetes performed significantly poorer in cognitive tasks measuring visual attention, working memory and episodic learning than subjects with normal glucose tolerance. Subjects with newly diagnosed diabetes or milder impairments in glucose regulation did not differ from the normoglycaemic group. A low birth weight enhanced the association between diabetes and poor performance in the working memory and episodic learning tasks. Poorer cognitive performance was associated with known type 2 diabetes but not with newly diagnosed diabetes or milder impairments in glucose regulation. Low birth weight was found to be an additional vulnerability factor enhancing cognitive decline in diabetic subjects.

  8. Probabilistic Logical Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermanns, Holger; Parma, Augusto; Segala, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Probabilistic automata exhibit both probabilistic and non-deterministic choice. They are therefore a powerful semantic foundation for modeling concurrent systems with random phenomena arising in many applications ranging from artificial intelligence, security, systems biology to performance...... modeling. Several variations of bisimulation and simulation relations have proved to be useful as means to abstract and compare different automata. This paper develops a taxonomy of logical characterizations of these relations on image-finite and image-infinite probabilistic automata....

  9. Three-valued logics in modal logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, Barteld; Tamminga, Allard

    2013-01-01

    Every truth-functional three-valued propositional logic can be conservatively translated into the modal logic S5. We prove this claim constructively in two steps. First, we define a Translation Manual that converts any propositional formula of any three-valued logic into a modal formula. Second, we

  10. The Logic of Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Bang

    The problematic this thesis investigates, through a specific kind of structuralism derived from a reading of Michel Foucault, Pierre Bourdieu and Gilles Deleuze, concerns how the subject becomes a science subject and potentially a scientist, with interest and literacy in science. The Logic...... of Science – a vivisection of monsters is thus an exploration of Being and Becoming in relation to Science and its Education. The investigation has been derived from, in, and connected to the Youth-to-Youth Project, a regional bridge building project in Northern Jutland in Denmark. The Youth-to-Youth Project...... (2011-2015) attempts to facilitate contact and provide a different kind of counselling and guidance between youths and youths who are ‘one step ahead’ in their educational trajectory. The meetings between the youths are both social and science subject oriented, and the intention is to establish...

  11. Theta power decreases in preparation for voluntary isometric contractions performed with maximal subjective effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, T; Sust, M; Beyer, L; Hansen, E; Rost, R; Schmalz, T

    1995-07-07

    In order to find EEG parameters that can be attributed to movements performed with maximal subjective effort, EEG recordings and force measurements were realized in connection with isometric contractions (IMC). IMC were performed with submaximal and maximal subjective effort. Mean spectral power density within the theta band was found as an indicator for maximal subjective effort. The theta power across the parieto-occipital area decreases from rest through movements performed with submaximal force to movements performed with maximal effort. It is argued that this theta decrease possibly reflects a down-regulation of the posterior attention system in order to minimize the influences of external stimuli during the preparation for voluntary IMC performed with maximal subjective effort.

  12. Measuring organizational performance in the hospital industry: an exploratory comparison of objective and subjective methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, M J; McIlwain, T F; Fottler, M D

    2001-11-01

    One of the major challenges facing health services management researchers is the measurement of various aspects of organizational performance. This challenge is exacerbated by a reluctance of many healthcare organizations to share data with researchers because of a fear of competitor access to these data. Even where objective, reliable and valid measures of organizational performance are available, typically they are available only in aggregate form, rather than for individual organizations. In response to these constraints, researchers have used subjective measures of performance often based on the perception of key executives. This research compares the subjective perceptions of hospital executives to the objective financial performance data of 60 hospitals. While the correlations between the subjective and objective measures vary, return of assets (ROA) and operating margin are the most valid subjective financial measures of hospital performance. Implications for future research are discussed.

  13. Improvement of Microgrid Dynamic Performance under Fault Circumstances using ANFIS for Fast Varying Solar Radiation and Fuzzy Logic Controller for Wind System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izadbakhsh Maziar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The microgrid (MG technology integrates distributed generations, energy storage elements and loads. In this paper, dynamic performance enhancement of an MG consisting of wind turbine was investigated using permanent magnet synchronous generation (PMSG, photovoltaic (PV, microturbine generation (MTG systems and flywheel under different circumstances. In order to maximize the output of solar arrays, maximum power point tracking (MPPT technique was used by an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS; also, control of turbine output power in high speed winds was achieved using pitch angle control technic by fuzzy logic. For tracking the maximum point, the proposed ANFIS was trained by the optimum values. The simulation results showed that the ANFIS controller of grid-connected mode could easily meet the load demand with less fluctuation around the maximum power point. Moreover, pitch angle controller, which was based on fuzzy logic with wind speed and active power as the inputs, could have faster responses, thereby leading to flatter power curves, enhancement of the dynamic performance of wind turbine and prevention of both frazzle and mechanical damages to PMSG. The thorough wind power generation system, PV system, MTG, flywheel and power electronic converter interface were proposed by using Mat-lab/Simulink.

  14. On-state and RF performance investigation of sub-50 nm L-DUMGAC MOSFET design for high-speed logic and switching applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaujar, Rishu; Kaur, Ravneet; Saxena, Manoj; Gupta, Mridula; Gupta, R. S.

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, an extensive study on the on-state, switching and RF performance of a laterally amalgamated dual material gate concave (L-DUMGAC) MOSFET and the influence of technology variations such as gate length, negative junction depth (NJD) and gate bias on the device's behavior is performed using an ATLAS device simulator. Simulations reveal that the L-DUMGAC design exhibits a significant enhancement in the device's switching characteristics in terms of reduced on-resistance and, hence, the reduced conduction power loss, switching loss and enhanced on-current, ION. Further, the L-DUMGAC design is studied for the RF application circuit design by examining the stability, cut-off frequency, power gains and the parasitic capacitances. The results are, thus, useful for optimizing the performance and reliability of nanoscale L-DUMGAC MOSFETs for high-speed logic, switching and RF applications.

  15. Logical space and the origins of pluralism in logic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arazim, Pavel

    -, č. 2 (2017), s. 7-26 ISSN 0567-8293 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-15645S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : pluralism * expressivism * logical space * geometry * holism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion http://www.karolinum.cz/ink2_stat/dload.jsp?prezMat=99216

  16. Forward lunge as a functional performance test in ACL deficient subjects: test-retest reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkjaer, Tine; Henriksen, Marius; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul

    2009-01-01

    The forward lunge movement may be used as a functional performance test of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient and reconstructed subjects. The purposes were 1) to determine the test-retest reliability of a forward lunge in healthy subjects and 2) to determine the required numbers...

  17. Subjective Performance Evaluations, Self-esteem, and Ego-threats in Principal-agent Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Walzl, Markus

    find that agents sanction whenever the feedback of principals is below their subjective self-evaluations even if the agents' payoff is independent of the principals' feedback. Based on our experimental analysis we propose a principal-agent model with subjective performance evaluations that accommodates...

  18. Stress and Performance: Effects of Subjective Work Load and Time Urgency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Kenneth E.

    1982-01-01

    Measured subjective work load, time urgency, and other stress/motivation variables for management personnel taking a demanding problem-solving exam. Data suggest increases in psychological stresses like subjectively high work load and time urgency uniformly impair performance across the whole range of these variables. (Author)

  19. A method to evaluate performance reliability of individual subjects in laboratory research applied to work settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    This report presents a method that may be used to evaluate the reliability of performance of individual subjects, particularly in applied laboratory research. The method is based on analysis of variance of a tasks-by-subjects data matrix, with all sc...

  20. Subjective user experience and performance with active tangibles on a tabletop interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B. van; Toet, A.; Meijer, K.; Janssen, J.; Jong, A. de

    2015-01-01

    We developed active tangibles (Sensators) that can be used in combination with multitouch tabletops and that can provide multisensory (visual, auditory, and vibrotactile) feedback. For spatial alignment and rotation tasks we measured subjective user experience and objective performance with these

  1. Subjective User Experience and Performance with Active Tangibles on a Tabletop Interfaces.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erp, Johannes Bernardus Fransiscus; Toet, Alexander; Meijer, Koos; Janssen, Joris; Jong, Arnoud

    We developed active tangibles (Sensators) that can be used in combination with multitouch tabletops and that can provide multisensory (visual, auditory, and vibrotactile) feedback. For spatial alignment and rotation tasks we measured subjective user experience and objective performance with these

  2. Epistemic logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.-J.

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge has been subject of philosophical study since ancient times. This is not surprising since knowledge is crucial to humans in order to control their actions and the appetite for acquiring it seems innate to the human race. Phi- losophy, therefore, has always occupied itself with the

  3. Metamathematics of fuzzy logic

    CERN Document Server

    Hájek, Petr

    1998-01-01

    This book presents a systematic treatment of deductive aspects and structures of fuzzy logic understood as many valued logic sui generis. Some important systems of real-valued propositional and predicate calculus are defined and investigated. The aim is to show that fuzzy logic as a logic of imprecise (vague) propositions does have well-developed formal foundations and that most things usually named `fuzzy inference' can be naturally understood as logical deduction.

  4. Is Logic Innate?

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Crain; Drew Khlentzos

    2007-01-01

    Arguments are presented supporting logical nativism: the conjecture that humans have an innate logic faculty. In making a case for logical nativism, this article concentrates on children’s acquisition of the logical concept of disjunction. Despite the widespread belief to the contrary, the interpretation of disjunction in human languages is arguably the same as it is in classical logic, namely inclusive–or. The argument proceeds with empirical support for the view that the inclusive–or is the...

  5. 5th World Congress of Paraconsistent Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Mihir; Dutta, Soma

    2015-01-01

    The present book discusses all aspects of paraconsistent logic, including the latest findings, and its various systems. It includes papers by leading international researchers, which address the subject in many different ways: development of abstract paraconsistent systems and new theorems about them; studies of the connections between these systems and other non-classical logics, such as non-monotonic, many-valued, relevant, paracomplete and fuzzy logics; philosophical interpretations of these constructions; and applications to other sciences, in particular quantum physics and mathematics. Reasoning with contradictions is the challenge of paraconsistent logic. The book will be of interest to graduate students and researchers working in mathematical logic, computer science, philosophical logic, linguistics and physics.

  6. MEMS Logic Using Mixed-Frequency Excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Ilyas, Saad

    2017-06-22

    We present multi-function microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) logic device that can perform the fundamental logic gate AND, OR, universal logic gates NAND, NOR, and a tristate logic gate using mixed-frequency excitation. The concept is based on exciting combination resonances due to the mixing of two or more input signals. The device vibrates at two steady states: a high state when the combination resonance is activated and a low state when no resonance is activated. These vibration states are assigned to logical value 1 or 0 to realize the logic gates. Using ac signals to drive the resonator and to execute the logic inputs unifies the input and output wave forms of the logic device, thereby opening the possibility for cascading among logic devices. We found that the energy consumption per cycle of the proposed logic resonator is higher than those of existing technologies. Hence, integration of such logic devices to build complex computational system needs to take into consideration lowering the total energy consumption. [2017-0041

  7. Predicting subjective vitality and performance in sports: the role of passion and achievement goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chiung-Huang

    2010-06-01

    The major purpose of this study was to test the hypothesized paths from dualistic passions through achievement goals to subjective vitality and performance in sports. 645 high school athletes participated. The proposed structural equation model, with relationships between dualistic passions and subjective vitality and sports performance mediated by achievement goals, fit the data well, especially for mastery-approach and performance-approach goals. Harmonious and obsessive passions may lead athletes to high performance via the adoption of mastery-approach goals. However, these passions seem to have two paths influencing personal functioning: direct effects make players feel energetic, and indirect effects on subjective vitality through adoption of mastery-approach and performance-approach goals.

  8. Flow Logic for Process Calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Flow Logic is an approach to statically determining the behavior of programs and processes. It borrows methods and techniques from Abstract Interpretation, Data Flow Analysis and Constraint Based Analysis while presenting the analysis in a style more reminiscent of Type Systems. Traditionally...... developed for programming languages, this article provides a tutorial development of the approach of Flow Logic for process calculi based on a decade of research. We first develop a simple analysis for the π-calculus; this consists of the specification, semantic soundness (in the form of subject reduction...

  9. Static, dynamic balance and functional performance in subjects with and without plantar fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geiseane Aguiar Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Plantar fasciitis (PF is characterized by non-inflammatory degeneration and pain under the heel, and is one of the most common foot complaints. The compensations and adjustments made to decrease the discomfort caused by the disease are clinical findings and can be a factor that contributes to impaired balance and decreased functional performance. Objective: To compare functional performance as well as static and dynamic balance among subjects with and without PF. Methods: The sample consisted of 124 subjects of both sexes aged 20-60 years. Participants were divided into two groups: a bilateral PF group (PFG; n = 62 and a control group (CG, n = 62. The following outcomes were analyzed: static and dynamic balance (using functional tests and functional performance (using a questionnaire. We used Student’s t test for independent samples to compare variables between the groups. The alpha error was set at 0.05. Results: Subjects with PF showed greater impairment in their overall dynamic balance performance (p < 0.001 than the control group, except for left posteromedial movement (p = 0.19. The CG showed showed better functional performance (p < 0.001 than the PF group. There was no difference between groups for the variable static balance on stable (p = 0.160 and unstable surfaces (p = 0.085. Conclusion: Subjects with PF displayed smaller reach distances in the overall Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT, demonstrating a deficit in dynamic balance and functional performance when compared with healthy subjects.

  10. What are Institutional Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg Johansen, Christina; Waldorff, Susanne Boch

    This study presents new insights into the explanatory power of the institutional logics perspective. With outset in a discussion of seminal theory texts, we identify two fundamental topics that frame institutional logics: overarching institutional orders guides by institutional logics, as well...... as change and agency generated by friction between logics. We use these topics as basis for an analysis of selected empirical papers, with the aim of understanding how institutional logics contribute to institutional theory at large, and which social matters institutional logics can and cannot explore...

  11. Indeterministic Temporal Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trzęsicki Kazimierz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The questions od determinism, causality, and freedom have been the main philosophical problems debated since the beginning of temporal logic. The issue of the logical value of sentences about the future was stated by Aristotle in the famous tomorrow sea-battle passage. The question has inspired Łukasiewicz’s idea of many-valued logics and was a motive of A. N. Prior’s considerations about the logic of tenses. In the scheme of temporal logic there are different solutions to the problem. In the paper we consider indeterministic temporal logic based on the idea of temporal worlds and the relation of accessibility between them.

  12. IMPLEMENTATION OF FUZZY LOGIC BASED TEMPERATURE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and Derivative) and Fuzzy logic controllers. Conclusions are made based on these control performances. The results show that the control performance for a Fuzzy controller is quite similar to PID controller but comparatively gives a better response. Key Words: Heat exchanger, Fuzzy logic controller, Proportional Integral ...

  13. The effects of energy drink in combination with alcohol on performance and subjective awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Alford, Chris; Hamilton-Morris, Jennifer; Verster, Joris C

    2012-01-01

    Rationale This study investigated the coadministration of an energy drink with alcohol to study the effects on subjective intoxication and objective performance. Objectives This study aims to evaluate the objective and subjective effects of alcohol versus placebo at two alcohol doses, alone and in combination with an energy drink, in a balanced order, placebo-controlled, double-blind design. Methods Two groups of ten healthy volunteers, mean (SD) age of 24 (6.5), participated in the study. On...

  14. Subjective trust, perceived risk and exchange performance in buyer-supplier relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Emanuela Delbufalo

    2012-01-01

    This article offers some theoretical and empirical contributions to the literature on relational exchange by examining the nature of subjective trust and perceived risk in buyer-supplier relationships. The relational view represents the theoretical framework for the research. The study explores the theoretical proposition that subjective trust and perceived risk in buyer-supplier relationships impact on exchange performance through the mediating effects of four sources of relational rents: as...

  15. Extension Properties and Subdirect Representation in Abstract Algebraic Logic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lávička, Tomáš; Noguera, Carles

    (2018) ISSN 0039-3215 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-04630S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Abstract algebraic logic * Infinitary logics * Natural extensions * Natural expansions * Semilinear logics * Subdirect representation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.589, year: 2016

  16. Improved automated perimetry performance in elderly subjects after listening to Mozart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junia Cabral Marques

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of automated perimetry of elderly subjects naïve to AP after listening to a Mozart sonata. INTRODUCTION: Automated perimetry (AP is a psychophysical test used to assess visual fields in patients with neurological disorders and glaucoma. In a previous study, Fiorelli et al. showed that young subjects who listened to a Mozart sonata prior to undergoing AP performed better in terms of reliability than those who did not listen to the sonata. METHODS: Fifty-two AP-naïve, normal subjects underwent Automated perimetry (SITA 24-2. The study group (25 subjects underwent AP after listening to Mozart's Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major, and the control group (27 subjects underwent Automated perimetry without prior exposure to the music. RESULTS: The study group had significantly lower false negative rates and a lower visual field reliability score than the controls (P=0.04 and P=0.04, respectively. The test time was shorter for the study group (P=0.03. DISCUSSION: This study shows that elderly subjects, when exposed to the Mozart sonata immediately before AP testing, have lower false negative rates and lower visual field reliability scores when compared with an age- and gender-matched control group. Our results differ from those of Fiorelli et al. who found lower false positive rates and less fixation loss in addition to lower false negative rates. CONCLUSION: Listening to a Mozart sonata seems to improve automated perimetry reliability in elderly subjects.

  17. Improved automated perimetry performance in elderly subjects after listening to Mozart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Junia Cabral; Vanessa, Adriana Chaves Oliveira; Fiorelli, Macedo Batista; Kasahara, Niro

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of automated perimetry of elderly subjects naïve to AP after listening to a Mozart sonata. Automated perimetry (AP) is a psychophysical test used to assess visual fields in patients with neurological disorders and glaucoma. In a previous study, Fiorelli et al. showed that young subjects who listened to a Mozart sonata prior to undergoing AP performed better in terms of reliability than those who did not listen to the sonata. Fifty-two AP-naïve, normal subjects underwent Automated perimetry (SITA 24-2). The study group (25 subjects) underwent AP after listening to Mozart's Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major, and the control group (27 subjects) underwent Automated perimetry without prior exposure to the music. The study group had significantly lower false negative rates and a lower visual field reliability score than the controls (P=0.04 and P=0.04, respectively). The test time was shorter for the study group (P=0.03). This study shows that elderly subjects, when exposed to the Mozart sonata immediately before AP testing, have lower false negative rates and lower visual field reliability scores when compared with an age- and gender-matched control group. Our results differ from those of Fiorelli et al. who found lower false positive rates and less fixation loss in addition to lower false negative rates. Listening to a Mozart sonata seems to improve automated perimetry reliability in elderly subjects.

  18. Quantum logic as a dynamic logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltag, Alexandru; Smets, Sonja

    We address the old question whether a logical understanding of Quantum Mechanics requires abandoning some of the principles of classical logic. Against Putnam and others (Among whom we may count or not E. W. Beth, depending on how we interpret some of his statements), our answer is a clear "no".

  19. A Comparison of Tandem Walk Performance Between Bed Rest Subjects and Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Chris; Peters, Brian; Kofman, Igor; Philips, Tiffany; Batson, Crystal; Cerisano, Jody; Fisher, Elizabeth; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Feiveson, Alan; Reschke, Millard; hide

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts experience a microgravity environment during spaceflight, which results in a central reinterpretation of both vestibular and body axial-loading information by the sensorimotor system. Subjects in bed rest studies lie at 6deg head-down in strict bed rest to simulate the fluid shift and gravity-unloading of the microgravity environment. However, bed rest subjects still sense gravity in the vestibular organs. Therefore, bed rest isolates the axial-unloading component, thus allowing for the direct study of its effects. The Tandem Walk is a standard sensorimotor test of dynamic postural stability. In a previous abstract, we compared performance on a Tandem Walk test between bed rest control subjects, and short- and long-duration astronauts both before and after flight/bed rest using a composite index of performance, called the Tandem Walk Parameter (TWP), that takes into account speed, accuracy, and balance control. This new study extends the previous data set to include bed rest subjects who performed exercise countermeasures. The purpose of this study was to compare performance during the Tandem Walk test between bed rest subjects (with and without exercise), short-duration (Space Shuttle) crewmembers, and long-duration International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers at various time points during their recovery from bed rest or spaceflight.

  20. Semiotic foundations of logic

    OpenAIRE

    Shalack, V.

    2013-01-01

    The article offers a look at the combinatorial logic as the logic of signs operating in the most general sense. For this it is proposed slightly reformulate it in terms of introducing and replacement of the definitions.

  1. Many-valued logics

    CERN Document Server

    Bolc, Leonard

    1992-01-01

    Many-valued logics were developed as an attempt to handle philosophical doubts about the "law of excluded middle" in classical logic. The first many-valued formal systems were developed by J. Lukasiewicz in Poland and E.Post in the U.S.A. in the 1920s, and since then the field has expanded dramatically as the applicability of the systems to other philosophical and semantic problems was recognized. Intuitionisticlogic, for example, arose from deep problems in the foundations of mathematics. Fuzzy logics, approximation logics, and probability logics all address questions that classical logic alone cannot answer. All these interpretations of many-valued calculi motivate specific formal systems thatallow detailed mathematical treatment. In this volume, the authors are concerned with finite-valued logics, and especially with three-valued logical calculi. Matrix constructions, axiomatizations of propositional and predicate calculi, syntax, semantic structures, and methodology are discussed. Separate chapters deal w...

  2. Fuzzy logic controller optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepe, Jr., Raymond B; Miller, John Michael

    2004-03-23

    A method is provided for optimizing a rotating induction machine system fuzzy logic controller. The fuzzy logic controller has at least one input and at least one output. Each input accepts a machine system operating parameter. Each output produces at least one machine system control parameter. The fuzzy logic controller generates each output based on at least one input and on fuzzy logic decision parameters. Optimization begins by obtaining a set of data relating each control parameter to at least one operating parameter for each machine operating region. A model is constructed for each machine operating region based on the machine operating region data obtained. The fuzzy logic controller is simulated with at least one created model in a feedback loop from a fuzzy logic output to a fuzzy logic input. Fuzzy logic decision parameters are optimized based on the simulation.

  3. Logic an introductory course

    CERN Document Server

    Newton-Smith, WH

    2003-01-01

    A complete introduction to logic for first-year university students with no background in logic, philosophy or mathematics. In easily understood steps it shows the mechanics of the formal analysis of arguments.

  4. Paraconsistency properties in degree-preserving fuzzy logics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ertola, R.; Esteva, F.; Flaminio, T.; Godo, L.; Noguera, Carles

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2015), s. 531-546 ISSN 1432-7643 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1826 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Mathematical fuzzy logic * degree-preserving fuzzy logic s * paraconsistent logic s * logic s of formal inconsistency Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.630, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/noguera-0469166.pdf

  5. Resistive Threshold Logic

    OpenAIRE

    James, A. P.; Francis, L. R. V. J.; Kumar, D.

    2013-01-01

    We report a resistance based threshold logic family useful for mimicking brain like large variable logic functions in VLSI. A universal Boolean logic cell based on an analog resistive divider and threshold logic circuit is presented. The resistive divider is implemented using memristors and provides output voltage as a summation of weighted product of input voltages. The output of resistive divider is converted into a binary value by a threshold operation implemented by CMOS inverter and/or O...

  6. Inductive Temporal Logic Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Kolter, Robert

    2009-01-01

    We study the extension of techniques from Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) to temporal logic programming languages. Therefore we present two temporal logic programming languages and analyse the learnability of programs from these languages from finite sets of examples. In first order temporal logic the following topics are analysed: - How can we characterize the denotational semantics of programs? - Which proof techniques are best suited? - How complex is the learning task? In propositional ...

  7. Institutional Logics in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lounsbury, Michael; Boxenbaum, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This double volume presents state-of-the-art research and thinking on the dynamics of actors and institutional logics. In the introduction, we briefly sketch the roots and branches of institutional logics scholarship before turning to the new buds of research on the topic of how actors engage ins...... prolific stream of research on institutional logics by deepening our insight into the active use of institutional logics in organizational action and interaction, including the institutional effects of such (inter)actions....

  8. Logical Stochastic Resonance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    andoh

    input signals, consisting of random square waves. We find that, in an optimal band of noise, the output consistently is a logical combination of the input signals: Logical Stochastic Resonance. (LSR) with K. Murali, W.L. Ditto, A. Bulsara. Physical Review Letters, March 2009. Sudeshna Sinha. Logical Stochastic Resonance ...

  9. Questions in logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciardelli, I.A.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation pursues two tightly interwoven goals: to bring out the relevance of questions for the field of logic, and to establish a solid theory of the logic of questions within a classical logical setting. These enterprises feed into each other: on the one hand, the development of our formal

  10. Speech perception performance of subjects with type I diabetes mellitus in noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Cristiane Sordi Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic metabolic disorder of various origins that occurs when the pancreas fails to produce insulin in sufficient quantities or when the organism fails to respond to this hormone in an efficient manner. Objective: To evaluate the speech recognition in subjects with type I diabetes mellitus (DMI in quiet and in competitive noise. Methods: It was a descriptive, observational and cross-section study. We included 40 participants of both genders aged 18-30 years, divided into a control group (CG of 20 healthy subjects with no complaints or auditory changes, paired for age and gender with the study group, consisting of 20 subjects with a diagnosis of DMI. First, we applied basic audiological evaluations (pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry and immittance audiometry for all subjects; after these evaluations, we applied Sentence Recognition Threshold in Quiet (SRTQ and Sentence Recognition Threshold in Noise (SRTN in free field, using the List of Sentences in Portuguese test. Results: All subjects showed normal bilateral pure tone threshold, compatible speech audiometry and "A" tympanometry curve. Group comparison revealed a statistically significant difference for SRTQ (p = 0.0001, SRTN (p < 0.0001 and the signal-to-noise ratio (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: The performance of DMI subjects in SRTQ and SRTN was worse compared to the subjects without diabetes.

  11. Assessment of pilot workload - Converging measures from performance based, subjective and psychophysiological techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Arthur F.; Sirevaag, Erik J.; Braune, Rolf

    1986-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between the P300 component of the event-related brain potential (ERP) and the processing demands of a complex real-world task. Seven male volunteers enrolled in an Instrument Flight Rule (IFR) aviation course flew a series of missions in a single engine fixed-based simulator. In dual task conditions subjects were also required to discriminate between two tones differing in frequency. ERPs time-locked to the tones, subjective effort ratings and overt performance measures were collected during two 45 min flights differing in difficulty (manipulated by varying both atmospheric conditions and instrument reliability). The more difficult flight was associated with poorer performance, increased subjective effort ratings, and smaller secondary task P300s. Within each flight, P300 amplitude was negatively correlated with deviations from command headings indicating that P300 amplitude was a sensitive workload metric both between and within the flight missions.

  12. Motor performance during and following acute alcohol intoxication in healthy non-alcoholic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Buch; Jakobsen, Johannes Klitgaard; Andersen, Henning

    2007-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse has adverse effects on skeletal muscle, and reduced muscle strength is frequently seen in chronic alcoholics. In this study the acute effects of moderate alcohol intoxication on motor performance was evaluated in 19 non-alcoholic healthy subjects (10 women, 9 men). A randomi...... of moderate alcohol intoxication (1,4 g/l) does not impair motor performance, and no accelerated exercise-induced muscle damage is seen. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov...

  13. Student Performance on the NBME Part II Subtest and Subject Examination in Obstetrics-Gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metheny, William P.; Holzman, Gerald B.

    1988-01-01

    Comparison of the scores of 342 third-year medical students on the National Board of Medical Examiners subject examination and the Part II subtest on obstetrics-gynecology found significantly better performance on the former, suggesting a need to interpret the scores differently. (Author/MSE)

  14. Multimodal decoding and congruent sensory information enhance reaching performance in subjects with cervical spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Anna Corbett

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI paralyzes muscles of the hand and arm, making it difficult to perform activities of daily living. Restoring the ability to reach can dramatically improve quality of life for people with cervical SCI. Any reaching system requires a user interface to decode parameters of an intended reach, such as trajectory and target. A challenge in developing such decoders is that often few physiological signals related to the intended reach remain under voluntary control, especially in patients with high cervical injuries. Furthermore, the decoding problem changes when the user is controlling the motion of their limb, as opposed to an external device. The purpose of this study was to investigate the benefits of combining disparate signal sources to control reach in people with a range of impairments, and to consider the effect of two feedback approaches. Subjects with cervical SCI performed robot-assisted reaching, controlling trajectories with either shoulder electromyograms (EMGs or EMGs combined with gaze. We then evaluated how reaching performance was influenced by task-related sensory feedback, testing the EMG-only decoder in two conditions. The first involved moving the arm with the robot, providing congruent sensory feedback through their remaining sense of proprioception. In the second, the subjects moved the robot without the arm attached, as in applications that control external devices. We found that the multimodal decoding algorithm worked well for all subjects, enabling them to perform straight, accurate reaches. The inclusion of gaze information, used to estimate target location, was especially important for the most impaired subjects. In the absence of gaze information, congruent sensory feedback improved performance. These results highlight the importance of proprioceptive feedback, and suggest that multi-modal decoders are likely to be most beneficial for highly impaired subjects and in tasks where such

  15. Logical and epistemological approach to critical thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Jelena

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two main approaches in the conceptualization of critical thinking, logical and epistemological, are presented and analyzed in this paper. The review of logical approach begins with defining its general framework (relationship between critical thinking and informal logic and afterwards we analyze abilities and skills which are seen as basic constituents of critical thinking. In the review of epistemological approach we analyze four conceptions that present the main directions in criticizing logical approach, and also in developing the broader perspective on critical thinking that includes specific view of knowledge and its development, noncognitive dispositions and the role of subject based knowledge. At the end, we discuss the relationship between logical and epistemological approach. We claim and justify that they should be understood as complementary approaches, and we consider specific contribution of each approach to comprehensive definition of critical thinking. .

  16. Is Logic Innate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Crain

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Arguments are presented supporting logical nativism: the conjecture that humans have an innate logic faculty. In making a case for logical nativism, this article concentrates on children’s acquisition of the logical concept of disjunction. Despite the widespread belief to the contrary, the interpretation of disjunction in human languages is arguably the same as it is in classical logic, namely inclusive–or. The argument proceeds with empirical support for the view that the inclusive–or is the meaning of disjunction in human languages, from studies of child language development and from cross-linguistic research. Evidence is presented showing that young children adhere to universal semantic principles that characterize adult linguistic competence across languages. Several a priori arguments are also offered in favour of logical nativism. These arguments show that logic, like Socratic virtue and like certain aspects of language, is not learned and cannot be taught — thus supporting a strong form of innateness.

  17. Improved Automated Perimetry Performance in Elderly Subjects after Listening To Mozart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Junia Cabral; Vanessa, Adriana Chaves Oliveira; Fiorelli, Macedo Batista; Kasahara, Niro

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of automated perimetry of elderly subjects naïve to AP after listening to a Mozart sonata. INTRODUCTION: Automated perimetry (AP) is a psychophysical test used to assess visual fields in patients with neurological disorders and glaucoma. In a previous study, Fiorelli et al. showed that young subjects who listened to a Mozart sonata prior to undergoing AP performed better in terms of reliability than those who did not listen to the sonata. METHODS: Fifty-two AP-naïve, normal subjects underwent Automated perimetry (SITA 24-2). The study group (25 subjects) underwent AP after listening to Mozart’s Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major, and the control group (27 subjects) underwent Automated perimetry without prior exposure to the music. RESULTS: The study group had significantly lower false negative rates and a lower visual field reliability score than the controls (P=0.04 and P=0.04, respectively). The test time was shorter for the study group (P=0.03). DISCUSSION: This study shows that elderly subjects, when exposed to the Mozart sonata immediately before AP testing, have lower false negative rates and lower visual field reliability scores when compared with an age- and gender-matched control group. Our results differ from those of Fiorelli et al. who found lower false positive rates and less fixation loss in addition to lower false negative rates. CONCLUSION: Listening to a Mozart sonata seems to improve automated perimetry reliability in elderly subjects. PMID:19606243

  18. Monocular and binocular reading performance in subjects with normal binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Jan; Pansell, Tony; Ygge, Jan; Seimyr, Gustaf Öqvist

    2014-07-01

    It is well known that problems with binocular vision can cause issues for reading; less known is to what extent binocular vision improves reading performance. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of binocularity by directly comparing monocular and binocular reading in subjects with typical reading skills and normal binocular vision. A secondary purpose was to assess any asymmetry in monocular performance and its association with the sighting dominant eye. In a balanced repeated measures experiment, 18 subjects read paragraphs of text under monocular and binocular conditions. All subjects went through an optometric examination before inclusion. Reading speed and eye movements were recorded with an eye tracker. The mean difference in reading speed (2.1 per cent) between monocular (dominant and non-dominant eye averaged) and binocular reading speed was not significant. A significant difference in reading speed was found between binocular and the non-dominant eye, as determined by the far sighting test (p = 0.03). Monocular reading showed significantly increased (8.9 per cent) fixation duration (p binocular vision, there is no marked enhancement in reading performance by binocular vision when reading paragraphs of text. Furthermore, the monocular reading performance appears to be close to equal and any small differences in performance appear not to be strongly associated with ocular dominance. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2014 Optometrists Association Australia.

  19. Precompetitive state anxiety, objective and subjective performance, and causal attributions in competitive swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polman, Remco; Rowcliffe, Naomi; Borkoles, Erika; Levy, Andrew

    2007-02-01

    This study investigated the nature of the relationship between precompetitive state anxiety (CSAI-2C), subjective (race position) and objective (satisfaction) performance outcomes, and self-rated causal attributions (CDS-IIC) for performance in competitive child swimmers. Race position, subjective satisfaction, self-confidence, and, to a lesser extent, cognitive state anxiety (but not somatic state anxiety) were associated with the attributions provided by the children for their swimming performance. The study partially supported the self-serving bias hypothesis; winners used the ego-enhancing attributional strategy, but the losers did not use an ego-protecting attributional style. Age but not gender appeared to influence the attributions provided in achievement situations.

  20. Single subject analyses reveal consistent recruitment of frontal operculum in performance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiez, Céline; Wutte, Magdalena G; Faillenot, Isabelle; Petrides, Michael; Burle, Boris; Procyk, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    There are continuing uncertainties regarding whether performance monitoring recruits the anterior insula (aI) and/or the frontal operculum (fO). The proximity and morphological complexity of these two regions make proper identification and isolation of the loci of activation extremely difficult. The use of group averaging methods in human neuroimaging might contribute to this problem. The result has been heterogeneous labeling of this region as aI, fO, or aI/fO, and a discussion of results oriented towards either cognitive or interoceptive functions depending on labeling. In the present article, we adapted the spatial preprocessing of functional magnetic resonance imaging data to account for group averaging artifacts and performed a subject-by-subject analysis in three performance monitoring tasks. Results show that functional activity related to feedback or action monitoring consistently follows local morphology in this region and demonstrate that the activity is located predominantly in the fO rather than in the aI. From these results, we propose that a full understanding of the respective role of aI and fO would benefit from increased spatial resolution and subject-by-subject analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Single molecule logical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Nicolas; Hliwa, Mohamed; Joachim, Christian

    2012-01-01

    After almost 40 years of development, molecular electronics has given birth to many exciting ideas that range from molecular wires to molecular qubit-based quantum computers. This chapter reviews our efforts to answer a simple question: how smart can a single molecule be? In our case a molecule able to perform a simple Boolean function is a child prodigy. Following the Aviram and Ratner approach, these molecules are inserted between several conducting electrodes. The electronic conduction of the resulting molecular junction is extremely sensitive to the chemical nature of the molecule. Therefore designing this latter correctly allows the implementation of a given function inside the molecular junction. Throughout the chapter different approaches are reviewed, from hybrid devices to quantum molecular logic gates. We particularly stress that one can implement an entire logic circuit in a single molecule, using either classical-like intramolecular connections, or a deformation of the molecular orbitals induced by a conformational change of the molecule. These approaches are radically different from the hybrid-device approach, where several molecules are connected together to build the circuit.

  2. Improving the performance of the Egyptian second testing nuclear research reactor using interval type-2 fuzzy logic controller tuned by modified biogeography-based optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayed, M.M., E-mail: M.M.Sayed@ieee.org; Saad, M.S.; Emara, H.M.; Abou El-Zahab, E.E.

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • A modified version of the BBO was proposed. • A novel method for interval type-2 FLC design tuned by MBBO was proposed. • The performance of the ETRR-2 was improved by using IT2FLC tuned by MBBO. -- Abstract: Power stabilization is a critical issue in nuclear reactors. The conventional proportional derivative (PD) controller is currently used in the Egyptian second testing research reactor (ETRR-2). In this paper, we propose a modified biogeography-based optimization (MBBO) algorithm to design the interval type-2 fuzzy logic controller (IT2FLC) to improve the performance of the Egyptian second testing research reactor (ETRR-2). Biogeography-based optimization (BBO) is a novel evolutionary algorithm that is based on the mathematical models of biogeography. Biogeography is the study of the geographical distribution of biological organisms. In the BBO model, problem solutions are represented as islands, and the sharing of features between solutions is represented as immigration and emigration between the islands. A modified version of the BBO is applied to design the IT2FLC to get the optimal parameters of the membership functions of the controller. We test the optimal IT2FLC obtained by modified biogeography-based optimization (MBBO) using the integral square error (ISE) and is compared with the currently used PD controller.

  3. Subjective Evaluation of Packet Service Performance in UMTS and Heterogeneous Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teyeb, Oumer Mohammed; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard; Mogensen, Preben

    2006-01-01

    Quality of Service (QoS) in mobile telecommunication systems is usually identified by some basic performance metrics such as delay, throughput and jitter. However, the main impact of service quality is on the end user, and as such a detailed study of service performance should involve the end user....... In this paper, such an approach is taken where subjective performance evaluation is undertaken for web browsing and video streaming services in Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) and a heterogeneous network comprised of UMTS and Wireless LAN (WLAN). Using a real-time network emulation testbed...

  4. Performance effects and subjective disturbance of speech in acoustically different office types--a laboratory experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haka, M; Haapakangas, A; Keränen, J; Hakala, J; Keskinen, E; Hongisto, V

    2009-12-01

    This study examined how the intelligibility of irrelevant speech, determined with the Speech Transmission Index (STI), affects demanding cognitive task performance. Experiment was carried out in a laboratory that resembled an open-plan office. Three speech conditions were tested corresponding to a private office (STI = 0.10), an acoustically excellent open office (STI = 0.35) and an acoustically poor open office (STI = 0.65). All conditions were presented at equal level, 48 dBA. The STI was adjusted by the relative levels of speech and masking sound. Thirty-seven students participated in the experiment that lasted for 4 h. All participants performed five tasks in each of the three speech conditions. Questionnaires were used to assess subjective perceptions of the speech conditions. Performance in the operation span task, the serial recall and the activation of prior knowledge from long-term memory were deteriorated in the speech condition with the highest speech intelligibility (STI = 0.65) in comparison with the other two conditions (STI = 0.10 and STI = 0.35). Unlike performance measures, questionnaire results showed consistent differences among all three speech conditions, i.e. subjective disturbance increased with ascending speech intelligibility. Thus, subjective comfort was disturbed more easily than performance. The results support the use of STI as an essential room acoustic design measure in open-plan offices. Reduction of speech intelligibility in office environments by proper acoustic design would be beneficial in terms of both work performance and subjective comfort. Proper acoustic design requires both the use of high acoustic absorption and an appropriate masking sound.

  5. Evaluation of Subjective and Objective Performance Metrics for Haptically Controlled Robotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Dung Pham

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies in detail how different evaluation methods perform when it comes to describing the performance of haptically controlled mobile manipulators. Particularly, we investigate how well subjective metrics perform compared to objective metrics. To find the best metrics to describe the performance of a control scheme is challenging when human operators are involved; how the user perceives the performance of the controller does not necessarily correspond to the directly measurable metrics normally used in controller evaluation. It is therefore important to study whether there is any correspondence between how the user perceives the performance of a controller, and how it performs in terms of directly measurable metrics such as the time used to perform a task, number of errors, accuracy, and so on. To perform these tests we choose a system that consists of a mobile manipulator that is controlled by an operator through a haptic device. This is a good system for studying different performance metrics as the performance can be determined by subjective metrics based on feedback from the users, and also as objective and directly measurable metrics. The system consists of a robotic arm which provides for interaction and manipulation, which is mounted on a mobile base which extends the workspace of the arm. The operator thus needs to perform both interaction and locomotion using a single haptic device. While the position of the on-board camera is determined by the base motion, the principal control objective is the motion of the manipulator arm. This calls for intelligent control allocation between the base and the manipulator arm in order to obtain intuitive control of both the camera and the arm. We implement three different approaches to the control allocation problem, i.e., whether the vehicle or manipulator arm actuation is applied to generate the desired motion. The performance of the different control schemes is evaluated, and our

  6. VISUAL DIDACTIC REGULATORS OF LOGICAL-SEMANTIC TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Shteinberg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There is a growing recognition that information flows are developing at a geometric rate. These information flows require to be quickly and qualitatively processed for further sustainable development of scientific and production spheres. Thus, the education system requires the search of adequate means of consumption and broadcast of information, knowledge, data, actual material, etc., corresponding to psychological features of perception and thought processes. Visualization as the most convenient and compact form of different submission of data is becoming a key civilization trend of the information age.The aim of the publication is to justify the necessity of designing and applying new didactic means – visual didactic regulators of the logical-semantic type aimed at improving of teaching technologies.Methodology and research methods. The research methodology includes the concept of logical and semantic modeling of knowledge presented in natural language, and the concept of orienting bases of actions in teaching. The method of the present research is graphic visualization of logical and semantic modeling of knowledge.Results. The definition of the concept “visual didactic regulators of the logical-semantic type” is formulated; its characteristics, genesis, structure and functions, and the prospects for its application in teaching are presented. The solution of the problem of synthesizing the regulators in the form of the coordinate-matrix structure of the regulators is shown; the universal learning activities performed in the course of the regulators’ design are considered. The prospects for the application of visual didactic regulators are highlighted.Scientific novelty. The logic of the evolution of didactic visual aids is shown: from illustrative – through the support – to visual didactic regulators with extended didactic functions. The universal coordinate-matrix graphic realization of regulators is proved. While

  7. Music performance anxiety in skilled pianists: effects of social-evaluative performance situation on subjective, autonomic, and electromyographic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshie, Michiko; Kudo, Kazutoshi; Murakoshi, Takayuki; Ohtsuki, Tatsuyuki

    2009-11-01

    Music performance anxiety (MPA), or stage fright in music performance, is a serious problem for many musicians, because performance impairment accompanied by MPA can threaten their career. The present study sought to clarify on how a social-evaluative performance situation affects subjective, autonomic, and motor stress responses in pianists. Measurements of subjective state anxiety, heart rate (HR), sweat rate (SR), and electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper extremity muscles were obtained while 18 skilled pianists performed a solo piano piece(s) of their choice under stressful (competition) and non-stressful (rehearsal) conditions. Participants reported greater anxiety in the competition condition, which confirmed the effectiveness of stress manipulation. The HR and SR considerably increased from the rehearsal to competition condition reflecting the activation of sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. Furthermore, participants showed higher levels of the EMG magnitude of proximal muscles (biceps brachii and upper trapezius) and the co-contraction of antagonistic muscles in the forearm (extensor digitorum communis and flexor digitorum superficialis) in the competition condition. Although these responses can be interpreted as integral components of an adaptive biological system that creates a state of motor readiness in an unstable or unpredictable environment, they can adversely influence pianists by disrupting their fine motor control on stage and by increasing the risk of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders.

  8. Effect of a Bluetooth-implemented hearing aid on speech recognition performance: subjective and objective measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Beom; Chung, Won-Ho; Choi, Jeesun; Hong, Sung Hwa; Cho, Yang-Sun; Park, Gyuseok; Lee, Sangmin

    2014-06-01

    The object was to evaluate speech perception improvement through Bluetooth-implemented hearing aids in hearing-impaired adults. Thirty subjects with bilateral symmetric moderate sensorineural hearing loss participated in this study. A Bluetooth-implemented hearing aid was fitted unilaterally in all study subjects. Objective speech recognition score and subjective satisfaction were measured with a Bluetooth-implemented hearing aid to replace the acoustic connection from either a cellular phone or a loudspeaker system. In each system, participants were assigned to 4 conditions: wireless speech signal transmission into hearing aid (wireless mode) in quiet or noisy environment and conventional speech signal transmission using external microphone of hearing aid (conventional mode) in quiet or noisy environment. Also, participants completed questionnaires to investigate subjective satisfaction. Both cellular phone and loudspeaker system situation, participants showed improvements in sentence and word recognition scores with wireless mode compared to conventional mode in both quiet and noise conditions (P Bluetooth-implemented hearing aids helped to improve subjective and objective speech recognition performances in quiet and noisy environments during the use of electronic audio devices.

  9. Bilayer avalanche spin-diode logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Joseph S., E-mail: joseph.friedman@u-psud.fr; Querlioz, Damien [Institut d’Electronique Fondamentale, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS, 91405 Orsay (France); Fadel, Eric R. [Department of Materials Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wessels, Bruce W. [Department of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Sahakian, Alan V. [Department of Electrical Engineering & Computer Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    A novel spintronic computing paradigm is proposed and analyzed in which InSb p-n bilayer avalanche spin-diodes are cascaded to efficiently perform complex logic operations. This spin-diode logic family uses control wires to generate magnetic fields that modulate the resistance of the spin-diodes, and currents through these devices control the resistance of cascaded devices. Electromagnetic simulations are performed to demonstrate the cascading mechanism, and guidelines are provided for the development of this innovative computing technology. This cascading scheme permits compact logic circuits with switching speeds determined by electromagnetic wave propagation rather than electron motion, enabling high-performance spintronic computing.

  10. The efficacy of objective and subjective predictors of driving performance during sleep restriction and circadian misalignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmadopoulos, Anastasi; Sargent, Charli; Zhou, Xuan; Darwent, David; Matthews, Raymond W; Dawson, Drew; Roach, Gregory D

    2017-02-01

    Fatigue is a significant contributor to motor-vehicle accidents and fatalities. Shift workers are particularly susceptible to fatigue-related risks as they are often sleep-restricted and required to commute around the clock. Simple assays of performance could provide useful indications of risk in fatigue management, but their effectiveness may be influenced by changes in their sensitivity to sleep loss across the day. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of several neurobehavioral and subjective tasks to sleep restriction (SR) at different circadian phases and their efficacy as predictors of performance during a simulated driving task. Thirty-two volunteers (M±SD; 22.8±2.9 years) were time-isolated for 13-days and participated in one of two 14-h forced desynchrony protocols with sleep opportunities equivalent to 8h/24h (control) or 4h/24h (SR). At regular intervals during wake periods, participants completed a simulated driving task, several neurobehavioral tasks, including the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), and subjective ratings, including a self-assessment measure of ability to perform. Scores transformed into standardized units relative to baseline were folded into circadian phase bins based on core body temperature. Sleep dose and circadian phase effect sizes were derived via mixed models analyses. Predictors of driving were identified with regressions. Performance was most sensitive to sleep restriction around the circadian nadir. The effects of sleep restriction around the circadian nadir were larger for simulated driving and neurobehavioral tasks than for subjective ratings. Tasks did not significantly predict driving performance during the control condition or around the acrophase during the SR condition. The PVT and self-assessed ability were the best predictors of simulated driving across circadian phases during SR. These results show that simple performance measures and self-monitoring explain a large proportion of the variance in

  11. Logic and structure

    CERN Document Server

    Dalen, Dirk

    1983-01-01

    A book which efficiently presents the basics of propositional and predicate logic, van Dalen’s popular textbook contains a complete treatment of elementary classical logic, using Gentzen’s Natural Deduction. Propositional and predicate logic are treated in separate chapters in a leisured but precise way. Chapter Three presents the basic facts of model theory, e.g. compactness, Skolem-Löwenheim, elementary equivalence, non-standard models, quantifier elimination, and Skolem functions. The discussion of classical logic is rounded off with a concise exposition of second-order logic. In view of the growing recognition of constructive methods and principles, one chapter is devoted to intuitionistic logic. Completeness is established for Kripke semantics. A number of specific constructive features, such as apartness and equality, the Gödel translation, the disjunction and existence property have been incorporated. The power and elegance of natural deduction is demonstrated best in the part of proof theory cal...

  12. The Football of Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schang Fabien

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An analogy is made between two rather different domains, namely: logic, and football (or soccer. Starting from a comparative table between the two activities, an alternative explanation of logic is given in terms of players, ball, goal, and the like. Our main thesis is that, just as the task of logic is preserving truth from premises to the conclusion, footballers strive to keep the ball as far as possible until the opposite goal. Assuming this analogy may help think about logic in the same way as in dialogical logic, but it should also present truth-values in an alternative sense of speech-acts occurring in a dialogue. The relativity of truth-values is focused by this way, thereby leading to an additional way of logical pluralism.

  13. Effect of tone-based sound stimulation on balance performance of normal subjects: preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnacco, Guido; Klotzek, Adam S; Carrick, Frederick R; Wright, Cameron H G; Oggero, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Sound is known to affect the human brain, hence sound or music therapy is sometimes used to improve a subject's physicaland mental health. In this study, the effects sound stimulation has on balance were investigated by means of computerizeddynamic posturography tests performed with eyes closed on an unstable surface using a CAPS® system, exceeding theInternational Society for Posture and Gait Research (ISPGR) recommended metrological performance standards. Subjectswere tested without listening to any music (baseline), listening to “pure music”, and listening to the same music with differenttones embedded into it (one for each key). We found that different subjects react differently to different tones. Music alonedid not have a statistically significant effect on balance compared to the baseline, but the “best” tone significantly improvedbalance compared to the baseline or the “pure music” conditions. Furthermore, the “worst” tone reduced the balancecompared to “pure music”, but the reduction was not statistically significant relative to the baseline. The results thereforeindicate that, at least relative to balance performance, the tone-based sound stimulation we investigated is effective andinherently safe, but that tone selection depends on the individual subject.

  14. Magnetic-field-controlled reconfigurable semiconductor logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Sungjung; Kim, Taeyueb; Shin, Sang Hoon; Lim, Ju Young; Hong, Jinki; Song, Jin Dong; Chang, Joonyeon; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Rhie, Kungwon; Han, Suk Hee; Shin, Kyung-Ho; Johnson, Mark

    2013-02-07

    Logic devices based on magnetism show promise for increasing computational efficiency while decreasing consumed power. They offer zero quiescent power and yet combine novel functions such as programmable logic operation and non-volatile built-in memory. However, practical efforts to adapt a magnetic device to logic suffer from a low signal-to-noise ratio and other performance attributes that are not adequate for logic gates. Rather than exploiting magnetoresistive effects that result from spin-dependent transport of carriers, we have approached the development of a magnetic logic device in a different way: we use the phenomenon of large magnetoresistance found in non-magnetic semiconductors in high electric fields. Here we report a device showing a strong diode characteristic that is highly sensitive to both the sign and the magnitude of an external magnetic field, offering a reversible change between two different characteristic states by the application of a magnetic field. This feature results from magnetic control of carrier generation and recombination in an InSb p-n bilayer channel. Simple circuits combining such elementary devices are fabricated and tested, and Boolean logic functions including AND, OR, NAND and NOR are performed. They are programmed dynamically by external electric or magnetic signals, demonstrating magnetic-field-controlled semiconductor reconfigurable logic at room temperature. This magnetic technology permits a new kind of spintronic device, characterized as a current switch rather than a voltage switch, and provides a simple and compact platform for non-volatile reconfigurable logic devices.

  15. Effects of Background Music on Objective and Subjective Performance Measures in an Auditory BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sijie; Allison, Brendan Z; Kübler, Andrea; Cichocki, Andrzej; Wang, Xingyu; Jin, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have explored brain computer interface (BCI) systems based on auditory stimuli, which could help patients with visual impairments. Usability and user satisfaction are important considerations in any BCI. Although background music can influence emotion and performance in other task environments, and many users may wish to listen to music while using a BCI, auditory, and other BCIs are typically studied without background music. Some work has explored the possibility of using polyphonic music in auditory BCI systems. However, this approach requires users with good musical skills, and has not been explored in online experiments. Our hypothesis was that an auditory BCI with background music would be preferred by subjects over a similar BCI without background music, without any difference in BCI performance. We introduce a simple paradigm (which does not require musical skill) using percussion instrument sound stimuli and background music, and evaluated it in both offline and online experiments. The result showed that subjects preferred the auditory BCI with background music. Different performance measures did not reveal any significant performance effect when comparing background music vs. no background. Since the addition of background music does not impair BCI performance but is preferred by users, auditory (and perhaps other) BCIs should consider including it. Our study also indicates that auditory BCIs can be effective even if the auditory channel is simultaneously otherwise engaged.

  16. Effects of background music on objective and subjective performance measures in an auditory BCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijie Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have explored brain computer interface (BCI systems based on auditory stimuli, which could help patients with visual impairments. Usability and user satisfaction are important considerations in any BCI. Although background music can influence emotion and performance in other task environments, and many users may wish to listen to music while using a BCI, auditory and other BCIs are typically studied without background music. Some work has explored the possibility of using polyphonic music in auditory BCI systems. However, this approach requires users with good musical skills, and has not been explored in online experiments. Our hypothesis was that an auditory BCI with background music would be preferred by subjects over a similar BCI without background music, without any difference in BCI performance. We introduce a simple paradigm (which does not require musical skill using percussion instrument sound stimuli and background music, and evaluated it in both offline and online experiments. The result showed that subjects preferred the auditory BCI with background music. Different performance measures did not reveal any significant performance effect when comparing background music vs. no background. Since the addition of background music does not impair BCI performance but is preferred by users, auditory (and perhaps other BCIs should consider including it. Our study also indicates that auditory BCIs can be effective even if the auditory channel is simultaneously otherwise engaged.

  17. Digital Microfluidic Logic Gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Xu, Tao; Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    Microfluidic computing is an emerging application for microfluidics technology. We propose microfluidic logic gates based on digital microfluidics. Using the principle of electrowetting-on-dielectric, AND, OR, NOT and XOR gates are implemented through basic droplet-handling operations such as transporting, merging and splitting. The same input-output interpretation enables the cascading of gates to create nontrivial computing systems. We present a potential application for microfluidic logic gates by implementing microfluidic logic operations for on-chip HIV test.

  18. Logical database design principles

    CERN Document Server

    Garmany, John; Clark, Terry

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO LOGICAL DATABASE DESIGNUnderstanding a Database Database Architectures Relational Databases Creating the Database System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)Systems Planning: Assessment and Feasibility System Analysis: RequirementsSystem Analysis: Requirements Checklist Models Tracking and Schedules Design Modeling Functional Decomposition DiagramData Flow Diagrams Data Dictionary Logical Structures and Decision Trees System Design: LogicalSYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION The ER ApproachEntities and Entity Types Attribute Domains AttributesSet-Valued AttributesWeak Entities Constraint

  19. Indexical Hybrid Tense Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...... operator N) and prove completeness results for both logical and contextual validity. We then add propositional constants to handle yesterday, today and tomorrow; our system correctly treats sentences like “Niels will die yesterday” as contextually unsatisfiable. Building on our completeness results for now......, we prove completeness for the richer language, again for both logical and contextual validity....

  20. Fuzzy Logic Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Ayanna

    2005-01-01

    The Fuzzy Logic Engine is a software package that enables users to embed fuzzy-logic modules into their application programs. Fuzzy logic is useful as a means of formulating human expert knowledge and translating it into software to solve problems. Fuzzy logic provides flexibility for modeling relationships between input and output information and is distinguished by its robustness with respect to noise and variations in system parameters. In addition, linguistic fuzzy sets and conditional statements allow systems to make decisions based on imprecise and incomplete information. The user of the Fuzzy Logic Engine need not be an expert in fuzzy logic: it suffices to have a basic understanding of how linguistic rules can be applied to the user's problem. The Fuzzy Logic Engine is divided into two modules: (1) a graphical-interface software tool for creating linguistic fuzzy sets and conditional statements and (2) a fuzzy-logic software library for embedding fuzzy processing capability into current application programs. The graphical- interface tool was developed using the Tcl/Tk programming language. The fuzzy-logic software library was written in the C programming language.

  1. Introduction to mathematical logic

    CERN Document Server

    Mendelson, Elliott

    2015-01-01

    The new edition of this classic textbook, Introduction to Mathematical Logic, Sixth Edition explores the principal topics of mathematical logic. It covers propositional logic, first-order logic, first-order number theory, axiomatic set theory, and the theory of computability. The text also discusses the major results of Gödel, Church, Kleene, Rosser, and Turing.The sixth edition incorporates recent work on Gödel's second incompleteness theorem as well as restoring an appendix on consistency proofs for first-order arithmetic. This appendix last appeared in the first edition. It is offered in th

  2. Fictional Separation Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Buhrkal; Birkedal, Lars

    2012-01-01

    , separation means physical separation. In this paper, we introduce \\emph{fictional separation logic}, which includes more general forms of fictional separating conjunctions P * Q, where "*" does not require physical separation, but may also be used in situations where the memory resources described by P and Q...... overlap. We demonstrate, via a range of examples, how fictional separation logic can be used to reason locally and modularly about mutable abstract data types, possibly implemented using sophisticated sharing. Fictional separation logic is defined on top of standard separation logic, and both the meta...

  3. Modular Logic Metaprogramming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, Karl; Ostermann, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    In logic metaprogramming, programs are not stored as plain textfiles but rather derived from a deductive database. While the benefits of this approach for metaprogramming are obvious, its incompatibility with separate checking limits its applicability to large-scale projects. We analyze...... the problems inhibiting separate checking and propose a class of logics that reconcile logic metaprogramming and separate checking. We have formalized the resulting module system and have proven the soundness of separate checking. We validate its feasibility by presenting the design and implementation...... of a specific logic that is able to express many metaprogramming examples from the literature....

  4. A Logic for Choreographies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Hugo Andres; Carbone, Marco; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We explore logical reasoning for the global calculus, a coordination model based on the notion of choreography, with the aim to provide a methodology for specification and verification of structured communications. Starting with an extension of Hennessy-Milner logic, we present the global logic (GL...... ), a modal logic describing possible interactions among participants in a choreography. We illustrate its use by giving examples of properties on service specifications. Finally, we show that, despite GL is undecidable, there is a significant decidable fragment which we provide with a sound and complete proof...

  5. Preserving Subject Variability in Group fMRI Analysis: Performance Evaluation of GICA versus IVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eMichael

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Independent component analysis (ICA is a widely applied technique to derive functionally connected brain networks from fMRI data. Group ICA (GICA and Independent Vector Analysis (IVA are extensions of ICA that enable users to perform group fMRI analyses; however a full comparison of the performance limits of GICA and IVA has not been investigated. Recent interest in resting state fMRI data with potentially higher degree of subject variability makes the evaluation of the above techniques important. In this paper we compare component estimation accuracies of GICA and an improved version of IVA using simulated fMRI datasets. We systematically change the degree of component spatial variability and evaluate estimation accuracy over all spatial maps (SMs and time courses (TCs of the decomposition. Our results indicate the following: (1 at low levels of SM variability or when just one SM is varied, both GICA and IVA perform well, (2 at higher levels of SM variability or when more than one SMs are varied, IVA continues to perform well but GICA yields SM estimates that are composites of other SMs with errors in TCs, (3 both GICA and IVA remove spatial correlations of overlapping SMs and introduce artificial correlations in their TCs, (4 if number of SMs is over estimated, IVA continues to perform well but GICA introduces artifacts in the varying and extra SMs with artificial correlations in the TCs of extra components, and (5 in the absence or presence of SMs unique to one subject, GICA produces errors in TCs and IVA estimates are accurate. In summary, our simulation experiments (both simplistic and realistic and our holistic analyses approach indicate that IVA produces results that are closer to ground truth and thereby better preserves subject variability. The improved version of IVA is now packaged into the GIFT toolbox (http://mialab.mrn.org/software/gift.

  6. Towards a Formal Occurrence Logic based on Predicate Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad; Götzsche, Hans

    2015-01-01

    argumentation based on formal Occurrence Logic concerning events and occurrences, and illustrate the relations between Predicate Logic and Occurrence Logic. The relationships (and dependencies) is conducive to an approach that can analyse the occurrences of ”logical statements based on different logical...

  7. Pattern-Based FPGA Logic Block and Clustering Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Xifan; Gaillardon, Pierre-Emmanuel; De Micheli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    In classical FPGA, LUTs and DFFs are pre-packed into BLEs and then BLEs are grouped into logic blocks. We propose a novel logic block architecture with fast combinational paths between LUTs, called pattern-based logic blocks. A new clustering algorithm is developed to release the potential of pattern-based logic blocks. Experimental results show that the novel architecture and the associated clustering algorithm lead to a 14% performance gain and a 8% wirelength reduction with a 3% area overh...

  8. Effect of oral dietary supplement for chicks subjected to thermal oscillation on performance and intestinal morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanir Inês Müller Fernandes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a nutritional formulation based on amino acids and vitamins supplemented in the drinking water for chicks in the first week of life subjected to thermal oscillation on performance, organ development and intestinal morphometry from 1 to 21 days. 640-male broiler chicks were distributed in a 2x2 factorial completely randomized design (with or without dietary supplementation and at comfort temperature or thermal oscillation. Chicks subjected to thermal oscillation presented worse performance (p < 0.05 than those under thermal comfort of 1 to 7, 1 to 14 and 1 to 21 days. Nutritional supplementation did not alter the performance (p < 0.05 of the birds, but resulted in a higher body weight (p < 0.05 regardless of the environmental thermal condition. At 7 days, chicks under thermal comfort had better intestinal morphometric parameters (p < 0.05, in relation to birds under thermal oscillation. In conclusion, the temperature oscillations caused negative consequences to the productive performance and the intestinal morphology of chicks for which dietary supplementation was not enough to mitigate the effects of the environmental challenge during the first week of life of the birds.

  9. Tracking Systems for Virtual Rehabilitation: Objective Performance vs. Subjective Experience. A Practical Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Lloréns

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Motion tracking systems are commonly used in virtual reality-based interventions to detect movements in the real world and transfer them to the virtual environment. There are different tracking solutions based on different physical principles, which mainly define their performance parameters. However, special requirements have to be considered for rehabilitation purposes. This paper studies and compares the accuracy and jitter of three tracking solutions (optical, electromagnetic, and skeleton tracking in a practical scenario and analyzes the subjective perceptions of 19 healthy subjects, 22 stroke survivors, and 14 physical therapists. The optical tracking system provided the best accuracy (1.074 ± 0.417 cm while the electromagnetic device provided the most inaccurate results (11.027 ± 2.364 cm. However, this tracking solution provided the best jitter values (0.324 ± 0.093 cm, in contrast to the skeleton tracking, which had the worst results (1.522 ± 0.858 cm. Healthy individuals and professionals preferred the skeleton tracking solution rather than the optical and electromagnetic solution (in that order. Individuals with stroke chose the optical solution over the other options. Our results show that subjective perceptions and preferences are far from being constant among different populations, thus suggesting that these considerations, together with the performance parameters, should be also taken into account when designing a rehabilitation system.

  10. Learning fuzzy logic control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Leung Kam

    1994-01-01

    The performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Control System (LFLCS), developed in this thesis, has been evaluated. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller (LFLC) learns to control the motor by learning the set of teaching values that are generated by a classical PI controller. It is assumed that the classical PI controller is tuned to minimize the error of a position control system of the D.C. motor. The Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller developed in this thesis is a multi-input single-output network. Training of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is implemented off-line. Upon completion of the training process (using Supervised Learning, and Unsupervised Learning), the LFLC replaces the classical PI controller. In this thesis, a closed loop position control system of a D.C. motor using the LFLC is implemented. The primary focus is on the learning capabilities of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller. The learning includes symbolic representation of the Input Linguistic Nodes set and Output Linguistic Notes set. In addition, we investigate the knowledge-based representation for the network. As part of the design process, we implement a digital computer simulation of the LFLCS. The computer simulation program is written in 'C' computer language, and it is implemented in DOS platform. The LFLCS, designed in this thesis, has been developed on a IBM compatible 486-DX2 66 computer. First, the performance of the Learning Fuzzy Logic Controller is evaluated by comparing the angular shaft position of the D.C. motor controlled by a conventional PI controller and that controlled by the LFLC. Second, the symbolic representation of the LFLC and the knowledge-based representation for the network are investigated by observing the parameters of the Fuzzy Logic membership functions and the links at each layer of the LFLC. While there are some limitations of application with this approach, the result of the simulation shows that the LFLC is able to control the angular shaft position of the

  11. Understanding Social Media Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José van Dijck

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mech­anics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions and rules of social interaction. In this article, we examine the intricate dynamic between social media platforms, mass media, users, and social institutions by calling attention to social media logic—the norms, strategies, mechanisms, and economies—underpin­ning its dynamics. This logic will be considered in light of what has been identified as mass me­dia logic, which has helped spread the media's powerful discourse outside its institutional boundaries. Theorizing social media logic, we identify four grounding principles—programmabil­ity, popularity, connectivity, and datafication—and argue that these principles become increas­ingly entangled with mass media logic. The logic of social media, rooted in these grounding principles and strategies, is gradually invading all areas of public life. Besides print news and broadcasting, it also affects law and order, social activism, politics, and so forth. Therefore, its sustaining logic and widespread dissemination deserve to be scrutinized in detail in order to better understand its impact in various domains. Concentrating on the tactics and strategies at work in social media logic, we reassess the constellation of power relationships in which social practices unfold, raising questions such as: How does social media logic modify or enhance ex­isting mass media logic? And how is this new media logic exported beyond the boundaries of (social or mass media proper? The underlying principles, tactics, and strategies may be relat­ively simple to identify, but it is much harder to map the complex connections between plat­forms that distribute this logic: users that employ them, technologies that

  12. Intra-Subject Variability of 5 Km Time Trial Performance Completed by Competitive Trained Runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher James

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Time-trials represent an ecologically valid approach to assessment of endurance performance. Such information is useful in the application of testing protocols and estimation of sample sizes required for research/magnitude based inference methods. The present study aimed to investigate the intra-subject variability of 5 km time-trial running performance in trained runners. Six competitive trained male runners (age = 33.8 ± 10.1 years; stature = 1.78 ± 0.01 m; body mass = 69.0 ± 10.4 kg, V. $\\it V^{.}$ O2max = 62.6 ± 11.0 ml·kg·min-1 completed an incremental exercise test to volitional exhaustion followed by 5 x 5 km time-trials (including a familiarisation trial, individually spaced by 48 hours. The time taken to complete each trial, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion and speed were all assessed. Intra-subject absolute standard error of measurement and the coefficient of variance were calculated for time-trial variables in addition to the intra-class correlation coefficient for time taken to complete the time-trial. For the primary measure time, results showed a coefficient of variation score across all participants of 1.5 ± 0.59% with an intra-class correlation coefficient score of 0.990. Heart rate, rating of perceived exertion and speed data showed a variance range between 0.8 and 3.05%. It was concluded that when compared with related research, there was observed low intra-subject variability in trained runners over a 5 km distance. This supports the use of this protocol for 5 km time-trial performance for assessment of nutritional strategies, ergogenic aids or training interventions on endurance running performance.

  13. The effects of glycine on subjective daytime performance in partially sleep-restricted healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto eBannai

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 30% of the general population suffers from insomnia. Given that insomnia causes many problems, amelioration of the symptoms is crucial. Recently, we found that a nonessential amino acid, glycine subjectively and objectively improves sleep quality in humans who have difficulty sleeping. We evaluated the effects of glycine on daytime sleepiness, fatigue and performances in sleep-restricted healthy subjects. Sleep was restricted to 25% less than the usual sleep time for three consecutive nights. Before bedtime, 3 g of glycine or placebo were ingested, sleepiness and fatigue were evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS and a questionnaire, and performance were estimated by personal computer (PC performance test program on the following day. In subjects given glycine, the VAS data showed a significant reduction in fatigue and a tendency toward reduced sleepiness. These observations were also found via the questionnaire, indicating that glycine improves daytime sleepiness and fatigue induced by acute sleep restriction. PC performance test revealed significant improvement in psychomotor vigilance test. We also measured plasma melatonin and the expression of circadian-modulated genes expression in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN to evaluate the effects of glycine on circadian rhythms. Glycine did not show significant effects on plasma melatonin concentrations during either the dark or light period. Moreover, the expression levels of clock genes such as Bmal1 and Per2 remained unchanged. However, we observed a glycine-induced increase in the neuropeptides arginine vasopressin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the light period. Although no alterations in the circadian clock itself were observed, our results indicate that glycine modulated SCN function. Thus, glycine modulates certain neuropeptides in the SCN and this phenomenon may indirectly contribute to improving the occasional sleepiness and fatigue induced by sleep

  14. Gate-Controlled BP-WSe2Heterojunction Diode for Logic Rectifiers and Logic Optoelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Wang, Biao; Chen, Mingyuan; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Zengxing

    2017-06-01

    p-n junctions play an important role in modern semiconductor electronics and optoelectronics, and field-effect transistors are often used for logic circuits. Here, gate-controlled logic rectifiers and logic optoelectronic devices based on stacked black phosphorus (BP) and tungsten diselenide (WSe 2 ) heterojunctions are reported. The gate-tunable ambipolar charge carriers in BP and WSe 2 enable a flexible, dynamic, and wide modulation on the heterojunctions as isotype (p-p and n-n) and anisotype (p-n) diodes, which exhibit disparate rectifying and photovoltaic properties. Based on such characteristics, it is demonstrated that BP-WSe 2 heterojunction diodes can be developed for high-performance logic rectifiers and logic optoelectronic devices. Logic optoelectronic devices can convert a light signal to an electric one by applied gate voltages. This work should be helpful to expand the applications of 2D crystals. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Reliability and validity of videotaped functional performance tests in ACL-injured subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Porat, Anette; Holmström, Eva; Roos, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    during five functional tests in subjects with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. METHOD: Twelve ACL-injured men, mean age 40 years, were video filmed before and after 12 weeks of knee-specific training when performing five different functional tests: walking, knee bending, step activity......, crossover hop on one leg and one-leg hop. The videos were observed by four physiotherapists, and the knee movement pattern quality, a feature of the loading strategy of the lower extremity, was scored on an 11-point rating scale. To assess the criterion validity, the observational rating was correlated...... validity found indicate that the knee movement pattern quality in ACL-injured subjects can be determined by visual observation of more demanding functional tests such as crossover hop on one leg and one-leg hop for distance....

  16. Pilot study of light therapy and neurocognitive performance of attention and memory in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, Giuseppe; Marconi, Daniela; Limpido, Lucilla; Tarolla, Emanuele; Caroti, Eleonora

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether light therapy improves healthy subjects' neurocognitive performance of attention, memory, and language. Ten subjects were treated with white bright light for 5 days and a control group of 10 with no treatment were assessed with a battery of neurocognitive tests which included the Stroop Colour Word Interference Test, the Verbal Fluency Test, the Story Recall Test, and the Word Pairs Recall Test. Analysis showed improvements in cognitive scores in both groups, although on all the cognitive tests the mean difference scores between baseline and endpoint were significantly larger in the light-treated group. These preliminary results suggest that short-term bright light may exert beneficial effects on cognitive functions.

  17. A Comparative Study of the Empirical Relationship in Student Performance between Physics and Other STEM Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Maricela

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) advocated by the National Research Council emphasize the connections among Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines. By design, NGSS is expected to replace the previous science education standards to enhance the quality of STEM education across the nation. To support this initiative, this investigation was conducted to fill a void in the research literature by developing an empirical indicator for the relationship of student performance across STEM subjects using a large-scale database from the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). In particular, an innovative approach has been taken in this study to support the canonical correlation analysis of student plausible scores between physics and other STEM subjects at different grade levels and in a cross-country context. Results from this doctoral research revealed the need to strengthen the alignment between the intended, implemented, and attained curricula to support the integration of STEM disciplines in the United States.

  18. The Relevance of Hegel's Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Burbidge

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Hegel defines his Logic as the science that thinks about thinking.nbsp; But when we interpret that work as outlining what happens when we reason we are vulnerable to Fregersquo;s charge of psychologism.nbsp; I use Hegelrsquo;s tripartite distinction among understanding, dialectical and speculative reason as operations of pure thought to suggest how thinking can work with objective concepts.nbsp; In the last analysis, however, our ability to move from the subjective contingency of representations and ideas to the pure concepts we think develops from mechanical memory, which separates sign from sense so hat we can focus simply on the latter.nbsp; By becoming aware of the connections that underlie our thinking processes we may be able to both move beyond the abstractions of symbolic logic and clarify what informal logicians call relevance.

  19. Programming Games for Logical Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tsalapatas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Analytical thinking is a transversal skill that helps learners synthesize knowledge across subject areas; from mathematics, science, and technology to critical reading, critical examination, and evaluation of lessons. While most would not doubt the importance of analytical capacity in academic settings and its growing demand for the skill in professional environments, school curricula do not comprehensively address its development. As a result, the responsibility for structuring related learning activities falls to teachers. This work examines learning paradigms that can be integrated into mathematics and science school education for developing logical thinking through game-based exercises based on programming. The proposed learning design promotes structured algorithmic mindsets, is based on inclusive universal logic present in all cultures, and promotes constructivism educational approaches encouraging learners to drive knowledge building by composing past and emerging experiences.

  20. Some logical functions of joint control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lowenkron, B

    1998-01-01

    Constructing a behavioral account of the language-related performances that characterize responding to logical and symbolic relations between stimuli is commonly viewed as a problem for the area of stimulus control...

  1. The logic of ACP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ponse (Alban); M.B. van der Zwaag

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe distinguish two interpretations for the truth value `undefined' in Kleene's three-valued logic. Combining these two interpretations leads to a four-valued propositional logic that characterizes two particular ingredients of process algebra: ``choice' and ``inaction'. We study two

  2. One reason, several logics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Agazzi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans have used arguments for defending or refuting statements long before the creation of logic as a specialized discipline. This can be interpreted as the fact that an intuitive notion of "logical consequence" or a psychic disposition to articulate reasoning according to this pattern is present in common sense, and logic simply aims at describing and codifying the features of this spontaneous capacity of human reason. It is well known, however, that several arguments easily accepted by common sense are actually "logical fallacies", and this indicates that logic is not just a descriptive, but also a prescriptive or normative enterprise, in which the notion of logical consequence is defined in a precise way and then certain rules are established in order to maintain the discourse in keeping with this notion. Yet in the justification of the correctness and adequacy of these rules commonsense reasoning must necessarily be used, and in such a way its foundational role is recognized. Moreover, it remains also true that several branches and forms of logic have been elaborated precisely in order to reflect the structural features of correct argument used in different fields of human reasoning and yet insufficiently mirrored by the most familiar logical formalisms.

  3. Interval Temporal Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monica, Dario Della; Goranko, Valentin; Montanari, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    We discuss a family of modal logics for reasoning about relational structures of intervals over (usually) linear orders, with modal operators associated with the various binary relations between such intervals, known as Allen’s interval relations. The formulae of these logics are evaluated at int...

  4. Logic Programming: PROLOG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Antonio M., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Provides background material on logic programing and presents PROLOG as a high-level artificial intelligence programing language that borrows its basic constructs from logic. Suggests the language is one which will help the educator to achieve various goals, particularly the promotion of problem solving ability. (MVL)

  5. Automata, Logic, and XML

    OpenAIRE

    NEVEN, Frank

    2002-01-01

    We survey some recent developments in the broad area of automata and logic which are motivated by the advent of XML. In particular, we consider unranked tree automata, tree-walking automata, and automata over infinite alphabets. We focus on their connection with logic and on questions imposed by XML.

  6. Description logics of context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klarman, S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Description Logics of Context (DLCs) - an extension of Description Logics (DLs) for context-based reasoning. Our approach descends from J. McCarthy's tradition of treating contexts as formal objects over which one can quantify...

  7. Honesty in partial logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van der Hoek (Wiebe); J.O.M. Jaspars; E. Thijsse

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWe propose an epistemic logic in which knowledge is fully introspective and implies truth, although truth need not imply epistemic possibility. The logic is presented in sequential format and is interpreted in a natural class of partial models, called balloon models. We examine the

  8. Abductive Logic Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Dahl, Veronica

    2009-01-01

    By extending logic grammars with constraint logic, we give them the ability to create knowledge bases that represent the meaning of an input string. Semantic information is thus defined through extra-grammatical means, and a sentence's meaning logically follows as a by-product of string rewriting...... the norm -- arbitrary (i.e., order-independent) derivations. We show that rich and accurate knowledge extraction from text can be achieved through the use of this new formalism......By extending logic grammars with constraint logic, we give them the ability to create knowledge bases that represent the meaning of an input string. Semantic information is thus defined through extra-grammatical means, and a sentence's meaning logically follows as a by-product of string rewriting....... We formalize these ideas, and exemplify them both within and outside first-order logic, and for both fixed and dynamic knowledge bases. Within the latter variety, we consider the usual left-to-right derivations that are traditional in logic grammars, but also -- in a significant departure from...

  9. School-performance indicators and subjective health complaints: are there gender differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brolin Låftman, Sara; Modin, Bitte

    2012-05-01

    Although boys and girls are generally located in the same physical school environment, it may be experienced differently by, and have varying implications for, boys and girls. Girls like school more and achieve higher school marks, but they also perceive more school-related pressure. Based on a total sample of 8456 ninth grade pupils in Stockholm in 2004, this study uses multilevel linear regression to analyse differences between boys and girls with regard to a number of school-performance indicators (demands, motivation, teacher support and school marks) and their association with subjective health complaints. Results showed that girls perceive more demands, show greater academic motivation, perform better in school and report more emotional support from teachers than boys. In contrast, instrumental and appraisal support from teachers are more commonly reported by boys. Associations between school-performance indicators and subjective health complaints were slightly stronger for girls than for boys. Contextual variation in health complaints, especially between classes, was found only for girls. High achievement motivation and emotional teacher support in the school class was associated with better pupil health, suggesting that a positive climate in terms of motivation and support favours class health as a whole. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Performance Testing of Lidar Components Subjected to Space Exposure in Space via MISSE 7 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2012-01-01

    .The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment for several months. MISSE missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials. Several laser and lidar components were sent by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) as a part of the MISSE 7 mission. The MISSE 7 module was transported to the international space station (ISS) via STS 129 mission that was launched on Nov 16, 2009. Later, the MISSE 7 module was brought back to the earth via the STS 134 that landed on June 1, 2011. The MISSE 7 module that was subjected to exposure in space environment for more than one and a half year included fiber laser, solid-state laser gain materials, detectors, and semiconductor laser diode. Performance testing of these components is now progressing. In this paper, the current progress on post-flight performance testing of a high-speed photodetector and a balanced receiver is discussed. Preliminary findings show that detector characteristics did not undergo any significant degradation.

  11. Effects of habitual variations in napping on psychomotor performance, memory and subjective states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, J M

    1979-01-01

    Effects of habitual variations in napping on psychomotor performance, short-term memory and subjective states were investigated. The subjects were 32 healthy male university students who napped twice or more weekly in themorning and at night. Sixteen were randomly assigned to a control group and 16 to a nap(treatment) group. The experiment comprised two conditions of electrographically (EEG) recorded sleep for the nap group and two EEG monitored conditions of wakefulness for the controls. These conditions were scheduled from 9:35 to 11:35 a.m. and 12 hr later between 9:35 p.m. and 11:35 p.m. Measurements were obtained from: (a) a continuous 10-min auditory reaction time task, (b) a free recall task of short-term memory, (c) an activation-mood adjective check list, and (d) the Stanford Sleepiness scale. Except for memory the dependent variables of waking function were assessed 20 min before and 20 min after all conditions. Following each sleep condition the nap group as opposed to the controls showed a statistically significant improvement in reaction time performance, higher short-term retention, less reported sleepiness and elevated subjective states reflected by fice factors on the adjective mood-activation check list. Among the correlations computed the largest significant coefficients were of stage 4 and REM with posttreatment Stanford Sleepiness ratings. After naps, increased postdormital sleepiness was correlated with stage 4 and decreased sleepiness with REM sleep. Although few strikingly divergent functional effects were associated with morning and nocturanal naps, these did covary with sleep psychophysiology. It is postulated that the phase, the EEG-sleep stages and possibly the duration of accustomed naps are less salient factors influencing performance when the time since awakening until behavioral assessment can be kept constant.

  12. Heterogeneous logics of competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to demonstrate that in order to understand competition as a socially organizing phenomenon, we should not examine competition in isolation, but as constellations of heterogeneous logics. More precisely, the article is based on two main theoretical points: (1) Logics...... of competition are only realized as particular forms of social organization by virtue of interplaying with other kinds of logics, like legal logics. (2) Competition logics enjoy a peculiar status in-between constructedness and givenness; although competition depends on laws and mechanisms of socialization, we...... still experience competition as an expression of spontaneous human activities. On the basis of these perspectives, a study of fundamental rights of EU law, springing from the principle of ‘free movement of people’, is conducted. The first part of the empirical analysis seeks to detect the presence...

  13. Reversible logic synthesis methodologies with application to quantum computing

    CERN Document Server

    Taha, Saleem Mohammed Ridha

    2016-01-01

    This book opens the door to a new interesting and ambitious world of reversible and quantum computing research. It presents the state of the art required to travel around that world safely. Top world universities, companies and government institutions  are in a race of developing new methodologies, algorithms and circuits on reversible logic, quantum logic, reversible and quantum computing and nano-technologies. In this book, twelve reversible logic synthesis methodologies are presented for the first time in a single literature with some new proposals. Also, the sequential reversible logic circuitries are discussed for the first time in a book. Reversible logic plays an important role in quantum computing. Any progress in the domain of reversible logic can be directly applied to quantum logic. One of the goals of this book is to show the application of reversible logic in quantum computing. A new implementation of wavelet and multiwavelet transforms using quantum computing is performed for this purpose. Rese...

  14. Subjective experiences of occupational performance of activities of daily living in patients with mild stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hanne Kaae; Postat, Annemette; Poulsen, Trine

    2014-01-01

    and risk of accidents. Conclusion: It is important to view the patients with mild stroke as heterogeneous, and consider post-stroke fatigue and emotional reactions when evaluating rehabilitation needs. Therefore, it is important to look further into structured tools, which examine how well the participant......Aim: To investigate the subjective experiences of occupational performance of activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with mild stroke. Methodology: Data was generated from January – December 2011 and consisted of 41 individual ADL-I interviews with patients in hospital and another 41...

  15. Effects of Sleep Hygiene Education on Subjective Sleep Quality and Academic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Sahin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sleep problems are common in students with one third of university students reporting insufficient sleep. It is known that sleep quality and daytime sleepiness cause decrasing academic performans. For this reason we aimed to investigate the effects of a sleep hygiene education on sleep quality and academic performance of first year medical students. Material and Method: Self-reported sleep data and academic performance of 131 first grade medical students were collected. To all students enrolled Pittsburg Sleep Quality Scale in the assessment of sleep quality and Epworth Sleepiness Scale for assessment of daytime sleepiness in the evaluation.The students were divided into two subgroups and the intervention group received a 30 minute structured sleep hygiene education. Global academic performance was assessed by grade point average at the end of the year. Results: Mean Pittsburgh sleep quality index score of the students was 7.9±3.5 and 106 (82.8% of then had a score %u22655.After intervention, .the worse the initial sleep quality, the more improvement by the sleep hygiene education on sleep quality and academic performance. Discussion: An education on sleep hygiene might improve subjective sleep quality and academic performance of medical students.

  16. Alternative computer mouse designs: performance, posture, and subjective evaluations for college students aged 18-25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feathers, David J; Rollings, Kimberly; Hedge, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Students are faced with work demands requiring intense computer use throughout the week, often with cumulative hourly use per day exceeding that of adult workers. Extended daily computer use has been associated with a reported increase of musculoskeletal symptoms for college-aged students. New mouse designs offer alternative movement and postural strategies to potentially mitigate musculoskeletal stress for students. This study investigates the use of alternative computer mouse designs by college-aged students (18-25) through a precision task (point-and-click an on-screen target). Wrist movements, hand posture, and associated subjective user data were collected across innovative mouse designs to understand the physical impact and basic usability issues for this population. Twenty-one (21) healthy, right handed students (11 female; 10 male) were enrolled in this study. Five mouse designs were assessed by investigating hand fit, wrist movements, and subjective accounts of ease of use, perceived control, comfort and aesthetics. Human performance was captured for each mouse design in terms of peak velocity, average movement time, and fastest movement direction using an electrogoniometer as participants performed the ISO 9241 multipoint standard Fitts' task using the Generalized Fitts' Law Model Builder software (GFLMB v.1.1C; [1]) within a zero-error setting (point-and-click task). Hand measurements were taken in both standardized anthropometric positions and adapted hand positions on five alternative mouse designs for a total of seven sets of measurements for each participant. Subjective data was collected through a series of questionnaires that were administered before, during, and after the mouse tasks. Results for human performance, distal upper extremity posture (hand/wrist), and subjective data such as overall preference, ease of use, perceived control, and comfort are given for this population. Wrist extension exceeded 30 degrees for over 50% of the total

  17. Contribution of Warsaw Logicians to Computational Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Niwiński

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The newly emerging branch of research of Computer Science received encouragement from the successors of the Warsaw mathematical school: Kuratowski, Mazur, Mostowski, Grzegorczyk, and Rasiowa. Rasiowa realized very early that the spectrum of computer programs should be incorporated into the realm of mathematical logic in order to make a rigorous treatment of program correctness. This gave rise to the concept of algorithmic logic developed since the 1970s by Rasiowa, Salwicki, Mirkowska, and their followers. Together with Pratt’s dynamic logic, algorithmic logic evolved into a mainstream branch of research: logic of programs. In the late 1980s, Warsaw logicians Tiuryn and Urzyczyn categorized various logics of programs, depending on the class of programs involved. Quite unexpectedly, they discovered that some persistent open questions about the expressive power of logics are equivalent to famous open problems in complexity theory. This, along with parallel discoveries by Harel, Immerman and Vardi, contributed to the creation of an important area of theoretical computer science: descriptive complexity. By that time, the modal μ-calculus was recognized as a sort of a universal logic of programs. The mid 1990s saw a landmark result by Walukiewicz, who showed completeness of a natural axiomatization for the μ-calculus proposed by Kozen. The difficult proof of this result, based on automata theory, opened a path to further investigations. Later, Bojanczyk opened a new chapter by introducing an unboundedness quantifier, which allowed for expressing some quantitative properties of programs. Yet another topic, linking the past with the future, is the subject of automata founded in the Fraenkel-Mostowski set theory. The studies on intuitionism found their continuation in the studies of Curry-Howard isomorphism. ukasiewicz’s landmark idea of many-valued logic found its continuation in various approaches to incompleteness and uncertainty.

  18. Objective and subjective visual performance of multifocal contact lenses: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Balamurali; Flores, Michael; Gaib, Sara

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the objective and subjective visual performance of three different soft multifocal contact lenses. 10 subjects (habitual soft contact lens wearers) between the ages of 40 and 45 years participated in the study. Three different multifocal silicone hydrogel contact lenses (Acuvue Oasys, Air Optix and Biofinity) were fit within the same visit. All the lenses were fit according to the manufacturers' recommendation using the respective fitting guide. Visual performance tests included low and high contrast distance and near visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, range of clear vision and through-focus curve. Objective visual performance tests included measurement of open field accommodative response at different defocus levels and optical aberrations at different viewing distances. Accommodative response was not significantly different between the three types of multifocal contact lenses at each of the accommodative stimulus levels (p>0.05). Accommodative lag increased for higher stimulus levels for all 3 types of contact lenses. Ocular aberrations were not significantly different between these 3 contact lens designs at each of the different viewing distances (p>0.05). In addition, optical aberrations did not significantly differ between different viewing distances for any of these lenses (p>0.05). ANOVA revealed no significant difference in high and low contrast distance visual acuity as well as near visual acuity and contrast sensitivity function between the 3 multifocal contact lenses and spectacles (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in accommodative response, optical aberrations or visual performance between the 3 multifocal contact lenses in early presbyopes. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Performance of Purunã beef calves subjected to different weaning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Kuss

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was developed at Fazenda Modelo an Experimental Station belonged to the Instituto Agronômico do Paraná - IAPAR, in the city of Ponta Grossa, PR, from June to November 2011. The objective was to evaluate the performance of calves subjected to different weaning systems. 161 calves crossbred Purunã were divided into three groups: calves subjected to early weaning (DP, weaned at an average of 75 days old; calves subjected to controlled nursing system (AC with 75 days of age, exposed to suck only once a day during the duration of the breeding season (85 days and; the control group, calves submitted to the system of conventional weaning (DC, were kept together with cow, without interfering in breastfeeding until the end of the breeding season (85 days. Calves fed the DP had lower mean (P<0.05 average daily gain (0.56 kg during the experimental group compared to the AC and DC (0.95 kg and 0.88 kg, respectively which did not differ (P<0.05. Thus, the DP had calves at the end of the breeding season, 32.36 kg and 26.48 kg unless the AC group (167.44 kg and DC (161.56 kg, respectively. The system controlled breastfeeding does not provid damage on the performance of calves at 150 days of age. Already early weaning at 75 days cause decrease of 19.6% in weight of calves at 150 days of age compared to suckler calves.

  20. Effects of Visual Communication Tool and Separable Status Display on Team Performance and Subjective Workload in Air Battle Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schwartz, Daniel; Knott, Benjamin A; Galster, Scott M

    2008-01-01

    ... ambient cabin noise while performing several visual and manual tasks. The purpose of this study is to compare team performance and subjective workload on a simulated AWACS scenario, for two conditions of communication...

  1. Using subjective judgement to determine the validity of a tutorial performance evaluation instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie L. Lack

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Evaluating students’ learning performance is dependent on assessment criteria from which valid inferences can be made about student learning. An existing 36-item instrument used to evaluate baccalaureate nursing students’ performance in problem-based learning tutorials was presented to experts in nursing for their subjective judgement of item validity. Quantitative analysis of data sets from experts’ judgements was used to construct a valid measurement scale for evaluating students’ tutorial performance. The objectives of the study were to determine the content validity of items in a tutorial performance evaluation (TPE instrument and to determine the construct validity of items through paired comparison of main and sub-items in the instrument. Academic experts (n = 8 from two South African universities were selected by means of purposive, maximum variation sampling. Data were collected in three rounds of the Delphi technique, which incorporated the Subjective Judgement Model for paired comparison of instrument items. Experts’ ratings were captured on a visual analogue scale for each item. Relative item weights were determined using
    paired comparisons. Statistical analysis resulted in ratio scale data, each item being assigned a ratio relative to its weight. It was concluded that quantitative analysis of subjective judgements is useful to determine the construct validity of items through paired comparison of items in a TPE instrument. This article presents the methodological perspectives of subjective judgement to establish instrument validity.

    Opsomming

    Die evaluering van studente se leervermoë is afhanklik van die waardebepalingskriteria waarvan geldige afleidings betreffende die student se leerervaring gemaak kan word. ’n Bestaande instrument met 36 items waarmee baccalaureus-verpleegkundestudente se prestasie in die probleemgebaseerde leertutoriale geëvalueer is, is aan kundiges in

  2. Application of Fuzzy-Logic Controller and Neural Networks Controller in Gas Turbine Speed Control and Overheating Control and Surge Control on Transient Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torghabeh, A. A.; Tousi, A. M.

    2007-08-01

    This paper presents Fuzzy Logic and Neural Networks approach to Gas Turbine Fuel schedules. Modeling of non-linear system using feed forward artificial Neural Networks using data generated by a simulated gas turbine program is introduced. Two artificial Neural Networks are used , depicting the non-linear relationship between gas generator speed and fuel flow, and turbine inlet temperature and fuel flow respectively . Off-line fast simulations are used for engine controller design for turbojet engine based on repeated simulation. The Mamdani and Sugeno models are used to expression the Fuzzy system . The linguistic Fuzzy rules and membership functions are presents and a Fuzzy controller will be proposed to provide an Open-Loop control for the gas turbine engine during acceleration and deceleration . MATLAB Simulink was used to apply the Fuzzy Logic and Neural Networks analysis. Both systems were able to approximate functions characterizing the acceleration and deceleration schedules . Surge and Flame-out avoidance during acceleration and deceleration phases are then checked . Turbine Inlet Temperature also checked and controls by Neural Networks controller. This Fuzzy Logic and Neural Network Controllers output results are validated and evaluated by GSP software . The validation results are used to evaluate the generalization ability of these artificial Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic controllers.

  3. Reconfigurable Skyrmion Logic Gates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shijiang; Song, Min; Li, Xin; Zhang, Yue; Hong, Jeongmin; Yang, Xiaofei; Zou, Xuecheng; Xu, Nuo; You, Long

    2018-02-14

    Magnetic skyrmion, a nanosized spin texture with topological property, has become an area of significant interest due to the scientific insight that it can provide and also its potential impact on applications such as ultra-low-energy and ultra-high-density logic gates. In the quest for the reconfiguration of single logic device and the implementation of the complete logic functions, a novel reconfigurable skyrmion logic (RSL) is proposed and verified by micromagnetic simulations. Logic functions including AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, XOR, and XNOR are implemented in the ferromagnetic (FM) nanotrack by virtue of various effects including spin orbit torque, skyrmion Hall effect, skyrmion-edge repulsions, and skyrmion-skyrmion collision. Different logic functions can be selected in an RSL by applying voltage to specific region(s) of the device, changing the local anisotropy energy of FM film. Material properties and geometrical scaling studies suggest RSL gates fit for energy-efficient computing as well as provide the guidelines for the design and optimization of this new logic family.

  4. Abductive Inference using Array-Based Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Falster, Peter; Møller, Gert L.

    The notion of abduction has found its usage within a wide variety of AI fields. Computing abductive solutions has, however, shown to be highly intractable in logic programming. To avoid this intractability we present a new approach to logicbased abduction; through the geometrical view of data...... employed in array-based logic we embrace abduction in a simple structural operation. We argue that a theory of abduction on this form allows for an implementation which, at runtime, can perform abductive inference quite efficiently on arbitrary rules of logic representing knowledge of finite domains....

  5. 40 CFR 80.820 - What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance requirements of this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What gasoline is subject to the toxics... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Gasoline Toxics Performance Requirements § 80.820 What gasoline is subject to the toxics performance...

  6. Logic in elementary mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Exner, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    This applications-related introductory treatment explores facets of modern symbolic logic useful in the exposition of elementary mathematics. The authors convey the material in a manner accessible to those trained in standard elementary mathematics but lacking any formal background in logic. Topics include the statement calculus, proof and demonstration, abstract mathematical systems, and the restricted predicate calculus. The final chapter draws upon the methods of logical reasoning covered in previous chapters to develop solutions of linear and quadratic equations, definitions of order and

  7. Logic and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Gierasimczuk, Nina; de Jong, Dick

    2014-01-01

    of information processing, but likewise helped bring logic and learning in close proximity. This proximity relation is examined with respect to learning and belief revision, updating and efficiency, and with respect to how learnability fits in the greater scheme of dynamic epistemic logic and scientific method.......Learning and learnability have been long standing topics of interests within the linguistic, computational, and epistemological accounts of inductive in- ference. Johan van Benthem’s vision of the “dynamic turn” has not only brought renewed life to research agendas in logic as the study...

  8. Structural Logical Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Sarnat, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Tait's method (a.k.a. proof by logical relations) is a powerful proof technique frequently used for showing foundational properties of languages based on typed lambda-calculi. Historically, these proofs have been extremely difficult to formalize in proof assistants with weak meta-logics, such as ......Tait's method (a.k.a. proof by logical relations) is a powerful proof technique frequently used for showing foundational properties of languages based on typed lambda-calculi. Historically, these proofs have been extremely difficult to formalize in proof assistants with weak meta...

  9. Layered Fixed Point Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filipiuk, Piotr; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2012-01-01

    We present a logic for the specification of static analysis problems that goes beyond the logics traditionally used. Its most prominent feature is the direct support for both inductive computations of behaviors as well as co-inductive specifications of properties. Two main theoretical contributions...... are a Moore Family result and a parametrized worst case time complexity result. We show that the logic and the associated solver can be used for rapid prototyping of analyses and illustrate a wide variety of applications within Static Analysis, Constraint Satisfaction Problems and Model Checking. In all cases...

  10. Logic for computer science foundations of automatic theorem proving

    CERN Document Server

    Gallier, Jean H

    2015-01-01

    This advanced text for undergraduate and graduate students introduces mathematical logic with an emphasis on proof theory and procedures for algorithmic construction of formal proofs. The self-contained treatment is also useful for computer scientists and mathematically inclined readers interested in the formalization of proofs and basics of automatic theorem proving. Topics include propositional logic and its resolution, first-order logic, Gentzen's cut elimination theorem and applications, and Gentzen's sharpened Hauptsatz and Herbrand's theorem. Additional subjects include resolution in fir

  11. Cognitive psychopathology in Schizophrenia: Comparing memory performances with Obsessive-compulsive disorder patients and normal subjects on the Wechsler Memory Scale-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammisuli, Davide Maria; Sportiello, Marco Timpano

    2016-06-01

    Memory system turns out to be one of the cognitive domains most severely impaired in schizophrenia. Within the theoretical framework of cognitive psychopathology, we compared the performance of schizophrenia patients on the Wechsler Memory Scale-IV with that in matched patients with Obsessive-compulsive disorder and that in healthy control subjects to establish the specific nature of memory deficits in schizophrenia. 30 schizophrenia patients, 30 obsessive-compulsive disorder patients and 40 healthy controls completed the Wechsler Memory Scale-IV. Schizophrenia symptom severity was assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Performances on memory battery including Indexes and subtests scores were compared by a One-Way ANOVA (Scheffé post-hoc test). Spearman Rank correlations were performed between scores on PANSS subscales and symptoms and WMS-IV Indexes and subtests, respectively. Schizophrenia patients showed a memory profile characterized by mild difficulties in auditory memory and visual working memory and poor functioning of visual, immediate and delayed memory. As expected, schizophrenia patients scored lower than healthy controls on all WMS-IV measures. With regard to the WMS-IV Indexes, schizophrenia patients performed worse on Auditory Memory, Visual Memory, Immediate and Delayed Memory than Obsessive-compulsive disorder patients but not on Visual Working Memory. Such a pattern was made even clearer for specific tasks such as immediate and delayed recall and spatial recall and memory for visual details, as revealed by the lowest scores on Logical Memory (immediate and delayed conditions) and Designs (immediate condition) subtests, respectively. Significant negative correlations between Logical Memory I and II were found with PANSS Excitement symptom as well as between DE I and PANSS Tension symptom. Significant positive correlations between LM II and PANSS Blunted affect and Poor rapport symptoms as well as DE I and PANSS Blunted affect

  12. Evaluating the subject-performed task effect in healthy older adults: relationship with neuropsychological tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: An enhancement in recall of simple instructions is found when actions are performed in comparison to when they are verbally presented – the subject-performed task (SPT effect. This enhancement has also been found with older adults. However, the reason why older adults, known to present a deficit in episodic memory, have a better performance for this type of information remains unclear. In this article, we explored this effect by comparing the performance on the SPT task with the performance on other tasks, in order to understand the underlying mechanisms that may explain this effect. Objective: We hypothesized that both young and older adult groups should show higher recall in SPT compared with the verbal learning condition, and that the differences between age groups should be lower in the SPT condition. We aimed to explore the correlations between these tasks and known neuropsychological tests, and we also measured source memory for the encoding condition. Design: A mixed design was used with 30 healthy older adults, comparing their performance with 30 healthy younger adults. Each participant was asked to perform 16 simple instructions (SPT condition and to only read the other 16 instructions (Verbal condition – VT. The test phase included a free recall task. Participants were also tested with a set of neuropsychological measures (speed of processing, working memory and verbal episodic memory. Results: The SPT effect was found for both age groups; but even for SPT materials, group differences in recall persisted. Source memory was found to be preserved for the two groups. Simple correlations suggested differences in correlates of SPT performance between the two groups. However, when controlling for age, the SPT and VT tasks correlate with each other, and a measure of episodic memory correlated moderately with both SPT and VT performance. Conclusions: A strong effect of SPT was observed for all but one, which still displayed the

  13. Occupational performance in daily life activities of subjects hospitalized because of chronic malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Machado Pinto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available : Introduction: Malnutrition is configured as a health condition that causes deficits in occupational performance. Objective: To establish a correlation between nutritional status and occupational performance in activities of daily life (ADLs according to the desnutrition state level. Methodology: A descriptive, exploratory, cross-sectional evaluation of 50 patients diagnosed with chronic malnutrition admitted to a University Hospital in Curitiba, Parana state. We used the Functional Independence Measure (FIM and a semi-structured questionnaire in which the subjects named the three main performance limiting reasons. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to identify the existence of differences between at least two groups in the analysis, while the test of Multiple Comparisons was used to determine which pairs of groups showed statistically significant differences at 95% significance level (p ≤ 0.05. Results: We assessed 28 (56% female and 22 (44% male patients with mean age of 50.16 (±16.74 for one year. Out of these, 19 (38% presented mild chronic malnutrition, 16 (32% showed moderate chronic malnutrition, and 14 (28% presented severe chronic malnutrition. We identified changes particularly in activities evaluated in the use of motor FIM, with relevant alterations of dependence level for the states of moderate to severe malnutrition. Patients’ complaints were in agreement with those pointed by the literature as symptoms of malnutrition. Conclusion: This study confirms the correlation between deterioration in nutritional status and high dependence level upon ADLs.

  14. Effort provides its own reward: endeavors reinforce subjective expectation and evaluation of task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zheng, Jiehui; Meng, Liang

    2017-04-01

    Although many studies have investigated the relationship between the amount of effort invested in a certain task and one's attitude towards the subsequent reward, whether exerted effort would impact one's expectation and evaluation of performance feedback itself still remains to be examined. In the present study, two types of calculation tasks that varied in the required effort were adopted, and we resorted to electroencephalography to probe the temporal dynamics of how exerted effort would affect one's anticipation and evaluation of performance feedback. In the high-effort condition, a more salient stimulus-preceding negativity was detected during the anticipation stage, which was accompanied with a more salient FRN/P300 complex (a more positive P300 and a less negative feedback-related negativity) in response to positive outcomes in the evaluation stage. These results suggested that when more effort was invested, an enhanced anticipatory attention would be paid toward one's task performance feedback and that positive outcomes would be subjectively valued to a greater extent.

  15. Performance of Hybrid Steel Fibers Reinforced Concrete Subjected to Air Blast Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alias Yusof

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the experimental data and simulation on the performance of hybrid steel fiber reinforced concrete (HSFRC and also normal reinforced concrete (NRC subjected to air blast loading. HSFRC concrete mix consists of a combination of 70% long steel hook end fibre and also 30% of short steel hook end fibre with a volume fraction of 1.5% mix. A total of six concrete panels were subjected to air blast using plastic explosive (PE4 weighing 1 kg each at standoff distance of 0.3 meter. The parameters measured are mode of failure under static and blast loading and also peak overpressure that resulted from detonation using high speed data acquisition system. In addition to this simulation work using AUTODYN was carried out and validated using experimental data. The experimental results indicate that hybrid steel fiber reinforced concrete panel (HSFRC possesses excellent resistance to air blast loading as compared to normal reinforced concrete (NRC panel. The simulation results were also found to be close with experimental data. Therefore the results have been validated using experimental data.

  16. COMT Val158Met modulates subjective responses to intravenous nicotine and cognitive performance in abstinent smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Aryeh I.; Jatlow, Peter I.; Gelernter, Joel; Listman, Jennifer B.; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    The COMT Val158Met polymorphism may be a risk factor for nicotine addiction. This study examined the influence of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism on subjective, physiological, and cognitive effects of intravenous (IV) nicotine use in African American (AAs) (n=56) and European American (EAs) (n=68) smokers. Overnight abstinent smokers received saline followed by 0.5 and 1.0 mg/70 kg doses of nicotine, administered 30 minutes apart. Smokers with Val/Val genotype, compared to Met carriers, had greater negative subjective effects from IV nicotine and had more severe withdrawal severity following overnight abstinence from smoking. Women with Val/Val genotype reported greater difficulty concentrating and irritability than men with Val/Val or Met carrier genotypes. The Val/Val genotype was associated with better performance on the math task and in AA smokers it was associated with greater systolic blood pressure. These results support the rationale of pharmacologically inhibiting COMT to aid with smoking cessation among Val/Val genotype smokers. PMID:23459442

  17. Subjective Preference of Cellists for the Delay Time of a Single Reflection in a Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    SATO, S.; ANDO, Y.; OTA, S.

    2000-04-01

    To provide knowledge useful in designing the stage enclosure in a concert hall, Nakayama reported the subjective preference of alto-recorder players for sound fields with a single reflection [Acustica54, 217-221 (1984)]. The present study evaluates the subjective preferences, with regard to ease of performance, of five cello soloists for the delay time of a single reflection. The scale values of preference for the delay time of a single reflection were obtained using a paired comparison method, and the results were compared with those for the alto-recorder players and listeners. The scale values of preference for both individuals and for global cellists with regard to the delay time of reflection can be expressed by a single approximate formula, normalizing the delay time by the most-preferred delay time observed for different music motifs. A notable finding is that the most-preferred delay time of a single reflection for each cellist can be calculated from the amplitude of the reflection and the minimum value of the effective duration (τe)minof the running autocorrelation function of the music motifs played by each cellist.

  18. Analysis and logic

    CERN Document Server

    Henson, C Ward; Kechris, Alexander S; Odell, Edward; Finet, Catherine; Michaux, Christian; Cassels, J W S

    2003-01-01

    This volume comprises articles from four outstanding researchers who work at the cusp of analysis and logic. The emphasis is on active research topics; many results are presented that have not been published before and open problems are formulated.

  19. Soap Bubbles and Logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Shellie-helane; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Introduces questions and activities involving soap bubbles which provide students with experiences in prediction and logic. Examines commonly held false conceptions related to the shapes that bubbles take and provides correct explanations for the phenomenon. (ML)

  20. Introduction to logic design

    CERN Document Server

    Yanushkevich, Svetlana N

    2008-01-01

    Preface Design Process and Technology Theory of logic design Analysis and synthesis Implementation technologies Predictable technologies Contemporary CAD of logic networks Number Systems Positional numbers Counting in a positional number system Basic arithmetic operations in various number systems Binary arithmetic Radix-complement representations Techniques for conversion of numbers in various radices Overflow Residue arithmetic Other binary codes Redundancy and reliability Graphical Data Structures Graphs in discrete devices and systems design Basic definitions T

  1. Logical Stochastic Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Saad, Emad

    2013-01-01

    We present a logical framework to represent and reason about stochastic optimization problems based on probability answer set programming. This is established by allowing probability optimization aggregates, e.g., minimum and maximum in the language of probability answer set programming to allow minimization or maximization of some desired criteria under the probabilistic environments. We show the application of the proposed logical stochastic optimization framework under the probability answ...

  2. A Conceptual Space Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer

    1999-01-01

    Conceptual spaces have been proposed as topological or geometric means for establishing conceptual structures and models. This paper, after briey reviewing conceptual spaces, focusses on the relationship between conceptual spaces and logical concept languages with operations for combining concepts...... to form concepts. Speci cally is introduced an algebraic concept logic, for which conceptual spaces are installed as semantic domain as replacement for, or enrichment of, the traditional....

  3. Life events, salivary cortisol, and cognitive performance in nondemented subjects: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouanes, Sami; Castelao, Enrique; Gebreab, Sirak; von Gunten, Armin; Preisig, Martin; Popp, Julius

    2017-03-01

    Older people are particularly exposed to stressful events, known to activate the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis resulting in increased cortisol levels. High cortisol has been associated with deleterious effects on cognition. We hypothesized that stressful life events could increase cortisol secretion leading to cognitive impairment. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from Colaus/PsyColaus, a longitudinal population-based study among Lausanne residents. Salivary cortisol samples were obtained from 796 nondemented subjects aged at least 65. A neuropsychological battery was used to assess cognitive performance and determine the Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDRSOB). Lifetime life events and their subjective impact were assessed using a validated questionnaire. The total impact of life events was associated neither with cortisol area under the curve (AUC) nor with CDRSOB nor with any cognitive domain performance. The CDRSOB was associated with the cortisol AUC, controlling for age, sex, body mass index, education and depressive symptoms (p = 0.003; B = 0.686 [0.240; 1.333]; r = 0.114). This association between CDRSOB and the cortisol AUC remained significant after controlling for life events total impact (p = 0.040; B = 0.591 [0.027; 1.155]; r = 0.106). These findings do not support the hypothesis that stressful life events increase cortisol secretion leading to cognitive impairment. The association of higher cortisol levels with poorer cognition might be not a mere reflection of stressful events but rather explained by other factors, yet to be elucidated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Metformin improves performance in high-intensity exercise, but not anaerobic capacity in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learsi, S K; Bastos-Silva, V J; Lima-Silva, A E; Bertuzzi, R; De Araujo, G G

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the ergogenic effects of metformin in high-intensity exercise, as well as its effects on anaerobic capacity, in healthy and physically active men. Ten subjects (mean (± standard deviation) maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max ) 38.6 ± 4.5 mL/kg per min) performed the following tests in a cycle ergometer: (i) an incremental test; (ii) six submaximal constant workload tests at 40%-90% (V˙O2max ); and (iii) two supramaximal tests (110% (V˙O2max ). Metformin (500 mg) or placebo was ingested 60 min before the supramaximal test. There were no significant differences between the placebo and metformin groups in terms of maximum accumulated oxygen deficit (2.8 ± 0.6 vs 3.0 ± 0.8 L, respectively; P = 0.08), lactate concentrations (7.8 ± 2.6 vs 7.5 ± 3.0 mmol/L, respectively; P = 0.75) or O2 consumed in either the last 30 s of exercise (40.4 ± 4.4 vs 39.9 ± 4.0 mL/kg per min, respectively; P = 0.35) or the first 110 s of exercise (29.0 ± 2.5 vs 29.5 ± 3.0 mL/kg per min, respectively; P = 0.42). Time to exhaustion was significantly higher after metformin than placebo ingestion (191 ± 33 vs 167 ± 32 s, respectively; P = 0.001). The fast component of V˙O2 recovery was higher in the metformin than placebo group (12.71 vs 12.18 mL/kg per min, respectively; P = 0.025). Metformin improved performance and anaerobic alactic contribution during high-intensity exercise, but had no effect on overall anaerobic capacity in healthy subjects. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. GRAPHIC REALIZATION FOUNDATIONS OF LOGIC-SEMANTIC MODELING IN DIDACTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Steinberg

    2017-01-01

    .Practical significance. In-line integration of logic-semantic models into educational process intensifies the process of thinking; it helps on performing of the subject and fact-finding, analytic-speech, modeling- fixative educational activity; also, promotes implementation of invariant forms of education. The examples of use of new didactic means in student teaching are given. In particular, based on the presented didactic means, the didactic multidimensional technology is developed and original computer tutorial DMT-AutoTutor program is designed. 

  6. Anaesthesia monitoring using fuzzy logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mirza Mansoor; Gholamhosseini, Hamid; Kouzani, Abbas; Harrison, Michael J

    2011-10-01

    Humans have a limited ability to accurately and continuously analyse large amount of data. In recent times, there has been a rapid growth in patient monitoring and medical data analysis using smart monitoring systems. Fuzzy logic-based expert systems, which can mimic human thought processes in complex circumstances, have indicated potential to improve clinicians' performance and accurately execute repetitive tasks to which humans are ill-suited. The main goal of this study is to develop a clinically useful diagnostic alarm system based on fuzzy logic for detecting critical events during anaesthesia administration. The proposed diagnostic alarm system called fuzzy logic monitoring system (FLMS) is presented. New diagnostic rules and membership functions (MFs) are developed. In addition, fuzzy inference system (FIS), adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), and clustering techniques are explored for developing the FLMS' diagnostic modules. The performance of FLMS which is based on fuzzy logic expert diagnostic systems is validated through a series of off-line tests. The training and testing data set are selected randomly from 30 sets of patients' data. The accuracy of diagnoses generated by the FLMS was validated by comparing the diagnostic information with the one provided by an anaesthetist for each patient. Kappa-analysis was used for measuring the level of agreement between the anaesthetist's and FLMS's diagnoses. When detecting hypovolaemia, a substantial level of agreement was observed between FLMS and the human expert (the anaesthetist) during surgical procedures. The diagnostic alarm system FLMS demonstrated that evidence-based expert diagnostic systems can diagnose hypovolaemia, with a substantial degree of accuracy, in anaesthetized patients and could be useful in delivering decision support to anaesthetists.

  7. Strong Completeness for Markovian Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozen, Dexter; Mardare, Radu Iulian; Panangaden, Prakash

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present Hilbert-style axiomatizations for three logics for reasoning about continuous-space Markov processes (MPs): (i) a logic for MPs defined for probability distributions on measurable state spaces, (ii) a logic for MPs defined for sub-probability distributions and (iii) a logic...

  8. Objective and subjective assessments of lighting in a hospital setting: implications for health, safety and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianat, Iman; Sedghi, Ali; Bagherzade, Javad; Jafarabadi, Mohammad Asghari; Stedmon, Alex W

    2013-01-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the illumination levels, to examine the effect of lighting conditions (including lighting characteristics and disturbances) on employee satisfaction, job performance, safety and health, and to compare the employees' perception of lighting level with actual illuminance levels in a hospital setting using both questionnaire and physical illuminance measurements. The illumination levels varied across different locations within the hospital and were lower than standards for 52.2% of the workplaces surveyed. Most respondents indicated that at least one of the four lighting characteristics (i.e. light level, type of light sources, light colour and use of daylight) was inappropriate, and that at least one of the three lighting disturbances (i.e. flickering lights, glare and unwanted shadows) was a major disturbance to them. The employees' perceptions of illuminance generally reflected the actual illuminance levels. The more appropriate maintenance or installation of lighting fixtures was rated as the most appropriate for improving lighting. The findings suggest that environmental ergonomics should be given a more prominent role in hospital building and workplace design to support safer healthcare facilities (for staff and potentially for patients). Good lighting is essential to improve employee performance, health and safety. The findings suggest that quantitative physical measurements should be supplemented by qualitative subjective assessments to provide a more holistic approach where specific details about the lighting condition in each working environment are incorporated from the workers' perspective.

  9. Functional asymmetries in early learning during right, left, and bimanual performance in right-handed subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznárez-Sanado, Maite; Fernández-Seara, Maria A; Loayza, Francis R; Pastor, Maria A

    2013-03-01

    To elucidate differences in activity and connectivity during early learning due to the performing hand. Twenty right-handed subjects were recruited. The neural correlates of explicit visuospatial learning executed with the right, the left hand, and bimanually were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Connectivity analyses were carried out using the psychophysiological interactions model, considering right and left anterior putamen as index regions. A common neural network was found for the three tasks during learning. Main activity increases were located in posterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, parietal cortex, anterior putamen, and cerebellum (IV-V), whereas activity decrements were observed in prefrontal regions. However, the left hand task showed a greater recruitment of left hippocampal areas when compared with the other tasks. In addition, enhanced connectivity between the right anterior putamen and motor cortical and cerebellar regions was found for the left hand when compared with the right hand task. An additional recruitment of brain regions and increased striato-cortical and striato-cerebellar functional connections is needed when early learning is performed with the nondominant hand. In addition, access to brain resources during learning may be directed by the dominant hand in the bimanual task. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Stability Criterion of Linear Stochastic Systems Subject to Mixed H2/Passivity Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung-Chieh Ku

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The H2 control scheme and passivity theory are applied to investigate the stability criterion of continuous-time linear stochastic system subject to mixed performance. Based on the stochastic differential equation, the stochastic behaviors can be described as multiplicative noise terms. For the considered system, the H2 control scheme is applied to deal with the problem on minimizing output energy. And the asymptotical stability of the system can be guaranteed under desired initial conditions. Besides, the passivity theory is employed to constrain the effect of external disturbance on the system. Moreover, the Itô formula and Lyapunov function are used to derive the sufficient conditions which are converted into linear matrix inequality (LMI form for applying convex optimization algorithm. Via solving the sufficient conditions, the state feedback controller can be established such that the asymptotical stability and mixed performance of the system are achieved in the mean square. Finally, the synchronous generator system is used to verify the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed design method.

  11. Performance Evaluation on Transmission Tower-Line System with Passive Friction Dampers Subjected to Wind Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The vibration control and performance evaluation on a transmission-tower line system by using friction dampers subjected to wind excitations are carried out in this study. The three-dimensional finite element (FE model of a transmission tower is firstly constructed. A two-dimensional lumped mass model of a transmission tower is developed for dynamic analysis. The analytical model of transmission tower-line system is proposed by taking the dynamic interaction between the tower and the transmission lines into consideration. The mechanical model of passive friction damper is presented by involving the effects of damper axial stiffness. The equation of motion of the transmission tower-line system incorporated with the friction dampers disturbed by wind excitations is established. A real transmission tower-line system is taken as an example to examine the feasibility and reliability of the proposed control approach. An extensive parameter study is carried out to find the optimal parameters of friction damper and to assess the effects of slipping force axial stiffness and hysteresis loop on control performance. The work on an example structure indicates that the application of friction dampers with optimal parameters could significantly reduce wind-induced responses of the transmission tower-line system.

  12. Philosophical Foundations of Intuitionistic Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Nabavi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Intuitionistic logic, as a non-classical logic, encompasses the principles of logical reasoning which were used by L. E. J. Brouwer in developing his intuitionistic mathematics. Brouwer rejected the principle of the excluded middle on the basis of his philosophy. In his philosophical view, logic is the application of mathematics to the language of mathematics. In other words, logic studies the patterns that characterize valid inference. The resulting linguistic system of logic may be studied mathematically, even independently of the mathematical activities that it was originally abstracted from. In this paper, the philosophical basis of Brouwer’s view about Logic and Mathematics is explained.

  13. Philosophical Foundations of Intuitionistic Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Nabavi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intuitionistic logic, as a non-classical logic, encompasses the principles of logical reasoning which were used by L. E. J. Brouwer in developing his intuitionistic mathematics. Brouwer rejected the principle of the excluded middle on the basis of his philosophy. In his philosophical view, logic is the application of mathematics to the language of mathematics. In other words, logic studies the patterns that characterize valid inference. The resulting linguistic system of logic may be studied mathematically, even independently of the mathematical activities that it was originally abstracted from. In this paper, the philosophical basis of Brouwer’s view about Logic and Mathematics is explained.

  14. Expanding Basic Fuzzy Logic with Truth Constants for Component Delimiters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haniková, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 197, 16 June (2012), s. 95-107 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GEICC/08/E018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : mathematics * non-classical logic s * algebra * basic fuzzy logic BL * propositional constants Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.749, year: 2012

  15. Sub-kBT micro-electromechanical irreversible logic gate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Suárez, M; Neri, I; Gammaitoni, L

    2016-06-28

    In modern computers, computation is performed by assembling together sets of logic gates. Popular gates like AND, OR and XOR, processing two logic inputs and yielding one logic output, are often addressed as irreversible logic gates, where the sole knowledge of the output logic value is not sufficient to infer the logic value of the two inputs. Such gates are usually believed to be bounded to dissipate a finite minimum amount of energy determined by the input-output information difference. Here we show that this is not necessarily the case, by presenting an experiment where a OR logic gate, realized with a micro-electromechanical cantilever, is operated with energy well below the expected limit, provided the operation is slow enough and frictional phenomena are properly addressed.

  16. Differences in performance on the functional movement screen between chronic low back pain patients and healthy control subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Min-Joo; Noh, Kyung-Hee; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Differences in scores on the Functional Movement Screen between patients with chronic lower back pain and healthy control subjects were investigated. [Subjects and Methods] In all, 20 chronic lower back pain patients and 20 healthy control subjects were recruited. Chronic lower back pain patients and healthy controls performed the Functional Movement Screen (deep squat, hurdle step, inline lunge, shoulder mobility, active straight leg raise, trunk stability pushup, and rotary stabil...

  17. Logical Access Control Mechanisms in Computer Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, David K.

    The subject of access control mechanisms in computer systems is concerned with effective means to protect the anonymity of private information on the one hand, and to regulate the access to shareable information on the other hand. Effective means for access control may be considered on three levels: memory, process and logical. This report is a…

  18. A logical approach to fuzzy truth hedges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Esteva, F.; Godo, L.; Noguera, Carles

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 232, č. 1 (2013), s. 366-385 ISSN 0020-0255 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Mathematical fuzzy logic * Standard completeness * Truth hedges Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 3.893, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/noguera-0469148.pdf

  19. Mathematical Fuzzy Logic and Natural Numbers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 1-3 (2007), s. 155-163 ISSN 0169-2968 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100300503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : fuzzy logic * arithmetic * essential undecidability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.693, year: 2007

  20. Non-logic devices in logic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Yanjun

    2017-01-01

    This book shows readers how to design semiconductor devices using the most common and lowest cost logic CMOS processes.  Readers will benefit from the author’s extensive, industrial experience and the practical approach he describes for designing efficiently semiconductor devices that typically have to be implemented using specialized processes that are expensive, time-consuming, and low-yield. The author presents an integrated picture of semiconductor device physics and manufacturing techniques, as well as numerous practical examples of device designs that are tried and true.

  1. Logic and truth: Some logics without theorems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanta Sen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Two types of logical consequence are compared: one, with respect to matrix and designated elements and the other with respect to ordering in a suitable algebraic structure. Particular emphasis is laid on algebraic structures in which there is no top-element relative to the ordering. The significance of this special condition is discussed. Sequent calculi for a number of such structures are developed. As a consequence it is re-established that the notion of truth as such, not to speak of tautologies, is inessential in order to define validity of an argument.

  2. The Relationship between Happiness, Subjective Well-Being, Creativity and Job Performance of Primary School Teachers in Ramhormoz City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Zohreh; Heidari, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate the relationship between happiness, subjective well-being, creativity and job performance of primary school teachers in Ramhormoz City. Hence, a sample of 330 individuals was selected through random stratified sampling. The research tools included Oxford Happiness Inventory, Subjective Well-being Scale by Keyes…

  3. Classifications of subjects with the language PROLOG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzi, R

    1989-03-01

    The logical language PROLOG is used for the definition and characterization of groups of subjects. The groups are firstly defined by sets of variables with comparable scales. Secondly, the single members of the groups are characterized by logically structured combinations of variables which do not necessarily have comparable scales. The performance of the characterizations is estimated by determining the rates sensitivity and specificity. The new classification method is applied in a follow-up study including the assessment of the activity of 76 healthy subjects during two controlled experiments. The classification with PROLOG is then compared with the methods of logistic regression and with discriminant analysis. The comparisons demonstrate that, under similar conditions, the results of a classification with PROLOG parallel the results of statistically based classification procedures. In addition, PROLOG permits characterizations of single subjects based on variables from different scientific disciplines.

  4. Characterizing “fibrofog”: Subjective appraisal, objective performance, and task-related brain activity during a working memory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Walitt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subjective experience of cognitive dysfunction (“fibrofog” is common in fibromyalgia. This study investigated the relation between subjective appraisal of cognitive function, objective cognitive task performance, and brain activity during a cognitive task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Sixteen fibromyalgia patients and 13 healthy pain-free controls completed a battery of questionnaires, including the Multiple Ability Self-Report Questionnaire (MASQ, a measure of self-perceived cognitive difficulties. Participants were evaluated for working memory performance using a modified N-back working memory task while undergoing Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD fMRI measurements. Fibromyalgia patients and controls did not differ in working memory performance. Subjective appraisal of cognitive function was associated with better performance (accuracy on the working memory task in healthy controls but not in fibromyalgia patients. In fibromyalgia patients, increased perceived cognitive difficulty was positively correlated with the severity of their symptoms. BOLD response during the working memory task did not differ between the groups. BOLD response correlated with task accuracy in control subjects but not in fibromyalgia patients. Increased subjective cognitive impairment correlated with decreased BOLD response in both groups but in different anatomic regions. In conclusion, “fibrofog” appears to be better characterized by subjective rather than objective impairment. Neurologic correlates of this subjective experience of impairment might be separate from those involved in the performance of cognitive tasks.

  5. Effect of Protectants on the Fermentation Performance of Wine Yeasts Subjected to Osmotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Caridi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available During alcoholic fermentation of must from dried grapes, yeasts are subjected to very high sugar concentrations, besides other environmental stresses, and they modify their metabolic behaviour giving low ethanol yield and abnormally high acetic acid production. To investigate the protective effect of catechin, inositol, and SO2 on wine yeasts, three thermotolerant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, selected for wine making of must from dried grapes, and three strains of Saccharomyces selected for the production of wine, were inoculated in a sample of must at very high osmotic strength. A significant (p<0.01 or p<0.05 relationship between the addition of 100 mg/L of catechin, inositol or SO2 to the grape must and the change in the metabolic behaviour of the yeasts was observed. Compared to the control and depending on strain and protectant, the fermentation rate after 3 days increased up to 55 %, the ethanol content of the wines increased up to 16 %, the unitary succinic acid production increased up to 55 %, the unitary acetic acid production decreased up to 53 %, and the unitary glycerol production decreased up to 69 %. So by adding catechin, inositol or SO2 to the grape must it is possible to minimise the abnormal fermentation performance that wine yeasts exhibit in wine making of must from dried grapes.

  6. Functions and generality of logic reflections on Dedekind's and Frege's logicisms

    CERN Document Server

    Benis-Sinaceur, Hourya; Sandu, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    This book examines three connected aspects of Frege's logicism: the differences between Dedekind's and Frege's interpretation of the term 'logic' and related terms and reflects on Frege's notion of function, comparing its understanding and the role it played in Frege's and Lagrange's foundational programs. It concludes with an examination of the notion of arbitrary function, taking into account Frege's, Ramsey's and Russell's view on the subject. Composed of three chapters, this book sheds light on important aspects of Dedekind's and Frege's logicisms. The first chapter explains how, although he shares Frege's aim at substituting logical standards of rigor to intuitive imports from spatio-temporal experience into the deductive presentation of arithmetic, Dedekind had a different goal and used or invented different tools. The chapter highlights basic dissimilarities between Dedekind's and Frege's actual ways of doing and thinking. The second chapter reflects on Frege's notion of a function, in comparison with ...

  7. Logical Operation of Set Intersection for Images in Optical Echo Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhbieva, A. R.; Nefed'ev, L. A.; Garnaeva, G. I.

    2017-07-01

    We use a stimulated echo hologram to consider performing logical operations on sets represented in the form of images. We show that a stimulated echo hologram can be used to perform the logical operation of set intersection.

  8. Logic Programming for Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a short introduction on how to get started with logic pro- gramming in Prolog that does not require any previous programming expe- rience. The presentation is aimed at students of linguistics, but it does not go deeper into linguistics than any student who has some ideas of what...... a computer is, can follow the text. I cannot, of course, cover all aspects of logic programming in this text, and so we give references to other sources with more details. Students of linguistics must have a very good motivation to spend time on programming, and I show here how logic programming can be used...... for modelling different linguistic phenomena. When modelling language in this way, as opposed to using only paper and pencil, your models go live: you can run and test your models and you can use them as automatic language analyzers. This way you will get a better understanding of the dynamics of languages...

  9. Fuzzy logic in management

    CERN Document Server

    Carlsson, Christer; Fullér, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Fuzzy Logic in Management demonstrates that difficult problems and changes in the management environment can be more easily handled by bringing fuzzy logic into the practice of management. This explicit theme is developed through the book as follows: Chapter 1, "Management and Intelligent Support Technologies", is a short survey of management leadership and what can be gained from support technologies. Chapter 2, "Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic", provides a short introduction to fuzzy sets, fuzzy relations, the extension principle, fuzzy implications and linguistic variables. Chapter 3, "Group Decision Support Systems", deals with group decision making, and discusses methods for supporting the consensus reaching processes. Chapter 4, "Fuzzy Real Options for Strategic Planning", summarizes research where the fuzzy real options theory was implemented as a series of models. These models were thoroughly tested on a number of real life investments, and validated in 2001. Chapter 5, "Soft Computing Methods for Reducing...

  10. Current Source Logic Gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasowski, Michael J. (Inventor); Prokop, Norman F. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A current source logic gate with depletion mode field effect transistor ("FET") transistors and resistors may include a current source, a current steering switch input stage, and a resistor divider level shifting output stage. The current source may include a transistor and a current source resistor. The current steering switch input stage may include a transistor to steer current to set an output stage bias point depending on an input logic signal state. The resistor divider level shifting output stage may include a first resistor and a second resistor to set the output stage point and produce valid output logic signal states. The transistor of the current steering switch input stage may function as a switch to provide at least two operating points.

  11. Duration Calculus: Logical Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Chaochen, Zhou

    1997-01-01

    The Duration Calculus (abbreviated DC) represents a logical approach to formal design of real-time systems, where real numbers are used to model time and Boolean valued functions over time are used to model states and events of real-time systems. Since it introduction, DC has been applied to many...... case studies and it has been extended in several directions. The aim of this paper is to provide a thorough presentation of the logic.......The Duration Calculus (abbreviated DC) represents a logical approach to formal design of real-time systems, where real numbers are used to model time and Boolean valued functions over time are used to model states and events of real-time systems. Since it introduction, DC has been applied to many...

  12. VHDL for logic synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Rushton, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Many engineers encountering VHDL (very high speed integrated circuits hardware description language) for the first time can feel overwhelmed by it. This book bridges the gap between the VHDL language and the hardware that results from logic synthesis with clear organisation, progressing from the basics of combinational logic, types, and operators; through special structures such as tristate buses, register banks and memories, to advanced themes such as developing your own packages, writing test benches and using the full range of synthesis types. This third edition has been substantially rewritten to include the new VHDL-2008 features that enable synthesis of fixed-point and floating-point hardware. Extensively updated throughout to reflect modern logic synthesis usage, it also contains a complete case study to demonstrate the updated features. Features to this edition include: * a common VHDL subset which will work across a range of different synthesis systems, targeting a very wide range of technologies...

  13. Logical Theories for Agent Introspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    several such logical theories which we prove to be consistent. These theories are all based on first-order predicate logic. To prove our consistency results, we develop a general mathematical framework, suitable for proving a large number of consistency results concerning logical theories involving...... by developments within semantics for logic programming within computational logic and formal theories of truth within philosophical logic. The thesis provides a number of examples showing how the developed theories can be used as reasoning frameworks for agents with introspective abilities. In Danish...... by self-reference. In the standard approach taken in artificial intelligence, the model that an agent has of its environment is represented as a set of beliefs. These beliefs are expressed as logical formulas within a formal, logical theory. When the logical theory is expressive enough to allow...

  14. COMT Val158Met modulates subjective responses to intravenous nicotine and cognitive performance in abstinent smokers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herman, A I; Jatlow, P I; Gelernter, J; Listman, J B; Sofuoglu, M

    2013-01-01

    ...)/Val genotype, compared with methionine (Met) carriers, had greater negative subjective effects from IV nicotine and had more severe withdrawal severity following overnight abstinence from smoking...

  15. Longitudinal Associations of Subjective Memory with Memory Performance and Depressive Symptoms: Between-Person and Within-Person Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülür, Gizem; Hertzog, Christopher; Pearman, Ann; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Clinical diagnostic criteria for memory loss in adults typically assume that subjective memory ratings accurately reflect compromised memory functioning. Research has documented small positive between-person associations between subjective memory and memory performance in older adults. Less is known, however, about whether within-person fluctuations in subjective memory covary with within-person variance in memory performance and depressive symptoms. The present study applied multilevel models of change to nine waves of data from 27,395 participants of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS; mean age at baseline = 63.78; SD = 10.30; 58% women) to examine whether subjective memory is associated with both between-person differences and within-person variability in memory performance and depressive symptoms and explored the moderating role of known correlates (age, gender, education, and functional limitations). Results revealed that across persons, level of subjective memory indeed covaried with level of memory performance and depressive symptoms, with small-to-moderate between-person standardized effect sizes (0.19 for memory performance and 0.21 for depressive symptoms). Within individuals, occasions when participants scored higher than usual on a test of episodic memory or reported fewer-than-average depressive symptoms generated above-average subjective memory. At the within-person level, subjective memory ratings became more sensitive to within-person alterations in memory performance over time and those suffering from functional limitations were more sensitive to within-person alterations in memory performance and depressive symptoms. We take our results to suggest that within-person changes in subjective memory in part reflect monitoring flux in one’s own memory functioning, but are also influenced by flux in depressive symptoms. PMID:25244464

  16. A Godel Modal Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Caicedo, Xavier; Rodriguez, Ricardo Oscar

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider an approach where both propositions and the accessibility relation are infinitely many-valued over G\\"{o}del algebras. In particular, we consider separately the $\\Box $-fragment and the $\\Diamond $-fragment of our G\\"{o}del modal logic and prove that both logics are complete with respect to the class of models with values in the linear Hetying algebra [0,1]. In addition, we show that the first fragment is uniquely determined by the class of models having crisp access...

  17. Linear Logical Voting Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeYoung, Henry; Schürmann, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Current approaches to electronic implementations of voting protocols involve translating legal text to source code of an imperative programming language. Because the gap between legal text and source code is very large, it is difficult to trust that the program meets its legal specification....... In response, we promote linear logic as a high-level language for both specifying and implementing voting protocols. Our linear logical specifications of the single-winner first-past-the-post (SW- FPTP) and single transferable vote (STV) protocols demonstrate that this approach leads to concise...

  18. The Logic of XACML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    We study the international standard XACML 3.0 for describing security access control policy in a compositional way. Our main contribution is to derive a logic that precisely captures the idea behind the standard and to formally define the semantics of the policy combining algorithms of XACML....... To guard against modelling artifacts we provide an alternative way of characterizing the policy combining algorithms and we formally prove the equivalence of these approaches. This allows us to pinpoint the shortcoming of previous approaches to formalization based either on Belnap logic or on D-algebra....

  19. The Logic of XACML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    We study the international standard XACML 3.0 for describing security access control policy in a compositional way. Our main contribution is to derive a logic that precisely captures the idea behind the standard and to formally define the semantics of the policy combining algorithms of XACML....... To guard against modelling artefacts we provide an alternative way of characterizing the policy combining algorithms and we formally prove the equivalence of these approaches. This allows us to pinpoint the shortcoming of previous approaches to formalization based either on Belnap logic or on D -algebra....

  20. Continuous Markovian Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Cardelli, Luca; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    Continuous Markovian Logic (CML) is a multimodal logic that expresses quantitative and qualitative properties of continuous-time labelled Markov processes with arbitrary (analytic) state-spaces, henceforth called continuous Markov processes (CMPs). The modalities of CML evaluate the rates...... of the exponentially distributed random variables that characterize the duration of the labeled transitions of a CMP. In this paper we present weak and strong complete axiomatizations for CML and prove a series of metaproperties, including the finite model property and the construction of canonical models. CML...

  1. Introduction to mathematical logic

    CERN Document Server

    Mendelson, Elliott

    2009-01-01

    The Propositional CalculusPropositional Connectives. Truth TablesTautologies Adequate Sets of Connectives An Axiom System for the Propositional Calculus Independence. Many-Valued LogicsOther AxiomatizationsFirst-Order Logic and Model TheoryQuantifiersFirst-Order Languages and Their Interpretations. Satisfiability and Truth. ModelsFirst-Order TheoriesProperties of First-Order Theories Additional Metatheorems and Derived Rules Rule C Completeness Theorems First-Order Theories with EqualityDefinitions of New Function Letters and Individual Constants Prenex Normal Forms Isomorphism of Interpretati

  2. Set theory and logic

    CERN Document Server

    Stoll, Robert R

    1979-01-01

    Set Theory and Logic is the result of a course of lectures for advanced undergraduates, developed at Oberlin College for the purpose of introducing students to the conceptual foundations of mathematics. Mathematics, specifically the real number system, is approached as a unity whose operations can be logically ordered through axioms. One of the most complex and essential of modern mathematical innovations, the theory of sets (crucial to quantum mechanics and other sciences), is introduced in a most careful concept manner, aiming for the maximum in clarity and stimulation for further study in

  3. Logic of the digital

    CERN Document Server

    Evens, Aden

    2015-01-01

    Building a foundational understanding of the digital, Logic of the Digital reveals a unique digital ontology. Beginning from formal and technical characteristics, especially the binary code at the core of all digital technologies, Aden Evens traces the pathways along which the digital domain of abstract logic encounters the material, human world. How does a code using only 0s and 1s give rise to the vast range of applications and information that constitutes a great and growing portion of our world? Evens' analysis shows how any encounter between the actual and the digital must cross an ontolo

  4. Perceiving the Causes of Objective and Subjective Outcomes Following Motor Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso-Ahola, Seppo

    1978-01-01

    Subjective perceptions of outcomes (both success and failure) may vary considerably from those of the experimenter's, and causal attributions are based as much on subject's own perceptions of success and failure as on the experimenter's definitions of outcomes. (Author/MJB)

  5. Development of a fuzzy logic based intelligent system for autonomous guidance of post-stroke rehabilitation exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, Rajibul; Wang, Rosalie; Lu, Elaine; Hebert, Debbie; Lacheray, Hervé; Mihailidis, Alex

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents preliminary studies in developing a fuzzy logic based intelligent system for autonomous post-stroke upper-limb rehabilitation exercise. The intelligent system autonomously varies control parameters to generate different haptic effects on the robotic device. The robotic device is able to apply both resistive and assistive forces for guiding the patient during the exercise. The fuzzy logic based decision-making system estimates muscle fatigue of the patient using exercise performance and generates a combination of resistive and assistive forces so that the stroke survivor can exercise for longer durations with increasing control. The fuzzy logic based system is initially developed using a study with healthy subjects and preliminary results are also presented to validate the developed system with healthy subjects. The next stage of this work will collect data from stroke survivors for further development of the system.

  6. Querying Natural Logic Knowledge Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Jensen, Per Anker

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the principles of a system applying natural logic as a knowledge base language. Natural logics are regimented fragments of natural language employing high level inference rules. We advocate the use of natural logic for knowledge bases dealing with querying of classes...... in ontologies and class-relationships such as are common in life-science descriptions. The paper adopts a version of natural logic with recursive restrictive clauses such as relative clauses and adnominal prepositional phrases. It includes passive as well as active voice sentences. We outline a prototype...... for partial translation of natural language into natural logic, featuring further querying and conceptual path finding in natural logic knowledge bases....

  7. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability using supervised committee to combine fuzzy logic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadiri, Ata Allah; Gharekhani, Maryam; Khatibi, Rahman; Moghaddam, Asghar Asghari

    2017-03-01

    Vulnerability indices of an aquifer assessed by different fuzzy logic (FL) models often give rise to differing values with no theoretical or empirical basis to establish a validated baseline or to develop a comparison basis between the modeling results and baselines, if any. Therefore, this research presents a supervised committee fuzzy logic (SCFL) method, which uses artificial neural networks to overarch and combine a selection of FL models. The indices are expressed by the widely used DRASTIC framework, which include geological, hydrological, and hydrogeological parameters often subject to uncertainty. DRASTIC indices represent collectively intrinsic (or natural) vulnerability and give a sense of contaminants, such as nitrate-N, percolating to aquifers from the surface. The study area is an aquifer in Ardabil plain, the province of Ardabil, northwest Iran. Improvements on vulnerability indices are achieved by FL techniques, which comprise Sugeno fuzzy logic (SFL), Mamdani fuzzy logic (MFL), and Larsen fuzzy logic (LFL). As the correlation between estimated DRASTIC vulnerability index values and nitrate-N values is as low as 0.4, it is improved significantly by FL models (SFL, MFL, and LFL), which perform in similar ways but have differences. Their synergy is exploited by SCFL and uses the FL modeling results "conditioned" by nitrate-N values to raise their correlation to higher than 0.9.

  8. Logical Entity Level Sentiment Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Niklas Christoffer; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    We present a formal logical approach using a combinatory categorial grammar for entity level sentiment analysis that utilizes machine learning techniques for efficient syntactical tagging and performs a deep structural analysis of the syntactical properties of texts in order to yield precise...... results. The method should be seen as an alternative to pure machine learning methods for sentiment analysis, which are argued to have high difficulties in capturing long distance dependencies, and can be dependent on significant amount of domain specific training data. The results show that the method...

  9. Cylindric-like algebras and algebraic logic

    CERN Document Server

    Ferenczi, Miklós; Németi, István

    2013-01-01

    Algebraic logic is a subject in the interface between logic, algebra and geometry, it has strong connections with category theory and combinatorics. Tarski’s quest for finding structure in logic leads to cylindric-like algebras as studied in this book, they are among the main players in Tarskian algebraic logic. Cylindric algebra theory can be viewed in many ways:  as an algebraic form of definability theory, as a study of higher-dimensional relations, as an enrichment of Boolean Algebra theory, or, as logic in geometric form (“cylindric” in the name refers to geometric aspects). Cylindric-like algebras have a wide range of applications, in, e.g., natural language theory, data-base theory, stochastics, and even in relativity theory. The present volume, consisting of 18 survey papers, intends to give an overview of the main achievements and new research directions in the past 30 years, since the publication of the Henkin-Monk-Tarski monographs. It is dedicated to the memory of Leon Henkin.

  10. Experimental Device for Learning of Logical Circuit Design using Integrated Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    石橋, 孝昭

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental device for learning of logical circuit design using integrated circuits and breadboards. The experimental device can be made at a low cost and can be used for many subjects such as logical circuits, computer engineering, basic electricity, electrical circuits and electronic circuits. The proposed device is effective to learn the logical circuits than the usual lecture.

  11. K-maps: a vehicle to an optimal solution in combinational logic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of Karnaugh maps (K-Maps) for the design of combinational logic circuits and sequential logic circuits is a subject that has been widely discussed. However, the use of K-Maps in the design of combinational logic circuits using medium scale integration (MSI) devices has not yet been widely explored.

  12. Impaired cognitive performance in subjects with methamphetamine dependence during exposure to neutral versus methamphetamine-related cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolliver, Bryan K; Price, Kimber L; Baker, Nathaniel L; LaRowe, Steven D; Simpson, Annie N; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Saladin, Michael E; DeSantis, Stacia M; Chapman, Elizabeth; Garrett, Margaret; Brady, Kathleen T

    2012-05-01

    Chronic methamphetamine abuse is associated with cognitive deficits that may impede treatment in methamphetamine-dependent patients. Exposure to methamphetamine-related cues can elicit intense craving in chronic users of the drug, but the effects of exposure to drug cues on cognitive performance in these individuals are unknown. This study assessed whether exposure to methamphetamine-related visual cues can elicit craving and/or alter dual task cognitive performance in 30 methamphetamine-dependent subjects and 30 control subjects in the laboratory. Reaction time, response errors, and inhibition errors were assessed on an auditory Go-No Go task performed by adult participants (total N = 60) while watching neutral versus methamphetamine-related video cues. Craving was assessed with the Within-Session Rating Scale modified for methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Exposure to methamphetamine-related cues elicited craving only in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Even in the absence of methamphetamine cues, methamphetamine-dependent subjects exhibited slower reaction times and higher rates of both inhibition and response errors than control subjects did. Upon exposure to methamphetamine cues, rates of both response errors and inhibition errors increased significantly in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Control subjects exhibited no increase in inhibition errors and only slightly increased rates of response errors upon exposure to methamphetamine cues. Response error rates, but not inhibition error rates or reaction times, during methamphetamine cue exposure were significantly associated with craving scores in methamphetamine-dependent subjects. Methamphetamine-dependent individuals exhibit cognitive performance deficits that are more pronounced during exposure to methamphetamine-related cues. Interventions that reduce cue reactivity may have utility in the treatment of methamphetamine dependence.

  13. The logic of XACML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    We study the international standard XACML 3.0 for describing security access control policies in a compositional way. Our main contributions are (i) to derive a logic that precisely captures the intentions of the standard, (ii) to formally define a semantics for the XACML 3.0 component evaluation...

  14. Quantum probabilistic logic programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Radhakrishnan

    2015-05-01

    We describe a quantum mechanics based logic programming language that supports Horn clauses, random variables, and covariance matrices to express and solve problems in probabilistic logic. The Horn clauses of the language wrap random variables, including infinite valued, to express probability distributions and statistical correlations, a powerful feature to capture relationship between distributions that are not independent. The expressive power of the language is based on a mechanism to implement statistical ensembles and to solve the underlying SAT instances using quantum mechanical machinery. We exploit the fact that classical random variables have quantum decompositions to build the Horn clauses. We establish the semantics of the language in a rigorous fashion by considering an existing probabilistic logic language called PRISM with classical probability measures defined on the Herbrand base and extending it to the quantum context. In the classical case H-interpretations form the sample space and probability measures defined on them lead to consistent definition of probabilities for well formed formulae. In the quantum counterpart, we define probability amplitudes on Hinterpretations facilitating the model generations and verifications via quantum mechanical superpositions and entanglements. We cast the well formed formulae of the language as quantum mechanical observables thus providing an elegant interpretation for their probabilities. We discuss several examples to combine statistical ensembles and predicates of first order logic to reason with situations involving uncertainty.

  15. A Concurrent Logical Relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Sieczkowski, Filip; Thamsborg, Jacob Junker

    2012-01-01

    We present a logical relation for showing the correctness of program transformations based on a new type-and-effect system for a concurrent extension of an ML-like language with higher-order functions, higher-order store and dynamic memory allocation. We show how to use our model to verify a number...

  16. Logicism, intuitionism, and formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Symons, John

    2008-01-01

    Aims to review the programmes in the foundations of mathematics from the classical period and to assess their possible relevance for contemporary philosophy of mathematics. This work is suitable for researchers and graduate students of philosophy, logic, mathematics and theoretical computer science.

  17. Foundations of mathematical logic

    CERN Document Server

    Curry, Haskell B

    2010-01-01

    Written by a pioneer of mathematical logic, this comprehensive graduate-level text explores the constructive theory of first-order predicate calculus. It covers formal methods, including algorithms and epitheory, and offers a brief treatment of Markov's approach to algorithms, explains elementary facts about lattices and similar algebraic systems, and more. 1963 edition.

  18. Logic of transition systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benthem, Johan van; Bergstra, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Labeled transition systems are key structures for modeling computation. In this paper, we show how they lend themselves to ordinary logical analysis (without any special new formalisms), by introducing their standard first-order theory. This perspective enables us to raise several

  19. Literacy, Logic, and Intuition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The author calls into question whether learning to read and write is an exclusively logical and systematic process in which the child moves step-by-step from part to whole, as it is frequently presented in "scientific" reading research. She examines research on different types of intuitive behavior and suggests parallels in the development of…

  20. Logical consequence for nominalists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossberg, Marcus; Cohnitz, Daniel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/297859099

    2009-01-01

    It has repeatedly been argued that nominalistic programmes in the philosophy of mathematics fail, since they will at some point or other involve the notion of logical consequence which is unavailable to the nominalist. In this paper we will argue that this is not the case. Using an idea of Nelson

  1. Short-circuit logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.

    2010-01-01

    Short-circuit evaluation denotes the semantics of propositional connectives in which the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression. In programming, short-circuit evaluation is widely used. A short-circuit logic is a variant of

  2. Cofinal stable logics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezhanishvili, G.; Bezhanishvili, N.; Ilin, J.

    2016-01-01

    We generalize the (∧,∨)-canonical formulas to (∧,∨)-canonical rules, and prove that each intuitionistic multi-conclusion consequence relation is axiomatizable by (∧,∨)-canonical rules. This yields a convenient characterization of stable superintuitionistic logics. The (∧,∨)-canonical formulas are

  3. Action Type Deontic Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2014-01-01

    are evaluated with respect to the benchmark cases. After that follows an informal introduction to the ideas behind the formal semantics, focussing on the distinction between action types and action tokens. Then the syntax and semantics of Action Type Deontic Logic is presented and it is shown to meet...

  4. Greek, Indian and Arabic logic

    CERN Document Server

    Gabbay, Dov M

    2004-01-01

    Greek, Indian and Arabic Logic marks the initial appearance of the multi-volume Handbook of the History of Logic. Additional volumes will be published when ready, rather than in strict chronological order. Soon to appear are The Rise of Modern Logic: From Leibniz to Frege. Also in preparation are Logic From Russell to Gödel, Logic and the Modalities in the Twentieth Century, and The Many-Valued and Non-Monotonic Turn in Logic. Further volumes will follow, including Mediaeval and Renaissance Logic and Logic: A History of its Central. In designing the Handbook of the History of Logic, the Editors have taken the view that the history of logic holds more than an antiquarian interest, and that a knowledge of logic's rich and sophisticated development is, in various respects, relevant to the research programmes of the present day. Ancient logic is no exception. The present volume attests to the distant origins of some of modern logic's most important features, such as can be found in the claim by the authors of t...

  5. SUBJECTIVITY AND HYBRIDITY IN THE AGE OF INTERACTIVE INTERNET MEDIA: THE MUSICAL PERFORMANCES OF CHARICE PEMPENGCO AND ARNEL PINEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christi-Anne Castro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines hybrid subjectivity in the performances by and in the reception of musical artists utilizing the technology of interactive Internet media. It focuses on the career trajectories of the popular Filipino music performers Charice Pempengco and Arnel Pineda, taking into account how their transnational presence and dissemination through internet media communities affect perceptions of locality, nationality and race.

  6. Performance Levels in Science and Other Subjects for Jamaican Adolescents Attending Single-Sex and Co-Educational High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Marlene A.

    1985-01-01

    Examination results from 1146 Jamaican high school students in single-sex and coeducational schools indicated students from coeducational schools had lower performance on all measures. A subsample provided more information on sex differences, performance in individual subjects, and students receiving grades of A or B. (DH)

  7. A pilot study to evaluate simulated driving performance and cognitive function in healthy subjects and patients with restless legs syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen D

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dan Chen,1 Paula Shaw,2 Daniel M Canafax,1,3 James Catesby Ware4 1XenoPort, Inc., Santa Clara, CA, USA; 2Charles River Northwest, Tacoma, WA, USA; 3Theravance Inc., South San Francisco, CA, USA; 4Division of Sleep Medicine, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, USA Objective: Symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS usually occur during the evening and night time, resulting in disrupted sleep and subsequent daytime fatigue. This study compared simulated driving performance, alertness, and cognitive function between healthy subjects and patients with a diagnosis of RLS. Methods: Fifteen healthy subjects and 15 untreated RLS subjects were enrolled and completed two driving tests. The first test occurred at 4 PM followed by the second test at 8 AM the next morning. Outcome measures included lane position variability (LPV, speed variability, frequency of simulated crashes (off-road events or collision, and brake reaction time. Other assessments included visual analog scale (VAS of alertness and the Brief Assessment of Cognition (BAC. Results: Overall, RLS patients and healthy subjects performed similarly on driving assessments. Two subjects within each group experienced off-road events. RLS patients had less alertness on the VAS than healthy subjects before and after driving assessments. Both groups scored similarly on the cognitive function assessments. Conclusion: Despite reported diminished alertness, RLS patients did not demonstrate impairment in driving or cognitive performance. Keywords: restless legs syndrome, simulated driving performance, cognitive function

  8. Logical Form as a Determinant of Cognitive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lambalgen, Michiel

    We discuss a research program on reasoning patterns in subjects with autism, showing that they fail to engage in certain forms of non-monotonic reasoning that come naturally to neurotypical subjects. The striking reasoning patterns of autists occur both in verbal and in non-verbal tasks. Upon formalising the relevant non-verbal tasks, one sees that their logical form is the same as that of the verbal tasks. This suggests that logical form can play a causal role in cognitive processes, and we suggest that this logical form is actually embodied in the cognitive capacity called 'executive function'.

  9. Extending Value Logic Thinking to Value Logic Portfolios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Andersen, Poul Houman

    or transaction, an understanding of firms and transactions as a portfolio of value logics (i.e. an interconnected coexistence of different value creation logics) is proposed. These additions to the original value creation logic theory imply interesting avenues for both, strategic decision making in firms...

  10. Water- versus land-based exercise in elderly subjects: effects on physical performance and body composition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bergamin, Marco; Ermolao, Andrea; Tolomio, Silvia; Berton, Linda; Sergi, Giuseppe; Zaccaria, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 24-week exercise protocol carried out in geothermal spring water to improve overall physical function and muscle mass in a group of healthy elderly subjects...

  11. Evaluation of performance, safety, subject acceptance, and compliance of a disposable autoinjector for subcutaneous injections in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berteau, Cecile; Schwarzenbach, Florence; Donazzolo, Yves; Latreille, Mathilde; Berube, Julie; Abry, Herve; Cotten, Joël; Feger, Celine; Laurent, Philippe E

    2010-10-05

    A disposable autoinjector was developed for subcutaneous (SC) self-injection by patients with chronic diseases. To verify its performance and evaluate its acceptance, a clinical study was conducted in healthy volunteers, comparing SC injections performed by subjects using the autoinjector with SC injections performed by nurses using a syringe. This was a randomized, single-center, crossover study comparing SC self-injection using an autoinjector with SC nurse-administered injection using a syringe. Two volumes (0.2 mL and 1 mL) were injected into healthy volunteers. Study objectives included assessment of the accuracy and consistency of the volume injected by the injection systems, and skin reaction and pain associated with the injection. The fluid depot in the SC tissue layer was evaluated by ultrasound. Subject acceptance was evaluated using questionnaires on attitudes and emotions towards the injection technique, and challenged by seeking the subjects' preferred system for a final study injection or future treatment. A total of 960 injections (480 with autoinjector, 480 with syringe) were performed in 40 subjects. There were no significant differences in mean fluid leakage and injected volumes between the systems. Pain associated with the injection was significantly lower with the auto-injector than with the syringe. Local skin reaction at the injection site was overall satisfactory. Injections were appropriately performed by all subjects. At study end, all 40 subjects preferred the autoinjector for a final study injection and for future treatment. This study indicated that the autoinjector used by the subject was similar to a syringe used by a nurse in terms of performance and safety in administering the injections, and better in terms of pain, overall acceptance, and preference.

  12. Logical analysis of biological systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian

    2005-01-01

    R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005.......R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005....

  13. First-Order Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid logic is an extension of modal logic which allows us to refer explicitly to points of the model in the syntax of formulas. It is easy to justify interest in hybrid logic on applied grounds, with the usefulness of the additional expressive power. For example, when reasoning about time one...... often wants to build up a series of assertions about what happens at a particular instant, and standard modal formalisms do not allow this. What is less obvious is that the route hybrid logic takes to overcome this problem often actually improves the behaviour of the underlying modal formalism....... For example, it becomes far simpler to formulate proof-systems for hybrid logic, and completeness results can be proved of a generality that is simply not available in modal logic. That is, hybridization is a systematic way of remedying a number of known deficiencies of modal logic. First-order hybrid logic...

  14. Conference Trends in Logic XI

    CERN Document Server

    Wansing, Heinrich; Willkommen, Caroline; Recent Trends in Philosophical Logic

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents recent advances in philosophical logic with chapters focusing on non-classical logics, including paraconsistent logics, substructural logics, modal logics of agency and other modal logics. The authors cover themes such as the knowability paradox, tableaux and sequent calculi, natural deduction, definite descriptions, identity, truth, dialetheism, and possible worlds semantics.   The developments presented here focus on challenging problems in the specification of fundamental philosophical notions, as well as presenting new techniques and tools, thereby contributing to the development of the field. Each chapter contains a bibliography, to assist the reader in making connections in the specific areas covered. Thus this work provides both a starting point for further investigations into philosophical logic and an update on advances, techniques and applications in a dynamic field.   The chapters originate from papers presented during the Trends in Logic XI conference at the Ruhr University ...

  15. Evaluation of performance, safety, subject acceptance, and compliance of a disposable autoinjector for subcutaneous injections in healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Berteau, Cecile; Schwarzenbach, Florence; Donazzolo, Yves; Latreille, Mathilde; Berube, Julie; Abry, Herve; Cotten, Jo?l; Feger, Celine; Laurent, Philippe E

    2010-01-01

    Objective: A disposable autoinjector was developed for subcutaneous (SC) self-injection by patients with chronic diseases. To verify its performance and evaluate its acceptance, a clinical study was conducted in healthy volunteers, comparing SC injections performed by subjects using the autoinjector with SC injections performed by nurses using a syringe. Methods: This was a randomized, single-center, crossover study comparing SC self-injection using an autoinjector with SC nurse-administered ...

  16. A Note on Axiomatizations of Pavelka-style Complete Fuzzy Logics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 292, 1 June (2016), s. 160-174 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1826 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : mathematical fuzzy logic * Pavelka-style completeness * MTL logic * Lukasiewicz logic s * Product Logic * truth constants * Monteiro–Baaz delta Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2016

  17. First course in fuzzy logic

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Hung T

    2005-01-01

    THE CONCEPT OF FUZZINESS Examples Mathematical modeling Some operations on fuzzy sets Fuzziness as uncertainty Exercises SOME ALGEBRA OF FUZZY SETS Boolean algebras and lattices Equivalence relations and partitions Composing mappings Isomorphisms and homomorphisms Alpha-cuts Images of alpha-level sets Exercises FUZZY QUANTITIES Fuzzy quantities Fuzzy numbers Fuzzy intervals Exercises LOGICAL ASPECTS OF FUZZY SETS Classical two-valued logic A three-valued logic Fuzzy logic Fuzzy and Lukasiewi

  18. A New Logic For Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Maokang; He, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Fuzziness and randomicity widespread exist in natural science, engineering, technology and social science. The purpose of this paper is to present a new logic - uncertain propositional logic which can deal with both fuzziness by taking truth value semantics and randomicity by taking probabilistic semantics or possibility semantics. As the first step for purpose of establishing a logic system which completely reflect the uncertainty of the objective world, this logic will lead to a set of logi...

  19. Tunable nanoelectromechanical resonator for logic computations

    KAUST Repository

    Kazmi, Syed N R

    2017-02-14

    There has been remarkable interest in nanomechanical computing elements that can potentially lead to a new era in computation due to their re-configurability, high integration density, and high switching speed. Here we present a nanomechanical device capable of dynamically performing logic operations (NOR, NOT, XNOR, XOR, and AND). The concept is based on the active tuning of the resonance frequency of a doubly-clamped nanoelectromechanical beam resonator through electro-thermal actuation. The performance of this re-configurable logic device is examined at elevated temperatures, ranging from 25 °C to 85 °C, demonstrating its resilience for most of the logic operations. The proposed device can potentially achieve switching rate in μs, switching energy in nJ, and an integration density up to 10 per cm. The practical realization of this re-configurable device paves the way for nano-element-based mechanical computing.

  20. Logical Characterisation of Ontology Construction using Fuzzy Description Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad; Götzsche, Hans

    had the extension of ontologies with Fuzzy Logic capabilities which plan to make proper backgrounds for ontology driven reasoning and argumentation on vague and imprecise domains. This presentation conceptualises learning from fuzzy classes using the Inductive Logic Programming framework. Then......, employs Description Logics in characterising and analysing fuzzy statements. And finally, provides a conceptual framework describing fuzzy concept learning in ontologies using the Inductive Logic Programming.......Ontologies based on Description Logics (DLs) have proved to be effective in formally sharing knowledge across semantic technologies, e.g. Semantic Web, Natural Language Processing, Text Analytics, Business intelligence. Our main goal is analysing ontology construction considering vagueness. We have...

  1. Linear Logic on Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Uffe Henrik; Winskel, Glynn

    This article shows how individual Petri nets form models of Girard's intuitionistic linear logic. It explores questions of expressiveness and completeness of linear logic with respect to this interpretation. An aim is to use Petri nets to give an understanding of linear logic and give some apprai...

  2. A Paraconsistent Higher Order Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    Abstract. Classical logic predicts that everything (thus nothing useful at all) follows from inconsistency. A paraconsistent logic is a logic where an inconsistency does not lead to such an explosion, and since in practice consistency is difficult to achieve there are many potential applications...

  3. Flat coalgebraic fixed point logics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, L.; Venema, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Fixed point logics are widely used in computer science, in particular in artificial intelligence and concurrency. The most expressive logics of this type are the μ-calculus and its relatives. However, popular fixed point logics tend to trade expressivity for simplicity and readability, and in fact

  4. Simulation Approach for Timing Analysis of Genetic Logic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baig, Hasan; Madsen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    in a manner similar to electronic logic circuits, but they are much more stochastic and hence much harder to characterize. In this article, we introduce an approach to analyze the threshold value and timing of genetic logic circuits. We show how this approach can be used to analyze the timing behavior...... of single and cascaded genetic logic circuits. We further analyze the timing sensitivity of circuits by varying the degradation rates and concentrations. Our approach can be used not only to characterize the timing behavior but also to analyze the timing constraints of cascaded genetic logic circuits......Constructing genetic logic circuits is an application of synthetic biology in which parts of the DNA of a living cell are engineered to perform a dedicated Boolean function triggered by an appropriate concentration of certain proteins or by different genetic components. These logic circuits work...

  5. Logic and Abduction: Cognitive Externalizations in Demonstrative Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Magnani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In her book Abductive Reasoning Atocha Aliseda (2006 stresses the attention to the logical models of abduction, centering on the semantic tableaux as a method for extending and improving both the whole cognitive/philosophical view on it and on other more restricted logical approaches. I will describe the importance of increasing logical knowledge on abduction also taking advantage of some ideas coming from the so-called distributed cognition where logical models are seen as forms of cognitive externalizations of preexistent in-formal human reasoning performances

  6. A genome-wide supported psychiatric risk variant in NCAN influences brain function and cognitive performance in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raum, Heidelore; Dietsche, Bruno; Nagels, Arne; Witt, Stephanie H; Rietschel, Marcella; Kircher, Tilo; Krug, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The A allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1064395 in the NCAN gene has recently been identified as a susceptibility factor for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. NCAN encodes neurocan, a brain-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan that is thought to influence neuronal adhesion and migration. Several lines of research suggest an impact of NCAN on neurocognitive functioning. In the present study, we investigated the effects of rs1064395 genotype on neural processing and cognitive performance in healthy subjects. Brain activity was measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during an overt semantic verbal fluency task in 110 healthy subjects who were genotyped for the NCAN SNP rs1064395. Participants additionally underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing. Whole brain analyses revealed that NCAN risk status, defined as AA or AG genotype, was associated with a lack of task-related deactivation in a large left lateral temporal cluster extending from the middle temporal gyrus to the temporal pole. Regarding neuropsychological measures, risk allele carriers demonstrated poorer immediate and delayed verbal memory performance when compared to subjects with GG genotype. Better verbal memory performance was significantly associated with greater deactivation of the left temporal cluster during the fMRI task in subjects with GG genotype. The current data demonstrate that common genetic variation in NCAN influences both neural processing and cognitive performance in healthy subjects. Our study provides new evidence for a specific genetic influence on human brain function. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The Logic of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Robert; Pross, Addy

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we propose a logical connection between the physical and biological worlds, one resting on a broader understanding of the stability concept. We propose that stability manifests two facets - time and energy, and that stability's time facet, expressed as persistence, is more general than its energy facet. That insight leads to the logical formulation of the Persistence Principle, which describes the general direction of material change in the universe, and which can be stated most simply as: nature seeks persistent forms. Significantly, the principle is found to express itself in two mathematically distinct ways: in the replicative world through Malthusian exponential growth, and in the 'regular' physical/chemical world through Boltzmann's probabilistic considerations. By encompassing both 'regular' and replicative worlds, the principle appears to be able to help reconcile two of the major scientific theories of the 19th century - the Second Law of Thermodynamics and Darwin's theory of evolution - within a single conceptual framework.

  8. Secondary School Science Predictors of Academic Performance in University Bioscience Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rod; Brown, Elizabeth; Ward, Alex

    2009-01-01

    In 2009 the Faculty of Health Sciences at La Trobe University in Melbourne, Australia is introducing a common first year for 11 different undergraduate courses in the faculty. Current prerequisite science entry requirements vary with course and range from none to at least two science or mathematics subjects and from [approximately]50 to 99 in…

  9. Effect of fish oil on cognitive performance in older subjects: a randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Rest, O.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Kok, F. J.; van Staveren, W.A.; Dullemeijer, C.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; de Groot, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: High intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may protect against age-related cognitive decline. However, results from epidemiologic studies are inconclusive, and results from randomized trials in elderly subjects without dementia are lacking. Objective: To investigate the effect of

  10. Subjective vs objective predictors of functional knee joint performance in anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Jensen, Carsten; Aagaard, Per

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Associations between objective and subjective measures of knee function may facilitate rehabilitation in ACL-patients. AIM: The aim of this study is to investigate if a test-battery of functional and/or muscle outcomes are associated with Knee osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) subsc...

  11. Subspecialty Exposure in a Psychiatry Clerkship Does Not Improve Student Performance in the Subject Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamero, Carolina; Ramchandani, Dilip

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The authors compared the NBME subject examination scores and subspecialty profiles of 3rd-year medical students who were assigned to psychiatry subspecialties during their clerkship with those who were not. Method: The authors collated and analyzed the shelf examination scores, the clinical grades, and the child psychiatry and emergency…

  12. Effect of fish oil on cognitive performance in older subjects: a randomized, controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rest, O van de; Geleijnse, J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Staveren, W.A. van; Dullemeijer, C.; Olderikkert, M.G.; Beekman, A.T.; Groot, CP de

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may protect against age-related cognitive decline. However, results from epidemiologic studies are inconclusive, and results from randomized trials in elderly subjects without dementia are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of

  13. Differences between Functional and Subjective Overconfidence in Postdiction Judgments of Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shake, Matthew C.; Shulley, Leah J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Recent research has shown that students tend to be overconfident when judging future performance on coursework, particularly students with lower academic ability. Some research suggests that these lower performing students are "doubly cursed" in that they are not only less capable of assessing their own performance, but…

  14. Associations of subjective vitality with DNA damage, cardiovascular risk factors and physical performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maynard, Scott; Keijzers, Guido; Hansen, A-M

    2015-01-01

    To examine associations of DNA damage, cardiovascular risk factors and physical performance with vitality, in middle-aged men. We also sought to elucidate underlying factors of physical performance by comparing physical performance parameters to DNA damage parameters and cardiovascular risk factors....

  15. Logic Programming in LISP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Rapport, Groupe Intelligence Pasero, R., Artificielle , Universite d’Aix-Marseille, Roussel, P. Luminy, France, 1973. [Kowalski 1974] Kowalski, R. A...THIS PAGZ(Whan Doee Es tMord) Item 20 (Cont’d) ------ work in the area of artificial intelligence and those used in general program development into a...logic programming with LISP for implementing intelligent data base query systems. Continued developments will allow for enhancements to be made to the

  16. Magnetic logic based on diode-assisted magnetoresistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaochu Luo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional computer suffers from the von Neumann performance bottleneck due to its hardware architecture that non-volatile memory and logic are separated. The new emerging magnetic logic coupling the extra dimension of spin, shows the potential to overcome this performance bottleneck. Here, we propose a novel category of magnetic logic based on diode-assisted magnetoresistance. By coupling Hall effect and nonlinear transport property in silicon, all four basic Boolean logic operations including AND, NAND, OR and NOR, can be programmed at room temperature with high output ratio in one silicon-based device. Further introducing anomalous Hall effect of magnetic material into magnetic logic, we achieve perpendicular magnetic anisotropy-based magnetic logic which combines the advantages of both high output ratio (>103 % and low work magnetic field (∼1 mT. Integrated with non-volatile magnetic memory, our logic device with unique magnetoelectric properties has the advantages of current-controlled reconfiguration, zero refresh consumption, instant-on performance and would bridge the processor-memory gap. Our findings would pave the way in magnetic logic and offer a feasible platform to build a new kind of magnetic microprocessor with potential of high performance.

  17. control of a dc motor using fuzzy logic control algorithm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    This study sought to establish the impact of a fuzzy logic controller (FLC) and a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller in the control performance of an industrial type DC motor using MATLAB. The fuzzy logic controller was developed on the basis of Mamdani type fuzzy inference system (FIS). The centroid method ...

  18. Magnetic logic based on diode-assisted magnetoresistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhaochu; Zhang, Xiaozhong

    2017-05-01

    Conventional computer suffers from the von Neumann performance bottleneck due to its hardware architecture that non-volatile memory and logic are separated. The new emerging magnetic logic coupling the extra dimension of spin, shows the potential to overcome this performance bottleneck. Here, we propose a novel category of magnetic logic based on diode-assisted magnetoresistance. By coupling Hall effect and nonlinear transport property in silicon, all four basic Boolean logic operations including AND, NAND, OR and NOR, can be programmed at room temperature with high output ratio in one silicon-based device. Further introducing anomalous Hall effect of magnetic material into magnetic logic, we achieve perpendicular magnetic anisotropy-based magnetic logic which combines the advantages of both high output ratio (>103 %) and low work magnetic field (˜1 mT). Integrated with non-volatile magnetic memory, our logic device with unique magnetoelectric properties has the advantages of current-controlled reconfiguration, zero refresh consumption, instant-on performance and would bridge the processor-memory gap. Our findings would pave the way in magnetic logic and offer a feasible platform to build a new kind of magnetic microprocessor with potential of high performance.

  19. Fuzzy logic foundations of optimal inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Averkin

    1994-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose to solve the problem of the optimal fuzzy model designing for the dynamic systems controlling, to develop new mathematical models of fuzzy inference, logical schemes of hardware support based on these models, software support, intellectual system based on these models. The proposed schemes will be able to perform an entire inference process required for real--time fuzzy control. Each scheme works independently of the number of control rules in the knowledge base. The necessary accuracy of the output results can be provided. Among the advantages of suggested architectures are: gain in memory size, simplicity in architectural decisions, fast implementation. The proposed intellectual system gives the new approaches to fuzzy logics acquisitionin the ES and FLC, based on t-norms approach. The system is supplied by cognitive graphics interface. The main functions of the system are: visualization of fuzzy logics by multi-color tables, fuzzy logics acquisition, simulation the fuzzy reasoning processes of the system, testing of fuzzy logics.

  20. Cut elimination in multifocused linear logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guenot, Nicolas; Brock-Nannestad, Taus

    2015-01-01

    We study cut elimination for a multifocused variant of full linear logic in the sequent calculus. The multifocused normal form of proofs yields problems that do not appear in a standard focused system, related to the constraints in grouping rule instances in focusing phases. We show that cut...... elimination can be performed in a sensible way even though the proof requires some specific lemmas to deal with multifocusing phases, and discuss the difficulties arising with cut elimination when considering normal forms of proofs in linear logic....

  1. Concrete Quantum Logics and Δ -Logics, States and Δ -States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hroch, Michal; Pták, Pavel

    2017-12-01

    By a concrete quantum logic (in short, by a logic) we mean the orthomodular poset that is set-representable. If L=({Ω },L) is a logic and L is closed under the formation of symmetric difference, Δ , we call L a Δ -logic. In the first part we situate the known results on logics and states to the context of Δ -logics and Δ -states (the Δ -states are the states that are subadditive with respect to the symmetric difference). Moreover, we observe that the rather prominent logic E^{ {even}}_{Ω } of all even-coeven subsets of the countable set Ω possesses only Δ -states. Then we show when a state on the logics given by the divisibility relation allows for an extension as a state. In the next paragraph we consider the so called density logic and its Δ -closure. We find that the Δ -closure coincides with the power set. Then we investigate other properties of the density logic and its factor.

  2. Subjective Perception of Sports Performance, Training, Sleep and Dietary Patterns of Malaysian Junior Muslim Athletes during Ramadan Intermittent Fasting

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Rabindarjeet; Hwa, Ooi Cheong; Roy, Jolly; Jin, Chai Wen; Ismail, Siti Musyrifah; Lan, Mohamad Faizal; Hiong, Loo Lean; Aziz, Abdul-Rashid

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine the subjective perception of daily acute fasting on sports performance, training, sleep and dietary patterns of Muslim athletes during the Ramadan month. Methods Seven hundred and thirty-four (411 male and 323 female) Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes (mean age 16.3 ± 2.6 y) participated in the survey which was designed to establish the personal perception of their sport performance, sleep pattern, food and fluid intake during Ramadan fasting. The survey was conducted ...

  3. Fuzzy Logic Controller Design for Intelligent Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Han Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fuzzy logic controller by which a robot can imitate biological behaviors such as avoiding obstacles or following walls. The proposed structure is implemented by integrating multiple ultrasonic sensors into a robot to collect data from a real-world environment. The decisions that govern the robot’s behavior and autopilot navigation are driven by a field programmable gate array- (FPGA- based fuzzy logic controller. The validity of the proposed controller was demonstrated by simulating three real-world scenarios to test the bionic behavior of a custom-built robot. The results revealed satisfactorily intelligent performance of the proposed fuzzy logic controller. The controller enabled the robot to demonstrate intelligent behaviors in complex environments. Furthermore, the robot’s bionic functions satisfied its design objectives.

  4. Fuzzy Logic for Incidence Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a mathematical framework for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects in the context of Geography, in which all entities and their relationships are described by human language. These entities could be labelled by commonly used names of landmarks, water areas, and so forth. Unlike single points that are given in Cartesian coordinates, these geographic entities are extended in space and often loosely defined, but people easily perform spatial reasoning with extended geographic objects “as if they were points.” Unfortunately, up to date, geographic information systems (GIS) miss the capability of geometric reasoning with extended objects. The aim of the paper is to present a mathematical apparatus for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects that is usable in GIS. In the paper we discuss the fuzzy logic (Aliev and Tserkovny, 2011) as a reasoning system for geometry of extended objects, as well as a basis for fuzzification of the axioms of incidence geometry. The same fuzzy logic was used for fuzzification of Euclid's first postulate. Fuzzy equivalence relation “extended lines sameness” is introduced. For its approximation we also utilize a fuzzy conditional inference, which is based on proposed fuzzy “degree of indiscernibility” and “discernibility measure” of extended points. PMID:27689133

  5. Performance Gaps between Online and Face-to-Face Courses: Differences across Types of Students and Academic Subject Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Di; Jaggars, Shanna S.

    2014-01-01

    Using a dataset containing nearly 500,000 courses taken by over 40,000 community and technical college students in Washington State, this study examines the performance gap between online and face-to-face courses and how the size of that gap differs across student subgroups and academic subject areas. While all types of students in the study…

  6. Subjective Estimates of Job Performance after Job Preview: Determinants of Anticipated Learning Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Phillip L.; Shapiro, Stacey; Beier, Margaret E.

    2011-01-01

    When people choose a particular occupation, they presumably make an implicit judgment that they will perform well on a job at some point in the future, typically after extensive education and/or on-the-job experience. Research on learning and skill acquisition has pointed to a power law of practice, where large gains in performance come early in…

  7. RCT - subjective physical performance and quality of life after a 6-month programmed sports therapy (PST) in patients with haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, B; Von Mackensen, S; Hilberg, T

    2017-01-01

    Musculoskeletal bleedings lead to limitations in the locomotor system and consequently, in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with haemophilia (PwH). Sports therapy is increasingly recommended to improve their physical performance. Until today, randomised controlled studies investigating changes in physical performance in PwH are rare. This study investigates the impact of programmed sports therapy on the subjective physical performance and the HRQoL in PwH. A randomised controlled trial (RCT) was conducted with a training intervention for over 6 months. For this purpose, 64 PwH with moderate (n = 5) or severe (n = 59) haemophilia A (n = 57) or B (n = 7) were randomised into two groups - intervention (IG) or control group (CG). The HRQoL was assessed with the SF-36 questionnaire and the disease-specific Haem-A-QoL before and after the intervention. The subjective physical performance was tested by the HEP-Test-Q. After the 6-month training intervention, PwH in the IG subjectively reported significant better 'endurance' (P = 0.000) in the HEP-Test-Q compared to the CG. In the SF-36, a significant difference in the domains 'general health perceptions' (P = 0.005) and 'mental health' (P = 0.001) was detected. The haemophilia-specific HRQoL questionnaire showed a significant improvement in the dimensions 'feeling' (P = 0.049), 'work' (P = 0.046) and 'family' (P = 0.040). In the first RCT evaluating the impact of a 6-month training intervention on the subjective perception of PwH, an increase in subjective physical performance and some domains of HRQoL was demonstrated in the IG. Specific sports therapy should be included into the comprehensive treatment under supervision and monitoring by experienced staff. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Performance of Pre-Stressed Sandwich Composites Subjected to Shock Wave Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper experimentally studies the dynamic behaviour of prestressed sandwich composites under blast loading. The in-plane static compression loadings are implemented on the sandwich composites before they are subjected to the transverse shock wave loading. Three different pre-stress levels are chosen. 3-D realtime deformation data are captured by two high-speed photography systems: a backview Digital Image Correlation (DIC system and a side-view camera system. The results show that pre-stresses can induce local buckling in the front face-sheet of sandwich composites, consequently reduce the blast resistance of sandwich composites.

  9. Logic in a dynamic brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizraji, Eduardo; Lin, Juan

    2011-02-01

    The ability of the human brain to carry out logical reasoning can be interpreted, in general, as a by-product of adaptive capacities of complex neural networks. Thus, we seek to base abstract logical operations in the general properties of neural networks designed as learning modules. We show that logical operations executable by McCulloch-Pitts binary networks can also be programmed in analog neural networks built with associative memory modules that process inputs as logical gates. These modules can interact among themselves to generate dynamical systems that extend the repertoire of logical operations. We demonstrate how the operations of the exclusive-OR or the implication appear as outputs of these interacting modules. In particular, we provide a model of the exclusive-OR that succeeds in evaluating an odd number of options (the exclusive-OR of classical logic fails in his case), thus paving the way for a more reasonable biological model of this important logical operator. We propose that a brain trained to compute can associate a complex logical operation to an orderly structured but temporary contingent episode by establishing a codified association among memory modules. This explanation offers an interpretation of complex logical processes (eventually learned) as associations of contingent events in memorized episodes. We suggest, as an example, a cognitive model that describes these "logical episodes".

  10. The Mulligan ankle taping does not affect balance performance in healthy subjects: a prospective, randomized blinded trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-la-Morena, Jose Maria Delfa; Alguacil-Diego, Isabel Maria; Molina-Rueda, Francisco; Ramiro-González, Maria; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Fernández-Carnero, Josué

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the immediate effects of Mulligan fibular taping on static and dynamic postural balance in healthy subjects using computerized dynamic posturography (CDP). [Subjects and Methods] Forty-four volunteers (26 males and 18 females) aged 21 ±2 years participated in the study. The Mulligan tape was applied by a specialist in this technique. The placebo group received a treatment with a similar tape but with several cuts to avoid the fibular repositioning effect produced by Mulligan tape. The Sensory Organization Test (SOT) and the Motor Control Test (MCT) were performed by each subject at baseline and after the interventions. Outcome measures included equilibrium and strategy scores from each trial and condition of the SOT, and speed of reaction (latency period) from the MCT. [Results] Mulligan ankle taping did not have an impact on postural control during static and dynamic balance in subjects with healthy ankles when compared with placebo taping. [Conclusion] There was no difference in, equilibrium and strategy (SOT) and speed of reaction (MCT) in any of the subjects in this study. Therefore, this study suggests that Mulligan ankle taping does not have an impact on balance in healthy subjects.

  11. Concept mapping improves academic performance in problem solving questions in biochemistry subject

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baig, Mukhtiar; Tariq, Saba; Rehman, Rehana; Ali, Sobia; Gazzaz, Zohair J

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of concept mapping (CM) on the academic performance of medical students' in problem-solving as well as in declarative knowledge questions and their perception regarding CM...

  12. Effects of Sleep Hygiene Education on Subjective Sleep Quality and Academic Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Şahin, Erkan Melih

    .... It is known that sleep quality and daytime sleepiness cause decrasing academic performans. For this reason we aimed to investigate the effects of a sleep hygiene education on sleep quality and academic performance of first year medical students...

  13. Relationship between ACE-DD polymorphism and diastolic performance in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Pietro; Cannizzaro, Sergio; Scalzo, Sebastiano; Giubilato, Alfonso; Maringhini, Giorgio; Giambanco, Francesco; Sarullo, Filippo; Tarsia, Giandomenico; Giammanco, Marco; Gaspare, Parrinello; Paterna, Salvatore

    2004-05-01

    The ACE-D allele has been associated with cardiovascular disease. The study evaluates the relationship between the ACE-ID genotypes and diastolic function in healthy subjects after 6 years of follow-up. Two hundred and seventy-five healthy volunteers aged 25-55 years had normal physical examination, 12-lead ECG, acceptable echocardiographic windows and echocardiogram at entry. Venous blood was drawn for DNA analysis. Two hundred and forty-two subjects completed 6 years of follow-up. Three genetically distinct groups were obtained: ACE-DD group (n=71, 26F/45M, mean age 48 +/- 7 years); ACE-ID (n=115, 39F/76M, mean age 40 +/- 7 years); and ACE-II (n=56, 20F/36M, mean age 47 +/- 6 years). Significant differences in E/A ratio were found between ACE-DD and ACE-ID, and ACE II (p=0.028, <0.0001, 0.0001), respectively. After 6 years, echocardiography showed a significant reduction of E/A ratio in the ACE-DD group, p=0.0001. The data suggest that ACE-DD is associated with deteriorating myocardial diastolic properties.

  14. Relation of eye dominancy with color vision discrimination performance ability in normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkıs Koçtekin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the performance of dominant eye (DE for color vision discrimination ability among the medical students with normal color vision.CONCLUSION: The color vision discrimination performance ability was found prominent for DE. This superiority was attributed to higher sensitivityof the r/g local color spectral region. We conclude that DE has priority in r/g color spectral region, probably including inhibition of NDE.

  15. Effects of Sleep Hygiene Education on Subjective Sleep Quality and Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Erkan Sahin

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Sleep problems are common in students with one third of university students reporting insufficient sleep. It is known that sleep quality and daytime sleepiness cause decrasing academic performans. For this reason we aimed to investigate the effects of a sleep hygiene education on sleep quality and academic performance of first year medical students. Material and Method: Self-reported sleep data and academic performance of 131 first grade medical students were collected. To all students e...

  16. Flupentixolhydrochloride in low dosages: effects on perceptual and psychomotor performance in emotionally stable and emotionally labile healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösler, F; Stieglitz, R D; Manzey, D

    1986-01-01

    Effects of flupentixol on performance were evaluated in a double-blind study with 107 healthy male subjects. Experimental factors were dosage (0, 1, and 2 mg Fluanxol 0.5/day), the trait variable 'neuroticism' (high vs. low score on a questionnaire scale), and time of measurement (before and after 4 days of treatment). Drug effects were measured by means of seven paper-and-pencil tests and eight apparatus tests covering the following cognitive functions: endurance in attention, spacial orientation, flexibility and speed of closure, perceptual speed, response speed, psychomotor coordination, knowledge of traffic rules, and basic motoric tempo. Univariate and multivariate ANOVAs disclosed that flupentixol has detrimental effects on perceptual and psychomotor functions, in particular when administered in a dosage of 2 mg/day. These treatment effects did not interact with the trait variable neuroticism. Nevertheless, there were substantial differences between emotionally stable and emotionally labile subjects in both absolute performance level and change of performance over time.

  17. Mismatch negativity and cognitive performance for the prediction of psychosis in subjects with at-risk mental state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Higuchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A shorter duration of untreated psychosis has been associated with better prognosis in schizophrenia. In this study, we measured the duration mismatch negativity (dMMN, an event-related potential, and cognitive performance in subjects with at-risk mental state (ARMS, patients with first-episode or chronic schizophrenia, and healthy volunteers. The main interest was to determine if these neurocognitive measures predict progression to overt schizophrenia in ARMS subjects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Seventeen ARMS subjects, meeting the criteria of the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental State, 31 schizophrenia patients (20 first-episode and 11 chronic and healthy controls (N=20 participated in the study. dMMN was measured by an auditory odd-ball paradigm at baseline. Neuropsychological performance was evaluated by the Japanese version of the Brief assessment of cognitive function of schizophrenia (BACS-J. The first-episode schizophrenia group showed significantly smaller amplitudes at frontal electrodes than did control subjects whereas chronic patients elicited smaller amplitudes at frontal and central electrodes, consistent with previous reports. During the follow-up period, 4 out of the 17 ARMS subjects transitioned to schizophrenia (converters while 13 did not (non-converters. Specifically, dMMN amplitudes of non-converters did not differ from those of healthy controls, while converters showed significantly smaller dMMN amplitudes at some electrodes compared to control subjects. Converters performed significantly worse on tests of working memory, verbal fluency, and attention/information processing than did non-converters. There was a significant positive correlation between dMMN amplitudes at the frontal electrodes and verbal fluency, as measured by the BACS, in the AMRS subjects as a whole. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ARMS subjects who later developed schizophrenia elicited smaller dMMN amplitudes to begin with, compared

  18. Comparison of the pedalling performance induced by magnetic and electrical stimulation cycle ergometry in able-bodied subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szecsi, J; Straube, A; Fornusek, C

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the mechanical power and work generated by able-bodied subjects during functional magnetic stimulation (FMS) vs. functional electrical stimulation (FES) induced ergometer training conditions. Both stimulation methods were applied at a 30 Hz frequency to the quadriceps muscles of 22 healthy able-bodied subjects to induce cycling for 4× four minutes or until exhaustion. FMS was performed via large surface, cooled coils, while FES was applied with a typical stimulation setup used for cycling. Significantly more (pstimulation induced pain and fatigue mechanisms of the neuromuscular system. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neighborhood semantics for modal many-valued logics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr; Noguera, Carles

    online 18 October 2017 (2018) ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GF15-34650L EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 689176 - SYSMICS Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) JSPS-16-08; Austrian Science Fund(AT) I1897-N25 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:67985807 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : mathematical fuzzy logic * modal fuzzy logics * neighborhood frames * Kripke semantics * many-valued logics Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UTIA-B) Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2016

  20. Classical Mathematical Logic The Semantic Foundations of Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Epstein, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    In Classical Mathematical Logic, Richard L. Epstein relates the systems of mathematical logic to their original motivations to formalize reasoning in mathematics. The book also shows how mathematical logic can be used to formalize particular systems of mathematics. It sets out the formalization not only of arithmetic, but also of group theory, field theory, and linear orderings. These lead to the formalization of the real numbers and Euclidean plane geometry. The scope and limitations of modern logic are made clear in these formalizations. The book provides detailed explanations of all proo

  1. Computability, complexity, logic

    CERN Document Server

    Börger, Egon

    1989-01-01

    The theme of this book is formed by a pair of concepts: the concept of formal language as carrier of the precise expression of meaning, facts and problems, and the concept of algorithm or calculus, i.e. a formally operating procedure for the solution of precisely described questions and problems. The book is a unified introduction to the modern theory of these concepts, to the way in which they developed first in mathematical logic and computability theory and later in automata theory, and to the theory of formal languages and complexity theory. Apart from considering the fundamental themes an

  2. Description logic rules

    CERN Document Server

    Krötzsch, M

    2010-01-01

    Ontological modelling today is applied in many areas of science and technology,including the Semantic Web. The W3C standard OWL defines one of the most important ontology languages based on the semantics of description logics. An alternative is to use rule languages in knowledge modelling, as proposed in the W3C's RIF standard. So far, it has often been unclear how to combine both technologies without sacrificing essential computational properties. This book explains this problem and presents new solutions that have recently been proposed. Extensive introductory chapters provide the necessary

  3. Adaptive parallel logic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Tony R.; Vidal, Jacques J.

    1988-01-01

    Adaptive, self-organizing concurrent systems (ASOCS) that combine self-organization with massive parallelism for such applications as adaptive logic devices, robotics, process control, and system malfunction management, are presently discussed. In ASOCS, an adaptive network composed of many simple computing elements operating in combinational and asynchronous fashion is used and problems are specified by presenting if-then rules to the system in the form of Boolean conjunctions. During data processing, which is a different operational phase from adaptation, the network acts as a parallel hardware circuit.

  4. Intuitionistic fuzzy logics

    CERN Document Server

    T Atanassov, Krassimir

    2017-01-01

    The book offers a comprehensive survey of intuitionistic fuzzy logics. By reporting on both the author’s research and others’ findings, it provides readers with a complete overview of the field and highlights key issues and open problems, thus suggesting new research directions. Starting with an introduction to the basic elements of intuitionistic fuzzy propositional calculus, it then provides a guide to the use of intuitionistic fuzzy operators and quantifiers, and lastly presents state-of-the-art applications of intuitionistic fuzzy sets. The book is a valuable reference resource for graduate students and researchers alike.

  5. Modern Logical Frameworks Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murawska, Agata Anna

    2017-01-01

    design and provide the meta-theory of two new frameworks, HyLF and Lincx. The former aims to extend the expressiveness of LF to include proof irrelevance and some user-defined behaviours, using ideas from hybrid logics. The latter is a showcase for an easier to implement framework, while also allowing...... or a cryptographic protocol used in a voting system, we need the ability to model and reason about both the building blocks of these systems and the intricate connections between them. To this end, this dissertation is an investigation into LF-based formalisms that might help address the aforementioned issues. We...

  6. Time and Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with A.N. Prior's analysis of the concepts of dynamic and static time, i.e. McTaggart's so-called A- and B-concepts. The relations and mutual dependencies between these temporal concepts are investigated, and Prior's response to McTaggart's views is discussed. Futhermore, Prior......'s notion of branching time is analysed. It is argued that Prior can be criticized for identifying 'plain future'. Finally, Prior's four grades of tense-logical involvement are introduced and discussed. It is argued that the third grade is the most attractive form a philosophical point of view....

  7. Can a multimedia tool help students' learning performance in complex biology subjects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Koseoglu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of multimedia-based biology teaching (Mbio and teacher-centered biology (TCbio instruction approaches on learners' biology achievements, as well as their views towards learning approaches. During the research process, an experimental design with two groups, TCbio (n = 22 and Mbio (n = 26, were used. The results of the study proved that the Mbio approach was more effective than the TCbio approach with regard to supporting meaningful learning, academic achievement, enjoyment and motivation. Moreover, the TCbio approach is ineffective in terms of time management, engaging attention, and the need for repetition of subjects. Additionally, the results were discussed in terms of teaching, learning, multimedia design as well as biology teaching/learning.

  8. Performances on simulator and da Vinci robot on subjects with and without surgical background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moglia, Andrea; Ferrari, Vincenzo; Melfi, Franca; Ferrari, Mauro; Mosca, Franco; Cuschieri, Alfred; Morelli, Luca

    2017-08-17

    To assess whether previous training in surgery influences performance on da Vinci Skills Simulator and da Vinci robot. In this prospective study, thirty-seven participants (11 medical students, 17 residents, and 9 attending surgeons) without previous experience in laparoscopy and robotic surgery performed 26 exercises at da Vinci Skills Simulator. Thirty-five then executed a suture using a da Vinci robot. The overall scores on the exercises at the da Vinci Skills Simulator show a similar performance among the groups with no statistically significant pair-wise differences (p robotic surgery, insignificant differences in the scores at the da Vinci Skills Simulator and at the da Vinci robot on inanimate models.

  9. Cultural performances: the zombie invasion, the death of the subject and other disorientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sainy C.B. Veloso

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers how contemporary cultural performances indicial, the worldwide proliferation of fictional theme of the zombie apocalypse, through comic books, board games, movies, games, television serials, posters, rallies. Since then, reflects the theme and looks at this set of products and actions, limited the issue: the current crisis is a crisis of guidance within a world not interpretable, as demonstrates the zombie invasion? To this end, rests on concepts of cultural performances delimiters (GOFFMAN, 2011; social drama (TURNER, 1974; culture (GEERTZ, 1989; and social crisis (JAMESON, 1997; SENNETT, 1998.

  10. Jan Dullaert of Ghent on the Foundations of Propositional Logic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanke, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2017), s. 273-306 ISSN 0042-7543 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37038G Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Jan Dullaert of Ghent * the circle of John Mair * scholastic logic * propositional logic * Bradwardine’s principle * infinite expressions Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Philosophy, History and Philosophy of science and technology

  11. Complexity of Some Language Fragments of Fuzzy Logics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haniková, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2017), s. 69-77 ISSN 1432-7643 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/11/1632 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : fuzzy logic * propositional logic * language fragment * implicational fragment * commutative semigroup * equational theory * computational complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 2.472, year: 2016

  12. Validation of a novel automatic sleep spindle detector with high performance during sleep in middle aged subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Sabrina Lyngbye; Christensen, Julie A. E.; Kempfner, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Many of the automatic sleep spindle detectors currently used to analyze sleep EEG are either validated on young subjects or not validated thoroughly. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a fast and reliable sleep spindle detector with high performance in middle aged subjects....... An automatic sleep spindle detector using a bandpass filtering approach and a time varying threshold was developed. The validation was done on sleep epochs from EEG recordings with manually scored sleep spindles from 13 healthy subjects with a mean age of 57.9 ± 9.7 years. The sleep spindle detector reached...... a mean sensitivity of 84.6 % and a mean specificity of 95.3 %. The sleep spindle detector can be used to obtain measures of spindle count and density together with quantitative measures such as the mean spindle frequency, mean spindle amplitude, and mean spindle duration....

  13. Structural Performance of a Hybrid FRP-Aluminum Modular Triangular Truss System Subjected to Various Loading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel hybrid FRP-aluminum truss system has been employed in a two-rut modular bridge superstructure composed of twin inverted triangular trusses. The actual flexural behavior of a one-rut truss has been previously investigated under the on-axis loading test; however, the structural performance of the one-rut truss subjected to an off-axis load is still not fully understood. In this paper, a geometrical linear finite element model is introduced and validated by the on-axis loading test; the structural performance of the one-rut truss subjected to off-axis load was numerically obtained; the dissimilarities of the structural performance between the two different loading cases are investigated in detail. The results indicated that (1 the structural behavior of the off-axis load differs from that of the on-axis load, and the off-axis load is the critical loading condition controlling the structural performance of the triangular truss; (2 under the off-axis load, the FRP trussed members and connectors bear certain out-of-plane bending moments and are subjected to a complicated stress state; and (3 the stress state of these members does not match that of the initial design, and optimization for the redesign of these members is needed, especially for the pretightened teeth connectors.

  14. A within-subjects comparison of learning and memory performance before and after cardiac catheterization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, B.; Derikx, R.L.; Waarde, J.A. van; Essink, G.; Rooij, I.A.L.M. van; Zitman, F.G.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of stress on the recall of neutral information in a clinical setting, a prospective study was performed on patients who were admitted to the hospital for cardiac catheterization. METHODS: During their hospital stay, 39 cardiac patients were tested for verbal

  15. Clearing the air : The effect of experimenter race on target's test performance and subjective experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marx, DM; Goff, PA

    2005-01-01

    According to stereotype threat theory (Steele, 1997), stereotyped targets under-perform on challenging tests, in part because they are worried about being viewed in terms of the negative stereotype that they are intellectually inferior. How then are the negative effects of stereotype threat reduced

  16. Executive Functions in Older Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder : Objective Performance and Subjective Complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davids, Roeliena C. D.; Groen, Yvonne; Berg, Ina J.; Tucha, Oliver M.; van Balkom, Ingrid D. C.

    Although deficits in Executive Functioning (EF) are reported frequently in young individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), they remain relatively unexplored later in life (> 50 years). We studied objective performance on EF measures (Tower of London, Zoo map, phonetic/semantic fluency) as

  17. International Differences in Subjective Performance Evaluation, Compensation and Career Dynamics in a Global Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halse, Nikolaj; Smeets, Valerie Anne Rolande; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    .S. and Asia (Japan and China). We try to understand why performance evaluation is distributed differently across countries, and how these differences affect wage growth, the size of the bonus and promotion decisions. We find that evaluations tend to be better on average at the headquarter, but also that wages...

  18. First year medical students' learning style preferences and their correlation with performance in different subjects within the medical course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Torrano, Daniel; Ali, Syed; Chan, Chee-Kai

    2017-08-08

    Students commencing their medical training arrive with different educational backgrounds and a diverse range of learning experiences. Consequently, students would have developed preferred approaches to acquiring and processing information or learning style preferences. Understanding first-year students' learning style preferences is important to success in learning. However, little is understood about how learning styles impact learning and performance across different subjects within the medical curriculum. Greater understanding of the relationship between students' learning style preferences and academic performance in specific medical subjects would be valuable. This cross-sectional study examined the learning style preferences of first-year medical students and how they differ across gender. This research also analyzed the effect of learning styles on academic performance across different subjects within a medical education program in a Central Asian university. A total of 52 students (57.7% females) from two batches of first-year medical school completed the Index of Learning Styles Questionnaire, which measures four dimensions of learning styles: sensing-intuitive; visual-verbal; active-reflective; sequential-global. First-year medical students reported preferences for visual (80.8%) and sequential (60.5%) learning styles, suggesting that these students preferred to learn through demonstrations and diagrams and in a linear and sequential way. Our results indicate that male medical students have higher preference for visual learning style over verbal, while females seemed to have a higher preference for sequential learning style over global. Significant associations were found between sensing-intuitive learning styles and performance in Genetics [β = -0.46, B = -0.44, p styles and performance in Genetics [β = 0.36, B = 0.43, p learning techniques. Instructors can also benefit by modifying and adapting more appropriate teaching approaches in these

  19. Logical Framework for Normative Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nakayama, Yasuo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I propose a new logical framework that can be used to analyze normative phenomena in general. I call this framework a Logic for Normative Systems (LNS). I also demonstrate how to solve some paradoxes of Standard Deontic Logic (SDL). A characteristic of LNS is its dynamic behavior. LNS is flexible, hence it can be applied to describe complex normative problems including ethical problems.

  20. PM 3655 PHILIPS Logic analyzer

    CERN Multimedia

    A logic analyzer is an electronic instrument that captures and displays multiple signals from a digital system or digital circuit. A logic analyzer may convert the captured data into timing diagrams, protocol decodes, state machine traces, assembly language, or may correlate assembly with source-level software. Logic Analyzers have advanced triggering capabilities, and are useful when a user needs to see the timing relationships between many signals in a digital system.

  1. Algebraic Approach to Algorithmic Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Bancerek Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    We introduce algorithmic logic - an algebraic approach according to [25]. It is done in three stages: propositional calculus, quantifier calculus with equality, and finally proper algorithmic logic. For each stage appropriate signature and theory are defined. Propositional calculus and quantifier calculus with equality are explored according to [24]. A language is introduced with language signature including free variables, substitution, and equality. Algorithmic logic requires a bialgebra st...

  2. The prefrontal model revisited: double dissociations between young sleep deprived and elderly subjects on cognitive components of performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Adrienne M; Stern, Yaakov; Basner, Robert C; Rakitin, Brian C

    2011-08-01

    The prefrontal model suggests that total sleep deprivation (TSD) and healthy aging produce parallel cognitive deficits. Here we decompose global performance on two common tasks into component measures of specific cognitive processes to pinpoint the source of impairments in elderly and young TSD participants relative to young controls and to each other. The delayed letter recognition task (DLR) was performed in 3 studies. The psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) was performed in 1 of the DLR studies and 2 additional studies. For DLR, young TSD (n=20, age=24.60 ± 0.62 years) and young control (n=17, age=24.00 ± 2.42); elderly (n=26, age=69.92 ± 1.06). For the PVT, young TSD (n=18, age=26.65 ± 4.57) and young control (n=16, age=25.19 ± 2.90); elderly (n=21, age=71.1 ± 4.92). Both elderly and young TSD subjects displayed impaired reaction time (RT), our measure of global performance, on both tasks relative to young controls. After decomposing global performance on the DLR, however, a double dissociation was observed as working memory scanning speed was impaired only in elderly subjects while other components of performance were impaired only by TSD. Similarly, for the PVT a second double dissociation was observed as vigilance impairments were present only in TSD while short-term response preparation effects were altered only in the elderly. The similarity between TSD and the elderly in impaired performance was evident only when examining global RT. In contrast, when specific cognitive components were examined double dissociations were observed between TSD and elderly subjects. This demonstrates the heterogeneity in those cognitive processes impaired in TSD versus the elderly.

  3. The impact of sleep duration and subject intelligence on declarative and motor memory performance: how much is enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Matthew A; Fishbein, William

    2009-09-01

    Recent findings clearly demonstrate that daytime naps impart substantial memory benefits compared with equivalent periods of wakefulness. Using a declarative paired associates task and a procedural motor sequence task, this study examined the effect of two lengthier durations of nocturnal sleep [either a half night (3.5 h) or a full night (7.5 h) of sleep] on over-sleep changes in memory performance. We also assessed whether subject intelligence is associated with heightened task acquisition and, more importantly, whether greater intelligence translates to greater over-sleep declarative and procedural memory enhancement. Across both tasks, we demonstrate that postsleep performance gains are nearly equivalent, regardless of whether subjects obtain a half night or a full night of sleep. Remarkably, the over-sleep memory changes observed on both tasks are very similar to findings from studies examining performance following a daytime nap. Consistent with previous research, we also observed a strong positive correlation between amount of Stage 2 sleep and motor skill performance in the full-night sleep group. This finding contrasts with a highly significant correlation between spectral power in the spindle frequency band (12-15 Hz) and motor skill enhancement only in the half-night group, suggesting that sigma power and amount of Stage 2 sleep are both important for optimal motor memory processing. While subject intelligence correlated positively with acquisition and retest performance on both tasks, it did not correlate with over-sleep changes in performance on either task, suggesting that intelligence may not be a powerful modulator of sleep's effect on memory performance.

  4. Objective vs. Subjective Evaluation of Cognitive Performance During 0.4-MPa Dives Breathing Air or Nitrox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germonpré, Peter; Balestra, Costantino; Hemelryck, Walter; Buzzacott, Peter; Lafère, Pierre

    2017-05-01

    Divers try to limit risks associated with their sport, for instance by breathing enriched air nitrox (EANx) instead of air. This double blinded, randomized trial was designed to see if the use of EANx could effectively improve cognitive performance while diving. Eight volunteers performed two no-decompression dry dives breathing air or EANx for 20 min at 0.4 MPa. Cognitive functions were assessed with a computerized test battery, including MathProc and Ptrail. Measurements were taken before the dive, upon arrival and after 15 min at depth, upon surfacing, and at 30 min postdive. After each dive subjects were asked to identify the gas they had just breathed. Identification of the breathing gas was not possible on subjective assessment alone, while cognitive assessments showed significantly better performance while breathing EANx. Before the dives, breathing air, mean time to complete the task was 1795 ms for MathProc and 1905 ms for Ptrail. When arriving at depth MathProc took 1616 ms on air and 1523 ms on EANx, and Ptrail took 1318 ms on air and and 1356 ms on EANx, followed 15 min later by significant performance inhibition while breathing air during the ascent and the postdive phase, supporting the concept of late dive/postdive impairment. The results suggest that EANx could protect against decreased neuro-cognitive performance induced by inert gas narcosis. It was not possible for blinded divers to identify which gas they were breathing and differences in postdive fatigue between air and EANx diving deserve further investigation.Germonpré P, Balestra C, Hemelryck W, Buzzacott P, Lafère P. Objective vs. subjective evaluation of cognitive performance during 0.4-MPa dives breathing air or nitrox. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(5):469-475.

  5. Optimization methods for logical inference

    CERN Document Server

    Chandru, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    Merging logic and mathematics in deductive inference-an innovative, cutting-edge approach. Optimization methods for logical inference? Absolutely, say Vijay Chandru and John Hooker, two major contributors to this rapidly expanding field. And even though ""solving logical inference problems with optimization methods may seem a bit like eating sauerkraut with chopsticks. . . it is the mathematical structure of a problem that determines whether an optimization model can help solve it, not the context in which the problem occurs."" Presenting powerful, proven optimization techniques for logic in

  6. Admissibility of logical inference rules

    CERN Document Server

    Rybakov, VV

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this book is to present the fundamental theoretical results concerning inference rules in deductive formal systems. Primary attention is focused on: admissible or permissible inference rules the derivability of the admissible inference rules the structural completeness of logics the bases for admissible and valid inference rules. There is particular emphasis on propositional non-standard logics (primary, superintuitionistic and modal logics) but general logical consequence relations and classical first-order theories are also considered. The book is basically self-contained and

  7. Algebraic Approach to Algorithmic Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bancerek Grzegorz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We introduce algorithmic logic - an algebraic approach according to [25]. It is done in three stages: propositional calculus, quantifier calculus with equality, and finally proper algorithmic logic. For each stage appropriate signature and theory are defined. Propositional calculus and quantifier calculus with equality are explored according to [24]. A language is introduced with language signature including free variables, substitution, and equality. Algorithmic logic requires a bialgebra structure which is an extension of language signature and program algebra. While-if algebra of generator set and algebraic signature is bialgebra with appropriate properties and is used as basic type of algebraic logic.

  8. Logic and Philosophy of Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    By blending historical research with current research, this collection (loosely inspired by themes from the work of Arthur Prior) demonstrates the importance of Prior's writings and helps us to gain a deeper understanding of time, its logic(s), and its language(s).......By blending historical research with current research, this collection (loosely inspired by themes from the work of Arthur Prior) demonstrates the importance of Prior's writings and helps us to gain a deeper understanding of time, its logic(s), and its language(s)....

  9. Popular lectures on mathematical logic

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Hao

    2014-01-01

    A noted logician and philosopher addresses various forms of mathematical logic, discussing both theoretical underpinnings and practical applications. Author Hao Wang surveys the central concepts and theories of the discipline in a historical and developmental context, and then focuses on the four principal domains of contemporary mathematical logic: set theory, model theory, recursion theory and constructivism, and proof theory.Topics include the place of problems in the development of theories of logic and logic's relation to computer science. Specific attention is given to Gödel's incomplete

  10. It matters how old you feel: Antecedents and performance consequences of average relative subjective age in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Florian; Raes, Anneloes M L; Bruch, Heike

    2015-09-01

    This article extends the conceptual knowledge of average relative subjective age in organizations by exploring organizational-level antecedents and consequences of employees, on average, feeling younger than their chronological age. We draw from the theories of selection-optimization-compensation and socioemotional selectivity to build a theoretical framework for relative subjective age in organizations. We hypothesize that companies in which employees, on average, perceive themselves to be younger than they actually are have a higher average individual goal accomplishment and, in turn, experience higher company performance. We further hypothesize that employees' average experience of high work-related meaning relates to a lower subjective age in organizations. In addition, we assess the role of environmental dynamism and age-inclusive human resource management as moderators in this theoretical model. Through empirically testing this model in a multisource dataset, including 107 companies with 15,164 participating employees, we received support for the hypothesized relationships. Our results contribute to current debates in the scientific literature on age and have important practical implications in light of the demographic changes faced by many companies. This research indicates to both researchers and practitioners that it is not employees' chronological age but their subjective age, a factor that can be influenced, which drives organizational performance outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Effects of Background Music on Objective and Subjective Performance Measures in an Auditory BCI

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Sijie; Allison, Brendan Z.; Kübler, Andrea; Cichocki, Andrzej; Wang, Xingyu; Jin, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have explored brain computer interface (BCI) systems based on auditory stimuli, which could help patients with visual impairments. Usability and user satisfaction are important considerations in any BCI. Although background music can influence emotion and performance in other task environments, and many users may wish to listen to music while using a BCI, auditory, and other BCIs are typically studied without background music. Some work has explored the possibility of using po...

  12. Comparison of design procedures and observed performance of bridges subjected to lateral spreading

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Benjamin J; Brandenberg, Scott J.; Stewart, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Recently developed guidelines for analyzing deep foundations in liquefiable soils are compared with the performance of a highway bridge and adjacent railroad bridge that suffered damage during the 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake in Baja California, Mexico. A span of the pile-supported railroad bridge collapsed due to movement of a pier from lateral spreading. The highway bridge, supported on drilled shafts, suffered moderate structural damage but did not collapse. An overview of the s...

  13. Subjective cognitive complaints and neuropsychological performance in former smokers with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunette, Amanda M; Holm, Kristen E; Wamboldt, Frederick S; Kozora, Elizabeth; Moser, David J; Make, Barry J; Crapo, James D; Meschede, Kimberly; Weinberger, Howard D; Moreau, Kerrie L; Bowler, Russell P; Hoth, Karin F

    2017-08-02

    This study examined the association of perceived cognitive difficulties with objective cognitive performance in former smokers. We hypothesized that greater perceived cognitive difficulties would be associated with poorer performance on objective executive and memory tasks. Participants were 95 former smokers recruited from the COPDGene study. They completed questionnaires (including the Cognitive Difficulties Scale [CDS] and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]), neuropsychological assessment, and pulmonary function testing. Pearson correlations and t-tests were conducted to examine the bivariate association of the CDS (total score and subscales for attention/concentration, praxis, delayed recall, orientation for persons, temporal orientation, and prospective memory) with each domain of objective cognitive functioning (memory recall, executive functioning/processing speed, visuospatial processing, and language). Simultaneous multiple linear regression was used to further examine all statistically significant bivariate associations. The following covariates were included in all regression models: age, sex, pack-years, premorbid functioning (WRAT-IV Reading), HADS total score, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) status (yes/no based on GOLD criteria). In regression models, greater perceived cognitive difficulties overall (using CDS total score) were associated with poorer performance on executive functioning/processing speed tasks (b = -0.07, SE = 0.03, p = .037). Greater perceived cognitive difficulties on the CDS praxis subscale were associated with poorer performance on executive functioning/processing speed tasks (b = -3.65, SE = 1.25, p = .005), memory recall tasks (b = -4.60, SE = 1.75, p = .010), and language tasks (b = -3.89, SE = 1.39, p = .006). Clinicians should be aware that cognitive complaints may be indicative of problems with the executive functioning/processing speed and memory of former smokers with

  14. Effects of the handle diameter and tip angle of chopsticks on the food-serving performance of male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S P

    1995-12-01

    The effects of chopsticks handle diameter and tip angle on the food-serving performance of pinching food, pulling food, shearing food and thrusting food, were investigated in this study. A total of 24 male subjects was tested using 12 pairs of experimental chopsticks, consisting of three types of different handle diameters and four types of different tip angles. These results indicated that chopstick handle diameter and tip angle have a significant influence on eating efficiency, and that these two variables have a significant interaction. In addition, chopstick tip diameter also had significant effects on performance at the four tasks and subjective ratings. Generally, according to the results, when the chopsticks design is presented in terms of handle diameter, tip angle and tip diameter, a pair of chopsticks with 6 mm handle diameter x 2 degrees tip angle x 4 mm tip diameter would be optimum.

  15. Medical Student Dissection of Cadavers Improves Performance on Practical Exams but not on the NBME Anatomy Subject Exam

    OpenAIRE

    Sargent Jones, Leslie; Paulman, Lance E.; Thadani, Raj; Terracio, Louis

    2009-01-01

    We have examined whether cadaver dissection by first year medical students (MIs) affected their performance in two test measures: the NBME Gross Anatomy and Embryology Subject Exam (dissection-relevant questions only), and practical exams given at the end of each major section within the course. The dissections for the entire course were divided into 18 regional dissection units and each student was assigned to dissect one third of the regional units; the other two-thirds of the material was ...

  16. Meta-Logical Reasoning in Higher-Order Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen; Schlichtkrull, Anders; Hess, Andreas Viktor

    The semantics of first-order logic (FOL) can be described in the meta-language of higher-order logic (HOL). Using HOL one can prove key properties of FOL such as soundness and completeness. Furthermore, one can prove sentences in FOL valid using the formalized FOL semantics. To aid...

  17. Functional knee brace use by non-injured subjects while performing an anaerobic capacity task: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishiraj, N; Taunton, J E; Lloyd-Smith, R; Niven, B; Regan, W; Woollard, R

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this paper was to investigate if performance was hindered in non-injured braced athletes during an anaerobic task. If performance was affected, could accommodation to wearing a knee brace occur and thus decreasing performance hindrance concern while using a functional knee brace (FKB). A 2x3 non-braced (NBr) and braced repeated measure factorial design. Five healthy athletes completed all testing. Subjects performed the Repeated High Intensity Shuttle Test (RHIST) over six days (three days NBr and three days braced). Running times were recorded each testing day to determine performance measures and percent fatigue levels while using a FKB and if accommodation to FKB use was possible. Non significant (F1,4=1.42, P=0.299) faster group mean performance time, was recorded for braced subjects relative to the non-braced condition. Although relatively faster performance levels were noted during the braced testing conditions during days 1 and 3 compared to the non-braced condition, these results were also not significant (F2,8=2.82, P=0.118). Lower percent fatigue level was recorded during all three braced days compared to non-braced days. Further, a tendency for accommodation to knee brace trend use was noted as the percentage performance difference between the two conditions had decreased by the last day of testing. Use of a knee brace did not hinder performance once accommodation to using the knee brace occurred and fatigue was not a factor while using a knee brace. Additional research, using a larger sample size and longer testing duration, is required to confirm the potential accommodation trend.

  18. Cardiopulmonary performance testing using a robotics-assisted tilt table: feasibility assessment in able-bodied subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengsuwan, J; Laubacher, M; Nef, T; Hunt, K J

    2014-01-01

    Robotics-assisted tilt table technology was introduced for early rehabilitation of neurological patients. It provides cyclical stepping movement and physiological loading of the legs. The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility of this type of device for peak cardiopulmonary performance testing using able-bodied subjects. A robotics-assisted tilt table was augmented with force sensors in the thigh cuffs and a work rate estimation algorithm. A custom visual feedback system was employed to guide the subjects' work rate and to provide real time feedback of actual work rate. Feasibility assessment focused on: (i) implementation (technical feasibility), and (ii) responsiveness (was there a measurable, high-level cardiopulmonary reaction?). For responsiveness testing, each subject carried out an incremental exercise test to the limit of functional capacity with a work rate increment of 5 W/min in female subjects and 8 W/min in males. 11 able-bodied subjects were included (9 male, 2 female; age 29.6 ± 7.1 years: mean ± SD). Resting oxygen uptake (O_{2}) was 4.6 ± 0.7 mL/min/kg and O_{2}peak was 32.4 ± 5.1 mL/min/kg; this mean O_{2}peak was 81.1% of the predicted peak value for cycle ergometry. Peak heart rate (HRpeak) was 177.5 ± 9.7 beats/min; all subjects reached at least 85% of their predicted HRpeak value. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) at O_{2}peak was 1.02 ± 0.07. Peak work rate) was 61.3 ± 15.1 W. All subjects reported a Borg CR10 value for exertion and leg fatigue of 7 or more. The robotics-assisted tilt table is deemed feasible for peak cardiopulmonary performance testing: the approach was found to be technically implementable and substantial cardiopulmonary responses were observed. Further testing in neurologically-impaired subjects is warranted.

  19. School Achievement and Performance in Chilean High Schools: The Mediating Role of Subjective Wellbeing in School-Related Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica López

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available School achievement gaps and school failure are problematic issues in Latin America, and are mainly explained by the socio-economic status (SES of the students. What schools can do to improve school achievement and reduce school failure is a critical issue, both for school management and teacher training. In this study, we present the association of individual and school-related socio-emotional variables with school achievement and performance, controlling for the effects of SES. A probabilistic sample of 4,964 students, drawn from 191 schools enrolled in year 10 in urban areas of Chile, answered questionnaires assessing subjective wellbeing, social wellbeing in school, school climate, school social wellbeing and students’ perceptions of teachers’ wellbeing. Using structural equation modeling, and controlling for SES, we modeled subjective wellbeing as a mediator of the relationship between school-related variables, such as school climate and perception of teacher’s wellbeing, and (a school achievement, and (b school performance. School achievement was computed as a product of (a the probability of passing the school year, and (b the percentage of yearly attendance at school. Data on school achievement was drawn from administrative registries from the Chilean Ministry of Education. School performance was computed as the estimated grade point average (GPA at the end of the school year, based on the students’ previous 5-year GPAs, and was also obtained through administrative data of the last 5 years. Findings reveal the mediating role of subjective wellbeing in the relationship between school-related evaluations (students’ social wellbeing at school, their perception of teachers’ wellbeing and school climate and school achievement. For school achievement, two variables were mediated (students’ social wellbeing at school and school climate. However, for school performance, no significant mediations were found. We conclude that, on the

  20. School Achievement and Performance in Chilean High Schools: The Mediating Role of Subjective Wellbeing in School-Related Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Verónica; Oyanedel, Juan C.; Bilbao, Marian; Torres, Javier; Oyarzún, Denise; Morales, Macarena; Ascorra, Paula; Carrasco, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    School achievement gaps and school failure are problematic issues in Latin America, and are mainly explained by the socio-economic status (SES) of the students. What schools can do to improve school achievement and reduce school failure is a critical issue, both for school management and teacher training. In this study, we present the association of individual and school-related socio-emotional variables with school achievement and performance, controlling for the effects of SES. A probabilistic sample of 4,964 students, drawn from 191 schools enrolled in year 10 in urban areas of Chile, answered questionnaires assessing subjective wellbeing, social wellbeing in school, school climate, school social wellbeing and students’ perceptions of teachers’ wellbeing. Using structural equation modeling, and controlling for SES, we modeled subjective wellbeing as a mediator of the relationship between school-related variables, such as school climate and perception of teacher’s wellbeing, and (a) school achievement, and (b) school performance. School achievement was computed as a product of (a) the probability of passing the school year, and (b) the percentage of yearly attendance at school. Data on school achievement was drawn from administrative registries from the Chilean Ministry of Education. School performance was computed as the estimated grade point average (GPA) at the end of the school year, based on the students’ previous 5-year GPAs, and was also obtained through administrative data of the last 5 years. Findings reveal the mediating role of subjective wellbeing in the relationship between school-related evaluations (students’ social wellbeing at school, their perception of teachers’ wellbeing and school climate) and school achievement. For school achievement, two variables were mediated (students’ social wellbeing at school and school climate). However, for school performance, no significant mediations were found. We conclude that, on the one hand

  1. School Achievement and Performance in Chilean High Schools: The Mediating Role of Subjective Wellbeing in School-Related Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Verónica; Oyanedel, Juan C; Bilbao, Marian; Torres, Javier; Oyarzún, Denise; Morales, Macarena; Ascorra, Paula; Carrasco, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    School achievement gaps and school failure are problematic issues in Latin America, and are mainly explained by the socio-economic status (SES) of the students. What schools can do to improve school achievement and reduce school failure is a critical issue, both for school management and teacher training. In this study, we present the association of individual and school-related socio-emotional variables with school achievement and performance, controlling for the effects of SES. A probabilistic sample of 4,964 students, drawn from 191 schools enrolled in year 10 in urban areas of Chile, answered questionnaires assessing subjective wellbeing, social wellbeing in school, school climate, school social wellbeing and students' perceptions of teachers' wellbeing. Using structural equation modeling, and controlling for SES, we modeled subjective wellbeing as a mediator of the relationship between school-related variables, such as school climate and perception of teacher's wellbeing, and (a) school achievement, and (b) school performance. School achievement was computed as a product of (a) the probability of passing the school year, and (b) the percentage of yearly attendance at school. Data on school achievement was drawn from administrative registries from the Chilean Ministry of Education. School performance was computed as the estimated grade point average (GPA) at the end of the school year, based on the students' previous 5-year GPAs, and was also obtained through administrative data of the last 5 years. Findings reveal the mediating role of subjective wellbeing in the relationship between school-related evaluations (students' social wellbeing at school, their perception of teachers' wellbeing and school climate) and school achievement. For school achievement, two variables were mediated (students' social wellbeing at school and school climate). However, for school performance, no significant mediations were found. We conclude that, on the one hand, after

  2. Reconfigurable logic via gate controlled domain wall trajectory in magnetic network structure

    OpenAIRE

    Murapaka, C.; P Sethi; Goolaup, S.; Lew, W. S.

    2016-01-01

    An all-magnetic logic scheme has the advantages of being non-volatile and energy efficient over the conventional transistor based logic devices. In this work, we present a reconfigurable magnetic logic device which is capable of performing all basic logic operations in a single device. The device exploits the deterministic trajectory of domain wall (DW) in ferromagnetic asymmetric branch structure for obtaining different output combinations. The programmability of the device is achieved by us...

  3. Eccentric training for shoulder abductors improves pain, function and isokinetic performance in subjects with shoulder impingement syndrome: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Paula R; Avila, Mariana A; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco; Asso, Naoe A; Hashimoto, Larissa H; Salvini, Tania F

    2012-01-01

    Conservative treatments have been proposed for people with shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS), such as strengthening of the rotator cuff and scapular muscles and stretching of the soft tissues of the shoulder. However, there is a lack of studies analyzing the effectiveness of eccentric training in the treatment of SIS. To evaluate the effects of eccentric training for shoulder abductors on pain, function, and isokinetic performance during concentric and eccentric abduction of the shoulder in subjects with SIS. Twenty subjects (7 females, 34.2 SD 10.2 years, 1.7 SD 0.1 m, 78.0 SD 16.3 kg) with unilateral SIS completed the study protocol. Bilateral isokinetic eccentric training at 60º/s for shoulder abductors was performed for six consecutive weeks, twice a week, on alternate days. For each training day, three sets of 10 repetitions were performed with a 3-minute rest period between the sets for each side. The range of motion trained was 60° (ranging from 80° to 20°). The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire was used to evaluate functional status and symptoms of the upper limbs. Peak torque, total work and acceleration time were measured during concentric and eccentric abduction of the arm at 60º/s and 180º/s using an isokinetic dynamometer. DASH scores, peak torque, total work and acceleration time improved (pshoulder abductors improves physical function of the upper limbs in subjects with SIS.

  4. Trajectories in glycemic control over time are associated with cognitive performance in elderly subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravona-Springer, Ramit; Heymann, Anthony; Schmeidler, James; Moshier, Erin; Godbold, James; Sano, Mary; Leroith, Derek; Johnson, Sterling; Preiss, Rachel; Koifman, Keren; Hoffman, Hadas; Silverman, Jeremy M; Beeri, Michal Schnaider

    2014-01-01

    To study the relationships of long-term trajectories of glycemic control with cognitive performance in cognitively normal elderly with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Subjects (n = 835) pertain to a diabetes registry (DR) established in 1998 with an average of 18 HbA1c measurements per subject, permitting identification of distinctive trajectory groups of HbA1c and examining their association with cognitive function in five domains: episodic memory, semantic categorization, attention/working memory, executive function, and overall cognition. Analyses of covariance compared cognitive function among the trajectory groups adjusting for sociodemographic, cardiovascular, diabetes-related covariates and depression. Subjects averaged 72.8 years of age. Six trajectories of HbA1c were identified, characterized by HbA1c level at entry into the DR (Higher/Lower), and trend over time (Stable/Decreasing/Increasing). Both groups with a trajectory of decreasing HbA1c levels had high HbA1c levels at entry into the DR (9.2%, 10.7%), and high, though decreasing, HbA1c levels over time. They had the worst cognitive performance, particularly in overall cognition (pperformed best in cognitive tests. Glycemic control trajectories, which better reflect chronicity of T2D than a single HbA1c measurement, predict cognitive performance. A trajectory of stable HbA1c levels over time is associated with better cognitive function.

  5. Concept mapping improves academic performance in problem solving questions in biochemistry subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mukhtiar; Tariq, Saba; Rehman, Rehana; Ali, Sobia; Gazzaz, Zohair J

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of concept mapping (CM) on the academic performance of medical students' in problem-solving as well as in declarative knowledge questions and their perception regarding CM. The present analytical and questionnaire-based study was carried out at Bahria University Medical and Dental College (BUMDC), Karachi, Pakistan. In this analytical study, students were assessed with problem-solving questions (A-type MCQs), and declarative knowledge questions (short essay questions), and 50% of the questions were from the topics learned by CM. Students also filled a 10-item, 3-point Likert scale questionnaire about their perception regarding the effectiveness of the CM approach, and two open-ended questions were also asked. There was a significant difference in the marks obtained in those problem-solving questions, which were learned by CM as compared to those topics which were taught by the traditional lectures (pstudents' perception regarding CM showed that majority of the students perceive that CM is a helpful technique and it is enjoyed by the students. In open-ended questions, the majority of the students commented positively about the effectiveness of CM. Our results indicate that CM improves academic performance in problem solving but not in declarative knowledge questions. Students' perception about the effectiveness of CM was overwhelmingly positive.

  6. Concept mapping improves academic performance in problem solving questions in biochemistry subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mukhtiar; Tariq, Saba; Rehman, Rehana; Ali, Sobia; Gazzaz, Zohair J

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of concept mapping (CM) on the academic performance of medical students’ in problem-solving as well as in declarative knowledge questions and their perception regarding CM. Methods: The present analytical and questionnaire-based study was carried out at Bahria University Medical and Dental College (BUMDC), Karachi, Pakistan. In this analytical study, students were assessed with problem-solving questions (A-type MCQs), and declarative knowledge questions (short essay questions), and 50% of the questions were from the topics learned by CM. Students also filled a 10-item, 3-point Likert scale questionnaire about their perception regarding the effectiveness of the CM approach, and two open-ended questions were also asked. Results: There was a significant difference in the marks obtained in those problem-solving questions, which were learned by CM as compared to those topics which were taught by the traditional lectures (p<0.001), while no significant difference was observed in marks in declarative knowledge questions (p=0.704). Analysis of students’ perception regarding CM showed that majority of the students perceive that CM is a helpful technique and it is enjoyed by the students. In open-ended questions, the majority of the students commented positively about the effectiveness of CM. Conclusion: Our results indicate that CM improves academic performance in problem solving but not in declarative knowledge questions. Students’ perception about the effectiveness of CM was overwhelmingly positive. PMID:27648017

  7. Performance of dairy cattle subjected to different food strategies during the growing and finishing phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcondes Dias de Freitas Neto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the crossbreed animals, in feedlot, previously fed with different supplemented energetic systems and Brachiaria brizantha pasture. The treatments were: TAA – high level intake of energy during the growing and finishing phases; TAM – high intake of energy during the growing phase and medium intake of energy during of the finishing phase; TMA – medium intake of energy during growing phase and high intake of energy during finishing phase; TMM – medium intake of energy during the growing and finishing phases. During the growth phase the animals received supplementation of 1.0% and 0.5% body weight of animals. In the finishing phase, the animals were fed diets containing 50% of concentrate (medium intake of energy, TDN = 71% or 80% of concentrate (high intake of energy, TDN = 80% in the dry matter of the total diet. The animals of the TAA and TAM treatments had higher average body weight at the beginning of feedlot due to that achieved average slaughter weights of 42 and 21 days less than the other treatments. The animals of the TAA and TAM treatments were more dry matter intake (P 0.05 between treatments for these measures at the end of the termination. The high level of energy supplementation during the growing phase allowed animals to a greater initial weight input in confinement, and consequently, the best performance.

  8. Artificial gait in complete spinal cord injured subjects: how to assess clinical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Rocha Pithon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective Adapt the 6 minutes walking test (6MWT to artificial gait in complete spinal cord injured (SCI patients aided by neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Method Nine male individuals with paraplegia (AIS A participated in this study. Lesion levels varied between T4 and T12 and time post injured from 4 to 13 years. Patients performed 6MWT 1 and 6MWT 2. They used neuromuscular electrical stimulation, and were aided by a walker. The differences between two 6MWT were assessed by using a paired t test. Multiple r-squared was also calculated. Results The 6MWT 1 and 6MWT 2 were not statistically different for heart rate, distance, mean speed and blood pressure. Multiple r-squared (r2 = 0.96 explained 96% of the variation in the distance walked. Conclusion The use of 6MWT in artificial gait towards assessing exercise walking capacity is reproducible and easy to apply. It can be used to assess SCI artificial gait clinical performance.

  9. Optimized 4-bit Quantum Reversible Arithmetic Logic Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyoub, Slimani; Achour, Benslama

    2017-08-01

    Reversible logic has received a great attention in the recent years due to its ability to reduce the power dissipation. The main purposes of designing reversible logic are to decrease quantum cost, depth of the circuits and the number of garbage outputs. The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is an important part of central processing unit (CPU) as the execution unit. This paper presents a complete design of a new reversible arithmetic logic unit (ALU) that can be part of a programmable reversible computing device such as a quantum computer. The proposed ALU based on a reversible low power control unit and small performance parameters full adder named double Peres gates. The presented ALU can produce the largest number (28) of arithmetic and logic functions and have the smallest number of quantum cost and delay compared with existing designs.

  10. A noise-assisted reprogrammable nanomechanical logic gate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Diego N; Bulsara, Adi R; Ditto, William L; Sinha, Sudeshna; Murali, K; Mohanty, P

    2010-04-14

    We present a nanomechanical device, operating as a reprogrammable logic gate, and performing fundamental logic functions such as AND/OR and NAND/NOR. The logic function can be programmed (e.g., from AND to OR) dynamically, by adjusting the resonator's operating parameters. The device can access one of two stable steady states, according to a specific logic function; this operation is mediated by the noise floor which can be directly adjusted, or dynamically "tuned" via an adjustment of the underlying nonlinearity of the resonator, i.e., it is not necessary to have direct control over the noise floor. The demonstration of this reprogrammable nanomechanical logic gate affords a path to the practical realization of a new generation of mechanical computers.

  11. Categorical Abstract Algebraic Logic: Meet-Combination of Logical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Voutsadakis

    2013-01-01

    properties inherited by the resulting combinations. One of the oldest such methods is fibring. In fibring the shared connectives of the combined logics inherit properties from both component logical systems, and this leads often to inconsistencies. To deal with such undesired effects, Sernadas et al. (2011, 2012 have recently introduced a novel way of combining logics, called meet-combination, in which the combined connectives share only the common logical properties they enjoy in the component systems. In their investigations they provide a sound and concretely complete calculus for the meet-combination based on available sound and complete calculi for the component systems. In this work, an effort is made to abstract those results to a categorical level amenable to categorical abstract algebraic logic techniques.

  12. Towards an arithmetical logic the arithmetical foundations of logic

    CERN Document Server

    Gauthier, Yvon

    2015-01-01

    This book offers an original contribution to the foundations of logic and mathematics, and focuses on the internal logic of mathematical theories, from arithmetic or number theory to algebraic geometry. Arithmetical logic is the term used to refer to the internal logic of classical arithmetic, here called Fermat-Kronecker arithmetic, and combines Fermat’s method of infinite descent with Kronecker’s general arithmetic of homogeneous polynomials. The book also includes a treatment of theories in physics and mathematical physics to underscore the role of arithmetic from a constructivist viewpoint. The scope of the work intertwines historical, mathematical, logical and philosophical dimensions in a unified critical perspective; as such, it will appeal to a broad readership from mathematicians to logicians, to philosophers interested in foundational questions. Researchers and graduate students in the fields of philosophy and mathematics will benefit from the author’s critical approach to the foundations of l...

  13. Finite state machine logic synthesis for complex programmable logic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Czerwinski, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This book is a monograph devoted to logic synthesis and optimization for CPLDs. CPLDs' macrocell can also be interpreted as programmable AND-fixed OR structure, well known as PAL-based structure. The question is: what should be done when the number of implicants representing function exceeds the number of product terms available in a logic block. The answer is ... in the book. Logic synthesis and optimization methods dedicated for PAL-based structures are proposed. The methods strive to find the optimum fit for the combinational logic and finite state machines to the structure of the logic device and aim at area and speed optimization. The theoretical background and complete strategies are richly illustrated with examples and figures.

  14. Interaction between physiological and subjective states predicts the effect of a judging panel on the postures of cellists in performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi eEndo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of a panel of judges on the movements and postures of cellists in performance. 24 expert cellists played a short piece of music, to a metronome beat, in the presence and absence of the panel. Kinematic analyses showed that in the presence of the panel the temporal execution of left arm shifting movements became less variable and closer to the metronome beat. In contrast, the panel's presence had no reliable effect on their spatial accuracy. A detailed postural analysis indicated that left elbow angle during execution of a given high note was correlated with level of heart rate, though the nature of this correlation was systematically affected by the relevant participant's subjective state: if anxious, a higher heart rate correlated with a more flexed elbow, if not anxious then with a more extended elbow. Our results suggest a change in physiological state alone does not reliably predict a change in behaviour in performing cellists, which instead depends on the interaction between physiological state and subjective experience of anxiety. This highlights a need to distinguish performance anxiety from physiological arousal, to which end we advocate currency for the specific term performance arousal to describe heightened physiological activity in a performer.

  15. Fuzzy Logic Particle Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    A new all-electronic Particle Image Velocimetry technique that can efficiently map high speed gas flows has been developed in-house at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Particle Image Velocimetry is an optical technique for measuring the instantaneous two component velocity field across a planar region of a seeded flow field. A pulsed laser light sheet is used to illuminate the seed particles entrained in the flow field at two instances in time. One or more charged coupled device (CCD) cameras can be used to record the instantaneous positions of particles. Using the time between light sheet pulses and determining either the individual particle displacements or the average displacement of particles over a small subregion of the recorded image enables the calculation of the fluid velocity. Fuzzy logic minimizes the required operator intervention in identifying particles and computing velocity. Using two cameras that have the same view of the illumination plane yields two single exposure image frames. Two competing techniques that yield unambiguous velocity vector direction information have been widely used for reducing the single-exposure, multiple image frame data: (1) cross-correlation and (2) particle tracking. Correlation techniques yield averaged velocity estimates over subregions of the flow, whereas particle tracking techniques give individual particle velocity estimates. For the correlation technique, the correlation peak corresponding to the average displacement of particles across the subregion must be identified. Noise on the images and particle dropout result in misidentification of the true correlation peak. The subsequent velocity vector maps contain spurious vectors where the displacement peaks have been improperly identified. Typically these spurious vectors are replaced by a weighted average of the neighboring vectors, thereby decreasing the independence of the measurements. In this work, fuzzy logic techniques are used to determine the true

  16. An adaptive guidance logic for an aeroasisted orbital transfer vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, O.

    1984-01-01

    The Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) is to be employed for the delivery of a paylod to a high earth orbit, such as a geosynchronous orbit. Subsequently, the OTV is to return to a low earth parking orbit. The present investigation is concerned with an aeroassisted OTV (AOTV) which achieves the required reduction in velocity on its return to the parking orbit through aerodynamic braking. An adaptive guidance logic is employed to control and AOTV as it passes through the earth's upper atmosphere. Attention is given to details regarding the adaptive guidance logic, and a performance evaluation. It is found that the performance of the adaptive guidance logic is satisfactory for the considered conditions.

  17. RADIATION PERFORMANCE OF GAN AND INAS/GAAS QUANTUM DOT BASED DEVICES SUBJECTED TO NEUTRON RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiyauddin Ahmad Fauzi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In addition to their useful optoelectronics functions, gallium nitride (GaN and quantum dots (QDs based structures are also known for their radiation hardness properties. With demands on such semiconductor material structures, it is important to investigate the differences in reliability and radiation hardness properties of these two devices. For this purpose, three sets of GaN light-emitting diode (LED and InAs/GaAs dot-in-a well (DWELL samples were irradiated with thermal neutron of fluence ranging from 3×1013 to 6×1014 neutron/cm2 in PUSPATI TRIGA research reactor. The radiation performances for each device were evaluated based on the current-voltage (I-V and capacitance-voltage (C-V electrical characterisation method. Results suggested that the GaN based sample is less susceptible to electrical changes due to the thermal neutron radiation effects compared to the QD based sample.

  18. Performance of asphaltic concrete incorporating styrene butadiene rubber subjected to varying aging condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Faisal Mohammed; Jaya, Ramadhansyah Putra; Mohamed, Azman; Hassan, Norhidayah Abdul; Rosni, Nurul Najihah Mad; Mohamed, Abdullahi Ali; Agussabti

    2017-12-01

    The influence of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) on asphaltic concrete properties at different aging conditions was presented in this study. These aging conditions were named as un-aged, short-term, and long-term aging. The conventional asphalt binder of penetration grade 60/70 was used in this work. Four different levels of SBR addition were employed (i.e., 0 %, 1 %, 3 %, and 5 % by binder weight). Asphalt concrete mixes were prepared at selected optimum asphalt content (5 %). The performance was evaluated based on Marshall Stability, resilient modulus, and dynamic creep tests. Results indicated the improving stability and permanent deformation characteristics that the mixes modified with SBR polymer have under aging conditions. The result also showed that the stability, resilient modulus, and dynamic creep tests have the highest rates compared to the short-term aging and un-aged samples. Thus, the use of 5 % SBR can produce more durable asphalt concrete mixtures with better serviceability.

  19. Logical entropy of quantum dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimzadeh Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the concepts of logical entropy and conditional logical entropy of hnite partitions on a quantum logic. Some of their ergodic properties are presented. Also logical entropy of a quantum dynamical system is dehned and ergodic properties of dynamical systems on a quantum logic are investigated. Finally, the version of Kolmogorov-Sinai theorem is proved.

  20. Questions and dependency in intuitionistic logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciardelli, Ivano; Iemhoff, Rosalie; Yang, Fan

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the logic of questions and dependencies has been investigated in the closely related frameworks of inquisitive logic and dependence logic. These investigations have assumed classical logic as the background logic of statements, and added formulas expressing questions and

  1. Reversible logic gates on Physarum Polycephalum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, Andrew [University of Information Technology and Management, Sucharskiego 2, Rzeszow, 35-225 (Poland)

    2015-03-10

    In this paper, we consider possibilities how to implement asynchronous sequential logic gates and quantum-style reversible logic gates on Physarum polycephalum motions. We show that in asynchronous sequential logic gates we can erase information because of uncertainty in the direction of plasmodium propagation. Therefore quantum-style reversible logic gates are more preferable for designing logic circuits on Physarum polycephalum.

  2. Conventions and Institutional Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westenholz, Ann

    Two theoretical approaches – Conventions and Institutional Logics – are brought together and the similarities and differences between the two are explored. It is not the intention to combine the approaches, but I would like to open both ‘boxes’ and make them available to each other with the purpose...... of creating a space for dialog. Both approaches were developed in the mid-1980s as a reaction to rational-choice economic theory and collectivistic sociological theory. These two theories were oversimplifying social life as being founded either in actor-micro level analyses or in structure-macro level...... by overcoming traditional micro-macro and actor-structure dimensions. However, they have also achieved this in different ways and I ask if there is a benefit to ‘importing’ some of these differences into the other approach....

  3. Bisimulations, games, and logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Clausen, Christian

    1994-01-01

    In a recent paper by Joyal, Nielsen, and Winskel, bisimulation is defined in an abstract and uniform way across a wide range of different models for concurrency. In this paper, following a recent trend in theoretical computer science, we characterize their abstract definition game-theoretically a......In a recent paper by Joyal, Nielsen, and Winskel, bisimulation is defined in an abstract and uniform way across a wide range of different models for concurrency. In this paper, following a recent trend in theoretical computer science, we characterize their abstract definition game......-theoretically and logically in a non-interleaving model. Our characterizations appear as surprisingly simple extensions of corresponding characterizations of interleaving bisimulation....

  4. A Logical Process Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the Logical Process Calculus (LPC), a formalism that supports heterogeneous system specifications containing both operational and declarative subspecifications. Syntactically, LPC extends Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems with operators from the alternation-free linear-time mu-calculus (LT(mu)). Semantically, LPC is equipped with a behavioral preorder that generalizes Hennessy's and DeNicola's must-testing preorder as well as LT(mu's) satisfaction relation, while being compositional for all LPC operators. From a technical point of view, the new calculus is distinguished by the inclusion of: (1) both minimal and maximal fixed-point operators and (2) an unimple-mentability predicate on process terms, which tags inconsistent specifications. The utility of LPC is demonstrated by means of an example highlighting the benefits of heterogeneous system specification.

  5. Effects of team-based learning on perceived teamwork and academic performance in a health assessment subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung-Ran; Kim, Chun-Ja; Park, Jee-Won; Park, Eunyoung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of team-based learning (a well-recognized learning and teaching strategy), applied in a health assessment subject, on nursing students' perceived teamwork (team-efficacy and team skills) and academic performance (individual and team readiness assurance tests, and examination scores). A prospective, one-group, pre- and post-test design enrolled a convenience sample of 74 second-year nursing students at a university in Suwon, Korea. Team-based learning was applied in a 2-credit health assessment subject over a 16-week semester. All students received written material one week before each class for readiness preparation. After administering individual- and team-readiness assurance tests consecutively, the subject instructor gave immediate feedback and delivered a mini-lecture to the students. Finally, students carried out skill based application exercises. The findings showed significant improvements in the mean scores of students' perceived teamwork after the introduction of team-based learning. In addition, team-efficacy was associated with team-adaptability skills and team-interpersonal skills. Regarding academic performance, team readiness assurance tests were significantly higher than individual readiness assurance tests over time. Individual readiness assurance tests were significantly related with examination scores, while team readiness assurance tests were correlated with team-efficacy and team-interpersonal skills. The application of team-based learning in a health assessment subject can enhance students' perceived teamwork and academic performance. This finding suggests that team-based learning may be an effective learning and teaching strategy for improving team-work of nursing students, who need to collaborate and effectively communicate with health care providers to improve patients' health.

  6. The effect of subjective awareness measures on performance in artificial grammar learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanchei, Ivan I; Moroshkina, Nadezhda V

    2018-01-01

    Systematic research into implicit learning requires well-developed awareness-measurement techniques. Recently, trial-by-trial measures have been widely used. However, they can increase complexity of a study because they are an additional experimental variable. We tested the effects of these measures on performance in artificial grammar learning study. Four groups of participants were assigned to different awareness measures conditions: confidence ratings, post-decision wagering, decision strategy attribution or none. Decision-strategy-attribution participants demonstrated better grammar learning and longer response times compared to controls. They also exhibited a conservative bias. Grammaticality by itself was a stronger predictor of strings endorsement in decision-strategy-attribution group compared to other groups. Confidence ratings and post-decision wagering only affected the response times. These results were supported by an additional experiment that used a balanced chunk strength design. We conclude that a decision-strategy-attribution procedure may force participants to adopt an analytical decision-making strategy and rely mostly on conscious knowledge of artificial grammar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. PERFORMANCE-RELIABILITY – THE MAIN SUBJECT OF THE BANKING ANALYSIS OF THE CREDITED SOCIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AVRAM (BOITOŞ CAMELIA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the crediting activity occupies the primary role in any banking institution, the necessity of study and its analysis is required by following some steps both at a microeconomic level and at a macroeconomic one. Going over the theme, which aims at the importance of a thorough study of the clients' reliability for highlighting the existing risks in the banking activity in general, and particularly in the crediting activity, becomes as more interesting as their approach at the level of the member states of the European Union tends towards a common theme. Starting from these premises, we have considered as being extremely important the selection of a research theme which aims at the risks in the crediting activity, emphasizing the analysis of the clients' reliability both in the decision of crediting in order to assume the risk of credit and in determining the financial and banking performances. Being given the complexity of the existing risks in the banking activity in general and particularly of the credit risk, the clients' reliability represents an extremely important field, of research and application, bearing in mind both the actual stage of developing the Romanian banking system and the attempts of its alignment to the requirements imposed by the European Union.

  8. Performance Evaluation of Submerged Floating Tunnel Subjected to Hydrodynamic and Seismic Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naik Muhammad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Submerged floating tunnels (SFTs are innovative structural solutions to waterway crossings, such as sea-straits, fjords and lakes. As the width and depth of straits increase, the conventional structures such as cable-supported bridges, underground tunnels or immersed tunnels become uneconomical alternatives. For the realization of SFT, the structural response under extreme environmental conditions needs to be evaluated properly. This study evaluates the displacements and internal forces of SFT under hydrodynamic and three-dimensional seismic excitations to check the global performance of an SFT in order to conclude on the optimum design. The formulations incorporate modeling of ocean waves, currents and mooring cables. The SFT responses were evaluated using three different mooring cable arrangements to determine the stability of the mooring configuration, and the most promising configuration was then used for further investigations. A comparison of static, hydrodynamic and seismic response envelope curves of the SFT is provided to determine the dominant structural response. The study produces useful conclusions regarding the structural behavior of the SFT using a three-dimensional numerical model.

  9. Electromechanical performance of induction motor/drive systems subjected to voltage sags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunaboylu, Serdar N.

    Induction Motors are workhorses for many industries. They are extensively utilized in industrial variable-frequency drive (VFD) or adjustable-speed drive (ASD) applications as well as constant speed applications. Recent advances in power electronics have made AC motor drives an economically viable solution for ASD applications traditionally dominated by dc motor drives. In this study, electromechanical performance variables of an Induction Motor (IM) have been studied during the balanced voltage sags. For this purpose a laboratory prototype of an industrial mixer has been designed. IM has been coupled to a speed reducer that is worm gear type with a ratio 10 to 1. Then the reducer is vertically coupled to a food process mixer within a metal canister. The mixer represents a high friction load with practically zero inertia. Voltage, current, speed, and power measurements have been collected and compared with the simulation results from Simnon. An open-loop control Volts per Hertz boost strategy has been used in order to compensate the speed loss during the three-phase balanced voltage sags. Both compensated and uncompensated cases have been run and compared with simulation results. Results are verified with a reasonably good agreement that the total system modeling is successful and boost compensation circuit is effective.

  10. Assessment of Mechanical Properties and Damage of High Performance Concrete Subjected to Magnesium Sulfate Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Cang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfate attack is one of the most important problems affecting concrete structures, especially magnesium sulfate attack. This paper presents an investigation on the mechanical properties and damage evolution of high performance concrete (HPC with different contents of fly ash exposure to magnesium sulfate environment. The microstructure, porosity, mass loss, dimensional variation, compressive strength, and splitting tensile strength of HPC were investigated at various erosion times up to 392 days. The ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV propagation in HPC at different erosion time was determined by using ultrasonic testing technique. A relationship between damage and UPV of HPC was derived according to damage mechanics, and a correlation between the damage of HPC and erosion time was obtained eventually. The results indicated that (1 the average increasing amplitude of porosity for HPCs was 34.01% before and after exposure to magnesium sulfate solution; (2 the damage evolution of HPCs under sulfate attack could be described by an exponential fitting; (3 HPC containing 20% fly ash had the strongest resistance to magnesium sulfate attack.

  11. Japanese Logic Puzzles and Proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanko, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of proof does not start in a high school geometry course. Rather, attention to logical reasoning throughout a student's school experience can help the development of proof readiness. In the spirit of problem solving, the author has begun to use some Japanese logic puzzles other than sudoku to help students develop additional…

  12. Logic and Philosophy of Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    By blending historical research with current research, this collection (loosely inspired by themes from the work of Arthur Prior) demonstrates the importance of Prior's writings and helps us to gain a deeper understanding of time, its logic(s), and its language(s)....

  13. Propositional inquisitive logic: a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivano Ciardelli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a concise survey of a body of recent work on propositional inquisitive logic. We review the conceptual foundations of inquisitive semantics, introduce the propositional system, discuss its relations with classical, intuitionistic, and dependence logic, and describe an important feature of inquisitive proofs.

  14. Contextual Validity in Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid tense logic is an extension of Priorean tense logic in which it is possible to refer to times using special propositional sym- bols called nominals. Temporal indexicals are expressions such as now, yesterday, today, tomorrow and four days ago that have highly context- dependent interpretat...

  15. Public communication in justification logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renne, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Justification Logic is a framework for reasoning about evidence and justification in multi-agent systems. Most accounts of Justification Logic are essentially static, in that the (justified) beliefs of agents are immutable. In this article, we add public communication, a dynamic operation of belief

  16. Methods in Logic Based Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Georg Kronborg

    1999-01-01

    Desing and theory of Logic Based Control systems.Boolean Algebra, Karnaugh Map, Quine McClusky's algorithm. Sequential control design. Logic Based Control Method, Cascade Control Method. Implementation techniques: relay, pneumatic, TTL/CMOS,PAL and PLC- and Soft_PLC implementation. PLC...

  17. Dynamic Logics of Belief Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, J.; Smets, S.; van Ditmarsch, H.; Halpern, J.; van der Hoek, W.; Kooi, B.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of current dynamic logics that describe belief update and revision, both for single agents and in multi-agent settings. We employ a mixture of ideas from AGM belief revision theory and dynamic-epistemic logics of information-driven agency. After describing the basic

  18. Differences in performance on the functional movement screen between chronic low back pain patients and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Min-Joo; Noh, Kyung-Hee; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] Differences in scores on the Functional Movement Screen between patients with chronic lower back pain and healthy control subjects were investigated. [Subjects and Methods] In all, 20 chronic lower back pain patients and 20 healthy control subjects were recruited. Chronic lower back pain patients and healthy controls performed the Functional Movement Screen (deep squat, hurdle step, inline lunge, shoulder mobility, active straight leg raise, trunk stability pushup, and rotary stability). The Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze differences in Functional Movement Screen scores between the two groups. [Results] Chronic lower back pain patients scored lower on the Functional Movement Screen total composite compared with healthy control subjects. Chronic lower back pain patients scored lower on Functional Movement Screen subtests including the deep squat, hurdle step, active straight leg raise, and rotary stability tests. [Conclusion] The deep squat, hurdle step, active straight leg raise, and rotary stability tasks of the Functional Movement Screen can be recommended as a functional assessment tools to identify functional deficits in chronic lower back pain patients.

  19. Quantification of intestinal bacteria, operating cost and performance of fingerlings Nile tilapia subjected to probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Garcia-Marengoni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of microorganisms of the genus Bacillus in aquaculture is a nutritional management practice that is rapidly expanding in regions with intensive fish farming. This study aimed to quantify the total bacteria and total coliforms from the intestinal microbiota and estimate the partial operating costs and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus of the GIFT strain. A total of 1,200 post-larvae (24.7 ± 0.50 mg were distributed into 24 aquaria (0.03-m³ capacity within a completely randomized design in 2 x 3 factorial (phase x bacteria, with four replications. Each aquarium, containing 50 post-larvae (sex reversal phase or 30 fish (fingerlings phase, it was considered to be an experimental unit, consisting of three treatments (diet+Bacillus subtilis C-3102, diet+Bacillus cereus var. toyoi and diet without probiotic addition. The quantification of the total bacteria and total coliforms of the intestinal microbiota of tilapia were influenced (P 0.05 by adding probiotics in the diets and no effect of the interaction between phase and bacteria was observed. The weight gain, average daily weight gain, specific growth rate and apparent feed conversion were not affected (P > 0.05 by inclusion of probiotics as part of the diets. The inclusion of B. subtilis and B. cereus as part of diets for Nile tilapia promotes intestinal colonization and improves the survival rate without negatively influencing the feed intake, total biomass, gross revenue and partial operating costs and net revenue. Therefore it recommends the use of these probiotics to growth of tilapia fingerlings Nile, GIFT strain.

  20. Cognitive performance and the thymus among HIV-infected subjects receiving HAART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J Miguez-Burbano

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Maria J Miguez-Burbano1, John E Lewis2, Jose Moreno3, Joel Fishman41Robert Stempel School of Public Health & School of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 3Department of Medicine, 4Department of Radiology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USAObjective: To evaluate the impact of alcohol use, which is widespread in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV+ individuals, on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART-associated immune and cognitive improvements and the relationship between those two responses.Methods: In a case-control longitudinal study, thymic volume, cognition, and immune responses were evaluated at baseline and after 6 months therapy in HIV+ and HIV- controls. Cognitive performance was evaluated using the HIV Dementia Score (HDS and the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT.Results: Prior to HAART, thymic volume varied considerably from 2.7 to 29.3 cm3 (11 ± 7.2 cm3. Thymic volume at baseline showed a significantly inverse correlation with the patient’s number of years of drinking (r2 = 0.207; p < 0.01, as well as HDS and the CVLT scores in both HIV-infected (r2 = 0.37, p = 0.03 and noninfected (r2 = 0.8, p = 0.01. HIV-infected individuals with a small thymic volume scored in the demented range, as compared with those with a larger thymus (7 ± 2.7 vs. 12 ± 2.3, p = 0.005. After HAART, light/moderate drinkers exhibited thymus size twice that of heavy drinkers (14.8 ± 10.4 vs. 6.9 ± 3.3 cm3.Conclusions: HAART-associated increases of thymus volume appear to be negatively affected by alcohol consumption and significantly related to their cognitive status. This result could have important clinical implications.Keywords: thymus, CNS, immune, alcohol

  1. Lectures on Logic and Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The European Summer School in Logic, Language and Information (ESSLLI) is organized every year by the Association for Logic, Language and Information (FoLLI) in different sites around Europe. The main focus of ESSLLI is on the interface between linguistics, logic and computation. ESSLLI offers...... foundational, introductory and advanced courses, as well as workshops, covering a wide variety of topics within the three areas of interest: Language and Computation, Language and Logic, and Logic and Computation. During two weeks, around 50 courses and 10 workshops are offered to the attendants, each of 1...... and selected. The papers are organized in topical sections on computational complexity, multi-agant systems, natural language processing, strategies in games and formal semantics....

  2. Impossible Worlds and Logical Omniscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring, Jens Christian Krarup

    2013-01-01

    , and considerably less investigated challenge is to ensure that the resulting modal space can also be used to model moderately ideal agents that are not logically omniscient but nevertheless logically competent. Intuitively, while such agents may fail to rule out subtly impossible worlds that verify complex logical...... falsehoods, they are nevertheless able to rule out blatantly impossible worlds that verify obvious logical falsehoods. To model moderately ideal agents, I argue, the job is to construct a modal space that contains only possible and non-trivially impossible worlds where it is not the case that “anything goes......”. But I prove that it is impossible to develop an impossible-world framework that can do this job and that satisfies certain standard conditions. Effectively, I show that attempts to model moderately ideal agents in a world-involving framework collapse to modeling either logical omniscient agents...

  3. Zalta on Unnecessary Logical Truths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Hojati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available According to a traditional view all logical truths are necessary however, this thesis recently has been faced with various critiques from different points of view. Introducing some logical operators, David Kaplan and Edward Zalta claim that there are logical truths regarding common definition ‒ that are not necessary. William Hanson objects Zalta's examples believing that they rely on unjustified presuppositions especially he does not accept real world validity as a proper notion for presenting logical truth. Nelson and Zalta reply to his objections claiming that they have unacceptable grounds. In this paper, we introduce logical truths, then present Kaplan's and Zalta's examples and explore Hanson's objections together with their replies. At last we try to show the metaphysical roots of the debates.

  4. Quantitative performance of E-Scribe warehouse in detecting quality issues with digital annotated ECG data from healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapa, Nenad; Mortara, Justin L; Brown, Barry D; Isola, Lamberto; Badilini, Fabio

    2008-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration recommends submission of digital electrocardiograms in the standard HL7 XML format into the electrocardiogram warehouse to support preapproval review of new drug applications. The Food and Drug Administration scrutinizes electrocardiogram quality by viewing the annotated waveforms and scoring electrocardiogram quality by the warehouse algorithms. Part of the Food and Drug Administration warehouse is commercially available to sponsors as the E-Scribe Warehouse. The authors tested the performance of E-Scribe Warehouse algorithms by quantifying electrocardiogram acquisition quality, adherence to QT annotation protocol, and T-wave signal strength in 2 data sets: "reference" (104 digital electrocardiograms from a phase I study with sotalol in 26 healthy subjects with QT annotations by computer-assisted manual adjustment) and "test" (the same electrocardiograms with an intentionally introduced predefined number of quality issues). The E-Scribe Warehouse correctly detected differences between the 2 sets expected from the number and pattern of errors in the "test" set (except for 1 subject with QT misannotated in different leads of serial electrocardiograms) and confirmed the absence of differences where none was expected. E-Scribe Warehouse scores below the threshold value identified individual electrocardiograms with questionable T-wave signal strength. The E-Scribe Warehouse showed satisfactory performance in detecting electrocardiogram quality issues that may impair reliability of QTc assessment in clinical trials in healthy subjects.

  5. Construction of a fuzzy and all Boolean logic gates based on DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Zadegan, Reza; Jepsen, Mette D E; Hildebrandt, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    DNA locks on one DNA origami box structure enabled fuzzy logical operation that allows biosensing of complex molecular signals. Integrating logic gates with DNA origami systems opens a vast avenue to applications in the fields of nanomedicine for diagnostics and therapeutics.......Logic gates are devices that can perform logical operations by transforming a set of inputs into a predictable single detectable output. The hybridization properties, structure, and function of nucleic acids can be used to make DNA-based logic gates. These devices are important modules in molecular...... computing and biosensing. The ideal logic gate system should provide a wide selection of logical operations, and be integrable in multiple copies into more complex structures. Here we show the successful construction of a small DNA-based logic gate complex that produces fluorescent outputs corresponding...

  6. Enzymatic AND logic gates operated under conditions characteristic of biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Dmitriy; Strack, Guinevere; Zhou, Jian; Windmiller, Joshua Ray; Halámek, Jan; Bocharova, Vera; Chuang, Min-Chieh; Santhosh, Padmanabhan; Privman, Vladimir; Wang, Joseph; Katz, Evgeny

    2010-09-23

    Experimental and theoretical analyses of the lactate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase based enzymatic AND logic gates in which the enzymes and their substrates serve as logic inputs are performed. These two systems are examples of the novel, previously unexplored class of biochemical logic gates that illustrate potential biomedical applications of biochemical logic. They are characterized by input concentrations at logic 0 and 1 states corresponding to normal and pathophysiological conditions. Our analysis shows that the logic gates under investigation have similar noise characteristics. Both significantly amplify random noise present in inputs; however, we establish that for realistic widths of the input noise distributions, it is still possible to differentiate between the logic 0 and 1 states of the output. This indicates that reliable detection of pathophysiological conditions is indeed possible with such enzyme logic systems.

  7. Cognitive Performance in Subjects With Multiple Sclerosis Is Robustly Influenced by Gender in Canonical-Correlation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sue-Jin; Lam, Janet; Beveridge, Samantha; Vavasour, Irene; Traboulsee, Anthony; Li, David K B; MacKay, Alex; McKeown, Martin; Kosaka, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    The authors explored the relations between clinical/demographic characteristics and performance on a neuropsychological battery (eight tests) in a cohort (N=46) of multiple sclerosis (MS) subjects. Findings resulted from a secondary analysis of a study examining the relationships between imaging biomarkers in MS and cognitive tasks of executive functioning. The objective was to determine whether the overlapping test results could be judiciously combined and associated with clinical/demographic variables. Canonical-correlation analysis (CCA) was utilized, and it was found that differences between performance on untimed tests, and the sum of performance on timed Trail-Making Tests, Parts A and B, best matched clinical/demographic variables, and gender was the most important feature.

  8. Non-commutative multiple-valued logic algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Ciungu, Lavinia Corina

    2014-01-01

    This monograph provides a self-contained and easy-to-read introduction to non-commutative multiple-valued logic algebras; a subject which has attracted much interest in the past few years because of its impact on information science, artificial intelligence and other subjects.   A study of the newest results in the field, the monograph includes treatment of pseudo-BCK algebras, pseudo-hoops, residuated lattices, bounded divisible residuated lattices, pseudo-MTL algebras, pseudo-BL algebras and pseudo-MV algebras. It provides a fresh perspective on new trends in logic and algebras in that algebraic structures can be developed into fuzzy logics which connect quantum mechanics, mathematical logic, probability theory, algebra and soft computing.   Written in a clear, concise and direct manner, Non-Commutative Multiple-Valued Logic Algebras will be of interest to masters and PhD students, as well as researchers in mathematical logic and theoretical computer science.

  9. Reversible logic gate using adiabatic superconducting devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takeuchi, N; Yamanashi, Y; Yoshikawa, N

    2014-01-01

    .... However, until now, no practical reversible logic gates have been demonstrated. One of the problems is that reversible logic gates must be built by using extremely energy-efficient logic devices...

  10. The effects of receiver placement on probe microphone, performance, and subjective measures with open canal hearing instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alworth, Lynzee N; Plyler, Patrick N; Reber, Monika Bertges; Johnstone, Patti M

    2010-04-01

    Open canal hearing instruments differ in method of sound delivery to the ear canal, distance between the microphone and the receiver, and physical size of the devices. Moreover, RITA (receiver in the aid) and RITE (receiver in the ear) hearing instruments may also differ in terms of retention and comfort as well as ease of use and care for certain individuals. What remains unclear, however, is if any or all of the abovementioned factors contribute to hearing aid outcome. To determine the effect of receiver location on performance and/or preference of listeners using open canal hearing instruments. An experimental study in which subjects were exposed to a repeated measures design. Twenty-five adult listeners with mild sloping to moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss (mean age 67 yr). Participants completed two six-week trial periods for each device type. Probe microphone, objective, and subjective measures (quiet, noise) were conducted unaided and aided at the end of each trial period. Occlusion effect results were not significantly different between the RITA and RITE instruments; however, frequency range was extended in the RITE instruments, resulting in significantly greater maximum gain for the RITE instruments than the RITA instruments at 4000 and 6000 Hz. Objective performance in quiet or in noise was unaffected by receiver location. Subjective measures revealed significantly greater satisfaction ratings for the RITE than for the RITA instruments. Similarly, preference in quiet and overall preference were significantly greater for the RITE than for the RITA instruments. Although no occlusion differences were noted between instruments, the RITE did demonstrate a significant difference in reserve gain before feedback at 4000 and 6000 Hz. Objectively; no positive benefit was noted between unaided and aided conditions on speech recognition tests. These results suggest that such testing may not be sensitive enough to determine aided benefit with open canal

  11. Neurocontrol and fuzzy logic: Connections and designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werbos, Paul J.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) and fuzzy logic are complementary technologies. ANNs extract information from systems to be learned or controlled, while fuzzy techniques mainly use verbal information from experts. Ideally, both sources of information should be combined. For example, one can learn rules in a hybrid fashion, and then calibrate them for better whole-system performance. ANNs offer universal approximation theorems, pedagogical advantages, very high-throughput hardware, and links to neurophysiology. Neurocontrol - the use of ANNs to directly control motors or actuators, etc. - uses five generalized designs, related to control theory, which can work on fuzzy logic systems as well as ANNs. These designs can copy what experts do instead of what they say, learn to track trajectories, generalize adaptive control, and maximize performance or minimize cost over time, even in noisy environments. Design tradeoffs and future directions are discussed throughout.

  12. Reprogrammable logic in memristive crossbar for in-memory computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Long; Zhang, Mei-Yun; Li, Yi; Zhou, Ya-Xiong; Wang, Zhuo-Rui; Hu, Si-Yu; Long, Shi-Bing; Liu, Ming; Miao, Xiang-Shui

    2017-12-01

    Memristive stateful logic has emerged as a promising next-generation in-memory computing paradigm to address escalating computing-performance pressures in traditional von Neumann architecture. Here, we present a nonvolatile reprogrammable logic method that can process data between different rows and columns in a memristive crossbar array based on material implication (IMP) logic. Arbitrary Boolean logic can be executed with a reprogrammable cell containing four memristors in a crossbar array. In the fabricated Ti/HfO2/W memristive array, some fundamental functions, such as universal NAND logic and data transfer, were experimentally implemented. Moreover, using eight memristors in a 2  ×  4 array, a one-bit full adder was theoretically designed and verified by simulation to exhibit the feasibility of our method to accomplish complex computing tasks. In addition, some critical logic-related performances were further discussed, such as the flexibility of data processing, cascading problem and bit error rate. Such a method could be a step forward in developing IMP-based memristive nonvolatile logic for large-scale in-memory computing architecture.

  13. Effects of three therapeutic doses of codeine/paracetamol on driving performance, a psychomotor vigilance test, and subjective feelings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Jean-Noël; Marie, Sullivan; Lelong-Boulouard, Véronique; Paillet-Loilier, Magalie; Berthelon, Catherine; Coquerel, Antoine; Denise, Pierre; Bocca, Marie-Laure

    2013-07-01

    Some recent pharmacoepidemiological studies revealed an elevated risk of driving accidents after opioid analgesics uses. Among analgesics, codeine is often associated with paracetamol in numerous pharmaceutical specialties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dose-effect relationship of three usual therapeutic doses of codeine/paracetamol on driving ability, psychomotor performance, subjective alertness, in link with blood concentrations in healthy young volunteers. Driving performance, responses to psychomotor vigilance tests, and scales reflecting alertness were evaluated during the morning after drug intake in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Sixteen healthy volunteers (23.4 ± 2.7 years old, 8 men and 8 women) participated in this balanced, cross-over study. Three doses of codeine/paracetamol (20/400, 40/800, 60/1200 mg) were evaluated against placebo. Two blood samples were collected, 1 and 4 h after drug intake. In serum, codeine and morphine concentrations were determined in serum using high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry, and paracetamol concentrations using fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Driving and psychomotor performance were not affected by any of the three codeine/paracetamol doses. However, significant, though modest, correlations were observed between the driving parameters and both morphine and codeine blood concentrations. This study did not reveal any significant impairment in performance due to the three therapeutic doses used in healthy young volunteers. However, the relationships between drug blood concentration and behavioral measures suggest that an inter-subject variability in blood concentration may influence the power of the observed drug effect.

  14. A Comparison of Robotic Simulation Performance on Basic Virtual Reality Skills: Simulator Subjective Versus Objective Assessment Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Ariel K; Smith, Roger; Julian, Danielle; Tanaka, Alyssa; Mattingly, Patricia

    2017-07-27

    To answer the question of whether there is a difference between robotic virtual reality simulator performance assessment and validated human reviewers. Current surgical education relies heavily on simulation. Several assessment tools are available to the trainee, including the actual robotic simulator assessment metrics and the Global Evaluative Assessment of Robotic Skills (GEARS) metrics, both of which have been independently validated. GEARS is a rating scale through which human evaluators can score trainees' performances on 6 domains: depth perception, bimanual dexterity, efficiency, force sensitivity, autonomy, and robotic control. Each domain is scored on a 5-point Likert scale with anchors. We used 2 common robotic simulators, the dV-Trainer (dVT; Mimic Technologies Inc., Seattle, WA) and the da Vinci Skills Simulator (dVSS; Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA), to compare the performance metrics of robotic surgical simulators with the GEARS for a basic robotic task on each simulator. A prospective single-blinded randomized study. A surgical education and training center. Surgeons and surgeons in training. Demographic information was collected including sex, age, level of training, specialty, and previous surgical and simulator experience. Subjects performed 2 trials of ring and rail 1 (RR1) on each of the 2 simulators (dVSS and dVT) after undergoing randomization and warm-up exercises. The second RR1 trial simulator performance was recorded, and the deidentified videos were sent to human reviewers using GEARS. Eight different simulator assessment metrics were identified and paired with a similar performance metric in the GEARS tool. The GEARS evaluation scores and simulator assessment scores were paired and a Spearman rho calculated for their level of correlation. Seventy-four subjects were enrolled in this randomized study with 9 subjects excluded for missing or incomplete data. There was a strong correlation between the GEARS score and the simulator metric

  15. Logic regression and its extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwender, Holger; Ruczinski, Ingo

    2010-01-01

    Logic regression is an adaptive classification and regression procedure, initially developed to reveal interacting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genetic association studies. In general, this approach can be used in any setting with binary predictors, when the interaction of these covariates is of primary interest. Logic regression searches for Boolean (logic) combinations of binary variables that best explain the variability in the outcome variable, and thus, reveals variables and interactions that are associated with the response and/or have predictive capabilities. The logic expressions are embedded in a generalized linear regression framework, and thus, logic regression can handle a variety of outcome types, such as binary responses in case-control studies, numeric responses, and time-to-event data. In this chapter, we provide an introduction to the logic regression methodology, list some applications in public health and medicine, and summarize some of the direct extensions and modifications of logic regression that have been proposed in the literature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An ABS control logic based on wheel force measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, D.; Galvagno, E.; Ondrak, V.; van Leeuwen, B.; Vigliani, A.

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents an anti-lock braking system (ABS) control logic based on the measurement of the longitudinal forces at the hub bearings. The availability of force information allows to design a logic that does not rely on the estimation of the tyre-road friction coefficient, since it continuously tries to exploit the maximum longitudinal tyre force. The logic is designed by means of computer simulation and then tested on a specific hardware in the loop test bench: the experimental results confirm that measured wheel force can lead to a significant improvement of the ABS performances in terms of stopping distance also in the presence of road with variable friction coefficient.

  17. Postoperative vomiting in pediatric oncologic patients: prediction by a fuzzy logic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassanezi, Betina S B; de Oliveira-Filho, Antônio G; Jafelice, Rosana S M; Bustorff-Silva, Joaquim M; Udelsmann, Artur

    2013-01-01

    To report a fuzzy logic mathematical model to predict postoperative vomiting (POV) in pediatric oncologic patients and compare with preexisting scores. Although POV has a high incidence in children and may decrease parental satisfaction after surgeries, there is only one specific score that predicts POV in children: the Eberhart's score. In this study, we report a fuzzy model that intends to predict the probability of POV in pediatric oncologic patients. Fuzzy logic is a mathematical theory that recognizes more than simple true and false values and takes into account levels of continuous variables such as age or duration of the surgery. The fuzzy model tries to account for subjectiveness in the variables. Preoperative potential risk factors for POV in 198 children (0-19 year old) with malignancies were collected and analyzed. Data analysis was performed with the chi-square test and logistic regression to evaluate probable risk factors for POV. A system based on fuzzy logic was developed with the risk factors found in the logistic regression, and a computational interface was created to calculate the probability of POV. The model showed a good performance in predicting POV. After the analysis, the model was compared with Eberhart's score in the same population and showed a better performance. The fuzzy score can predict the chance of POV in children with cancer with good accuracy, allowing better planning for postoperative prophylaxis of vomiting. The computational interface is available for free download at the internet and is very easy to use. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Suicide as social logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, M J

    1994-01-01

    Although suicide is not viewed as a mental disorder per se, it is viewed by many if not most clinicians, researchers, and lay people as a real or natural symptom of depression. It is at least most typically seen as the unfortunate, severe, yet logical end result of a chain of negative self-appraisals, negative events, and hopelessness. Extending an approach articulated by the early French sociologist Gabriel Tarde, in this paper I argue that suicide is merely an idea, albeit a very bad one, having more in common with societal beliefs and norms regarding such things as divorce, abortion, sex, politics, consumer behavior, and fashion. I make a sharp contrast between perturbation and lethality, concepts central to Edwin S. Shneidman's theory of suicide. Evidence supportive of suicide as an idea is discussed based on what we are learning from the study of history and culture, and about contagion/cluster phenomena, media/communication, and choice of method. It is suggested that certain individuals are more vulnerable to incorporate the idea and act of suicide into their concepts of self, based on the same principles by which ideas are spread throughout society. Just as suicide impacts on society, so does society impact on suicide.

  19. Conference on Logical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Remmel, Jeffrey; Shore, Richard; Sweedler, Moss; Progress in Computer Science and Applied Logic

    1993-01-01

    The twenty-six papers in this volume reflect the wide and still expanding range of Anil Nerode's work. A conference on Logical Methods was held in honor of Nerode's sixtieth birthday (4 June 1992) at the Mathematical Sciences Institute, Cornell University, 1-3 June 1992. Some of the conference papers are here, but others are from students, co-workers and other colleagues. The intention of the conference was to look forward, and to see the directions currently being pursued, in the development of work by, or with, Nerode. Here is a brief summary of the contents of this book. We give a retrospective view of Nerode's work. A number of specific areas are readily discerned: recursive equivalence types, recursive algebra and model theory, the theory of Turing degrees and r.e. sets, polynomial-time computability and computer science. Nerode began with automata theory and has also taken a keen interest in the history of mathematics. All these areas are represented. The one area missing is Nerode's applied mathematica...

  20. Handling Pressures of Community Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana; Hotho, Jasper; Muratbekova-Touron, Maral

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims at investigating how in pluralistic societies, such as emerging economies and countries in transition, organizational decision-makers respond to pressures of community logics in non-community settings, such as the work place. We theorize that in non-community settings, social...... relations and interactions with community members can act as social cues that induce and expose individuals to community logics. We subsequently propose that properties of these relations – immediacy and relatedness - will affect individual response strategies towards community logics. We test these ideas...

  1. When does stress help or harm? The effects of stress controllability and subjective stress response on stroop performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Roselinde K; Snyder, Hannah R; Gupta, Tina; Banich, Marie T

    2012-01-01

    The ability to engage in goal-directed behavior despite exposure to stress is critical to resilience. Questions of how stress can impair or improve behavioral functioning are important in diverse settings, from athletic competitions to academic testing. Previous research suggests that controllability is a key factor in the impact of stress on behavior: learning how to control stressors buffers people from the negative effects of stress on subsequent cognitively demanding tasks. In addition, research suggests that the impact of stress on cognitive functioning depends on an individual's response to stressors: moderate responses to stress can lead to improved performance while extreme (high or low) responses can lead to impaired performance. The present studies tested the hypothesis that (1) learning to behaviorally control stressors leads to improved performance on a test of general executive functioning, the color-word Stroop, and that (2) this improvement emerges specifically for people who report moderate (subjective) responses to stress. Experiment 1: Stroop performance, measured before and after a stress manipulation, was compared across groups of undergraduate participants (n = 109). People who learned to control a noise stressor and received accurate performance feedback demonstrated reduced Stroop interference compared with people exposed to uncontrollable noise stress and feedback indicating an exaggerated rate of failure. In the group who learned behavioral control, those who reported moderate levels of stress showed the greatest reduction in Stroop interference. In contrast, in the group exposed to uncontrollable events, self-reported stress failed to predict performance. Experiment 2: In a second sample (n = 90), we specifically investigated the role of controllability by keeping the rate of failure feedback constant across groups. In the group who learned behavioral control, those who reported moderate levels of stress showed the greatest Stroop

  2. Performance evaluation method of electric energy data acquire system based on combination of subjective and objective weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chen; Ding, Zhongan; Deng, Bofa; Yan, Shengteng

    2017-10-01

    According to the characteristics of electric energy data acquire system (EEDAS), considering the availability of each index data and the connection between the index integrity, establishing the performance evaluation index system of electric energy data acquire system from three aspects as master station system, communication channel, terminal equipment. To determine the comprehensive weight of each index based on triangular fuzzy number analytic hierarchy process with entropy weight method, and both subjective preference and objective attribute are taken into consideration, thus realize the performance comprehensive evaluation more reasonable and reliable. Example analysis shows that, by combination with analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and triangle fuzzy numbers (TFN) to establish comprehensive index evaluation system based on entropy method, the evaluation results not only convenient and practical, but also more objective and accurate.

  3. Using an adaptive fuzzy-logic system to optimize the performances and the reduction of chattering phenomenon in the control of induction motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barazane Linda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural networks and fuzzy inference systems are becoming well recognized tools of designing an identifier/controller capable of perceiving the operating environment and imitating a human operator with high performance. Also, by combining these two features, more versatile and robust models, called 'neuro-fuzzy' architectures have been developed. The motivation behind the use of neuro-fuzzy approaches is based on the complexity of real life systems, ambiguities on sensory information or time-varying nature of the system under investigation. In this way, the present contribution concerns the application of neuro-fuzzy approach in order to perform the responses of the speed regulation and to reduce the chattering phenomenon introduced by sliding mode control, which is very harmful to the actuators in our case and may excite the unmodeled dynamics of the system. The type of the neuro-fuzzy system used here is called:' adaptive neuro fuzzy inference controller (ANFIS'. This neuro-fuzzy is destined to replace the speed fuzzy sliding mode controller after its training process. Simulation results reveal some very interesting features. .

  4. Stacked resistive switches for AND/OR logic gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung Ju; Son, Kyung Rock; Park, Ju Hyun; Kim, Tae Geun

    2017-06-01

    This paper reports the use of stacked resistive switches as logic gates for implementing the ;AND; and ;OR; operations. These stacked resistive switches consist of two resistive switches that share a middle electrode, and they operate based on the difference in resistance between the low and high resistance states indicating the logical states of ;0; and ;1;, respectively. The stacked resistive switches can perform either AND or OR operation, using two read schemes in one device. To perform the AND (or OR) operation, two resistive switches are arranged in a serial (or parallel) connection. AND and OR operations have been successfully demonstrated using the stacked resistive switches. The use of stacked resistive switches as logic gates that utilize the advantages of memristive devices shows the possibility of stateful logic circuits.

  5. Timing Analysis of Genetic Logic Circuits using D-VASim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baig, Hasan; Madsen, Jan

    delay analysis may play a very significant role in the designing of genetic logic circuits. In thisdemonstration, we present the capability of D-VASim (Dynamic Virtual Analyzer and Simulator) to perform the timing and propagationdelay analysis of genetic logic circuits. Using D-VASim, the timing......A genetic logic circuit is a gene regulator network implemented by re-engineering the DNA of a cell, in order to controlgene expression or metabolic pathways, through a logic combination of external signals, such as chemicals or proteins. As for electroniclogic circuits, timing and propagation...... and propagation delay analysis of single as well as cascaded geneticlogic circuits can be performed. D-VASim allows user to change the circuit parameters during runtime simulation to observe its effectson circuit’s timing behavior. The results obtained from D-VASim can be used not only to characterize the timing...

  6. A reconfigurable NAND/NOR genetic logic gate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goñi-Moreno Angel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engineering genetic Boolean logic circuits is a major research theme of synthetic biology. By altering or introducing connections between genetic components, novel regulatory networks are built in order to mimic the behaviour of electronic devices such as logic gates. While electronics is a highly standardized science, genetic logic is still in its infancy, with few agreed standards. In this paper we focus on the interpretation of logical values in terms of molecular concentrations. Results We describe the results of computational investigations of a novel circuit that is able to trigger specific differential responses depending on the input standard used. The circuit can therefore be dynamically reconfigured (without modification to serve as both a NAND/NOR logic gate. This multi-functional behaviour is achieved by a varying the meanings of inputs, and b using branch predictions (as in computer science to display a constrained output. A thorough computational study is performed, which provides valuable insights for the future laboratory validation. The simulations focus on both single-cell and population behaviours. The latter give particular insights into the spatial behaviour of our engineered cells on a surface with a non-homogeneous distribution of inputs. Conclusions We present a dynamically-reconfigurable NAND/NOR genetic logic circuit that can be switched between modes of operation via a simple shift in input signal concentration. The circuit addresses important issues in genetic logic that will have significance for more complex synthetic biology applications.

  7. A reconfigurable NAND/NOR genetic logic gate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi-Moreno, Angel; Amos, Martyn

    2012-09-18

    Engineering genetic Boolean logic circuits is a major research theme of synthetic biology. By altering or introducing connections between genetic components, novel regulatory networks are built in order to mimic the behaviour of electronic devices such as logic gates. While electronics is a highly standardized science, genetic logic is still in its infancy, with few agreed standards. In this paper we focus on the interpretation of logical values in terms of molecular concentrations. We describe the results of computational investigations of a novel circuit that is able to trigger specific differential responses depending on the input standard used. The circuit can therefore be dynamically reconfigured (without modification) to serve as both a NAND/NOR logic gate. This multi-functional behaviour is achieved by a) varying the meanings of inputs, and b) using branch predictions (as in computer science) to display a constrained output. A thorough computational study is performed, which provides valuable insights for the future laboratory validation. The simulations focus on both single-cell and population behaviours. The latter give particular insights into the spatial behaviour of our engineered cells on a surface with a non-homogeneous distribution of inputs. We present a dynamically-reconfigurable NAND/NOR genetic logic circuit that can be switched between modes of operation via a simple shift in input signal concentration. The circuit addresses important issues in genetic logic that will have significance for more complex synthetic biology applications.

  8. Reversibility and energy dissipation in adiabatic superconductor logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Naoki; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2017-03-06

    Reversible computing is considered to be a key technology to achieve an extremely high energy efficiency in future computers. In this study, we investigated the relationship between reversibility and energy dissipation in adiabatic superconductor logic. We analyzed the evolution of phase differences of Josephson junctions in the reversible quantum-flux-parametron (RQFP) gate and confirmed that the phase differences can change time reversibly, which indicates that the RQFP gate is physically, as well as logically, reversible. We calculated energy dissipation required for the RQFP gate to perform a logic operation and numerically demonstrated that the energy dissipation can fall below the thermal limit, or the Landauer bound, by lowering operation frequencies. We also investigated the 1-bit-erasure gate as a logically irreversible gate and the quasi-RQFP gate as a physically irreversible gate. We calculated the energy dissipation of these irreversible gates and showed that the energy dissipation of these gate is dominated by non-adiabatic state changes, which are induced by unwanted interactions between gates due to logical or physical irreversibility. Our results show that, in reversible computing using adiabatic superconductor logic, logical and physical reversibility are required to achieve energy dissipation smaller than the Landauer bound without non-adiabatic processes caused by gate interactions.

  9. Classical Limit and Quantum Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada, Marcelo; Fortin, Sebastian; Holik, Federico

    2018-02-01

    The analysis of the classical limit of quantum mechanics usually focuses on the state of the system. The general idea is to explain the disappearance of the interference terms of quantum states appealing to the decoherence process induced by the environment. However, in these approaches it is not explained how the structure of quantum properties becomes classical. In this paper, we consider the classical limit from a different perspective. We consider the set of properties of a quantum system and we study the quantum-to-classical transition of its logical structure. The aim is to open the door to a new study based on dynamical logics, that is, logics that change over time. In particular, we appeal to the notion of hybrid logics to describe semiclassical systems. Moreover, we consider systems with many characteristic decoherence times, whose sublattices of properties become distributive at different times.

  10. Classical Limit and Quantum Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada, Marcelo; Fortin, Sebastian; Holik, Federico

    2017-10-01

    The analysis of the classical limit of quantum mechanics usually focuses on the state of the system. The general idea is to explain the disappearance of the interference terms of quantum states appealing to the decoherence process induced by the environment. However, in these approaches it is not explained how the structure of quantum properties becomes classical. In this paper, we consider the classical limit from a different perspective. We consider the set of properties of a quantum system and we study the quantum-to-classical transition of its logical structure. The aim is to open the door to a new study based on dynamical logics, that is, logics that change over time. In particular, we appeal to the notion of hybrid logics to describe semiclassical systems. Moreover, we consider systems with many characteristic decoherence times, whose sublattices of properties become distributive at different times.

  11. Logic gates with ion transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebel, H.

    2017-09-01

    Electronic logic gates are the basic building blocks of every computing and micro controlling system. Logic gates are made of switches, such as diodes and transistors. Ion-selective, ionic switches may emulate electronic switches [1-8]. If we ever want to create artificial bio-chemical circuitry, then we need to move a step further towards ion-logic circuitry. Here we demonstrate ion XOR and OR gates with electrochemical cells, and specifically, with two wet-cell batteries. In parallel to vacuum tubes, the batteries were modified to include a third, permeable and conductive mid electrode (the gate), which was placed between the anode and cathode in order to affect the ion flow through it. The key is to control the cell output with a much smaller biasing power, as demonstrated here. A successful demonstration points to self-powered ion logic gates.

  12. Dependence logic theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kontinen, Juha; Väänänen, Jouko; Vollmer, Heribert

    2016-01-01

    In this volume, different aspects of logics for dependence and independence are discussed, including both the logical and computational aspects of dependence logic, and also applications in a number of areas, such as statistics, social choice theory, databases, and computer security. The contributing authors represent leading experts in this relatively new field, each of whom was invited to write a chapter based on talks given at seminars held at the Schloss Dagstuhl Leibniz Center for Informatics in Wadern, Germany (in February 2013 and June 2015) and an Academy Colloquium at the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (March 2014). Altogether, these chapters provide the most up-to-date look at this developing and highly interdisciplinary field and will be of interest to a broad group of logicians, mathematicians, statisticians, philosophers, and scientists. Topics covered include a comprehensive survey of many propositional, modal, and first-order variants of dependence logic; new results concerning ...

  13. Logic Gates with Ion Transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Grebel, Haim

    2016-01-01

    Electronic logic gates are the basic building blocks of every computing and micro controlling system. Logic gates are made of switches, such as diodes and transistors. Ion-selective, ionic switches may emulate electronic switches [1-8]. If we ever want to create artificial bio-chemical circuitry, then we need to move a step further towards ion-logic circuitry. Here we demonstrate ion XOR and OR gates with electrochemical cells, and specifically, with two wet-cell batteries. In parallel to vacuum tubes, the batteries were modified to include a third, permeable and conductive mid electrode (the gate), which was placed between the anode and cathode in order to affect the ion flow through it. The key is to control the cell output with a much smaller biasing power, as demonstrated here. A successful demonstration points to self-powered ion logic gates.

  14. Subjectivation and Performative Politics--Butler Thinking Althusser and Foucault: Intelligibility, Agency and the Raced-Nationed-Religioned Subjects of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youdell, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    Judith Butler is perhaps best known for her take-up of the debate between Derrida and Austin over the function of the performative and her subsequent suggestion that the subject be understood as performatively constituted. Another important but less often noted move within Butler's consideration of the processes through which the subject is…

  15. Distraction and task engagement: How interesting and boring information impact driving performance and subjective and physiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrey, William J; Lesch, Mary F; Garabet, Angela; Simmons, Lucinda; Maikala, Rammohan

    2017-01-01

    As more devices and services are integrated into vehicles, drivers face new opportunities to perform additional tasks while driving. While many studies have explored the detrimental effects of varying task demands on driving performance, there has been little attention devoted to tasks that vary in terms of personal interest or investment-a quality we liken to the concept of task engagement. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of task engagement on driving performance, subjective appraisals of performance and workload, and various physiological measurements. In this study, 31 participants (M = 37 yrs) completed three driving conditions in a driving simulator: listening to boring auditory material; listening to interesting material; and driving with no auditory material. Drivers were simultaneously monitored using near-infrared spectroscopy, heart monitoring and eye tracking systems. Drivers exhibited less variability in lane keeping and headway maintenance for both auditory conditions; however, response times to critical braking events were longer in the interesting audio condition. Drivers also perceived the interesting material to be less demanding and less complex, although the material was objectively matched for difficulty. Drivers showed a reduced concentration of cerebral oxygenated hemoglobin when listening to interesting material, compared to baseline and boring conditions, yet they exhibited superior recognition for this material. The practical implications, from a safety standpoint, are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Flow Logics and Operational Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    1998-01-01

    Flow logic is a “fast prototyping” approach to program analysis that shows great promise of being able to deal with a wide variety of languages and calculi for computation. However, seemingly innocent choices in the flow logic as well as in the operational semantics may inhibit proving the analysis...... correct. Our main conclusion is that environment based semantics is more flexible than either substitution based semantics or semantics making use of structural congruences (like alpha-renaming)....

  17. Logical operations using phenyl ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Moumita; Maiti, Santanu K.

    2018-02-01

    Exploiting the effects of quantum interference we put forward an idea of designing three primary logic gates, OR, AND and NOT, using a benzene molecule. Under a specific molecule-lead interface geometry, anti-resonant states appear which play the crucial role for AND and NOT operations, while for OR gate no such states are required. Our analysis leads to a possibility of designing logic gates using simple molecular structure which might be significant in the area of molecular electronics.

  18. Observation Predicates in Flow Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Sun, Hongyan

    2003-01-01

    in such a way that the hard constraints are satisfi ed exactly when the observation predicates report no violations. The development is carried out in a large fragment of a first order logic with negation and also takes care of the transformations necessary in order to adhere to the stratification restrictions...... inherent in Alternation-free Least Fixed Point Logic and similar formalisms such as Datalog....

  19. A Logic of Blockchain Updates

    OpenAIRE

    Brünnler, Kai; Flumini, Dandolo; Studer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Blockchains are distributed data structures that are used to achieve consensus in systems for cryptocurrencies (like Bitcoin) or smart contracts (like Ethereum). Although blockchains gained a lot of popularity recently, there is no logic-based model for blockchains available. We introduce BCL, a dynamic logic to reason about blockchain updates, and show that BCL is sound and complete with respect to a simple blockchain model.

  20. Comparison of the perceived subjective exertion and total load lifted response in resistance exercises performed on stable and unstable platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Cunha Aranda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the perceived subjective exertion (PSE and total load lifted in resistance exercises performed on stable platforms (SP and unstable platforms (UP. Participants were 20 men (24.6 ± 3.4 years, 179 ± 0.1 cm, 80.6 ± 9.1 kg and 11.8 ± 3.4% fat. Each subject performed a 15 maximum repetition test in half squat exercises (soil and balance discs, pronated barbell row (soil and bosu and biceps curl (soil and balance discs in both conditions. PSE was measured using the OMNI-RES scale and the load lifted value (kg. To verify the normality of data, the Shapiro-Wilk test was used. Possible differences related to loads and PSE on the platforms were performed by the paired t test. Significance level of p <0.05 was adopted. No significant differences between PSE values on SP and UP were respectively observed in the half squat (8.2 and 8.5 / p = 0.8, pronated barbell row (8.4 and 8.4 / p = 0.7 and biceps curl (8.6 and 8.7 / p = 1.0. Higher load values on SP and UP were respectively found in half squat (83.9kg and 70.3kg / p <0.001 and pronated barbell row exercises (53.2kg and 48.6kg / p = 0.01 on SP. However, biceps curl showed dissimilar behavior (48.2kg and 47.4kg / p = 0.5. It was concluded that UP does not promote differences in PSE responses even working with smaller load or similar load.