Sample records for subjects peak values

  1. Reference Values for Peak Exercise Cardiac Output in Healthy Individuals. (United States)

    Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Vignati, Carlo; Gentile, Piero; Boiti, Costanza; Farina, Stefania; Salvioni, Elisabetta; Mapelli, Massimo; Magrì, Damiano; Paolillo, Stefania; Corrieri, Nicoletta; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Cattadori, Gaia


    Cardiac output (Q˙) is a key parameter in the assessment of cardiac function, its measurement being crucial for the diagnosis, treatment, and prognostic evaluation of all heart diseases. Until recently, Q˙ determination at peak exercise has been possible through invasive methods, so that normal values were obtained in studies based on small populations. Nowadays, peak Q˙ can be measured noninvasively by means of the inert gas rebreathing (IGR) technique. The present study was undertaken to provide reference values for peak Q˙ in the normal general population and to obtain a formula able to estimate peak exercise Q˙ from measured peak oxygen uptake (V˙o2). We studied 500 normal subjects (age, 44.9 ± 1.5 years; range, 18-77 years; 260 men, 240 women) who underwent a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test with peak Q˙ measurement by IGR. In the overall study sample, peak Q˙ was 13.2 ± 3.5 L/min (men, 15.3 ± 3.3 L/min; women, 11.0 ± 2.0 L/min; P exercise was (4.4 × peak V˙o2) + 4.3 in the overall study cohort, (4.3 × peak V˙o2) + 4.5 in men, and (4.9 × peak V˙o2) + 3.6 in women. The simultaneous measurement of Q˙ and V˙o2 at peak exercise in a large sample of healthy subjects provided an equation to predict peak Q˙ from peak V˙o2 values. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Converter for Measurement of non-sinusoidal current peak value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butvin, P.; Nielsen, Otto V; Brauer, Peter


    A linear-response toroid with core wound of rapidly quenched soft magnetic metallic ribbon and fitted with two windings is used to enable correct measurement of mean peak value of non-sinusoidal and not noise-free alternating current.......A linear-response toroid with core wound of rapidly quenched soft magnetic metallic ribbon and fitted with two windings is used to enable correct measurement of mean peak value of non-sinusoidal and not noise-free alternating current....

  3. Normative isokinetic peak torque values for elbow flexion and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to compare the results of an isokinetic evaluation, there should be some norm or ideal set of values. The purpose of this study was to establish normative isokinetic torque values for concentric elbow flexion and extension. One hundred and ninety nine (199) healthy South African males were used as subjects.

  4. Peak expiratory flow rate and Pulse Pressure values during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the peak expiratory flow rate and pulse pressure during the luteal and menstruation phases of the menstrual cycle. The peak expiratory flow rate and pulse pressure were measured using the Wright's Peak Flow Meter and Mercury Sphygmomanometer respectively. The peak expiratory flow rate and ...

  5. Relationship between peak oxygen uptake and regional body composition in Japanese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanae Oda


    Conclusion: Peak oxygen uptake was closely correlated with total body fat percentage in both genders. Aerobic exercise as well as leg resistance training might be useful for improving peak oxygen uptake in Japanese subjects.

  6. Pediatric Exercise Testing: Value and Implications of Peak Oxygen Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo T. Pianosi


    Full Text Available Peak oxygen uptake (peak V ˙ O 2 measured by clinical exercise testing is the benchmark for aerobic fitness. Aerobic fitness, estimated from maximal treadmill exercise, is a predictor of mortality in adults. Peak V ˙ O 2 was shown to predict longevity in patients aged 7–35 years with cystic fibrosis over 25 years ago. A surge of exercise studies in young adults with congenital heart disease over the past decade has revealed significant prognostic information. Three years ago, the first clinical trial in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension used peak V ˙ O 2 as an endpoint that likewise delivered clinically relevant data. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing provides clinicians with biomarkers and clinical outcomes, and researchers with novel insights into fundamental biological mechanisms reflecting an integrated physiological response hidden at rest. Momentum from these pioneering observations in multiple disease states should impel clinicians to employ similar methods in other patient populations; e.g., sickle cell disease. Advances in pediatric exercise science will elucidate new pathways that may identify novel biomarkers. Our initial aim of this essay is to highlight the clinical relevance of exercise testing to determine peak V ˙ O 2 , and thereby convince clinicians of its merit, stimulating future clinical investigators to broaden the application of exercise testing in pediatrics.

  7. Reference values for peak flow and FEV1 variation in healthy schoolchildren using home spirometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A. F. J.; Duiverman, E. J.; Brand, P. L. P.


    Current reference values for diurnal peak flow variation in healthy children (median 8.2%; 95th percentile 31%) are so high that considerable overlap exists with those of asthmatic children. These values have been obtained using written peak flow diaries, which are unreliable. The aim of the present

  8. Reference values of fetal peak systolic blood flow Velocity in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objectives of this prospective cross sectional study are (i) to establish new reference values of peak systolic blood flow velocity measurement in the fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA-PSV) following validated methodological guidelines (ii) to correlate peak systolic velocity with gestational age and (iii) to ...

  9. Peak velocity of elbow joint during touching contra lateral shoulder activity for normal subject (United States)

    Nan, Hasyatun Che; Rambely, Azmin Sham


    A better understanding of upper limb movements requires analysis of motion. Measurements of movement analysis through biomechanical studies are necessary to describe upper limb activities. Therefore this study intend to investigate peak velocity of elbow joint for different age groups during the "touching contra lateral shoulder" activity. Twenty healthy subjects age range 20 - 59 years old (n = 60) performed a complete cycle of hand lifting, resting and returning the hand to its initial position. This activity was analyzed using Vicon motion-analysis system, which consists of three infra-red and high speed cameras. Phase definitions were defined and descriptive kinematic variables were obtained from this activity. Movement times is found to increase in 50's age group. The difference of movement times is < 0.3s. Peak velocity for subject age 50s' also higher between all subjects. The difference of peak velocity is < 0.03m/s for all different phases. It was found that there were a significant difference in total movement time and no significance different between each age group for peak velocity parameter.

  10. Biochemical reference values in elderly black subjects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 1, 1990 ... clinical chemistry investigations. Most of the reference values corresponded to values for the same age groups in the. Western world. There was no age-related rise in the alkaline phosphatase values, which suggested absence of occult. Paget's disease. Reference values for serum total protein and.

  11. Effect of two different handgrip positions on elbow peak torque values

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the anatomical zero (AZ) handgrip (Group A) resulted in a mean elbow flexion of 78% of body mass (BM) and an elbow extension torque of 67% BM, compared to ... Additionally, normative absolute peak torque values (Nm) and weight-normalised normative torque values (% BM) for concentric isokinetic elbow

  12. Wave-speed-determined flow limitation at peak flow in normal and asthmatic subjects. (United States)

    Pedersen, O F; Brackel, H J; Bogaard, J M; Kerrebijn, K F


    The purpose of this study was to examine whether peak expiratory flow is determined by the wave-speed flow-limiting mechanism. We examined 17 healthy subjects and 11 subjects with stable asthma, the latter treated with inhaled bronchodilators and corticosteroids. We used an esophageal balloon and a Pitot-static probe positioned at five locations between the right lower lobe and midtrachea to obtain dynamic area-transmural pressure (A-Ptm) curves as described (O. F. Pedersen, B. Thiessen, and S. Lyager. J. Appl. Physiol. 52: 357-369, 1982). From these curves we obtained cross-sectional area (A) and airway compliance (Caw = dA/dPtm) at PEF, calculated flow at wave speed (Vws = A[A/(Caw*rho)0.5], where rho is density) and speed index is (SI = V/Vws). In 13 of 15 healthy and in 4 of 10 asthmatic subjects, who could produce satisfactory curves, SI at PEF was > 0.9 at one or more measured positions. Alveolar pressure continued to increase after PEF was achieved, suggesting flow limitation somewhere in the airway in all of these subjects. We conclude that wave speed is reached in central airways at PEF in most subjects, but it cannot be excluded that wave speed is also reached in more peripheral airways.

  13. Changes in peak oxygen uptake and plasma volume in fit and unfit subjects following exposure to a simulation of microgravity (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.


    To test the hypothesis that the magnitude of reduction in plasma volume and work capacity following exposure to simulated microgravity is dependent on the initial level of aerobic fitness, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) was measured in a group of physically fit subjects and compared with VO2peak in a group of relatively unfit subjects before and after 10 days of continuous 6 degrees head-down tilt (HDT). Ten fit subjects (40 +/- 2 year) with mean +/- SE VO2peak = 48.9 +/- 1.7 mL kg-1 min-1 were matched for age, height, and lean body weight with 10 unfit subjects (VO2peak = 37.7 +/- 1.6 mL kg-1 min-1). Before and after HDT, plasma, blood, and red cell volumes and body composition were measured and all subjects underwent a graded supine cycle ergometer test to determine VO2peak period needed. Reduced VO2peak in fit subjects (-16.2%) was greater than that of unfit subjects (-6.1%). Similarly, reductions in plasma (-18.3%) and blood volumes (-16.0%) in fit subjects were larger than those of unfit subjects (blood volume = -5.6%; plasma volume = -6.6%). Reduced plasma volume was associated with greater negative body fluid balance during the initial 24 h of HDT in the fit group (912 +/- 154 mL) compared with unfit subjects (453 +/- 200 mL). The percentage change for VO2peak correlated with percentage change in plasma volume (r = +0.79). Following exposure to simulated microgravity, fit subjects demonstrated larger reductions in VO2peak than unfit subjects which was associated with larger reductions in plasma and blood volume. These data suggest that the magnitude of physical deconditioning induced by exposure to microgravity without intervention of countermeasures was influenced by the initial fitness of the subjects.

  14. Decadal oscillations and extreme value distribution of river peak flows in the Meuse catchment (United States)

    De Niel, Jan; Willems, Patrick


    In flood risk management, flood probabilities are often quantified through Generalized Pareto distributions of river peak flows. One of the main underlying assumptions is that all data points need to originate from one single underlying distribution (i.i.d. assumption). However, this hypothesis, although generally assumed to be correct for variables such as river peak flows, remains somehow questionable: flooding might indeed be caused by different hydrological and/or meteorological conditions. This study confirms these findings from previous research by showing a clear indication of the link between atmospheric conditions and flooding for the Meuse river in The Netherlands: decadal oscillations of river peak flows can (at least partially) be attributed to the occurrence of westerly weather types. The study further proposes a method to take this correlation between atmospheric conditions and river peak flows into account when calibrating an extreme value distribution for river peak flows. Rather than calibrating one single distribution to the data and potentially violating the i.i.d. assumption, weather type depending extreme value distributions are derived and composed. The study shows that, for the Meuse river in The Netherlands, such approach results in a more accurate extreme value distribution, especially with regards to extrapolations. Comparison of the proposed method with a traditional extreme value analysis approach and an alternative model-based approach for the same case study shows strong differences in the peak flow extrapolation. The design-flood for a 1,250 year return period is estimated at 4,800 m3s-1 for the proposed method, compared with 3,450 m3s-1 and 3,900 m3s-1 for the traditional method and a previous study. The methods were validated based on instrumental and documentary flood information of the past 500 years.

  15. Greater prognostic value of peak VO2 after exercise training program completion in heart failure patients. (United States)

    Tabet, Jean-Yves; Meurin, Philippe; Benzidi, Younes; Beauvais, Florence; Ben Driss, Ahmed; Weber, Hélène; Renaud, Nathalie; Dumaine, Raphaelle; Grosdemouge, Anne; Cohen Solal, Alain


    Exercise capacity, best reflected by peak exercise oxygen consumption (peak VO(2)), is a powerful prognostic factor in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). However, the optimal time to assess exercise capacity for prognosis remains unclear and whether an exercise training program (ETP) to improve exercise capacity alters the prognostic value of cardiopulmonary exercise (CPX) testing variables in CHF is unknown. CHF patients who underwent an ETP in two cardiac rehabilitation centers between 2004 and 2009 were prospectively included, and CPX testing was performed before and after ETP completion. We included 285 consecutive patients who underwent an ETP (19.4 ± 8.7 training sessions in 4 to 10 weeks), including segmental gymnastics and cycling sessions. During follow-up (12 months), 14 patients died, 6 underwent cardiac transplantation and 15 were hospitalized for acute heart failure. Univariate analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that CPX variables, especially peak oxygen consumption and circulatory power (product of peak VO(2) × peak systolic blood pressure) before and after ETP completion predicted prognosis. However, CPX data obtained after ETP completion had the best prognostic value (area under the ROC curve = 0.79 ± 0.03 for peak VO(2) after ETP completion vs 0.64 ± 0.04 before ETP completion, p < 0.0001). The results did not change even when considering only deaths. In patients with stable CHF who can exercise, the prognostic value of CPX data seems greater after versus before completion of a hospital-based ETP. Therefore, CPX capacity for prognostic purposes should at best be assessed after cardiac rehabilitation. © 2013.

  16. Multiple-valued logic design based on the multiple-peak BiCMOS-NDR circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Jow Gan


    Full Text Available Three different multiple-valued logic (MVL designs using the multiple-peak negative-differential-resistance (NDR circuits are investigated. The basic NDR element, which is made of several Si-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor (MOS and SiGe-based heterojunction-bipolar-transistor (HBT devices, can be implemented by using a standard BiCMOS process. These MVL circuits are designed based on the triggering-pulse control, saw-tooth input signal, and peak-control methods, respectively. However, there are some transient states existing between the multiple stable levels for the first two methods. These states might affect the circuit function in practical application. As a result, our proposed peak-control method for the MVL design can be used to overcome these transient states.

  17. Individual differences in timing of peak positive subjective responses to d-amphetamine: Relationship to pharmacokinetics and physiology. (United States)

    Smith, Christopher T; Weafer, Jessica; Cowan, Ronald L; Kessler, Robert M; Palmer, Abraham A; de Wit, Harriet; Zald, David H


    Rate of delivery of psychostimulants has been associated with their positive euphoric effects and potential addiction liability. However, information on individual differences in onset of d-amphetamine's effects remains scarce. We examined individual differences in the time to peak subjective and physiological effects and the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of oral d-amphetamine. We considered two independent studies that used different dosing regimens where subjects completed the drug effects questionnaire at multiple time points post d-amphetamine. Based on the observation of distinct individual differences in time course of drug effects questionnaire "feel", "high", and "like" ratings (DEQH+L+F) in Study 1, subjects in both studies were categorized as early peak responders (peak within 60 minutes), late peak responders (peak > 60 minutes) or nonresponders; 20-25% of participants were categorized as early peak responders, 50-55% as late peak responders and 20-30% as nonresponders. Physiological (both studies) and plasma d-amphetamine (Study 1) were compared among these groups. Early peak responders exhibited an earlier rise in plasma d-amphetamine levels and more sustained elevation in heart rate compared to late peak responders. The present data illustrate the presence of significant individual differences in the temporal pattern of responses to oral d-amphetamine, which may contribute to heightened abuse potential. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Effects of Air Stacking Maneuver on Cough Peak Flow and Chest Wall Compartmental Volumes of Subjects With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. (United States)

    Sarmento, Antonio; Resqueti, Vanessa; Dourado-Júnior, Mario; Saturnino, Lailane; Aliverti, Andrea; Fregonezi, Guilherme; de Andrade, Armele Dornelas


    To assess the acute effects of air stacking on cough peak flow (CPF) and chest wall compartmental volumes of persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) versus healthy subjects positioned at 45° body inclination. Cross-sectional study with a matched-pair design. University hospital. Persons (N=24) with ALS (n=12) and age-matched healthy subjects (n=12). CPF, chest wall compartmental inspiratory capacity, chest wall vital capacity, chest wall tidal volume and operational volumes, breathing pattern, and percentage of contribution of the compartments to the inspired volume were measured by optoelectronic plethysmography. Compared with healthy subjects, significantly lower CPF (P=.007), chest wall compartmental inspiratory capacity (P<.001), chest wall vital capacity (P<.001), and chest wall tidal volume (P<.001) were found in subjects with ALS. Immediately after air stacking, CPF (P<.001) and chest wall compartmental inspiratory capacity (P<.001) significantly increased in both groups, with values returning to basal only in healthy subjects. After air stacking, the abdominal compartment (P=.004) was determined to be responsible for the inspired volume in subjects with ALS. Significantly higher chest wall vital capacity (P=.05) was observed in subjects with ALS 5 minutes after air stacking, with the rib cage compartment (P=.049) being responsible for volume change. No differences were found in chest wall vital capacity and compartmental volumes of healthy subjects. Chest wall tidal volume (P<.001) significantly increased during the protocol in the healthy subjects, mainly because of end-inspiratory (P<.001) and abdominal volumes (P=.008). No significant differences were observed in percentage of contribution of the compartments to the inspired volume and end-expiratory volume of both groups. No significant differences were found in chest wall tidal volume, operational volume, and breathing pattern in persons with ALS. Air stacking is effective in increasing CPF

  19. Subjective quality of videos displayed with local backlight dimming at different peak white and ambient light levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Korhonen, Jari; Forchhammer, Søren


    In this paper the influence of ambient light and peak white (maximum brightness) of a display on the subjective quality of videos shown with local backlight dimming is examined. A subjective experiment investigating those factors is set-up using high contrast test sequences. The results are firstly...

  20. Peak flow technique and the 'windmill' trainer in older subjects admitted with acute airflow limitation. (United States)

    Clare, J; Teale, C


    peak expiratory flow technique was assessed as being satisfactory or unsatisfactory in consecutive patients >60 years with an acute exacerbation of airflow obstruction, admitted to an integrated medical and elderly unit. at baseline assessment, 16 (25%) of 63 patients had satisfactory peak expiratory flow technique. After conventional teaching, this improved to 38 (60%) of 63 (Pwindmill' device failed to improve the number with a satisfactory technique.

  1. Response effort discounts the subjective value of rewards. (United States)

    Nishiyama, Ryoji


    Factors associated with obtaining a reward, such as a temporal delay in receiving the reward, can influence the subjective value of the reward. Cognitive as well as physical response effort is also known to influence choice behaviors. The present study used hypothetical situations to assess whether response effort affects the subjective value of rewards. The results demonstrated that increasing response effort increases the amount of money that participants are willing to forgo to avoid engaging in work. An exponential as well as hyperbolic function provided a good fit for such discounting. The findings suggest that response effort discounts the subjective value of a reward as a function of its amount. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Subjectivity and values in medicine: the case of Canguilhem. (United States)

    Trnka, Peter


    Theories of health and disease which oppose evaluative and descriptive claims or opt for one or the other in defining fundamental concepts err, it is argued, due to an oversimplified conception of both the science of medicine and the art of clinical judgment. The work of Georges Canguilhem on the biological dimensions of value and subjectivity is explored. I conclude that he avoids the falsehoods of (a) neutral, pure fact-based medical science, and (b) cultural, arbitrary notions of value.

  3. Verification of the tumor volume delineation method using a fixed threshold of peak standardized uptake value. (United States)

    Koyama, Kazuya; Mitsumoto, Takuya; Shiraishi, Takahiro; Tsuda, Keisuke; Nishiyama, Atsushi; Inoue, Kazumasa; Yoshikawa, Kyosan; Hatano, Kazuo; Kubota, Kazuo; Fukushi, Masahiro


    We aimed to determine the difference in tumor volume associated with the reconstruction model in positron-emission tomography (PET). To reduce the influence of the reconstruction model, we suggested a method to measure the tumor volume using the relative threshold method with a fixed threshold based on peak standardized uptake value (SUVpeak). The efficacy of our method was verified using 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose PET/computed tomography images of 20 patients with lung cancer. The tumor volume was determined using the relative threshold method with a fixed threshold based on the SUVpeak. The PET data were reconstructed using the ordered-subset expectation maximization (OSEM) model, the OSEM + time-of-flight (TOF) model, and the OSEM + TOF + point-spread function (PSF) model. The volume differences associated with the reconstruction algorithm (%VD) were compared. For comparison, the tumor volume was measured using the relative threshold method based on the maximum SUV (SUVmax). For the OSEM and TOF models, the mean %VD values were -0.06 ± 8.07 and -2.04 ± 4.23% for the fixed 40% threshold according to the SUVmax and the SUVpeak, respectively. The effect of our method in this case seemed to be minor. For the OSEM and PSF models, the mean %VD values were -20.41 ± 14.47 and -13.87 ± 6.59% for the fixed 40% threshold according to the SUVmax and SUVpeak, respectively. Our new method enabled the measurement of tumor volume with a fixed threshold and reduced the influence of the changes in tumor volume associated with the reconstruction model.

  4. The impact of increasing body mass on peak and mean plantar pressure in asymptomatic adult subjects during walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Jones


    Full Text Available Introduction: The implication of high peak plantar pressure on foot pathology in individuals both with and without diabetes has been recognized. The aim of this study was to investigate and clarify the relationship between increasing body mass and peak and mean plantar pressure in an asymptomatic adult population during walking. Methods: Thirty adults without any relevant medical history, structural foot deformities or foot posture assessed as highly pronated or supinated, and within a normal body mass index range were included in the study. An experimental, same subjects, repeated measures design was used. Peak and mean plantar pressure were evaluated with the F-Scan in-shoe plantar pressure measurement system under four different loading conditions (0, 5, 10, and 15 kg simulated with a weighted vest. Pressure data were gathered from three stances utilizing the mid-gait protocol. Results: There were statistically significant increases in peak pressure between the 10 and 15 kg load conditions compared to the control (0 kg within the heel and second to fifth metatarsal regions. The first metatarsal and hallux regions only displayed statistically significant increases in peak pressure between 15 kg and the control (0 kg. The midfoot and lesser digits regions did not display any statistically significant differences in peak pressure between any load conditions compared to the control (0 kg. The second to fifth metatarsal region displayed statistically significant increases in mean pressure in the 5, 10 and 15 kg groups compared to the control (0 kg. A statistically significant increase in peak pressure between the 15 kg and control (0 kg group was evident in all other regions. Conclusion: The relationship between increasing body mass and peak and mean plantar pressure was dependent upon the plantar region. This study provides more detail outlining the response of peak and mean pressure to different loading conditions than previously reported in the

  5. Reliability of peak O2 uptake and O2 uptake kinetics in step exercise tests in healthy subjects. (United States)

    Müller, Paulo de Tarso; Christofoletti, Gustavo; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura; Paulin, Fernanda Viana; Neder, J Alberto


    To date little is known about the reliability of peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2PEAK) in incremental metronome paced step tests (IST) and the reliability of on-kinetics V˙O2 has never been studied. We aimed to study the reliability of both tests. Eleven healthy subjects performed two ISTs until exhaustion. On two different days two duplicate 4min constant metronome paced step tests (CST) were performed. V˙O2PEAK, mean response time (MRT) and phase II time constant (τ) were tested for reproducibility using the paired t-tests, in addition to the limits of agreement (LOA) and within subject coefficient of variation (COV). With a 95% LOA of 0.38 to 0.26Lmin(-1), -8.7 to 9.1s and -9.9 to 10.5s they exhibit a COV of 3%, 4.5% and 6.9% for V˙O2PEAK, MRT and τ respectively. ST are sufficiently reliable for maximal and submaximal aerobic power assessments in healthy subjects and new studies of oxygen uptake kinetics in selected patient groups are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A model of market power in electricity industries subject to peak load pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano, Maria-Soledad [Center for Applied Economics (CEA), Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Chile, Republica 701, Santiago (Chile); Serra, Pablo [Department of Economics, University of Chile, Diagonal Paraguay 257, Santiago (Chile)


    This paper studies the exercise of market power in price-regulated electricity industries under peak-load pricing and merit order dispatching, but where investment decisions are taken by independent generating companies. Within this context, we show that producers can exercise market power by under-investing in base-load capacity, compared to the welfare-maximizing configuration. We also show that when there is free entry with an exogenous fixed entry cost that is later sunk, more intense competition results in higher welfare but fewer firms. (author)

  7. Motor preparatory activity in posterior parietal cortex is modulated by subjective absolute value. (United States)

    Iyer, Asha; Lindner, Axel; Kagan, Igor; Andersen, Richard A


    For optimal response selection, the consequences associated with behavioral success or failure must be appraised. To determine how monetary consequences influence the neural representations of motor preparation, human brain activity was scanned with fMRI while subjects performed a complex spatial visuomotor task. At the beginning of each trial, reward context cues indicated the potential gain and loss imposed for correct or incorrect trial completion. FMRI-activity in canonical reward structures reflected the expected value related to the context. In contrast, motor preparatory activity in posterior parietal and premotor cortex peaked in high "absolute value" (high gain or loss) conditions: being highest for large gains in subjects who believed they performed well while being highest for large losses in those who believed they performed poorly. These results suggest that the neural activity preceding goal-directed actions incorporates the absolute value of that action, predicated upon subjective, rather than objective, estimates of one's performance.

  8. BOLD subjective value signals exhibit robust range adaptation. (United States)

    Cox, Karin M; Kable, Joseph W


    Many theories of decision making assume that choice options are assessed along a common subjective value (SV) scale. The neural correlates of SV are widespread and reliable, despite the wide variation in the range of values over which decisions are made (e.g., between goods worth a few dollars, in some cases, or hundreds of dollars, in others). According to adaptive coding theories (Barlow, 1961), an efficient value signal should exhibit range adaptation, such that neural activity maintains a fixed dynamic range, and the slope of the value response varies inversely with the range of values within the local context. Although monkey data have demonstrated range adaptation in single-unit correlates of value (Padoa-Schioppa, 2009; Kobayashi et al., 2010), whether BOLD value signals exhibit similar range adaptation is unknown. To test for this possibility, we presented human participants with choices between a fixed immediate and variable delayed payment options. Across two conditions, the delayed options' SVs spanned either a narrow or wide range. SV-tracking activity emerged in the posterior cingulate, ventral striatum, anterior cingulate, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Throughout this network, we observed evidence consistent with the predictions of range adaptation: the SV response slope increased in the narrow versus wide range, with statistically significant slope changes confirmed for the posterior cingulate and ventral striatum. No regions exhibited a reliably increased BOLD activity range in the wide versus narrow condition. Our observations of range adaptation present implications for the interpretation of BOLD SV responses that are measured across different contexts or individuals. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3316533-11$15.00/0.

  9. Predictive value of cavernosal peak systolic velocity in the flaccid penis. (United States)

    Kahvecioğlu, N; Kurt, A; Ipek, A; Yazicioğlu, K R; Akbulut, Z


    The routine use of intracavernosal injection before Doppler investigation may cause time loss, side effects due to vasoactive agents used and incorrect evaluation in the diagnosis of arterial insufficiency because of psychological inhibition and anxiety. Doppler investigation without intracavernosal injection avoids these pronounced disadvantages. In our study we tried to evaluate whether PSV values prior to intracavernosal injection are predictive in the diagnosis of arterial insufficiency in diabetic and non-diabetic cases. 120 male diabetic (type-2) and non-diabetic patients affected by erectile dysfunction (ED) were enrolled in this study. The Doppler parameters - PSV, end diastolic velocity (EDV) of both cavernosal arteries - were recorded before intracavernosal injection (ICI) (60 mg-2 ml-papaverine hydrochloride (HCl)) and 5, 10 and 30 minutes after ICI into corpus cavernosum. Based on our results we chose 2 cut-off values for the pre-ICI PSV-10 cm/sec and 15 cm/sec. A PSV value less than 25 cm/sec after ICI was used as the diagnostic criteria for arterial insufficiency. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of pre-ICI PSV in predicting arteriogenic impotence as diagnosed by post-ICI Doppler sonography. Only type 2 DM patients were included in our study. Statistically significant differences were found in the PSV values before and after ICI, ICI response and EDV values after ICI in both cavernous arteries when diabetic and nondiabetic groups compared. Flow in the cavernosal arteries in the flaccid state could determine nondiabetic patients with vasculogenic impotence with a high accuracy rate.

  10. Value of the left inferior thyroid artery peak systolic velocity in diagnosing autoimmune thyroid disease. (United States)

    Banaka, Ioanna; Thomas, Dimitrios; Kaltsas, Gregory


    The purpose of this study was to calculate a number of thyroid grayscale and Doppler sonographic parameters in healthy individuals and patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis or Graves disease and assess their sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of autoimmune thyroid disease using receiver operating characteristic curves. A consecutive series of 153 patients (70 euthyroid and 54 hypothyroid patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis and 29 patients with Graves disease), all selected from an outpatient endocrine clinic, and 48 age- and sex-matched healthy control participants were evaluated with grayscale and power Doppler sonography. An irregular echo pattern in the thyroid parenchyma had 92.8% sensitivity for the diagnosis of autoimmune thyroid disease, and a left inferior thyroid artery peak systolic velocity (PSV) greater than 26.11 cm/s had 91.7% specificity. Of 8 patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis and normal grayscale sonographic characteristics, 6 had a left inferior thyroid artery PSV greater than 26.11 cm/s. A left inferior thyroid artery PSV greater than 61.65 cm/s had 82.8% sensitivity and 86.9% specificity for differentiating Hashimoto thyroiditis from Graves disease. The left inferior thyroid artery PSV was the most accurate sonographic parameter for the diagnosis of autoimmune thyroid disease. Measurement of the inferior thyroid artery PSV could be used in patients with a normal grayscale sonographic appearance and inconclusive clinical and biochemical parameters to substantiate the diagnosis of autoimmune thyroid disease. Further studies are needed to evaluate and expand the use of this index.

  11. Correlation between spirometry values and pulmonary artery pressure in young healthy subjects. (United States)

    Grossman, Alon; Benderly, Michal; Prokupetz, Alex; Gordon, Barak; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra


    Pulmonary hypertension is frequently associated with parenchymal lung disease. We evaluated the association between spirometry values and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) in young subjects without lung disease : We studied applicants to the Israeli Air Force, who undergo routine evaluation that includes resting spirometry and echocardiography. Applicants with overt lung disease were excluded. All echocardiographic studies performed in the years 1994 through 2010 (n = 6,598) were screened, and files that included PASP and spirometry values were analyzed for the association between PASP and FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, peak expiratory flow, and forced expiratory flow during the middle half of the FVC maneuver. Of the 647 air force applicants who underwent echocardiography in which PASP was measurable and had spirometry data, 607 (94%) were male, and their average age was 18.16 ± 0.73 years. Mean PASP was 26.4 ± 5.2 mm Hg (range 10-41 mm Hg). None of the spirometry values significantly correlated with PASP. PASP in young healthy subjects is not significantly associated with spirometry values. Lung mechanics probably do not contribute significantly to PASP in this population.

  12. Biochemical reference values in elderly black subjects | Bester ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical reference values for the black age group of ≥ 65 years were determined from the black urban population of the Orange Free State. Biochemical investigations performed were those included in the Sequential Multiple Analyser Computer profile because it includes the 20 most requested clinical chemistry ...

  13. Peak and end effects in patients' daily recall of pain and fatigue: a within-subjects analysis. (United States)

    Schneider, Stefan; Stone, Arthur A; Schwartz, Joseph E; Broderick, Joan E


    Clinical research often relies on retrospective recall of symptom levels, but the information contained in these ratings is not well understood. The "peak-and-end rule" suggests that the most intense (peak) and final (end) moments of an experience disproportionately influence retrospective judgments, which may bias self-reports of somatic symptoms. This study examined the extent to which peak and end symptom levels systematically affect patients' day-to-day recall of pain and fatigue. Rheumatology patients (N = 97) completed 5 to 6 momentary ratings of pain and fatigue per day as well as a daily recall rating of these symptoms for 28 consecutive days. For pain, peak and end momentary ratings predicted daily recall of average pain beyond the actual average of momentary ratings. This effect was small, yet was confirmed in both between-person and within-person (repeated measures) analyses. For fatigue, neither peak nor end momentary symptoms significantly contributed to daily recall. Of note, the evidence for peak- and end-effects in recall of pain and fatigue varied significantly between individual patients. These findings suggest that peak- and end-effects create a small bias in recall reports of pain, but not fatigue. However, there are considerable individual differences in susceptibility to peak and end heuristics. The peak-end cognitive heuristic could bias end-of-day recall of pain and fatigue. An effect was shown for pain, but not for fatigue. The effects were small and were unlikely to substantially bias end-of-day assessments. Individuals were shown to differ in the degree that the heuristic was associated with recall. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of heart failure etiology on the prognostic value of peak oxygen consumption and minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production slope. (United States)

    Arena, Ross; Myers, Jonathan; Abella, Joshua; Peberdy, Mary Ann


    Peak oxygen consumption (V(O2)) and minute ventilation (V(E))/carbon dioxide production (V(CO2)) slope have been widely demonstrated to have strong prognostic value in patients with heart failure (HF). In the present study, we investigated the effect of HF etiology on the prognostic applications of peak V(O2) and Ve/V(CO2) slope. Two hundred sixty-eight subjects underwent symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). The population was divided into ischemic (115 men and 22 women) and nonischemic (108 men and 23 women) subgroups. The occurrence of cardiac-related events over the year following CPX was compared between groups using receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis Mean age +/- SD was significantly higher (61.0 +/- 10.0 years vs 50.3 +/- 16.2 years) while mean peak V(O2) was significantly lower (15.0 +/- 5.2 mL/kg/min vs 17.5 +/- 6.7 mL/kg/min) in the ischemic HF group (p slope were significant predictors of cardiac events in both the ischemic group (peak V(O2), 0.74; V(E)/V(CO2) slope, 0.76; p slope, 0.86; p slope were 34.2 and 34.5 in the ischemic and nonischemic groups, respectively. Baseline and exercise characteristics were different between ischemic and nonischemic patients with HF. However, the prognostic power of the major CPX variables was strikingly similar. Different prognostic classification schemes based on HF etiology may therefore not be necessary when analyzing CPX responses in clinical practice.

  15. Exercise challenge in patients with asthma whose peak expiratory flow values are controlled within the green zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideko Kobayashi


    Full Text Available Recent guidelines for the management of asthma recommend that peak expiratory flow (PEF should be measured to monitor the level of airflow limitation and to maintain PEF values within the green zone (80–100% of the patient's highest PEF value. Because no studies have evaluated the efficacy of PEF zone management on the basis of patients' physical activity, we studied the appearance of exercise-induced asthma (EIA using treadmill exercise challenging in asthma patients whose PEF values had been maintained in the green zone for at least 3 months. Exercise-induced asthma was induced in nine of 44 (20.5% asthma patients. The acetylcholine concentration required to cause a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (log PC20 was significantly lower in patients with EIA (2.39±0.21 μg/mL compared with patients without EIA (3.22±0.12 μg/mL; P <0.03. These results suggest that PEF green zone management alone does not ensure the ability to perform vigorous physical activity, especially in patients whose airway reactivity remains enhanced. Therefore, airway reactivity should be considered for asthma management.

  16. Spectral Doppler Waveforms for Diagnosis of Appendicitis: Potential Utility of Point Peak Systolic Velocity and Resistive Index Values. (United States)

    Shin, Lewis K; Jeffrey, R Brooke; Berry, Gerald J; Olcott, Eric W


    Purpose To test the hypothesis that appendiceal spectral Doppler waveforms can distinguish patients with and patients without appendicitis. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, Doppler waveforms were obtained from intramural appendiceal arteries identified with color Doppler imaging in 60% (93 of 155) of consecutive patients whose appendices were visualized at graded compression ultrasonography (US) performed for suspected appendicitis (53 male and 40 female; age, 1-56 years; mean, 14.5 years) over the 5-month period from November 2015 through March 2016. Point, non-angle-corrected peak systolic velocity (PSV) and resistive index (RI) values were compared between patients with and patients without appendicitis by utilizing histopathologically proven appendicitis and 6-week clinical follow-up as diagnostic reference standards. Data were assessed by using the Student t test, exact binomial distribution, two-sample test of proportions, and receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results Among the 93 patients, 36 (38.7%) had proven appendicitis (mean PSV, 19.7 cm/sec; mean RI, 0.69) and 57 patients (61.2%) did not (mean PSV, 7.1 cm/sec, P appendicitis was 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95, 1.00) for PSV and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.95; P = .011) for RI. Chosen discriminatory criteria of PSV greater than 10 cm/sec and RI greater than 0.65 yielded specificity for appendicitis of 94.7% and 96.5% with sensitivity of 88.9% and 63.9% (P = .013) and negative predictive value of 93.1% and 80.9% (P = .045), respectively. Original clinical graded compression US interpretations based on established US findings demonstrated specificity of 96.2% and sensitivity of 100.0%. Considering the subset of 20 patients whose maximum outer diameter measured 6-8 mm, the discriminatory criteria of PSV greater than 10 cm/sec and RI greater than 0.65 yielded specificity for appendicitis of 88.9% each, with sensitivity of 100.0% and 63.6% and negative predictive value of 100

  17. The value of reference ranges for middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity in the management of rhesus alloimmunized pregnancies. (United States)

    Andrei, Cristian; Vladareanu, Radu


    To establish reference ranges for middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity (MCA PSV) and to certify their value in the management of Rhesus alloimmunized pregnancies. A reference range of MCA PSV with gestation was constructed by studying 342 pregnancies at 25-40 weeks. A comparison was made between the reference ranges produced in our study and those already published. Fetal MCA PSV was also measured in 30 fetuses from Rhesus alloimmunized pregnancies at 25-39 weeks. Last MCA PSV measurement was made within 7 days before measurement of umbilical cord hemoglobin at delivery. MCA PSV and hemoglobin were expressed as multiples of median (MoM). In the normal pregnancies a significant increase in MCA PSV with gestation resulted. The reference ranges for MCA PSV in normal pregnancies were similar to those already in use up to 34 weeks. From 35 to 40 weeks, our values were lower. In the Rhesus alloimmunized pregnancies, MCA PSV was increased. We found a good correlation between MoM MCA PSV and MoM hemoglobin. Using a threshold of 1.29 for MoM PSV, the sensitivity and specificity of MCA PSV in predicting any degree of anemia (Hb ≤0.84 MoM) were 88.46% and 98.27%. Our reference ranges for MCA PSV can perform well from 25 until 35 weeks of gestation. Based on this, measurement of the MCA PSV in fetuses at risk for anemia provides a reliable, non-invasive clinical test for the prediction of fetal anemia.

  18. Second trimester ultrasound: reference values for two-dimensional speckle tracking-derived longitudinal strain, strain rate and time to peak deformation of the fetal heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapusta, L.; Mainzer, G.; Weiner, Z.; Deutsch, L.; Khoury, A.; Haddad, S.; Lorber, A.


    BACKGROUND: Data on myocardial deformation during the internationally widely used second-trimester screening are scarce and confusing. Reference values of time to peak strain are missing. The aims of this study were to assess reference values derived from two-dimensional speckle-tracking

  19. On the almost inconceivable misunderstandings concerning the subject of value-free social science. (United States)

    Black, Donald


    A value judgment says what is good or bad, and value-free social science simply means social science free of value judgments. Yet many sociologists regard value-free social science as undesirable or impossible and readily make value judgments in the name of sociology. Often they display confusion about such matters as the meaning of value-free social science, value judgments internal and external to social science, value judgments as a subject of social science, the relevance of objectivity for value-free social science, and the difference between the human significance of social science and value-free social science. But why so many sociologists are so value-involved - and generally so unscientific - is sociologically understandable: The closest and most distant subjects attract the least scientific ideas. And during the past century sociologists have become increasingly close to their human subject. The debate about value-free social science is also part of an epistemological counterrevolution of humanists (including many sociologists) against the more scientific social scientists who invaded and threatened to expropriate the human subject during the past century. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  20. An instrument to assess subjective task value beliefs regarding the decision to pursue postgraduate training. (United States)

    Hagemeier, Nicholas E; Murawski, Matthew M


    To develop and validate an instrument to assess subjective ratings of the perceived value of various postgraduate training paths followed using expectancy-value as a theoretical framework; and to explore differences in value beliefs across type of postgraduate training pursued and type of pharmacy training completed prior to postgraduate training. A survey instrument was developed to sample 4 theoretical domains of subjective task value: intrinsic value, attainment value, utility value, and perceived cost. Retrospective self-report methodology was employed to examine respondents' (N=1,148) subjective task value beliefs specific to their highest level of postgraduate training completed. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic techniques were used to evaluate and validate value belief constructs. Intrinsic, attainment, utility, cost, and financial value constructs resulted from exploratory factor analysis. Cross-validation resulted in a 26-item instrument that demonstrated good model fit. Differences in value beliefs were noted across type of postgraduate training pursued and pharmacy training characteristics. The Postgraduate Training Value Instrument demonstrated evidence of reliability and construct validity. The survey instrument can be used to assess value beliefs regarding multiple postgraduate training options in pharmacy and potentially inform targeted recruiting of individuals to those paths best matching their own value beliefs.

  1. Neural mechanisms underlying contextual dependency of subjective values: converging evidence from monkeys and humans. (United States)

    Abitbol, Raphaëlle; Lebreton, Maël; Hollard, Guillaume; Richmond, Barry J; Bouret, Sébastien; Pessiglione, Mathias


    A major challenge for decision theory is to account for the instability of expressed preferences across time and context. Such variability could arise from specific properties of the brain system used to assign subjective values. Growing evidence has identified the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) as a key node of the human brain valuation system. Here, we first replicate this observation with an fMRI study in humans showing that subjective values of painting pictures, as expressed in explicit pleasantness ratings, are specifically encoded in the VMPFC. We then establish a bridge with monkey electrophysiology, by comparing single-unit activity evoked by visual cues between the VMPFC and the orbitofrontal cortex. At the neural population level, expected reward magnitude was only encoded in the VMPFC, which also reflected subjective cue values, as expressed in Pavlovian appetitive responses. In addition, we demonstrate in both species that the additive effect of prestimulus activity on evoked activity has a significant impact on subjective values. In monkeys, the factor dominating prestimulus VMPFC activity was trial number, which likely indexed variations in internal dispositions related to fatigue or satiety. In humans, prestimulus VMPFC activity was externally manipulated through changes in the musical context, which induced a systematic bias in subjective values. Thus, the apparent stochasticity of preferences might relate to the VMPFC automatically aggregating the values of contextual features, which would bias subsequent valuation because of temporal autocorrelation in neural activity. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/352308-13$15.00/0.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Mirela Amariei


    deviations from the physiologically normal values were noticed, all the other investigated subjects show values higher than the superior limit of the reference interval while, statistically, the values of the seric enzymes are highly significant (p<0.001, with the exception of those of aspartat-aminotransferase (in the 71-86 years group and of Ȗ-glutamyl- transferase (the 41-50 year group, which are insignificant.

  3. Arm Crank and Wheelchair Ergometry Produce Similar Peak Oxygen Uptake but Different Work Economy Values in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury. (United States)

    Tørhaug, Tom; Brurok, Berit; Hoff, Jan; Helgerud, Jan; Leivseth, Gunnar


    Objective. To study whether values for peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and work economy (WE) at a standardized workload are different when tested by arm crank ergometry (ACE) and wheelchair ergometry (WCE). Methods. Twelve paraplegic men with spinal cord injury (SCI) in stable neurological condition participated in this cross-sectional repeated-measures study. We determined VO2peak and peak power output (POpeak) values during ACE and WCE in a work-matched protocol. Work economy was tested at a standardized workload of 30 Watts (W) for both ACE and WCE. Results. There were no significant differences in VO2peak (mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) between ACE (27.3 ± 3.2) and WCE (27.4 ± 3.8) trials, and a Bland-Altman plot shows that findings are within 95% level of agreement. WE or oxygen consumption at 30 W (VO2-30W) was significantly lower during WCE compared to ACE (P Trials Protocol Record is NCT00987155/4.2007.2271.

  4. PAPR Reduction in OFDM-based Visible Light Communication Systems Using a Combination of Novel Peak-value Feedback Algorithm and Genetic Algorithm (United States)

    Deng, Honggui; Liu, Yan; Ren, Shuang; He, Hailang; Tang, Chengying


    We propose an enhanced partial transmit sequence technique based on novel peak-value feedback algorithm and genetic algorithm (GAPFA-PTS) to reduce peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals in visible light communication (VLC) systems(VLC-OFDM). To demonstrate the advantages of our proposed algorithm, we analyze the flow of proposed technique and compare the performances with other techniques through MATLAB simulation. The results show that GAPFA-PTS technique achieves a significant improvement in PAPR reduction while maintaining low bit error rate (BER) and low complexity in VLC-OFDM systems.

  5. Predictive value of testing random urine sample to detect microalbuminuria in diabetic subjects during outpatient visit. (United States)

    Bouhanick, B; Berrut, G; Chameau, A M; Hallar, M; Bled, F; Chevet, B; Vergely, J; Rohmer, V; Fressinaud, P; Marre, M


    The predictive value of random urine sample during outpatient visit to predict persistent microalbuminuria was studied in 76 Type 1, insulin-dependent diabetic subjects, 61 Type 2, non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects, and 72 Type 2, insulin-treated diabetic subjects. Seventy-six patients attended outpatient clinic during morning, and 133 during afternoon. Microalbuminuria was suspected if Urinary Albumin Excretion (UAE) exceeded 20 mg/l. All patients were hospitalized within 6 months following outpatient visit, and persistent microalbuminuria was assessed then if UAE was between 30 and 300 mg/24 h on 2-3 occasions in 3 urines samples. Of these 209 subjects eighty-three were also screened with Microbumintest (Ames-Bayer), a semi-quantitative method. Among the 209 subjects, 71 were positive both for microalbuminuria during outpatient visit and a persistent microalbuminuria during hospitalization: sensitivity 91.0%, specificity 83.2%, concordance 86.1%, and positive predictive value 76.3% (chi-squared test: 191; p less than 10(-4)). Data were not different for subjects examined on morning, or on afternoon. Among the 83 subjects also screened with Microbumintest, 22 displayed both a positive reaction and a persistent microalbuminuria: sensitivity 76%, specificity 81%, concordance 80%, and positive predictive value 69% (chi-squared test: 126; p less than 10(-4)). Both types of screening appeared equally effective during outpatient visit. Hence, a persistent microalbuminuria can be predicted during an outpatient visit in a diabetic clinic.

  6. Probabilistic Analysis of Peak Daily Rainfall for Prediction purposes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The obtained peak daily rainfall values were subjected to Gumbel, Log-Gumbel, Normal, Log-Normal, Pearson and Log-Pearson probability distributions. Mathematical equation for probability distribution functions were established for each town and used to predict peak rainfall. The predicted values were subjected to ...

  7. Peak flow meter (image) (United States)

    A peak flow meter is commonly used by a person with asthma to measure the amount of air that can be ... become narrow or blocked due to asthma, peak flow values will drop because the person cannot blow ...

  8. Valuing year-to-go hydrologic forecast improvements for a peaking hydropower system in the Sierra Nevada (United States)

    Rheinheimer, David E.; Bales, Roger C.; Oroza, Carlos A.; Lund, Jay R.; Viers, Joshua H.


    We assessed the potential value of hydrologic forecasting improvements for a snow-dominated high-elevation hydropower system in the Sierra Nevada of California, using a hydropower optimization model. To mimic different forecasting skill levels for inflow time series, rest-of-year inflows from regression-based forecasts were blended in different proportions with representative inflows from a spatially distributed hydrologic model. The statistical approach mimics the simpler, historical forecasting approach that is still widely used. Revenue was calculated using historical electricity prices, with perfect price foresight assumed. With current infrastructure and operations, perfect hydrologic forecasts increased annual hydropower revenue by 0.14 to 1.6 million, with lower values in dry years and higher values in wet years, or about $0.8 million (1.2%) on average, representing overall willingness-to-pay for perfect information. A second sensitivity analysis found a wider range of annual revenue gain or loss using different skill levels in snow measurement in the regression-based forecast, mimicking expected declines in skill as the climate warms and historical snow measurements no longer represent current conditions. The value of perfect forecasts was insensitive to storage capacity for small and large reservoirs, relative to average inflow, and modestly sensitive to storage capacity with medium (current) reservoir storage. The value of forecasts was highly sensitive to powerhouse capacity, particularly for the range of capacities in the northern Sierra Nevada. The approach can be extended to multireservoir, multipurpose systems to help guide investments in forecasting.

  9. Arm Crank and Wheelchair Ergometry Produce Similar Peak Oxygen Uptake but Different Work Economy Values in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Tørhaug


    Full Text Available Objective. To study whether values for peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak and work economy (WE at a standardized workload are different when tested by arm crank ergometry (ACE and wheelchair ergometry (WCE. Methods. Twelve paraplegic men with spinal cord injury (SCI in stable neurological condition participated in this cross-sectional repeated-measures study. We determined VO2peak and peak power output (POpeak values during ACE and WCE in a work-matched protocol. Work economy was tested at a standardized workload of 30 Watts (W for both ACE and WCE. Results. There were no significant differences in VO2peak (mL·kg−1·min−1 between ACE (27.3±3.2 and WCE (27.4±3.8 trials, and a Bland-Altman plot shows that findings are within 95% level of agreement. WE or oxygen consumption at 30 W (VO2-30W was significantly lower during WCE compared to ACE (P<0.039. Mean (95% CI POpeak (W were 130 (111–138 and 100 (83–110 during ACE and WCE, respectively. Conclusion. The findings in the present study support the use of both ACE and WCE for testing peak oxygen uptake. However, WE differed between the two test modalities, meaning that less total energy is used to perform external work of 30 W during wheelchair exercise when using this WCE (VP100 Handisport ergometer. Clinical Trials Protocol Record is NCT00987155/4.2007.2271.

  10. Mapping the hazard of extreme rainfall by peaks-over-threshold extreme value analysis and spatial regression techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beguería, S.; Vicente-Serrano, S.M.


    The occurrence of rainfalls of high magnitude constitutes a primary natural hazard in many parts of the world, and the elaboration of maps showing the hazard of extreme rainfalls has great theoretical and practical interest. In this work a procedure based on extreme value analysis and spatial

  11. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate in Petroleum Depot Workers and Petrol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) values in litres per minute were determined in petrol depot loaders, petrol station attendants and in control subjects. The PEFR values were 315 ± 94, 386 + 91 and 529 + 94 litres/min. in depot workers, petrol attendants and control subjects respectively. The value in the control subjects ...

  12. Predictive value of peak systolic velocity of cavernous artery in diagnosis of arterial insufficiency in erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Morteza Bagheri


    Full Text Available Background: Arterial insufficiency is a well-recognized etiology of erectile dysfunction. Moreover, nowadays it is appreciated that it can herald silent coronary artery disease in involved patients. However color Doppler study of penis with intracavernosal injection (ICI of Papaverin, as a helpful diagnostic study, is somehow time consuming and technically demanding, as a result, radiologists are reluctant to accomplish. Hence, in a search for more plausible parameters, we were determined to validate PSV in flaccid state for predicting possible arterial insufficiency in patients. Methods: In a cross sectional study to evaluate diagnostic tests, accomplished in Hasheminejad Urology center in Tehran throughout 2011, we studied 59 patients with the complaint of erectile dysfunction. They were referred to our ultrasound clinics by urologists in order to undergo color Doppler study of penis by ICI of Papaverin. They were studied comprehensively before and after injection. Primary and secondary diagnostic criteria of arterial disease in color Doppler and consequently the physiologic event of full erection were designated as gold standard diagnostic considerations. The resulted data were matched and analyzed with SPSS software. Results: Fifty nine patients underwent the study, with the mean age of 45.6 ± 13.1 (24 to 74 year old. Twenty two cases revealed normal study (non-organic causes as 37.3%, 29 were classified as venous leakage, and eight of them demonstrate arterial insufficiency in the study. A flaccid state PSV of 10.5 cm/s as cut off had a sensitivity of 93.8%, specifity of 91.3% and negative predictive value of 93.8% to predict arterial disease. Conclusion: A flaccid state PSV of 10.5 has a suitable statistical value to proclaim arterial insufficiency in cavernosal arteries in patients with erectile dysfunction as a complaint.

  13. [Study of personal best value of peak expiratory flow in patients with asthma--comparison of the highest value of daily PEF under good control and the highest value of daily PEF obtained after using repeated inhaled beta2-agonist during high-dose inhaled steroid treatment]. (United States)

    Watanabe, Naoto; Makino, Sohei; Kihara, Norio; Fukuda, Takeshi


    In the guideline for asthma management, it is important to find the personal best value of peak expiratory flow (best PEF). Recently, we have substituted the highest value of PEF in daily life under good control (daily highest PEF) for the best PEF. In the present study, we considered whether the daily highest PEF could be used as the best PEF or not. Subjects were 30 asthmatics who were well controlled but whose baseline PEF values were less than 80 percent of predicted values. We compared the daily highest PEF and the highest of PEF obtained after repeated inhaled beta2-agonist (salbutamol MDI every 20 minutes three times). All subjects then received 1600 microg/day of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) for 4 to 8 weeks. We studied the effect of high-dose inhaled steroid treatment on each PEF value and compared the daily highest PEF and the highest PEF obtained after using repeated salbutamol MDI during high dose inhaled steroid therapy on the examination day again. The baseline PEF, daily highest PEF and the highest PEF obtained after salbutamol MDI were significantly less than the each values obtained after high-dose BDP. The best PEF value of them was the value obtained after repeated salbutamol MDI during high dose BDP. We suggest that the daily highest PEF under good control is not a substitute for best PEF because it changes according to the degree of improvement of airway inflammation. We recommend that a course of high dose inhaled steroid is effective in finding the best value of PEF for each individual with moderate asthma.

  14. Trabecular bone mineral density measured by quantitative CT of the lumbar spine in children and adolescents: reference values and peak bone mass; Trabekulaere Knochendichte der Lendenwirbelsaeule bei Kindern und Jugendlichen in der quantitativen CT: Referenzwerte und Peak Bone Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthold, L.D.; Alzen, G. [Kinderradiologie, Zentrum fuer Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Giessen und Marburg GmbH, Standort Giessen (Germany); Haras, G. [Siemens AG, Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany); Mann, M. [AG Medizinische Statistik, Universitaetsklinikum Giessen und Marburg GmbH, Standort Giessen (Germany)


    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess bone density values in the trabecular substance of the lumbar vertebral column in children and young adults in Germany from infancy to the age of peak bone mass. Materials and Methods: We performed quantiative computed tomography (QCT) on the first lumbar vertebra in 28 children and adolescents without diseases that may influence bone metabolism (15 boys, 13 girls, mean ages 11 and 8 years, respectively). We also measured 17 healthy young adults (9 men, 8 women, mean ages 20 and 21 years). We used a Somatom Balance Scanner (Siemens, Erlangen) and the Siemens Osteo software. Scan parameters: Slice thickness 1 cm, 80 kV, 81 or 114 mAs. We measured the trabecular bone density and the area and height of the vertebra and calculated the volume and content of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca-HA) in the trabecular substance of the first lumbar vertebra. Results: Prepubertal boys had a mean bone density of 148.5 (median [med] 150.1, standard deviation [SD] 15.4) mg/Ca-HA per ml bone, and prepubertal girls had a mean density of 149.5 (med 150.8, SD 23.5) mg/ml. We did not observe a difference between prepubertal boys and girls. After puberty there was a significant difference (p<0.001) between males and females: Mean density (male) 158.0, med 162.5, SD 24.0 mg/ml, mean density (female) 191.2, med 191.3, SD 17.7 mg/ml. The Ca-HA content in the trabecular bone of the first lumbar vertebra was 1.1 (med 1.1, SD 0.5) g for prepubertal boys and 1.1 (0.9, 0.4) g for prepubertal girls. For post-pubertal males, the mean Ca-HA content was 3.5 g, med 3.5 SD 0.5 g, and for post-pubertal females, the mean content was 2.8, med 2.7, SD 0.4 g. Conclusion: The normal trabecular bone mineral density is 150 mg/ml with a standard deviation of 20 mg/ml independent of age or gender until the beginning of puberty. Peak bone mass (bone mineral content) in the trabecular substance of the lumbar vertebral column is higher in males than in females, and peak bone

  15. The dynamics of interaction of reflexive subjects operating with the two-valued versus many-valued logic. (United States)

    Sawa, Koji; Igamberdiev, Abir U


    In this paper we aim to approach a model of interacting subjects with the opposite types of reflexion that belong to the Western (W) and Eastern (E) reflexive modes according to Vladimir Lefebvre (1992). The model represents an expansion of the previously developed model of the Double Homunculus (Sawa and Igamberdiev, 2016) that describes reflexive agents as holding "the image of the self in the image of the self". A dialogue model between the two homunculus agents estimating their own reflexion in the opposite ways (generating the two-valued versus many-valued logic and loosely approximated as belonging to the W and E Lefebvre's types) is evolved. At the same time, the argument also unveils the relationship between a difference equation which is the key notion of the model and an emergence of logic. This can be a powerful tool for describing intercommunication of reflexive agents in the social environment as well as interactions between the entire social systems of different types. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Inculcation Nation Character Values Through Islamic Religious Education Subject In Public Senior High School

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    Yustiani Yustiani


    Full Text Available Cases of cheating, promiscuity, making sordid video student in the classroom are the phenomena of decline in character education at the school. In this sense, character education is essential to emphasized. This research uses qualitative approach, by applying design research CIPP model (Context, Input, Process, and Product. In context of building the nation character values at the school will success on condition that it is accompanied with system and climate supported by each school. One of supporting system and climate is the headmaster's policies on the regulation that support the implementation of character education, and this policy should be supported by infrastructure of the school. The input aspect that determines inculcation of nation character values in these both schools is the quality of the school resources including headmaster, teachers, educational staffs, students, and education infrastructures. From the aspects of process, inculcation nation character values on these schools is implemented through the integration of the Islamic religious education subject and culture of the school. Syllabus and RPP on subjects of Islamic religious education in State Senior High School 1 Kudus and State Senior High School 1 Jepara have already been insightful with the education of nation character. The aspects of product from internalization of cultural values and nation character are embodied in attitudes and behaviors of the students at school and society.

  17. The tolerance and nutritional value of two microfungal foods in human subjects. (United States)

    Udall, J N; Lo, C W; Young, V R; Scrimshaw, N S


    The tolerance of human subjects to two microfungal food products was studied in separate double-blind cross-over studies. As an addition to the subject's usual diets, cookies with and without 20 g of a product from Fusarium graminearium were fed to a group of 100 individuals daily. In a second study, cupcakes with and without 10 g of Paecilomyces variotii were given daily to 50 individuals. Mild rashes possibly related to one of the microfungal food products occurred in two individuals fed P variotii. Except for a decrease in serum cholesterol during the F graminearium study, no significant changes were noted in 17 serum constituents. During nutritive value studies, digestibility, biological value, and net protein utilization were calculated for the two microfungal proteins and for milk. The values for milk were 95, 85, and 80%, respectively. The values for F graminearium were 78, 84, and 65%, respectively. For P variotii corresponding figures were 81, 67, and 54%. On the basis of these results both microfungal foods may be deemed safe for human consumption at the levels tested.

  18. The Implementation Of Character Education Values In Integrated Physical Education Subject In Elementary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suherman Ayi


    Full Text Available The issue of this research emphasizes on the implementation of character building values through physical education learning in elementary school. The effort in developing this character building practice is essential to be done in order to tackle moral and character crises, which already occur in both individual and collective levels reflected in educational institution from elementary school to higher education. Hence, to form culture and national character, educational program and process are inseparable from environmental factor including the values of society, culture, and humanity. Physical education subject that is based on 2013 Curriculum has significant difference compared to the previous physical education subject. This is due to the fact that integrated physical education has its own uniqueness in terms of planning, systematic implementation, and instructional medium. This research aims at producing guidance in implementing character values integrated in physical education in elementary school. The method used in this research is research and development (R&D method, which includes preliminary research, model designing, limited trial, and extensive trial, as well as validation and dissemination. The findings of the research show that character values can be implemented in physical education in elementary schools in Sumedang Regency.

  19. Subjective interpretation, laboratory error and the value of forensic DNA evidence: three case studies. (United States)

    Thompson, W C


    This article discusses two factors that may profoundly affect the value of DNA evidence for proving that two samples have a common source: uncertainty about the interpretation of test results and the possibility of laboratory error. Three case studies are presented to illustrate the importance of the analyst's subjective judgments in interpreting some RFLP-based forensic DNA tests. In each case, the likelihood ratio describing the value of DNA evidence is shown to be dramatically reduced by uncertainty about the scoring of bands and the possibility of laboratory error. The article concludes that statistical estimates of the frequency of matching genotypes can be a misleading index of the value of DNA evidence, and that more adequate indices are needed. It also argues that forensic laboratories should comply with the National Research Council's recommendation that forensic test results be scored in a blind or objective manner.

  20. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo


    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  1. Serum thyroglobulin reference values according to NACB criteria in healthy subjects with normal thyroid ultrasound. (United States)

    Giovanella, Luca; Imperiali, Mauro; Ferrari, Anna; Palumbo, Alessia; Furlani, Lino; Graziani, Maria Stella; Castello, Roberto


    The present study was undertaken to establish serum thyroglobulin (Tg) normal reference values in a large group of healthy subjects. Four hundred and thirty-eight non-smoking healthy subjects were selected to assess the Tg reference values (209 males, 229 non-pregnant females, age 34.7±13.1 years). Inclusion criteria were: no personal or familial history of thyroid disease, thyrotropin levels from 0.5 to 2.00 mUI/L, negative thyroperoxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies. In addition, the patients had a normal size thyroid (females ≤18 mL, males ≤25 mL) without nodules on the thyroid ultrasound (TUS). According to National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) criteria the Tg results were transformed to a logarithmic scale and reference ranges were calculated as mean±2 SD. Serum Tg was measured on the Beckman Coulter UniCel DxI 800 automated platform by the simultaneous 1-step immunoenzymatic Access Thyroglobulin assay (Beckmann-Coulter SA, Nyon, Switzerland). Serum Tg levels were higher in females than in males (p=0.0022). Accordingly, gender-specific reference values were calculated (i.e., males: 1.40-29.2 ng/mL; females: 1.50-38.5 ng/mL). To the best of the authors' knowledge, the first reference interval study for Tg that integrates NACB criteria and TUS assessment for the selection of the reference population is provided here.

  2. The δ30Si peak value discovered in middle Proterozoic chert and its implication for environmental variations in the ancient ocean. (United States)

    Ding, T P; Gao, J F; Tian, S H; Fan, C F; Zhao, Y; Wan, D F; Zhou, J X


    The silicon isotope composition of chert has recently been used to study the historic evolution of the global ocean. It has been suggested that Precambrian cherts have much higher δ 30 Si values than Phanerozoic cherts do and that the former show an increasing trend from 3.5 to 0.85 Ga, reflecting a decrease in ocean temperatures. However, cherts have various origins, and their isotopic compositions might be reset by metamorphic fluid circulation; thus, different types of cherts should be distinguished. Here, we present a new set of δ 30 Si data for cherts from early and middle Proterozoic carbonate rocks from Northern China. We found that cherts of 1.355-1.325 Ga show a peak range of 2.2-3.9‰. Based on these results, we propose that from the Archean to the middle Proterozoic, there was a drastic decrease in silicon content and an increase in the δ 30 Si value in ocean water due to a temperature decrease and biological activity increase. After that period, the silicon content of the ocean was limited to a low level by a high degree of biological absorption, and their δ 30 Si values varied in a small range around a significantly lower value.

  3. Subject-independent modeling and representation data on the formation and distribution of innovative value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov Aleksey


    Full Text Available Creating an innovation environment is shown in the context of interaction of economic agents in the creation and consumption of innovative value-based infrastructure approach. The problem of the complexity of collecting heterogeneous data on the formation and distribution of innovative value in the conditions of the dynamic nature of the research object and the environment is formulated. An information model providing a subject-independent representation of data on innovation value flows is proposed and allows to automate the processes of data collection and analysis with the minimization of time costs. The article was prepared in the course of carrying out research work within the framework of the project part of the state task in the field of scientific activity in accordance with the assignment 26.2758.2017 / 4.6 for 2017-2019. on the topic “System for analyzing the formation and distribution of the value of innovative products based on the infrastructure concept”.

  4. Radial artery pulse pressure variation correlates with brachial artery peak velocity variation in ventilated subjects when measured by internal medicine residents using hand-carried ultrasound devices. (United States)

    Brennan, J Matthew; Blair, John E A; Hampole, Chetan; Goonewardena, Sascha; Vasaiwala, Samip; Shah, Dipak; Spencer, Kirk T; Schmidt, Gregory A


    Rapid prediction of the effect of volume expansion is crucial in unstable patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Both radial artery pulse pressure variation (DeltaPP) and change of aortic blood flow peak velocity are accurate predictors but may be impractical point-of-care tools. We sought to determine whether respiratory changes in the brachial artery blood flow velocity (DeltaVpeak-BA) as measured by internal medicine residents using a hand-carried ultrasound (HCU) device could provide an accurate corollary to DeltaPP in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Thirty patients passively receiving volume-control ventilation with preexisting radial artery catheters were enrolled. The brachial artery Doppler signal was recorded and analyzed by blinded internal medicine residents using a HCU device. Simultaneous radial artery pulse wave and central venous pressure recordings (when available) were analyzed by a blinded critical care physician. A Doppler signal was obtained in all 30 subjects. The DeltaVpeak-BA correlated well with DeltaPP (r = 0.84) with excellent agreement (weighted kappa, 0.82) and limited intraobserver variability (2.8 +/- 2.8%) [mean +/- SD]. A DeltaVpeak-BA cutoff of 16% was highly predictive of DeltaPP > or = 13% (sensitivity, 91%; specificity, 95%). A poor correlation existed between the CVP and both DeltaVpeak-BA (r = - 0.21) and DeltaPP (r = - 0.16). The HCU Doppler assessment of the DeltaVpeak-BA as performed by internal medicine residents is a rapid, noninvasive bedside correlate to DeltaPP, and a DeltaVpeak-BA cutoff of 16% may prove useful as a point-of-care tool for the prediction of volume responsiveness in patients receiving mechanical ventilation.

  5. Expectancy of Success, Subjective Task-Value, and Message Frame in the Appraisal of Value-Promoting Messages Made Prior to a High-Stakes Examination (United States)

    Putwain, David W.; Symes, Wendy


    Previous research has examined how subjective task-value and expectancy of success influence the appraisal of value-promoting messages used by teachers prior to high-stakes examinations. The aim of this study was to examine whether message-frame (gain or loss-framed messages) also influences the appraisal of value-promoting messages. Two hundred…

  6. Prognostic value of a new cardiopulmonary exercise testing parameter in chronic heart failure: oxygen uptake efficiency at peak exercise - comparison with oxygen uptake efficiency slope. (United States)

    Toste, Alexandra; Soares, Rui; Feliciano, Joana; Andreozzi, Valeska; Silva, Sofia; Abreu, Ana; Ramos, Ruben; Santos, Ninel; Ferreira, Lurdes; Ferreira, Rui Cruz


    A growing body of evidence shows the prognostic value of oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) parameter derived from the logarithmic relationship between O(2) consumption (VO(2)) and minute ventilation (VE) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). To evaluate the prognostic value of a new CPET parameter - peak oxygen uptake efficiency (POUE) - and to compare it with OUES in patients with CHF. We prospectively studied 206 consecutive patients with stable CHF due to dilated cardiomyopathy - 153 male, aged 53.3±13.0 years, 35.4% of ischemic etiology, left ventricular ejection fraction 27.7±8.0%, 81.1% in sinus rhythm, 97.1% receiving ACE-Is or ARBs, 78.2% beta-blockers and 60.2% spironolactone - who performed a first maximal symptom-limited treadmill CPET, using the modified Bruce protocol. In 33% of patients an cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) or cardiac resynchronization therapy device (CRT-D) was implanted during follow-up. Peak VO(2), percentage of predicted peak VO(2), VE/VCO(2) slope, OUES and POUE were analyzed. OUES was calculated using the formula VO(2) (l/min) = OUES (log(10)VE) + b. POUE was calculated as pVO(2) (l/min) / log(10)peakVE (l/min). Correlation coefficients between the studied parameters were obtained. The prognosis of each variable adjusted for age was evaluated through Cox proportional hazard models and R2 percent (R2%) and V index (V6) were used as measures of the predictive accuracy of events of each of these variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves from logistic regression models were used to determine the cut-offs for OUES and POUE. pVO(2): 20.5±5.9; percentage of predicted peak VO(2): 68.6±18.2; VE/VCO(2) slope: 30.6±8.3; OUES: 1.85±0.61; POUE: 0.88±0.27. During a mean follow-up of 33.1±14.8 months, 45 (21.8%) patients died, 10 (4.9%) underwent urgent heart transplantation and in three patients (1.5%) a left ventricular assist device was implanted. All variables proved

  7. Determination of concentric and eccentric peak moment values for trunk flexion and extension in sedentary asymptomatic individuals by isokinetic dynamometry: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Stradiotto Bernardelli


    Full Text Available The spine has a direct influence on postural alignment and movement of the whole body. Lumbar muscles constitute a critical element in trunk performance while weakness of these muscles has been associated with low back pain. Hence, strength profiling of trunk muscles is clinically significant. The objective of this research was to determine, by means of isokinetic dynamometry, peak moment (PM values during isokinetic concentric and eccentric efforts of trunk flexion and extension in sedentary asymptomatic individuals. The sample consisted of 100 asymptomatic sedentary volunteers, fifty from each sex, aging 22.2 ± 3.3 years old. The sample underwent concentric and eccentric isokinetic assessment of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles at an angular velocity of 60 degrees/sec for each mode of contraction. The mean concentric PM for trunk flexion and extension were 139.5 and 166.6 Nm, respectively, while the respective values for the eccentric efforts were 188.8 and 221.2 Nm. The PM flexion/extension ratio was 0.87 and 0.89 for the concentric and eccentric efforts, respectively. These values of concentric and eccentric PM and PM ratio will serve as comparison parameters for future research, as well as for the assessment of symptomatic patients, and to help in the creation of the trunk muscle rebalance protocols.

  8. Using sound-taste correspondences to enhance the subjective value of tasting experiences. (United States)

    Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Van Ee, Raymond; Rychtarikova, Monika; Touhafi, Abdellah; Steenhaut, Kris; Persoone, Dominique; Spence, Charles


    The soundscapes of those places where we eat and drink can influence our perception of taste. Here, we investigated whether contextual sound would enhance the subjective value of a tasting experience. The customers in a chocolate shop were invited to take part in an experiment in which they had to evaluate a chocolate's taste while listening to an auditory stimulus. Four different conditions were presented in a between-participants design. Envisioning a more ecological approach, a pre-recorded piece of popular music and the shop's own soundscape were used as the sonic stimuli. The results revealed that not only did the customers report having a significantly better tasting experience when the sounds were presented as part of the food's identity, but they were also willing to pay significantly more for the experience. The method outlined here paves a new approach to dealing with the design of multisensory tasting experiences, and gastronomic situations.

  9. Subjective education in analytic training: drawing on values from the art academy. (United States)

    Dougherty, Mary


    Kernberg and others have observed that psychoanalytic education has tended to promote the acquisition of theoretical knowledge and clinical technique within an atmosphere of indoctrination rather than of exploration. As a corrective, he proposed four models that correspond to values in psychoanalytic education: the art academy, the technical trade school, the religious seminary and the university. He commended models of the university and art academy to our collective attention because of their combined effectiveness in providing for the objective and subjective education of candidates: the university model for its capacity to provide a critical sense of a wide range of theories in an atmosphere tolerating debate and difference, and the art academy model for its capacity to facilitate the expression of individual creativity. In this paper, I will explore the art academy model for correspondences between artistic and analytic trainings that can enhance the development of the creative subjectivity of psychoanalytic candidates. I will draw additional correspondences between analytic and artistic learning that can enhance psychoanalytic education.

  10. Predictive value of "Marsh 1" type histology in subjects with suspected cealic disease. (United States)

    Tortora, Raffaella; Capone, Pietro; Imperatore, Nicola; De Stefano, Giuliano; Gerbino, Nicolò; Leo, Maria; Caporaso, Nicola; Rispo, Antonio


    The diagnosis of celiac disease (CD) is based on histology in combination with anti-tissue transglutaminase (a-tTG) and anti-endomysial antibodies (EMAs). The increase of intraepithelial lymphocytes defines the Marsh 1 histology that appears not to be specific for CD. To explore the positive predictive value (PPV) and clinical relevance of Marsh 1 histology in suspected CD. We carried out an observational prospective study including all consecutive subjects with a Marsh 1 histology. All patients were tested for a-tTG and EMAs. Diagnosis of potential CD was defined in the presence of Marsh 1 with positive a-tTG and EMAs. Patients were investigated for symptoms, CD familial aggregation, other diseases, and current medication. Sixty-three patients with Marsh 1 were included. Diagnosis of potential CD was made in 23 subjects (36%), so that Marsh 1 histology showed a PPV of 36%. With regard to familial aggregation, patients with potential CD showed a higher frequency of familiarity for CD (60.8% vs. 15.0%; p < 0.01). No significant difference was detected between CD and non-CD in terms of intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms. We also documented the presence of conditions other than CD in the remaining population: 7 patients (17.5%) with immuno-mediated diseases while 5 patients (12.5%) showed Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection. About medication, 3 patients (7.5%) were on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, while another 4 (10%) patients were being treated with other drugs. The Marsh 1 type histology is not specific for CD and it can also be associated with immuno-mediated disorders, HP infection, and drugs.

  11. Using Sound-Taste Correspondences to Enhance the Subjective Value of Tasting Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe eReinoso Carvalho


    Full Text Available The soundscapes of those places where we eat and drink can influence our perception of taste. Here, we investigated whether contextual sound would enhance the subjective value of a tasting experience. The customers in a chocolate shop were invited to take part in an experiment in which they had to evaluate a chocolate’s taste while listening to an auditory stimulus. Four different conditions were presented to four different groups in a between-participants design. Envisioning a more ecological approach, a pre-recorded piece of popular music and the shop’s own soundscape were used as the sonic stimuli. The results revealed that not only did the customers report having a significantly better tasting experience when the sounds were presented as part of the food’s identity, but they were also willing to pay significantly more for the experience. The method outlined here paves a new approach to dealing with the design of multisensory tasting experiences, and gastronomic situations.

  12. Normal controlled attenuation parameter values: a prospective study of healthy subjects undergoing health checkups and liver donors in Korea. (United States)

    Chon, Young Eun; Jung, Kyu Sik; Kim, Kwang Joon; Joo, Dong Jin; Kim, Beom Kyung; Park, Jun Yong; Kim, Do Young; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Kim, Seung Up


    The controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) is a noninvasive method of assessing hepatic steatosis. We defined the normal range of CAP values in healthy subjects and evaluated the associated factors. CAP values were measured in a cohort of healthy subjects who were screened as living liver transplantation donors and those who underwent health checkups. Subjects with current or a history of chronic liver disease, abnormalities on liver-related laboratory tests, or fatty liver on ultrasonography or biopsy were excluded. The mean age of the 264 recruited subjects (131 males and 133 females; 76 potential liver donors and 188 subjects who had undergone health checkups) was 49.2 years. The mean CAP value was 224.8 ± 38.7 dB/m (range 100.0-308.0 dB/m), and the range of normal CAP values (5th-95th percentiles) was 156.0-287.8 dB/m. The mean CAP value was significantly higher in the health checkup than in the potential liver donor group (227.5 ± 42.0 vs. 218.2 ± 28.3 dB/m, P = 0.040). CAP values did not differ significantly according to gender or age in either group (all P > 0.05). In a multivariate linear regression analysis, body mass index (β = 0.271, P = 0.024) and triglyceride levels (β = 0.348, P = 0.008) were found to be independently associated with CAP values. We determined the normal range of CAP values and found that body mass index and triglyceride levels were associated with the CAP values of healthy subjects.

  13. Prognostic value of high sensitive C-reactive protein in subjects with silent myocardial ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Mette; Intzilakis, Theodoros; Binici, Zeynep


    . High-sensitive CRP and 48-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring were performed. The primary endpoint was the combined endpoint of death and myocardial infarction. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 76 months. Seventy-seven subjects (11.4%) had SMI. The combined endpoint occurred in 26% of the subjects...

  14. Values and Subjective Mental Health in America: A Social Adaptation Approach. (United States)

    Kahle, Lynn R.; And Others

    Although surveys of mental health involve some controversy, a significant relationship between values and mental health appears to exist. To study the adaption of individuals with alternative values to their psychological worlds, over 2,000 adults identified their most important values. Alcohol abuse, drug abuse, dizziness, anxiety, and general…

  15. Short-term effects of sports taping on navicular height, navicular drop and peak plantar pressure in healthy elite athletes: A within-subject comparison. (United States)

    Kim, Taegyu; Park, Jong-Chul


    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is one of the most common exercise-induced leg pain. The navicular drop (ND) was identified as a risk factor for MTSS. This study aimed to evaluate the short-term effects of sports taping applied to the supporting lower leg during sitting, standing, walking, and jogging to restrict the ND in healthy elite athletes.Twenty-four healthy elite athletes without a history of exercise-induced pain or injuries in the lower limbs participated in this study (median age: 21.00 years; 1st--3rd quartiles; 19.25-22.00). The 4 taping conditions were used: rigid taping (RT), kinesiology taping (KT), placebo taping (PT), and non-taping (NT). The order of taping techniques was randomly assigned. Normalized navicular height (NH), ND, and normalized ND evaluated using 3-dimensional motion analysis, and normalized peak plantar pressure (PP) were compared in 4 taping conditions during sitting, standing, walking, and jogging.During sitting, the normalized NH of RT is higher than that of NT, KT, and PT (χ = 17.30, P = .001), while during jogging, the normalized NH of RT is higher than that of NT and PT (χ = 10.55, P = .014). The normalized peak PP of NT is higher than that of PT (χ = 8.871, P = .031) in the lateral midfoot region.This study showed the RT technique maintained NH during sitting and jogging, and the RT technique could be an effective preventive and treatment strategy for MTSS.

  16. Plantar-flexor Static Stretch Training Effect on Eccentric and Concentric Peak Torque – A comparative Study of Trained versus Untrained Subjects (United States)

    Abdel-aziem, Amr Almaz; Mohammad, Walaa Sayed


    The aim of this study was to examine the long-term effects of static stretching of the plantar-flexor muscles on eccentric and concentric torque and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion in healthy subjects. Seventy five healthy male volunteers, with no previous history of trauma to the calf that required surgery, absence of knee flexion contracture and no history of neurologic dysfunction or disease, systemic disease affecting the lower extremities were selected for this study. The participants were divided into three equal groups. The control group did not stretch the plantar-flexor muscles. Two Experimental groups (trained and untrained) were instructed to perform static stretching exercise of 30 second duration and 5 repetitions twice daily. The stretching sessions were carried out 5 days a week for 6 weeks. The dorsiflexion range of motion was measured in all subjects. Also measured was the eccentric and concentric torque of plantar-flexors at angular velocities of 30 and 120°/s pre and post stretching. Analysis of variance showed a significant increase in plantar-flexor eccentric and concentric torque (p dorsiflexion range of motion (p plantarflexion torque at angular velocities of 30 and 120°/s. Increases in plantar-flexors flexibility were observed in untrained subjects. PMID:23486840

  17. Multiple negative differential resistance devices with ultra-high peak-to-valley current ratio for practical multi-valued logic and memory applications (United States)

    Shin, Sunhae; Rok Kim, Kyung


    In this paper, we propose a novel multiple negative differential resistance (NDR) device with ultra-high peak-to-valley current ratio (PVCR) over 106 by combining tunnel diode with a conventional MOSFET, which suppresses the valley current with transistor off-leakage level. Band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) in tunnel junction provides the first peak, and the second peak and valley are generated from the suppression of diffusion current in tunnel diode by the off-state MOSFET. The multiple NDR curves can be controlled by doping concentration of tunnel junction and the threshold voltage of MOSFET. By using complementary multiple NDR devices, five-state memory is demonstrated only with six transistors.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DRĂGHICI


    Full Text Available The society does not have to be a mere observer of reality; it should have an initiative and it should take measures in order to ensure the common good. It is very important to have in mind that, besides the criminal law, the church is another entity that protects social values. From this angle, they represent what we want, seek, cherish and love. The valuation criteria depend on the value assessment of the members of the society, on their conscience and, not least, on their degree of culture. The society categorizes as social values all those criteria on which it depends for its existence, development and sustainability.

  19. Prognostic value of the morning blood pressure surge in 5645 subjects from 8 populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yan; Thijs, Lutgarde; Hansen, Tine W


    Previous studies on the prognostic significance of the morning blood pressure surge (MS) produced inconsistent results. Using the International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcome, we analyzed 5645 subjects (mean age: 53.0 years; 54.0% women) randomly...

  20. Ability Self-Concepts and Subjective Value in Literacy: Joint Trajectories from Grades 1 through 12 (United States)

    Archambault, Isabelle; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Vida, Mina N.


    Because literacy skills are critical for most academic subject matters, researchers have become increasingly interested in understanding children's motivation in this domain as a way to increase academic success. In this study, we extend previous work by looking at the heterogeneity of children's motivational changes in literacy across Grades…

  1. Task value profiles across subjects and aspirations to physical and IT-related sciences in the United States and Finland. (United States)

    Chow, Angela; Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Salmela-Aro, Katariina


    Two independent studies were conducted to extend previous research by examining the associations between task value priority patterns across school subjects and aspirations toward the physical and information technology- (IT-) related sciences. Study 1 measured task values of a sample of 10th graders in the United States (N = 249) across (a) physics and chemistry, (b) math, and (c) English. Study 2 measured task values of a sample of students in the second year of high school in Finland (N = 351) across (a) math and science, (b) Finnish, and (c) the arts and physical education. In both studies, students were classified into groups according to how they ranked math and science in relation to the other subjects. Regression analyses indicated that task value group membership significantly predicted subsequent aspirations toward physical and IT-related sciences measured 1-2 years later. The task value groups who placed the highest priority on math and science were significantly more likely to aspire to physical and IT-related sciences than were the other groups. These findings provide support for the theoretical assumption regarding the predictive role of intraindividual hierarchical patterns of task values for subsequent preferences and choices suggested by the Eccles [Parsons] (1983) expectancy-value model.

  2. Sural/radial nerve amplitude ratio: reference values in healthy subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, B.U.; Alfen, N. van; Bor, J.A.; Zwarts, M.J.


    The sural/radial nerve amplitude ratio (SRAR) has been proposed as a sensitive indicator of early-stage axonal polyneuropathy. However, previous studies did not take into account the effect of sex differences or different calculating methods. To obtain reference values and information on the

  3. Walking ability after stroke in patients from Argentina: predictive values of two tests in subjects with subacute hemiplegia (United States)

    Gatti, Marcelo Andrés; Portela, Manuel; Gianella, Matias; Freixes, Orestes; Fernández, Sergio Anibal; Rivas, Maria Elisa; Tanga, Cristobal Osvaldo; Olmos, Lisandro Emilio; Rubel, Ivan Federico


    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the predictive values of the trunk control test (TCT) and functional ambulation category (FAC) for independent walking up to 6 months post stroke. [Subjects] Twenty-seven subjects with hemiplegia secondary to a unilateral hemisphere stroke were included. [Methods] The protocol was started at 45 days post stroke, with the TCT and FAC as walking predictors. At 90, 120, and 180 days post stroke, the subjects’ independent walking ability was assessed by using the Wald test. [Results] The TCT was identified as an independent predictor of ambulation at 90, 120, and 180 days. Subjects who scored ≥ 49 in the initial test had 93.8% probability of achieving independent gait at 6 months. The FAC proved that 100% of the subjects who scored 2 at 45 days post stroke walked independently at 90 days, 100% of the subjects who scored 1 walked independently at 120 days, and only 33.3% of the subjects who scored 0 walked independently at 180 days. [Conclusion] The TCT and FAC can predict independent walking at 45 days post stroke. In subjects with FAC 0, the TCT should be used to predict patients who will be able to walk independently. PMID:26504338

  4. "The value of the soul." The discourses of management as modes of subjectivity at work.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Beatriz Soria


    Full Text Available This review describes the main guidelines, questions and hypotheses that traverse the recent work of Marcela B. Zangaro, called "Subjectivity and work. A Foucauldian reading of management", edited by Herramienta. The book, as its title indicates, dives for two fundamental topics of modernity: the modes of subjectification and labor issues. The author, from a critical perspective, links the input matrix from the Foucauldian and other aspects of the New Sociology of Capitalism and Critical Discourse Analysis. Since this articulation, she analyzes a broad set of discourses of management, understanding them as a technology of power, a technology of self, which organizes the bodies and emotions of the workers. In this sense, the text becomes a valuable input to understand the practices of subjectivity in the context of the many changes that have experienced the world of work in recent decades. These mutations can only be examined in the light of the new forms of organization and capital accumulation, complainant labor force, in its broadest sense, such as physical and mental abilities present in the body and embodiment of the workers.

  5. Prognostic value of ambulatory heart rate revisited in 6928 subjects from 6 populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine Willum; Thijs, Lutgarde; Staessen, Jan A.


    The evidence relating mortality and morbidity to heart rate remains inconsistent. We performed 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in 6928 subjects (not on beta-blockers; mean age: 56.2 years; 46.5% women) enrolled in prospective population studies in Denmark, Belgium, Japan, Sweden......, Uruguay, and China. We computed standardized hazard ratios for heart rate, while stratifying for cohort, and adjusting for blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors. Over 9.6 years (median), 850, 325, and 493 deaths accrued for total, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality......, respectively. The incidence of fatal combined with nonfatal end points was 805, 363, 439, and 324 for cardiovascular, stroke, cardiac, and coronary events, respectively. Twenty-four-hour heart rate predicted total (hazard ratio: 1.15) and noncardiovascular (hazard ratio: 1.18) mortality but not cardiovascular...

  6. The Prognostic Value of Ambulatory Heart Rate Revisited in 6928 Subjects from 6 Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine Willum; Thijs, Lutgarde; Staessen, Jan A.


    The evidence relating mortality and morbidity to heart rate remains inconsistent. We performed 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in 6928 subjects (not on β-blockers; mean age: 56.2 years; 46.5% women) enrolled in prospective population studies in Denmark, Belgium, Japan, Sweden, Uruguay......, and China. We computed standardized hazard ratios for heart rate, while stratifying for cohort, and adjusting for blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors. Over 9.6 years (median), 850, 325, and 493 deaths accrued for total, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality, respectively....... The incidence of fatal combined with nonfatal end points was 805, 363, 439, and 324 for cardiovascular, stroke, cardiac, and coronary events, respectively. Twenty-four-hour heart rate predicted total (hazard ratio: 1.15) and noncardiovascular (hazard ratio: 1.18) mortality but not cardiovascular mortality...

  7. The contemporary value of peak creatine kinase-MB after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction above other clinical and angiographic characteristics in predicting infarct size, left ventricular ejection fraction, and mortality. (United States)

    Hartman, Minke H T; Eppinga, Ruben N; Vlaar, Pieter J J; Lexis, Chris P H; Lipsic, Erik; Haeck, Joost D E; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; van der Horst, Iwan C C; van der Harst, Pim


    Complex multimarker approaches to predict outcome after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have only considered a single baseline sample, while neglecting easily obtainable peak creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) values during hospitalization. We studied 476 patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for STEMI and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) at 4-6 months after STEMI. We determined the association with cardiac biomarkers (peak CK-MB, peak troponin T, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide), clinical and angiographic characteristics with infarct size, and LVEF, followed by association with mortality in 1120 STEMI patients. Peak CK-MB was the strongest predictor for infarct size (P<0.001, R (2) =0.60) and LVEF (P<0.001, R (2) =0.40). The additional value of clinical and angiographic characteristics was limited. The optimal peak CK-MB cutpoints, for differentiation among small (<10% of the left ventricle), moderate (≥10%-<30%), and large infarct size (≥30%), were 210 U/L and 380 U/L, respectively. These cutpoints were associated with 90-day mortality; the hazard ratio for moderate infarct was 2.99 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.51-5.93, P=0.002) and for large infarct 6.53 (95% CI: 3.63-11.76, P<0.001). Classical peak CK-MB measured during hospitalization for STEMI was superior to other clinical and angiographic characteristics in predicting CMRI-defined infarct size and LVEF, and should be included and validated in future multimarker studies. Peak CK-MB cutpoints differentiated among infarct size categories and were associated with increased 90-day mortality risk. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Interactive effects of carbon footprint information and its accessibility on value and subjective qualities of food products. (United States)

    Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Kamada, Akiko; Masuda, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Masako; Goto, Sho-ichi; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Cai, Dongsheng; Oka, Takashi; Dan, Ippeita


    We aimed to explore the interactive effects of the accessibility of information and the degree of carbon footprint score on consumers' value judgments of food products. Participants (n=151, undergraduate students in Japan) rated their maximum willingness to pay (WTP) for four food products varying in information accessibility (active-search or read-only conditions) and in carbon footprint values (low, middle, high, or non-display) provided. We also assessed further effects of information accessibly and carbon footprint value on other product attributes utilizing the subjective estimation of taste, quality, healthiness, and environmental friendliness. Results of the experiment demonstrated an interactive effect of information accessibility and the degree of carbon emission on consumer valuation of carbon footprint-labeled food. The carbon footprint value had a stronger impact on participants' WTP in the active-search condition than in the read-only condition. Similar to WTP, the results of the subjective ratings for product qualities also exhibited an interactive effect of the two factors on the rating of environmental friendliness for products. These results imply that the perceived environmental friendliness inferable from a carbon footprint label contributes to creating value for a food product.

  9. Comparison of the effects of various types anaerobic trainings in subjects with body mass index values over 25


    Achtarová, Monika


    Title: Comparison of the effects of various types anaerobic trainings in subjects with body mass index values over 25 Abstract This thesis describes the mechanisms of anaerobic training, especially focused on high interval training, defines the basic concepts associated with anaerobic activity and focuses on workouts that have excellent benefits for the human body. The core theme of this thesis are HIIT workouts - High Intensity Interval Training, which relate to concepts such as EPOC effect ...

  10. Automated asteroseismic peak detections (United States)

    de Montellano, A. García Saravia Ortiz; Hekker, S.; Themeßl, N.


    Space observatories such as Kepler have provided data that can potentially revolutionise our understanding of stars. Through detailed asteroseismic analyses we are capable of determining fundamental stellar parameters and reveal the stellar internal structure with unprecedented accuracy. However, such detailed analyses, known as peak bagging, have so far been obtained for only a small percentage of the observed stars while most of the scientific potential of the available data remains unexplored. One of the major challenges in peak bagging is identifying how many solar-like oscillation modes are visible in a power density spectrum. Identification of oscillation modes is usually done by visual inspection which is time-consuming and has a degree of subjectivity. Here, we present a peak detection algorithm specially suited for the detection of solar-like oscillations. It reliably characterises the solar-like oscillations in a power density spectrum and estimates their parameters without human intervention. Furthermore, we provide a metric to characterise the false positive and false negative rates to provide further information about the reliability of a detected oscillation mode or the significance of a lack of detected oscillation modes. The algorithm presented here opens the possibility for detailed and automated peak bagging of the thousands of solar-like oscillators observed by Kepler.

  11. [Ambulatory blood pressure in normotensive subjects. Definition of reference values as a function of age by the Spacelabs instrument]. (United States)

    Pagny, J Y; Delva, R; Aouizerate, M; Chatellier, G; Battaglia, C; Devriès, C; Plouin, P F; Corvol, P; Ménard, J


    For a finer assessment, by repeated blood pressure (BP) measurements, of the cardiovascular risk associated with BP levels, new instruments have been developed which provide multiple reading during periods of activity. However, the lack of epidemiological studies makes it necessary to determine reference ambulatory BP levels by another method. Twelve-hour recordings were taken with the Spacelabs instrument in 130 volunteers (45% males) aged from 20 to 90 years during their various activities. Mean systolic and diastolic BP values +/- SD were calculated per age-groups of 10 years each. That this sample was representative of the general population was confirmed by the fact that BP fluctuations and variations according to age and sex in these 130 subjects were identical with those observed in the population of an entire town (Framingham). The concept of hypertension, as defined by ambulatory BP recordings, is discussed. This study provides, for the first time, reference ambulatory BP values according to age and sex, measured in normotensive subjects with the Spacelabs instrument. These values constitute a preliminary step indispensable to evaluate this technique in hypertensive patients.

  12. Additive prognostic value of subjective assessment with respect to clinical cardiological data in patients with chronic heart failure. (United States)

    Majani, Giuseppina; Pierobon, Antonia; Pinna, Gian Domenico; Giardini, Anna; Maestri, Roberto; La Rovere, Maria Teresa


    Health-related quality of life tools that better reflect the unique subjective perception of heart failure (HF) are needed for patients with this disorder. The aim of this study was to explore whether subjective satisfaction of HF patients about daily life may provide additional prognostic information with respect to clinical cardiological data. One hundred and seventy-eight patients (age 51 ± 9 years) with moderate to severe HF [New York Heart Association (NYHA) class 2.0 ± 0.7; left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 29 ± 8%] in stable clinical condition underwent a standard clinical evaluation and compiled the Satisfaction Profile (SAT-P) questionnaire focusing on subjective satisfaction with daily life. Cox regression analysis was used to assess whether SAT-P factors (psychological functioning, physical functioning, work, sleep/eating/leisure, social functioning) had any prognostic value. Forty-six cardiac deaths occurred during a median of 30 months. Patients who died had higher NYHA class, more depressed left ventricular function, reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP), increased heart rate (HR), and worse biochemistry (all p patients who died (p = 0.003). Using the best subset selection procedure, resistance to physical fatigue (RPF) was selected from among the items of the PF factor. RPF showed independent predictive value when entered into a prognostic model including NYHA class, LVEF, SBP, and HR with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.86 per 10 units increase (95% CI 0.75-0.98, p = 0.02). Patients' dissatisfaction with physical functioning is associated with reduced long-term survival, after adjustment for known risk factors in HF. Given its user-friendly structure, simplicity, and significant prognostic value, the RPF score may represent a useful instrument in clinical practice.

  13. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Nency Takara


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. METHODS: Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® peak flow meters. The highest value recorded for each subject for each device was compared to the corresponding spirometric values using Friedman's test with Dunn's post-hoc (p<0.05, Spearman's correlation test and Bland-Altman's agreement test. RESULTS: The median and interquartile ranges for the spirometric values and the Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® meters were 428 (263-688 L/min, 450 (350-800 L/min, 420 (310-720 L/min, 380 (300-735 L/min, 400 (310-685 L/min and 415 (335-610 L/min, respectively. Significant differences were found when the spirometric values were compared to those recorded by the Air Zone® (p<0.001 and Galemed ® (p<0.01 meters. There was no agreement between the spirometric values and the five PEF meters. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the values recorded from Galemed® meters may underestimate the actual value, which could lead to unnecessary interventions, and that Air Zone® meters overestimate spirometric values, which could obfuscate the need for intervention. These findings must be taken into account when interpreting both devices' results in younger people. These differences should also be considered when directly comparing values from different types of PEF meters.

  14. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters. (United States)

    Takara, Glaucia Nency; Ruas, Gualberto; Pessoa, Bruna Varanda; Jamami, Luciana Kawakami; Di Lorenzo, Valéria Amorim Pires; Jamami, Mauricio


    To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF) from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone, Assess, Galemed, Personal Best and Vitalograph peak flow meters. The highest value recorded for each subject for each device was compared to the corresponding spirometric values using Friedman's test with Dunn's post-hoc (p<0.05), Spearman's correlation test and Bland-Altman's agreement test. The median and interquartile ranges for the spirometric values and the Air Zone, Assess, Galemed, Personal Best and Vitalograph meters were 428 (263-688 L/min), 450 (350-800 L/min), 420 (310-720 L/min), 380 (300-735 L/min), 400 (310-685 L/min) and 415 (335-610 L/min), respectively. Significant differences were found when the spirometric values were compared to those recorded by the Air Zone(R) (p<0.001) and Galemed (p<0.01) meters. There was no agreement between the spirometric values and the five PEF meters. The results suggest that the values recorded from Galemed meters may underestimate the actual value, which could lead to unnecessary interventions, and that Air Zone meters overestimate spirometric values, which could obfuscate the need for intervention. These findings must be taken into account when interpreting both devices' results in younger people. These differences should also be considered when directly comparing values from different types of PEF meters.

  15. Assessing peak aerobic capacity in Dutch law enforcement officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Wittink


    Full Text Available Objectives: To cross-validate the existing peak rate of oxygen consumption (VO2peak prediction equations in Dutch law enforcement officers and to determine whether these prediction equations can be used to predict VO2peak for groups and in a single individual. A further objective was to report normative absolute and relative VO2peak values of a sample of law enforcement officers in the Netherlands. Material and Methods: The peak rate of oxygen consumption (ml×kg–1×min–1 was measured using a maximal incremental bicycle test in 1530 subjects, including 1068 male and 461 female police officers. Validity of the prediction equations for groups was assessed by comparing predicted VO2peak with measured VO2peak using paired t-tests. For individual differences limits of agreement (LoA were calculated. Equations were considered valid for individuals when the difference between measured and predicted VO2peak did not exceed ±1 metabolic equivalent (MET in 95% of individuals. Results: None of the equations met the validity criterion of 95% of individuals having ±1 MET difference or less than the measured value. Limits of agreement (LoAs were large in all predictions. At the individual level, none of the equations were valid predictors of VO2peak (ml×kg–1×min–1. Normative values for Dutch law enforcement officers were presented. Conclusions: Substantial differences between measured and predicted VO2peak (ml×kg–1×min–1 were found. Most tested equations were invalid predictors of VO2peak at group level and all were invalid at individual levels.

  16. The human subthalamic nucleus encodes the subjective value of reward and the cost of effort during decision-making (United States)

    Zénon, Alexandre; Duclos, Yann; Carron, Romain; Witjas, Tatiana; Baunez, Christelle; Régis, Jean; Azulay, Jean-Philippe; Brown, Peter; Eusebio, Alexandre


    Adaptive behaviour entails the capacity to select actions as a function of their energy cost and expected value and the disruption of this faculty is now viewed as a possible cause of the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Indirect evidence points to the involvement of the subthalamic nucleus—the most common target for deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease—in cost-benefit computation. However, this putative function appears at odds with the current view that the subthalamic nucleus is important for adjusting behaviour to conflict. Here we tested these contrasting hypotheses by recording the neuronal activity of the subthalamic nucleus of patients with Parkinson’s disease during an effort-based decision task. Local field potentials were recorded from the subthalamic nucleus of 12 patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease (mean age 63.8 years ± 6.8; mean disease duration 9.4 years ± 2.5) both OFF and ON levodopa while they had to decide whether to engage in an effort task based on the level of effort required and the value of the reward promised in return. The data were analysed using generalized linear mixed models and cluster-based permutation methods. Behaviourally, the probability of trial acceptance increased with the reward value and decreased with the required effort level. Dopamine replacement therapy increased the rate of acceptance for efforts associated with low rewards. When recording the subthalamic nucleus activity, we found a clear neural response to both reward and effort cues in the 1–10 Hz range. In addition these responses were informative of the subjective value of reward and level of effort rather than their actual quantities, such that they were predictive of the participant’s decisions. OFF levodopa, this link with acceptance was weakened. Finally, we found that these responses did not index conflict, as they did not vary as a function of the distance from indifference in the acceptance decision. These findings show

  17. Liver Stiffness Values Are Lower in Pediatric Subjects than in Adults and Increase with Age: A Multifrequency MR Elastography Study. (United States)

    Etchell, Emily; Jugé, Lauriane; Hatt, Alice; Sinkus, Ralph; Bilston, Lynne E


    Purpose To determine if healthy hepatic mechanical properties differ between pediatric and adult subjects at magnetic resonance (MR) elastography. Materials and Methods Liver shear moduli in 24 healthy pediatric participants (13 children aged 5-14 years [seven boys, six girls] and 11 adolescents aged 15-18 years [six boys, five girls]) and 10 healthy adults (aged 22-36 years [five men, five women]) were obtained with 3-T MR elastography at 28, 56, and 84 Hz. Relationships between shear moduli and age were assessed with Spearman correlations. Differences between age groups were determined with one-way analysis of variance and Tukey multiple comparisons tests. Results Liver stiffness values (means ± standard deviations) were significantly lower in children and adolescents than in adults at 56 Hz (children, 2.2 kPa ± 0.3; adolescents, 2.2 kPa ± 0.2; adults, 2.6 kPa ± 0.3; analysis of variance, P = .009) and 84 Hz (children, 5.6 kPa ± 0.8; adolescents, 6.5 kPa ± 1.2; adults, 7.8 kPa ± 1.2; analysis of variance, P = .0003) but not at 28 Hz (children, 1.2 kPa ± 0.2; adolescents, 1.3 kPa ± 0.3; adults, 1.2 kPa ± 0.2; analysis of variance, P = .40). At 56 and 84 Hz, liver stiffness increased with age (Spearman correlation, r = 0.38 [P = .03] and r = 0.54 [P = .001], respectively). Stiffness varied less with frequency in children and adolescents than in adults (analysis of variance, P = .0009). No significant differences were found in shear moduli at 28, 56, or 84 Hz or frequency dependence between children and adolescents (P = .38, P = .99, P = .14, and P = .30, respectively, according to Tukey tests). Conclusion Liver stiffness values are lower and vary less with frequency in children and adolescents than in adults. Stiffness increases with age during normal development and approaches adult values during adolescence. Comparing pediatric liver stiffness to adult baseline values to detect pediatric liver mechanical abnormalities may not allow detection of mild

  18. The value sphere of native and newcomer youth in their subjective assessment of the environment of a megalopolis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruzhkova, O. V.


    Full Text Available Currently, in the Russian Federation more and more attention is being paid to the quality of human capital. The innovative future of the country as a whole and its regions in particular depends on having young people with an active lifestyle, a high level of education, and a desire to be included in the development process of their country, region, city, or town. In most regions of the Russian Federation, programs and projects are supported that promote the self-actualization of young people and create conditions to ensure a full and rich life for the younger generation. But, despite these measures, as well as major government funding, the process of active internal migration and the outflow of talented young people from provincial areas into the central regions, as well as from rural to urban settlements, lead to the significant negative skewing of socioeconomic development in the regions of the Russian Federation. Thus, these are the issues: which characteristics of life in a megalopolis are valuable and attractive to young people and are there differences in the images of a big city held by native young people and newcomers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics of the value-sense and need-motivational spheres of native and newcomer youth in a megalopolis as well as to reveal the specifics of their images of a contemporary megalopolis. A comprehensive study conducted in Ekaterinburg among young people in the senior classes of secondary schools, colleges, and universities, as well as among young working men and women (N = 1108; ages 17-25, disclosed the base values in the subjective evaluation of the environment of a megalopolis by native and newcomer youth. In accordance with the objectives of the study, the sample was divided into two contrasting groups: native residents of Ekaterinburg (living there since birth 437; newcomer residents of Ekaterinburg (living there fewer than 3 years who were actively adapting

  19. Assessment of T1, T1ρ, and T2 values of the ulnocarpal disc in healthy subjects at 3 tesla. (United States)

    Rauscher, Isabel; Bender, Benjamin; Grözinger, Gerd; Luz, Oliver; Pohmann, Rolf; Erb, Michael; Schick, Fritz; Martirosian, Petros


    The purpose of this study was to implement clinically feasible imaging techniques for determination of T1, T1ρ, and T2 values of the ulnocarpal disc and to assess those values in a cohort of asymptomatic subjects at 3 tesla. Resulting values were compared between different age groups, since former histological findings of the ulnocarpal disc indicated frequent early degenerative changes of this tissue starting in the third decade of life, even in asymptomatic subjects. Twenty-seven healthy subjects were included in this study. T1 measurements were performed using 3D spoiled gradient-echo (GRE) sequence with variable flip angle. A series of T1ρ and T2-weighted images was acquired by a 3D GRE sequence after suitable magnetization preparation. T1,T1ρ, and T2 maps of the ulnocarpal disc were calculated pixel-wise. Representative mean values from extended regions were analysed. Mean T1 values of the ulnocarpal disc ranged from 722 ms in a 39 year-old subject to 1264 ms in a 65 year-old subject, T1ρ ranged from 9.2 ms (26 year-old subject) to 25.9 ms (65 year-old subject). Calculated T2 values showed a large range from 4.1 ms to 22.3 ms. T1ρ and T1 values tended to increase with age (p<0.05), whereas T2 did not. MR relaxometry of the ulnocarpal disc is feasible, and T1,T1ρ, and T2 values show modest variance in asymptomatic subjects. The potential of relaxation mapping to reveal relevant structural changes in patients has to be investigated in further studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Low diagnostic value of fasting and post-methionine load homocysteine tests. A study in Dutch subjects with homocysteine test indications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M R; Dijck-Brouwer, D A J; van Doormaal, J J; Reijngoud, D J; Muskiet, F A J

    BACKGROUND: Homocysteine is a cardiovascular disease risk factor. We investigated, both in subjects with past plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) test indications and healthy adults, the diagnostic value of a fasting (tHcy) (f-tHcy) and the added value of a post-methionine-load tHcy (postload-tHcy).

  1. Ultrasonic Transducer Peak-to-Peak Optical Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skarvada


    Full Text Available Possible optical setups for measurement of the peak-to-peak value of an ultrasonic transducer are described in this work. The Michelson interferometer with the calibrated nanopositioner in reference path and laser Doppler vibrometer were used for the basic measurement of vibration displacement. Langevin type of ultrasonic transducer is used for the purposes of Electro-Ultrasonic Nonlinear Spectroscopy (EUNS. Parameters of produced mechanical vibration have to been well known for EUNS. Moreover, a monitoring of mechanical vibration frequency shift with a mass load and sample-transducer coupling is important for EUNS measurement.

  2. Why is the diffraction peak a peak?

    CERN Document Server

    Cornille, H


    It is proved that the high-energy differential cross section for an elastic process has a maximum exactly in the forward direction and that the slope of the diffraction peak is at most (log s)/sup 2/. The widths of the diffraction peaks defined by the absorptive part and the differential cross section are compared. The assumptions are that the amplitude is dominated by the even signature amplitude and that the total cross section, if it decreases, decreases less fast than s/sup -1/2/. Strictly speaking, the results hold only for a sequence of energies approaching infinity. The proofs are given for the spin-O- spin-O case, but it is not unreasonable to hope that they can be generalized to arbitrary spins. (13 refs).

  3. Lower Leg Injury Reference Values and Risk Curves from Survival Analysis for Male and Female Dummies: Meta-analysis of Postmortem Human Subject Tests. (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Arun, Mike W J; Pintar, Frank A; Banerjee, Anjishnu


    Derive lower leg injury risk functions using survival analysis and determine injury reference values (IRV) applicable to human mid-size male and small-size female anthropometries by conducting a meta-analysis of experimental data from different studies under axial impact loading to the foot-ankle-leg complex. Specimen-specific dynamic peak force, age, total body mass, and injury data were obtained from tests conducted by applying the external load to the dorsal surface of the foot of postmortem human subject (PMHS) foot-ankle-leg preparations. Calcaneus and/or tibia injuries, alone or in combination and with/without involvement of adjacent articular complexes, were included in the injury group. Injury and noninjury tests were included. Maximum axial loads recorded by a load cell attached to the proximal end of the preparation were used. Data were analyzed by treating force as the primary variable. Age was considered as the covariate. Data were censored based on the number of tests conducted on each specimen and whether it remained intact or sustained injury; that is, right, left, and interval censoring. The best fits from different distributions were based on the Akaike information criterion; mean and plus and minus 95% confidence intervals were obtained; and normalized confidence interval sizes (quality indices) were determined at 5, 10, 25, and 50% risk levels. The normalization was based on the mean curve. Using human-equivalent age as 45 years, data were normalized and risk curves were developed for the 50th and 5th percentile human size of the dummies. Out of the available 114 tests (76 fracture and 38 no injury) from 5 groups of experiments, survival analysis was carried out using 3 groups consisting of 62 tests (35 fracture and 27 no injury). Peak forces associated with 4 specific risk levels at 25, 45, and 65 years of age are given along with probability curves (mean and plus and minus 95% confidence intervals) for PMHS and normalized data applicable to

  4. Evaluation of peak voltage, irradiation time, output and half value layer in computed tomography equipment;Avaliacao da tensao de pico, tempo de irradiacao, rendimento e camada semi-redutora em equipamentos de tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nersissian, Denise Y.; Santos, Lucas R. dos; Saito, Ricardo H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia; Silva, Marcia C. [Hospital Albert Einstein (HAE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    In this work, the voltage peak, the irradiation time, output and half value layer were evaluated in two multislice computed tomography equipment. These evaluations are commonly done in conventional, fluoroscopic and mammographic equipment, but not in computed tomography. The results have depicted that accuracy and reproducibility meet the 10% limit established by Portaria SVS MS 453/1998 and by Guia de Radiodiagnostico - RE 1016/2005. The half value layer is between (6.55 +- 0.31) mmAl and (7.70 +- 0.39) mmAl for 120 kVp on three bow tie filter positions. The output obtained for the isocenter position was 0.097, 0.158, 0.227 and 0.286 mGy/mAs for 80, 100, 120 e 135 kVp, respectively; being similar between two tomography equipment. Such evaluations have only been possible due to the intervention on the CT equipment, stopping the rotation of the X-ray tube inside the gantry. (author)

  5. How Stable Are Value-Added Estimates across Years, Subjects and Student Groups? What We Know Series: Value-Added Methods and Applications. Knowledge Brief 3 (United States)

    Loeb, Susanna; Candelaria, Christopher A.


    Value-added models measure teacher performance by the test score gains of their students, adjusted for a variety of factors such as the performance of students when they enter the class. The measures are based on desired student outcomes such as math and reading scores, but they have a number of potential drawbacks. One of them is the…

  6. Connection and Disconnection: Value of the Analyst’s Subjectivity in Elucidating Meaning in a Psychoanalytic Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hueso


    Full Text Available This article reflects on pivotal concepts of psychoanalytic practice and theory, applied to a single case study to create new meanings. Drawing from the concepts of transference, countertransference, and projective identification, the author presents the notion that the researcher’s subjective reactions are created and induced by the subject of study precisely because this is one, and sometimes the only way available to the subject to communicate something that is out of its full awareness. In essence, some unconscious material can be expressed nonverbally by the subject by means of provoking visceral and bodily reactions in the researcher, or in some cases, psychic imagery such as dreams or fantasies. The material can be meaningfully interpreted by the researcher by receiving, containing, and sorting through these inchoate emotional reactions within self.

  7. Peak Experience Project (United States)

    Scott, Daniel G.; Evans, Jessica


    This paper emerges from the continued analysis of data collected in a series of international studies concerning Childhood Peak Experiences (CPEs) based on developments in understanding peak experiences in Maslow's hierarchy of needs initiated by Dr Edward Hoffman. Bridging from the series of studies, Canadian researchers explore collected…

  8. Peak signal-to-noise ratio revisited: Is simple beautiful?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; You, Junyong


    Heavy criticism has been directed against using peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) as a full reference quality metric for digitally processed images and video, since many studies have shown a weak correlation between subjective quality scores and the respective PSNR values. In this paper, we show...... quality models known from the literature. Therefore, the use of PSNR may be justified for comparative quality assessment with fixed content....

  9. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1α shows predictive value as a risk marker for subjects and sites vulnerable to bone loss in a longitudinal model of aggressive periodontitis. (United States)

    Fine, Daniel H; Markowitz, Kenneth; Fairlie, Karen; Tischio-Bereski, Debbie; Ferrandiz, Javier; Godboley, Dipti; Furgang, David; Gunsolley, John; Best, Al


    Improved diagnostics remains a fundamental goal of biomedical research. This study was designed to assess cytokine biomarkers that could predict bone loss (BL) in localized aggressive periodontitis. 2,058 adolescents were screened. Two groups of 50 periodontally healthy adolescents were enrolled in the longitudinal study. One group had Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), the putative pathogen, while the matched cohort did not. Cytokine levels were assessed in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Participants were sampled, examined, and radiographed every 6 months for 2-3 years. Disease was defined as radiographic evidence of BL. Saliva and GCF was collected at each visit, frozen, and then tested retrospectively after detection of BL. Sixteen subjects with Aa developed BL. Saliva from Aa-positive and Aa-negative healthy subjects was compared to subjects who developed BL. GCF was collected from 16 subjects with BL and from another 38 subjects who remained healthy. GCF from BL sites in the 16 subjects was compared to healthy sites in these same subjects and to healthy sites in subjects who remained healthy. Results showed that cytokines in saliva associated with acute inflammation were elevated in subjects who developed BL (i.e., MIP-1α MIP-1β IL-α, IL-1β and IL-8; psites were below that level (Specificity); whereas, 93% of sites with BL were higher (Sensitivity), with comparable Predictive Values of 98%; psite vulnerability to BL.

  10. [A peak recognition algorithm designed for chromatographic peaks of transformer oil]. (United States)

    Ou, Linjun; Cao, Jian


    In the field of the chromatographic peak identification of the transformer oil, the traditional first-order derivative requires slope threshold to achieve peak identification. In terms of its shortcomings of low automation and easy distortion, the first-order derivative method was improved by applying the moving average iterative method and the normalized analysis techniques to identify the peaks. Accurate identification of the chromatographic peaks was realized through using multiple iterations of the moving average of signal curves and square wave curves to determine the optimal value of the normalized peak identification parameters, combined with the absolute peak retention times and peak window. The experimental results show that this algorithm can accurately identify the peaks and is not sensitive to the noise, the chromatographic peak width or the peak shape changes. It has strong adaptability to meet the on-site requirements of online monitoring devices of dissolved gases in transformer oil.

  11. Prognostic value of reading-to-reading blood pressure variability over 24 hours in 8938 subjects from 11 populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine W; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan


    In previous studies, of which several were underpowered, the relation between cardiovascular outcome and blood pressure (BP) variability was inconsistent. We followed health outcomes in 8938 subjects (mean age: 53.0 years; 46.8% women) randomly recruited from 11 populations. At baseline, we asses...

  12. VO2peak prediction and exercise prescription for pregnant women. (United States)

    Mottola, Michelle F; Davenport, Margie H; Brun, Chantale R; Inglis, Stuart D; Charlesworth, Sarah; Sopper, Maggie M


    The present study was designed to develop and validate a prediction equation for peak oxygen consumption VO2peak) using a progressive treadmill test and to refine the current target HR exercise guidelines for pregnancy (PARmed-X for Pregnancy). One hundred fifty-six women between 16 and 22 wk of gestation performed the test to volitional fatigue (peak exercise test). Data from every fourth subject were used to form the cross-validation group. The women were separated into two age groups; 20-29 (N = 60) and 30-39 (N = 96) yr of age and then further separated into fit (VO2peak at the top 25th percentile), unfit (VO2peak at the bottom 25th percentile), and active (between these two ranges). HR and VO2peak values were used in the regression equation to predict target HR ranges at 60 and 80% VO2peak. The prediction equation (R2 = 0.72, R2adjusted = 0.71 and SEE = 2.7) was compared with cross validation (N = 39; P = 0.78). Fit women had a VO2peak > or = 27.2 and > or = 26.1 for ages 20-29 and 30-39 yr, respectively, representing the top 25th percentile. Unfit women had a VO2peak of pregnant women using a progressive treadmill exercise test. The defined target HR zones based on age and the appropriate fitness levels can be used for exercise prescription in healthy pregnant women.

  13. Additional Value of CSF Amyloid-beta(40) Levels in the Differentiation between FTLD and Control Subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, N.A.; Kester, M.I.; van der Flier, W.M.; Veerhuis, R.; Berkhof, J.; Twaalfhoven, H.A.M.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Scheltens, P.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.


    To determine the additional value of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid-β {1-40} (Aβ {40}) next to amyloid-β {1-42} (β {42}), total tau (Tau), and tau phosphorylated at threonine-181 (pTau) to distinguish patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and controls,

  14. Towards a satiety map of common foods: Associations between perceived satiety value of 100 foods and their objective and subjective attributes. (United States)

    Buckland, Nicola J; James Stubbs, R; Finlayson, Graham


    Hunger is one of the main reasons given by people experiencing problems in managing their weight. Identifying the types and properties of foods that enhance satiety may help consumers improve appetite control and weight management. However the attributes of foods associated with their perceived satiety value have been largely unexamined. The current research examined a range of objective and subjective attributes of foods and sought to map them onto ratings of their perceived satiety value. Participants (n=1127) rated 100 individual food images, through online surveys, based on subjective (e.g. perceived energy content, control over eating, healthiness, palatability) and objective (e.g. actual energy content, macronutrient composition, cost/kcal) attributes. Perceived satiety value was quantified from ratings of how filling each food was judged to be. Results showed that when controlling for perceived total energy content, perceived satiety value was associated with lower energy density (r=-.74), lower %fat (r=-.47), higher %protein (r=.31) and higher cost (r=.48). In terms of subjective attributes, perceived satiety value was associated with greater healthiness (r=.90), weight management (r=.91), frequency of consumption (r=.58) and greater control over eating (r=.76). Linear regression models indicated that the objective attributes of energy density, %fat, fibre content, %carbohydrate and cost (R(2)=.69) and the subjective attribute of utility for weight management and frequency of consumption (R(2)=.83) accounted for the most variance in the perceived satiety value of food. These findings may help towards a 'satiety map' of the diet with implications for public health promotion and the development of satiety enhancing foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1α shows predictive value as a risk marker for subjects and sites vulnerable to bone loss in a longitudinal model of aggressive periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H Fine

    Full Text Available Improved diagnostics remains a fundamental goal of biomedical research. This study was designed to assess cytokine biomarkers that could predict bone loss (BL in localized aggressive periodontitis. 2,058 adolescents were screened. Two groups of 50 periodontally healthy adolescents were enrolled in the longitudinal study. One group had Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa, the putative pathogen, while the matched cohort did not. Cytokine levels were assessed in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF. Participants were sampled, examined, and radiographed every 6 months for 2-3 years. Disease was defined as radiographic evidence of BL. Saliva and GCF was collected at each visit, frozen, and then tested retrospectively after detection of BL. Sixteen subjects with Aa developed BL. Saliva from Aa-positive and Aa-negative healthy subjects was compared to subjects who developed BL. GCF was collected from 16 subjects with BL and from another 38 subjects who remained healthy. GCF from BL sites in the 16 subjects was compared to healthy sites in these same subjects and to healthy sites in subjects who remained healthy. Results showed that cytokines in saliva associated with acute inflammation were elevated in subjects who developed BL (i.e., MIP-1α MIP-1β IL-α, IL-1β and IL-8; p<0.01. MIP-1α was elevated 13-fold, 6 months prior to BL. When MIP-1α levels were set at 40 pg/ml, 98% of healthy sites were below that level (Specificity; whereas, 93% of sites with BL were higher (Sensitivity, with comparable Predictive Values of 98%; p<0.0001; 95% C.I. = 42.5-52.7. MIP-1α consistently showed elevated levels as a biomarker for BL in both saliva and GCF, 6 months prior to BL. MIP-1α continues to demonstrate its strong candidacy as a diagnostic biomarker for both subject and site vulnerability to BL.

  16. The value of the acoustic voice quality index as a measure of dysphonia severity in subjects speaking different languages. (United States)

    Maryn, Youri; De Bodt, Marc; Barsties, Ben; Roy, Nelson


    The Acoustic Voice Quality Index (AVQI) is a relatively new clinical method to quantify dysphonia severity. Since it partially relies on continuous speech, its performance may vary with voice-related phonetic differences and thus across languages. The present investigation therefore assessed the AVQI's performance in English, Dutch, German, and French. Fifty subjects were recorded reading sentences in the four languages, as well as producing a sustained vowel. These recordings were later edited to calculate the AVQI. The samples were also perceptually rated on overall dysphonia severity by three experienced voice clinicians. The AVQI's cross-linguistic concurrent validity and diagnostic precision were assessed. The results support earlier data, and confirm good cross-linguistic validity and diagnostic accuracy. Although no statistical differences were observed between languages, the AVQI performed better in English and German and less well in French. These results validate the AVQI as a potentially robust and objective dysphonia severity measure across languages.

  17. Trial-by-trial changes in a priori informational value of external cues and subjective expectancies in human auditory attention. (United States)

    Arjona, Antonio; Gómez, Carlos M


    Preparatory activity based on a priori probabilities generated in previous trials and subjective expectancies would produce an attentional bias. However, preparation can be correct (valid) or incorrect (invalid) depending on the actual target stimulus. The alternation effect refers to the subjective expectancy that a target will not be repeated in the same position, causing RTs to increase if the target location is repeated. The present experiment, using the Posner's central cue paradigm, tries to demonstrate that not only the credibility of the cue, but also the expectancy about the next position of the target are changed in a trial by trial basis. Sequences of trials were analyzed. The results indicated an increase in RT benefits when sequences of two and three valid trials occurred. The analysis of errors indicated an increase in anticipatory behavior which grows as the number of valid trials is increased. On the other hand, there was also an RT benefit when a trial was preceded by trials in which the position of the target changed with respect to the current trial (alternation effect). Sequences of two alternations or two repetitions were faster than sequences of trials in which a pattern of repetition or alternation is broken. Taken together, these results suggest that in Posner's central cue paradigm, and with regard to the anticipatory activity, the credibility of the external cue and of the endogenously anticipated patterns of target location are constantly updated. The results suggest that Bayesian rules are operating in the generation of anticipatory activity as a function of the previous trial's outcome, but also on biases or prior beliefs like the "gambler fallacy".

  18. Peak-interviewet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raalskov, Jesper; Warming-Rasmussen, Bent

    Peak-interviewet er en særlig effektiv metode til at gøre ubevidste menneskelige ressourcer bevidste. Fokuspersonen (den interviewede) interviewes om en selvvalgt, personlig succesoplevelse. Terapeuten/coachen (intervieweren) spørger ind til processen, som ledte hen til denne succes. Herved afdæk...

  19. Value of the individual components subject training gymnasts according to the survey of coaches with different skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Andreeva


    Full Text Available Purpose : assess the significance of the individual components subject training gymnasts according to the survey of coaches with different skills. Material : two groups of coaches with different qualifications (n = 40. The first group of coaches -, experience from 1 to 10 years (n = 20; the second group - work experience from 11 to 25 years (n = 20. Gymnasts preliminary stage of basic training. Coaches are asked to answer 15 questions. Results : the content of questioning coaches gymnastics shows the relevance of the basic problems of technical training of young gymnasts (throwing and catching objects. The most difficult exercises in the training and improvement are throws and catches the ball (coefficient of concordance W = 0,814. The necessity of the development and use of new techniques for analyzing sports equipment exercises with the ball, learning and improving them. Conclusions : basic technical training and preparedness of gymnasts to perform exercises with objects represent a problem that is solved enough in theory and practice gymnastics.

  20. Age and sex corrected normal reference values of T1, T2 T2* and ECV in healthy subjects at 3T CMR.


    Roy, Clotilde; Slimani, Alisson; Meester, Christophe De; Amzulescu, Mihaela Silvia; Pasquet, Agnes; Vancraeynest, David; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis; Pouleur, Anne-Catherine; Gerber, Bernhard


    Myocardial T1, T2 and T2* imaging techniques become increasingly used in clinical practice. While normal values for T1, T2 and T2* times are well established for 1.5 Tesla (T) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), data for 3T remain scarce. Therefore we sought to determine normal reference values relative to gender and age and day to day reproducibility for native T1, T2, T2* mapping and extracellular volume (ECV) at 3T in healthy subjects.

  1. The value of structured data elements from electronic health records for identifying subjects for primary care clinical trials. (United States)

    Ateya, Mohammad B; Delaney, Brendan C; Speedie, Stuart M


    An increasing number of clinical trials are conducted in primary care settings. Making better use of existing data in the electronic health records to identify eligible subjects can improve efficiency of such studies. Our study aims to quantify the proportion of eligibility criteria that can be addressed with data in electronic health records and to compare the content of eligibility criteria in primary care with previous work. Eligibility criteria were extracted from primary care studies downloaded from the UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio. Criteria were broken into elemental statements. Two expert independent raters classified each statement based on whether or not structured data items in the electronic health record can be used to determine if the statement was true for a specific patient. Disagreements in classification were discussed until 100 % agreement was reached. Statements were also classified based on content and the percentages of each category were compared to two similar studies reported in the literature. Eligibility criteria were retrieved from 228 studies and decomposed into 2619 criteria elemental statements. 74 % of the criteria elemental statements were considered likely associated with structured data in an electronic health record. 79 % of the studies had at least 60 % of their criteria statements addressable with structured data likely to be present in an electronic health record. Based on clinical content, most frequent categories were: "disease, symptom, and sign", "therapy or surgery", and "medication" (36 %, 13 %, and 10 % of total criteria statements respectively). We also identified new criteria categories related to provider and caregiver attributes (2.6 % and 1 % of total criteria statements respectively). Electronic health records readily contain much of the data needed to assess patients' eligibility for clinical trials enrollment. Eligibility criteria content categories identified by our study can be

  2. Appreciation: individual differences in finding value and meaning as a unique predictor of subjective well-being. (United States)

    Adler, Mitchel G; Fagley, N S


    Adler (2002; Adler & Fagley, 2001) argued that being appreciative facilitates and enhances feelings of well-being and life satisfaction, as well as feelings of connection to what we have, to what we experience, and to life itself. In addition, expressing appreciation to others is believed to build social bonds. Although appreciation is viewed as a disposition, it is also viewed as something people can learn over time, making it an especially valuable construct to measure. Appreciating something (e.g. an event, a person, a behavior, an object) involves noticing and acknowledging its value and meaning and feeling a positive emotional connection to it. We defined eight aspects of appreciation and developed scales to measure them: a focus on what one has ("Have" Focus), Awe, Ritual, Present Moment, Self/Social Comparison, Gratitude, Loss/Adversity, Interpersonal. Scores on the subscales may be totaled to yield a score representing one's overall degree of appreciation (or level of appreciativeness) (coefficient alpha=.94). We also developed an 18-item short form (coefficient alpha=.91) that correlates .95 with scores on the long form. The scales correlated in predicted ways with measures of life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect. More importantly, appreciation was significantly related to life satisfaction and positive affect, even after the effects of optimism, spirituality, and emotional self-awareness had been statistically controlled.

  3. Patients with heart failure in the "intermediate range" of peak oxygen uptake: additive value of heart rate recovery and the minute ventilation/carbon dioxide output slope in predicting mortality. (United States)

    Ritt, Luiz Eduardo; Oliveira, Ricardo Brandão; Myers, Jonathan; Arena, Ross; Peberdy, Mary Ann; Bensimhon, Daniel; Chase, Paul; Forman, Daniel; Guazzi, Marco


    While patients with heart failure who achieve a peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2) of 10 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) or less are often considered for intensive surveillance or intervention, those achieving 14 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) or more are generally considered to be at lower risk. Among patients in the "intermediate" range of 10.1 to 13.9 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), optimally stratifying risk remains a challenge. Patients with heart failure (N = 1167) referred for cardiopulmonary exercise testing were observed for 21 ± 13 months. Patients were classified into 3 groups of peak VO2 (≤10, 10.1-13.9, and ≥14 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)). The ability of heart rate recovery at 1 minute (HRR1) and the minute ventilation/carbon dioxide output (VE/VCO2) slope to complement peak VO2 in predicting cardiovascular mortality were determined. Peak VO2, HRR1 (slope (>34) were independent predictors of mortality (hazard ratio 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.29, P = .006; hazard ratio 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.5, P = .008; and hazard ratio 2.4, 95% CI: 1.6-3.4, P slope or HRR1 had a nearly 2-fold higher risk of cardiac mortality. Those with both an abnormal HRR1 and VE/VCO2 slope had a higher mortality risk than those with a peak VO2 ≤ 10 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1). Survival was not different between those with a peak VO2 ≤ 10 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) and those in the intermediate range with either an abnormal HRR1 or VE/VCO2 slope. HRR1 and the VE/VCO2 slope effectively stratify patients with peak VO2 within the intermediate range into distinct groups at high and low risk.

  4. Reference values of one-point carotid stiffness parameters determined by carotid echo-tracking and brachial pulse pressure in a large population of healthy subjects. (United States)

    Vriz, Olga; Aboyans, Victor; Minisini, Rosalba; Magne, Julien; Bertin, Nicole; Pirisi, Mario; Bossone, Eduardo


    Arterial stiffness can predict cardiovascular events, and the aim of this study was to produce age- and sex-specific reference values for echo-tracking carotid stiffness in healthy subjects. A total of 900 subjects (500 males, mean age 45.8±19 years) were enrolled. Common carotid artery stiffness and compliance, using a high-definition echo-tracking ultrasound system, were evaluated. To compare stiffness parameters across the different age groups, individual scores were transformed into T-scores, indicating how many standard deviation (s.d.) units an individual's score was above or below the mean that was observed in the group including same-sex individuals aged 36 to 44 years. Carotid stiffness was similar among genders, except compliance, which was lower in women (Pparameters increased significantly with age, but the opposite occurred for compliance. The T-score was found to increase significantly across all age groups, with a steeper increase in stiffness around the age of 60 years in women. For each T-score s.d., the corresponding carotid absolute values for arterial stiffness and compliance were obtained. In a multivariate model, carotid stiffness parameters were constantly and independently associated with age, mean arterial pressure, pulse pressure, heart rate and body mass index. Our study provides a normogram of carotid arterial stiffness and compliance indices obtained with the echo-tracking method in a large population of healthy subjects stratified by gender and age that can be used in clinical practice.

  5. Kitt Peak speckle camera. (United States)

    Breckinridge, J B; McAlister, H A; Robinson, W G


    The speckle camera in regular use at Kitt Peak National Observatory since 1974 is described in detail. The design of the atmospheric dispersion compensation prisms, the use of film as a recording medium, the accuracy of double star measurements, and the next generation speckle camera are discussed. Photographs of double star speckle patterns with separations from 1.4 sec of arc to 4.7 sec of arc are shown to illustrate the quality of image formation with this camera, the effects of seeing on the patterns, and to illustrate the isoplanatic patch of the atmosphere.

  6. Peak-Finding Algorithms. (United States)

    Hung, Jui-Hung; Weng, Zhiping


    Microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies have greatly expedited the discovery of genomic DNA that can be enriched using various biochemical methods. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a general method for enriching chromatin fragments that are specifically recognized by an antibody. The resulting DNA fragments can be assayed by microarray (ChIP-chip) or sequencing (ChIP-seq). This introduction focuses on ChIP-seq data analysis. The first step of analyzing ChIP-seq data is identifying regions in the genome that are enriched in a ChIP sample; these regions are called peaks. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  7. Exploring Changes in Valued Action in the Presence of Chronic Debilitating Pain in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Youth - A Single-Subject Design Study. (United States)

    Kemani, Mike K; Olsson, Gunnar L; Holmström, Linda; Wicksell, Rikard K


    Objective: The objective of the study was to improve the understanding of processes of change in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for youth with chronic debilitating pain by exploring the relation between individual change patterns in pain intensity and valued activities. Method: A single-subject design across three adolescents suffering from longstanding debilitating pain was utilized. Pain intensity and participation in valued activities were rated daily. Visual analysis of the graphed data was performed to evaluate the effects of the intervention, and the relationship between pain intensity and values-based activity. Results: The graphed data illustrated that pain levels did not decrease from the baseline period to the follow-up period. In contrast, compared to baseline ratings values oriented behaviors increased from the start of treatment to the follow-up period. Conclusion: Results illustrate that increases in values-based behavior may occur without corresponding decreases in pain, and warrant further research on change processes in ACT for youth suffering from chronic pain.

  8. The geomorphic structure of the runoff peak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rigon


    Full Text Available This paper develops a theoretical framework to investigate the core dependence of peak flows on the geomorphic properties of river basins. Based on the theory of transport by travel times, and simple hydrodynamic characterization of floods, this new framework invokes the linearity and invariance of the hydrologic response to provide analytical and semi-analytical expressions for peak flow, time to peak, and area contributing to the peak runoff. These results are obtained for the case of constant-intensity hyetograph using the Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF curves to estimate extreme flow values as a function of the rainfall return period. Results show that, with constant-intensity hyetographs, the time-to-peak is greater than rainfall duration and usually shorter than the basin concentration time. Moreover, the critical storm duration is shown to be independent of rainfall return period as well as the area contributing to the flow peak. The same results are found when the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion are accounted for. Further, it is shown that, when the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion are negligible, the basin area contributing to the peak discharge does not depend on the channel velocity, but is a geomorphic propriety of the basin. As an example this framework is applied to three watersheds. In particular, the runoff peak, the critical rainfall durations and the time to peak are calculated for all links within a network to assess how they increase with basin area.

  9. Estimating peak skin and eye lens dose from neuroperfusion examinations: Use of Monte Carlo based simulations and comparisons to CTDIvol, AAPM Report No. 111, and ImPACT dosimetry tool values


    Zhang, D.; Cagnon, CH; Villablanca, JP; McCollough, CH; Cody, DD; Zankl, M.; Demarco, JJ; McNitt-Gray, MF


    Purpose: CT neuroperfusion examinations are capable of delivering high radiation dose to the skin or lens of the eyes of a patient and can possibly cause deterministic radiation injury. The purpose of this study is to: (a) estimate peak skin dose and eye lens dose from CT neuroperfusion examinations based on several voxelized adult patient models of different head size and (b) investigate how well those doses can be approximated by some commonly used CT dose metrics or tools, such as CTDI vol...

  10. The video head impulse test (vHIT of semicircular canal function – age dependent normative values of VOR gain in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Andrew McGarvie


    Full Text Available Background/Hypothesis. The video Head Impulse Test (vHIT is now widely used to test the function of each of the six semicircular canals individually by measuring the eye rotation response to an abrupt head rotation in the plane of the canal. The main measure of canal adequacy is the ratio of the eye movement response to the head movement stimulus i.e. the gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR. However there is a need for normative data about how VOR gain is affected by age and also by head velocity, to allow the response of any particular patient to be compared to response of healthy subjects in their age range. In this study we determined for all six semicircular canals, normative values of VOR gain, for each canal across a range of head velocities, for healthy subjects in each decade of life.Study Design. The VOR gain was measured for all canals across a range of head velocities for at least 10 healthy subjects in decade age bands: 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80-89. Methods. The compensatory eye movement response to a small, unpredictable, abrupt head rotation (head impulse was measured by the ICS Impulse prototype system. The same operator delivered every impulse to every subject. Results. VOR gain decreased at high head velocities, but was largely unaffected by age into the 80-89 year age group. There were some small but systematic differences between the two directions of head rotation, which appear to be largely due to the fact that in this study only the right eye was measured. The results are considered in relation to recent evidence about the effect of age on VOR performance.Conclusion. These normative values allow the results of any particular patient to be compared to the values of healthy people in their age range and so allow, for example, detection of whether a patient has a bilateral vestibular loss. VOR gain, as measured directly by the eye movement response to head rotation, seems largely unaffected by

  11. Improved peak shape fitting in alpha spectra




    Peak overlap is a recurrent issue ina lpha-particle spectrometry, not only in routine analyses but also in the high-resolution spectra from which reference values for alpha emission probabilities are derived. In this work, improved peak shape formulae are presented for the deconvolution of alpha-particle spectra. They have been implemented as fit functions in a spreadsheet application and optimum fit parameters were searched with built-in optimisation routines. Deconvolution results are shown...

  12. Diabetes mellitus defined by hemoglobin A1c value: Risk characterization for incidence among Japanese subjects in the JPHC Diabetes Study. (United States)

    Kato, Masayuki; Takahashi, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Yumi; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Inoue, Manami; Kadowaki, Takashi; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Noda, Mitsuhiko


    Aims/Introduction:  Although several risk factors for type 2 diabetes have been identified, most of them have been identified in studies on Western populations, and they should be evaluated in a Japanese population. In 2010, new diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus using hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were released and its use in epidemiological studies has many advantages. The aim of the present study was to evaluate risk factors for type 2 diabetes defined based on HbA1c values in a Japanese population.   A total of 9223 subjects (3076 men and 6147 women) were followed up for 5 years. Diabetes was defined based on self-report or HbA1c value. Risk factors for diabetes were evaluated as odds ratios adjusted for potential confounding factors by logistic regression.   During the 5-year follow-up period, we documented 518 incident cases of diabetes (232 men and 286 women). Of the 518 incident cases, 310 cases were diagnosed by HbA1c alone. Among the men, age, smoking (both past smoking and current smoking) and family history of diabetes significantly increased the risk of diabetes. Among the women, body mass index, family history of diabetes and hypertension significantly increased the risk of diabetes. These results did not change markedly after adjustment for the baseline HbA1c values, and the baseline HbA1c value itself was a significant risk factor for diabetes mellitus.   Known risk factors for diabetes established in Western populations also increased the risk of diabetes in a Japanese population defined on the basis of HbA1c values. (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040-1124.2011.00119.x, 2011).

  13. The valuation system: a coordinate-based meta-analysis of BOLD fMRI experiments examining neural correlates of subjective value. (United States)

    Bartra, Oscar; McGuire, Joseph T; Kable, Joseph W


    Numerous experiments have recently sought to identify neural signals associated with the subjective value (SV) of choice alternatives. Theoretically, SV assessment is an intermediate computational step during decision making, in which alternatives are placed on a common scale to facilitate value-maximizing choice. Here we present a quantitative, coordinate-based meta-analysis of 206 published fMRI studies investigating neural correlates of SV. Our results identify two general patterns of SV-correlated brain responses. In one set of regions, both positive and negative effects of SV on BOLD are reported at above-chance rates across the literature. Areas exhibiting this pattern include anterior insula, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, dorsal and posterior striatum, and thalamus. The mixture of positive and negative effects potentially reflects an underlying U-shaped function, indicative of signal related to arousal or salience. In a second set of areas, including ventromedial prefrontal cortex and anterior ventral striatum, positive effects predominate. Positive effects in the latter regions are seen both when a decision is confronted and when an outcome is delivered, as well as for both monetary and primary rewards. These regions appear to constitute a "valuation system," carrying a domain-general SV signal and potentially contributing to value-based decision making. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Peak expiratory flow at increased barometric pressure: comparison of peak flow meters and volumetric spirometer. (United States)

    Thomas, P S; Ng, C; Bennett, M


    Increasing numbers of patients are receiving hyperbaric oxygen therapy as an intensive care treatment, some of whom have pre-existing airway obstruction. Spirometers are the ideal instruments for measuring airway obstruction, but peak flow meters are useful and versatile devices. The behaviour of both types of device was therefore studied in a hyperbaric unit under conditions of increased pressure. It is important to have a non-electrical indicator of airway obstruction, to minimize the fire risk in the hyperoxic environment. The hypothesis was tested that, assuming that dynamic resistance is unchanged, both the Wright's standard and mini-peak flow meters would over-read peak expiratory flow (PEF) under increased pressure when compared with a volumetric spirometer, as the latter is unaffected by air density. It was postulated that a correction factor could be derived so that PEF meters could be used in this setting. Seven normal subjects performed volume-dependent spirometry to derive PEF, and manoeuvres using both standard and mini PEF meters at sea level, under hyperbaric conditions at 303, 253 and 152 kPa (3, 2.5 and 1.5 atmospheres respectively; 1 atmosphere absolute=101.08 kPa), and again at sea level. There was a progressive and significant decline in PEF with increasing pressure as measured by the spirometer (69.46+/-0.8% baseline at 303 kPa compared with 101 kPa), while the PEF meters showed a progressive increase in their readings (an increase of 7.86+/-1.69% at 303 kPa with the mini PEF meter). Using these data points, a correction factor was derived which allows appropriate values to be calculated from the Wright's meter readings under these conditions.

  15. The predictive value of self-rated health in the presence of subjective memory complaints on permanent nursing home placement in elderly primary care patients over 4-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Waldemar, Gunhild


    self-rated health (SRH) predicts nursing home (NH) placement; subjective memory complaints (SMC) too. However, the predictive value of SRH in the presence of SMC is unclear.......self-rated health (SRH) predicts nursing home (NH) placement; subjective memory complaints (SMC) too. However, the predictive value of SRH in the presence of SMC is unclear....

  16. Age and sex corrected normal reference values of T1, T2 T2* and ECV in healthy subjects at 3T CMR. (United States)

    Roy, Clotilde; Slimani, Alisson; de Meester, Christophe; Amzulescu, Mihaela; Pasquet, Agnès; Vancraeynest, David; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis; Pouleur, Anne-Catherine; Gerber, Bernhard L


    Myocardial T1, T2 and T2* imaging techniques become increasingly used in clinical practice. While normal values for T1, T2 and T2* times are well established for 1.5 Tesla (T) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), data for 3T remain scarce. Therefore we sought to determine normal reference values relative to gender and age and day to day reproducibility for native T1, T2, T2* mapping and extracellular volume (ECV) at 3T in healthy subjects. After careful exclusion of cardiovascular abnormality, 75 healthy subjects aged 20 to 90 years old (mean 56 ± 19 years, 47% women) underwent left-ventricular T1 (3-(3)-3-(3)-5 MOLLI)), T2 (8 echo- spin echo-imaging) and T2 * (8 echo gradient echo imaging) mapping at 3T CMR (Philips Ingenia 3T and computation of extracellular volume after administration of 0.2 mmol/kg Gadovist). Inter- and intra-observer reproducibility was estimated by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Day to day reproducibility was assessed in 10 other volunteers. Mean myocardial T1 at 3T was 1122 ± 57 ms, T2 52 ± 6 ms, T2* 24 ± 5 ms and ECV 26.6 ± 3.2%. T1 (1139 ± 37 vs 1109 ± 73 ms, p T1 (r = 0.40, p T1, 7% for T2, 11% for T2* and 11.5% for ECV). We provide normal myocardial T2, T2*,T1 and ECV reference values for 3T CMR which are significantly different from those reported at 1.5 Tesla CMR. Myocardial T1 and ECV values are gender and age dependent. Measurement had high inter and intra-observer reproducibility and good day-to-day reproducibility.

  17. Normative values for CT-based texture analysis of vertebral bodies in dual X-ray absorptiometry-confirmed, normally mineralized subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannil, Manoj; Eberhard, Matthias; Becker, Anton S.; Alkadhi, Hatem; Guggenberger, Roman [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Schoenenberg, Denise; Osterhoff, Georg [University Hospital Zurich, Division of Trauma Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); Frey, Diana P. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Rheumatology, Zurich (Switzerland); Konukoglu, Ender [Computer Vision Laboratory, Department of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, Zurich (Switzerland)


    To develop age-, gender-, and regional-specific normative values for texture analysis (TA) of spinal computed tomography (CT) in subjects with normal bone mineral density (BMD), as defined by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and to determine age-, gender-, and regional-specific differences. In this retrospective, IRB-approved study, TA was performed on sagittal CT bone images of the thoracic and lumbar spine using dedicated software (MaZda) in 141 individuals with normal DXA BMD findings. Numbers of female and male subjects were balanced in each of six age decades. Three hundred and five TA features were analyzed in thoracic and lumbar vertebrae using free-hand regions-of-interest. Intraclass correlation (ICC) coefficients were calculated for determining intra- and inter-observer agreement of each feature. Further dimension reduction was performed with correlation analyses. The TA features with an ICC < 0.81 indicating compromised intra- and inter-observer agreement and with Pearson correlation scores r > 0.8 with other features were excluded from further analysis for dimension reduction. From the remaining 31 texture features, a significant correlation with age was found for the features mean (r = -0.489, p < 0.001), variance (r = -0.681, p < 0.001), kurtosis (r = 0.273, p < 0.001), and WavEnLL{sub s}4 (r = 0.273, p < 0.001). Significant differences were found between genders for various higher-level texture features (p < 0.001). Regional differences among the thoracic spine, thoracic-lumbar junction, and lumbar spine were found for most TA features (p < 0.021). This study established normative values of TA features on CT images of the spine and showed age-, gender-, and regional-specific differences in individuals with normal BMD as defined by DXA. (orig.)

  18. Peak flow meter use - slideshow (United States)

    ... page: // Peak flow meter use - Series—Peak flow meter use - part one To use the sharing ... slide 7 out of 7 Overview A peak flow meter helps you check how well your asthma ...

  19. Normative Values for Intertrial Variability of Motor Responses to Nerve Root and Transcranial Stimulation: A Condition for Follow-Up Studies in Individual Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Troni

    Full Text Available Intertrial variability (ITV of motor responses to peripheral (CMAP and transcranial (MEP stimulation prevents their use in follow-up studies. Our purpose was to develop strategies to reduce and measure CMAP and MEP ITV to guide long-term monitoring of conduction slowing and conduction failure of peripheral and central motor pathway in the individual patient.Maximal compound muscle action potentials to High Voltage Electrical Stimulation (HVES of lumbo-sacral nerve roots (r-CMAP and activated, averaged motor evoked potentials (MEPs to Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS using double cone coil were recorded from 10 proximal and distal muscle districts of lower limbs. The procedure was repeated twice, 1-2 days apart, in 30 subjects, including healthy volunteers and clinically stable multiple sclerosis patients, using constant stimulating and recording sites and adopting a standardized procedure of voluntary activation. ITV for latency and area indexes and for the ratio between MEP and r-CMAP areas (a-Ratio was expressed as Relative Intertrial Variation (RIV, 5th-95th percentile. As an inverse correlation between the size of area and ITV was found, raw ITV values were normalized as a function of area to make them comparable with one another.All RIV values for latencies were significantly below the optimum threshold of ± 10%, with the exception of r-CMAP latencies recorded from Vastus Lateralis muscle. RIVs for a-Ratio, the most important index of central conduction failure, ranged from a maximum of -25.3% to +32.2% (Vastus Medialis to a minimum of -15.0% to + 17.4% (Flexor Hallucis Brevis.The described procedure represents an effort to lower as much as possible variability of motor responses in serial recording; the reported ITV normative values are the necessary premise to detect significant changes of motor conduction slowing and failure in the individual patient in follow-up studies.

  20. Normative Values for Intertrial Variability of Motor Responses to Nerve Root and Transcranial Stimulation: A Condition for Follow-Up Studies in Individual Subjects (United States)

    Malucchi, Simona; Capobianco, Marco; Sperli, Francesca


    Objective Intertrial variability (ITV) of motor responses to peripheral (CMAP) and transcranial (MEP) stimulation prevents their use in follow-up studies. Our purpose was to develop strategies to reduce and measure CMAP and MEP ITV to guide long-term monitoring of conduction slowing and conduction failure of peripheral and central motor pathway in the individual patient. Methods Maximal compound muscle action potentials to High Voltage Electrical Stimulation (HVES) of lumbo-sacral nerve roots (r-CMAP) and activated, averaged motor evoked potentials (MEPs) to Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) using double cone coil were recorded from 10 proximal and distal muscle districts of lower limbs. The procedure was repeated twice, 1–2 days apart, in 30 subjects, including healthy volunteers and clinically stable multiple sclerosis patients, using constant stimulating and recording sites and adopting a standardized procedure of voluntary activation. ITV for latency and area indexes and for the ratio between MEP and r-CMAP areas (a-Ratio) was expressed as Relative Intertrial Variation (RIV, 5th-95th percentile). As an inverse correlation between the size of area and ITV was found, raw ITV values were normalized as a function of area to make them comparable with one another. Results All RIV values for latencies were significantly below the optimum threshold of ± 10%, with the exception of r-CMAP latencies recorded from Vastus Lateralis muscle. RIVs for a-Ratio, the most important index of central conduction failure, ranged from a maximum of -25.3% to +32.2% (Vastus Medialis) to a minimum of -15.0% to + 17.4% (Flexor Hallucis Brevis). Conclusions The described procedure represents an effort to lower as much as possible variability of motor responses in serial recording; the reported ITV normative values are the necessary premise to detect significant changes of motor conduction slowing and failure in the individual patient in follow-up studies. PMID:27182973

  1. Common Peak Approach Using Mass Spectrometry Data Sets for Predicting the Effects of Anticancer Drugs on Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Ushijima


    Full Text Available We propose a method for biomarker discovery from mass spectrometry data, improving the common peak approach developed by Fushiki et al. (BMC Bioinformatics, 7:358, 2006. The common peak method is a simple way to select the sensible peaks that are shared with many subjects among all detected peaks by combining a standard spectrum alignment and kernel density estimates. The key idea of our proposed method is to apply the common peak approach to each class label separately. Hence, the proposed method gains more informative peaks for predicting class labels, while minor peaks associated with specifi c subjects are deleted correctly. We used a SELDI-TOF MS data set from laser microdissected cancer tissues for predicting the treatment effects of neoadjuvant therapy using an anticancer drug on breast cancer patients. The AdaBoost algorithm is adopted for pattern recognition, based on the set of candidate peaks selected by the proposed method. The analysis gives good performance in the sense of test errors for classifying the class labels for a given feature vector of selected peak values.

  2. Neurofeedback training for peak performance. (United States)

    Graczyk, Marek; Pąchalska, Maria; Ziółkowski, Artur; Mańko, Grzegorz; Łukaszewska, Beata; Kochanowicz, Kazimierz; Mirski, Andrzej; Kropotov, Iurii D


    One of the applications of the Neurofeedback methodology is peak performance in sport. The protocols of the neurofeedback are usually based on an assessment of the spectral parameters of spontaneous EEG in resting state conditions. The aim of the paper was to study whether the intensive neurofeedback training of a well-functioning Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport, could change the brain functioning reflected in changes in spontaneous EEG and event related potentials (ERPs). The case is presented of an Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport. He wanted to resume his activities by means of neurofeedback training. His QEEG/ERP parameters were assessed before and after 4 intensive sessions of neurotherapy. Dramatic and statistically significant changes that could not be explained by error measurement were observed in the patient. Neurofeedback training in the subject under study increased the amplitude of the monitoring component of ERPs generated in the anterior cingulate cortex, accompanied by an increase in beta activity over the medial prefrontal cortex. Taking these changes together, it can be concluded that that even a few sessions of neurofeedback in a high performance brain can significantly activate the prefrontal cortical areas associated with increasing confidence in sport performance.

  3. Neurofeedback training for peak performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Graczyk


    Full Text Available [b]aim[/b]. One of the applications of the Neurofeedback methodology is peak performance in sport. The protocols of the neurofeedback are usually based on an assessment of the spectral parameters of spontaneous EEG in resting state conditions. The aim of the paper was to study whether the intensive neurofeedback training of a well-functioning Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport, could change the brain functioning reflected in changes in spontaneous EEG and event related potentials (ERPs. [b]case study[/b]. The case is presented of an Olympic athlete who has lost his performance confidence after injury in sport. He wanted to resume his activities by means of neurofeedback training. His QEEG/ERP parameters were assessed before and after 4 intensive sessions of neurotherapy. Dramatic and statistically significant changes that could not be explained by error measurement were observed in the patient. [b]conclusion[/b]. Neurofeedback training in the subject under study increased the amplitude of the monitoring component of ERPs generated in the anterior cingulate cortex, accompanied by an increase in beta activity over the medial prefrontal cortex. Taking these changes together, it can be concluded that that even a few sessions of neurofeedback in a high performance brain can significantly activate the prefrontal cortical areas associated with increasing confidence in sport performance.

  4. Normative values of spino-pelvic sagittal alignment, balance, age, and health-related quality of life in a cohort of healthy adult subjects. (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Masashi; Hatsushikano, Shun; Shimoda, Haruka; Ono, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Kei


    To elucidate the normative values of whole body sagittal alignment and balance of a healthy population in the standing position; and to clarify the relationship among the alignment, balance, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and age. Healthy Japanese adult volunteers [n = 126, mean age 39.4 years (20-69), M/F = 30/96] with no history of spinal disease were enrolled in a cross-sectional cohort study. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaire was administered and subjects were scanned from the center of the acoustic meati (CAM) to the feet while standing on a force plate to determine the gravity line (GL), and the distance between CAM and GL (CAM-GL) was measured in the sagittal plane. Standard X-ray parameters were measured from the head to the lower extremities. ODI was compared among age groups stratified by decade. Correlations were investigated by simple linear regression analysis. Ideal lumbar lordosis was investigated using the least squares method. The present study yielded normative values for whole standing sagittal alignment including head and lower extremities in a cohort of 126 healthy adult volunteers, comparable to previous reports and thus a formula for ideal lumbar lordosis was deduced: LL = 32.9 + 0.60 × PI - 0.23 × age. There was a tendency of positive correlation between McGregor slope, thoracic kyphosis, PT, and age. SVA, T1 pelvic angle, sacrofemoral angle, knee flexion angle, and ankle flexion angle, but not CAM-GL, increased with age, suggesting that the spinopelvic alignment changes with age, but standing whole body alignment is compensated for to preserve a horizontal gaze. ODI tended to increase from the 40s in the domain of pain intensity, personal care, traveling, and total score. ODI weakly, but significantly positively correlated with age and PI-LL. Whole body standing alignment even in healthy subjects gradually deteriorates with age, but is compensated to preserve a horizontal gaze. HRQOL is also

  5. Elements of kitchen toxicology to exploit the value of traditional (African) recipes: The case of Egusi Okra meal in the diet of HIV+/AIDS subjects. (United States)

    Frazzoli, Chiara; Mazzanti, Francesca; Achu, Mercy Bih; Pouokam, Guy Bertrand; Fokou, Elie


    The Egusi Okra soup is a traditional African meal that is considered of high nutritional value and protective against weight loss. We introduce the concept of "kitchen toxicology" to analyse the recipe of the Egusi Okra soup and highlight possible mitigation measures for toxic and/or antinutritional effects in the wide spectrum of health and nutritional needs of HIV+/AIDS subjects. In particular, we focus on toxicants (environmental contaminants, process contaminants, substances leaching from food contact materials) dysregulating the immune status, as well as on interactions between nutrients, contaminants, and/or antinutrients which may lead to secondary/conditioned nutritional deficiencies or imbalances; in their turn, these can modulate the ability to cope with toxicants, and increase nutritional requirements. Recommendations are given for practices preserving the Egusi Okra soup from such risk factors, identifying points of particular attention during meal preparation, from purchase of raw ingredients through to food handling, cooking, storage, and consumption. The Egusi Okra soup is discussed in the context of a diet that is asked to mitigate complications (weight loss, opportunistic infections) and support antiretroviral therapy in African countries with high HIV/AIDS prevalence. The paper discusses how nutritional interventions benefit of the integration of kitchen toxicology practices in everyday life. Toxicological risk assessment is crucial to understand the history and status of the person exposed to or affected by infectious diseases.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The main thrust of this paper is peak shaving with a Stochastic hydro model. In peak sharing, the amount of hydro energy scheduled may be a minimum but it serves to replace less efficient thermal units. The sample system is die Kainji .... ni = average number of times the system load is in state Li in period k. 5. Numerical ...

  7. The U.S. Geological Survey Peak-Flow File Data Verification Project, 2008–16 (United States)

    Ryberg, Karen R.; Goree, Burl B.; Williams-Sether, Tara; Mason, Robert R.


    Annual peak streamflow (peak flow) at a streamgage is defined as the maximum instantaneous flow in a water year. A water year begins on October 1 and continues through September 30 of the following year; for example, water year 2015 extends from October 1, 2014, through September 30, 2015. The accuracy, characterization, and completeness of the peak streamflow data are critical in determining flood-frequency estimates that are used daily to design water and transportation infrastructure, delineate flood-plain boundaries, and regulate development and utilization of lands throughout the United States and are essential to understanding the implications of climate and land-use change on flooding and high-flow conditions.As of November 14, 2016, peak-flow data existed for 27,240 unique streamgages in the United States and its territories. The data, collectively referred to as the “peak-flow file,” are available as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) public web interface, the National Water Information System, at Although the data have been routinely subjected to periodic review by the USGS Office of Surface Water and screening at the USGS Water Science Center level, these data were not reviewed in a national, systematic manner until 2008 when automated scripts were developed and applied to detect potential errors in peak-flow values and their associated dates, gage heights, and peak-flow qualification codes, as well as qualification codes associated with the gage heights. USGS scientists and hydrographers studied the resulting output, accessed basic records and field notes, and corrected observed errors or, more commonly, confirmed existing data as correct.This report summarizes the changes in peak-flow file data at a national level, illustrates their nature and causation, and identifies the streamgages affected by these changes. Specifically, the peak-flow data were compared for streamgages with peak flow

  8. Elements of kitchen toxicology to exploit the value of traditional (African recipes: The case of Egusi Okra meal in the diet of HIV+/AIDS subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Frazzoli

    Full Text Available The Egusi Okra soup is a traditional African meal that is considered of high nutritional value and protective against weight loss. We introduce the concept of “kitchen toxicology” to analyse the recipe of the Egusi Okra soup and highlight possible mitigation measures for toxic and/or antinutritional effects in the wide spectrum of health and nutritional needs of HIV+/AIDS subjects. In particular, we focus on toxicants (environmental contaminants, process contaminants, substances leaching from food contact materials dysregulating the immune status, as well as on interactions between nutrients, contaminants, and/or antinutrients which may lead to secondary/conditioned nutritional deficiencies or imbalances; in their turn, these can modulate the ability to cope with toxicants, and increase nutritional requirements. Recommendations are given for practices preserving the Egusi Okra soup from such risk factors, identifying points of particular attention during meal preparation, from purchase of raw ingredients through to food handling, cooking, storage, and consumption. The Egusi Okra soup is discussed in the context of a diet that is asked to mitigate complications (weight loss, opportunistic infections and support antiretroviral therapy in African countries with high HIV/AIDS prevalence. The paper discusses how nutritional interventions benefit of the integration of kitchen toxicology practices in everyday life. Toxicological risk assessment is crucial to understand the history and status of the person exposed to or affected by infectious diseases. Keywords: Traditional diet, Malnutrition, Food safety, Weight loss, Immune system, Dysmetabolic diseases, Clinical toxicology, Nutrition security

  9. Historical changes in annual peak flows in Maine and implications for flood-frequency analyses (United States)

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.


    Flood-frequency analyses use statistical methods to compute peak streamflows for selected recurrence intervals— the average number of years between peak flows that are equal to or greater than a specified peak flow. Analyses are based on annual peak flows at a stream. It has long been assumed that the annual peak streamflows used in these computations were stationary (non-changing) over very long periods of time, except in river basins subject to direct effects of human activities, such as urbanization and regulation. Because of the potential effects of global warming on peak flows, the assumption of peak-flow stationarity has recently been questioned. Maine has many streamgages with 50 to 105 years of recorded annual peak streamflows. In this study, this long-term record has been tested for historical flood-frequency stationarity, to provide some insight into future flood frequency. Changes over time in annual instantaneous peak streamflows at 28 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages with long-term data (50 or more years) and relatively complete records were investigated by examining linear trends for each streamgage’s period of record. None of the 28 streamgages had more than 5 years of missing data. Eight streamgages have substantial streamflow regulation. Because previous studies have suggested that changes over time may have occurred as a step change around 1970, step changes between each streamgage’s older record (start year to 1970) and newer record (1971 to 2006) also were computed. The median change over time for all 28 streamgages is an increase of 15.9 percent based on a linear change and an increase of 12.4 percent based on a step change. The median change for the 20 unregulated streamgages is slightly higher than for all 28 streamgages; it is 18.4 percent based on a linear change and 15.0 percent based on a step change. Peak flows with 100- and 5-year recurrence intervals were computed for the 28 streamgages using the full annual peak-flow record

  10. Peak versus mean propulsive power outputs: which is more closely related to jump squat performance? (United States)

    Loturco, Irineu; Pereira, Lucas A; Kobal, Ronaldo; Kitamura, Katia; Cal Abad, Cesar C; Nakamura, Fábio Y; Pai, Chi N


    This study aimed to compare the predictive value of muscle power (peak power, mean power until the peak-velocity or mean propulsive power) in relation to the jump height achieved during the jump squat performed at different loads. One hundred and ninety-four elite athletes performed jump squats against loads corresponding to 40%, 60%, and 80% of their respective body mass. A linear regression analysis was performed to establish the relationship between muscle power expressions and jump squat height. The coefficient of determination (R2) in the different linear regression models between muscle power-related variables and jump squat height, for the different load ranges, varied from 0.50 to 0.57 (for absolute power values) and from 0.72 to 0.78 (for relative power values [W/kg]). The mean propulsive power presented similar capacity to predict the jump squat height as the peak power-related values. For all analyzed variables, this prediction power was increased when the absolute power values were normalized by the individuals' body mass. Selection of the values related to the mean propulsive phase to assess top-level athletes might be considered as an advantageous alternative, due to its adequacy to properly reflect the neuromuscular potential of the subjects in both ballistic and traditional exercises.

  11. Hubbert's Peak: A Physicist's View (United States)

    McDonald, Richard


    Oil and its by-products, as used in manufacturing, agriculture, and transportation, are the lifeblood of today's 7 billion-person population and our 65T world economy. Despite this importance, estimates of future oil production seem dominated by wishful thinking rather than quantitative analysis. Better studies are needed. In 1956, Dr. M.King Hubbert proposed a theory of resource production and applied it successfully to predict peak U.S. oil production in 1970. Thus, the peak of oil production is referred to as ``Hubbert's Peak.'' Prof. Al Bartlett extended this work in publications and lectures on population and oil. Both Hubbert and Bartlett place peak world oil production at a similar time, essentially now. This paper extends this line of work to include analyses of individual countries, inclusion of multiple Gaussian peaks, and analysis of reserves data. While this is not strictly a predictive theory, we will demonstrate a ``closed'' story connecting production, oil-in-place, and reserves. This gives us the ``most likely'' estimate of future oil availability. Finally, we will comment on synthetic oil and the possibility of carbon-neutral synthetic oil for a sustainable future.

  12. QRS peak detection for heart rate monitoring on Android smartphone (United States)

    Pambudi Utomo, Trio; Nuryani, Nuryani; Darmanto


    In this study, Android smartphone is used for heart rate monitoring and displaying electrocardiogram (ECG) graph. Heart rate determination is based on QRS peak detection. Two methods are studied to detect the QRS complex peak; they are Peak Threshold and Peak Filter. The acquisition of ECG data is utilized by AD8232 module from Analog Devices, three electrodes, and Microcontroller Arduino UNO R3. To record the ECG data from a patient, three electrodes are attached to particular body’s surface of a patient. Patient’s heart activity which is recorded by AD8232 module is decoded by Arduino UNO R3 into analog data. Then, the analog data is converted into a voltage value (mV) and is processed to get the QRS complex peak. Heart rate value is calculated by Microcontroller Arduino UNO R3 uses the QRS complex peak. Voltage, heart rate, and the QRS complex peak are sent to Android smartphone by Bluetooth HC-05. ECG data is displayed as the graph by Android smartphone. To evaluate the performance of QRS complex peak detection method, three parameters are used; they are positive predictive, accuracy and sensitivity. Positive predictive, accuracy, and sensitivity of Peak Threshold method is 92.39%, 70.30%, 74.62% and for Peak Filter method are 98.38%, 82.47%, 83.61%, respectively.

  13. Lower extremity peak force and gait kinematics in individuals with inclusion body myositis (United States)

    Davenport, Todd E.; Benson, Kimberly; Baker, Stephanie; Gracey, Christopher; Rakocevic, Goran; McElroy, Beverly; Dalakas, Marinos; Shrader, Joseph A.; Harris-Love, Michael O.


    Objective To determine the relationship between peak isometric muscle force and temporal characteristics of gait in individuals with sporadic inclusion body myositis (s-IBM). Patients and Methods An observational study of 42 individuals with s-IBM (12 female; age: 61.6 ±7.3 years [mean ±standard deviation]; disease duration 8.9 ±4.3 years) was conducted at a Federal hospital. Peak isometric force measurements for lower extremity (LE) muscle groups were obtained using quantitative muscle testing. Temporal characteristics of gait during habitual and fast walking conditions were measured using a portable gait analysis system. Results All observed muscle force values were significantly lower than predicted values (p gait speed and cadence were gait cycle time was 133% of normal, while gait speed and cadence were 58% and 78%, respectively, of normative literature values. Scaled LE peak muscle forces showed significant moderate correlations with the temporal gait variables. Weaker subjects demonstrated greater limitations in gait speed and cadence compared to stronger subjects (p gait. Conclusions Muscle weakness associated with s-IBM disease activity may contribute to diminished gait kinematics. Temporal features of gait are not substantially influenced by knee extensor weakness alone, as the knee flexors and ankle plantar flexors play a compensatory role in maintaining the walking ability of individuals with s-IBM. PMID:25201017

  14. Improved peak shape fitting in alpha spectra. (United States)

    Pommé, S; Caro Marroyo, B


    Peak overlap is a recurrent issue in alpha-particle spectrometry, not only in routine analyses but also in the high-resolution spectra from which reference values for alpha emission probabilities are derived. In this work, improved peak shape formulae are presented for the deconvolution of alpha-particle spectra. They have been implemented as fit functions in a spreadsheet application and optimum fit parameters were searched with built-in optimisation routines. Deconvolution results are shown for a few challenging spectra with high statistical precision. The algorithm outperforms the best available routines for high-resolution spectrometry, which may facilitate a more reliable determination of alpha emission probabilities in the future. It is also applicable to alpha spectra with inferior energy resolution. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Using Academic Journals to Help Students Learn Subject Matter Content, Develop and Practice Critical Reasoning Skills, and Reflect on Personal Values in Food Science and Human Nutrition Classes (United States)

    Iwaoka, Wayne T.; Crosetti, Lea M.


    It has been reported that students learn best when they use a wide variety of techniques to understand the information of the discipline, be it visual, auditory, discussion with others, metacognition, hands-on activities, or writing about the subject. We report in this article the use of academic journals not only as an aid for students to learn…

  16. Predictive Value of Kushida Index and Acoustic Pharyngometry for the Evaluation of Upper Airway in Subjects With or Without Obstructive Sleep Apnea (United States)

    Cho, Hae Young; Grunstein, Ronald R; Yee, Brendon


    Acoustic pharyngometry is a relatively new noninvasive method that quantifies geometrically complexed pharyngeal dimensions. Our study aimed to investigate the predictability and usefulness of acoustic pharyngometry in diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and we developed a prospective clinical trial in 16 subjects without apnea and 54 subjects with apnea. All seventy subjects received polysomnography (PSG) to assess the sleep architecture, including breathing and the degree of apnea hypopnea index. Acoustic pharyngometry was performed in four body positions (sitting, supine, right and left lateral) while awake with tidal breathing in addition to morphometric measurements (Kushida index) of oral cavity. This study shows that the cross-sectional area and volume of the upper airway is smaller in the supine position than any other positions. As well, the oropharyngeal junction area of the supine position is the most predictive parameter to discriminate between subjects with or without OSA. Acoustic pharyngometry can be a clinically useful tool for localizing the narrowed portion of the upper airway and predicting obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:15483340

  17. Peak broadening in paper chromatography and related techniques : III. Peak broadening in thin-layer chromatography on cellulose powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligny, C.L. de; Remijnse, A.G.


    The mechanism of peak broadening in thin-layer chromatography on cellulose powder was investigated by comparing the peak widths obtained in chromatography with those caused only by diffusion in the cellulose powder, for a set of amino acids of widely differing RF values and six kinds of cellulose

  18. Automatic peak selection by a Benjamini-Hochberg-based algorithm. (United States)

    Abbas, Ahmed; Kong, Xin-Bing; Liu, Zhi; Jing, Bing-Yi; Gao, Xin


    A common issue in bioinformatics is that computational methods often generate a large number of predictions sorted according to certain confidence scores. A key problem is then determining how many predictions must be selected to include most of the true predictions while maintaining reasonably high precision. In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based protein structure determination, for instance, computational peak picking methods are becoming more and more common, although expert-knowledge remains the method of choice to determine how many peaks among thousands of candidate peaks should be taken into consideration to capture the true peaks. Here, we propose a Benjamini-Hochberg (B-H)-based approach that automatically selects the number of peaks. We formulate the peak selection problem as a multiple testing problem. Given a candidate peak list sorted by either volumes or intensities, we first convert the peaks into [Formula: see text]-values and then apply the B-H-based algorithm to automatically select the number of peaks. The proposed approach is tested on the state-of-the-art peak picking methods, including WaVPeak [1] and PICKY [2]. Compared with the traditional fixed number-based approach, our approach returns significantly more true peaks. For instance, by combining WaVPeak or PICKY with the proposed method, the missing peak rates are on average reduced by 20% and 26%, respectively, in a benchmark set of 32 spectra extracted from eight proteins. The consensus of the B-H-selected peaks from both WaVPeak and PICKY achieves 88% recall and 83% precision, which significantly outperforms each individual method and the consensus method without using the B-H algorithm. The proposed method can be used as a standard procedure for any peak picking method and straightforwardly applied to some other prediction selection problems in bioinformatics. The source code, documentation and example data of the proposed method is available at

  19. Automatic Peak Selection by a Benjamini-Hochberg-Based Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Abbas, Ahmed


    A common issue in bioinformatics is that computational methods often generate a large number of predictions sorted according to certain confidence scores. A key problem is then determining how many predictions must be selected to include most of the true predictions while maintaining reasonably high precision. In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based protein structure determination, for instance, computational peak picking methods are becoming more and more common, although expert-knowledge remains the method of choice to determine how many peaks among thousands of candidate peaks should be taken into consideration to capture the true peaks. Here, we propose a Benjamini-Hochberg (B-H)-based approach that automatically selects the number of peaks. We formulate the peak selection problem as a multiple testing problem. Given a candidate peak list sorted by either volumes or intensities, we first convert the peaks into p-values and then apply the B-H-based algorithm to automatically select the number of peaks. The proposed approach is tested on the state-of-the-art peak picking methods, including WaVPeak [1] and PICKY [2]. Compared with the traditional fixed number-based approach, our approach returns significantly more true peaks. For instance, by combining WaVPeak or PICKY with the proposed method, the missing peak rates are on average reduced by 20% and 26%, respectively, in a benchmark set of 32 spectra extracted from eight proteins. The consensus of the B-H-selected peaks from both WaVPeak and PICKY achieves 88% recall and 83% precision, which significantly outperforms each individual method and the consensus method without using the B-H algorithm. The proposed method can be used as a standard procedure for any peak picking method and straightforwardly applied to some other prediction selection problems in bioinformatics. The source code, documentation and example data of the proposed method is available at © 2013

  20. Particular Features of Interrelation of Motivation, Values and Sense of Life's Meaning as Subjective Factors of Individualizing Trajectory in the System of Continuous Education (United States)

    Zavodchikov, Dmitry P.; Sharov, Anton A.; Tolstykh, Anastasia ?.; Kholopova, Ekaterina S.; Krivtsov, Artem I.


    The relevance of the problem under study is based on the fact that, as regards methodological and theoretical aspects, the problem of value and motivational sphere is poorly elaborated regarding the interrelation between professional education and professional activity and on the empirical level there is no clear understanding of how the sense of…

  1. Determination of kinetic energy release from metastable peak widths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Allan Christian; Sølling, Theis I.


    The kinetic energy that is released upon bond rupture is often represented as T1/2. A value that is derived from the FWHM of a fragment peak by the use of two different conversion formulas. The choice of formula depends on whether the peak is recorded by scanning a magnetic sector...... that are obtained from magnet scans compared to the peaks that are obtained by scanning an electrostatic analyzer. The E scans (MIKE experiments) give rise to the same values for both of the employed mass spectrometers. The results are explained in terms of energy defocusing when the reactions take place too far...

  2. Predictive value of pharmacokinetics-adjusted phenotypic susceptibility on response to ritonavir-enhanced protease inhibitors (PIs) in human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects failing prior PI therapy. (United States)

    Eron, Joseph J; Park, Jeong-Gun; Haubrich, Richard; Aweeka, Francesca; Bastow, Barbara; Pakes, Gary E; Yu, Song; Wu, Hulin; Richman, Douglas D


    The activities of protease inhibitors in vivo may depend on plasma concentrations and viral susceptibility. This nonrandomized, open-label study evaluated the relationship of the inhibitory quotient (IQ [the ratio of drug exposure to viral phenotypic susceptibility]) to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral load (VL) change for ritonavir-enhanced protease inhibitors (PIs). Subjects on PI-based regimens replaced their PIs with ritonavir-enhanced indinavir (IDV/r) 800/200 mg, fosamprenavir (FPV/r) 700/100 mg, or lopinavir (LPV/r) 400/200 mg twice daily. Pharmacokinetics were assessed at day 14; follow-up lasted 24 weeks. Associations between IQ and VL changes were examined. Fifty-three subjects enrolled, 12 on IDV/r, 33 on FPV/r, and 8 on LPV/r. Median changes (n-fold) (FC) of 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) to the study PI were high. Median 2-week VL changes were -0.7, -0.1, and -1.0 log(10) for IDV/r, FPV/r, and LPV/r. With FPV/r, correlations between the IQ and the 2-week change in VL were significant (Spearman's r range, -0.39 to -0.50; P PI-experienced subjects with highly resistant HIV-1, short-term VL responses to RTV-enhanced FPV/r correlated best with baseline susceptibility. The IQ improved correlation in analyses of all arms where a greater range of virologic responses was observed.

  3. General Lack of Correlations between Age and Signs of the Metabolic Syndrome in Subjects with Non-diabetic Fasting Glucose Values. (United States)

    Preuss, Harry G; Mrvichin, Nate; Clouatre, Dallas; Bagchi, Debasis; Preuss, Jeffrey M; Perricone, Nicholas V; Swaroop, Anand; Kaats, Gilbert R


    Insulin resistance and advancing age are well-recognized risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Recent reports indicate that fasting glucose levels in non-diabetic patients correlate appropriately with the development of certain elements in metabolic syndrome, which suggest a cause-effect relationship with insulin resistance. The present investigation assessed whether a significant association exists between chronological age and various elements of metabolic syndrome in this same group of subjects possessing non-diabetic fasting glucose levels. Baseline data were taken from 288 subjects (age 17-87 years) with fasting glucose levels ≤ 125 mg/dl. Correlations between chronological age and different metabolic parameters were assessed to determine any statistically significant relationships and compare these with previously demonstrated metabolic parameters. With the exception of systolic blood pressure, the following correlations between age and components of metabolic syndrome were not significant or even significant in the opposite direction compared to those found in the same population using fasting glucose as the independent variable: body weight, body fat, diastolic blood pressure, white blood cell count (WBC)/neutrophil count, and circulating levels of insulin, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Although systolic blood pressure still increased, it was to a lesser extent than might be expected. In the present investigation, a cross-sectional analysis was carried out over a wide age range of subjects. It is noteworthy that fasting glucose levels and the other major elements of metabolic syndrome did not change significantly with advancing age. These results demonstrate that decreasing insulin resistance and fasting glucose levels may be an important way to overcome the adverse effects and perturbations of advancing age

  4. Drivers of peak sales for pharmaceutical brands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Marc; Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Verhoef, Peter C.


    Peak sales are an important metric in the pharmaceutical industry. Specifically, managers are focused on the height-of-peak-sales and the time required achieving peak sales. We analyze how order of entry and quality affect the level of peak sales and the time-to-peak-sales of pharmaceutical brands.

  5. Training prescription in patients on beta-blockers: percentage peak exercise methods or self-regulation? (United States)

    Zanettini, Renzo; Centeleghe, Paola; Ratti, Fosco; Benna, Stefania; Di Tullio, Laura; Sorlini, Nadia


    Exercise prescription based on percentage of peak exercise variables has many limitations in patients taking beta-blockers. The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of a training protocol based on the rating of perceived exercise (RPE) in patients taking beta-blockers after cardiac surgical revascularization. 71 patients treated with beta-blockers after recent coronary artery bypass grafting were randomly allocated to two different programmes with training intensity adjusted to keep heart rate close to first ventilatory threshold (36 subjects, AeT group) or RPE between grades 4 and 5 of 10-point category-ratio BORG scale (35 subjects, RPE group). In the RPE group, mean training workloads and heart rate values were significantly higher than in the AeT group; during the last week of the programme, six RPE patients were training very close to anaerobic threshold. Aerobic peak capacity increased similarly in the two groups. Considering the potential effects on training intensity of prescriptions based on percentages of peak exercise variables, we found that only percentage heart rate reserve and peak workload methods were reliable in defining a safe upper limit of training intensity, with values of 50% and 65% respectively. Self-regulation of exercise training intensity between grades 4 and 5 of the 10-point category-ratio BORG scale is effective but may promote overtraining in some patients without significant functional advantages. For these reasons, RPE method should be integrated with objective indices based on percentage of heart rate reserve or of peak workload.

  6. Peak experiences of psilocybin users and non-users. (United States)

    Cummins, Christina; Lyke, Jennifer


    Maslow (1970) defined peak experiences as the most wonderful experiences of a person's life, which may include a sense of awe, well-being, or transcendence. Furthermore, recent research has suggested that psilocybin can produce experiences subjectively rated as uniquely meaningful and significant (Griffiths et al. 2006). It is therefore possible that psilocybin may facilitate or change the nature of peak experiences in users compared to non-users. This study was designed to compare the peak experiences of psilocybin users and non-users, to evaluate the frequency of peak experiences while under the influence of psilocybin, and to assess the perceived degree of alteration of consciousness during these experiences. Participants were recruited through convenience and snowball sampling from undergraduate classes and at a musical event. Participants were divided into three groups, those who reported a peak experience while under the influence of psilocybin (psilocybin peak experience: PPE), participants who had used psilocybin but reported their peak experiences did not occur while they were under the influence of psilocybin (non-psilocybin peak experience: NPPE), and participants who had never used psilocybin (non-user: NU). A total of 101 participants were asked to think about their peak experiences and complete a measure evaluating the degree of alteration of consciousness during that experience. Results indicated that 47% of psilocybin users reported their peak experience occurred while using psilocybin. In addition, there were significant differences among the three groups on all dimensions of alteration of consciousness. Future research is necessary to identify factors that influence the peak experiences of psilocybin users in naturalistic settings and contribute to the different characteristics of peak experiences of psilocybin users and non-users.

  7. Diabetes mellitus defined by hemoglobin A1c value: Risk characterization for incidence among Japanese subjects in the JPHC Diabetes Study


    Kato, Masayuki; Takahashi, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Yumi; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Inoue, Manami; Kadowaki, Takashi; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Noda, Mitsuhiko


    Abstract Aims/Introduction:  Although several risk factors for type 2 diabetes have been identified, most of them have been identified in studies on Western populations, and they should be evaluated in a Japanese population. In 2010, new diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus using hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were released and its use in epidemiological studies has many advantages. The aim of the present study was to evaluate risk factors for type 2 diabetes defined based on HbA1c values in a J...

  8. Spatial peak-load pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano, M. Soledad; Serra, Pablo [Universidad de Chile, Dept. of Industrial Engineering, Santiago (Chile)


    This article extends the traditional electricity peak-load pricing model to include transmission costs. In the context of a two-node, two-technology electric power system, where suppliers face inelastic demand, we show that when the marginal plant is located at the energy-importing center, generators located away from that center should pay the marginal capacity transmission cost; otherwise, consumers should bear this cost through capacity payments. Since electric power transmission is a natural monopoly, marginal-cost pricing does not fully cover costs. We propose distributing the revenue deficit among users in proportion to the surplus they derive from the service priced at marginal cost. (Author)

  9. White matter organization in relation to upper limb motor control in healthy subjects: exploring the added value of diffusion kurtosis imaging. (United States)

    Gooijers, J; Leemans, A; Van Cauter, S; Sunaert, S; Swinnen, S P; Caeyenberghs, K


    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) characterizes white matter (WM) microstructure. In many brain regions, however, the assumption that the diffusion probability distribution is Gaussian may be invalid, even at low b values. Recently, diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) was suggested to more accurately estimate this distribution. We explored the added value of DKI in studying the relation between WM microstructure and upper limb coordination in healthy controls (N = 24). Performance on a complex bimanual tracking task was studied with respect to the conventional DTI measures (DKI or DTI derived) and kurtosis metrics of WM tracts/regions carrying efferent (motor) output from the brain, corpus callosum (CC) substructures and whole brain WM. For both estimation models, motor performance was associated with fractional anisotropy (FA) of the CC-genu, CC-body, the anterior limb of the internal capsule, and whole brain WM (r s range 0.42-0.63). Although DKI revealed higher mean, radial and axial diffusivity and lower FA than DTI (p motor performance was associated with increased mean and radial kurtosis and kurtosis anisotropy (r s range 0.43-0.55). In conclusion, DKI provided additional information, but did not show increased sensitivity to detect relations between WM microstructure and bimanual performance in healthy controls.

  10. Factors influencing peak expiratory flow in teenage boys | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) is a useful measure of pulmonary health status and is frequently utilised in asthm, management. Reduction in PEF is usually indicative of onset (of asthma symptoms. However, use can be made of PEF values only if normal values are known. The definition of normal range is always ...

  11. Developmental changes and gender effects on motivational constructs based on the expectancy-value model in Czech and United States students regarding learning of science, mathematics, and other subjects (United States)

    Yang, Eun-Mi

    This study employed American and Czech student samples to investigate the motivational constructs used in Eccles and Wigfield's (1983) expectancy-value model. To predict achievement behavior, the model specifies relationships among expectancy for-success and task value, task-specific self-concept, perception of task-difficulty, perceptions of social environment, and interpretations and attributions for past events in relation to the social world. Czech and American students (n = 1,145) in grades 4--12 were the participants in this study. The causal relationships among the constructs were tested to investigate structural similarities and differences in the models for both countries. This study also explored developmental changes, gender, and national differences in the students' motivational beliefs for these motivational constructs: Expectancy for Success, Intrinsic Interest Value, Task-specific Self-concept, Perception of Task-difficulty, and Perceived Vocational Gender Dominance for science, mathematics, and other school subjects. The findings indicated that, for both countries, with respect to changes over grade level, compared to the younger students, the older students showed lower motivational beliefs for most subject areas except reading. However, the Czech students in grades 6--8 showed more positive motivational beliefs in life science and social studies than did the Czech students in other grade levels. In comparing genders, the male students exhibited more positive motivational beliefs in physical science than did the female students, and female students showed more positive motivational beliefs in reading than did the male students. For life science, the Czech female students rated Intrinsic Interest Value and Task-specific Self-concept higher than did their peer male students. The American students' motivational beliefs in reading were more positive than were Czech students', and the Czech students held more positive motivational beliefs in life

  12. Peak heart rates at extreme altitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Van Hall, Gerrit


    We have measured maximal heart rate during a graded maximal bicycle exercise test to exhaustion in five healthy climbers before and during an expedition to Mt. Everest. Maximal heart rates at sea level were 186 (177-204) beats/min(-1) at sea level and 170 (169-182) beats/min(-1) with acute hypoxia....... After 1, 4 and 6 weeks of acclimatization to 5400 m, maximal heart rates were 155 (135-182), 158 (144-182), and 155 (140-183) beats/min(-1), respectively. Heart rates of two of the climbers were measured during their attempt to reach the summit of Mt. Everest without the use of supplemental oxygen....... The peak heart rates at 8,750 m for the two climbers were 142 and 144 beats/min(-1), which were similar to their maximal heart rates during exhaustive bicycle exercise at 5,400 m, the values being 144 and 148 beats/min(-1), respectively. The peak heart rates at 8,750 m are in agreement with other field...

  13. Effects of equipment and technique on peak flow measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Driscoll B Ronan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different lung function equipment and different respiratory manoeuvres may produce different Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF results. Although the PEF is the most common lung function test, there have been few studies of these effects and no previous study has evaluated both factors in a single group of patients. Methods We studied 36 subjects (PEF range 80–570 l/min. All patients recorded PEF measurements using a short rapid expiration following maximal inspiration (PEF technique or a forced maximal expiration to residual volume (FVC technique. Measurements were made using a Wright's peak flow meter, a turbine spirometer and a Fleisch pneumotachograph spirometer. Results The mean PEF was 8.7% higher when the PEF technique was used (compared with FVC technique, p Conclusion Peak flow measurements are affected by the instruction given and by the device and Peak Flow scale used. Patient management decisions should not be based on PEF measurement made on different instruments.

  14. Effect of Gymnema inodorum on postprandial peak plasma glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 15, 2010 ... on peak plasma glucose concentrations in healthy subjects was investigated. Either oral glucose ... evaluate the impact of long term GI consumption on plasma glucose concentration and liver function, fasting plasma ... activation of beta cell or enzymatic inhibition of carbohydrate absorption. Key words: ...

  15. Simple area determination of strongly overlapping ion mobility peaks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borovcová, L.; Hermannová, M.; Pauk, V.; Šimek, M.; Havlíček, Vladimír; Lemr, Karel


    Roč. 981, AUG 15 (2017), s. 71-79 ISSN 0003-2670 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LO1305 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Ion mobility-mass spectrometry * Fitting of mobility peaks * Analysis of isomers Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 4.950, year: 2016

  16. Facility Location with Double-peaked Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsikas, Aris; Li, Minming; Zhang, Jie


    We study the problem of locating a single facility on a real line based on the reports of self-interested agents, when agents have double-peaked preferences, with the peaks being on opposite sides of their locations. We observe that double-peaked preferences capture real-life scenarios and thus...... complement the well-studied notion of single-peaked preferences. We mainly focus on the case where peaks are equidistant from the agents’ locations and discuss how our results extend to more general settings. We show that most of the results for single-peaked preferences do not directly apply to this setting...

  17. Peak torque and knee kinematics during gait after eccentric isokinetic training of quadriceps in healthy subjects O pico de torque e a cinemática do joelho durante a marcha após treino isocinético excêntrico do quadríceps em sujeitos saudáveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PR Poletto


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of eccentric isokinetic training on knee range of motion (ROM of healthy subjects. METHODS: The knee extensor and flexor isokinetic peak torques and ROM of flexion/extension and varus/valgus knee movements during gait of 18 healthy men (21.7±2.2 years; 1.73±0.10m; 68.7±9.4kg; body mass index: 22.6±2kg/m² were analyzed, before and after six weeks of bilateral eccentric isokinetic training of the knee extensors at 30º/s. RESULTS: The knee extensor torque increased in both limbs (right, from 229±54 to 304±53Nm; pOBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do treino isocinético excêntrico sobre a amplitude de movimento (ADM do joelho em sujeitos saudáveis. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados os picos de torque isocinético dos extensores e flexores do joelho e a ADM de flexo/extensão e valgo/varo, durante a marcha, de 18 homens saudáveis (21,7±2,2 anos; 1,73±0,10m; 68,7±9,4kg; índice de massa corpórea: 22,6±2kg/m² antes e após seis semanas de treino isocinético excêntrico bilateral dos extensores do joelho a 30º/s. RESULTADOS: O torque extensor do joelho aumentou em ambos os membros, direito (de 229±54 para 304±53Nm; p<0,01 e esquerdo (de 228±59 para 311±63Nm; p<0,01 sem diferença de ganho de torque entre eles. O pico de torque flexor aumentou (de 114±30 para 123±22Nm; p<0,05, mas a razão isquiotibiais/quadríceps (I/Q diminuiu (de 0,5±0,08 para 0,39±0,07; p<0,01 após o treino. Não houve diferença para os movimentos de flexo/extensão e valgo/varo após o treino, exceto uma pequena mudança (4° no valgo para o joelho esquerdo. CONCLUSÕES: O treino isocinético excêntrico dos extensores do joelho aumentou o torque extensor e diminuiu a razão I/Q, entretanto o efeito sobre o padrão da marcha parece desprezível em sujeitos saudáveis. Um treino associado dos flexores, complementar ao treino dos extensores parece ser necessário para o equilíbrio entre agonistas e antagonistas do joelho.

  18. Osteoporosis: Peak Bone Mass in Women (United States)

    ... Home Osteoporosis Osteoporosis: Peak Bone Mass in Women Osteoporosis: Peak Bone Mass in Women Bones are the ... No. 15-7891 Last Reviewed 2015-06 NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases ~ National Resource Center 2 ...

  19. Generation of sub-nanosecond pulses using peaking capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Palati


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the analysis, simulation and design of a peaking circuit comprising of a peaking capacitor, spark gap and load circuit. The peaking circuit is used along with a 200 kV, 20 J Marx generator for generation of sub-nanosecond pulses. A high pressure chamber to accommodate the peaking circuit was designed and fabricated and tested upto a pressure of 70 kg/cm2. Total estimated values of the capacitance and inductance of the peaking circuit are 10 pF and 72 nH respectively. At full charging voltage, the peaking capacitor gets charged to a peak voltage of 394.6 kV in 15 ns. The output switch is closed at this instant. From Analysis & Simulation, the output current & rise time (with a matched load of 85 Ω are 2.53 kA and 0.62 ns.

  20. A model to forecast peak spreading. (United States)


    As traffic congestion increases, the K-factor, defined as the proportion of the 24-hour traffic volume that occurs during the peak hour, may decrease. This behavioral response is known as peak spreading: as congestion grows during the peak travel tim...

  1. Decreased Peak Expiratory Flow Associated with Muscle Fiber-Type Switching in Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Yamada

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the respiratory function profile of subjects with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA, and to explore the underlying pathological mechanism by comparing the clinical and biochemical indices of this disease with those of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. We enrolled male subjects with SBMA (n = 40 and ALS (n = 25 along with 15 healthy control subjects, and assessed their respiratory function, motor function, and muscle strength. Predicted values of peak expiratory flow (%PEF and forced vital capacity were decreased in subjects with SBMA compared with controls. In SBMA, both values were strongly correlated with the trunk subscores of the motor function tests and showed deterioration relative to disease duration. Compared with activities of daily living (ADL-matched ALS subjects, %PEF, tongue pressure, and grip power were substantially decreased in subjects with SBMA. Both immunofluorescence and RT-PCR demonstrated a selective decrease in the expression levels of the genes encoding the myosin heavy chains specific to fast-twitch fibers in SBMA subjects. The mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta were up-regulated in SBMA compared with ALS and controls. In conclusion, %PEF is a disease-specific respiratory marker for the severity and progression of SBMA. Explosive muscle strength, including %PEF, was selectively affected in subjects with SBMA and was associated with activation of the mitochondrial biogenesis-related molecular pathway in skeletal muscles.

  2. Annual Peak-Flow and Peak Dam-Pool-Elevation Frequency Characteristics of Selected Dry Dams in the Great Miami River Basin, Ohio (United States)

    Koltun, G.F.


    This report describes the results of a study to determine frequency characteristics of post-regulation annual peak flows at streamflow-gaging stations near the Taylorsville, Huffman, and Germantown dry dams in the Miami Conservancy District flood-protection system (southwestern Ohio), and of annual peak elevations of the corresponding dam pools. Log-Pearson Type III distributions were fit to annual peak flow values for the period 1921 or 1922 through 2007 (the most recent year of published peak flow values at the time of this analysis) and annual peak dam-pool storage values for the period 1922- 2008 to determine peaks with recurrence intervals of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 500 years. Once storages had been estimated for the various recurrence intervals, corresponding dam-pool elevations were determined from elevation-storage ratings provided by the Miami Conservancy District.

  3. Effects of oral contraceptives on peak exercise capacity. (United States)

    Casazza, Gretchen A; Suh, Sang-Hoon; Miller, Benjamin F; Navazio, Franco M; Brooks, George A


    We examined the effects of menstrual cycle phase and oral contraceptive (OC) use on peak oxygen consumption (VO(2 peak)). Six moderately active, eumenorrheic women (25.5 +/- 1.5 yr) were studied before and after 4 mo of OC. Subjects were tested during the follicular and luteal phases before OC and the inactive and high-dose phases after OC. Before OC, there were no significant differences between the follicular and luteal phases in any of the variables studied. There were also no differences between the inactive and high-dose phases. Dietary composition, exercise patterns, and peak heart rate, minute ventilation, and respiratory exchange ratio did not change with OC use. However, OC use significantly (P VO(2 peak) (-11%, 2.53 +/- 0.21 to 2.25 +/- 0.18 l/min). In conclusion, 1) endogenous ovarian steroids have little effect on VO(2 peak), but 2) the exogenous ovarian steroids in OC decrease peak exercise capacity in moderately physically active young women.

  4. Peak bone mass and affecting factors in Korean women. (United States)

    Lim, S K; Lee, N H; Lee, J H; Choi, M S; Chung, Y S; Ahn, K J; Lee, H C; Huh, K B


    Maximizing peak bone mass is advocated as a way to prevent osteoporosis. To evaluate the peak bone mass and the affecting factors in Korean women, we analyzed bone stiffness in 116 middle school students, 118 high school students and 115 female college students by using the Achilles densitometer (Lunar Corporation). Peak bone stiffness of Korean women was relatively lower than that of white women (94% of white women) and a rapid rise of bone stiffness was observed in those subjects 3-4 years after menarche. In adolescent females without menstruation, the bone stiffness was lower than that of adolescent girls with menstruation. The factors affecting the peak bone mass was similar to the risk factors of post menopausal osteoporosis: menstruation status, calcium intake and physical activity. The amount of calcium intake in Korean girls at the critical age (3-4 years after menarche) was lower than the RDA (requirement of daily allowance) at this age. To improve any program aimed at maximizing peak bone mass, further intensive study will be required to evaluate some other common factors affecting peak bone mass in Korean.

  5. Peak nasal inspiratory flow as outcome for provocation studies in allergen exposure chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelke, Georg; Berger, Uwe; Bergmann, Karl-Christian


    parameters are preferred. Despite its practicability, the objective parameter peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) has been rarely used for allergy trials in the setting of allergen exposure chambers. This study aims to evaluate PNIF as an outcome parameter for provocation studies in AECs. METHODS...... during a challenge using a portable PNIF meter. RESULTS: 86 subjects participated in 203 challenges, altogether. House dust mite provocations caused the greatest reduction in PNIF values, followed by grass pollen and birch pollen. Provocations with every allergen or pollen concentration led...... to a significant decrease (p flow, height and weight, and inverse correlations between PNIF and total nasal symptom score, nasal congestion score and visual analog scale of overall subjective...

  6. The rs553668 polymorphism of the ADRA2A gene predicts the worsening of fasting glucose values in a cohort of subjects without diabetes. A population-based study. (United States)

    Bo, S; Cassader, M; Cavallo-Perin, P; Durazzo, M; Rosato, R; Gambino, R


    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the human ADRA2A gene have been associated with increased risk of Type 2 diabetes. The associations between the rs553668 polymorphism and fasting glucose concentrations both cross-sectionally and longitudinally after 6-year follow-up were evaluated in an adult Caucasian population-based cohort. From a cohort of 1658 individuals, after excluding patients with diabetes, those who died and those whose blood samples were not available for genotyping, data of 1345 individuals were analysed. Subjects homozygous for the A allele showed significantly increased baseline fasting glucose values and a significant worsening of fasting glucose (β = 0.48; 95% CI 0.10-0.86) and insulin secretion (β =-20.75; -32.67 to -8.82 for homeostasis model assessment for β-cell function) at follow-up by using generalized estimating equations. Incidence of impaired fasting glucose and diabetes was almost twofold higher in subjects homozygous for the A allele (respectively: incident impaired fasting glucose 7.6-8.2, 16.1%, incident diabetes 1.7-2.3, 3.2% in GG, AG, AA carriers). Our results suggested that the rs553668 polymorphism is associated with glucose worsening in subjects without diabetes at baseline. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  7. Subject Sensitive Invariantism: In Memoriam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, M.J.


    Subject sensitive invariantism is the view that whether a subject knows depends on what is at stake for that subject: the truth-value of a knowledge-attribution is sensitive to the subject's practical interests. I argue that subject sensitive invariantism cannot accept a very plausible principle for

  8. Computation of the kinematics and the minimum peak joint moments of sit-to-stand movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagano Akinori


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A sit-to-stand (STS movement requires muscle strength higher than that of other daily activities. There are many elderly people, who experience difficulty when standing up from a chair. The muscle strength required (or the load on the joints during a STS task is determined by the kinematics (movement pattern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the kinematics and resultant joint moments of people standing up from a chair in order to determine the minimum peak joint moments required for a STS task. Methods This study consisted of three steps. In the first step, kinematic data of lower extremity joint angles (hip, knee and ankle during STS movements were experimentally collected from human subjects. Eighty-five sets of STS kinematic data were obtained. In the second step, the experimentally collected kinematic data and a link segment model of the human body were used to generate more than 5,000,000 computed STS movements. In the third step, using inverse dynamics method, joint moments of the lower extremity were calculated for all movements obtained through the preceding steps. From the outputs of the third step, the optimal kinematics (movement pattern in terms of minimized peak joint moment for the hip, knee and ankle was determined. Results The peak hip joint moment ranged from 0.24 to 1.92 N.m/kg. The peak knee joint moment ranged from 0.51 to 1.97 N.m/kg, and the peak ankle joint moment ranged from -0.11 to 1.32 N.m/kg. The optimal movement patterns differed depending on which minimized joint moment index was selected (hip, knee or ankle. However, the sum of the peak hip joint moment and peak knee joint moment was always approximately 1.53 N.m/kg regardless of which minimized joint moment index was selected. Conclusion The most important finding of this study was that the relation between the peak joint moments at the hip and knee joints was complementary and the sum of those moments needed to be greater than 1.53 N

  9. Scientific discovery, peak experiences and the Col-oh-nell Flastratus! phenomenon. (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G


    Once I had a bizarre dream in which I was vouchsafed a secret which would ensure my wealth and success. It was the title for a comic novel; one supposedly so funny that it would guarantee classic status for any book: Oh Colonel Flastratus! The distinctive feature about my dream was its quality of profound significance, which felt akin to the Eureka moment of a scientific discovery. This led me to question whether the 'peak experience' (PE) of scientific discovery might be as delusional as my dream. On the one hand, euphoric elation attached to a discovery does not guarantee that insights objective truth - implications must be spelled-out and checked. The easy induction of pseudo-profound insights by intoxicants serves as a warning of the potential pitfalls. An arbitrary object becomes labeled with an obscure sense of delight and personal relevance in a process that could be termed the Colonel Flastratus! phenomenon. But neither are peak experiences irrelevant. A scientific PE is some kind of personal guarantee of the subjective truth of an insight - a signal that states: 'This is high quality stuff, by your standards. Do not ignore it, do not forget it, try to understand it'. Peak experiences in science could therefore be considered the result of a 'significance alarm' going off in the brain and their objective value depends on the specialized cognitive quality of that specific brain. So scientists may be correct to take peak experiences seriously. Perhaps the best approach is to regard the scientific PE as a signal from the self to the self, a subjectively evaluated and auto-administered emotional reward for good thinking.

  10. Peak Power Control with an Energy Management System (United States)


    start time LoseVs =tstop; %----------------------Source Parameters------------------------ %-----Source Voltage----- %Peak value used in...Load Load5Start=0.11; Load5Stop=tstop; %Rectifier Load Load6Start=0.4; Load6Stop=3; %Lose the source voltage LoseVs =tstop; %Set to 0

  11. Inaccuracy of portable peak flow meters : correction is not needed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, PLP; Waalkens, HJ; Duiverman, EJ; vanEssenZandvliet, EEM

    This study examined whether correction of peak expiratory flow (PEF) values for the inaccuracy of the meter would affect asthma management in 102 children (7-14 y old). PEF was recorded with a mini Wright meter twice daily for 2 weeks. As expected, measured PEF overestimated PEF level and asthma

  12. Peak Voltage Measurements Using Standard Sphere Gap Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Ungureanu


    Full Text Available The paper presents a measurement system of peak value of high voltage (H.V. using 150 mm diameter sphere gap, disposed in vertical position. Experimental breakdown results have been compared with standard values at atmospheric reference conditions STC (20°C, 101.3 kPa, or 760 mmHg. The main experimental and theoretical characteristics are presented.

  13. Subject Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Peter A. Gilman), 29. Prediction of Peaks in Wolf Numbers in Cycle 24 according to Actual Numbers of. Polar Faculae (D. K. Callebaut & V. V. Makarova), 69. Prospects for Predicting Cycle 24 (Arnab Rai Choudhuri), 41. Solar Astronomy. Keynote Address: Outstanding Problems in Solar Physics (Markus J. Aschwanden), 3.

  14. The effect of the training with the different combinations of frequency and peak-to-peak vibration displacement of whole-body vibration on the strength of knee flexors and extensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Stania


    Full Text Available Whole-body vibration training has become a popular method used in sports and physiotherapy. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of different vibration frequency and peak-to-peak displacement combinations on men knee flexors and extensors strength in isokinetic conditions. The sample consisted of 49 male subjects randomly allocated to seven comparative groups, six of which exercised on a vibration platform with parameters set individually for the groups. The experimental groups were exposed to vibrations 3 times a week for 4 weeks. The pre- and post- isokinetic strength tests, with the angular velocities of 240°/s and 30°/s, were recorded prior to and 2 days after the training. After 4 weeks of whole-body vibration training, a significant increase was noted regarding the mean values of peak torque, average peak torque and total work for knee flexors at high angular velocity in Groups I (60 Hz/ 4 mm and V (40 Hz/ 2 mm (p<0.05. The mean percentage values of post-training changes to study parameters suggest that the training had the most beneficial effect in Groups I (60 Hz/4 mm and IV (60 Hz/2 mm (p<0.05. Whole-body vibrations during static exercise beneficially affected knee flexor strength profile in young men at high angular velocity. The combinations of 60 Hz/4 mm seem to have the most advantageous effects on muscle strength parameters.

  15. Influence of Low Peak Respiratory Exchange Ratio on Cardiac Rehabilitation in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease. (United States)

    Kim, Chul; Choi, Hee Eun; Lee, Ki Hoon; Kim, Young Joo; Lee, Sang Jae


    To compare and analyze the effects of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in two groups based on the peak respiratory exchange ratio (RERpeak) 1.1 values using the exercise tolerance test (ETT) results, and to investigate the reasons for early termination of ETT. Patients with acute coronary syndrome who participated in CR exercise training were selected and all subjects underwent 6 weeks of CR exercise training. ETT was performed on a treadmill using a Modified Bruce Protocol before and after CR exercise training. According to the result of the first ETT, the subjects were divided into two groups: those with an RERpeak≥1.1 (n=33) and those with an RERpeak<1.1 (n=22). We investigated the reasons for ETT termination and compared the effect of CR between the groups. The reasons for the early termination of the first ETT in the RERpeak<1.1 group were subjective dyspnea, abnormal cardiovascular responses, leg fatigue and other problems. After a 6-week CR, the peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and ETT time increased, and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and RPP (rate pressure product) at stage 3 decreased in both the RERpeak<1.1 and RERpeak≥1.1 groups. CR exercise training improved exercise capacity, not only in the RERpeak≥1.1 group, but also in the RERpeak<1.1 group. This means that patients with a lower exercise tolerance could also benefit from the effects of CR. Thoughtful consideration to identify the direct and indirect causes for the early termination of ETT would be necessary to improve the efficiency of CR.

  16. The effects of increasing heel height on forefoot peak pressure. (United States)

    Mandato, M G; Nester, E


    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of increasing heel height on peak forefoot pressure. Thirty-five women were examined while wearing sneakers and shoes with 2-inch and 3-inch heels. An in-shoe pressure-measurement system was used to document the magnitude and location of plantar peak pressures. Pressure under the forefoot was found to increase significantly with increasing heel height. As the heel height increased, the peak pressure shifted toward the first metatarsal and the hallux. The reproducibility of data obtained with the in-shoe pressure-measurement system was tested in five subjects; the data were found to be reproducible to within approximately 3% of measured pressures.

  17. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)


    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  18. Analysis of Peak-to-Peak Current Ripple Amplitude in Seven-Phase PWM Voltage Source Inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Grandi


    Full Text Available Multiphase systems are nowadays considered for various industrial applications. Numerous pulse width modulation (PWM schemes for multiphase voltage source inverters with sinusoidal outputs have been developed, but no detailed analysis of the impact of these modulation schemes on the output peak-to-peak current ripple amplitude has been reported. Determination of current ripple in multiphase PWM voltage source inverters is important for both design and control purposes. This paper gives the complete analysis of the peak-to-peak current ripple distribution over a fundamental period for multiphase inverters, with particular reference to seven-phase VSIs. In particular, peak-to-peak current ripple amplitude is analytically determined as a function of the modulation index, and a simplified expression to get its maximum value is carried out. Although reference is made to the centered symmetrical PWM, being the most simple and effective solution to maximize the DC bus utilization, leading to a nearly-optimal modulation to minimize the RMS of the current ripple, the analysis can be readily extended to either discontinuous or asymmetrical modulations, both carrier-based and space vector PWM. A similar approach can be usefully applied to any phase number. The analytical developments for all different sub-cases are verified by numerical simulations.

  19. Pressões respiratórias máximas: valores encontrados e preditos em indivíduos saudáveis Maximal respiratory pressures: actual and predicted values in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VF Parreira


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os valores encontrados de pressões respiratórias máximas (pressão inspiratória máxima-PImáx e pressão expiratória máxima-PEmáx em uma amostra de indivíduos saudáveis de Minas Gerais com valores preditos pelas equações propostas por Neder et al.³. MÉTODOS: Por meio de um manovacuômetro analógico, foram estudados 100 indivíduos saudáveis (54 mulheres, 46 homens, com idade entre 20-80 anos, recrutados no estado de Minas Gerais - Brasil. A análise estatística foi realizada com testes paramétricos ou não-paramétricos, dependendo da distribuição das variáveis, considerando significativo pOBJECTIVE: To compare actual values for maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP found in a sample of healthy individuals from the State of Minas Gerais (Brazil with the values predicted from the equations put forward by Neder et al.³. METHOD: Using an analog manovacuometer, 100 healthy subjects (54 women and 46 men aged 20-80 years old were studied. Statistical analysis was performed using parametric or non-parametric tests, depending on the distribution of the variables, and p< 0.05 was considered to be significant. RESULTS: For MIP in women, the mean of the actual values was significantly lower than the mean of the predicted values (68.24 ± 29.48 vs. 86.53 ± 8.76; p= 0.000 and there was a moderate and significant correlation (r= 0.557; p< 0.000. For MIP in men, no significant difference was observed between the actual and predicted values (104.67 ± 42.66 vs. 116.78 ± 14.02; p= 0.055 and there was a low and non-significant correlation (r= 0.236; p= 0.115. For MEP in women, there was no significant difference between the actual and predicted values (80.37 ± 33.32 vs. 85.88 ± 10.90; p= 0.164 and there was a low and non-significant correlation (r= 0.149; p= 0.283. For MEP in men, the mean of the actual values was significantly higher than the mean of the predicted values (142.28 ± 43

  20. Decreased peak expiratory flow in pediatric passive smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Yanti


    Full Text Available Background Indonesia ranks fifth among countries with the highest aggregate levels of tobacco consumption in the world. Infants and children exposed to environmental tobacco smoke have increased rates of asthma, respiratory and ear infections, as well as reduced lung function. The effects of tobacco smoke exposure on lung function in children have been reported to be dependent on the source of smoke and the length and dose of exposure. Lung function may also be affected by a child’s gender and asthma status. Objective To compare peak expiratory flow (PEF in pediatric passive smokers to that of children not exposed to second hand smoke, and to define factors that may affect PEF in passive smokers. Methods In August 2009 we conducted a cross-sectional study at an elementary school in the Langkat district. Subjects were aged 6 to 12 years, and divided into two groups: passive smokers and those not exposed to secondhand smoke. Subjects’ PEFs were measured with a Mini-Wright peak flow meter. Measurements were performed in triplicate with the highest value recorded as the PEF. Demographic data including age, sex, weight, height, family income, parental education levels and occupations were obtained through questionnaires. Results Of the 170 participants, 100 were passive smokers and 70 were not exposed to secondhand smoke. Age distribution, weight and height were similar in both groups. We observed a significant difference in PEFs between the group of passive smokers and the group not exposed to secondhand smoke, 211.3 L/minute (SD 61.08 and 242.7 L/minute (SD 77.09, respectively (P < 0.005. The number of years of exposure to smoke (P = 0.079 and the number of cigarettes smoked daily in the household (P = 0.098 did not significantly influence PEF. Conclusion The PEF in pediatric passive smokers was significantly lower than that of children not exposed to secondhand smoke. PEF in passive smokers was not influenced by the number of years of smoke

  1. Peak and average rectified EMG measures: which method of data reduction should be used for assessing core training exercises? (United States)

    Hibbs, A E; Thompson, K G; French, D N; Hodgson, D; Spears, I R


    Core strengthening and stability exercises are fundamental for any conditioning training program. Although surface electromyography (sEMG) is used to quantify muscle activity there is a lack of research using this method to investigate the core musculature and core stability. Two types of data reduction are commonly used for sEMG; peak and average rectified EMG methods. Peak EMG has been infrequently reported in the literature with regard to the assessment of core training while even fewer studies have incorporated average rectified EMG data (ARV). The aim of the study was to establish the repeatability of peak and average rectified EMG data during core training exercises and their interrelationship. Ten male highly trained athletes (inter-subject repeatability group; age, 18 ± 1.2 years; height, 176.5 ± 3.2 cm; body mass, 71 ± 4.5 kg) and one female highly trained athlete (intra-subject repeatability group; age; 27 years old; height; 180 cm; weight; 53 kg) performed five maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) and five core exercises, chosen to represent a range of movement and muscle recruitment patterns. Peak EMG and ARV EMG were calculated for eight core muscles (rectus abdominis, RA; external oblique, EO; internal oblique, IO; multifidis, MF; latissimus dorsi, LD; longissimus, LG; gluteus maximus, GM; rectus femoris, RF) using sEMG. Average coefficient of variation (CV%) for peak EMG across all the exercises and muscles was 45%. This is in comparison to 35% for the ARV method, which was found to be a significant difference (Pexercise. Analysis of the inter-subject and intra-subject CV% values suggest that these exercises and muscles are sufficiently repeatable using sEMG. Five muscles were highly correlated (R>0.70; RA, EO, MF, GM, LG) between peak and ARV EMG suggesting, that for these core muscles, the two methods provide a similar evaluation of muscle activity. However, for other muscles (IO, RF, LD) the relationship was found to range from poor

  2. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen


    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  3. Peak distortion effects in analytical ion chromatography. (United States)

    Wahab, M Farooq; Anderson, Jordan K; Abdelrady, Mohamed; Lucy, Charles A


    The elution profile of chromatographic peaks provides fundamental understanding of the processes that occur in the mobile phase and the stationary phase. Major advances have been made in the column chemistry and suppressor technology in ion chromatography (IC) to handle a variety of sample matrices and ions. However, if the samples contain high concentrations of matrix ions, the overloaded peak elution profile is distorted. Consequently, the trace peaks shift their positions in the chromatogram in a manner that depends on the peak shape of the overloading analyte. In this work, the peak shapes in IC are examined from a fundamental perspective. Three commercial IC columns AS16, AS18, and AS23 were studied with borate, hydroxide and carbonate as suppressible eluents. Monovalent ions (chloride, bromide, and nitrate) are used as model analytes under analytical (0.1 mM) to overload conditions (10-500 mM). Both peak fronting and tailing are observed. On the basis of competitive Langmuir isotherms, if the eluent anion is more strongly retained than the analyte ion on an ion exchanger, the analyte peak is fronting. If the eluent is more weakly retained on the stationary phase, the analyte peak always tails under overload conditions regardless of the stationary phase capacity. If the charge of the analyte and eluent anions are different (e.g., Br(-) vs CO3(2-)), the analyte peak shapes depend on the eluent concentration in a more complex pattern. It was shown that there are interesting similarities with peak distortions due to strongly retained mobile phase components in other modes of liquid chromatography.

  4. PeakRanger: A cloud-enabled peak caller for ChIP-seq data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossman Robert


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP, coupled with massively parallel short-read sequencing (seq is used to probe chromatin dynamics. Although there are many algorithms to call peaks from ChIP-seq datasets, most are tuned either to handle punctate sites, such as transcriptional factor binding sites, or broad regions, such as histone modification marks; few can do both. Other algorithms are limited in their configurability, performance on large data sets, and ability to distinguish closely-spaced peaks. Results In this paper, we introduce PeakRanger, a peak caller software package that works equally well on punctate and broad sites, can resolve closely-spaced peaks, has excellent performance, and is easily customized. In addition, PeakRanger can be run in a parallel cloud computing environment to obtain extremely high performance on very large data sets. We present a series of benchmarks to evaluate PeakRanger against 10 other peak callers, and demonstrate the performance of PeakRanger on both real and synthetic data sets. We also present real world usages of PeakRanger, including peak-calling in the modENCODE project. Conclusions Compared to other peak callers tested, PeakRanger offers improved resolution in distinguishing extremely closely-spaced peaks. PeakRanger has above-average spatial accuracy in terms of identifying the precise location of binding events. PeakRanger also has excellent sensitivity and specificity in all benchmarks evaluated. In addition, PeakRanger offers significant improvements in run time when running on a single processor system, and very marked improvements when allowed to take advantage of the MapReduce parallel environment offered by a cloud computing resource. PeakRanger can be downloaded at the official site of modENCODE project:

  5. Precision of estimates of mean and peak spinal loads in lifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dieen, J.H.; Hoozemans, M.J.M.; van der Beek, A.J.; Mullender, M.G.


    A bootstrap procedure was used to determine the statistical precision of estimates of mean and peak spinal loads during lifting as function of the numbers of subjects and measurements per subject included in a biomechanical study. Data were derived from an experiment in which 10 subjects performed

  6. Accuracy of portable devices in measuring peak cough flow. (United States)

    Kulnik, Stefan Tino; MacBean, Victoria; Birring, Surinder Singh; Moxham, John; Rafferty, Gerrard Francis; Kalra, Lalit


    Peak cough flow (PCF) measurements can be used as indicators of cough effectiveness. Portable peak flow meters and spirometers have been used to measure PCF, but little is known about their accuracy compared to pneumotachograph systems. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of four portable devices (Mini-Wright and Assess peak flow meters, SpiroUSB and Microlab spirometers) in measuring PCF with a calibrated laboratory based pneumotachograph system. Twenty healthy volunteers (mean (SD) age 45 (16) years) coughed through a pneumotachograph connected in series with each portable device in turn, and the differences in PCF readings were analysed. In addition, mechanically generated flow waves of constant peak flow were delivered through each device both independently and when connected in series with the pneumotachograph. Agreement between PCF readings obtained with the pneumotachograph and the portable devices was poor. Peak flow readings were on average lower by approximately 50 L min(-1) when measured using the portable devices; 95% limits of agreement spanned approximately 150 L min(-1). The findings highlight the potential for inaccuracy when using portable devices for the measurement of PCF. Depending on the measurement instrument used, absolute values of PCF reported in the literature may not be directly comparable.

  7. Sustained fixation induced changes in phoria and convergence peak velocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun H Kim

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study sought to investigate the influence of phoria adaptation on convergence peak velocity from responses located at different initial vergence positions. METHODS: Symmetrical 4° convergence step responses and near dissociated phoria (measured at 40 cm from the subject's midline were recorded from six subjects with normal binocular vision using an infrared limbus tracking system with a haploscope. Two different sustained fixations (1° and 16° convergent rotation along the subject's midline were used to study whether phoria had an influence on the peak velocity of convergence responses located at two initial vergence positions (1° or 'far' steps and 12° or 'near' steps. RESULTS: Phoria was significantly adapted after a sustained fixation task at near (16° and far (1° (p<0.002. A repeated measures ANOVA showed that convergence far steps were significantly faster than the near steps (p<0.03. When comparing convergence steps with the same initial vergence position, steps measured after near phoria adaptation were faster than responses after far adaptation (p<0.02. A regression analysis demonstrated that the change in phoria and the change in convergence peak velocity were significantly correlated for the far convergence steps (r = 0.97, p = 0.001. A weaker correlation was observed for the near convergence steps (r = 0.59, p = 0.20. CONCLUSION: As a result of sustained fixation, phoria was adapted and the peak velocity of the near and far convergence steps was modified. This study has clinical considerations since prisms, which evoke phoria adaptation, can be prescribed to help alleviate visual discomfort. Future investigations should include a systematic study of how prisms may influence convergence and divergence eye movements for those prescribed with prisms within their spectacles.

  8. Sustained Fixation Induced Changes in Phoria and Convergence Peak Velocity (United States)

    Kim, Eun H.; Vicci, Vincent R.; Han, Sang J.; Alvarez, Tara L.


    Purpose This study sought to investigate the influence of phoria adaptation on convergence peak velocity from responses located at different initial vergence positions. Methods Symmetrical 4° convergence step responses and near dissociated phoria (measured at 40 cm from the subject's midline) were recorded from six subjects with normal binocular vision using an infrared limbus tracking system with a haploscope. Two different sustained fixations (1° and 16° convergent rotation along the subject's midline) were used to study whether phoria had an influence on the peak velocity of convergence responses located at two initial vergence positions (1° or ‘far’ steps and 12° or ‘near’ steps). Results Phoria was significantly adapted after a sustained fixation task at near (16°) and far (1°) (pvergence position, steps measured after near phoria adaptation were faster than responses after far adaptation (p<0.02). A regression analysis demonstrated that the change in phoria and the change in convergence peak velocity were significantly correlated for the far convergence steps (r = 0.97, p = 0.001). A weaker correlation was observed for the near convergence steps (r = 0.59, p = 0.20). Conclusion As a result of sustained fixation, phoria was adapted and the peak velocity of the near and far convergence steps was modified. This study has clinical considerations since prisms, which evoke phoria adaptation, can be prescribed to help alleviate visual discomfort. Future investigations should include a systematic study of how prisms may influence convergence and divergence eye movements for those prescribed with prisms within their spectacles. PMID:21698110

  9. The Value of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Asger

    As a social scientist of ethics and morality, Luhmann has noticed the ethical wave that has recently swept across the western world, and states that this particular kind of wave seems to have a wavelength of about one hundred years (cf. Luhmann 1989: 9 ff.). Even though the frequency and the regu...... attempted to answer this question by investigating what the use of the term `value' leads to in ethical discourses, i.e., what moral implications it has for ethics to focus on the concept of value....... parts of business ethics given prominence to especially one term, namely `value'. The question that interests me is the following: What does the articulation of ethics and morality in terms of values mean for ethics and morality as such. Or, to put the question in a more fashionably way: What...... is the value of value for morality and ethics?To make things a bit more precise, we can make use of the common distinction between ethics and morality, i.e. that morality is the immediate, collective and unconscious employment of morals, whereas ethics is the systematic, individual and conscious reflections...

  10. Bayesian Peak Picking for NMR Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichen Cheng


    Full Text Available Protein structure determination is a very important topic in structural genomics, which helps people to understand varieties of biological functions such as protein-protein interactions, protein–DNA interactions and so on. Nowadays, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR has often been used to determine the three-dimensional structures of protein in vivo. This study aims to automate the peak picking step, the most important and tricky step in NMR structure determination. We propose to model the NMR spectrum by a mixture of bivariate Gaussian densities and use the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm as the computational tool to solve the problem. Under the Bayesian framework, the peak picking problem is casted as a variable selection problem. The proposed method can automatically distinguish true peaks from false ones without preprocessing the data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort in the literature that tackles the peak picking problem for NMR spectrum data using Bayesian method.

  11. Tectonics, Climate and Earth's highest peaks (United States)

    Robl, Jörg; Prasicek, Günther; Hergarten, Stefan


    Prominent peaks characterized by high relief and steep slopes are among the most spectacular morphological features on Earth. In collisional orogens they result from the interplay of tectonically driven crustal thickening and climatically induced destruction of overthickened crust by erosional surface processes. The glacial buzz-saw hypothesis proposes a superior status of climate in limiting mountain relief and peak altitude due to glacial erosion. It implies that peak altitude declines with duration of glacial occupation, i.e., towards high latitudes. This is in strong contrast with high peaks existing in high latitude mountain ranges (e.g. Mt. St. Elias range) and the idea of peak uplift due to isostatic compensation of spatially variable erosional unloading an over-thickened orogenic crust. In this study we investigate landscape dissection, crustal thickness and vertical strain rates in tectonically active mountain ranges to evaluate the influence of erosion on (latitudinal) variations in peak altitude. We analyze the spatial distribution of serval thousand prominent peaks on Earth extracted from the global ETOPO1 digital elevation model with a novel numerical tool. We compare this dataset to crustal thickness, thickening rate (vertical strain rate) and mean elevation. We use the ratios of mean elevation to peak elevation (landscape dissection) and peak elevation to crustal thickness (long-term impact of erosion on crustal thickness) as indicators for the influence of erosional surface processes on peak uplift and the vertical strain rate as a proxy for the mechanical state of the orogen. Our analysis reveals that crustal thickness and peak elevation correlate well in orogens that have reached a mechanically limited state (vertical strain rate near zero) where plate convergence is already balanced by lateral extrusion and gravitational collapse and plateaus are formed. On the Tibetan Plateau crustal thickness serves to predict peak elevation up to an altitude

  12. Peak Vegetation Growth 1993 - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1993 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  13. Peak Vegetation Growth 1995 - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1995 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  14. Peak Vegetation Growth 2004 - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2004 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  15. Peak Vegetation Growth 1991 - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1991 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  16. Peak Vegetation Growth 1998 - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1998 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  17. Peak Vegetation Growth 1997 - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1997 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  18. Peak Vegetation Growth 2000 - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2000 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  19. Peak Vegetation Growth 2003 - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2003 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  20. Peak Vegetation Growth 2005 - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2005 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  1. Bayesian Peak Picking for NMR Spectra

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yichen


    Protein structure determination is a very important topic in structural genomics, which helps people to understand varieties of biological functions such as protein-protein interactions, protein–DNA interactions and so on. Nowadays, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has often been used to determine the three-dimensional structures of protein in vivo. This study aims to automate the peak picking step, the most important and tricky step in NMR structure determination. We propose to model the NMR spectrum by a mixture of bivariate Gaussian densities and use the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm as the computational tool to solve the problem. Under the Bayesian framework, the peak picking problem is casted as a variable selection problem. The proposed method can automatically distinguish true peaks from false ones without preprocessing the data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first effort in the literature that tackles the peak picking problem for NMR spectrum data using Bayesian method.

  2. Amplification of postwildfire peak flow by debris (United States)

    Kean, Jason W.; McGuire, Luke; Rengers, Francis; Smith, Joel B.; Staley, Dennis M.


    In burned steeplands, the peak depth and discharge of postwildfire runoff can substantially increase from the addition of debris. Yet methods to estimate the increase over water flow are lacking. We quantified the potential amplification of peak stage and discharge using video observations of postwildfire runoff, compiled data on postwildfire peak flow (Qp), and a physically based model. Comparison of flood and debris flow data with similar distributions in drainage area (A) and rainfall intensity (I) showed that the median runoff coefficient (C = Qp/AI) of debris flows is 50 times greater than that of floods. The striking increase in Qp can be explained using a fully predictive model that describes the additional flow resistance caused by the emergence of coarse-grained surge fronts. The model provides estimates of the amplification of peak depth, discharge, and shear stress needed for assessing postwildfire hazards and constraining models of bedrock incision.

  3. Global Earthquake Hazard Distribution - Peak Ground Acceleration (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Earthquake Hazard Distribution-peak ground acceleration is a 2.5 minute grid of global earthquake hazards developed using Global Seismic Hazard Program...

  4. Global Earthquake Hazard Distribution - Peak Ground Acceleration (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Earthquake Hazard Distribution-Peak Ground Acceleration is a 2.5 by 2.5 minute grid of global earthquake hazards developed using Global Seismic Hazard Program...

  5. Fewer peak trials per session facilitate acquisition of peak responding despite elimination of response rate differences. (United States)

    Kaiser, Daren H


    It has been shown in previous research [Kaiser, D.H., 2008. The proportion of fixed interval trials to probe trials affects acquisition of the peak procedure fixed interval timing task. Behav. Process., 77 (1), 100-108] that rats acquired peak responding sooner when fewer peak trials were presented during sessions of training with the peak procedure timing task. One potential problem with that research was that there were large differences in response rates among the groups. The present experiment attempted to examine the effect of proportion of peak trials when differences in response rate were controlled. Two groups of rats were each simultaneously tested with two versions of the peak procedure. One group was tested with 10% peak trials per session, and the other group was tested with 50% peak trials per session. For both of the groups, one of the panel lights and levers was associated with the traditional peak procedure. The other panel light and lever was associated with a similar peak procedure; however, reinforcement was provided at the end of each peak trial. This manipulation eliminated differences in response rate among the groups, however, Group 10% acquired peak responding more quickly than Group 50%, effectively replicating previous work in the absence of a response bias.


    It is contended that the efficient price differences in a peak-load situation shown in Steiner’s analysis are not discriminatory because they are e ere equal to the differences in the marginal cost of serving the classesessasses of customers involved. By marginal cost is meant, ultimately, the marginal opportunity cost--the value set upon the resource by the customer in the most valuable alternative use being sacrificed.

  7. Peak Dose Assessment for Proposed DOE-PPPO Authorized Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado, Delis [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification Program


    The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prime contractor, was contracted by the DOE Portsmouth/Paducah Project Office (DOE-PPPO) to conduct a peak dose assessment in support of the Authorized Limits Request for Solid Waste Disposal at Landfill C-746-U at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (DOE-PPPO 2011a). The peak doses were calculated based on the DOE-PPPO Proposed Single Radionuclides Soil Guidelines and the DOE-PPPO Proposed Authorized Limits (AL) Volumetric Concentrations available in DOE-PPPO 2011a. This work is provided as an appendix to the Dose Modeling Evaluations and Technical Support Document for the Authorized Limits Request for the C-746-U Landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky (ORISE 2012). The receptors evaluated in ORISE 2012 were selected by the DOE-PPPO for the additional peak dose evaluations. These receptors included a Landfill Worker, Trespasser, Resident Farmer (onsite), Resident Gardener, Recreational User, Outdoor Worker and an Offsite Resident Farmer. The RESRAD (Version 6.5) and RESRAD-OFFSITE (Version 2.5) computer codes were used for the peak dose assessments. Deterministic peak dose assessments were performed for all the receptors and a probabilistic dose assessment was performed only for the Offsite Resident Farmer at the request of the DOE-PPPO. In a deterministic analysis, a single input value results in a single output value. In other words, a deterministic analysis uses single parameter values for every variable in the code. By contrast, a probabilistic approach assigns parameter ranges to certain variables, and the code randomly selects the values for each variable from the parameter range each time it calculates the dose (NRC 2006). The receptor scenarios, computer codes and parameter input files were previously used in ORISE 2012. A few modifications were made to the parameter input files as appropriate for this effort. Some of these changes

  8. Constitutive spectral EEG peaks in the gamma range: suppressed by sleep, reduced by mental activity and resistant to sensory stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Samuel Grummett


    Full Text Available Objective: In a systematic study of gamma activity in neuro-psychiatric disease, we unexpectedly observed distinctive, apparently persistent, electroencephalogram (EEG spectral peaks in the gamma range (25-100 Hz. Our objective, therefore, was to examine the incidence, distribution and some of the characteristics of these peaks.Methods: High sample-rate, 128-channel, EEG was recorded in 603 volunteers (510 with neuropsychiatric disorders, 93 controls, whilst performing cognitive tasks, and converted to power spectra. Peaks of spectral power, including in the gamma range, were determined algorithmically for all electrodes. To determine if peaks were stable, 24-hour ambulatory recordings were obtained from 16 subjects with peaks. In 10 subjects, steady-state responses to stimuli at peak frequency were compared with off-peak-frequency stimulation to determine if peaks were a feature of underlying network resonances and peaks were evaluated with easy and hard versions of oddball tasks to determine if peaks might be influenced by mental effort.Results: 57 % of subjects exhibited peaks > 2 dB above trough power at or above 25 Hz. Larger peaks (> 5 dB were present in 13 % of subjects. Peaks were distributed widely over the scalp, more frequent centrally. Peaks were present through the day and were suppressed by slow-wave-sleep. Steady-state responses were the same with on- or off-peak sensory stimulation. In contrast, mental effort resulted in reductions in power and frequency of gamma peaks, although the suppression did not correlate with level of effort.Conclusions: Gamma EEG can be expressed constitutively as concentrations of power in narrow or wide frequency bands that play an, as yet, unknown role in cognitive activity.Significance: These findings expand the described range of rhythmic EEG phenomena. In particular, in addition to evoked, induced and sustained gamma band activity, gamma activity can be present constitutively in spectral peaks.

  9. Some hematological parameters and the prognostic values of CD4, CD8 and total lymphocyte counts and CD4/CD8 cell count ratio in healthy HIV sero-negative, healthy HIV sero-positive and AIDS subjects in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing Didia


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study attempts to determine normal values of CD4, CD8, CD4/CD8 ratio, total WBC and differential counts, hematocrit and total lymphocyte count (TLC in healthy HIV sero-negative and sero-positive subjects, and to assess the prognostic significance of these parameters in these subjects as compared to AIDS subjects.METHODS: A total of 300 subjects (147 M, 153 F aged between 17 and 71 years were recruited into the study. Subjects were separated according to sex and divided into three groups: Group A: healthy HIV sero-negative subjects; Group B: healthy HIV sero-positive newly diagnosed ART-naïve subjects; and Group C: AIDS subjects. CD4 and CD8 counts were determined by flow cytometry; hematocrit was determined using Hawksley micro-capillary tubes; total WBC and differential counts were determined manually with the improved Neubauer counting chamber; and TLC was obtained by multiplying the percentage of lymphocytes by the total WBC count.RESULTS: For male subjects, significant differences were found in CD4 count, CD4/CD8 count ratio, hematocrit, total WBC and TLC, whereas for female subjects, significant differences were found only in CD4 and CD4/CD8 count ratio in the three groups of subjects. In both sexes, however, these parameters were found to be highest in healthy HIV sero-negative subjects and lowest in AIDS subjects, with HIV sero-positive subjects having intermediate values. CONCLUSION: The results confirm previous reports that the CD4 count and CD4/CD8 count ratio are fairly reliable indicators of the progression of HIV infection. In addition, the results also apparently suggest that the prognostic value of CD8 count is limited and that of TLC possibly sex-dependent. The results could be of importance in our environment since previous reports have been relatively scarce.


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  11. What Value "Value Added"? (United States)

    Richards, Andrew


    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  12. Predicting Peak Flows following Forest Fires (United States)

    Elliot, William J.; Miller, Mary Ellen; Dobre, Mariana


    Following forest fires, peak flows in perennial and ephemeral streams often increase by a factor of 10 or more. This increase in peak flow rate may overwhelm existing downstream structures, such as road culverts, causing serious damage to road fills at stream crossings. In order to predict peak flow rates following wildfires, we have applied two different tools. One is based on the U.S.D.A Natural Resource Conservation Service Curve Number Method (CN), and the other is by applying the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) to the watershed. In our presentation, we will describe the science behind the two methods, and present the main variables for each model. We will then provide an example of a comparison of the two methods to a fire-prone watershed upstream of the City of Flagstaff, Arizona, USA, where a fire spread model was applied for current fuel loads, and for likely fuel loads following a fuel reduction treatment. When applying the curve number method, determining the time to peak flow can be problematic for low severity fires because the runoff flow paths are both surface and through shallow lateral flow. The WEPP watershed version incorporates shallow lateral flow into stream channels. However, the version of the WEPP model that was used for this study did not have channel routing capabilities, but rather relied on regression relationships to estimate peak flows from individual hillslope polygon peak runoff rates. We found that the two methods gave similar results if applied correctly, with the WEPP predictions somewhat greater than the CN predictions. Later releases of the WEPP model have incorporated alternative methods for routing peak flows that need to be evaluated.

  13. Identifying Regions Enriched in a ChIP-seq Data Set (Peak Finding). (United States)

    Hung, Jui-Hung; Weng, Zhiping


    This protocol demonstrates how to use MACS software to call peaks in a ChIP-seq data set. MACS is one of the most widely used peak-calling programs. The protocol describes how to run MACS in a UNIX environment and on Galaxy and how to extract the sequences of ±50 bp around the summits of the 500 MACS peaks with the most significant P values. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.



    Schwartzman, Armin; Jaffe, Andrew; Gavrilov, Yulia; Meyer, Clifford A.


    A topological multiple testing approach to peak detection is proposed for the problem of detecting transcription factor binding sites in ChIP-Seq data. After kernel smoothing of the tag counts over the genome, the presence of a peak is tested at each observed local maximum, followed by multiple testing correction at the desired false discovery rate level. Valid $p$-values for candidate peaks are computed via Monte Carlo simulations of smoothed Poisson sequences, whose background Poisson rates...

  15. Circadian rhythm of blood and urinary copper in presumably healthy subjects of vegetarian food habit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, R.D.

    Circadian rhythm of blood and urinary copper has been studied in presumably healthy subjects of a particular ethnic group in India who are vegetarians. A definite 24-hr variation has been observed for both blood and urinary copper. The peak for blood copper was 1500 hr and the lowest value was 0600 hr, with values of 0.185 mg/100 ml and 0.160 mg/100 ml respectively. The urinary peak and trough occurred at 0600 and 0300 hr, respectively. Remarkably higher 24-hr copper excretion values were noted (64.49 with a range of 15-100 The blood level of copper (0.134 mg/100 ml) remained within the range reported. One subject out of 25 deviated from the group with respect to circadian phasing and amplitude to urinary copper excretion. 20 references.

  16. Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject-oriented anaphors 27 and it holds little explanatory value. At best, EPP ensures that the highest argument will move to subject position. The final property I will discuss here is the fact that, in some languages (e.g. Icelandic and. Dutch), there is a subset of ...

  17. Noise distribution of a peak track and hold circuit (United States)

    Seller, Paul; Hardie, Alec L.; Morrissey, Quentin


    Noise in linear electronic circuits is well characterised in terms of power spectral density in the frequency domain and the Normal probability density function in the time domain. For instance a charge preamplifier followed by a simple time independent pulse shaping circuit produces an output with a predictable, easily calculated Normal density function. By the Ergodic Principle this is true if the signal is sampled randomly in time or the experiment is run many times and measured at a fixed time after the circuit is released from reset. Apart from well defined cases, the time of the sample after release of reset does not affect the density function. If this signal is then passed through a peak track-and-hold circuit the situation is very different. The probability density function of the sampled signal is no longer Normal and the function changes with the time of the sample after release of reset. This density function can be classified by the Gumbel probability density function which characterises the Extreme Value Distribution of a defined number of Normally distributed values. The number of peaks in the signal is an important factor in the analysis. This issue is analysed theoretically and compared with a time domain noise simulation programme. This is then related to a real electronic circuit used for low-noise X-ray measurements and shows how the low-energy resolution of this system is significantly degraded when using a peak track-and-hold.

  18. The Gas Sampling Interval Effect on V˙O2peak Is Independent of Exercise Protocol. (United States)

    Scheadler, Cory M; Garver, Matthew J; Hanson, Nicholas J


    There is a plethora of gas sampling intervals available during cardiopulmonary exercise testing to measure peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak). Different intervals can lead to altered V˙O2peak. Whether differences are affected by the exercise protocol or subject sample is not clear. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether V˙O2peak differed because of the manipulation of sampling intervals and whether differences were independent of the protocol and subject sample. The first subject sample (24 ± 3 yr; V˙O2peak via 15-breath moving averages: 56.2 ± 6.8 mL·kg·min) completed the Bruce and the self-paced V˙O2max protocols. The second subject sample (21.9 ± 2.7 yr; V˙O2peak via 15-breath moving averages: 54.2 ± 8.0 mL·kg·min) completed the Bruce and the modified Astrand protocols. V˙O2peak was identified using five sampling intervals: 15-s block averages, 30-s block averages, 15-breath block averages, 15-breath moving averages, and 30-s block averages aligned to the end of exercise. Differences in V˙O2peak between intervals were determined using repeated-measures ANOVAs. The influence of subject sample on the sampling effect was determined using independent t-tests. There was a significant main effect of sampling interval on V˙O2peak (first sample Bruce and self-paced V˙O2max P V˙O2peak between sampling intervals followed a similar pattern for each protocol and subject sample, with 15-breath moving average presenting the highest V˙O2peak. The effect of manipulating gas sampling intervals on V˙O2peak appears to be protocol and sample independent. These findings highlight our recommendation that the clinical and scientific community request and report the sampling interval whenever metabolic data are presented. The standardization of reporting would assist in the comparison of V˙O2peak.

  19. How to use your peak flow meter (United States)

    ... discharge COPD - control drugs COPD - quick-relief drugs COPD - what to ask your doctor Exercise-induced asthma Exercising and asthma at school Make peak flow a habit! Signs of an asthma attack Stay away from asthma triggers Review Date 2/15/2016 Updated by: Neil K. ...

  20. Some Phenomenological Aspects of the Peak Experience (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Howard S.; Bartlett, Iris


    This article relates the psychological dynamics of "peak experiences" to two concepts, intentionality and paradoxical intention, within the philosophical orientation of phenomenology. A review of early philosophical theories of self (Kant and Hume) is presented and compared with the experiential emphasis found in the phenomenology of Husserl.…

  1. Multiple peaks of species abundance distributions induced by sparse interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Obuchi, Tomoyuki; Tokita, Kei


    We investigate the replicator dynamics with "sparse" symmetric interactions which represent specialist-specialist interactions in ecological communities. By considering a large self interaction $u$, we conduct a perturbative expansion which manifests that the nature of the interactions has a direct impact on the species abundance distribution. The central results are all species coexistence in a realistic range of the model parameters and that a certain discrete nature of the interactions induces multiple peaks in the species abundance distribution, providing the possibility of theoretically explaining multiple peaks observed in various field studies. To get more quantitative information, we also construct a non-perturbative theory which becomes exact on tree-like networks if all the species coexist, providing exact critical values of $u$ below which extinct species emerge. Numerical simulations in various different situations are conducted and they clarify the robustness of the presented mechanism of all spe...

  2. Sward structure and nutritive value of tanzania guineagrass subjected to rotational stocking managements Estrutura do pasto e valor nutritivo do capim-tanzânia submetido a estratégias de pastejo rotativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelson dos Santos Difante


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the sward structure and nutritive value of Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia subjected to rotational stocking managements characterised by a common pre-grazing condition of 95% canopy light interception (LI and two post-grazing residues, 25 and 50 cm. Treatments (95/25, 95/50 - LI/residue were assigned to experimental units (groups of six 2500 m² paddocks per treatment according to a complete randomised block design, with two replications. The variables measured corresponded to: canopy light interception, pre and post-grazing sward height, herbage mass and pre and post-grazing morphological composition, herbage bulk density, herbage accumulation and nutritive value (including to IVOMD of the morphological components. Pre-grazing herbage mass did not differ between residues, although the herbage accumulation rate was higher for the 50 than the 25 cm (164.9 and 90.6 kg/ DM, respectively. Post-grazing herbage mass values were higher for the 50 cm residue and were characterised by a higher proportion of leaf blade in relation to the 25 cm treatment, which presented a higher proportion of dead material. On average, the contents of crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fibre (NDF and lignin in acid detergent (LAD as well as the values of the "in vitro" organic matter digestibility (IVOMD were similar for both treatments. Crude protein and IVOMD decreased and NDF and LAD increased from top to the bottom of the sward, indicating grazing intensity as an important variable for promoting adjustments in the grazing efficiency and nutritive value of the consumed herbage by the grazing animals.Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a estrutura e o valor nutritivo de pastos de Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia sob regime de desfolhação intermitente submetido a duas intensidades de desfolhação e a duas alturas de resíduo (25 e 50 cm associadas à condição pré-pastejo definida por 95% de

  3. Martial arts striking hand peak acceleration, accuracy and consistency. (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Marzullo, Ana Carolina De Miranda; Bolander, Richard P; Bir, Cynthia A


    The goal of this paper was to investigate the possible trade-off between peak hand acceleration and accuracy and consistency of hand strikes performed by martial artists of different training experiences. Ten male martial artists with training experience ranging from one to nine years volunteered to participate in the experiment. Each participant performed 12 maximum effort goal-directed strikes. Hand acceleration during the strikes was obtained using a tri-axial accelerometer block. A pressure sensor matrix was used to determine the accuracy and consistency of the strikes. Accuracy was estimated by the radial distance between the centroid of each subject's 12 strikes and the target, whereas consistency was estimated by the square root of the 12 strikes mean squared distance from their centroid. We found that training experience was significantly correlated to hand peak acceleration prior to impact (r(2)=0.456, p =0.032) and accuracy (r(2)=0. 621, p=0.012). These correlations suggest that more experienced participants exhibited higher hand peak accelerations and at the same time were more accurate. Training experience, however, was not correlated to consistency (r(2)=0.085, p=0.413). Overall, our results suggest that martial arts training may lead practitioners to achieve higher striking hand accelerations with better accuracy and no change in striking consistency.

  4. The Effect of Lifting Speed on Cumulative and Peak Biomechanical Loading for Symmetric Lifting Tasks

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    Kasey O. Greenland


    Conclusion: Based on peak values, BCF is highest for fast speeds, but the BCF cumulative loading is highest for slow speeds, with the largest difference between fast and slow lifts. This may imply that a slow lifting speed is at least as hazardous as a fast lifting speed. It is important to consider the duration of lift when determining risks for back and shoulder injuries due to lifting and that peak values alone are likely not sufficient.

  5. Unifying Subjectivity and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Chandrasekaran


    Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dimensions of a single integrated reality. Subject and object constitute an integrated whole. The mind sees them as separate and independent. Or it views one as completely subordinate to the other. Unbiased approach to the study of all human experiences may prove that subject and object are interdependent dimensions or elements of reality.

  6. Effects of the sample size of reference population on determining BMD reference curve and peak BMD and diagnosing osteoporosis. (United States)

    Hou, Y-L; Liao, E-Y; Wu, X-P; Peng, Y-Q; Zhang, H; Dai, R-C; Luo, X-H; Cao, X-Z


    Establishing reference databases generally requires a large sample size to achieve reliable results. Our study revealed that the varying sample size from hundreds to thousands of individuals has no decisive effect on the bone mineral density (BMD) reference curve, peak BMD, and diagnosing osteoporosis. It provides a reference point for determining the sample size while establishing local BMD reference databases. This study attempts to determine a suitable sample size for establishing bone mineral density (BMD) reference databases in a local laboratory. The total reference population consisted of 3,662 Chinese females aged 6-85 years. BMDs were measured with a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry densitometer. The subjects were randomly divided into four different sample groups, that is, total number (Tn) = 3,662, 1/2n = 1,831, 1/4n = 916, and 1/8n = 458. We used the best regression model to determine BMD reference curve and peak BMD. There was no significant difference in the full curves between the four sample groups at each skeletal site, although some discrepancy at the end of the curves was observed at the spine. Peak BMDs were very similar in the four sample groups. According to the Chinese diagnostic criteria (BMD >25% below the peak BMD as osteoporosis), no difference was observed in the osteoporosis detection rate using the reference values determined by the four different sample groups. Varying the sample size from hundreds to thousands has no decisive effect on establishing BMD reference curve and determining peak BMD. It should be practical for determining the reference population while establishing local BMD databases.

  7. Effect of gear ratio on peak power and time to peak power in BMX cyclists. (United States)

    Rylands, Lee P; Roberts, Simon J; Hurst, Howard T


    The aim of this study was to ascertain if gear ratio selection would have an effect on peak power and time to peak power production in elite Bicycle Motocross (BMX) cyclists. Eight male elite BMX riders volunteered for the study. Each rider performed three, 10-s maximal sprints on an Olympic standard indoor BMX track. The riders' bicycles were fitted with a portable SRM power meter. Each rider performed the three sprints using gear ratios of 41/16, 43/16 and 45/16 tooth. The results from the 41/16 and 45/16 gear ratios were compared to the current standard 43/16 gear ratio. Statistically, significant differences were found between the gear ratios for peak power (F(2,14) = 6.448; p = .010) and peak torque (F(2,14) = 4.777; p = .026), but no significant difference was found for time to peak power (F(2,14) = 0.200; p = .821). When comparing gear ratios, the results showed a 45/16 gear ratio elicited the highest peak power,1658 ± 221 W, compared to 1436 ± 129 W and 1380 ± 56 W, for the 43/16 and 41/16 ratios, respectively. The time to peak power showed a 41/16 tooth gear ratio attained peak power in -0.01 s and a 45/16 in 0.22 s compared to the 43/16. The findings of this study suggest that gear ratio choice has a significant effect on peak power production, though time to peak power output is not significantly affected. Therefore, selecting a higher gear ratio results in riders attaining higher power outputs without reducing their start time.

  8. Analysis of saccades and peak velocity to symmetrical convergence stimuli: binocularly normal controls compared to convergence insufficiency patients. (United States)

    Alvarez, Tara L; Kim, Eun H


    To assess the potential peak velocity asymmetry between the left-eye and right-eye movement responses stimulated by symmetrical vergence steps in those with normal binocular vision and those with convergence insufficiency (CI) before and after vergence training. This study also evaluated whether vergence training influenced convergence peak velocity and the prevalence of saccades within the first second of the response. The peak velocities of the left-eye, right-eye, and combined vergence response evoked from symmetrical 2°, 4°, and 6° convergence step stimuli were assessed in 10 controls and 7 CI subjects. Four of the CI subjects participated in vergence training. An asymmetry ratio was calculated as the peak velocity of the slower eye movement response divided by the peak velocity of the faster eye movement response. Controls were significantly more symmetrical (left-eye peak velocity was approximately equal to right-eye peak velocity) compared to CI subjects (P movements became significantly more symmetrical, convergence peak velocity increased, and the prevalence of saccades within the first 1 second decreased (P saccades observed within the first second of the response (r = 0.8; P movements, increases convergence peak velocity, and decreases the prevalence of saccades within the first second of the response, which facilitates binocular coordination in CI patients. Saccades may be a compensatory mechanism used by CI subjects when convergence peak velocity is reduced.

  9. Peak oil, food systems, and public health. (United States)

    Neff, Roni A; Parker, Cindy L; Kirschenmann, Frederick L; Tinch, Jennifer; Lawrence, Robert S


    Peak oil is the phenomenon whereby global oil supplies will peak, then decline, with extraction growing increasingly costly. Today's globalized industrial food system depends on oil for fueling farm machinery, producing pesticides, and transporting goods. Biofuels production links oil prices to food prices. We examined food system vulnerability to rising oil prices and the public health consequences. In the short term, high food prices harm food security and equity. Over time, high prices will force the entire food system to adapt. Strong preparation and advance investment may mitigate the extent of dislocation and hunger. Certain social and policy changes could smooth adaptation; public health has an essential role in promoting a proactive, smart, and equitable transition that increases resilience and enables adequate food for all.

  10. Impact of a lifestyle program on vascular insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome subjects: the RESOLVE study. (United States)

    Vinet, Agnes; Obert, Philippe; Dutheil, Frederic; Diagne, Lamine; Chapier, Robert; Lesourd, Bruno; Courteix, Daniel; Walther, Guillaume


    Impaired insulin-dependent vasodilation might contribute to microvascular dysfunction of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aims of this study were to assess the insulin vasoreactivity in MetS, and to evaluate the effects of a lifestyle program. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND OUTCOME MEASURES: Laser Doppler measurements were used to assess cutaneous blood flux (CBF) and flowmotion in response to iontophoresis of insulin and acetylcholine (ACh) in 38 MetS and 18 controls. Anthropometric, plasma insulin, glycemia, and inflammatory markers were measured. MetS subjects (n = 24) underwent a 6-month lifestyle intervention (M6) with a 3-week residential program (D21). The absolute and relative peak insulin and ACh CBF were significantly higher in controls than in MetS subjects. Significant inverse correlations were found between peak insulin CBF and glycemia, insulin and glycated hemoglobin, active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), C-reactive protein (CRP), and IL-6. With respect to flowmotion, MetS subjects showed lower values in total spectrum CBF and in all its components (except respiratory one). At D21 and M6, peak insulin CBF increased and was no longer different from control values whereas peak ACh CBF did not change. From D21, all the different components and the total CBF spectrum became similar to the control values. The changes in peak insulin CBF and in endothelial component between M6 and baseline were inversely correlated with the change in CRP and PAI-1. The local vasodilatory effects to insulin and its overall flowmotion are impaired in MetS subjects in relation to inflammation. The lifestyle intervention reversed this insulin-induced vascular dysfunction in parallel to decreased inflammation level.

  11. Many-valued logic and event-related potentials. (United States)

    Pollina, D A; Squires, N K


    In previous experiments on event-related potentials (ERPs) during linguistic judgments, the subjects' decisions have been categorical (e.g., true vs false). In this experiment, more realistic variations in truth value and subject certainty were used. Thirty-eight naive undergraduates read a story about a fictional murder. ERPs were recorded as the subjects rated the strength of their beliefs about statements relating to suspects in the crime. Because no subject was sure which of the suspects was guilty of committing the crime, binary (true-false) category judgments were inappropriate. Three components of the ERP waveforms were affected by the experimental manipulations. An early positive component was largest to sentences concerning the suspect considered most likely to have committed the crime. A subsequent broad posterior positivity (LPC) also showed significant sentence-type differences, but it was larger to sentences considered probable--whether they were true or false--than to more ambiguous sentences. A third ERP component (N400) was negative at midline electrode sites and peaked at approximately 420 ms. Subjects' truth-value judgments had no effect on the N400. N400 was, however, affected by the subject's task. It was more negative when subjects made graded judgments about truth value than when they made binary true-false judgments. Overall, naturalistic judgments of sentence validity produced a variety of brain responses that reflected different aspects of linguistic decision making.

  12. Ten Reasons to Take Peak Oil Seriously

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Brecha


    Full Text Available Forty years ago, the results of modeling, as presented in The Limits to Growth, reinvigorated a discussion about exponentially growing consumption of natural resources, ranging from metals to fossil fuels to atmospheric capacity, and how such consumption could not continue far into the future. Fifteen years earlier, M. King Hubbert had made the projection that petroleum production in the continental United States would likely reach a maximum around 1970, followed by a world production maximum a few decades later. The debate about “peak oil”, as it has come to be called, is accompanied by some of the same vociferous denials, myths and ideological polemicizing that have surrounded later representations of The Limits to Growth. In this review, we present several lines of evidence as to why arguments for a near-term peak in world conventional oil production should be taken seriously—both in the sense that there is strong evidence for peak oil and in the sense that being societally unprepared for declining oil production will have serious consequences.

  13. Revisiting Twomey's approximation for peak supersaturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Shipway


    Full Text Available Twomey's seminal 1959 paper provided lower and upper bound approximations to the estimation of peak supersaturation within an updraft and thus provides the first closed expression for the number of nucleated cloud droplets. The form of this approximation is simple, but provides a surprisingly good estimate and has subsequently been employed in more sophisticated treatments of nucleation parametrization. In the current paper, we revisit the lower bound approximation of Twomey and make a small adjustment that can be used to obtain a more accurate calculation of peak supersaturation under all potential aerosol loadings and thermodynamic conditions. In order to make full use of this improved approximation, the underlying integro-differential equation for supersaturation evolution and the condition for calculating peak supersaturation are examined. A simple rearrangement of the algebra allows for an expression to be written down that can then be solved with a single lookup table with only one independent variable for an underlying lognormal aerosol population. While multimodal aerosol with N different dispersion characteristics requires 2N+1 inputs to calculate the activation fraction, only N of these one-dimensional lookup tables are needed. No additional information is required in the lookup table to deal with additional chemical, physical or thermodynamic properties. The resulting implementation provides a relatively simple, yet computationally cheap, physically based parametrization of droplet nucleation for use in climate and Numerical Weather Prediction models.

  14. The Hong Kong Peak Tram Illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Hui Chiu


    Full Text Available Hong Kong Peak Tram Illusion is the perceived slant of buildings towards the peak away from the vertical while observers travel on the Hong Kong peak tram. We measured the perceived tilt of the buildings from true vertical (illusion size using a rotary pitch while an identical pitch read the slope of the hill. The illusion was hypothesized to be jointly determined by at least four factors: (i the reclining position of the observer, (ii the frame of the tram window, (iii the direction of motion, and (iv additional reference cues from outside the window. Our results showed that the illusion: (i was reduced by up to 20% when observers sat with a wedge on their back and up to 40% when they stood up. (ii remained even when observers moved closer to the window to avoid the effect of the frame. (iii was 20% larger when the tram was descending, as opposed to ascending. (iv was less apparent during the day. The illusion appears to be due to integration of the above sensory information as it cannot be accounted for by each factor alone. The illusion provides a unique venue to study cross-modal sensory interaction in the nature setting.

  15. Cardiopulmonary performance testing using a robotics-assisted tilt table: feasibility assessment in able-bodied subjects. (United States)

    Saengsuwan, J; Laubacher, M; Nef, T; Hunt, K J


    Robotics-assisted tilt table technology was introduced for early rehabilitation of neurological patients. It provides cyclical stepping movement and physiological loading of the legs. The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility of this type of device for peak cardiopulmonary performance testing using able-bodied subjects. A robotics-assisted tilt table was augmented with force sensors in the thigh cuffs and a work rate estimation algorithm. A custom visual feedback system was employed to guide the subjects' work rate and to provide real time feedback of actual work rate. Feasibility assessment focused on: (i) implementation (technical feasibility), and (ii) responsiveness (was there a measurable, high-level cardiopulmonary reaction?). For responsiveness testing, each subject carried out an incremental exercise test to the limit of functional capacity with a work rate increment of 5 W/min in female subjects and 8 W/min in males. 11 able-bodied subjects were included (9 male, 2 female; age 29.6 ± 7.1 years: mean ± SD). Resting oxygen uptake (O_{2}) was 4.6 ± 0.7 mL/min/kg and O_{2}peak was 32.4 ± 5.1 mL/min/kg; this mean O_{2}peak was 81.1% of the predicted peak value for cycle ergometry. Peak heart rate (HRpeak) was 177.5 ± 9.7 beats/min; all subjects reached at least 85% of their predicted HRpeak value. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) at O_{2}peak was 1.02 ± 0.07. Peak work rate) was 61.3 ± 15.1 W. All subjects reported a Borg CR10 value for exertion and leg fatigue of 7 or more. The robotics-assisted tilt table is deemed feasible for peak cardiopulmonary performance testing: the approach was found to be technically implementable and substantial cardiopulmonary responses were observed. Further testing in neurologically-impaired subjects is warranted.

  16. High peak power diode stacks for high energy lasers (United States)

    Negoita, Viorel C.; Vethake, Thilo; Jiang, John; Roff, Robert; Shih, Ming; Duck, Richard; Bauer, Marc; Mite, Roberto; Boucke, Konstantin; Treusch, Georg


    High energy solid state lasers are being developed for fusion experiments and other research applications where high energy per pulse is required but the repetition rate is rather low, around 10Hz. We report our results on high peak power diode laser stacks used as optical pumps for these lasers. The stacks are based on 10 mm bars with 4 mm cavity length and 55% fill factor, with peak power exceeding 500 W per bar. These bars are stacked and mounted on a cooler which provides backside cooling and electrical insulation. Currently we mount 25 bars per cooler for a nominal peak power of 12.5 kW, but in principle the mounting scheme can be scaled to a different number of devices depending on the application. Pretesting of these bars before soldering on the cooler enables us to select devices with similar wavelength and thus we maintain tight control of the spectral width (FWHM less than 6 nm). Fine adjustments of the centroid wavelength can be done by means of temperature of the cooling fluid or bias current. The available wavelength range spans from 880 nm to 1000 nm, and the wavelength of the entire assembly of stacks can be controlled to within 0.5 nm of the target value, which makes these stacks suitable for pumping a variety of gain media. The devices are fast axis collimated, with over 95% power being collimated in 6 mrad (full angle). The slow axis divergence is 9° (full angle) for 95% power content.

  17. Improving EEG signal peak detection using feature weight learning ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Asrul Adam

    the combination of eye gaze and EEG for brain–machine interfacing have ... first and second half waves, peak width, ascending peak slope of the ... half wave. Acir et al [1] introduced an additional feature of peak amplitude, defined as the peak-to-peak amplitude of the second half wave, and also two addition features of the.

  18. Gamma-Ray Burst Formation Rate Inferred from the Spectral Peak EnergyndashPeak Luminosity Relation


    Yonetoku, D.; Murakami, T.; Nakamura, T.; Yamazaki, Ryo; Inoue, A.K.; Ioka, K.


    We estimate a gamma-ray burst (GRB) formation rate based on the new relation between the spectral peak energy (Ep) and the peak luminosity. The new relation is derived by combining the data of Ep and the peak luminosities by BeppoSAX and BATSE, and it looks considerably tighter and more reliable than the relations suggested by the previous works. Using the new Ep-luminosity relation, we estimate redshifts of the 689 GRBs without known distances in the BATSE catalog and derive a GRB formation ...

  19. Effects of impact mixing contamination on lunar central peak spectra (United States)

    Crites, S.; Ohtake, M.; Lucey, P. G.; Haruyama, J.; Lemelin, M.


    The impact cratering process acts as a natural drill into the lunar surface, exposing material from depth within the crust and providing a valuable three-dimensional view of lunar stratigraphy. In particular, remote sensing studies of crater central peak mineralogy, pioneered by Pieters (1982) and subsequently extended by many, have provided key insights into the composition of the lunar crust. However, the same cratering processes that expose subsurface material also act to obscure the true signal by contributing to extensive mixing of the surface at all scales as well as producing impact melt. One approach to eliminating potentially mixed or contaminated regions is by careful visual examination and geologic mapping using high spatial resolution imagery. However, for large-scale surveys, a quantitative metric for narrowing data to areas less affected by mixing and contamination may be needed in order to ensure only the most reliable spectra are interpreted. Mass wasting may provide a mechanism for revealing fresh in-situ material to be analyzed; steep slopes, extreme optical maturity values, and high rock abundance are three possible discriminators for identifying these fresh surfaces for large-scale spectral analyses. Taking two central peak craters (Jackson and Tycho), we examine the variation in spectral parameters and modeled mineral composition using Kaguya Multiband Imager data between 1) all central peak pixels, and 2) pixels limited to fresh or unmixed areas as identified by our three parameters (LOLA/TC slope, Diviner rock abundance, OMAT). A significant difference in mineral composition between the two regions would imply that average central peak mineralogy may not be an appropriate proxy for crustal composition at depth. This investigation will also provide insight into whether a quantitative metric can be developed to `mask' regions most likely to be mixed or contaminated, and limit the results of global studies to the most relevant crustal samples.

  20. Probing Cosmology with Weak Lensing Peak Counts and Minkowski Functionals (United States)

    Kratochvil, Jan Michael; Wang, S.; Lim, E. A.; Haiman, Z.; May, M.


    The new method of counting peaks in weak lensing (WL) maps, as a function of their height, to probe models of dark energy and to constrain cosmological parameters offers advantages over similar, more traditional statistics like cluster counts: Because peaks can be identified in two-dimensional WL maps directly, they can provide constraints which are free from potential selection effects and biases involved in identifying and determining the masses of galaxy clusters. Our pilot study (Kratochvil, Haiman, May 2009), where we investigated three cosmological models with different constant values of the dark energy equation of state parameter w=-0.8, w=-1, w=-1.2 and with a fixed normalization of the primordial power spectrum, revealed a parameter sensitivity of w which warrants a numerically very costly in-depth study when marginalization over other uncertain cosmological parameters is included. Towards that goal, we present recent results from a new, extensive simulation suite of ninety 5123-particle N-body simulations, run on New York Blue at BNL, allowing us to vary several cosmological parameters individually and yielding vastly improved statistics. Studies have shown that weak lensing maps likely contain as much information in the nonlinear regime as in the linear one. While being a powerful probe of the nonlinear regime, weak lensing peak counts capture by definition only a subset of the total available information in the convergence maps. In particular, we found that relatively low-amplitude peaks account for most of the parameter sensitivity detected, hinting to a more complicated structure. Therefore, we extend our work by probing the morphology of the maps with Minkowski functionals, in our quest to extract the most possible information from the nonlinear aspects of large-scale structure formation.

  1. Peak Pc Prediction in Conjunction Analysis: Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis. Pc Behavior Prediction Models (United States)

    Vallejo, J.J.; Hejduk, M.D.; Stamey, J. D.


    Satellite conjunction risk typically evaluated through the probability of collision (Pc). Considers both conjunction geometry and uncertainties in both state estimates. Conjunction events initially discovered through Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) screenings, usually seven days before Time of Closest Approach (TCA). However, JSpOC continues to track objects and issue conjunction updates. Changes in state estimate and reduced propagation time cause Pc to change as event develops. These changes a combination of potentially predictable development and unpredictable changes in state estimate covariance. Operationally useful datum: the peak Pc. If it can reasonably be inferred that the peak Pc value has passed, then risk assessment can be conducted against this peak value. If this value is below remediation level, then event intensity can be relaxed. Can the peak Pc location be reasonably predicted?

  2. Ratio of peak height to peak area as selection criterion for solid standards in soil analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerwinski, W.


    The shapes of extinction curves in atomic absorption spectroscopy with direct analysis of solid samples show remarkable differences between different types of samples. The influence of matrix components on this phenomenon has been investigated. The precision of analytical results performed with the aid of reference materials and preceded by calibration with both liquid and solid standards has been compared. Furthermore, the correlation between the precision of analytical results and the ratio of peak height to peak area has been investigated.


    Segerstrom, Kenneth; Weisner, R.C.


    On the basis of a mineral survey, most of the Laramie Peak Wilderness study area in Wyoming was concluded to have little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Only three small areas in the northern part, one extending outside the study area to Esterbrook, were found to have probable mineral-resource potential for copper and lead. The geologic setting precludes the presence of fossil-fuel resources in the study area. There are no surface indications that geothermal energy could be developed within or near the study area.

  4. Particle creation by peak electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adorno, T.C. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Gavrilov, S.P. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, Department of General and Experimental Physics, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gitman, D.M. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, CP 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The particle creation by the so-called peak electric field is considered. The latter field is a combination of two exponential parts, one exponentially increasing and another exponentially decreasing. We find exact solutions of the Dirac equation with the field under consideration with appropriate asymptotic conditions and calculate all the characteristics of particle creation effect, in particular, differential mean numbers of created particle, total number of created particles, and the probability for a vacuum to remain a vacuum. Characteristic asymptotic regimes are discussed in detail and a comparison with the pure asymptotically decaying field is considered. (orig.)

  5. Energy peaks: A high energy physics outlook (United States)

    Franceschini, Roberto


    Energy distributions of decay products carry information on the kinematics of the decay in ways that are at the same time straightforward and quite hidden. I will review these properties and discuss their early historical applications, as well as more recent ones in the context of (i) methods for the measurement of masses of new physics particle with semi-invisible decays, (ii) the characterization of Dark Matter particles produced at colliders, (iii) precision mass measurements of Standard Model particles, in particular of the top quark. Finally, I will give an outlook of further developments and applications of energy peak method for high energy physics at colliders and beyond.

  6. Estimation of cardiac reserve by peak power: validation and initial application of a simplified index (United States)

    Armstrong, G. P.; Carlier, S. G.; Fukamachi, K.; Thomas, J. D.; Marwick, T. H.


    OBJECTIVES: To validate a simplified estimate of peak power (SPP) against true (invasively measured) peak instantaneous power (TPP), to assess the feasibility of measuring SPP during exercise and to correlate this with functional capacity. DESIGN: Development of a simplified method of measurement and observational study. SETTING: Tertiary referral centre for cardiothoracic disease. SUBJECTS: For validation of SPP with TPP, seven normal dogs and four dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy were studied. To assess feasibility and clinical significance in humans, 40 subjects were studied (26 patients; 14 normal controls). METHODS: In the animal validation study, TPP was derived from ascending aortic pressure and flow probe, and from Doppler measurements of flow. SPP, calculated using the different flow measures, was compared with peak instantaneous power under different loading conditions. For the assessment in humans, SPP was measured at rest and during maximum exercise. Peak aortic flow was measured with transthoracic continuous wave Doppler, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures were derived from brachial sphygmomanometry. The difference between exercise and rest simplified peak power (Delta SPP) was compared with maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2)max), measured from expired gas analysis. RESULTS: SPP estimates using peak flow measures correlated well with true peak instantaneous power (r = 0.89 to 0.97), despite marked changes in systemic pressure and flow induced by manipulation of loading conditions. In the human study, VO(2)max correlated with Delta SPP (r = 0.78) better than Delta ejection fraction (r = 0.18) and Delta rate-pressure product (r = 0.59). CONCLUSIONS: The simple product of mean arterial pressure and peak aortic flow (simplified peak power, SPP) correlates with peak instantaneous power over a range of loading conditions in dogs. In humans, it can be estimated during exercise echocardiography, and correlates with maximum oxygen uptake better than ejection

  7. Infant BMI peak, breastfeeding, and body composition at age 3 y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Signe Marie; Ritz, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher


    BACKGROUND: With the increasing focus on obesity, growth patterns in infancy and early childhood have gained much attention. Although the adiposity rebound has been in focus because of a shown association with adult obesity, not much has been published about the infant peak in body mass index (BMI......) cohort were used to estimate BMI growth curves for the age span from 14 d to 19 mo by using a nonlinear mixed-effects model. BMI growth velocity before peak and age and BMI at peak were derived from the subject-specific models. Information about pregnancy and breastfeeding was assessed from background...

  8. Outreach Plans for Storm Peak Laboratory (United States)

    Hallar, A. G.; McCubbin, I. B.


    The Desert Research Institute (DRI) operates a high elevation facility, Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL), located on the west summit of Mt. Werner in the Park Range near Steamboat Springs, Colorado at an elevation 10,500 ft. SPL provides an ideal location for long-term research on the interactions of atmospheric aerosol and gas- phase chemistry with cloud and natural radiation environments. SPL includes an office-type laboratory room for computer and instrumentation setup with outside air ports and cable access to the roof deck, a full kitchen and two bunk rooms with sleeping space for nine persons. We plan to create a unique summer undergraduate education experiences for students of diversity at Storm Peak Laboratory. As stressed by the College Pathways to Science Education Standards [Siebert and McIntosh, 2001], to support changes in K-12 science education transformations must first be made at the college level, including inquiry-oriented opportunities to engage in meaningful research. These workshops will be designed to allow students to experience the excitement of science, increasing their likelihood of pursing careers within the fields of scientific education or research.

  9. NITPICK: peak identification for mass spectrometry data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steen Hanno


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reliable extraction of features from mass spectra is a fundamental step in the automated analysis of proteomic mass spectrometry (MS experiments. Results This contribution proposes a sparse template regression approach to peak picking called NITPICK. NITPICK is a Non-greedy, Iterative Template-based peak PICKer that deconvolves complex overlapping isotope distributions in multicomponent mass spectra. NITPICK is based on fractional averagine, a novel extension to Senko's well-known averagine model, and on a modified version of sparse, non-negative least angle regression, for which a suitable, statistically motivated early stopping criterion has been derived. The strength of NITPICK is the deconvolution of overlapping mixture mass spectra. Conclusion Extensive comparative evaluation has been carried out and results are provided for simulated and real-world data sets. NITPICK outperforms pepex, to date the only alternate, publicly available, non-greedy feature extraction routine. NITPICK is available as software package for the R programming language and can be downloaded from

  10. , Recorded at Ladron Peak, Central New Mexico (United States)

    Ricketts, J. W.; Kelley, S.; Read, A. S.; Karlstrom, K. E.


    Ladron Peak, situated on the western flank of the Rio Grande rift ~30 miles NW of Socorro, NM, is composed of Precambrian granitic and metamorphic assemblages that have been faulted and uplifted during the late Tertiary formation of the rift. The area is bounded on three sides by normal faults, including the anomalously low-angle (~26°) Jeter fault to the east, which places Precambrian rocks in the footwall against Paleozoic and Mesozoic fault slivers, and mainly Cenozoic Santa Fe Group basin fill in the hanging wall. New apatite fission track (AFT) thermochronological data collected at 22 locations along the NE and SE margins of Ladron Peak give a range of ages from 10.9 ± 1.9 to 20.4 ± 8.6 Ma. Samples within the footwall include granitic and metasedimentary rocks that have mean track lengths of 13.1 to 14.1 μm; one quartzite sample has a mean track length of 12.5 μm, suggesting time in the partial annealing zone. Within the hanging wall block, new AFT ages from the Permian Bursum and Abo Formations give cooling ages of 23.1 ± 3.3 Ma. and 59.9 ± 12.4 Ma., respectively. The Bursum Formation sample, with a track length of 13.7 μm, cooled below the 110°C isotherm during the Miocene, while the Abo Formation sample, with a track length of 11.2 μm, was only partially reset prior to rift-related deformation. Mylonitized granitic and metamorphic rocks in the immediate footwall preserve dip-slip lineations that are parallel to slip on the Jeter fault. This suggests that strain associated with exhumation was recorded by both brittle and ductile deformation. Although this type of deformation is common within metamorphic core complexes in highly extended terranes, ductile normal faulting has not been recognized within the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico, though there is some suggestion of ductile deformation around Blanca Peak in the San Luis Valley in Colorado. These observations imply one or both of the following: (1) Ductile deformation at Ladron Peak was

  11. Prevalence and prognostic value of CSF markers of Alzheimer's disease pathology in patients with subjective cognitive impairment or mild cognitive impairment in the DESCRIPA study: a prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, P.J.; Verhey, F.; Knol, D.L.; Scheltens, P.; Wahlund, L.O.; Freund-Levi, Y.; Tsolaki, M.; Minthon, L.; Wallin, A.K.; Hampel, H.; Burger, K.; Pirttila, T.; Soininen, H.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Verbeek, M.M.; Spiru, L.; Blennow, K.


    BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology is common in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) without dementia, but the prevalence of AD pathology in patients with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) and non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment (naMCI) is unknown. AD is

  12. Peak height velocity as an alternative for maturational classification associated with motor performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Trevizan Costa


    Full Text Available Adolescence is a phase characterized by important physical and maturational alterations, with individuals of the same chronological age, but who are more mature, may present sportive advantages because of greater force gain and additional muscle mass. Thus, in studies evaluating motor skills of children and adolescents, maturational classification should be an efficient and easily applicable tool in order to facilitate the interpretation of the true relationship between maturation and motor performance. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the relationship between motor performance and different types of classification of biological maturation in 209 boys aged to 17 years (11.59 ± 2.57 practicing soccer. Anthropometric variables were obtained according to the ISAK criteria. Biological maturation was determined based on age at peak height velocity (PHV and also by self-assessment of sexual maturation (genitalia and pubic hair. Motor performance was evaluated by sit-and-reach tests, horizontal jump, modified push-ups, 50-m run, and 9/12-min run/walk. The results showed progression in the variables analyzed as the subjects reached maturity. Correlation analysis and the egression values indicated higher consistency for the PHV classification, which better explained motor performance according to maturational status, exceeding the values obtained by comparison according to age or sexual maturation. Thus, the use of PHV as a classification instrument is preferably recommended for youngsters with haracteristics similar to those of the present sample.

  13. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.


    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  14. Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III


    The expected peak wind speed of the day is an important forecast element in the 45th Weather Squadron's (45 WS) daily 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts. The forecasts are used for ground and space launch operations at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45 WS also issues wind advisories for KSC/CCAFS when they expect wind gusts to meet or exceed 25 kt, 35 kt and 50 kt thresholds at any level from the surface to 300 ft. The 45 WS forecasters have indicated peak wind speeds are challenging to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October - April. In Phase I of this task, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a tool to help the 45 WS forecast non-convective winds at KSC/CCAFS for the 24-hour period of 0800 to 0800 local time. The tool was delivered as a Microsoft Excel graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI displayed the forecast of peak wind speed, 5-minute average wind speed at the time of the peak wind, timing of the peak wind and probability the peak speed would meet or exceed 25 kt, 35 kt and 50 kt. For the current task (Phase II ), the 45 WS requested additional observations be used for the creation of the forecast equations by expanding the period of record (POR). Additional parameters were evaluated as predictors, including wind speeds between 500 ft and 3000 ft, static stability classification, Bulk Richardson Number, mixing depth, vertical wind shear, temperature inversion strength and depth and wind direction. Using a verification data set, the AMU compared the performance of the Phase I and II prediction methods. Just as in Phase I, the tool was delivered as a Microsoft Excel GUI. The 45 WS requested the tool also be available in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS). The AMU first expanded the POR by two years by adding tower observations, surface observations and CCAFS (XMR) soundings for the cool season months of March 2007 to April 2009. The POR was expanded

  15. Thermoluminescence solid-state nanodosimetry—the peak 5A/5 dosemeter (United States)

    Fuks, E.; Horowitz, Y. S.; Horowitz, A.; Oster, L.; Marino, S.; Rainer, M.; Rosenfeld, A.; Datz, H.


    The shape of composite peak 5 in the glow curve of LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) following 90Sr/90Y beta irradiation, previously demonstrated to be dependent on the cooling rate used in the 400°C pre-irradiation anneal, is shown to be dependent on ionisation density in both naturally cooled and slow-cooled samples. Following heavy-charged particle high-ionisation density (HID) irradiation, the temperature of composite peak 5 decreases by ∼5°C and the peak becomes broader. This behaviour is attributed to an increase in the relative intensity of peak 5a (a low-temperature satellite of peak 5). The relative intensity of peak 5a is estimated using a computerised glow curve deconvolution code based on first-order kinetics. The analysis uses kinetic parameters for peaks 4 and 5 determined from ancillary measurements resulting in nearly ‘single-glow peak’ curves for both the peaks. In the slow-cooled samples, owing to the increased relative intensity of peak 5a compared with the naturally cooled samples, the precision of the measurement of the 5a/5 intensity ratio is found to be ∼15 % (1 SD) compared with ∼25 % for the naturally cooled samples. The ratio of peak 5a/5 in the slow-cooled samples is found to increase systematically and gradually through a variety of radiation fields from a minimum value of 0.13±0.02 for 90Sr/90Y low-ionisation density irradiations to a maximum value of ∼0.8 for 20 MeV Cu and I ion HID irradiations. Irradiation by low-energy electrons of energy 0.1–1.5 keV results in values between 1.27 and 0.95, respectively. The increasing values of the ratio of peak 5a/5 with increasing ionisation density demonstrate the viability of the concept of the peak 5a/5 nanodosemeter and its potential in the measurement of average ionisation density in a ‘nanoscopic’ mass containing the trapping centre/luminescent centre spatially correlated molecule giving rise to composite peak 5. PMID:21149323

  16. Emissions Scenarios and Fossil-fuel Peaking (United States)

    Brecha, R.


    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emissions scenarios are based on detailed energy system models in which demographics, technology and economics are used to generate projections of future world energy consumption, and therefore, of greenhouse gas emissions. Built into the assumptions for these scenarios are estimates for ultimately recoverable resources of various fossil fuels. There is a growing chorus of critics who believe that the true extent of recoverable fossil resources is much smaller than the amounts taken as a baseline for the IPCC scenarios. In a climate optimist camp are those who contend that "peak oil" will lead to a switch to renewable energy sources, while others point out that high prices for oil caused by supply limitations could very well lead to a transition to liquid fuels that actually increase total carbon emissions. We examine a third scenario in which high energy prices, which are correlated with increasing infrastructure, exploration and development costs, conspire to limit the potential for making a switch to coal or natural gas for liquid fuels. In addition, the same increasing costs limit the potential for expansion of tar sand and shale oil recovery. In our qualitative model of the energy system, backed by data from short- and medium-term trends, we have a useful way to gain a sense of potential carbon emission bounds. A bound for 21st century emissions is investigated based on two assumptions: first, that extractable fossil-fuel resources follow the trends assumed by "peak oil" adherents, and second, that little is done in the way of climate mitigation policies. If resources, and perhaps more importantly, extraction rates, of fossil fuels are limited compared to assumptions in the emissions scenarios, a situation can arise in which emissions are supply-driven. However, we show that even in this "peak fossil-fuel" limit, carbon emissions are high enough to surpass 550 ppm or 2°C climate protection guardrails. Some

  17. Comparison of peak muscle power between Brazilian and French girls. (United States)

    Nanci Maria, França; Eric, Doré; Mario, Bedu; Emmanuel, Van Praagh


    This study examined the muscle power of Brazilian circumpubertal girls and extended the analysis to a cross-cultural dimension. A total of 462 children, 123 Brazilian girls and 339 French girls, 9-18 years, participated in this investigation. Anthropometric data included body mass (BM), height, skinfold thicknesses, and estimated lean leg volume (LLV). All subjects completed a physical activity questionnaire. Cycling peak power was measured including the flywheel inertia of the device (CPPi). Brazilian girls self-assessed their maturation using pubic hair development. CPPi and optimal velocity (v(opt) = velocity at CPPi) increased with stages of puberty. A multiple stepwise regression with anthropometric variables as explanatory factors showed only LLV and age explaining the variance of CPPi (R2 = 0.40, P CPPi in Brazilian girls was related to undetermined qualitative individual factors, which may be related to cycling skill. Even when normalized for anthropometric variables, the anaerobic performance (CPPi and v(opt)) of Brazilian girls was significantly lower than a cohort of French girls. The latter demonstrated a high participation in sport and training activities, while 50% of the Brazilian girls had only physical education classes in the form of regular physical activity. Moreover, most of the Brazilian girls demonstrated an ineffective sprint cycling skill. The data suggest that motor learning is an important issue in muscle power assessment and might, therefore, partially explain peak power differences in Brazilian compared with French girls. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Tim Peake and Britain's road to space

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik


    This book puts the reader in the flight suit of Britain’s first male astronaut, Tim Peake. It chronicles his life, along with the Principia mission and the down-to-the-last-bolt descriptions of life aboard the ISS, by way of the hurdles placed by the British government and the rigors of training at Russia’s Star City military base. In addition, this book discusses the learning curves required in astronaut and mission training and the complexity of the technologies required to launch an astronaut and keep them alive for months on end. This book underscores the fact that technology and training, unlike space, do not exist in a vacuum; complex technical systems, like the ISS, interact with the variables of human personality, and the cultural background of the astronauts. .

  19. Peak Electric Load Relief in Northern Manhattan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildegaard D. Link


    Full Text Available The aphorism “Think globally, act locally,” attributed to René Dubos, reflects the vision that the solution to global environmental problems must begin with efforts within our communities. PlaNYC 2030, the New York City sustainability plan, is the starting point for this study. Results include (a a case study based on the City College of New York (CCNY energy audit, in which we model the impacts of green roofs on campus energy demand and (b a case study of energy use at the neighborhood scale. We find that reducing the urban heat island effect can reduce building cooling requirements, peak electricity loads stress on the local electricity grid and improve urban livability.

  20. Mazama and Glacier Peak Pumice Glass: Uniformity of Refractive Index after Weathering. (United States)

    Steen, V C; Fryxell, R


    Weathering has had little differential effect on modal values of the index of refraction of pumice glasses from the eruptions of Mount Mazama and Glacier Peak thousands of years ago. Confidence is thus increased that the ranges of values for the index of refraction are reliable characteristics by which the two glasses may be distinguished from one another.

  1. Sample distribution in peak mode isotachophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Shimon [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Schwartz, Ortal [Russel Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Bercovici, Moran, E-mail: [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Russel Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel)


    We present an analytical study of peak mode isotachophoresis (ITP), and provide closed form solutions for sample distribution and electric field, as well as for leading-, trailing-, and counter-ion concentration profiles. Importantly, the solution we present is valid not only for the case of fully ionized species, but also for systems of weak electrolytes which better represent real buffer systems and for multivalent analytes such as proteins and DNA. The model reveals two major scales which govern the electric field and buffer distributions, and an additional length scale governing analyte distribution. Using well-controlled experiments, and numerical simulations, we verify and validate the model and highlight its key merits as well as its limitations. We demonstrate the use of the model for determining the peak concentration of focused sample based on known buffer and analyte properties, and show it differs significantly from commonly used approximations based on the interface width alone. We further apply our model for studying reactions between multiple species having different effective mobilities yet co-focused at a single ITP interface. We find a closed form expression for an effective-on rate which depends on reactants distributions, and derive the conditions for optimizing such reactions. Interestingly, the model reveals that maximum reaction rate is not necessarily obtained when the concentration profiles of the reacting species perfectly overlap. In addition to the exact solutions, we derive throughout several closed form engineering approximations which are based on elementary functions and are simple to implement, yet maintain the interplay between the important scales. Both the exact and approximate solutions provide insight into sample focusing and can be used to design and optimize ITP-based assays.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin KŁOS


    Full Text Available Traffic flow in cities is usually examined locally. This method is not effective for through traffic analysis. The paper discusses the problem of determining peak traffic hours taking into account vehicle distributions. Peak hours represent time periods of traffic flow which demand special treatment by traffic control systems. This is particularly important in the case of ITS. High values of traffic flow require relieving actions not only at the junctions but preferably along the transit routes. The north-south transit route in Bielsko-Biała was chosen for analysis. Instead of the usual two distinct peaks it is determined that the traffic flow is characterised by five peaks. This pattern is the result of specific location of the route, which links residential areas, industrial zones and shopping centres besides carrying through traffic. This multi peak graph more accurately models the traffic flow.

  3. Peak-valley-peak pattern of histone modifications delineates active regulatory elements and their directionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pundhir, Sachin; Bagger, Frederik Otzen; Lauridsen, Felicia Kathrine Bratt


    Formation of nucleosome free region (NFR) accompanied by specific histone modifications at flanking nucleosomes is an important prerequisite for enhancer and promoter activity. Due to this process, active regulatory elements often exhibit a distinct shape of histone signal in the form of a peak......-valley-peak (PVP) pattern. However, different features of PVP patterns and their robustness in predicting active regulatory elements have never been systematically analyzed. Here, we present PARE, a novel computational method that systematically analyzes the H3K4me1 or H3K4me3 PVP patterns to predict NFRs. We show...

  4. Filtration influence in a constant potential X-ray machine peak voltage measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, L.R.; Vivolo, V.; Xavier, M.; Potiens, M.P.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Navarro, M.V.T., E-mail: [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia (IFBA), Salvador (Brazil)


    This work shows the peak voltage measurements for several beam filtrations used in diagnostic radiology, using two types of non-invasive detectors; a voltage meter and a high-resolution spectrometer. The technique chosen for the voltage peak measurements with the spectrometer was the endpoint. The results were compared to the measured ones and showed good similarity to the nominal values. However the voltage meter detector used in this work presented errors for heavier filtrations. (author)

  5. Electromyographic and neuromuscular variables in unstable postpolio subjects, stable postpolio subjects, and control subjects. (United States)

    Rodriquez, A A; Agre, J C; Franke, T M


    To compare strength and endurance variables obtained in the quadriceps muscles of postpolio and control subjects over a 7-year interval with macro and single fiber electromyography (EMG) variables. A controlled inception cohort study. Neuromuscular research laboratory of a university hospital. A cohort of 23 postpolio and 14 control subjects. All postpolio subjects had a history, physical examination, and EMG consistent with previous poliomyelitis, and had greater than antigravity strength in the quadriceps muscle tested. Unstable postpolio subjects acknowledged new quadriceps weakness over the 7-year period of the study (n = 11), and stable postpolio subjects denied new weakness of the quadriceps over the same period (n = 12). All subjects had tests of neuromuscular function of the quadriceps muscles at the onset of this study and yearly over a 7-year period. EMG variables were determined on a separate day after the seventh year of neuromuscular measurements. Neuromuscular variables measured were isometric knee extension peak torque, isometric endurance (time to inability to maintain knee extensor contraction at 40% of maximal torque), tension time index (TTI) (product of isometric endurance time and 40% of maximal torque), and recovery of torque at 10 minutes after the endurance test. EMG variables were macro EMG and single fiber EMG (jitter, fiber density, and percent blocking). Unstable postpolio subjects did not lose strength more rapidly than stable postpolio subjects or control subjects. Unstable postpolio subjects were significantly weaker, had decreased TTI, larger macro EMG amplitude, greater jitter, blocking, and fiber density in comparison with stable postpolio subjects (all p postpolio group (p .05) with neuromuscular or EMG variables in control, stable, or unstable postpolio subjects.

  6. An Empirical Study on Raman Peak Fitting and Its Application to Raman Quantitative Research. (United States)

    Yuan, Xueyin; Mayanovic, Robert A


    Fitting experimentally measured Raman bands with theoretical model profiles is the basic operation for numerical determination of Raman peak parameters. In order to investigate the effects of peak modeling using various algorithms on peak fitting results, the representative Raman bands of mineral crystals, glass, fluids as well as the emission lines from a fluorescent lamp, some of which were measured under ambient light whereas others under elevated pressure and temperature conditions, were fitted using Gaussian, Lorentzian, Gaussian-Lorentzian, Voigtian, Pearson type IV, and beta profiles. From the fitting results of the Raman bands investigated in this study, the fitted peak position, intensity, area and full width at half-maximum (FWHM) values of the measured Raman bands can vary significantly depending upon which peak profile function is used in the fitting, and the most appropriate fitting profile should be selected depending upon the nature of the Raman bands. Specifically, the symmetric Raman bands of mineral crystals and non-aqueous fluids are best fit using Gaussian-Lorentzian or Voigtian profiles, whereas the asymmetric Raman bands are best fit using Pearson type IV profiles. The asymmetric O-H stretching vibrations of H2O and the Raman bands of soda-lime glass are best fit using several Gaussian profiles, whereas the emission lines from a florescent light are best fit using beta profiles. Multiple peaks that are not clearly separated can be fit simultaneously, provided the residuals in the fitting of one peak will not affect the fitting of the remaining peaks to a significant degree. Once the resolution of the Raman spectrometer has been properly accounted for, our findings show that the precision in peak position and intensity can be improved significantly by fitting the measured Raman peaks with appropriate profiles. Nevertheless, significant errors in peak position and intensity were still observed in the results from fitting of weak and wide Raman

  7. Development of empirical correlation of peak friction angle with surface roughness of discontinuities using tilt test (United States)

    Serasa, Ailie Sofyiana; Lai, Goh Thian; Rafek, Abdul Ghani; Simon, Norbert; Hussein, Azimah; Ern, Lee Khai; Surip, Noraini; Mohamed, Tuan Rusli


    The significant influence of surface roughness of discontinuity surfaces is a quantity that is fundamental to the understanding of shear strength of geological discontinuities. This is due to reason that the shear strength of geological discontinuities greatly influenced the mechanical behavior of a rock mass especially in stability evaluation of tunnel, foundation, and natural slopes. In evaluating the stability of these structures, the study of peak friction angle (Φpeak) of rough discontinuity surfaces has become more prominent seeing that the shear strength is a pivotal factor causing failures. The measurement of peak friction angle however, requires an extensive series of laboratory tests which are both time and cost demanding. With that in mind, this publication presents an approach in the form of an experimentally determined polynomial equation to estimate peak friction angle of limestone discontinuity surfaces by measuring the Joint Roughness Coefficient (JRC) values from tilt tests, and applying the fore mentioned empirical correlation. A total of 1967 tilt tests and JRC measurements were conducted in the laboratory to determine the peak friction angles of rough limestone discontinuity surfaces. A polynomial equation of ɸpeak = -0.0635JRC2 + 3.95JRC + 25.2 that exhibited 0.99 coefficient of determination (R2) were obtained from the correlation of JRC and peak friction angles. The proposed correlation offers a practical method for estimation of peak friction angles of rough discontinuity surfaces of limestone from measurement of JRC in the field.

  8. Can You Hear That Peak? Utilization of Auditory and Visual Feedback at Peak Limb Velocity (United States)

    Loria, Tristan; de Grosbois, John; Tremblay, Luc


    Purpose: At rest, the central nervous system combines and integrates multisensory cues to yield an optimal percept. When engaging in action, the relative weighing of sensory modalities has been shown to be altered. Because the timing of peak velocity is the critical moment in some goal-directed movements (e.g., overarm throwing), the current study…

  9. OccuPeak: ChIP-Seq peak calling based on internal background modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Bouke A.; van Duijvenboden, Karel; van den Boogaard, Malou; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Barnett, Phil; Ruijter, Jan M.


    ChIP-seq has become a major tool for the genome-wide identification of transcription factor binding or histone modification sites. Most peak-calling algorithms require input control datasets to model the occurrence of background reads to account for local sequencing and GC bias. However, the

  10. Using Energy Peaks to Measure New Particle Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Kim, Doojin


    We discussed in arXiv:1209.0772 that the laboratory frame distribution of the energy of a massless particle from a two-body decay at a hadron collider has a peak whose location is identical to the value of this daughter's (fixed) energy in the rest frame of the corresponding mother particle. For that result to hold we assumed that the mother is unpolarized and has a generic boost distribution in the laboratory frame. In this work we discuss how this observation can be applied for determination of masses of new particles, without requiring a full reconstruction of their decay chains or information about the rest of the event. We focus on a two-step cascade decay of a massive particle that has one invisible particle in the final state: C -> Bb -> Aab, where C, B and A are new particles of which A is invisible and a, b are visible particles. Combining the measurements of the peaks of energy distributions of a and b with that of the edge in their invariant mass distribution, we demonstrate that it is in principle...

  11. Development of peak performance in track cycling. (United States)

    Schumacher, Y O; Mueller, P; Keul, J


    Retrospective analysis of peak performances can be a usefull tool for the estimation of future trends in high performance sports. The purpose of this study was to investigate the evolution of performance in track cycling from 1979 to 1999 and to asses age- and gender-related differences. We studied the results of the world track cycling championships for this period in 200 m, 1000 m, individual and team pursuit races for elite and junior athletes. Overall trends, performance differences between rank 1 and 5, gender- and age-related differences were calculated. They show a significant (ptrack cycling endurance disciplines. New technical developments show no statistical significant impact. The performance gap between male and female athletes is constant, independent of discipline or race distance and comparable to observations in other sports. Age-related differences in performance is most visible in disciplines requiring short, high intensity power output. Based on these data, estimation of possible winning times and adaptation of training programs for future track cycling competitions might be facilitated.

  12. Human behavioral complexity peaks at age 25 (United States)

    Brugger, Peter


    Random Item Generation tasks (RIG) are commonly used to assess high cognitive abilities such as inhibition or sustained attention. They also draw upon our approximate sense of complexity. A detrimental effect of aging on pseudo-random productions has been demonstrated for some tasks, but little is as yet known about the developmental curve of cognitive complexity over the lifespan. We investigate the complexity trajectory across the lifespan of human responses to five common RIG tasks, using a large sample (n = 3429). Our main finding is that the developmental curve of the estimated algorithmic complexity of responses is similar to what may be expected of a measure of higher cognitive abilities, with a performance peak around 25 and a decline starting around 60, suggesting that RIG tasks yield good estimates of such cognitive abilities. Our study illustrates that very short strings of, i.e., 10 items, are sufficient to have their complexity reliably estimated and to allow the documentation of an age-dependent decline in the approximate sense of complexity. PMID:28406953

  13. Initial Circulation and Peak Vorticity Behavior of Vortices Shed from Airfoil Vortex Generators (United States)

    Wendt, Bruce J.; Biesiadny, Tom (Technical Monitor)


    An extensive parametric study of vortices shed from airfoil vortex generators has been conducted to determine the dependence of initial vortex circulation and peak vorticity on elements of the airfoil geometry and impinging flow conditions. These elements include the airfoil angle of attack, chord length, span, aspect ratio, local boundary layer thickness, and free stream Mach number. In addition, the influence of airfoil-to-airfoil spacing on the circulation and peak vorticity has been examined for pairs of co-rotating and counter-rotating vortices. The vortex generators were symmetric airfoils having a NACA-0012 cross-sectional profile. These airfoils were mounted either in isolation, or in pairs, on the surface of a straight pipe. The turbulent boundary layer thickness to pipe radius ratio was about 17 percent. The circulation and peak vorticity data were derived from cross-plane velocity measurements acquired with a seven-hole probe at one chord-length downstream of the airfoil trailing edge location. The circulation is observed to be proportional to the free-stream Mach number, the angle-of-attack, and the span-to-boundary layer thickness ratio. With these parameters held constant, the circulation is observed to fall off in monotonic fashion with increasing airfoil aspect ratio. The peak vorticity is also observed to be proportional to the free-stream Mach number, the airfoil angle-of-attack, and the span-to-boundary layer thickness ratio. Unlike circulation, however, the peak vorticity is observed to increase with increasing aspect ratio, reaching a peak value at an aspect ratio of about 2.0 before falling off again at higher values of aspect ratio. Co-rotating vortices shed from closely spaced pairs of airfoils have values of circulation and peak vorticity under those values found for vortices shed from isolated airfoils of the same geometry. Conversely, counter-rotating vortices show enhanced values of circulation and peak vorticity when compared to values

  14. Interaction, transference, and subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda


    Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make...... sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity...... are important filters for fieldwork. In general, fieldwork can be understood as processes where field reports and field analysis are determined by how the researcher interacts with and experiences the field, the events and informants in it, and how she subsequently develops an ethnography. However, fieldwork...

  15. Day-time seeing statistics at Sacramento Peak Observatory (United States)

    Brandt, P. N.; Mauter, H. A.; Smartt, R.


    A method for the photoelectric measurement of angle-of-arrival fluctuations at the solar limb is described, from which Fried's seeing parameter r0 can be determined. From a set of 2092 measurements, each of 10 s duration, performed on 146 observing days in the period from June 84 to September 86 at the solar vacuum tower telescope of the Sacramento Peak Observatory, a log-normal distribution of the r0 values gave a median r0 = 8.7 cm (measured at λ = 510 nm), with a standard deviation σ = 0.25 in logarithmic units. The results are compared with atmospheric sounding experiment data and longterm day- and night-time seeing statistics obtained at other observatories.

  16. Neurobiology of value integration: when value impacts valuation. (United States)

    Park, Soyoung Q; Kahnt, Thorsten; Rieskamp, Jörg; Heekeren, Hauke R


    Everyday choice options have advantages (positive values) and disadvantages (negative values) that need to be integrated into an overall subjective value. For decades, economic models have assumed that when a person evaluates a choice option, different values contribute independently to the overall subjective value of the option. However, human choice behavior often violates this assumption, suggesting interactions between values. To investigate how qualitatively different advantages and disadvantages are integrated into an overall subjective value, we measured the brain activity of human subjects using fMRI while they were accepting or rejecting choice options that were combinations of monetary reward and physical pain. We compared different subjective value models on behavioral and neural data. These models all made similar predictions of choice behavior, suggesting that behavioral data alone are not sufficient to uncover the underlying integration mechanism. Strikingly, a direct model comparison on brain data decisively demonstrated that interactive value integration (where values interact and affect overall valuation) predicts neural activity in value-sensitive brain regions significantly better than the independent mechanism. Furthermore, effective connectivity analyses revealed that value-dependent changes in valuation are associated with modulations in subgenual anterior cingulate cortex-amygdala coupling. These results provide novel insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of human decision making involving the integration of different values.

  17. Optimal loading range for the development of peak power output in the hexagonal barbell jump squat. (United States)

    Turner, Thomas S; Tobin, Daniel P; Delahunt, Eamonn


    Recent studies indicate that the utilization of the hexagonal barbell jump squat (HBJS) compared with the traditional barbell jump squat may offer a superior method of developing peak power. The notion that a single optimal load may be prescribed in training programs aiming to develop peak power is subject to debate. The purpose of this study was to identify the optimal load corresponding with peak power output during the HBJS in professional rugby union players. Seventeen professional rugby union players participated in this study. Participants performed 3 unloaded countermovement jumps on a force plate and 3 HBJS at each of the following randomized loads: 10, 20, 30, and 40% of box squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Peak power output was the dependent variable of interest. A one-way repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to compare peak power output across each load. Peak power output was the dependent variable of interest. A significant main effect for load was observed (Wilk's Lambda = 0.11, F(4,13) = 18.07, p power output in the HBJS is optimized at a load range between 10 and 20% of box squat 1RM. The results of this study indicate that the use of the HBJS with a training load between 10 and 20% of box squat 1RM optimizes peak power output in professional rugby union players.

  18. [High intensity aerobic interval training improves peak oxygen consumption in patients with metabolic syndrome: CAT]. (United States)

    Espinoza Salinas, Alexis; Aguilera Eguía, Raúl; Cofre Bolados, Cristian; Zafra Santos, Edson; Pavéz Von Martens, Gustavo


    A number of cardiovascular risk factors characterizes the metabolic syndrome: insulin resistance (IR), low HDL cholesterol and high triglycerides. The aforementioned risk factors lead to elevated levels of abdominal adipose tissue, resulting in oxygen consumption deficiency. To verify the validity and applicability of using high intensity interval training (HIIT) in subjects with metabolic syndrome and to answer the following question: Can HIIT improve peak oxygen consumption? The systematic review "Effects of aerobic interval training on exercise capacity and metabolic risk factors in individuals with cardiometabolic disorders" was analyzed. Data suggests high intensity aerobic interval training increases peak oxygen consumption by a standardized mean difference of 3.60 mL/kg-1/min-1 (95% confidence interval, 0.28-4.91). In spite of the methodological shortcomings of the primary studies included in the systematic review, we reasonably conclude that implementation of high intensity aerobic interval training in subjects with metabolic syndrome, leads to increases in peak oxygen consumption.

  19. Choosing between velocity-time-integral ratio and peak velocity ratio for calculation of the dimensionless index (or aortic valve area) in serial follow-up of aortic stenosis. (United States)

    Finegold, Judith A; Manisty, Charlotte H; Cecaro, Fabrizio; Sutaria, Nilesh; Mayet, Jamil; Francis, Darrel P


    It remains unclear which echocardiographic measure is most suitable for serial measurement in real-world aortic stenosis (AS) follow-up. We determine whether the dimensionless index (DI) between aortic valve and left ventricular outflow tract velocities is measured more consistently using velocity-time-integral (VTI) or peak velocities (V(peak)) in real life. Serial echocardiograms acquired within 6 months in subjects with AS were analysed with blinding, to compare the variability over time of DI calculated using V(peak), with that of DI calculated using VTI. Paired echocardiograms, acquired on average 72 days apart, were analysed from 70 patients with a range of severities of AS (59% severe). DI, calculated using either V(peak) or VTI, did not significantly change over this short time. Coefficient of variation was significantly better when DI was calculated using V(peak) than VTI (12.6 versus 25.4%, pcalculating DI--or effective orifice area--from the ratio of V(peak) rather than VTIs would reduce 95% confidence intervals from ± 51% to a still-disappointing ± 25%. Guidelines recommend noisy surveillance measures, causing conscientious echocardiographers to 'peek' at previous values, and impairing clinicians' faith in echocardiographically-observed changes when making clinical decisions. For us in echocardiography to improve our ability to contribute to AS follow-up requires us to first acknowledge and discuss this honestly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Central Peaks and Soft Modes in Praseodymium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden; Lebech, Bente; Mackintosh, A. R.


    The dhcp allotrope of Pr is a singlet ground-state system which is very close to magnetic ordering at low temperatures. We have observed quasi-elastic magnetic scattering around the q-value in the directions at which the disperion relations for the magnetic excitations have a minimum energy. The ....... The excitations were measured along all symmetry lines in the zone, and the dependence of the energies and lifetimes on the temperature and magnetic field was investigated....

  1. Peak and averaged bicoherence for different EEG patterns during general anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myles Paul


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in nonlinear neuronal mechanisms of EEG generation in the course of general anaesthesia have been extensively investigated in research literature. A number of EEG signal properties capable of tracking these changes have been reported and employed in anaesthetic depth monitors. The degree of phase coupling between different spectral components is a marker of nonlinear EEG generators and is claimed to be an important aspect of BIS. While bicoherence is the most direct measure of phase coupling, according to published research it is not directly used in the calculation of BIS, and only limited studies of its association with anaesthetic depth and level of consciousness have been published. This paper investigates bicoherence parameters across equal band and unequal band bifrequency regions, during different states of anaesthetic depth relating to routine clinical anaesthesia, as determined by visual inspection of EEG. Methods 41 subjects scheduled for day surgery under general anaesthesia were recruited into this study. EEG bicoherence was analysed using average and smoothed-peak estimates calculated over different regions on the bifrequency plane. Statistical analysis of associations between anaesthetic depth/state of consciousness and bicoherence estimates included linear regression using generalised linear mixed effects models (GLMs, ROC curves and prediction probability (Pk. Results Bicoherence estimates for the δ_θ region on the bifrequency plane were more sensitive to anaesthetic depth changes compared to other bifrequency regions. Smoothed-peak bicoherence displayed stronger associations than average bicoherence. Excluding burst suppression and large transients, the δ_θ peak bicoherence was significantly associated with level of anaesthetic depth (z = 25.74, p 2 = 0.191. Estimates of Pk for this parameter were 0.889(0.867-0.911 and 0.709(0.689-0.729 respectively for conscious states and anaesthetic depth

  2. The Effect of the Pressure Exerted on the Maternal Abdominal Wall by the US Probe on Fetal MCA Peak Systolic Velocity. (United States)

    Alpert, Yoav; Ben-Moshe, Boaz; Shvalb, Nir; Piura, Esther; Tepper, Ronnie


    Purpose To quantify the pressure exerted on the maternal abdominal wall during ultrasound examination and evaluate its effect on the fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA) peak systolic velocity (PSV). Materials and Method Gravid women with singleton pregnancies in their 2nd-3 rd trimester undergoing fetal sonographic evaluation for various indications were recruited. Each subject underwent transabdominal US measuring fetal distance from the probe, abdominal thickness, amniotic fluid index and biophysical profile. The applied pressure was measured simultaneously using an electronic pressure sensor attached directly to the US probe. For each subject baseline values of the pressure required for proper visualization were obtained. Fetal MCA was then demonstrated using color Doppler US. The PSV was measured at different pressure ranges with each subject used as her own control. Care was taken not to exceed the baseline pressure for each subject. Results 29 women were recruited. 24 subjects (82.7 %) demonstrated a statistically significant positive correlation between the pressure exerted and MCA-PSV (R-0.37, p PSV values above 1.29 MOM and 5 subjects (17.2 %) demonstrated elevation of PSV values above 1.5 MOM for gestational age with increasing pressure. In total, 9 subjects (31 %) demonstrated significant changes in the MCA-PSV measurements (owing to increase in pressure applied) that could potentially falsely influence clinical obstetric diagnosis and management. Conclusion The pressure exerted on the maternal abdominal wall during US examination is an important parameter, producing clinically significant measurable changes in fetal MCA hemodynamics. Further study is needed in order to demonstrate the potential effect of pressure as a parameter influencing the diagnostic accuracy of the MCA-PSV in the setting of fetal anemia. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Detecting and accounting for multiple sources of positional variance in peak list registration analysis and spin system grouping. (United States)

    Smelter, Andrey; Rouchka, Eric C; Moseley, Hunter N B


    Peak lists derived from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra are commonly used as input data for a variety of computer assisted and automated analyses. These include automated protein resonance assignment and protein structure calculation software tools. Prior to these analyses, peak lists must be aligned to each other and sets of related peaks must be grouped based on common chemical shift dimensions. Even when programs can perform peak grouping, they require the user to provide uniform match tolerances or use default values. However, peak grouping is further complicated by multiple sources of variance in peak position limiting the effectiveness of grouping methods that utilize uniform match tolerances. In addition, no method currently exists for deriving peak positional variances from single peak lists for grouping peaks into spin systems, i.e. spin system grouping within a single peak list. Therefore, we developed a complementary pair of peak list registration analysis and spin system grouping algorithms designed to overcome these limitations. We have implemented these algorithms into an approach that can identify multiple dimension-specific positional variances that exist in a single peak list and group peaks from a single peak list into spin systems. The resulting software tools generate a variety of useful statistics on both a single peak list and pairwise peak list alignment, especially for quality assessment of peak list datasets. We used a range of low and high quality experimental solution NMR and solid-state NMR peak lists to assess performance of our registration analysis and grouping algorithms. Analyses show that an algorithm using a single iteration and uniform match tolerances approach is only able to recover from 50 to 80% of the spin systems due to the presence of multiple sources of variance. Our algorithm recovers additional spin systems by reevaluating match tolerances in multiple iterations. To facilitate evaluation of the

  4. Can Peak Expiratory Flow Measurements Differentiate Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease from Congestive Heart Failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Gough


    Full Text Available Dyspneic patients are commonly encountered by Emergency Medical Service (EMS. Frequent causes include Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD and Congestive Heart Failure (CHF. Measurement of peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR has been proposed to help differentiate COPD from CHF. This prospective, cohort, pilot study was conducted to determine if PEFR in patients with an exacerbation of COPD were significantly different than CHF. Included were patients presenting with dyspnea plus a history of COPD and/or CHF. A PEFR was measured, values were compared to predicted average, and a percentage was calculated. Twenty-one patients were enrolled. Six had a diagnosis of COPD, 12 CHF; 3 had other diagnoses. Mean percentage of predicted PEFR with COPD was 26.36%, CHF 48.9% (=0.04. Patients presenting with acute COPD had significantly lower percentage of predicted PEFR than those with CHF. These results suggest that PEFR may be useful in differentiating COPD from CHF. This study should be expanded to the prehospital setting with a larger number of subjects.

  5. Values and Decision Making in Educational Administration. (United States)

    Lakomski, Gabriele


    Argues against the current trends in giving importance to subjective values in educational administration, particularly the argument that attention to subjective values can overcome the perceived irrelevance of scientific administration and organization theory and help administrators make better decisions. (MD)

  6. Value Investing


    Kubínyi, Tomáš


    This bachelor's thesis deals with value investing in the form defined by Benjamin Graham. In clarifying the theoretical aspects, particular attention is given to an intrinsic value of stocks and to its calculation methods. A way to overcome the deficiencies in the two most widely used models of calculation is introduced. It is value screening, which by defining of certain criteria makes an assumption of undervalued stocks. Then the investment approach of the most successful investor, Warren B...

  7. Infant BMI peak, breastfeeding, and body composition at age 3 y. (United States)

    Jensen, Signe M; Ritz, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine T; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F


    With the increasing focus on obesity, growth patterns in infancy and early childhood have gained much attention. Although the adiposity rebound has been in focus because of a shown association with adult obesity, not much has been published about the infant peak in body mass index (BMI). This study links age and BMI at infant peak to duration of breastfeeding and body composition at 3 y of age. Frequent weight and height measurements for 311 Danish children in the SKOT (Complementary and Young Child Feeding - Impact on Short and Long Term Development and Health; in Danish) cohort were used to estimate BMI growth curves for the age span from 14 d to 19 mo by using a nonlinear mixed-effects model. BMI growth velocity before peak and age and BMI at peak were derived from the subject-specific models. Information about pregnancy and breastfeeding was assessed from background questionnaires. Assessment of body composition at age 3 y was made based on bioelectrical impedance, weight, and height. A longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding was associated with an earlier peak in infant BMI (P = 0.0003) and a lower prepeak velocity (P < 0.0001). BMI level at peak and prepeak velocity was positively associated with fat and fat-free mass at age 3 y (all P < 0.0001), whereas a later age at peak was associated with a lower fat mass, fat mass index, and fat-free mass index at age 3 y (all P < 0.001). BMI peak characteristics are strongly associated with both duration of exclusive breastfeeding and body composition at 3 y of age. Thus, a better knowledge of characteristics and determinants of the early BMI peak is likely to improve our understanding of early development of obesity. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. A biomechanical analysis of trunk and pelvis motion during gait in subjects with knee osteoarthritis compared to control subjects. (United States)

    Linley, Heather S; Sled, Elizabeth A; Culham, Elsie G; Deluzio, Kevin J


    Trunk lean over the stance limb during gait has been linked to a reduction in the knee adduction moment, which is associated with joint loading. We examined differences in knee adduction moments and frontal plane trunk lean during gait between subjects with knee osteoarthritis and a control group of healthy adults. Gait analysis was performed on 80 subjects (40 osteoarthritis). To define lateral trunk lean two definitions were used. The line connecting the midpoint between two reference points on the pelvis and the midpoint between the acromion processes was projected onto the lab frontal plane and the pelvis frontal plane. Pelvic tilt was also measured in the frontal plane as the angle between the pelvic and lab coordinate systems. Angles were calculated across the stance phase of gait. We analyzed the data, (i) by extracting discrete parameters (mean and peak) waveform values, and (ii) using principal component analysis to extract shape and magnitude differences between the waveforms. Osteoarthritis subjects had a higher knee adduction moment than the control group (α=0.05). Although the discrete parameters for trunk lean did not show differences between groups, principal component analysis did detect characteristic waveform differences between the control and osteoarthritis groups. A thorough biomechanical analysis revealed small differences in the pattern of motion of the pelvis and the trunk between subjects with knee osteoarthritis and control subjects; however these differences were only detectable using principal component analysis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Walter, Stephen R.; Rojas, Vernonica; Kollmann, Auriel


    Over 700 earthquakes occurred in the vicinity of Lassen Peak, California, from February 1981 through December 1983. These earthquakes define a broad, northwest-trending seismic zone that extends from the Sierra Nevada through the Lassen Peak area and either terminates or is offset to the northeast about 20 kilometers northwest of Lassen Peak. Approximately 25% of these earthquakes are associated with the geothermal system south of Lassen Peak. Earthquakes in the geothermal area generally occur at depths shallower than 6 kilometers.

  10. A contribution to peak load pricing theory and application


    N. Vijayamohanan Pillai


    The present paper attempts at a contribution to peak load pricing, in both theory and application. The general result from the traditional theory that charges the off-peak consumers marginal operating costs only and the peak users marginal operating plus marginal capacity costs, since it is the on-peakers who press against capacity, has already been called into question in the literature. It has also been shown that the equity norms are violated in the traditional peak load pricing, whereby o...

  11. Local properties of the large-scale peaks of the CMB temperature (United States)

    Marcos-Caballero, A.; Martínez-González, E.; Vielva, P.


    In the present work, we study the largest structures of the CMB temperature measured by Planck in terms of the most prominent peaks on the sky, which, in particular, are located in the southern galactic hemisphere. Besides these large-scale features, the well-known Cold Spot anomaly is included in the analysis. All these peaks would contribute significantly to some of the CMB large-scale anomalies, as the parity and hemispherical asymmetries, the dipole modulation, the alignment between the quadrupole and the octopole, or in the case of the Cold Spot, to the non-Gaussianity of the field. The analysis of the peaks is performed by using their multipolar profiles, which characterize the local shape of the peaks in terms of the discrete Fourier transform of the azimuthal angle. In order to quantify the local anisotropy of the peaks, the distribution of the phases of the multipolar profiles is studied by using the Rayleigh random walk methodology. Finally, a direct analysis of the 2-dimensional field around the peaks is performed in order to take into account the effect of the galactic mask. The results of the analysis conclude that, once the peak amplitude and its first and second order derivatives at the centre are conditioned, the rest of the field is compatible with the standard model. In particular, it is observed that the Cold Spot anomaly is caused by the large value of curvature at the centre.

  12. New approaches based on modified Gaussian models for the prediction of chromatographic peaks. (United States)

    Baeza-Baeza, J J; Ortiz-Bolsico, C; García-Álvarez-Coque, M C


    The description of skewed chromatographic peaks has been discussed extensively and many functions have been proposed. Among these, the Polynomially Modified Gaussian (PMG) models interpret the deviations from ideality as a change in the standard deviation with time. This approach has shown a high accuracy in the fitting to tailing and fronting peaks. However, it has the drawback of the uncontrolled growth of the predicted signal outside the elution region, which departs from the experimental baseline. To solve this problem, the Parabolic-Lorentzian Modified Gaussian (PLMG) model was developed. This combines a parabola that describes the variance change in the peak region, and a Lorentzian function that decreases the variance growth out of the peak region. The PLMG model has, however, the drawback of its high flexibility that makes the optimisation process difficult when the initial values of the model parameters are far from the optimal ones. Based on the fitting of experimental peaks of diverse origin and asymmetry degree, several semiempirical approaches that make use of the halfwidths at 60.65% and 10% peak height are here reported, which allow the use of the PLMG model for prediction purposes with small errors (below 2-3%). The incorporation of several restrictions in the algorithm avoids the indeterminations that arise frequently with this model, when applied to highly skewed peaks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Localized auxin peaks in concentration-based transport models of the shoot apical meristem. (United States)

    Draelants, Delphine; Avitabile, Daniele; Vanroose, Wim


    We study the formation of auxin peaks in a generic class of concentration-based auxin transport models, posed on static plant tissues. Using standard asymptotic analysis, we prove that, on bounded domains, auxin peaks are not formed via a Turing instability in the active transport parameter, but via simple corrections to the homogeneous steady state. When the active transport is small, the geometry of the tissue encodes the peaks' amplitude and location: peaks arise where cells have fewer neighbours, that is, at the boundary of the domain. We test our theory and perform numerical bifurcation analysis on two models that are known to generate auxin patterns for biologically plausible parameter values. In the same parameter regimes, we find that realistic tissues are capable of generating a multitude of stationary patterns, with a variable number of auxin peaks, that can be selected by different initial conditions or by quasi-static changes in the active transport parameter. The competition between active transport and production rate determines whether peaks remain localized or cover the entire domain. In particular, changes in the auxin production that are fast with respect to the cellular life cycle affect the auxin peak distribution, switching from localized spots to fully patterned states. We relate the occurrence of localized patterns to a snaking bifurcation structure, which is known to arise in a wide variety of nonlinear media, but has not yet been reported in plant models. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Peak power prediction in junior basketballers: comparing linear and allometric models. (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Hankey, Joanne; Lyons, Mark; James, Rob S; Nevill, Alan M


    Equations, commonly used to predict peak power from jump height, have relied on linear additive models that are biologically unsound beyond the range of observations because of high negative intercept values. This study explored the utility of allometric multiplicative modeling to better predict peak power in adolescent basketball players. Seventy-seven elite junior basketball players (62 adolescent boys, 15 adolescent girls, age = 16.8 ± 0.8 years) performed 3 counter movement jumps (CMJs) on a force platform. Both linear and multiplicative models were then used to determine their efficacy. Four previously published linear equations were significantly associated with actual peak power (all p equations by Sayers (both p Allometric modeling was used to determine an alternative biologically sound equation which was more strongly associated with (r = 0.886, p 0.05), actual peak power and predicted 77.9% of the variance in actual peak power (adjusted R = 0.779, p equation was significantly associated (r = 0.871, p 0.05) and offered a more accurate estimation of peak power than previously validated linear additive models examined in this study. The allometric model determined from this study or the multiplicative model (body mass × CMJ height) provides biologically sound models to accurately estimate peak power in elite adolescent basketballers that are more accurate than equations based on linear additive models.

  15. A Framework for Understanding and Generating Integrated Solutions for Residential Peak Energy Demand (United States)

    Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley; Ledwich, Gerard; Bell, John; Mengersen, Kerrie; Morris, Peter; Lewis, Jim


    Supplying peak energy demand in a cost effective, reliable manner is a critical focus for utilities internationally. Successfully addressing peak energy concerns requires understanding of all the factors that affect electricity demand especially at peak times. This paper is based on past attempts of proposing models designed to aid our understanding of the influences on residential peak energy demand in a systematic and comprehensive way. Our model has been developed through a group model building process as a systems framework of the problem situation to model the complexity within and between systems and indicate how changes in one element might flow on to others. It is comprised of themes (social, technical and change management options) networked together in a way that captures their influence and association with each other and also their influence, association and impact on appliance usage and residential peak energy demand. The real value of the model is in creating awareness, understanding and insight into the complexity of residential peak energy demand and in working with this complexity to identify and integrate the social, technical and change management option themes and their impact on appliance usage and residential energy demand at peak times. PMID:25807384

  16. Valores de referência para o teste de caminhada com carga progressiva em indivíduos saudáveis: da distância percorrida às respostas fisiológicas Reference values for the incremental shuttle walk test in healthy subjects: from the walk distance to physiological responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Zuniga Dourado


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar valores de referência para a distância caminhada (DC e para respostas fisiológicas durante o teste de caminhada com carga progressiva (TCCP e desenvolver equações preditivas para essas variáveis em adultos saudáveis. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 103 participantes saudáveis com idade > 40 anos (54 mulheres e 49 homens. Os participantes usaram um sistema de análise de gases durante o TCCP. Consumo de oxigênio (VO2, liberação de gás carbônico, ventilação minuto, FC, DC e velocidade máxima da caminhada (VMC foram obtidos como desfechos primários. Avaliamos também a força de preensão manual (FPM e a massa magra corporal (MMC. RESULTADOS: Os modelos de regressão utilizando variáveis fisiológicas, DC e VMC ajustados por idade, massa corporal, estatura e sexo apresentaram valores de R² entre 0,40 e 0,65 (para FC e pico de VO2, respectivamente. Os modelos incluindo MMC e FPM não aumentaram consideravelmente os valores de R² na previsão do pico de VO2, embora esses modelos tenham aumentado discretamente os valores do R² para DC e VMC (8% e 12%, respectivamente. As variáveis DC, VMC e DC × massa corporal, respectivamente, explicaram 76,7%, 73,3% e 81,2% da variabilidade do pico de VO2. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos resultados originaram valores de referência para a DC e respostas fisiológicas ao TCCP, que podem ser estimados adequadamente por características demográficas e antropométricas simples em adultos saudáveis com idade > 40 anos. O TCCP poderia ser utilizado na avaliação da capacidade física na população geral de adultos e no desenvolvimento de programas de caminhada individualizados.OBJECTIVE: To determine reference values for incremental shuttle walk distance (ISWD and peak physiological responses during the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT, as well as to develop a series of predictive equations for those variables in healthy adults. METHODS: We evaluated 103 healthy participants > 40 years of

  17. Measuring the educational impact of Promoting Environmental Awareness in Kids (PEAK): The development and implementation of a new scale (United States)

    Jennifer Miller; Lindsey Brown; Eddie Hill; Amy Shellman; Ron Ramsing; Edwin. Gómez


    The Leave No Trace Center for Outdoor Ethics (LNT) is a nonprofit educational organization that teaches skills and values for recreating responsibly in the out-of-doors. LNT developed Promoting Environmental Awareness in Kids (PEAK), based on seven ethical principles. The PEAK program provides a pack that contains several interactive activities specifically designed to...

  18. 7 CFR 457.163 - Nursery peak inventory endorsement. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nursery peak inventory endorsement. 457.163 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.163 Nursery peak inventory endorsement. Nursery Crop Insurance Peak Inventory Endorsement This endorsement is not continuous and must be...

  19. Peak-power-point monitor for solar panel (United States)

    Schloss, A. I.


    Attempt was made to determine solar cell panel peak power capability without disrupting power flow from panel. Separate solar cell strings were switched from panel circuits, and increasingly larger loads were added rapidly until peak power points were transversed. String wattage output was recorded and all stored string measurements summed together indicate peak power point in panel.

  20. Family practitioners perception of, knowledge about and use of peak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peak flow meters were underutilised by family practitioners. The cost of the peak flow meter was an important reported cause of underutilisation. It is recommended that the importance of the peak flow meter in the management of asthma be emphasised at the undergraduate and continuing medical education level.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittink, Harriet; Takken, Tim; de Groot, Janke; Reneman, Michiel; Peters, Roelof; Vanhees, Luc


    Objectives: To cross-validate the existing peak rate of oxygen consumption (VO2peak) prediction equations in Dutch law enforcement officers and to determine whether these prediction equations can be used to predict VO2peak for groups and in a single individual. A further objective was to report

  2. Peak holding circuit for extremely narrow pulses (United States)

    Oneill, R. W. (Inventor)


    An improved pulse stretching circuit comprising: a high speed wide-band amplifier connected in a fast charge integrator configuration; a holding circuit including a capacitor connected in parallel with a discharging network which employs a resistor and an FET; and an output buffer amplifier. Input pulses of very short duration are applied to the integrator charging the capacitor to a value proportional to the input pulse amplitude. After a predetermined period of time, conventional circuitry generates a dump pulse which is applied to the gate of the FET making a low resistance path to ground which discharges the capacitor. When the dump pulse terminates, the circuit is ready to accept another pulse to be stretched. The very short input pulses are thus stretched in width so that they may be analyzed by conventional pulse height analyzers.

  3. Fat oxidation at rest predicts peak fat oxidation during exercise and metabolic phenotype in overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M; Nordby, P; Nielsen, L B


    OBJECTIVE: To elucidate if fat oxidation at rest predicts peak fat oxidation during exercise and/or metabolic phenotype in moderately overweight, sedentary men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.Subjects:We measured respiratory exchange ratio (RER) at rest in 44 moderately overweight, normotensive...... the International Diabetes Federation criteria, we found that there was a lower accumulation of metabolic risk factors in L-RER than in H-RER (1.6 vs 3.5, P=0.028), and no subjects in L-RER and four of eight subjects in H-RER had the metabolic syndrome. Resting RER was positively correlated with plasma...... triglycerides (Pmetabolic...

  4. The value of value congruence. (United States)

    Edwards, Jeffrey R; Cable, Daniel M


    Research on value congruence has attempted to explain why value congruence leads to positive outcomes, but few of these explanations have been tested empirically. In this article, the authors develop and test a theoretical model that integrates 4 key explanations of value congruence effects, which are framed in terms of communication, predictability, interpersonal attraction, and trust. These constructs are used to explain the process by which value congruence relates to job satisfaction, organizational identification, and intent to stay in the organization, after taking psychological need fulfillment into account. Data from a heterogeneous sample of employees from 4 organizations indicate that the relationships that link individual and organizational values to outcomes are explained primarily by the trust that employees place in the organization and its members, followed by communication, and, to a lesser extent, interpersonal attraction. Polynomial regression analyses reveal that the relationships emanating from individual and organizational values often deviated from the idealized value congruence relationship that underlies previous theory and research. The authors' results also show that individual and organizational values exhibited small but significant relationships with job satisfaction and organizational identification that bypassed the mediators in their model, indicating that additional explanations of value congruence effects should be pursued in future research. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Atopic asthmatic subjects but not atopic subjects without ... (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is a known risk factor for acute ozone-associated respiratory disease. Ozone causes an immediate decrease in lung function and increased airway inflammation. The role of atopy and asthma in modulation of ozone-induced inflammation has not been determined. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether atopic status modulates ozone response phenotypes in human subjects. METHODS: Fifty volunteers (25 healthy volunteers, 14 atopic nonasthmatic subjects, and 11 atopic asthmatic subjects not requiring maintenance therapy) underwent a 0.4-ppm ozone exposure protocol. Ozone response was determined based on changes in lung function and induced sputum composition, including airway inflammatory cell concentration, cell-surface markers, and cytokine and hyaluronic acid concentrations. RESULTS: All cohorts experienced similar decreases in lung function after ozone. Atopic and atopic asthmatic subjects had increased sputum neutrophil numbers and IL-8 levels after ozone exposure; values did not significantly change in healthy volunteers. After ozone exposure, atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly increased sputum IL-6 and IL-1beta levels and airway macrophage Toll-like receptor 4, Fc(epsilon)RI, and CD23 expression; values in healthy volunteers and atopic nonasthmatic subjects showed no significant change. Atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly decreased IL-10 levels at baseline compared with healthy volunteers; IL-10 levels did not significa

  6. Technical Potential for Peak Load Management Programs in New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.J.


    Restructuring is attempting to bring the economic efficiency of competitive markets to the electric power industry. To at least some extent it is succeeding. New generation is being built in most areas of the country reversing the decades-long trend of declining reserve margins. Competition among generators is typically robust, holding down wholesale energy prices. Generators have shown that they are very responsive to price signals in both the short and long term. But a market that is responsive only on the supply side is only half a market. Demand response (elasticity) is necessary to gain the full economic advantages that restructuring can offer. Electricity is a form of energy that is difficult to store economically in large quantities. However, loads often have some ability to (1) conveniently store thermal energy and (2) defer electricity consumption. These inherent storage and control capabilities can be exploited to help reduce peak electric system consumption. In some cases they can also be used to provide system reliability reserves. Fortunately too, technology is helping. Advances in communications and control technologies are making it possible for loads ranging from residential through commercial and industrial to respond to economic signals. When we buy bananas, we don't simply take a dozen and wait a month to find out what the price was. We always ask about the price before we decide how many bananas we want. Technology is beginning to allow at least some customers to think about their electricity consumption the same way they think about most of their other purchases. And power system operators and regulators are beginning to understand that customers need to remain in control of their own destinies. Many customers (residential through industrial) are willing to respond to price signals. Most customers are not able to commit to specific responses months or years in advance. Electricity is a fluid market commodity with a volatile value to both

  7. Peak oxygen uptake in swimmers and pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilson Colantonio


    The objectives of this study were: a to analyze the behavior of VO2MAX (absolute and relative of males of different age groups sex; b to compare VO2MAX (absolute and relative, of swimmers (SWM and schoolchildren (SCH in the same age groups. Seventy-one boys aged 7-17 years were evaluated (35 SWM and 36 SCH and distributed into the age groups 7-10, 11-14 and 15-17 years. Anthropometric measurements were taken (height, body mass and sum of skin folds and the metabolic (VO2MAX tests were carried out using VO2000® gas analysis and an Inbrasport ATL® treadmill, using a modified version of the Bruce protocol. Statistical analysis: ANOVA for repeated measures, followed by Tukey’s post hoc test (p<0.05. Absolute VO2MAX: there were statistically significant differences between all age groups and between SWM (0.99 + 0.20 and 1.27 + 0.21 L.min-1 and SCH (0.98 + 0.36 and 0.80 + 0.12 L.min-1. Relative VO2MAX: there were statistically significant differences between SWM1 and SWM2 (10.88 + 0.09 and 0.75 + 0.47 and between SCH1 and SCH3 (6.96 + 1.23 and 0.98 + 2.29, although SWM and SCH were different. The results indicate that VO2MAX increased as the subjects got older, which is the result of natural development. However, the effect of swimming training predominated. Although the behavior of the variable was similar for the 11-14 and 15-17 age groups, the figures for SWM and SCH are different at these ages, with the swimmers having higher VO2MAX.

  8. Value Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard; Petersen, Marianne Graves


    Stereotypic presumptions about gender affect the design process, both in relation to how users are understood and how products are designed. As a way to decrease the influence of stereotypic presumptions in design process, we propose not to disregard the aspect of gender in the design process......, as the perspective brings valuable insights on different approaches to technology, but instead to view gender through a value lens. Contributing to this perspective, we have developed Value Representations as a design-oriented instrument for staging a reflective dialogue with users. Value Representations...

  9. Joint modelling of flood peaks and volumes: A copula application for the Danube River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papaioannou George


    Full Text Available Flood frequency analysis is usually performed as a univariate analysis of flood peaks using a suitable theoretical probability distribution of the annual maximum flood peaks or peak over threshold values. However, other flood attributes, such as flood volume and duration, are necessary for the design of hydrotechnical projects, too. In this study, the suitability of various copula families for a bivariate analysis of peak discharges and flood volumes has been tested. Streamflow data from selected gauging stations along the whole Danube River have been used. Kendall’s rank correlation coefficient (tau quantifies the dependence between flood peak discharge and flood volume settings. The methodology is applied to two different data samples: 1 annual maximum flood (AMF peaks combined with annual maximum flow volumes of fixed durations at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 60 days, respectively (which can be regarded as a regime analysis of the dependence between the extremes of both variables in a given year, and 2 annual maximum flood (AMF peaks with corresponding flood volumes (which is a typical choice for engineering studies. The bivariate modelling of the extracted peak discharge - flood volume couples is achieved with the use of the Ali-Mikhail-Haq (AMH, Clayton, Frank, Joe, Gumbel, Hüsler-Reiss, Galambos, Tawn, Normal, Plackett and FGM copula families. Scatterplots of the observed and simulated peak discharge - flood volume pairs and goodness-of-fit tests have been used to assess the overall applicability of the copulas as well as observing any changes in suitable models along the Danube River. The results indicate that for the second data sampling method, almost all of the considered Archimedean class copula families perform better than the other copula families selected for this study, and that for the first method, only the upper-tail-flat copulas excel (except for the AMH copula due to its inability to model stronger relationships.

  10. Has Athletic Performance Reached its Peak? (United States)

    Berthelot, Geoffroy; Sedeaud, Adrien; Marck, Adrien; Antero-Jacquemin, Juliana; Schipman, Julien; Saulière, Guillaume; Marc, Andy; Desgorces, François-Denis; Toussaint, Jean-François


    Limits to athletic performance have long been a topic of myth and debate. However, sport performance appears to have reached a state of stagnation in recent years, suggesting that the physical capabilities of humans and other athletic species, such as greyhounds and thoroughbreds, cannot progress indefinitely. Although the ultimate capabilities may be predictable, the exact path for the absolute maximal performance values remains difficult to assess and relies on technical innovations, sport regulation, and other parameters that depend on current societal and economic conditions. The aim of this literature review was to assess the possible plateau of top physical capabilities in various events and detail the historical backgrounds and sociocultural, anthropometrical, and physiological factors influencing the progress and regression of athletic performance. Time series of performances in Olympic disciplines, such as track and field and swimming events, from 1896 to 2012 reveal a major decrease in performance development. Such a saturation effect is simultaneous in greyhound, thoroughbred, and frog performances. The genetic condition, exhaustion of phenotypic pools, economic context, and the depletion of optimal morphological traits contribute to the observed limitation of physical capabilities. Present conditions prevailing, we approach absolute physical limits and endure a continued period of world record scarcity. Optional scenarios for further improvements will mostly depend on sport technology and modification competition rules.

  11. Reduced peak, but no diurnal variation, in thrombin generation upon melatonin supplementation in tetraplegia. A randomised, placebo-controlled study. (United States)

    Iversen, Per Ole; Dahm, Anders; Skretting, Grethe; Mowinckel, Marie-Christine; Stranda, Annicke; Østerud, Bjarne; Sandset, Per Morten; Kostovski, Emil


    Tetraplegic patients have increased risk of venous thrombosis despite anti-thrombotic prophylaxis. Moreover, they have blunted plasma variations in melatonin and altered diurnal variation of several haemostatic markers, compared with able-bodied. However, whether healthy individuals and tetraplegic patients, with or without melatonin, display abnormalities in thrombin generation during a 24-hour (h) cycle, is unknown. We therefore used the Calibrated Automated Thrombogram (CAT) assay to examine diurnal variations and the possible role of melatonin in thrombin generation. Six men with long-standing complete tetraplegia were included in a randomised placebo-controlled cross-over study with melatonin supplementation (2 mg, 4 consecutive nights), whereas six healthy, able-bodied men served as controls. Ten plasma samples were collected frequently during a 24-h awake/sleep cycle. No significant diurnal variation of any of the measured CAT indices was detected in the three study groups. Whereas endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) was independent (p > 0.05) of whether the tetraplegic men received melatonin or placebo, melatonin decreased (p = 0.005) peak values in tetraplegia compared with those given placebo. Able-bodied men had lower (p = 0.019) ETP and Lag-Time (p = 0.018) compared with tetraplegics receiving placebo. Neither the Time-to-Peak nor the Start-Tail was affected (p > 0.05) by melatonin in tetraplegia. In conclusion, indices of thrombin generation are not subjected to diurnal variation in healthy able-bodied or tetraplegia, but peak thrombin generation is reduced in tetraplegic men receiving oral melatonin.

  12. Unit Hydrograph Peaking Analysis for Goose Creek Watershed in Virginia: A Case Study (United States)


    utilized maximum peaking factor value of 1.5. Although by definition the PMP does not have a return period, it is nonetheless a useful exercise. The...Pradhan, N. R, C. W. Downer, and B. E. Johnson. 2014. A physics based hydrologic modeling approach to simulate non-point source pollution for the

  13. PFReports: A program for systematic checking of annual peaks in NWISWeb (United States)

    Ryberg, Karen R.


    The accuracy, characterization, and completeness of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) peak-flow data drive the determination of flood-frequency estimates that are used daily to design water and transportation infrastructure, delineate flood-plain boundaries, and regulate development and utilization of lands throughout the Nation and are essential to understanding the implications of climate change on flooding. Indeed, this high-profile database reflects and highlights the quality of USGS water-data collection programs. Its extension and improvement are essential to efforts to strengthen USGS networks and science leadership and is worthy of the attention of Water Science Center (WSC) hydrographers. This document describes a computer program, PFReports, and its output that facilitates efficient and robust review and correction of data in the USGS Peak Flow File (PFF) hosted as part of NWISWeb (the USGS public Web interface to much of the data stored and managed within the National Water Information System or NWIS). Checks embedded in the program are recommended as part of a more comprehensive assessment of peak flow data that will eventually include examination of possible regional changes, seasonal changes, and decadal variations in magnitude, timing, and frequency. Just as important as the comprehensive assessment, cleaning up the database will increase the likelihood of improved WSC regional flood-frequency equations. As an example of the value of cleaning up the PFF, data for 26,921 sites in the PFF were obtained. Of those sites, 17,542 sites had peak streamflow values and daily values. For the 17,542 sites, 1,097 peaks were identified that were less than the daily value for the day on which the peak occurred. Of the 26,921 sites, 11,643 had peak streamflow values, concurrent daily values, and at least 10 peaks. At the 11,643 sites, 2,205 peaks were identified as potential outliers in a regression of peak streamflows on daily values. Previous efforts to identify

  14. Direct observation of a pulse peak using a peak-removed Gaussian optical pulse in a superluminal medium. (United States)

    Tomita, Makoto; Amano, Heisuke; Masegi, Seiji; Talukder, Aminul I


    A series of experiments is performed to examine the arrival of a pulse peak, using a Gaussian-shaped temporal wave packet as the input pulse and truncating it at various positions on or before the peak of the packet. When the truncating point is within the negative group delay limit of the fast light medium, a smooth Gaussian peak is observed at the exit port, despite the absence of an input pulse peak. The experimental results explicitly demonstrate that the superluminal propagation of a smooth Gaussian-shaped pulse peak is an analytic continuation over time of the earlier portion of the input pulse envelope. To investigate the physical meaning of the pulse peak further, we also examine the propagation of triangular-shaped pulses, for which the pulse peak can be recognized as a nonanalytical point.

  15. The Value of Value Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard; Christensen, Jesper

    behavior. This paper attempt to test such a claim. This is done via unique and privileged access to top-level managers in a Fortune 250 company. This company is special in having very well-defined, long-running values that are in opposition to a narrowly defined homo-economics rationality. These values...... involving vignettes and games. Their results were compared to their actual knowledge of the content of the company corporate values. The results were tested against hypotheses on expected rational behavior and a control group consisting of similar level managers from other companies. This study makes...... and anecdotally true surprisingly little hard evidence has been produced either for or against. This study attempts to rectify this. The study claims that for corporate values to matter they must at least align, and potentially alter, employee decision-making hence their concept of optimality and rational...

  16. A Novel Noninvasive Method for Measuring Fatigability of the Quadriceps Muscle in Noncooperating Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper B. Poulsen


    Full Text Available Background. Critical illness is associated with muscle weakness leading to long-term functional limitations. Objectives. To assess the reliability of a novel method for evaluating fatigability of the quadriceps muscle in noncooperating healthy subjects. Methods. On two occasions, separated by seven days, nonvoluntary isometric contractions (twitch and tetanic of the quadriceps femoris muscle evoked by transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation were recorded in twelve healthy adults. For tetanic contractions, the Fatigue Index (ratio of peak torque values and the slope of the regression line of peak torque values were primary outcome measures. For twitch contractions, maximum peak torque and rise time were calculated. Relative (intraclass correlation, ICC3.1 and absolute (standard error of measurement, SEM reliability were assessed and minimum detectable change was calculated using a 95% confidence interval (MDC95%. Results. The Fatigue Index (ICC3.1, 0.84; MDC95%, 0.12 and the slope of the regression line (ICC3.1, 0.99; MDC95%, 0.03 showed substantial relative and absolute reliability during the first 15 and 30 contractions, respectively. Conclusion. This method for assessing fatigability of the quadriceps muscle produces reliable results in healthy subjects and may provide valuable data on quantitative changes in muscle working capacity and treatment effects in patients who are incapable of producing voluntary muscle contractions.

  17. In situ measurements of X-ray peak profile asymmetry from individual grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejdemann, Christian; Lienert, U.; Pantleon, Wolfgang


    Two copper samples, pre-deformed in tension to 5% plastic strain, are subjected to an in situ tensile deformation of 1% plastic strain while X-ray peak profiles from individual bulk grains are obtained. One sample is oriented with the in situ tensile axis parallel to the pre-deformation axis......, and peak profiles are obtained with the scattering vector parallel to this direction. The profiles show the expected asymmetry explained by the composite model as caused by intra-grain stresses. The other sample is oriented with the in situ tensile axis perpendicular to the pre-deformation axis, and peak...... profiles are obtained with the scattering vector parallel to the in situ tensile axis. In this case the profiles initially show an opposite asymmetry, but during the in situ deformation the asymmetry reverses sign as the deformation under new loading conditions leads to changes in the intra-grain stresses....

  18. Peak Ground Velocities for Seismic Events at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Coppersmith; R. Quittmeyer


    This report describes a scientific analysis to bound credible horizontal peak ground velocities (PGV) for the repository waste emplacement level at Yucca Mountain. Results are presented as a probability distribution for horizontal PGV to represent uncertainties in the analysis. The analysis also combines the bound to horizontal PGV with results of ground motion site-response modeling (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170027]) to develop a composite hazard curve for horizontal PGV at the waste emplacement level. This result provides input to an abstraction of seismic consequences (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169183]). The seismic consequence abstraction, in turn, defines the input data and computational algorithms for the seismic scenario class of the total system performance assessment (TSPA). Planning for the analysis is documented in Technical Work Plan TWP-MGR-GS-000001 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171850]). The bound on horizontal PGV at the repository waste emplacement level developed in this analysis complements ground motions developed on the basis of PSHA results. In the PSHA, ground motion experts characterized the epistemic uncertainty and aleatory variability in their ground motion interpretations. To characterize the aleatory variability they used unbounded lognormal distributions. As a consequence of these characterizations, as seismic hazard calculations are extended to lower and lower annual frequencies of being exceeded, the ground motion level increases without bound, eventually reaching levels that are not credible (Corradini 2003 [DIRS 171191]). To provide credible seismic inputs for TSPA, in accordance with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 63.102(j) [DIRS 156605], this complementary analysis is carried out to determine reasonable bounding values of horizontal PGV at the waste emplacement level for annual frequencies of exceedance as low as 10{sup -8}. For each realization of the TSPA seismic scenario, the results of this analysis provide a constraint on the values sampled from the

  19. Group Elevator Peak Scheduling Based on Robust Optimization Model


    Zhang, J.; Q. Zong


    Scheduling of Elevator Group Control System (EGCS) is a typical combinatorial optimization problem. Uncertain group scheduling under peak traffic flows has become a research focus and difficulty recently. RO (Robust Optimization) method is a novel and effective way to deal with uncertain scheduling problem. In this paper, a peak scheduling method based on RO model for multi-elevator system is proposed. The method is immune to the uncertainty of peak traffic flows, optimal scheduling is re...

  20. Living with peak discharge uncertainty: the self-learning dike


    de Kok, Jean-Luc; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Sànchez-Marrè, Miquel; Béjar, Javier; Comas, Joaquim; Rizzoli, Andrea E.; Guariso, Giorgio


    Although river dikes still play a key role for flood protection in the Netherlands there is a growing interest for other measures to deal with larger peak discharges, such as lowering or widening the floodplains. Regardless of the strategy chosen the assessment of its effect on the flood risk depends on the peak discharge statistics. A problem here is that the statistical analysis of peak discharges relies on probability distributions based on the limited time series of extreme discharges. Th...

  1. Lung function parameters improve prediction of VO2peak in an elderly population: The Generation 100 study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlend Hassel

    Full Text Available Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak is an indicator of cardiovascular health and a useful tool for risk stratification. Direct measurement of VO2peak is resource-demanding and may be contraindicated. There exist several non-exercise models to estimate VO2peak that utilize easily obtainable health parameters, but none of them includes lung function measures or hemoglobin concentrations. We aimed to test whether addition of these parameters could improve prediction of VO2peak compared to an established model that includes age, waist circumference, self-reported physical activity and resting heart rate. We included 1431 subjects aged 69-77 years that completed a laboratory test of VO2peak, spirometry, and a gas diffusion test. Prediction models for VO2peak were developed with multiple linear regression, and goodness of fit was evaluated. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide and blood hemoglobin concentration significantly improved the ability of the established model to predict VO2peak. The explained variance of the model increased from 31% to 48% for men and from 32% to 38% for women (p<0.001. FEV1, diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide and hemoglobin concentration substantially improved the accuracy of VO2peak prediction when added to an established model in an elderly population.

  2. [Prony analysis method about P-peak detection in ECG]. (United States)

    Li, Ran; Fang, Bin; Shen, Yi; Sun, Chongzheng; Wang, Pu


    The technology of ECG (Electrocardiograph) auto-analysis has developed rapidly in recent years. There are lots of related techniques appearing. The majority is about R-peak detection. Although P-peak is important too, there are a few kinds of method about P-peak detection. In this paper is presented a new method for P-peak detection. According to Prony analysis, ECG is separated first, and then detected. The method gets good result. Data in experiment are from MIT Arrhythmia Database. The reliability of this algorithm in accurately detecting the P location is 97.8%.

  3. The Hunt for the explanation of the Double Peak hydrograph (United States)

    Martínez-Carreras, Núria; Hissler, Christophe; François Iffly, Jean; Klaus, Julian; Gourdol, Laurent; Juilleret, Jérôme; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Pfister, Laurent


    Double peak hydrographs (also known as bimodal events) are a catchment's delayed response to precipitation. "Double peaks" have been reported in a dozen or so experimental catchments around the world, including the well-studied Slapton Wood catchment in UK and the Ina watersheds in Japan. Catchments showing double peak behaviour have varied in size, morphology, geology and soils. While first peaks are often coincident with the rainfall event, the second peak generally takes the form of a broader peak that reaches its maximum lagged in time from the initial response. Generally the double peaks response occurs only when catchments are wetted-up. In most cases, saturation-excess overland flow in the near-stream areas controls the initial peak in the double-peaked event while the second peak (i.e. the delayed peak) is controlled by subsurface stormflow. However, clear evidence for the mechanisms explaining these complex hydrological dynamics across diverse catchments is still wanting. Here we investigate the cause(s) of the size and magnitude of the second peak and the hydrological settings leading to its activation in the schistous Weierbach headwater catchment (0.45 km2, Luxembourg). We make use of the extensive high-resolution hydrometric time series of rainfall, runoff, soil moisture and depth to groundwater levels to estimate water catchment storage and causal linkages. The catchment was partitioned in three discrete hydrological response units (HRUs) to determine if delayed runoff is controlled by connectivity between discrete landscape units. We found evidence of catchment storage being a dominant control on the second peak activation. A threshold behaviour between catchment storage and the appearance of the second peak was observed. The amount of this storage threshold was temporally consistent over the 3-years period and was observed not only during the wet season, but also in summer when the catchment was exceptionally wet. We did not observe a rainfall

  4. Diagnostic value of postprandial triglyceride testing in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihas, Constantinos; Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P


    Triglycerides (TGs) are measured in studies evaluating changes in non-fasting lipid profiles after a fat tolerance test (FTT); however, the optimal timing for TG measurements after the oral fat load is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate how non-fasting TG levels vary after an oral FTT...

  5. Statistics of Microstructure, Peak Stress and Interface Damage in Fiber Reinforced Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kushch, Volodymyr I.; Shmegera, Sergii V.; Mishnaevsky, Leon


    This paper addresses an effect of the fiber arrangement and interactions on the peak interface stress statistics in a fiber reinforced composite material (FRC). The method we apply combines the multipole expansion technique with the representative unit cell model of composite bulk, which is able...... sensitive to the fiber arrangement, particularly cluster formation. An explicit correspondence between them has been established and an analytical formula linking the microstructure and peak stress statistics in FRCs has been suggested. Application of the statistical theory of extreme values to the local...

  6. The disease-subject as a subject of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kottow Andrea R


    Full Text Available Abstract Based on the distinction between living body and lived body, we describe the disease-subject as representing the impact of disease on the existential life-project of the subject. Traditionally, an individual's subjectivity experiences disorders of the body and describes ensuing pain, discomfort and unpleasantness. The idea of a disease-subject goes further, representing the lived body suffering existential disruption and the possible limitations that disease most probably will impose. In this limit situation, the disease-subject will have to elaborate a new life-story, a new character or way-of-being-in-the-world, it will become a different subject. Health care professionals need to realize that patients are not mere observers of their body, for they are immersed in a reassesment of values, relationships, priorities, perhaps even life-plans. Becoming acquainted with literature's capacity to create characters, modify narratives and depict life-stories in crisis, might sharpen physicians' hermeneutic acumen and make them more receptive to the quandaries of disease-subjects facing major medical and existential decisions in the wake of disruptive disease.

  7. Changes in lower extremity peak angles, moments and muscle activations during stair climbing at different speeds. (United States)

    Lewis, Jacqueline; Freisinger, Greg; Pan, Xueliang; Siston, Robert; Schmitt, Laura; Chaudhari, Ajit


    Stair climbing is a common daily activity, yet there is no basic knowledge on how lower extremity joint angles, moments or muscle activations are affected by stair climbing speed. This information will determine whether speed matching is necessary for stair climbing studies. Moreover, changes in lower extremity biomechanics during stair climbing at different speeds will aid in the clinical interpretation of a patient's maximal stair climbing speed. Thirty healthy participants provided consent. Kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activations were collected on a three step staircase. Subjects climbed the staircase at normal, slow and fast self-selected speeds. Linear mixed models for repeated measures were used to study the associations between speed and the lower extremity peak joint angles and moments, and muscle activations. The peak hip flexion and extension moments increased with increasing speed, while peak knee flexion moment did not vary consistently with speed. The peak muscle activations varied consistently with respect to the sagittal plane kinetics. These results suggest that in healthy subjects, the hip is the greatest contributor when modulating stair climbing speed, while additional knee contributions do not appear necessary to increase speed. Further stair studies should consider speed matching in order to accurately assess biomechanical differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Peak Cardiorespiratory Responses of Patients with Subacute Stroke During Land and Aquatic Treadmill Exercise. (United States)

    Lee, Yong Ki; Kim, Bo Ryun; Han, Eun Young


    The aim of this work was to investigate the cardiorespiratory responses of patients with subacute stroke to exercise stress tests with aquatic and land treadmills. Twenty-one consecutive patients who presented with first-ever subacute stroke in 2013-2015. All subjects underwent symptom-limited incremental exercise testing with aquatic and land treadmills. Land treadmill speed started at 1.5 km/h and increased 0.5 km/h every 1 to 2 minutes until maximal tolerable speed was achieved. Thereafter, the grade was elevated by 2% every 2 minutes. In the aquatic treadmill test, subjects were submerged to the xiphoid in 28°C water. Treadmill speed started at 1.5 km/h and was increased 0.5 km/h every 2 minutes thereafter. Cardiorespiratory responses were recorded with aquatic and land treadmills. Compared to land treadmill exercise, aquatic treadmill exercise achieved significantly better peak VO2 (22.0 vs 20.0; P = 0.02), peak metabolic equivalents (6.3 vs 5.8; P = 0.02), and peak rating of perceived exertion (17.6 vs 18.4, P = 0.01). Heart rate and VO2 correlated significantly during both tests (land treadmill: r = 0.96, P aquatic treadmill: r = 0.99, P Aquatic treadmill exercise elicited significantly better peak cardiorespiratory responses than land treadmill exercise and may be as effective for early intensive aerobic training in subacute stroke patients.

  9. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya


    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  10. Acute effects of Asian dust events on respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow in children with mild asthma. (United States)

    Yoo, Young; Choung, Ji Tae; Yu, Jinho; Kim, Do Kyun; Koh, Young Yull


    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible adverse effects of Asian dust events on respiratory health in asthmatic children. Fifty-two children with mild asthma were studied for eight consecutive weeks in the spring of 2004 (March 8 to May 2). During the study period, five Asian dust days were identified; we included a lag period of two days following each of the events. Subjects recorded their respiratory symptom diaries and peak expiratory flow (PEF) twice daily during the study period; and they underwent methacholine bronchial challenge tests. The subjects reported a significantly higher frequency of respiratory symptoms during the Asian dust days than during the control days. They showed significantly more reduced morning and evening PEF values, and more increased PEF variability (10.1%+/-3.5% vs. 5.5%+/-2.2%) during the Asian dust days than during the control days. Methacholine PC(20) was not significantly different between before and after the study period (geometric mean: 2.82 mg/mL vs. 3.16 mg/mL). These results suggest that the short-term Asian dust events might be associated with increased acute respiratory symptoms and changes in PEF outcomes. However, there might be little long-term influence on airway hyperresponsiveness in children with mild asthma.

  11. Annual Peak-Flow Frequency Characteristics and (or) Peak Dam-Pool-Elevation Frequency Characteristics of Dry Dams and Selected Streamflow-Gaging Stations in the Great Miami River Basin, Ohio (United States)

    Koltun, G.F.


    This report describes the results of a study to determine frequency characteristics of postregulation annual peak flows at streamflow-gaging stations at or near the Lockington, Taylorsville, Englewood, Huffman, and Germantown dry dams in the Miami Conservancy District flood-protection system (southwestern Ohio) and five other streamflow-gaging stations in the Great Miami River Basin further downstream from one or more of the dams. In addition, this report describes frequency characteristics of annual peak elevations of the dry-dam pools. In most cases, log-Pearson Type III distributions were fit to postregulation annual peak-flow values through 2007 (the most recent year of published peak-flow values at the time of this analysis) and annual peak dam-pool storage values for the period 1922-2008 to determine peaks with recurrence intervals of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 500 years. For one streamflow-gaging station (03272100) with a short period of record, frequency characteristics were estimated by means of a process involving interpolation of peak-flow yields determined for an upstream and downstream gage. Once storages had been estimated for the various recurrence intervals, corresponding dam-pool elevations were determined from elevation-storage ratings provided by the Miami Conservancy District.

  12. Two types of peak emotional responses to music: The psychophysiology of chills and tears. (United States)

    Mori, Kazuma; Iwanaga, Makoto


    People sometimes experience a strong emotional response to artworks. Previous studies have demonstrated that the peak emotional experience of chills (goose bumps or shivers) when listening to music involves psychophysiological arousal and a rewarding effect. However, many aspects of peak emotion are still not understood. The current research takes a new perspective of peak emotional response of tears (weeping, lump in the throat). A psychophysiological experiment showed that self-reported chills increased electrodermal activity and subjective arousal whereas tears produced slow respiration during heartbeat acceleration, although both chills and tears induced pleasure and deep breathing. A song that induced chills was perceived as being both happy and sad whereas a song that induced tears was perceived as sad. A tear-eliciting song was perceived as calmer than a chill-eliciting song. These results show that tears involve pleasure from sadness and that they are psychophysiologically calming; thus, psychophysiological responses permit the distinction between chills and tears. Because tears may have a cathartic effect, the functional significance of chills and tears seems to be different. We believe that the distinction of two types of peak emotions is theoretically relevant and further study of tears would contribute to more understanding of human peak emotional response.

  13. Acute Whole-Body Vibration does not Facilitate Peak Torque and Stretch Reflex in Healthy Adults (United States)

    Yeung, Ella W.; Lau, Cheuk C.; Kwong, Ada P.K.; Sze, Yan M.; Zhang, Wei Y.; Yeung, Simon S.


    The acute effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) training may enhance muscular performance via neural potentiation of the stretch reflex. The purpose of this study was to investigate if acute WBV exposure affects the stretch induced knee jerk reflex [onset latency and electromechanical delay (EMD)] and the isokinetic knee extensor peak torque performance. Twenty-two subjects were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention group received WBV in a semi-squat position at 30° knee flexion with an amplitude of 0.69 mm, frequency of 45 Hz, and peak acceleration of 27.6 m/s2 for 3 minutes. The control group underwent the same semii-squatting position statically without exposure of WBV. Two-way mixed repeated measures analysis of variance revealed no significant group effects differences on reflex latency of rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL; p = 0.934 and 0.935, respectively) EMD of RF and VL (p = 0.474 and 0.551, respectively) and peak torque production (p = 0.483) measured before and after the WBV. The results of this study indicate that a single session of WBV exposure has no potentiation effect on the stretch induced reflex and peak torque performance in healthy young adults. Key Points There is no acute potentiation of stretch reflex right after whole body vibration. Acute whole body vibration does not improve mus-cle peak torque performance in healthy young adults. PMID:24570602

  14. Shared Value


    Jensen, Mette; Kampmann, Hack; Nielsen, Michalis; Larsen, Rasmus


    This project investigates the kind of value being presented when two seemingly different organisations - Red Bull and The Royal Theatre (Det Kongelige Teater) comes together to collaborate and present the Red Bull Cliff Diving 2015 series in Copenhagen in June 2015. The project draws on theories on Axiology, Experience Economy, Branding and Content Marketing, Culture Theory and Public Private Partnerships, all in relation to Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimers’ theory of “Cultural Industry: En...

  15. Manipulation Peak Forces Across Spinal Regions for Children Using Mannequin Simulators. (United States)

    Triano, John J; Lester, Steven; Starmer, David; Hewitt, Elise G

    The purpose of this work was to create an exploratory database of manipulation treatment force variability as a function of the intent of an experienced clinician sub-specializing in the care of children to match treatment to childhood category. Data of this type are necessary for realistic planning of dose-response and safety studies on therapeutic benefit. The project evaluated the transmitted peak forces of procedures applied to mannequins of different stature for younger and older children. Common procedures for the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine and sacroiliac joint were administered to estimate variability by a single experienced practitioner and educator in pediatric manipulation attempting to modulate for childhood category. Results described for peak components in the cardinal axes and for peak total forces were cataloged and compared with consensus estimates of force from the literature. Mean force values for both components and total force peaks monotonically increased with childhood category analogous to consensus expectations. However, a mismatch was observed between peak values measured and consensus predictions that ranged by a factor of 2 to 3.5, particularly in the upper categories. Quantitative data permit a first estimate of effect size for future clinical studies. The findings of this study indicate that recalibration of spinal manipulation performance of experienced clinicians toward arbitrary target values similar to consensus estimates is feasible. What is unclear from the literature or these results is the identity of legitimate target values that are both safe and clinically effective based on childhood categories in actual practice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Definition of Liquidation Property Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Lingaitis


    Full Text Available The article examines the interrelation of market and liquidation value of the appraisal subject. It was established that the approach of “break-even” sale of a subject at liquidation value, which is predominating in the literature sources, shows the results essentially different from the ratio of the prices of free and accelerated sales that can be observed on the market. The article offers an alternative approach to definition of market value coefficient, which considers switching to liquidation value. This approach is based on functional dependence of the coefficient on the ratio of limited and unlimited period of exposition.

  17. High intensity aerobic interval training improves peak oxygen consumption in patients with metabolic syndrome: CAT


    Alexis Espinoza Salinas; Raúl Aguilera Eguía; Cristian Cofre Bolados; Edson Zafra Santos; Gustavo Pavéz Von Martens


    Introduction A number of cardiovascular risk factors characterizes the metabolic syndrome: insulin resistance (IR), low HDL cholesterol and high triglycerides. The aforementioned risk factors lead to elevated levels of abdominal adipose tissue, resulting in oxygen consumption deficiency. Purpose To verify the validity and applicability of using high intensity interval training (HIIT) in subjects with metabolic syndrome and to answer the following question: Can HIIT improve peak oxyg...

  18. BMI peak in infancy as a predictor for later BMI in the Uppsala Family Study.


    Silverwood, RJ; de Stavola, BL; Cole, TJ; Leon, DA


    BACKGROUND: The development of obesity through childhood, often characterized by using body mass index (BMI), has received much recent interest because of the rapidly increasing levels of obesity worldwide. However, the extent to which the BMI trajectory in the first year of life (the BMI 'peak' in particular) is associated with BMI in later childhood has received little attention. SUBJECTS: The Uppsala Family Study includes 602 families, comprising mother, father and two consecutive singleto...

  19. Exercise training induces similar elevations in the activity of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and peak oxygen uptake in the human quadriceps muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomstrand, Eva; Krustrup, Peter; Søndergaard, Hans


    been shown to provide a quantitative measure of maximal oxidative metabolism, but it is not known whether the increase in this activity after a period of training reflects the elevation in peak oxygen consumption. Fourteen subjects performed one-legged knee extension exercise for 5-7 weeks, while...... the other leg remained untrained. Thereafter, the peak oxygen uptake by the quadriceps muscle was determined for both legs, and muscle biopsies were taken for assays of maximal enzyme activities (at 25°C). The peak oxygen uptake was 26% higher in the trained than in the untrained muscle (395 vs. 315 ml...

  20. Optimum Insulation Thickness for Walls and Roofs for Reducing Peak Cooling Loads in Residential Buildings in Lahore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Thermal insulation is the most effective energy saving measure for cooling in buildings. Therefore, the main subject of many engineering investigations is the selection and determination of the optimum insulation thickness. In the present study, the optimum insulation thickness on external walls and roofs is determined based on the peak cooling loads for an existing residential building in Lahore, Pakistan. Autodesk® Revit 2013 is used for the analysis of the building and determination of the peak cooling loads. The analysis shows that the optimum insulation thickness to reduce peak cooling loads up to 40.1% is 1 inch for external walls and roof respectively.

  1. A rise in peak performance age in female athletes. (United States)

    Elmenshawy, Ahmed R; Machin, Daniel R; Tanaka, Hirofumi


    It was reported in 1980s that ages at which peak performance was observed had remained remarkably stable in the past century, although absolute levels of athletic performance increased dramatically for the same time span. The emergence of older (masters) athletes in the past few decades has changed the demographics and age-spectrum of Olympic athletes. The primary aim of the present study was to determine whether the ages at which peak performance was observed had increased in the recent decades. The data spanning 114 years from the first Olympics (1898) to the most recent Olympics (2014) were collected using the publically available data. In the present study, ages at which Olympic medals (gold, silver, and bronze) were won were used as the indicators of peak performance age. Track and field, swimming, rowing, and ice skating events were analyzed. In men, peak performance age did not change significantly in most of the sporting events (except in 100 m sprint running). In contrast, peak performance ages in women have increased significantly since 1980s and consistently in all the athletic events examined. Interestingly, as women's peak performance age increased, they became similar to men's peak ages in many events. In the last 20-30 years, ages at which peak athletic performance is observed have increased in women but not in men.

  2. Daily Nigerian peak load forecasting using artificial neural network ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A daily peak load forecasting technique that uses artificial neural network with seasonal indices is presented in this paper. A neural network of relatively smaller size than the main prediction network is used to predict the daily peak load for a period of one year over which the actual daily load data are available using one ...

  3. Flood Peak Estimation Using Rainfall Run off Models | Matondo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The design of hydraulic structures such as road culverts, road bridges and dam spillways requires the determination of the design food peak. Two approaches are available in the determination of the design flood peak and these are: flood frequency analysis and rainfall runoff models. Flood frequency analysis requires a ...

  4. Peak effect in surface resistance at microwave frequencies in Dy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A pronounced peak in the microwave (at frequency 9.55 GHz) surface resistance, Rs vs. T plot (where T is the ... Peak effect; flux line lattice; microwave surface resistance. PACS Nos 74.76.-w; 74.60. .... vortex lines from defect structures, such as twin planes and defect clusters, having differ- ent pinning potentials (or ...

  5. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate In Cigarette Smokers | Ukoli | Highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To compare lung function between smokers and non-smokers using Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR). Methods: This study examines the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) of three hundred and forty cigarette smokers, age and sex-matched with PEFR of equal number of non-smokers. Results: The mean PEFR of ...

  6. Daily peak electricity load forecasting in South Africa using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accurate prediction of daily peak load demand is very important for decision makers in the energy sector. This helps in the determination of consistent and reliable supply schedules during peak periods. Accurate short term load forecasts enable eective load shifting between transmission substations, scheduling of startup ...

  7. Psychological Preparation for Peak Performance in Sports Competition (United States)

    Ohuruogu, Ben; Jonathan, Ugwuanyi I.; Ikechukwu, Ugwu Jude


    This paper attempts to make an overview of various techniques, sport psychologist adopt in psychological preparation of athletes for peak performance. To attain peak performance in sports competitions, coaches and athletes should not base their prospect on physical training on sport skills alone rather should integrate both the mental and physical…

  8. Mazama and Glacier Peak Volcanic Ash Layers: Relative Ages. (United States)

    Fryxell, R


    Physiographic and stratigraphic evidence supports the regional correlation of two volcanic ash layers with extinct Mount Mazama at Crater Lake, Oregon, and Glacier Peak in the northern Cascade Range of Washington. A radiocarbon age of 12,000 +/- 310 years confirms geological evidence that ash derived from the Glacier Peak eruption is substantially older than ash from the Mazama eruption of 6600 years ago.

  9. Online junction temperature measurement using peak gate current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Nick; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Iannuzzo, Francesco


    A new method for junction temperature measurement of MOS-gated power semiconductor switches is presented. The measurement method involves detecting the peak voltage over the external gate resistor of an IGBT or MOSFET during turn-on. This voltage is directly proportional to the peak gate current...

  10. Practical limits to the performance of magnetic bearings: Peak force, slew rate, and displacement sensitivity (United States)

    Maslen, E.; Hermann, P.; Scott, M.; Humphris, R. R.


    Magnetic bearings are subject to performance limits which are quite different from those of conventional bearings. These are due in part to the inherent nonlinearity of the device and in part to its electrical nature. Three important nonideal behaviors are presented: peak force capacity, force slew rate limitation, and sensitivity to rotor motion at large displacements. The problem of identifying the dynamic requirements of a magnetic bearing when used to support a known structure subject to known loads is discussed in the context of these limitations. Several simple design tools result from this investigation.

  11. Hypertensive peaks in the pathogenesis of intraventricular hemorrhage in the newborn. Abolition by phenobarbitone sedation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimberley, P D; Lou, H C; Pedersen, H


    (33%), diagnosed by computered tomography (CT). IVH was more common in infants of lower gestational age, in infants delivered vaginally and in infants with perinatal asphyxia. Variable increases in MABP over the resting value occurred in all infants associated with increases in both active and passive...... motor activity. In 6 infant pairs matched for birth weight, gestational age, mode of delivery and severity of perinatal asphyxia, the infants who developed IVH had higher peak MABP valued compared to matched controls. Resting and minimum MABP values were not different in the two groups. We conclude...

  12. Detection limit calculations for peak evaluation methods in HPGe gamma-ray spectrometry according to ISO 11929 (United States)

    Kanisch, Günter


    Two peak area estimation methods in gamma-ray spectrometry, the total peak area (TPA) and the background step function (BSF) methods are re-considered first. For least-squares (LS) peak fitting then, a new net peak area uncertainty model is established. It results in a new function fB replacing a TPA method internal design factor. This allows applying the TPA-related decision threshold (DT) and detection limit (DL) formulae, based on ISO 11929(2010), also for peak fitting. Linear LS adapted to Poisson counting data is suggested to derive fB values for a single peak and different combinations of background shape components including a fitted BSF. fB is then adapted to penalized non-linear fitting including Poisson maximum likelihood estimation by MC simulations. Within the DL iteration the fB method is much faster than with non-linear re-fitting. The fitted peak area uncertainty can be safely modeled for peak areas up to 10 DT which is sufficient for DL calculations. The extension for peak multiplets is indicated.

  13. Impact of Smart Grid Technologies on Peak Load to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The IEA's Smart Grids Technology Roadmap identified five global trends that could be effectively addressed by deploying smart grids. These are: increasing peak load (the maximum power that the grid delivers during peak hours), rising electricity consumption, electrification of transport, deployment of variable generation technologies (e.g. wind and solar PV) and ageing infrastructure. Along with this roadmap, a new working paper -- Impact of Smart Grid Technologies on Peak Load to 2050 -- develops a methodology to estimate the evolution of peak load until 2050. It also analyses the impact of smart grid technologies in reducing peak load for four key regions; OECD North America, OECD Europe, OECD Pacific and China. This working paper is a first IEA effort in an evolving modelling process of smart grids that is considering demand response in residential and commercial sectors as well as the integration of electric vehicles.

  14. Maximizing utilization of sport halls during peak hours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Evald Bundgård; Forsberg, Peter

    BACKGROUNDDuring peak hours (4.30pm-8pm) demand for timeslots in sport halls in Denmark are high and there are few timeslots available. Further, focus on how public resources are spent most efficient is increasing (Iversen, 2013). This makes it interesting to analyse how utilization could...... be increased during peak hours. DATA AND METHODOLOGYData is collected by observation of activities during two weeks on for example whether halls are used or not; the amount of playing field used; and number of participants (Iversen, 2012). Data on 1.331 activities in 36 sport halls across 4 municipalities have...... been collected. RESULTS The number of participants per activity is higher during peak hours, which is expected when demand is high. However, the usage of sport floor only differs slightly between peak and low hours. Both during peak and low hours on average 80-100 per cent of floor space is used...

  15. Diffraction peak shift in MgO small crystallites (United States)

    Gielen, P.


    A linear relationship is found between peak position and peak width for the X-ray diffraction peaks of MgO very small crystallites. The sign of the peak shift is explained. The peak shape is asymmetrical, the more asymmetrical the broader it is. The second Heisenberg's uncertainty relation is reinterpreted. L'auteur trouve une relation linéaire entre la position des pics et la largeur des pics de diffraction des rayons X pour de très petites cristallites de MgO. Il explique le signe du déplacement des pics. La forme des pics est asymétrique, d'autant plus asymétrique qu'ils sont plus larges. La seconde relation d'incertitude de Heisenberg est réinterprétée.

  16. Solute-solvent interactions in micellar electrokinetic chromatography: V. Factors that produce peak splitting. (United States)

    Ràfols, Clara; Poza, Ana; Fuguet, Elisabet; Rosés, Martí; Bosch, Elisabeth


    The experimental conditions that produce analyte peak splitting in micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) have been systematically investigated. The system studied was a neutral phosphate buffer and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles as pseudostationary phase. A number of analytes showing a wide variety of hydrophobicity values and several organic solvents as sample diluents have been tested. Peak splitting phenomena are mainly due to the presence of organic solvent in the sample solution. They increase with the hydrophobicity of the analyte and decrease with the increase of the surfactant concentration. When hydrophobic compounds are analyzed the suggested ways to avoid split peaks are: (i) the use of 1-propanol or 1-butanol as sample diluent instead of methanol or acetonitrile or (ii) the use of high concentration of surfactant in the separating solution when the analyte must be dissolved in pure methanol or acetonitrile.

  17. Communities and Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salice, Alessandro


    Within the debate on the ontology of social groups, a prominent view holds that, if one wants to know what a group is and how a group is created or constituted, one has to look at the internal or subjective conditions that either the group’s members or the group as such have to fulfill. This idea...... unitiva” or the unifying virtue that values can exert over individuals and which might bring them to constitute a group....

  18. Flood frequency analysis for nonstationary annual peak records in an urban drainage basin (United States)

    Villarini, G.; Smith, J.A.; Serinaldi, F.; Bales, J.; Bates, P.D.; Krajewski, W.F.


    Flood frequency analysis in urban watersheds is complicated by nonstationarities of annual peak records associated with land use change and evolving urban stormwater infrastructure. In this study, a framework for flood frequency analysis is developed based on the Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape parameters (GAMLSS), a tool for modeling time series under nonstationary conditions. GAMLSS is applied to annual maximum peak discharge records for Little Sugar Creek, a highly urbanized watershed which drains the urban core of Charlotte, North Carolina. It is shown that GAMLSS is able to describe the variability in the mean and variance of the annual maximum peak discharge by modeling the parameters of the selected parametric distribution as a smooth function of time via cubic splines. Flood frequency analyses for Little Sugar Creek (at a drainage area of 110 km2) show that the maximum flow with a 0.01-annual probability (corresponding to 100-year flood peak under stationary conditions) over the 83-year record has ranged from a minimum unit discharge of 2.1 m3 s- 1 km- 2 to a maximum of 5.1 m3 s- 1 km- 2. An alternative characterization can be made by examining the estimated return interval of the peak discharge that would have an annual exceedance probability of 0.01 under the assumption of stationarity (3.2 m3 s- 1 km- 2). Under nonstationary conditions, alternative definitions of return period should be adapted. Under the GAMLSS model, the return interval of an annual peak discharge of 3.2 m3 s- 1 km- 2 ranges from a maximum value of more than 5000 years in 1957 to a minimum value of almost 8 years for the present time (2007). The GAMLSS framework is also used to examine the links between population trends and flood frequency, as well as trends in annual maximum rainfall. These analyses are used to examine evolving flood frequency over future decades. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Peak VO2 and VE/VCO2 slope in betablockers era in patients with heart failure: a Brazilian experience. (United States)

    Guimarães, Guilherme Veiga; Silva, Mário Sérgio Vaz da; d'Avila, Veridiana Moraes; Ferreira, Silvia Moreira Ayub; Silva, Christiano Pereira; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides


    Studies have demonstrated that peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) and the VE/VCO2 slope are predictors of survival in patients with heart failure (HF). However, with the advent of betablockers in the treatment of HF, the prognostic values of peak VO2 and VE/VCO2 slope have not been fully established. To evaluate the effect of betablocker use on the prognostic value of peak VO2 and VE/VCO2 slope in patients with HF. We studied 391 patients with heart failure, aged 49 +/- 14 years and presenting a left ventricular ejection fraction of 38 +/- 10%. The total number of patients that used (Group I - GI) or did not use (Group II - GII) betablockers was 229 and 162, respectively. All patients were submitted to a cardiopulmonary stress test on a treadmill, using the Naughton protocol. A peak VO2 16 ml x kg(-1) min(-1) categorizes patients with a better mid-term prognosis. Peak VO2 values between > 10 and slope in patients with HF. The prognostic value of the VE/VCO2 slope slope are strong and independent predictors of cardiac events in HF. Thus, both variables remain important survival predictors in patients with HF, especially at the age of betablockers.

  20. Providing peak river flow statistics and forecasting in the Niger River basin (United States)

    Andersson, Jafet C. M.; Ali, Abdou; Arheimer, Berit; Gustafsson, David; Minoungou, Bernard


    Flooding is a growing concern in West Africa. Improved quantification of discharge extremes and associated uncertainties is needed to improve infrastructure design, and operational forecasting is needed to provide timely warnings. In this study, we use discharge observations, a hydrological model (Niger-HYPE) and extreme value analysis to estimate peak river flow statistics (e.g. the discharge magnitude with a 100-year return period) across the Niger River basin. To test the model's capacity of predicting peak flows, we compared 30-year maximum discharge and peak flow statistics derived from the model vs. derived from nine observation stations. The results indicate that the model simulates peak discharge reasonably well (on average + 20%). However, the peak flow statistics have a large uncertainty range, which ought to be considered in infrastructure design. We then applied the methodology to derive basin-wide maps of peak flow statistics and their associated uncertainty. The results indicate that the method is applicable across the hydrologically active part of the river basin, and that the uncertainty varies substantially depending on location. Subsequently, we used the most recent bias-corrected climate projections to analyze potential changes in peak flow statistics in a changed climate. The results are generally ambiguous, with consistent changes only in very few areas. To test the forecasting capacity, we ran Niger-HYPE with a combination of meteorological data sets for the 2008 high-flow season and compared with observations. The results indicate reasonable forecasting capacity (on average 17% deviation), but additional years should also be evaluated. We finish by presenting a strategy and pilot project which will develop an operational flood monitoring and forecasting system based in-situ data, earth observations, modelling, and extreme statistics. In this way we aim to build capacity to ultimately improve resilience toward floods, protecting lives and

  1. Features of glycemic variations in drug naïve type 2 diabetic patients with different HbA1c values. (United States)

    Li, Feng-Fei; Liu, Bing-Li; Yan, Reng-Na; Zhu, Hong-Hong; Zhou, Pei-Hua; Li, Hui-Qin; Su, Xiao-Fei; Wu, Jin-Dan; Zhang, Dan-Feng; Ye, Lei; Ma, Jian-Hua


    To define the features of glycemic variations in drug naïve type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients with different HbA1c values using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), a total of 195 drug naïve T2D patients were admitted. The subjects were divided into the following groups: lower HbA1c values (≤8%), moderate HbA1c values (>8% and ≤10%), and higher HbA1c values (>10%). The patients underwent oral glucose tolerance tests and were then subjected to 3-day CGM. The primary endpoint was the differences in the 24-hr mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE) in patients with different HbA1c values. Patients with higher HbA1c values had larger MAGEs than those in the moderate and lower groups (7.44 ± 3.00 vs. 6.30 ± 2.38, P values. Moreover, the patients with higher HbA1c values exhibited higher peak glucose concentrations and prolongation in the time to peak glucose. Patients with higher HbA1c values had larger MAGE compared with those with lower and moderate HbA1c values. Our data indicated patients with higher HbA1c values should receive special therapy aimed at reducing the larger glycemic variations.

  2. Evaluation of different time domain peak models using extreme learning machine-based peak detection for EEG signal. (United States)

    Adam, Asrul; Ibrahim, Zuwairie; Mokhtar, Norrima; Shapiai, Mohd Ibrahim; Cumming, Paul; Mubin, Marizan


    Various peak models have been introduced to detect and analyze peaks in the time domain analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. In general, peak model in the time domain analysis consists of a set of signal parameters, such as amplitude, width, and slope. Models including those proposed by Dumpala, Acir, Liu, and Dingle are routinely used to detect peaks in EEG signals acquired in clinical studies of epilepsy or eye blink. The optimal peak model is the most reliable peak detection performance in a particular application. A fair measure of performance of different models requires a common and unbiased platform. In this study, we evaluate the performance of the four different peak models using the extreme learning machine (ELM)-based peak detection algorithm. We found that the Dingle model gave the best performance, with 72 % accuracy in the analysis of real EEG data. Statistical analysis conferred that the Dingle model afforded significantly better mean testing accuracy than did the Acir and Liu models, which were in the range 37-52 %. Meanwhile, the Dingle model has no significant difference compared to Dumpala model.

  3. Peak VO2 and VE/VCO2 slope in patients with heart failure: a prognostic comparison. (United States)

    Arena, Ross; Myers, Jonathan; Aslam, Syed Salman; Varughese, Elsa B; Peberdy, Mary Ann


    Exercise testing with ventilatory expired gas analysis has proven to be a valuable tool for assessing patients with heart failure (HF). Peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) continues to be considered the gold standard for assessing prognosis in HF. The minute ventilation--carbon dioxide production relationship (VE/VCO2 slope) has recently demonstrated prognostic significance in patients with HF, and in some studies, it has outperformed peak VO2. Two hundred thirteen subjects, in whom HF was diagnosed, underwent exercise testing between April 1, 1993, and October 19, 2001. The ability of peak VO2 and VE/VCO2 slope to predict cardiac-related mortality and hospitalization was examined. Peak VO2 and VE/VCO2 slope were demonstrated with univariate Cox regression analysis both to be significant predictors of cardiac-related mortality and hospitalization (P slope in predicting cardiac-related hospitalization, but not cardiac mortality. The VE/VCO2 slope was demonstrated with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to be significantly better than peak VO2 in predicting cardiac-related mortality (P slope was greater than peak VO2 in predicting cardiac-related hospitalization (0.77 vs 0.73), the difference was not statistically significant (P =.14). These results add to the present body of knowledge supporting the use of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in HF. Consideration should be given to revising clinical guidelines to reflect the prognostic importance of the VE/VCO2 slope in addition to peak VO2.

  4. HEPS challenges the wisdom of the crowds: the PEAK-Box Game. Try it yourself! (United States)

    Zappa, Massimiliano; Liechti, Kaethi; Pappenberger, Florian; van Andel, Schalk Jan; Ramos, Maria-Helena


    In many situations the wisdom of the crowds (Galton, 1907) demonstrated to be superior to the estimation of single individuals. This is maybe one of the reasons why operational hydrometeorological services are more and more recognizing the added value given by ensemble prediction systems. A crowd of members has more wisdom than a single model output. Following a recent tradition, this year a game will also be played during the session on "Ensemble hydro-meteorological forecasting". During this presentation, the crowd attending the session will be asked to estimate the outcome of a probabilistic prediction system and to perform better than the Peak-Box approach. The "Peak-Box" is a novel visual support that can be communicated alongside with ensemble discharge forecasts (Zappa et al., 2013). This visual solution should provide support in the assessment of actions relying on accurate estimation of peak-timings and peak-flows. Results will be presented and discussed together with the participants of the session. Furthermore a blog post will appear later on References: Galton F. 1907.Vox populi. Nature 75: 450-451. Zappa M, Fundel F, Jaun S. 2013. A "Peak-Flow Box" Approach for Supporting Interpretation and Evaluation of Operational Ensemble Flood Forecasts. Hydrological processes. 27: 117-131. doi:/10.1002/hyp.9521

  5. Value concepts and value based collaboration in building projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker


    Value has in recent years become a popular term in management theory and practice in general as well as in economic theory and architectural management. This paper attempts to clarify the various uses and meanings of concepts of value/values. Six different value concepts are identified. The ori......-gin and use of value concepts in classic and modern economic theory and in management theory is outlined. The question of objectivity and subjectivity is discussed in relation to economic value and customer value. Value creation is put in relation to development in products and processes and a number...... of design strategies are identified. The concept and methods of value based management and collaboration is discussed in this context. The paper is mainly theoretical and based on work during a MBA study in 2002-04 as well as many years of experience as building client and facilities manager....

  6. Infrared absorption peaks in nitrogen doped CZ silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, N. [RIAST, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8570 (Japan); JEITA Nitrogen Measurement WG, 3-11 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Nakatsu, M. [RIAST, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8570 (Japan); Ono, H. [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, 2-4-3 Nishi-shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0003 (Japan); JEITA Nitrogen Measurement WG, 3-11 Kanda-surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Inoue, Y. [Tokyo University of Education, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 117-0002 (Japan)


    Dependences on annealing temperature and nitrogen concentration were examined for new local vibration mode infrared absorption peaks at 856, 973, 984 and 1002 cm{sup -1} in nitrogen-doped CZ silicon crystal. The new absorption peaks were so weak that two sets of samples were examined for temperature and concentration dependences, respectively, to get reliable results. The peak at 1002 cm{sup -1} behaved similarly for annealing, though much weaker, to the known peaks at 810 and 1018 cm{sup -1} which are attributed to interstitial N pair accompanied by the two oxygen interstitials (NNO {sub i}O {sub i}). This suggests that the origin contains 2 O {sub i} also. It was strong in low concentration regime, which is similar to the behavior of shallow thermal donors. This suggests that the structure contains one nitrogen rather than two (N-O interstitial pair). The results were compared with the electronic transition absorption by shallow thermal donors (STD). The absorptions at 1002 and 240 cm{sup -1} behaved similarly. These suggest that the peak at 1002 cm{sup -1} is likely due to NOO {sub i}O {sub i} which is the candidate for STD. The temperature dependence of the other new peaks was slightly different from each other. Origin of the other peaks is not clear yet.

  7. Core fueling to produce peaked density profiles in large tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, D.R.; McGuire, K.M.; Schmidt, G.L.; Zweben, S.J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Attenberger, S.E.; Houlberg, W.A.; Milora, S.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    Peaking the density profile increases the usable bootstrap current and the average fusion power density; this could reduce the current drive power and increase the net output of power producing tokamaks. The use of neutral beams and pellet injection to produce peaked density profiles is assessed. We show that with radially ``hollow`` diffusivity profiles (and no particle pinch) moderately peaked density profiles can be produced by particle source profiles which are peaked off-axis. The fueling penetration requirements can therefore be relaxed and this greatly improves the feasibility of generating peaked density profiles in large tokamaks. In particular, neutral beam fueling does not require MeV particle energy. Even with beam voltages of {approximately}200 keV, however, exceptionally good particle confinement, {tau}{sub p} {much_gt} {tau}{sub E} is required to achieve net electrical power generation. In system with no power production requirement (e.g., neutron sources) neutral beam fueling should be capable of producing peaked density profiles in devices as large as ITER. Fueling systems with low energy cost per particle (such as cryogenic pellet injection) must be used in power producing tokamaks when {tau}{sub p} {approximately} {tau}{sub E}. Simulations with pellet injection speeds of 7 km/sec show the peaking factor, n{sub eo}/{l_angle}n{sub e}{r_angle}, approaching 2.

  8. Relating Solar Energetic Particle Event Fluences to Peak Intensities (United States)

    Kahler, Stephen W.; Ling, Alan G.


    Recently we (Kahler and Ling, Solar Phys. 292, 59, 2017: KL) have shown that time-intensity profiles [I(t)] of 14 large solar energetic particle (SEP) events can be fitted with a simple two-parameter fit, the modified Weibull function, which is characterized by shape and scaling parameters [α and β]. We now look for a simple correlation between an event peak energy intensity [Ip] and the time integral of I(t) over the event duration: the fluence [F]. We first ask how the ratio of F/Ip varies for the fits of the 14 KL events and then examine that ratio for three separate published statistical studies of SEP events in which both F and Ip were measured for comparisons of those parameters with various solar-flare and coronal mass ejection (CME) parameters. The three studies included SEP energies from a 4 - 13 MeV band to E > 100 MeV. Within each group of SEP events, we find a very robust correlation (CC > 0.90) in log-log plots of F versus Ip over four decades of Ip. The ratio increases from western to eastern longitudes. From the value of Ip for a given event, F can be estimated to within a standard deviation of a factor of {≤} 2. Log-log plots of two studies are consistent with slopes of unity, but the third study shows plot slopes of { 10 MeV to {>} 100 MeV. This difference is not explained.

  9. Understanding Human Motion Skill with Peak Timing Synergy (United States)

    Ueno, Ken; Furukawa, Koichi

    The careful observation of motion phenomena is important in understanding the skillful human motion. However, this is a difficult task due to the complexities in timing when dealing with the skilful control of anatomical structures. To investigate the dexterity of human motion, we decided to concentrate on timing with respect to motion, and we have proposed a method to extract the peak timing synergy from multivariate motion data. The peak timing synergy is defined as a frequent ordered graph with time stamps, which has nodes consisting of turning points in motion waveforms. A proposed algorithm, PRESTO automatically extracts the peak timing synergy. PRESTO comprises the following 3 processes: (1) detecting peak sequences with polygonal approximation; (2) generating peak-event sequences; and (3) finding frequent peak-event sequences using a sequential pattern mining method, generalized sequential patterns (GSP). Here, we measured right arm motion during the task of cello bowing and prepared a data set of the right shoulder and arm motion. We successfully extracted the peak timing synergy on cello bowing data set using the PRESTO algorithm, which consisted of common skills among cellists and personal skill differences. To evaluate the sequential pattern mining algorithm GSP in PRESTO, we compared the peak timing synergy by using GSP algorithm and the one by using filtering by reciprocal voting (FRV) algorithm as a non time-series method. We found that the support is 95 - 100% in GSP, while 83 - 96% in FRV and that the results by GSP are better than the one by FRV in the reproducibility of human motion. Therefore we show that sequential pattern mining approach is more effective to extract the peak timing synergy than non-time series analysis approach.

  10. Incorporation of topside half peak density anchor point in IRI (United States)

    Gulyaeva, T. L.


    The F2 layer peak density ( N mF2) and height ( h mF2) are used by the International Reference Ionosphere as anchor point fitted by the electron density profile. The shape of the bottomside Ne( h) distribution is formulated with the help of profile sub-peak semithickness taken as a distance between the peak height and the bottom half-peak density height h05 bot. In a similar manner relevant procedure allowing to fit IRI topside electron density profile to additional anchor point — the half-peak density height h05 top at electron density equal to 0.5 × N mF2 above the F2 peak is included in the IRI ionosphere-plasmasphere model. Two types of :input are used with IRI code for 14 intense magnetic storms during 1999-2003: ionosonde derived data ( ƒoF2, h mF2 and hO5 bot) and Global Positioning System (GPS)-based total electron content (TEC) observation. It is shown that topside half-peak height h05 top and topside scale height can be inferred from the GPS-TEC measurements with an iteration procedure applied to IRI profiling algorithm. The proposed technique is validated with incoherent scatter ionospheric electron content, ITEC, provided by EISCAT electron density profiles. Good correlation is obtained between the height h05 top and the equivalent slab thickness τ, representing ratio of TEC to N mF2. This approach allowed us to reveal a highly variable topside scale height for intense space weather storms at mid latitudes with peaks up to 800 km during the peaks of magnetic activity.

  11. Fair Value or Market Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cosmin Gomoi


    Full Text Available When taking into consideration the issue of defining the “fair value” concept, those less experimented in the area often fall in the “price trap”, which is considered as an equivalent of the fair value of financial structures. This valuation basis appears as a consequence of the trial to provide an “accurate image” by the financial statements and, also, as an opportunity for the premises offered by the activity continuing principle. The specialized literature generates ample controversies regarding the “fair value” concept and the “market value” concept. The paper aims to debate this issue, taking into account various opinions.

  12. National energy peak leveling program (NEPLP). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This three-volume report is responsive to the requirements of Contract E (04-3)-1152 to provide a detailed methodology, to include management, technology, and socio-economic aspects, of a voluntary community program of computer-assisted peak load leveling and energy conservation in commercial community facilities. The demonstration project established proof-of-concept in reducing the kW-demand peak by the unofficial goal of 10%, with concurrent kWh savings. This section of the three volume report is a final report appendix with information on the National Energy Peak Leveling Program (NEPLP).

  13. A detailed comparison of analysis processes for MCC-IMS data in disease classification-Automated methods can replace manual peak annotations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salome Horsch

    Full Text Available Disease classification from molecular measurements typically requires an analysis pipeline from raw noisy measurements to final classification results. Multi capillary column-ion mobility spectrometry (MCC-IMS is a promising technology for the detection of volatile organic compounds in the air of exhaled breath. From raw measurements, the peak regions representing the compounds have to be identified, quantified, and clustered across different experiments. Currently, several steps of this analysis process require manual intervention of human experts. Our goal is to identify a fully automatic pipeline that yields competitive disease classification results compared to an established but subjective and tedious semi-manual process.We combine a large number of modern methods for peak detection, peak clustering, and multivariate classification into analysis pipelines for raw MCC-IMS data. We evaluate all combinations on three different real datasets in an unbiased cross-validation setting. We determine which specific algorithmic combinations lead to high AUC values in disease classifications across the different medical application scenarios.The best fully automated analysis process achieves even better classification results than the established manual process. The best algorithms for the three analysis steps are (i SGLTR (Savitzky-Golay Laplace-operator filter thresholding regions and LM (Local Maxima for automated peak identification, (ii EM clustering (Expectation Maximization and DBSCAN (Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise for the clustering step and (iii RF (Random Forest for multivariate classification. Thus, automated methods can replace the manual steps in the analysis process to enable an unbiased high throughput use of the technology.

  14. Naming the Ethological Subject. (United States)

    Benson, Etienne S


    Argument In recent decades, through the work of Jane Goodall and other ethologists, the practice of giving personal names to nonhuman animals who are the subjects of scientific research has become associated with claims about animal personhood and scientific objectivity. While critics argue that such naming practices predispose the researcher toward anthropomorphism, supporters suggest that it sensitizes the researcher to individual differences and social relations. Both critics and supporters agree that naming tends to be associated with the recognition of individual animal rights. The history of the naming of research animals since the late nineteenth century shows, however, that the practice has served a variety of purposes, most of which have raised few ethical or epistemological concerns. Names have been used to identify research animals who play dual roles as pets, workers, or patients, to enhance their market value, and to facilitate their identification in the field. The multifaceted history of naming suggests both that the use of personal names by Goodall and others is less of a radical break with previous practices than it might first appear to be and that the use of personal names to recognize the individuality, sentience, or rights of nonhuman animals faces inherent limits and contradictions.

  15. A Subjective Rational Choice (United States)

    Vinogradov, G. P.


    The problem of constructing a choice model of an agent with endogenous purposes of evolution is under debate. It is demonstrated that its solution requires the development of well-known methods of decision-making while taking into account the relation of action mode motivation to an agent’s ambition to implement subjectively understood interests and the environment state. The latter is submitted for consideration as a purposeful state situation model that exists only in the mind of an agent. It is the situation that is a basis for getting an insight into the agent’s ideas on the possible selected action mode results. The agent’s ambition to build his confidence in the feasibility of the action mode and the possibility of achieving the desired state requires him to use the procedures of forming an idea model based on the measured values of environment state. This leads to the gaming approach for the choice problem and its solution can be obtained on a set of trade-off alternatives.

  16. Exhaled nitric oxide - circadian variations in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antosova M


    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO has been suggested as a marker of airway inflammatory diseases. The level of eNO is influenced by many various factor including age, sex, menstrual cycle, exercise, food, drugs, etc. The aim of our study was to investigate a potential influence of circadian variation on eNO level in healthy subjects. Methods Measurements were performed in 44 women and 10 men, non-smokers, without respiratory tract infection in last 2 weeks. The eNO was detected at 4-hour intervals from 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. using an NIOX analyzer. We followed the ATS/ERS guidelines for eNO measurement and analysis. Results Peak of eNO levels were observed at 10 a.m. (11.1 ± 7.2 ppb, the lowest value was detected at 10 p.m. (10.0 ± 5.8 ppb. The difference was statistically significant (paired t-test, P Conclusions The daily variations in eNO, with the peak in the morning hours, could be of importance in clinical practice regarding the choice of optimal time for monitoring eNO in patients with respiratory disease.

  17. Hubbert's Peak, The Coal Question, and Climate Change (United States)

    Rutledge, D.


    The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) makes projections in terms of scenarios that include estimates of oil, gas, and coal production. These scenarios are defined in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios or SRES (Nakicenovic et al., 2000). It is striking how different these scenarios are. For example, total oil production from 2005 to 2100 in the scenarios varies by 5:1 (Appendix SRES Version 1.1). Because production in some of the scenarios has not peaked by 2100, this ratio would be comparable to 10:1 if the years after 2100 were considered. The IPCC says "... the resultant 40 SRES scenarios together encompass the current range of uncertainties of future GHG [greenhouse gas] emissions arising from different characteristics of these models ..." (Nakicenovic et al., 2000, Summary for Policy Makers). This uncertainty is important for climate modeling, because it is larger than the likely range for the temperature sensitivity, which the IPCC gives as 2.3:1 (Gerard Meehl et al., 2007, the Fourth Assessment Report, Chapter 10, Global Climate Projections, p. 799). The uncertainty indicates that we could improve climate modeling if we could make a better estimate of future oil, gas, and coal production. We start by considering the two major fossil-fuel regions with substantial exhaustion, US oil and British coal. It turns out that simple normal and logistic curve fits to the cumulative production for these regions give quite stable projections for the ultimate production. By ultimate production, we mean total production, past and future. For US oil, the range for the fits for the ultimate is 1.15:1 (225- 258 billion barrels) for the period starting in 1956, when King Hubbert made his prediction of the peak year of US oil production. For UK coal, the range is 1.26:1 for the period starting in 1905, at the time of a Royal Commission on coal supplies. We extend this approach to find fits for world oil and gas production, and by a regional

  18. Valuing vaccination (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll


    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  19. Subject-verb number (disagreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Isac


    Full Text Available This paper discusses cases of number mismatches between subjects and verbs. The main proposal is that subject-verb agreement is not in number but in a different feature, that we call Cardinality. Cardinality is a feature of DPs that is computed on the basis of number features and collectivity features carried by various heads in the DP. The “computation” of the Cardinality feature proceeds internal to the feature matrix of one lexical item - the D. The values of the number and collectivity features carried by various heads in the DP are transferred to the D by means of a feature checking mechanism and the value of the Cardinality feature is then derived from these.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veres, Peter; Zhang Binbin; Meszaros, Peter, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)


    The Fermi observations of GRB 110721A have revealed an unusually high peak energy {approx}15 MeV in the first time bin of the prompt emission. We find that an interpretation is unlikely in terms of internal shock models, and confirm that a standard blackbody photospheric model also falls short. On the other hand, we show that dissipative photospheric synchrotron models ranging from extreme magnetically dominated to baryon dominated dynamics are able to accommodate such high peak values.

  1. Energy loss minimization through peak shaving using energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaiju Kalkhambkar


    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal placement methodology of energy storage to improve energy loss minimization through peak shaving in the presence of renewable distributed generation. Storage sizing is modelled by considering the load profile and desired peak shaving. This storage is suitably divided into multiple storage units and optimally allocated at multiple sites with suitable charge discharge strategy. Thus the peak shaving for maximum loss reduction is explored here. Renewable distributed generation (RDG is modelled based on the seasonal variations of renewable resources e.g., solar or wind and these RDGs are placed at suitable locations. A high-performance Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO algorithm is applied to the proposed methodology. The results are compared with the well-known genetic algorithm. The proposed methodology is illustrated by various case studies on a 34-bus test system. Significant loss minimization is obtained by optimal location of multiple energy storage units through peak shaving.

  2. Bedrock Geologic Map of the Jay Peak, VT Quadrangle (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital data from VG99-1 Compilation bedrock geologic map of the Jay Peak quadrangle, Compiled by B. Doolan, 1999: VGS Open-File Report VG99-1, 1 plate, scale...

  3. Sakste vara: Eesti peaks õppima Poola kogemusest / Helle Kalda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalda, Helle, 1950-


    Poolas on jõutud seisukohale, et Poola riik ei pea Saksamaale ümberasunutele vara tagastama. Riigikogu liikme arvates peaks Eesti mitte kandma kulutusi, vaid hoopis küsima Saksamaalt kompensatsiooni seoses baltisakslaste varaga kantavate kulutuste katteks

  4. Audible thunder characteristic and the relation between peak ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Audible thunder characteristic and the relation between peak frequency and lightning parameters ... In recent summers, some natural lightning optical spectra and audible thunder signals were observed. ... School of Mathematics, Physics and Software Engineering, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730 070, China.

  5. Brian Eno Hollandi Festivali peakülaliseks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Inglise helilooja, videokunstnik ja muusikaprodutsent Brian Eno on 5.-26. juunini Amsterdamis toimuva avangardse Hollandi Festivali peakülaline, kelle videoinstallatsioon seatakse üles Stedelijki Muuseumis. Festivali programmist

  6. variant formula for predicting peak expiratory flow rate in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Accepted: November, 2009. VARIANT FORMULA FOR PREDICTING PEAK EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE IN. PREGNANT WOMEN IN KURA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, KANO STATE,. NIGERIA. A. I. Salisu. Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Bayero University, Kano;.

  7. Corona discharge ionization of paracetamol molecule: Peak assignment (United States)

    Bahrami, H.; Farrokhpour, H.


    Ionization of paracetamol was investigated using ion mobility spectrometry equipped with a corona discharge ionization source. The measurements were performed in the positive ion mode and three peaks were observed in the ion mobility spectrum. Experimental evidence and theoretical calculations were used to correlate the peaks to related ionic species of paracetamol. Two peaks were attributed to protonated isomers of paracetamol and the other peak was attributed to paracetamol fragment ions formed by dissociation of the N-C bond after protonation of the nitrogen atom. It was observed that three sites of paracetamol compete for protonation and their relative intensities, depending on the sample concentration. The ratio of ion products could be predicted from the internal proton affinity of the protonation sites at each concentration.

  8. Reducing Electricity Demand Peaks by Scheduling Home Appliances Usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Kardaras, Georgios; Iversen, Villy Bæk


    Nowadays there is a tendency to consume electricity during the same period of the day leading to demand peaks. Regular energy consumption habits lead to demand peaks at specific temporal intervals, because users consume power at the same time. In order to avoid demand peaks, users’ appliances...... should consume electricity in a more temporarily distributed way. A new methodology to schedule the usage of home appliances is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The main concept behind this approach is the aggregation of home appliances into priority classes and the definition of a maximum power...... consumption limit, which is not allowed to be exceeded during peak hours. The scenario simulated describes a modern household, where the electrical devices are classified in low and high priority groups. The high priority devices are always granted power in order to operate without temporal restrictions...

  9. Desert Peak East Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemach, Ezra [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Drakos, Peter [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Spielman, Paul [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States); Akerley, John [Ormat Technologies Inc., Reno, NV (United States)


    This manuscript is a draft to replaced with a final version at a later date TBD. A summary of activities pertaining to the Desert Peak EGS project including the planning and resulting stimulation activities.

  10. 1.55 Micron High Peak Power Fiber Amplifier Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposal, we propose to demonstrate and build a 1.55 micron single frequency high energy and high peak power fiber amplifier by developing an innovative...

  11. General Merrill A. McPeak: An Effective Change Agent?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hopper, Tim


    .... It also looks at the role he played as a change agent. Current models of how organizational change should be implemented are compared to how General McPeak implemented his organizational change...

  12. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide in Healthy Subjects. (United States)

    Dolder, Patrick C; Schmid, Yasmin; Steuer, Andrea E; Kraemer, Thomas; Rentsch, Katharina M; Hammann, Felix; Liechti, Matthias E


    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is used recreationally and in clinical research. The aim of the present study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics and exposure-response relationship of oral LSD. We analyzed pharmacokinetic data from two published placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over studies using oral administration of LSD 100 and 200 µg in 24 and 16 subjects, respectively. The pharmacokinetics of the 100-µg dose is shown for the first time and data for the 200-µg dose were reanalyzed and included. Plasma concentrations of LSD, subjective effects, and vital signs were repeatedly assessed. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using compartmental modeling. Concentration-effect relationships were described using pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling. Geometric mean (95% confidence interval) maximum plasma concentration values of 1.3 (1.2-1.9) and 3.1 (2.6-4.0) ng/mL were reached 1.4 and 1.5 h after administration of 100 and 200 µg LSD, respectively. The plasma half-life was 2.6 h (2.2-3.4 h). The subjective effects lasted (mean ± standard deviation) 8.2 ± 2.1 and 11.6 ± 1.7 h for the 100- and 200-µg LSD doses, respectively. Subjective peak effects were reached 2.8 and 2.5 h after administration of LSD 100 and 200 µg, respectively. A close relationship was observed between the LSD concentration and subjective response within subjects, with moderate counterclockwise hysteresis. Half-maximal effective concentration values were in the range of 1 ng/mL. No correlations were found between plasma LSD concentrations and the effects of LSD across subjects at or near maximum plasma concentration and within dose groups. The present pharmacokinetic data are important for the evaluation of clinical study findings (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging studies) and the interpretation of LSD intoxication. Oral LSD presented dose-proportional pharmacokinetics and first-order elimination up to 12 h. The effects of LSD were related

  13. Subjective loudness of "minimized" sonic boom waveforms. (United States)

    Niedzwiecki, A; Ribner, H S


    For very long supersonic aircraft the "midfield" sonic boom signature may not have evolved fully into an N wave at ground level. Thus in current boom minimization techniques the shape of the aircraft may be tailored to optimize this midfield wave form for reduced subjective loudness. The present investigation tests a family of "flat-top" waveforms cited by Darden: all but one have a front shock height (deltapSH) less than the peak amplitude (deltapMAX). For equal subjective loudness, "flat top" vs N wave (peak overpressure deltapN), the peak amplitude of the "flat top" signature was found to be substantially higher than that of the N wave; thus for equal peak amplitude the "flat-top" signature was quieter. The results for equal loudness were well fitted by an emperical law deltapSH + 0.11deltapMAX = deltapN; the equivalence shows how the front shock amplitude (deltapSH) dominates the loudness. All this was found compatible with predictions by the method of Johnson and Robinson.

  14. Peak effect at microwave frequencies in swift heavy ion irradiated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    disorder, results in a peak in the critical current density Jc near Tc (Hc2), known as 'peak effect' (PE). The earliest understanding of the PE [4,5] is based on the collective pinning scenario that involves the softening of the elastic moduli (c66 and c44) of the flux line lattice. (FLL) near Tc (Hc2) where the superconducting order ...

  15. Peak Strain in Regressing Finocyl Port Propellant Grainsunder Pressure Loading


    Himanshu Shekhar


    Finite element analysis (FEM) has been conducted for case-bonded finocyl port propellantcross section under pressure loading conditions during burning. Peak strain is found todecrease in course of burning, hence, analysis of any intermediate configuration in courseof burning is not required for assessing margin of safety in finocyl port propellant grains.The Power Law proposed1 has also been used to predict peak strain. Variation in strainsobtained by FEM and using the Power Law is found to b...

  16. Improvements to science operations at Kitt Peak National Observatory (United States)

    Bohannan, Bruce


    In recent years Kitt Peak National Observatory has undertaken a number of innovative projects to optimize science operations with the suite of telescopes we operate on Kitt Peak, Arizona. Changing scientific requirements and expectations of our users, evolving technology and declining budgets have motivated the changes. The operations improvements have included telescope performance enhancements--with the focus on the Mayall 4-m--modes of observing and scheduling, telescope control and observing systems, planning and communication, and data archiving.

  17. The effects of parental smoking on anthropometric parameters, peak expiratory flow rate and physical condition in school children. (United States)

    Pavić, Ivan; Jurica, Sonja Anić; Pavić, Pero; Bogović, Jasna Cepin; Krmek, Martina; Dodig, Slavica


    Passive smoking in children is a considerable health problem, mainly arising from parental smoking. The objectives of the present cross-sectional study were to assess the impact of passive smoking on 1) anthropometric parameters; 2) peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR); and 3) physical condition in school children. The target population included 177 children attending elementary school 5th to 8th grade. Study subjects were divided into two groups according to parental smoking habits. Body weight and height were determined using a digital weighing scale and digital stadiometer; PEFR was measured between 8 a.m. and 10 a.m. using a Peak Flow Meter; and physical condition was assessed by the 6-minute run test. Sixty-six percent of study children were exposed to passive smoking. The children of smoking parents had higher BMI [18.79 (17.50-21.13) kg/m2] than children of nonsmoking parents [17.90 (16.00-20.00) kg/m2; p = 0.036]. There was no statistically significant difference in body height and weight. The children of smoking parents had statistically lower values of PEFR [M(IQR) = 84 (78-88)%, M(IQR) = 94 (89-101)%, respectively; p children of nonsmoking parents [M(IQR) = 2(1-3), M(IQR) = 4(3-5); respectively; p children to passive smoking by their parents resulted in an increase of BMI, impairment of lung function, and impairment of physical condition, especially in children of both smoking parents.

  18. Peak hip and knee joint moments during a sit-to-stand movement are invariant to the change of seat height within the range of low to normal seat height. (United States)

    Yoshioka, Shinsuke; Nagano, Akinori; Hay, Dean C; Fukashiro, Senshi


    Previous studies have consistently reported that decreasing seat height increases the peak hip and knee joint moments; however, these findings may not apply to biomechanical changes at very low seat heights. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to examine the effect of a large range of seat heights on peak joint moments of the lower limb during a sit-to-stand (STS) movement. Eight healthy young subjects participated in this experiment. Each subject was instructed to stand up from six seat heights (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 cm). Joint moments were calculated with an inverse dynamics method. The sum of the hip and knee joint moments was used as the index to indicate the mechanical load of the STS movement. The effect of seat height on the mechanical load was examined with both analytical and experimental approaches. Through the analytical approach, it was revealed that the mechanical load of STS movements from low and normal seat heights (10 to 40 cm) always reaches its peak at or near the posture in which the thigh is horizontally positioned. This finding indicates that the peak value is invariant between the low and normal seat heights. Similar results were also found in the experimental approach. There were few significant differences in the peak mechanical load and the peak hip and knee joint moments between the low and normal seat heights, while they differed significantly between the low and high seat heights. This study concluded that, while the peak mechanical load and the peak hip and knee joint moments increase inversely to seat height within the range of high to normal seat height (60 to 40 cm), they are invariant to the change of seat height within the range of low to normal seat height (10 to 40 cm). These findings are useful for the design of chair, the improvement in the evaluation standard of minimum sit-to-stand height tests and the development of new muscular strength test.

  19. Peak center and area estimation in gamma-ray energy spectra using a Mexican-hat wavelet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Zhang-jian; Chen, Chuan; Luo, Jun-song; Xie, Xing-hong; Ge, Liang-quan [School of Information Science & Technology, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu (China); Wu, Qi-fan [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)


    Wavelet analysis is commonly used to detect and localize peaks within a signal, such as in Gamma-ray energy spectra. This paper presents a peak area estimation method based on a new wavelet analysis. Another Mexican Hat Wavelet Signal (MHWS) named after the new MHWS is obtained with the convolution of a Gaussian signal and a MHWS. During the transform, the overlapping background on the Gaussian signal caused by Compton scattering can be subtracted because the impulse response function MHWS is a second-order smooth function, and the amplitude of the maximum within the new MHWS is the net height corresponding to the Gaussian signal height, which can be used to estimate the Gaussian peak area. Moreover, the zero-crossing points within the new MHWS contain the information of the Gaussian variance whose valve should be obtained when the Gaussian peak area is estimated. Further, the new MHWS center is also the Gaussian peak center. With that distinguishing feature, the channel address of a characteristic peak center can be accurately obtained which is very useful in the stabilization of airborne Gamma energy spectra. In particular, a method for determining the correction coefficient k is given, where the peak area is calculated inaccurately because the value of the scale factor in wavelet transform is too small. The simulation and practical applications show the feasibility of the proposed peak center and area estimation method.

  20. Uncertainty of the peak flow reconstruction of the 1907 flood in the Ebro River in Xerta (NE Iberian Peninsula) (United States)

    Ruiz-Bellet, Josep Lluís; Castelltort, Xavier; Balasch, J. Carles; Tuset, Jordi


    There is no clear, unified and accepted method to estimate the uncertainty of hydraulic modelling results. In historical floods reconstruction, due to the lower precision of input data, the magnitude of this uncertainty could reach a high value. With the objectives of giving an estimate of the peak flow error of a typical historical flood reconstruction with the model HEC-RAS and of providing a quick, simple uncertainty assessment that an end user could easily apply, the uncertainty of the reconstructed peak flow of a major flood in the Ebro River (NE Iberian Peninsula) was calculated with a set of local sensitivity analyses on six input variables. The peak flow total error was estimated at ±31% and water height was found to be the most influential variable on peak flow, followed by Manning's n. However, the latter, due to its large uncertainty, was the greatest contributor to peak flow total error. Besides, the HEC-RAS resulting peak flow was compared to the ones obtained with the 2D model Iber and with Manning's equation; all three methods gave similar peak flows. Manning's equation gave almost the same result than HEC-RAS. The main conclusion is that, to ensure the lowest peak flow error, the reliability and precision of the flood mark should be thoroughly assessed.

  1. Rainfall generated stormflow response to clearcutting a boreal forest: peak flow comparison with 50 world-wide basin studies (United States)

    Guillemette, François; Plamondon, André P.; Prévost, Marcel; Lévesque, Denis


    Increase in bankfull peak flows and a reduction of lag and base times of the storm hydrographs were the only change in stormflow characteristics observed after harvesting balsam fir stands over 85% of the area of basin 7A (122 ha) at Montmorency Forest (Quebec, Canada). The maximum peak flow increase by 63% and occurred when harvesting had reached 61% of the basin area. For the five-year period after harvesting 85% of the basin area, the maximum increase of bankfull flow was 57% while the average change derived from the regression between the treatment and control basin during the pre-harvest period was 54%. These peak flow changes were compared with results from harvesting effects on bankfull peak flow from 50 paired watershed studies. The maximum increase in peak flow of 63% (basin 7A) was at the upper end of published results for harvesting 45-70% of a basin area while a 54% peak flow increase corresponded to the average value (49%) of published results for the 70-100% harvesting intensity. The relatively high peak flow response of basin 7A was mainly attributed to the connections of skid trails and road ditches with two branches of the stream. Considered globally, the results from watershed studies indicate that logging should not cover more than 50% of a basin area to minimise the occurrence of peak flow increases above 50%, which are deemed to affect stream morphology significantly.

  2. Redshift space correlations and scale-dependent stochastic biasing of density peaks (United States)

    Desjacques, Vincent; Sheth, Ravi K.


    We calculate the redshift space correlation function and the power spectrum of density peaks of a Gaussian random field. Our derivation, which is valid on linear scales k≲0.1hMpc-1, is based on the peak biasing relation given by Desjacques [Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998, 78, 103503 (2008)10.1103/PhysRevD.78.103503]. In linear theory, the redshift space power spectrum is Ppks(k,μ)=exp⁡(-f2σvel2k2μ2)[bpk(k)+bvel(k)fμ2]2Pδ(k), where μ is the angle with respect to the line of sight, σvel is the one-dimensional velocity dispersion, f is the growth rate, and bpk(k) and bvel(k) are k-dependent linear spatial and velocity bias factors. For peaks, the value of σvel depends upon the functional form of bvel. When the k dependence is absent from the square brackets and bvel is set to unity, the resulting expression is assumed to describe models where the bias is linear and deterministic, but the velocities are unbiased. The peak model is remarkable because it has unbiased velocities in this same sense—peak motions are driven by dark matter flows—but, in order to achieve this, bvel must be k dependent. We speculate that this is true in general: k dependence of the spatial bias will lead to k dependence of bvel even if the biased tracers flow with the dark matter. Because of the k dependence of the linear bias parameters, standard manipulations applied to the peak model will lead to k-dependent estimates of the growth factor that could erroneously be interpreted as a signature of modified dark energy or gravity. We use the Fisher formalism to show that the constraint on the growth rate f is degraded by a factor of 2 if one allows for a k-dependent velocity bias of the peak type. Our analysis also demonstrates that the Gaussian smoothing term is part and parcel of linear theory. We discuss a simple estimate of nonlinear evolution and illustrate the effect of the peak bias on the redshift space multipoles. For k≲0.1hMpc-1, the peak bias is deterministic but k

  3. Peaking of world oil production: Impacts, mitigation, & risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, R.L. (SAIC); Bezdek, Roger (MISI); Wendling, Robert (MISI)


    The peaking of world oil production presents the U.S. and the world with an unprecedented risk management problem. As peaking is approached, liquid fuel prices and price volatility will increase dramatically, and, without timely mitigation, the economic, social, and political costs will be unprecedented. Viable mitigation options exist on both the supply and demand sides, but to have substantial impact, they must be initiated more than a decade in advance of peaking.... The purpose of this analysis was to identify the critical issues surrounding the occurrence and mitigation of world oil production peaking. We simplified many of the complexities in an effort to provide a transparent analysis. Nevertheless, our study is neither simple nor brief. We recognize that when oil prices escalate dramatically, there will be demand and economic impacts that will alter our simplified assumptions. Consideration of those feedbacks will be a daunting task but one that should be undertaken. Our aim in this study is to-- • Summarize the difficulties of oil production forecasting; • Identify the fundamentals that show why world oil production peaking is such a unique challenge; • Show why mitigation will take a decade or more of intense effort; • Examine the potential economic effects of oil peaking; • Describe what might be accomplished under three example mitigation scenarios. • Stimulate serious discussion of the problem, suggest more definitive studies, and engender interest in timely action to mitigate its impacts.

  4. Non-Gaussian bias: insights from discrete density peaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desjacques, Vincent; Riotto, Antonio [Département de Physique Théorique and Center for Astroparticle Physics, Université de Genève, CH-1211 Genève (Switzerland); Gong, Jinn-Ouk, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Theory Division, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland)


    Corrections induced by primordial non-Gaussianity to the linear halo bias can be computed from a peak-background split or the widespread local bias model. However, numerical simulations clearly support the prediction of the former, in which the non-Gaussian amplitude is proportional to the linear halo bias. To understand better the reasons behind the failure of standard Lagrangian local bias, in which the halo overdensity is a function of the local mass overdensity only, we explore the effect of a primordial bispectrum on the 2-point correlation of discrete density peaks. We show that the effective local bias expansion to peak clustering vastly simplifies the calculation. We generalize this approach to excursion set peaks and demonstrate that the resulting non-Gaussian amplitude, which is a weighted sum of quadratic bias factors, precisely agrees with the peak-background split expectation, which is a logarithmic derivative of the halo mass function with respect to the normalisation amplitude. We point out that statistics of thresholded regions can be computed using the same formalism. Our results suggest that halo clustering statistics can be modelled consistently (in the sense that the Gaussian and non-Gaussian bias factors agree with peak-background split expectations) from a Lagrangian bias relation only if the latter is specified as a set of constraints imposed on the linear density field. This is clearly not the case of standard Lagrangian local bias. Therefore, one is led to consider additional variables beyond the local mass overdensity.

  5. The frequency of saccades correlates to peak velocity in symmetrical disparity vergence. (United States)

    Kim, Eun; Alvarez, Tara L


    A pure vergence stimulus requires the two eyes to turn equally inward or outward theoretically resulting in a pure symmetrical vergence response. However, saccades, a rapid conjugate eye movement, are frequently observed in vergence responses. This investigation sought to systematically quantify whether the occurrence of saccades within symmetrical vergence responses is correlated to vergence peak velocity. Eye movements are quantified using a limbus tracking system from three subjects. Symmetrical convergence and divergence 4° step responses with an initial position located at far or near which are known to evoke different peak velocities are analyzed. Data are quantified via peak velocity. A saccade detecting algorithm is utilized to quantify the frequency of saccades in the transient portion (first second) of vergence responses. Near convergence responses are slower than far convergence and far divergence responses are slower compared to near divergence movements. The occurrence of saccades is negatively correlated to vergence peak velocity. When the velocity is slower, the number of saccades increases. This study suggests that the brain may initiate a saccade to facilitate a slow vergence movement, potentially to allow object recognition before binocular fusion.

  6. Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials: skull taps can cause a stimulus direction dependent double-peak. (United States)

    Holmeslet, Berit; Westin, Magnus; Brantberg, Krister


    To explore the mechanisms for skull tap induced ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP). An electro-mechanical "skull tapper" was used to test oVEMP in response to four different stimulus sites (forehead, occiput and above each ear) in healthy subjects (n=20) and in patients with unilateral loss of vestibular function (n=10). In normals, the oVEMP in response to forehead taps and the contra-lateral oVEMP to taps above the ears were similar. These responses had typical oVEMP features, i.e. a short-latency negative peak (n10) followed by a positive peak (p15). In contrast, the ipsi-lateral oVEMP to the laterally directed skull taps, as well as the oVEMP to occiput taps, had an initial double negative peak (n10+n10b). In patients with unilateral loss of vestibular function, the crossed responses from the functioning labyrinth were very similar to the corresponding oVEMP in normals. The present data support a theory that skull tapping may cause both a response that is more stimulus direction dependent and one that is less so. Whereas the stimulus direction dependent occurrence of the negative double-peak might reveal the functional status of one part of the labyrinth, the rather stimulus direction-independent response might reveal the functional status of other parts. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Feature selection using angle modulated simulated Kalman filter for peak classification of EEG signals. (United States)

    Adam, Asrul; Ibrahim, Zuwairie; Mokhtar, Norrima; Shapiai, Mohd Ibrahim; Mubin, Marizan; Saad, Ismail


    In the existing electroencephalogram (EEG) signals peak classification research, the existing models, such as Dumpala, Acir, Liu, and Dingle peak models, employ different set of features. However, all these models may not be able to offer good performance for various applications and it is found to be problem dependent. Therefore, the objective of this study is to combine all the associated features from the existing models before selecting the best combination of features. A new optimization algorithm, namely as angle modulated simulated Kalman filter (AMSKF) will be employed as feature selector. Also, the neural network random weight method is utilized in the proposed AMSKF technique as a classifier. In the conducted experiment, 11,781 samples of peak candidate are employed in this study for the validation purpose. The samples are collected from three different peak event-related EEG signals of 30 healthy subjects; (1) single eye blink, (2) double eye blink, and (3) eye movement signals. The experimental results have shown that the proposed AMSKF feature selector is able to find the best combination of features and performs at par with the existing related studies of epileptic EEG events classification.

  8. Discrete ordinates transport methods for problems with highly forward-peaked scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pautz, S.D.


    The author examines the solutions of the discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) method for problems with highly forward-peaked scattering kernels. He derives conditions necessary to obtain reasonable solutions in a certain forward-peaked limit, the Fokker-Planck (FP) limit. He also analyzes the acceleration of the iterative solution of such problems and offer improvements to it. He extends the analytic Fokker-Planck limit analysis to the S{sub N} equations. This analysis shows that in this asymptotic limit the S{sub N} solution satisfies a pseudospectral discretization of the FP equation, provided that the scattering term is handled in a certain way (which he describes) and that the analytic transport solution satisfies an analytic FP equation. Similar analyses of various spatially discretized S{sub N} equations reveal that they too produce solutions that satisfy discrete FP equations, given the same provisions. Numerical results agree with these theoretical predictions. He defines a multidimensional angular multigrid (ANMG) method to accelerate the iterative solution of highly forward-peaked problems. The analyses show that a straightforward application of this scheme is subject to high-frequency instabilities. However, by applying a diffusive filter to the ANMG corrections he is able to stabilize this method. Fourier analyses of model problems show that the resulting method is effective at accelerating the convergence rate when the scattering is forward-peaked. The numerical results demonstrate that these analyses are good predictors of the actual performance of the ANMG method.

  9. Acute Whole-Body Vibration does not Facilitate Peak Torque and Stretch Reflex in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella W. Yeung


    Full Text Available The acute effect of whole-body vibration (WBV training may enhance muscular performance via neural potentiation of the stretch reflex. The purpose of this study was to investigate if acute WBV exposure affects the stretch induced knee jerk reflex [onset latency and electromechanical delay (EMD] and the isokinetic knee extensor peak torque performance. Twenty-two subjects were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. The intervention group received WBV in a semi-squat position at 30° knee flexion with an amplitude of 0.69 mm, frequency of 45 Hz, and peak acceleration of 27.6 m/s2 for 3 minutes. The control group underwent the same semii-squatting position statically without exposure of WBV. Two-way mixed repeated measures analysis of variance revealed no significant group effects differences on reflex latency of rectus femoris (RF and vastus lateralis (VL; p = 0.934 and 0.935, respectively EMD of RF and VL (p = 0.474 and 0.551, respectively and peak torque production (p = 0.483 measured before and after the WBV. The results of this study indicate that a single session of WBV exposure has no potentiation effect on the stretch induced reflex and peak torque performance in healthy young adults.

  10. Pulsed electron avalanche knife (PEAK) for intraocular surgery. (United States)

    Palanker, D V; Miller, J M; Marmor, M F; Sanislo, S R; Huie, P; Blumenkranz, M S


    To develop a better and more economical instrument for precise, tractionless, "cold" cutting during intraocular surgery. The use of highly localized electric fields rather than laser light as the means of tissue dissection was investigated. A high electric field at the tip of a fine wire can, like lasers, initiate plasma formation. Micrometer-length plasma streamers are generated when an insulated 25 micron (microm) wire, exposed to physiological medium at one end, is subjected to nanosecond electrical pulses between 1 and 8 kV in magnitude. The explosive evaporation of water in the vicinity of these streamers cuts soft tissue without heat deposition into surrounding material (cold cutting). Streamers of plasma and the dynamics of water evaporation were imaged using an inverted microscope and fast flash photography. Cutting effectiveness was evaluated on both polyacrylamide gels, on different tissues from excised bovine eyes, and in vivo on rabbit retina. Standard histology techniques were used to examine the tissue. Electric pulses with energies between 150 and 670 microJ produced plasma streamers in saline between 10 and 200 microm in length. Application of electric discharges to dense (10%) polyacrylamide gels resulted in fracturing of the gel without ejection of bulk material. In both dense and softer (6%) gels, layer by layer shaving was possible with pulse energy rather than number of pulses as the determinant of ultimate cutting depth. The instrument made precise partial or full-thickness cuts of retina, iris, lens, and lens capsule without any evidence of thermal damage. Because different tissues require distinct energies for dissection, tissue-selective cutting on complex structures can be performed if the appropriate pulse energies are used; for example, retina can be dissected without damage to the major retinal vessels. This instrument, called the Pulsed Electron Avalanche Knife (PEAK), can quickly and precisely cut intraocular tissues without traction

  11. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan


    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  12. Regression equations for estimation of annual peak-streamflow frequency for undeveloped watersheds in Texas using an L-moment-based, PRESS-minimized, residual-adjusted approach (United States)

    Asquith, William H.; Roussel, Meghan C.


    Annual peak-streamflow frequency estimates are needed for flood-plain management; for objective assessment of flood risk; for cost-effective design of dams, levees, and other flood-control structures; and for design of roads, bridges, and culverts. Annual peak-streamflow frequency represents the peak streamflow for nine recurrence intervals of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, 250, and 500 years. Common methods for estimation of peak-streamflow frequency for ungaged or unmonitored watersheds are regression equations for each recurrence interval developed for one or more regions; such regional equations are the subject of this report. The method is based on analysis of annual peak-streamflow data from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations (stations). Beginning in 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Department of Transportation and in partnership with Texas Tech University, began a 3-year investigation concerning the development of regional equations to estimate annual peak-streamflow frequency for undeveloped watersheds in Texas. The investigation focuses primarily on 638 stations with 8 or more years of data from undeveloped watersheds and other criteria. The general approach is explicitly limited to the use of L-moment statistics, which are used in conjunction with a technique of multi-linear regression referred to as PRESS minimization. The approach used to develop the regional equations, which was refined during the investigation, is referred to as the 'L-moment-based, PRESS-minimized, residual-adjusted approach'. For the approach, seven unique distributions are fit to the sample L-moments of the data for each of 638 stations and trimmed means of the seven results of the distributions for each recurrence interval are used to define the station specific, peak-streamflow frequency. As a first iteration of regression, nine weighted-least-squares, PRESS-minimized, multi-linear regression equations are computed using the watershed

  13. High intensity aerobic interval training improves peak oxygen consumption in patients with metabolic syndrome: CAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Espinoza Salinas


    Full Text Available Introduction A number of cardiovascular risk factors characterizes the metabolic syndrome: insulin resistance (IR, low HDL cholesterol and high triglycerides. The aforementioned risk factors lead to elevated levels of abdominal adipose tissue, resulting in oxygen consumption deficiency. Purpose To verify the validity and applicability of using high intensity interval training (HIIT in subjects with metabolic syndrome and to answer the following question: Can HIIT improve peak oxygen consumption? Method The systematic review "Effects of aerobic interval training on exercise capacity and metabolic risk factors in individuals with cardiometabolic disorders" was analyzed. Results Data suggests high intensity aerobic interval training increases peak oxygen consumption by a standardized mean difference of 3.60 mL/kg-1/min-1 (95% confidence interval, 0.28-4.91. Conclusion In spite of the methodological shortcomings of the primary studies included in the systematic review, we reasonably conclude that implementation of high intensity aerobic interval training in subjects with metabolic syndrome, leads to increases in peak oxygen consumption.

  14. Influence of ageing on carotid baroreflex peak response latency in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, J.P.; Kim, A.; Young, C.N.


    ) and older (61 +/- 1 years) subjects, using 5 s pulses of neck pressure (NP, +35 Torr) and neck suction (NS, -80 Torr). Second, CBR latency was assessed following pharmacological blockade of cardiac parasympathetic nerve activity in eight young subjects, to better understand how known age-related reductions......, little attention has been given to the influence of ageing on the latency of peak baroreflex responses. First, we compared the temporal pattern of heart rate (HR) and mean arterial blood pressure (BP) responses to selective carotid baroreceptor (CBR) unloading and loading in 14 young (22 +/- 1 years...... in parasympathetic nerve activity influence CBR response latency. In response to NP, the time to the peak increase in HR and mean BP were similar in young and older groups. In contrast, in response to NS the time to peak decrease in HR (2.1 +/- 0.2 vs. 3.8 +/- 0.2 s) and mean BP (6.7 +/- 0.4 vs. 8.3 +/- 0.2 s) were...

  15. Variable Depth Bragg Peak Method for Single Event Effects Testing (United States)

    Buchner, S.; Kanyogoro, N.; Foster, C.; O'Neill, P.


    Traditionally, accelerator SEE testing is accomplished by removing the tops of packages so that the IC chips are accessible to heavy ions. However, ICs in some advanced packages cannot be de-lidded so a different approach is used that involves grinding and/or chemically etching away part of the package and the chip from the back side. The parts are then tested from the back side with ions having sufficient range to reach the sensitive volume. More recently, the entire silicon substrate in an SOI/SRAM was removed, making it possible to use low-energy ions with shorter ranges. Where removal of part of the package is not possible, facilities at Michigan State, NASA Space Radiation Laboratory, GANIL (France) and GSI (Germany) offer high-energy heavy ions with long ranges so that the ions can reach the devices' sensitive volumes without much change in the LET. Unfortunately, a run will typically involve only one ion species having a single energy and LET due to the long time it takes to tune a new energy. The Variable Depth Bragg Peak (VDBP) method is similar to the above method in that it involves the use of high-energy heavy ions that are able to pass through the packaging material and reach the device, obviating the need to remove the package. However, the method provides a broad range of LETs from a single ion by inserting degraders in the beam that modify the ion energy and, therefore, the LET. The crux of the method involves establishing a fiduciary point for degrader thickness, i.e., where the Bragg peak is located precisely at the sensitive volume in the device, for which the measured SEU cross-section and the ion LET are both also maxima and can be calculated using a Monte-Carlo program, TRIM. Once the fiduciary point has been established, calibrated high density polyethylene (HDPE) degraders are inserted into or removed from the beam to vary the ion LET at the device in a known manner. After each change of degrader thickness, the SEU cross-section is measured

  16. Effect of Pseudocereal-Based Breakfast Meals on the First and Second Meal Glucose Tolerance in Healthy and Diabetic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreef G.N. Gabrial


    and 330 min. At the end of the second meal period, values were below or near-fasting baseline levels in the breakfast period. The blood glucose concentration after consuming quinoa meal showed a high peak at 30 min similar to that of WWB reference meal. This peak resulted in a high glycemic index (GI for quinoa (89.4. The GI of buckwheat recorded a low value (26.8. CONCLUSION: The two studied pseudocereals; quinoa and buckwheat have high potential to improve glucose tolerance at the first and second meal (lunch and are recommended to be introduced in our daily diet for healthy and diabetic subjects.

  17. Degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of trunk flexors and extensors among healthy women,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Neves Granito


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of aging on the degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles among women without a densitometric diagnosis of osteoporosis.METHODS: Thirty women were selected to make up three groups: young women (n = 10; 24.60 ± 2.27 years of age; adults (n = 10; 43.50 ± 2.88; and elderly women (n= 10; 62.40 ± 2.67. Bone mineral density (BMD, degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors were evaluated. Differences between the groups were evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess correlations between the variables. The significance level was taken to be 5% (p < 0.05.RESULTS: The elderly group presented a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis (p = 0.009 and lower peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors than the young group. The adult group presented lower peak torque of the trunk than the young group. A negative correlation was observed between age and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors (p < 0.001, and a positive correlation between age and the degree of thoracic kyphosis (r = 0.58; p < 0.001. The elderly group presented higher values for the eccentric/concentric ratio of the peak torque for flexors (p = 0.03 and extensors (p = 0.02.CONCLUSION: This study suggests that physiological aging may be associated with a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis and lower muscle strength of the trunk flexors and extensors. Moreover, the elderly women showed a relative capacity for preservation of eccentric strength.

  18. Asymmetry of characteristic X-ray peaks obtained by a Si(Li) detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visnovezky, Claudia [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000, Cordoba (Argentina)], E-mail:; Limandri, Silvina [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000, Cordoba (Argentina)], E-mail:; Canafoglia, Maria Elena [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas Dr. Jorge Ronco, Calle 47 No 257, 1900 La Plata, Argentina, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Facultad de Ingenieria de la UNLP, La Plata (Argentina); Bonetto, Rita [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas Dr. Jorge Ronco, Calle 47 No 257, 1900 La Plata, Argentina, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Facultad de Ingenieria de la UNLP, La Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas de la Republica Argentina (Argentina)], E-mail:; Trincavelli, Jorge [Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000, Cordoba (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas de la Republica Argentina (Argentina)], E-mail:


    The asymmetry of the characteristic X-ray peaks obtained using a Si(Li) detector is mainly due to incomplete charge collection. Impurities and defects in the crystalline structure of Si can act as 'traps' for holes and electrons in their trip toward the detector electrodes. Therefore, the collected charge, and consequently the detected energy, is smaller than the expected one. The global effect is that peaks may present a 'tail' toward the low energy side. This phenomenon is more important for low energies (lower than 2.3 keV, in the case of the detector characterized). In this work, the parameters related to peak asymmetry were studied, allowing a better understanding of the trapping process mentioned above. For this purpose, spectra from mono- and multi-element samples were collected for elements with atomic number between 7 and 20. In order to describe the shape of the characteristic K peaks as a function of its energy, an asymmetric correction to a Gaussian function was proposed. Spectra were obtained by electron probe microanalysis for incidence energies between 5 and 25 keV using an energy dispersive spectrometer equipped with an ultra-thin window Si(Li) detector. It was observed that the area corresponding to the asymmetric correction exhibits an energy dependence similar to that of the mass absorption coefficient of the detector material. In addition, other two spectrometers were used to investigate the dependence of tailing on the detection system. When two spectrometers with the same kind of detector and different pulse processors were compared, peaks were more asymmetric for lower peaking time values. When two different detectors were used, differences were even more important.

  19. Relationships of Pulmonary Oxygen Uptake Kinetics with Skeletal Muscle Fatigue Resistance and Peak Oxygen Uptake in Healthy Young Adults


    Kubo, Yusuke; Nishida, Yuusuke


    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to determine the validity of pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics in assessment of the ability of skeletal muscles to utilize oxygen. [Subjects] We evaluated 12 young, healthy males. [Methods] The subjects completed a series of tests to determine their peak oxygen uptake, pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics at the onset of moderate-intensity treadmill exercise, and the rate of decline in electromyographic (EMG) mean power frequency (MPF) (EMG MPFrate) during...

  20. [Reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement]. (United States)

    Grein, H-J; Schmidt, O; Ritsche, A


    Reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement is limited by various factors. The main factors affecting reproducibility include the characteristics of the measurement method and of the subject and the examiner. This article presents the results of a study on this topic, focusing on the reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement in healthy eyes. The results of previous studies are not all presented in the same way by the respective authors and cannot be fully standardized without consulting the original scientific data. To the extent that they are comparable, the results of our study largely correspond largely with those of previous investigations: During repeated subjective refraction measurement, 95% of the deviation from the mean value was approximately ±0.2 D to ±0.65 D for the spherical equivalent and cylindrical power. The reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement in healthy eyes is limited, even under ideal conditions. Correct assessment of refraction results is only feasible after identifying individual variability. Several measurements are required. Refraction cannot be measured without a tolerance range. The English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink (under supplemental).

  1. Automatic program for peak detection and deconvolution of multi-overlapped chromatographic signals part I: peak detection. (United States)

    Vivó-Truyols, G; Torres-Lapasió, J R; van Nederkassel, A M; Vander Heyden, Y; Massart, D L


    A series of two papers describing a procedure for automated peak deconvolution is presented. The goal is to develop a package of routines that can be used by non-experienced users. Part I (this paper) concerns peak detection, whereas Part II is dedicated to the deconvolution itself. In this first part, the most interesting features of the peak detection algorithms, which precede the deconvolution step, are outlined. High-order derivatives provide valuable information to assess the number of underlying compounds under a given peak cluster. A smoothing technique was found essential to compute properly the derivatives, since the noise is amplified when differences are calculated. The Savitsky-Golay smoother was applied in combination with the Durbin-Watson criterion to automate the window size selection. This strategy removed the noise without loosing valuable information. In some cases, it was found preferable to split the chromatogram in different elution regions, and apply the Durbin-Watson test and the Savitsky-Golay smoother to each region, separately. The derivatives allowed obtaining estimates of both peak parameters and the corresponding ranges for each eluting compound to be used in the deconvolution. An algorithm oriented to compare peaks from different chromatograms is also presented to perform deconvolution, using information from several related chromatograms.

  2. Comparison of the two relaxation peaks in the Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 48}Fe{sub 2} alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Genlian, E-mail: [Multi-disciplinary Materials Research Center and State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behaviour of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Ferroic Physics Group, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Zhou Yumei [Multi-disciplinary Materials Research Center and State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behaviour of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Ferroic Physics Group, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Otsuka, Kazuhiro [Ferroic Physics Group, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Ren Xiaobing [Multi-disciplinary Materials Research Center and State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behaviour of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Ferroic Physics Group, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Suzuki, Tetsuro [Ferroic Physics Group, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Yin Fuxing [Innovative Materials Engineering Laboratory, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)


    The internal friction (tan {delta}) and storage modulus of Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 48}Fe{sub 2} alloy were studied by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). On cooling, a broad relaxation peak with tan {delta} value as high as 0.2 was detected in R-phase. On heating, another relaxation peak with tan {delta} value of 0.06 was found in B19' martensite. Both relaxation peaks disappeared when the alloy was dehydrogenated in a dynamic vacuum furnace. Thus, the origin of both relaxation peaks was attributed to the interaction between twin boundaries and hydrogen atoms, as recently proved in Ti-Ni-Cu alloy. The direct comparison of these two relaxation peaks in the same sample indicates that the height of relaxation peaks increases with the decreasing of twinning shear.

  3. On the nature of low temperature internal friction peaks in metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khonik, V.A. [State Pedagogical Univ., Voronezh (Russian Federation); Spivak, L.V. [State Univ., Perm (Russian Federation)


    Low temperature (30 < T < 300 K) internal friction in a metallic glass Ni{sub 60}Nb{sub 40} subjected to preliminary inhomogeneous deformation by cold rolling, homogeneous tensile deformation or electrolytic charging with hydrogen is investigated. Cold rolling or hydrogenation result in appearance of similar internal friction peaks and hysteresis damping. Homogeneous deformation has no influence on low temperature internal friction. The phenomenon of microplastic deformation during hydrogenation of weakly stressed samples is revealed. It is argued that microplastic deformation of metallic glasses during hydrogenation without external stress takes place too. Plastic flow both on cold rolling and hydrogenation occurs via formation and motion of dislocation-like defects which are the reason of the observed anelastic anomalies. It is concluded that low temperature internal friction peaks described in the literature for as-cast, cold deformed and hydrogenated samples have common dislocation-like origin.

  4. Group Elevator Peak Scheduling Based on Robust Optimization Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG, J.


    Full Text Available Scheduling of Elevator Group Control System (EGCS is a typical combinatorial optimization problem. Uncertain group scheduling under peak traffic flows has become a research focus and difficulty recently. RO (Robust Optimization method is a novel and effective way to deal with uncertain scheduling problem. In this paper, a peak scheduling method based on RO model for multi-elevator system is proposed. The method is immune to the uncertainty of peak traffic flows, optimal scheduling is realized without getting exact numbers of each calling floor's waiting passengers. Specifically, energy-saving oriented multi-objective scheduling price is proposed, RO uncertain peak scheduling model is built to minimize the price. Because RO uncertain model could not be solved directly, RO uncertain model is transformed to RO certain model by elevator scheduling robust counterparts. Because solution space of elevator scheduling is enormous, to solve RO certain model in short time, ant colony solving algorithm for elevator scheduling is proposed. Based on the algorithm, optimal scheduling solutions are found quickly, and group elevators are scheduled according to the solutions. Simulation results show the method could improve scheduling performances effectively in peak pattern. Group elevators' efficient operation is realized by the RO scheduling method.

  5. What predicts the first peak of the knee adduction moment? (United States)

    Schmitz, Anne; Noehren, Brian


    Introduction The first peak of the knee adduction moment curve during walking has been shown to be a good clinical surrogate measure of medial tibiofemoral joint loading and osteoarthritis. Defining the relative contributions of the variables that dictate the knee adduction moment, such as center of mass, center of pressure, vertical ground reaction force, and knee adduction angle (i.e. lower limb alignment), has not been formally investigated within the same cohort of individuals. Purpose Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine which of these variables is the biggest determinant of the first peak of knee adduction moment curve. Methods Instrumented gait analysis was collected for 30 individuals. Variables significantly correlated with the peak knee adduction moment were input into a stepwise multi-variable linear regression model. Results The knee adduction angle predicted 58% of the variance in the first peak knee adduction moment and the vertical ground reaction force magnitude predicted the second most variance (20%). Conclusions The most effective way to modify the peak knee adduction moment may be to change the knee adduction angle (e.g. offloader brace), followed by changing the vertical magnitude of the ground reaction force (e.g. cane use). PMID:25127390

  6. Rotational and peak torque stiffness of rugby shoes. (United States)

    Ballal, Moez S; Usuelli, Federico Giuseppe; Montrasio, Umberto Alfieri; Molloy, Andy; La Barbera, Luigi; Villa, Tomaso; Banfi, Giuseppe


    Sports people always strive to avoid injury. Sports shoe designs in many sports have been shown to affect traction and injury rates. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the differing stiffness and torque in rugby boots that are designed for the same effect. Five different types of rugby shoes commonly worn by scrum forwards were laboratory tested for rotational stiffness and peak torque on a natural playing surface generating force patterns that would be consistent with a rugby scrum. The overall internal rotation peak torque was 57.75±6.26 Nm while that of external rotation was 56.55±4.36 Nm. The Peak internal and external rotational stiffness were 0.696±0.1 and 0.708±0.06 Nm/deg respectively. Our results, when compared to rotational stiffness and peak torques of football shoes published in the literature, show that shoes worn by rugby players exert higher rotational and peak torque stiffness compared to football shoes when tested on the same natural surfaces. There was significant difference between the tested rugby shoes brands. In our opinion, to maximize potential performance and lower the potential of non-contact injury, care should be taken in choosing boots with stiffness appropriate to the players main playing role. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Energy Saving by Chopping off Peak Demand Using Day Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Maitra


    Full Text Available An artificial intelligent technique has been implemented in this research using real time datas to calculate how much energy can be chopped from peak load demand. The results are based on real time data that are taken from power delivering centers. These datas do reflect the present condition of power and a solution to those critical conditions during the peak period. These are done in such a way such that helps in judicious scheduling of load. The time based load scheduling has been done so as to understand the basic criteria for solving power crisis during morning peak and early evening peak. The sunray availability and percentage of load that will use day light saving (DLS technique has been taken into account in this work. The results shows that about 0.5% to 1% of load can be shedded off from the peak load period which otherwise is reduction of power. Thus it otherwise also means that an equivalent amount of energy is saved which amounts to a large saving of national money. This result is obtained on monthly and even daily basis. Thus this paper justifies DLS gives a new renewable technique to save energy.

  8. Non-Gaussian bias: insights from discrete density peaks

    CERN Document Server

    Desjacques, Vincent; Riotto, Antonio


    Corrections induced by primordial non-Gaussianity to the linear halo bias can be computed from a peak-background split or the widespread local bias model. However, numerical simulations clearly support the prediction of the former, in which the non-Gaussian amplitude is proportional to the linear halo bias. To understand better the reasons behind the failure of standard Lagrangian local bias, in which the halo overdensity is a function of the local mass overdensity only, we explore the effect of a primordial bispectrum on the 2-point correlation of discrete density peaks. We show that the effective local bias expansion to peak clustering vastly simplifies the calculation. We generalize this approach to excursion set peaks and demonstrate that the resulting non-Gaussian amplitude, which is a weighted sum of quadratic bias factors, precisely agrees with the peak-background split expectation, which is a logarithmic derivative of the halo mass function with respect to the normalisation amplitude. We point out tha...

  9. An online peak extraction algorithm for ion mobility spectrometry data. (United States)

    Kopczynski, Dominik; Rahmann, Sven


    Ion mobility (IM) spectrometry (IMS), coupled with multi-capillary columns (MCCs), has been gaining importance for biotechnological and medical applications because of its ability to detect and quantify volatile organic compounds (VOC) at low concentrations in the air or in exhaled breath at ambient pressure and temperature. Ongoing miniaturization of spectrometers creates the need for reliable data analysis on-the-fly in small embedded low-power devices. We present the first fully automated online peak extraction method for MCC/IMS measurements consisting of several thousand individual spectra. Each individual spectrum is processed as it arrives, removing the need to store the measurement before starting the analysis, as is currently the state of the art. Thus the analysis device can be an inexpensive low-power system such as the Raspberry Pi. The key idea is to extract one-dimensional peak models (with four parameters) from each spectrum and then merge these into peak chains and finally two-dimensional peak models. We describe the different algorithmic steps in detail and evaluate the online method against state-of-the-art peak extraction methods.

  10. Households' hourly electricity consumption and peak demand in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Andersen, Frits; Baldini, Mattia; Hansen, Lars Gårn


    The electrification of residential energy demand for heating and transportation is expected to increase peak load and require additional generation and transmission capacities. Electrification also provides an opportunity to increase demand response. With a focus on household electricity consumpt......The electrification of residential energy demand for heating and transportation is expected to increase peak load and require additional generation and transmission capacities. Electrification also provides an opportunity to increase demand response. With a focus on household electricity...... consumption, we analyse the contribution of appliances and new services, such as individual heat pumps and electric vehicles, to peak consumption and the need for demand response incentives to reduce the peak.Initially, the paper presents a new model that represents the hourly electricity consumption profile...... to a considerable introduction of electric vehicles and individual heat pumps, household consumption is expected to increase considerably, especially peak hour consumption is expected to increase.Next the paper presents results from a new experiment where household customers are given economic and/or environmental...

  11. Characterising phase variations in MALDI-TOF data and correcting them by peak alignment. (United States)

    Lin, Simon M; Haney, Richard P; Campa, Michael J; Fitzgerald, Michael C; Patz, Edward F


    The use of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a means of analyzing the proteome has been evaluated extensively in recent years. One of the limitations of this technique that has impeded the development of robust data analysis algorithms is the variability in the location of protein ion signals along the x-axis. We studied technical variations of MALDI-TOF measurements in the context of proteomics profiling. By acquiring a benchmark data set with five replicates, we estimated 76% to 85% of the total variance is due to phase variation. We devised a lobster plot, so named because of the resemblance to a lobster claw, to help detect the phase variation in replicates. We also investigated a peak alignment algorithm to remove the phase variation. This operation is analogous to the normalization step in microarray data analysis. Only after this critical step can features of biological interest be clearly revealed. With the help of principal component analysis, we demonstrated that after peak alignment, the differences among replicates are reduced. We compared this approach to peak alignment with a model-based calibration approach in which there was known information about peaks in common among all spectra. Finally, we examined the potential value at each point in an analysis pipeline of having a set of methods available that includes parametric, semiparametric and nonparametric methods; among such methods are those that benefit from the use of prior information.

  12. Pulmonary function studies in Gujarati subjects. (United States)

    Rao, N M; Mavlankar, M G; Kulkarni, P K; Kashyap, S K


    In this study a multiple regression equation for prediction of ventilatory pulmonary function tests (FVC, FEV1%, FEF25-75% and PEFR) is developed in average healthy non-smoker male and female Gujarati subjects. The average adult female values showed a reduction varying from 21.0 to 29.0% compared to adult male subjects. There is a deviation of the present study values from other studies in Indian subjects and values from European studies are higher than the present values. This study demonstrated that the present regression equation is the most ideal and appropriate for prediction of pulmonary function values in Gujarati subjects either for assessing physical fitness in normal subjects or for determining the pattern of ventilatory impairment in respiratory disease patients. The pulmonary function values assessed by substituting the average age, height and weight of females in male regression equation revealed lower values in females ranging from 14.0 to 19.0% attributable only due to difference in sex.

  13. Enhanced resting-state functional connectivity between core memory-task activation peaks is associated with memory impairment in MCI. (United States)

    Zhang, Yifei; Simon-Vermot, Lee; Araque Caballero, Miguel Á; Gesierich, Benno; Taylor, Alexander N W; Duering, Marco; Dichgans, Martin; Ewers, Michael


    Resting-state functional connectivity (FC) is altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD) but its predictive value for episodic memory impairment is debated. Here, we aimed to assess whether resting-state FC in core brain regions activated during memory-task functional magnetic resonance imaging is altered and predictive of memory performance in AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Twenty-three elderly cognitively healthy controls (HC), 76 aMCI subjects, and 19 AD dementia patients were included. We computed resting-state FC between 18 meta-analytically determined peak coordinates of brain activation during successful memory retrieval. Higher FC between the parahippocampus, parietal cortex, and the middle frontal gyrus was observed in both AD and mild cognitive impairment compared to HC (false-discovery rate-corrected p < 0.05). The increase in FC between the parahippocampus and middle frontal gyrus was associated with reduced episodic memory in aMCI, independent of amyloid-beta positron emission tomography binding and apolipoprotein E ε4-carrier status. In conclusion, increased parahippocampal-prefrontal FC is predictive of impaired episodic memory in aMCI and may reflect a dysfunctional change within the episodic memory-related neural network. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The spectrum of the Kitt Peak night sky (United States)

    Massey, Philip; Gronwall, Caryl; Pilachowski, Catherine A.


    Absolute spectrophotometry of the Kitt Peak night sky at a variety of azimuths an zenith angles is presented, and the effect of population increase in Pima County on the dark-sky properties of Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona is studied. The results confirm that Kitt Peak remains a dark site, even after significant recent population growth of the surrounding area. The major line contributor to the B band is Hg, while the dominant source of contamination to the V-band measures are atmospheric lines, most notably O I 5577 A. Using fluxed observations of street lamps it was found that the relative contribution to light pollution in the yellow-red (5000 A - 6500 A) is 10 percent Hg, 30 percent LPS, and 60 percent HPS. No significant azimuthal effects are seen; it is noted that the sky remains equally dark toward Phoenix and Tucson as it does in other directions for zenith distances of 60 deg or less.

  15. A Multimethod analysis of the Phenomenon of Peak-Oil


    Kerschner, Christian


    El concepto de Peak-Oil (el cénit del petróleo) es complejo y a menudo malentendido. Después de aclarar que el Peak-Oil es tanto un problema de estocs como de flujos, se ofrecen los conceptos de calidad y cantidad del recurso para facilitar la comprensión de la multitud de temas que influyen en el momento del cénit del petróleo y sus posibles impactos. Una revisión de la literatura y las últimas evidencias sugieren que hay un alto riesgo de que el Peak-Oil ocurra antes de 2020, dejando poco t...

  16. [Radiobiological effects of total mice irradiation with Bragg's peak protons]. (United States)

    Ivanov, A A; Molokanov, A G; Ushakov, I B; Bulynina, T M; Vorozhtsova, S V; Abrosimova, A N; Kryuchkova, D M; Gaevsky, V N


    Outbred CD-1 female mice were irradiated in a proton beam (171 MeV, 5 Gy) on the phasotron at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research (Dubna, Russia). Radiation was delivered in two points of the depth dose distribution: at the beam entry and on Bragg's peak. Technical requirements for studying the effects of Bragg's peak protons on organism of experimental animals were specified. It was recognized that protons with high linear energy transfer (mean LET = 1.6 keV/microm) cause a more severe damaging effect to the hemopoietic system and cytogenetic apparatus in bone marrow cells as compared with entry protons and 60Co gamma-quanta. It was shown that recovery of the main hemopoietic organs and immunity as well as elimination of chromosomal aberrations take more time following irradiation with Bragg's peak protons but not protons with the energy of 171 MeV.

  17. Correlation Filter Learning Toward Peak Strength for Visual Tracking. (United States)

    Sui, Yao; Wang, Guanghui; Zhang, Li


    This paper presents a novel visual tracking approach to correlation filter learning toward peak strength of correlation response. Previous methods leverage all features of the target and the immediate background to learn a correlation filter. Some features, however, may be distractive to tracking, like those from occlusion and local deformation, resulting in unstable tracking performance. This paper aims at solving this issue and proposes a novel algorithm to learn the correlation filter. The proposed approach, by imposing an elastic net constraint on the filter, can adaptively eliminate those distractive features in the correlation filtering. A new peak strength metric is proposed to measure the discriminative capability of the learned correlation filter. It is demonstrated that the proposed approach effectively strengthens the peak of the correlation response, leading to more discriminative performance than previous methods. Extensive experiments on a challenging visual tracking benchmark demonstrate that the proposed tracker outperforms most state-of-the-art methods.

  18. Gnevyshev peaks in solar radio emissions at different frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Kane


    Full Text Available Sunspots have a major 11-year cycle, but the years near the sunspot maximum show two or more peaks called GP (Gnevyshev Peaks. In this communication, it was examined whether these peaks in sunspots are reflected in other parameters such as Lyman-α (the chromospheric emission 121.6 nm, radio emissions 242–15 400 MHz emanating from altitude levels 2000–12 000 km, the low latitude (+45° to −45° solar open magnetic flux and the coronal green line emission (Fe XIV, 530.3 nm. In the different solar cycles 20–23, the similarity extended at least upto the level of 609 MHz, but in cycle 22, the highest level was of 242 MHz. The extension to the higher level in cycle 22 does not seem to be related to the cycle strength Rz(max, or to the cycle length.

  19. The Peak Pairs algorithm for strain mapping from HRTEM images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, Pedro L. [Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informaticos, CASEM, Universidad de Cadiz, Pol. Rio San Pedro s/n. 11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)], E-mail:; Kret, Slawomir [Institute of Physics, PAS, AL. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Sanchez, Ana M. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ing. Metalurgica y Q. Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Pol. Rio San Pedro s/n. 11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Laval, Jean-Yves [Laboratoire de Physique du Solide, UPR5 CNRS-ESPCI, Paris (France); Yanez, Andres; Pizarro, Joaquin; Guerrero, Elisa [Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informaticos, CASEM, Universidad de Cadiz, Pol. Rio San Pedro s/n. 11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Ben, Teresa; Molina, Sergio I. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ing. Metalurgica y Q. Inorganica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, Pol. Rio San Pedro s/n. 11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)


    Strain mapping is defined as a numerical image-processing technique that measures the local shifts of image details around a crystal defect with respect to the ideal, defect-free, positions in the bulk. Algorithms to map elastic strains from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images may be classified into two categories: those based on the detection of peaks of intensity in real space and the Geometric Phase approach, calculated in Fourier space. In this paper, we discuss both categories and propose an alternative real space algorithm (Peak Pairs) based on the detection of pairs of intensity maxima in an affine transformed space dependent on the reference area. In spite of the fact that it is a real space approach, the Peak Pairs algorithm exhibits good behaviour at heavily distorted defect cores, e.g. interfaces and dislocations. Quantitative results are reported from experiments to determine local strain in different types of semiconductor heterostructures.

  20. COPAR: A ChIP-Seq Optimal Peak Analyzer. (United States)

    Tang, Binhua; Wang, Xihan; Jin, Victor X


    Sequencing data quality and peak alignment efficiency of ChIP-sequencing profiles are directly related to the reliability and reproducibility of NGS experiments. Till now, there is no tool specifically designed for optimal peak alignment estimation and quality-related genomic feature extraction for ChIP-sequencing profiles. We developed open-sourced COPAR, a user-friendly package, to statistically investigate, quantify, and visualize the optimal peak alignment and inherent genomic features using ChIP-seq data from NGS experiments. It provides a versatile perspective for biologists to perform quality-check for high-throughput experiments and optimize their experiment design. The package COPAR can process mapped ChIP-seq read file in BED format and output statistically sound results for multiple high-throughput experiments. Together with three public ChIP-seq data sets verified with the developed package, we have deposited COPAR on GitHub under a GNU GPL license.

  1. Measurements of potential differences in human subjects induced by motion in a superconducting magnetic field. (United States)

    Frinak, S; Knight, R A; Liboff, A R


    We have attempted to measure the electromotive forces (emfs) induced in human beings moving at a constant speed in a highly dense magnetic field. Experiments were initially conducted on a set of models, and then directly on human subjects. The models consisted of single circular loops of Tygon tubing (I.D., 0.635 cm; O.D., 0.9525 cm) filled with normal saline solution, with circumferences of 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 cm. The models were connected to an amplifier via silver/silver-chloride electrodes. Each saline loop was mounted on a movable platform, with the plane of the loop perpendicular to the platform's axis; the platform was enabled to move at known constant speeds into and out of the bore of a 1.89-T magnet. The human subjects were then substituted for the saline loops, with the long axis parallel to the direction of motion, and with standard EKG electrodes placed at 180 degrees successively on the ankle, calf, lower thigh, upper thigh, chest, and head. In all cases, for human subjects and models, the peak induced voltage was directly proportional to the speed of movement and the square of the circumference of the bounded cross-sectional areas. Thus, for the saline loops, the correlation coefficient between induced voltage and circumference was .998, and for human subjects, .947. Under the loose assumption that for equal circumferences the bounded areas in human subjects were equal to those in the circular loops, the induced emfs in human subjects were consistently about 13% greater than those in the loops. At a mean speed of 1.18 m/s, the chest had a peak induced voltage of 260 mV, while the voltage at the ankle had a peak of 19.8 mV. The experimental data were used to estimate the corresponding induced-current density at the pericardium, 17 mA/m2. We conclude for a human subject moving at constant speed along the body's long axis into a magnetic field that Faraday's law is closely followed for various cross-sections of the body. Further, in those cases in

  2. r-process abundances near the mass 130 peak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Laeter, J.R.; Rosman, K.J.R.


    A recent article by Kaeppeler et al. has reevaluated r-process abundances in the light of new neutron-capture cross section and elemental abundance data. The height of the r-process peak near mass 130 is largely determined by the r-only process nuclides /sup 128/Te and /sup 130/Te. Recent work by Smith, De Laeter and Rosman has not been given due consideration is assessing the solar system abundance of tellurium. These data indicate a 25% reduction in the height of the mass 130 peak, in agreement with predictions from s-process systematics.

  3. Peak Oil and the Everyday Complexity of Human Progress Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Pruit


    Full Text Available The “big” story of human progress has polarizing tendencies featuring the binary options of progress or decline. I consider human progress narratives in the context of everyday life. Analysis of the “little” stories from two narrative environments focusing on peak oil offers a more complex picture of the meaning and contours of the narrative. I consider the impact of differential blog site commitments to peak oil perspectives and identify five narrative types culled from two narrative dimensions. I argue that the lived experience complicates human progress narratives, which is no longer an either/or proposition.

  4. Peak heart rate decreases with increasing severity of acute hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Araoz, M; Van Hall, Gerrit


    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the degree to which peak heart rate is reduced during exhaustive exercise in acute hypoxia. Five sea-level lowlanders performed maximal exercise at normobaric normoxia and at three different levels of hypobaric hypoxia (barometric pressures of 518......, 459, and 404 mmHg) in a hypobaric chamber and while breathing 9% O(2) in N(2). These conditions were equivalent to altitudes of 3300, 4300, 5300, and 6300 m above sea level, respectively. At 4300 m, maximal exercise was also repeated after 4 and 8 h. Peak heart rate (HR) decreased from 191 (182...

  5. National energy peak leveling program (NEPLP). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This three-volume report is responsive to the requirements of contract E (04-3)-1152 to provide a detailed methodology, to include management, technology, and socio-economic aspects, of a voluntary community program for computer-assisted peak load leveling and energy conservation in commercial community facilities. The demonstration project established proof-of-concept in reducing the kW-demand peak by the unofficial goal of 10%, with concurrent kWh savings. The report consists of the following three volumes: Volume I: management overview; Volume II: methodology and technology; and Volume III; appendices.

  6. Quasispecies evolution on a fitness landscape with a fluctuating peak


    Nilsson, Martin; Snoad, Nigel


    A quasispecies evolving on a fitness landscape with a single peak of fluctuating height is studied. In the approximation that back mutations can be ignored, the rate equations can be solved analytically. It is shown that the error threshold on this class of dynamic landscapes is defined by the time average of the selection pressure. In the case of a periodically fluctuating fitness peak we also study the phase-shift and response amplitude of the previously documented low-pass filter effect. T...

  7. New explanation of Raman peak redshift in nanoparticles (United States)

    Meilakhs, A. P.; Koniakhin, S. V.


    In this letter, we propose a new model that explains the Raman peak downshift observed in nanoparticles with respect to bulk materials. The proposed model takes into account discreteness of the vibrational spectra of nanoparticles. For crystals with a cubic lattice (Diamond, Silicon, Germanium) we give a relation between the displacement of Raman peak position and the size of nanoparticles. The proposed model does not include any uncertain parameters, unlike the conventionally used phonon confinement model (PCM), and can be employed for unambiguous nanoparticles size estimation.

  8. Spectral analysis of crater central peak material (ccp) (United States)

    Galiano, A.; Palomba, E.; Longobardo, A.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Carrozzo, F. G.; Tosi, F.


    The dwarf planet Ceres, the largest and most massive object in the main asteroid belt, is dark and heavily cratered by impacts. The detection of bright spots, especially in the Occator crater, suggested a vertical gradient in Ceres mineralogical composition. Geologic mapping of Ceres enabled the identification of various surface features of interest. Here we focus our attention on the geologic units known as crater central peak material (ccp). Ccp composes the central peak of several complex craters, probably representative of fresher material coming from the subsurface as a consequence of the impact. We carried out a spectral analysis of ccps found on Ceres to investigate the mineralogical properties of the subsurface material.

  9. Peak metamorphic temperatures from cation diffusion zoning in garnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Matthijs Arjen; Scherer, Erik; Mezger, Klaus


    A model that relates the characteristic diffusion length and average cooling rate to peak temperature was developed for chemical diffusion in spherical geometries on the basis of geospeedometry principles and diffusion theory. The model is quantitatively evaluated for cation diffusion profiles...... peak temperature estimates. The results overlap within uncertainties in all cases, but result that are based on Fe(II) and Mg chemical-diffusion profiles are up to three times more precise than those acquired by conventional methods. The remarkable consistency of the results implies that the model...

  10. Peptide mass fingerprinting peak intensity prediction: extracting knowledge from spectra. (United States)

    Gay, Steven; Binz, Pierre-Alain; Hochstrasser, Denis F; Appel, Ron D


    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry has become a valuable tool in proteomics. With the increasing acquisition rate of mass spectrometers, one of the major issues is the development of accurate, efficient and automatic peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) identification tools. Current tools are mostly based on counting the number of experimental peptide masses matching with theoretical masses. Almost all of them use additional criteria such as isoelectric point, molecular weight, PTMs, taxonomy or enzymatic cleavage rules to enhance prediction performance. However, these identification tools seldom use peak intensities as parameter as there is currently no model predicting the intensities based on the physicochemical properties of peptides. In this work, we used standard datamining methods such as classification and regression methods to find correlations between peak intensities and the properties of the peptides composing a PMF spectrum. These methods were applied on a dataset comprising a series of PMF experiments involving 157 proteins. We found that the C4.5 method gave the more informative results for the classification task (prediction of the presence or absence of a peptide in a spectra) and M5' for the regression methods (prediction of the normalized intensity of a peptide peak). The C4.5 result correctly classified 88% of the theoretical peaks; whereas the M5' peak intensities had a correlation coefficient of 0.6743 with the experimental peak intensities. These methods enabled us to obtain decision and model trees that can be directly used for prediction and identification of PMF results. The work performed permitted to lay the foundations of a method to analyze factors influencing the peak intensity of PMF spectra. A simple extension of this analysis could lead to improve the accuracy of the results by using a larger dataset. Additional peptide characteristics or even PMF experimental parameters can also be taken into

  11. National energy peak leveling program (NEPLP). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This multisectioned three-Volume report is responsive to the requirements of Contract E (04-3)-1152 to provide a detailed methodology, to include management, technology, and socio-economic aspects, of a voluntary community program of computer-assisted peak load leveling and energy conservation in commercial community facilities. The demonstration project established proof-of-concept in reducing the kW-demand peak by the unofficial goal of 10%, with concurrent kWh savings. This section of volume III contains appendixes of information on load shedding determination, analysis, socio-economic study, contractual cross references, and definitions.

  12. Identification and separation of DNA mixtures using peak area information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowell, R.G.; Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt; Mortera, J.

    We show how probabilistic expert systems can be used to analyse forensic identification problems involving DNA mixture traces using quantitative peak area information. Peak area is modelled with conditional Gaussian distributions. The expert system can be used for scertaining whether individuals......, whose profiles have been measured, have contributed to the mixture, but also to predict DNA profiles of unknown contributors by separating the mixture into its individual components. The potential of our methodology is illustrated on case data examples and compared with alternative approaces...

  13. High-Average, High-Peak Current Injector Design

    CERN Document Server

    Biedron, S G; Virgo, M


    There is increasing interest in high-average-power (>100 kW), um-range FELs. These machines require high peak current (~1 kA), modest transverse emittance, and beam energies of ~100 MeV. High average currents (~1 A) place additional constraints on the design of the injector. We present a design for an injector intended to produce the required peak currents at the injector, eliminating the need for magnetic compression within the linac. This reduces the potential for beam quality degradation due to CSR and space charge effects within magnetic chicanes.

  14. National energy peak leveling program (NEPLP). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This three-volume report is responsive to the requirements of Contract E (04-3)-1152 to provide a detailed methodology, to include management, technology, and socio-economic aspects, of a voluntary community program of computer-assisted peak load leveling and energy conservation in commercial community facilities. The demonstration project established proof-of-concept in reducing the kW-demand peak by the unofficial goal of 10%, with concurrent kWh savings. This section of the three volume report is a final report appendix with information on the financial management of load leveling, audit procedures, and building operating profiles.

  15. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) of Inconel 718 by using copper electrode at higher peak current and pulse duration (United States)

    Ahmad, S.; Lajis, M. A.


    This experimental work is an attempt to investigate the performance of Copper electrode when EDM of Nickel Based Super Alloy, Inconel 718 is at higher peak current and pulse duration. Peak current, Ip and pulse duration (pulse on-time), ton are selected as the most important electrical pulse parameters. In addition, their influence on material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear rate (EWR), and surface roughness (Ra) are experimentally investigated. The ranges of 10 mm diameter of Copper electrode are used to EDM of Inconel 718. After the experiments, MRR, EWR, and Ra of the machined surfaces need to be measured in order to evaluate the performance of the EDM process. In order to obtain high MRR, higher peak current in range of 20A to 40A and pulse duration in range of 200μs to 400μs were used. Experimental results have shown that machining at a highest peak current used of 40A and the lowest pulse duration of 200μs used for the experiment yields the highest material removal rate (MRR) with value 34.94 mm3/min, whereas machining at a peak current of 20A and pulse duration of 400μs yields the lowest electrode wear rate (EWR) with value -0.0101 mm3/min. The lowest surface roughness (Ra) is 8.53 μm achieved at a lowest peak current used of 20A and pulse duration of 200μs.

  16. Development of a dispatchable PV peak shaving system. Final report on PV:BONUS Phase 2 activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, W.D. [Conectiv, Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States); Nigro, R.M. [Applied Energy Group, Inc., Hauppauge, NY (United States)


    In July 1993, the Delmarva Power and Light Company (now Conectiv, Inc.) was awarded a contract for the development of a Dispatchable Photovoltaic Peak Shaving System under the US Department of Energy PV:BONUS Program. The rationale for the dispatchable PV peak shaving system is based on the coincidence between the solar resource and the electrical load in question. Where poor coincidence exists, a PV array by itself does little to offset peak demands. However, with the addition of a relatively small amount of energy storage, the energy from the PV array can be managed and the value of the PV system increases substantially. In Phase 2, Delmarva Power continued the refinement of the system deployed in Phase 1. Four additional dispatchable PV peak shaving systems were installed for extended testing and evaluation at sites in Delaware, Maryland, Wisconsin and North Carolina. A second type of system that can be used to provide back-up power as well as peak shaving was also developed in Phase 2. This PV-UPS system used a packaging approach nearly identical to the PV peak shaving system, although there were significant differences in the design of the power electronics and control systems. Conceptually, the PV-UPS system builds upon the idea of adding value to PV systems by increasing functionality. A prototype of the PV-UPS system was installed in Delaware for evaluation near the end of the contract period.

  17. Characterization of the Infant BMI Peak: Sex Differences, Birth Year Cohort Effects, Association with Concurrent Adiposity, and Heritability (United States)

    Johnson, William; Choh, Audrey C.; Lee, Miryoung; Towne, Bradford; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Demerath, Ellen W.


    Objectives To characterize an early trait in the BMI-for-age curve, the infant BMI peak. Methods BMI-for-age curves were produced for 747 non-Hispanic, white Fels Longitudinal Study participants, from which individual age (AgePeak) and BMI (BMIPeak) at maximum infant BMI were estimated. Multivariable general linear regression was used to examine the effects of sex and birth year cohort (1929–1950, 1951–1970, and 1971–2010) on AgePeak and BMIPeak, with associations between BMIPeak and concurrent sum of four skinfold thicknesses assessed in a subsample (N = 155). Heritability (h2) of AgePeak and BMIPeak was estimated using maximum-likelihood variance components analysis. Results AgePeak occurred at 9 months of age in both sexes, but BMIPeak was 0.4 kg/m2 higher for boys than for girls (P-value adiposity, AgePeak appears to occur later than does the well-documented peak in infant fat mass and BMIPeak does not capture known sex differences in infant adiposity. Strong heritability of these infant BMI traits suggests investigation of genetic control, and validation of their relationship to body composition is greatly needed. PMID:23606227

  18. Analysis of factors influencing the integrated bolus peak timing in contrast-enhanced brain computed tomographic angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Soon Yong [Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kwan Woo [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hoi Woun [Baekseok Culture University College, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Seo Goo [Soonchunhyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae Young [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Jung Soo [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Won [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gang-dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Ah; Son, Jin Hyun; Min, Jung Whan [Shingu University College, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)


    The objective of this study was to analyze the factors influencing integrated bolus peak timing in contrast- enhanced computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and to determine a method of calculating personal peak time. The optimal time was calculated by performing multiple linear regression analysis, after finding the influence factors through correlation analysis between integrated peak time of contrast medium and personal measured value by monitoring CTA scans. The radiation exposure dose in CTA was 716.53 mGy·cm and the radiation exposure dose in monitoring scan was 15.52 mGy (2 - 34 mGy). The results were statistically significant (p < .01). Regression analysis revealed, a -0.160 times decrease with a one-step increase in heart rate in male, and -0.004, -0.174, and 0.006 times decrease with one-step in DBP, heart rate, and blood sugar, respectively, in female. In a consistency test of peak time by calculating measured peak time and peak time by using the regression equation, the consistency was determined to be very high for male and female. This study could prevent unnecessary dose exposure by encouraging in clinic calculation of personal integrated peak time of contrast medium prior to examination.

  19. A novel noninvasive method for measuring fatigability of the quadriceps muscle in noncooperating healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jesper Brøndum; Rose, Martin Høyer; Møller, Kirsten


    days, nonvoluntary isometric contractions (twitch and tetanic) of the quadriceps femoris muscle evoked by transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation were recorded in twelve healthy adults. For tetanic contractions, the Fatigue Index (ratio of peak torque values) and the slope of the regression line......Background. Critical illness is associated with muscle weakness leading to long-term functional limitations. Objectives. To assess the reliability of a novel method for evaluating fatigability of the quadriceps muscle in noncooperating healthy subjects. Methods. On two occasions, separated by seven...... fatigability of the quadriceps muscle produces reliable results in healthy subjects and may provide valuable data on quantitative changes in muscle working capacity and treatment effects in patients who are incapable of producing voluntary muscle contractions....

  20. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions, and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must...

  1. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.


    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must ...

  2. Subjective meaning: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Janneke; van Wijbergen-Huitink, Janneke; Meier, Cécile

    This introductory chapter traces some of the considerations on the basis of which relativistic approaches to subjective meaning became en vogue. In doing so, the chapter provides an overview of the relevant linguistic and philosophical issues when developing a treatment of subjectivity. In addition,

  3. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the

  4. Predictive Regression Equations of Flowmetric and Spirometric Peak Expiratory Flow in Healthy Moroccan Children. (United States)

    Bouti, Khalid; Benamor, Jouda; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine


    Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF) has never been characterised among healthy Moroccan school children. To study the relationship between PEF and anthropometric parameters (sex, age, height and weight) in healthy Moroccan school children, to establish predictive equations of PEF; and to compare flowmetric and spirometric PEF with Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV1). This cross-sectional study was conducted between April, 2016 and May, 2016. It involved 222 (122 boys and 100 girls) healthy school children living in Ksar el-Kebir, Morocco. We used mobile equipments for realisation of spirometry and peak expiratory flow measurements. SPSS (Version 22.0) was used to calculate Student's t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear regression. Significant linear correlation was seen between PEF, age and height in boys and girls. The equation for prediction of flowmetric PEF in boys was calculated as 'F-PEF = -187+ 24.4 Age + 1.61 Height' (p-valuePEF = -151 + 17Age + 1.59Height' (p-valuePEF in boys was calculated as 'S-PEF = -199+ 9.8Age + 2.67Height' (p-valuePEF = -181 + 8.5Age + 2.5Height' (p-valuePEF predictive equations in Moroccan children. Our results appeared to be reliable, as evident by the high correlation coefficient in this sample. PEF can be an alternative of FEV1 in centers without spirometry.

  5. Investigating the transition from central peak to peak-ring basins using central feature volume measurements from the Global Lunar DTM 100 m (United States)

    Bray, Veronica J.; Atwood-Stone, Corwin; McEwen, Alfred M.


    Several theories have been suggested to explain the transition from peak to peak-ring crater morphology. In order to explore the transition and assess the currently advocated peak-ring formation theories, we have collected measurements of central feature volumes and heights for relatively fresh lunar impact craters. We employed the Global Lunar DTM 100 m, which has the vertical precision and spatial coverage necessary to accurately measure peak and peak-ring volumes in more craters than previously possible. The similarity in both trend and magnitude of peak and peak-ring volumes suggests that peak-ring formation is closely related to the development of central peaks as crater size increases. Our data thus lends support to those peak-ring formation theories involving peak collapse.

  6. Substantial Inter-Subject Variability in Blood Pressure Responses to Glucose in a Healthy, Non-obese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathriona R. Monnard


    Full Text Available Aim: A large inter-subject variability in the blood pressure (BP response to glucose drinks has been reported. However, the underlying factors remain elusive and we hypothesized that accompanying changes in glucose metabolism affect these BP responses.Methods: Cardiovascular and glycemic changes in response to a standard 75 g oral-glucose-tolerance-test were investigated in 30 healthy, non-obese males. Continuous cardiovascular monitoring, including beat-to-beat BP, electrocardiographically deduced heart rate and impedance cardiography, was performed during a 30 min baseline and continued up to 120 min after glucose ingestion. Blood samples were taken at baseline, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min for the assessment of glucose, insulin and c-peptide. Additionally, we evaluated body composition by using validated bioelectrical impedance techniques.Results: Individual overall changes (i.e., averages over 120 min for systolic BP ranged from −4.9 to +4.7 mmHg, where increases and decreases were equally distributed (50%. Peak changes (i.e., peak averages over 10 min intervals for systolic BP ranged from −1.3 to +9.5 mmHg, where 93% of subjects increased systolic BP above baseline values (similar for diastolic BP whilst 63% of subjects increased peak systolic BP by more than 4 mmHg. Changes in peak systolic BP were negatively associated with the calculated Matsuda-index of insulin sensitivity (r = −0.39, p = 0.04 but with no other evaluated parameter including body composition. Moreover, besides a trend toward an association between overall changes in systolic BP and total fat mass percentage (r = +0.32, p = 0.09, no association was found between other body composition parameters and overall BP changes.Conclusion: Substantial inter-subject variability in BP changes was observed in a healthy, non-obese subpopulation in response to an oral glucose load. In 63% of subjects, peak systolic BP increased by more than a clinically relevant 4 mmHg. Peak systolic


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 1


    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1EPA, 1Agrotourism, 148AHP, 148balance scorecard, 63batik tulis Rolla Junior, 23Broiler, 90business model canvas, 137business performance,32capital structure, 81cashew industry,158CHAID,106CLI,42coal transportation service,63company’s characteristics, 81competitive advantage, 12competitive strategy, 127consumer satisfaction, 51CSI, 42customer loyalty, 42customer satisfaction,42decision of visitors, 72development strategy, 23development,158entrepreneurship, 32Feasibility studies, 90FEM, 81gap analysis, 1Indonesia Stock Exchange, 177Indosat, 137investor,177Kawah Putih, 72kedai sop durian lodaya (KSDL,51klassen typology, 96leading sector, 96less cash society, 137liquidity ratio, 165location quotient, 96logistic regression, 115market, 177marketing development strategy, 148Marketing mix, 72mobile payment, 137modern and Traditional cage, 90multiple regression analyse,165multiple regression, 177net working capital, 165organic tofu product, 115Padang, 106paired comparison, 63partnership, 1, 32Pecking Order Theory, 81PLS, 81Portfolio, 96power, 32product quality, 51profitability ratio, 165Prol Tape Primadona, 127purchase decision, 115purchase intention, 51purchasing interest,115QSPM, 23, 127refilled drinking water, 106seed,1segmentation, 106SEM, 42, 51service quality, 51SMEs, 96specialty coffee, 12stock,177strategic diagnosis,137strategy, 158Sukorambi Botanic Garden, 148SWOT, 23, 127, 148, 158SWOT-AHP, 12tourists,72UD. Primadona, 127value chain, 12VRIO,12 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1Adiningsih, Kartika Puspitasari,42Aknesia, Vharessa,12Amalia, Firda Rachma,90Andati, Trias, 177Anggraeni, Lukytawati,23Asriani,158Daryanto, Arief,12, 90Djamaludin, MD., 42Djohar, Setiadi,96Fachrodji, Achmad,72Fahmi, Idqan,1, 63, 127Fasyni, Awisal,106Hubeis, Musa,148Iskandar, Dodi,51Juanda, Bambang, 165Kirbrandoko, 12, 106, 115Lumbantoruan, Dewi Margareth,96Maulana, TB Nur Ahmad,81Muksin, 148Mukti Soleh, Cecep,63Najib, Mukhamad,106Noor, Tajudin,81

  8. Effect of Gymnema inodorum on postprandial peak plasma glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gymnema inodorum (GI), a vegetable widely used in a Northern Thai food, is known for not only its health nourishing effect, but also its hypoglycemic effect. But no scientific evidence on the hypoglycemic effect of GI has ever been reported in human. In this study, the effect of GI consumption on peak plasma glucose ...

  9. Robust peak-shaving for a neighborhood with electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, Marco Egbertus Theodorus; Hurink, Johann L.


    Demand Side Management (DSM) is a popular approach for grid-aware peak-shaving. The most commonly used DSM methods either have no look ahead feature and risk deploying flexibility too early, or they plan ahead using predictions, which are in general not very reliable. To counter this, a DSM approach

  10. The post peak response of concrete for dynamic tensile loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegt, I.; Weerheijm, J.


    The mechanical response of concrete is represented in the load-deformation curve which shows the response up to maximum strength as well as the post-peak response up to complete failure. Dynamic tests exhibit an extensive rate effect on the tensile strength beyond loading rates of about 50 GPa/s

  11. Analytical construction of peaked solutions for the nonlinear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We obtain analytical solutions, by way of the homotopy analysis method, to a nonlinear wave equation describing the nonlinear evolution of a vector potential of an electromagnetic pulse propagating in an arbitrary pair plasma with temperature asymmetry. As the method is analytical, we are able to construct peaked ...

  12. Peak broadening in paper chromatography and related techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligny, C.L. de; Veen, N.G. van


    Peak dispersion (i.e. the separation efficiency) in thin-layer electrophoresis was investigated and compared for six different cellulose layers. The relative importance of longitudinal diffusion and of macroscopic inhomoeneities in the electric field and in the electroosmotic and sucking flow

  13. Peak expiratory flow rate and respiratory symptoms following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) of 350 rural women aged (20-70 years) in Edo State, Nigeria who actively used wood as a source of fuel for cooking was measured. The height, chest circumference, weight and blood pressure of the women were also measured. Respiratory symptoms of cough with sputum production, ...

  14. Algorithm for systematic peak extraction from atomic pair distribution functions. (United States)

    Granlund, L; Billinge, S J L; Duxbury, P M


    The study presents an algorithm, ParSCAPE, for model-independent extraction of peak positions and intensities from atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs). It provides a statistically motivated method for determining parsimony of extracted peak models using the information-theoretic Akaike information criterion (AIC) applied to plausible models generated within an iterative framework of clustering and chi-square fitting. All parameters the algorithm uses are in principle known or estimable from experiment, though careful judgment must be applied when estimating the PDF baseline of nanostructured materials. ParSCAPE has been implemented in the Python program SrMise. Algorithm performance is examined on synchrotron X-ray PDFs of 16 bulk crystals and two nanoparticles using AIC-based multimodeling techniques, and particularly the impact of experimental uncertainties on extracted models. It is quite resistant to misidentification of spurious peaks coming from noise and termination effects, even in the absence of a constraining structural model. Structure solution from automatically extracted peaks using the Liga algorithm is demonstrated for 14 crystals and for C60. Special attention is given to the information content of the PDF, theory and practice of the AIC, as well as the algorithm's limitations.

  15. Size-independent peak shift between normal and upconversion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Feb 12, 2014 ... Abstract. In this article, we report size-dependent measurement of the shift in peak of upcon- version photoluminescence spectra compared to that of normal photoluminescence using a 800 nm femtosecond laser and its second harmonic. It has been shown that the upconversion photolumi- nescence is ...

  16. Daily peak electricity load forecasting in South Africa using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) modelling approach towards daily peak electricity load forecasting in South Africa is presented in this paper for the period 2000 to 2009. MARS is a non-parametric multivariate regression method which is used in high-dimensional problems with complex model structures, ...

  17. Factors influencing peak expiratory flow in teenage boys | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further details were provid by means of a questionnaire. Results. PEF ranged from 350 to 760 1/min, with a mean (± standard deviation (SD» of 539 ± 681/min. Factors expected to influence PEF included height and mass, where is unexpected factors included sport intensity and academic grade. A trend to reduced peak ...

  18. Vortex lattice mobility and effective pinning potentials in the peak ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    temperature the mobility of the vortex lattice (VL) is found to be dependent on the dynamical history. ... Introduction. The peak effect (PE) in the critical current density (Jc) in both low and high temperature ... An anomalous increase is observed above an onset field Bon or temperature Ton, until Jc reaches a maximum.

  19. Characteristics of peaks of inhalation exposure to organic solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preller, L.; Burstyn, I.; Pater, N. de; Kromhout, H.


    Objectives: To determine which exposure metrics are sufficient to characterize 'peak' inhalation exposure to organic solvents (OS) during spraying operations. Methods: Personal exposure measurements (n = 27; duration 5-159 min) were collected during application of paints, primers, resins and glues

  20. variations of peak expiratory flow rate with anthropometric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Summary: PEFR was measured in 300 healthy adult male and female staff and students of the. University of Benin, Benin City, and the College of Education, Ekiadolor, near Benin. The variations of. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) with respect to height (ht), weight (wt) and chest circumference (cc) were determined in ...