Sample records for subjects local skin

  1. Subjective and objective observation of skin graft recovery on Indonesian local cat with different periods of transplantation time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Aim: The success of a skin graft in a cat is highly dependent on the granulation formed by the base of recipient bed. Granulation by the base of recipient bed will form after several days after injury. This research aimed to observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats with different periods of donor skin placement. Materials and Methods: Nine male Indonesian local cats aged 1-2 years old, weighing 3-4 kg were divided into three groups. The first surgery for creating defect wound of 2 cm×2 cm in size was performed in the whole group. The wound was left for several days with the respective interval for each group, respectively: Group I (for 2 days, Group II (for 4 days, and Group III (for 6 days. In the whole group, the second surgery was done by the harvesting skin of thoracic area which then applied on recipient bed of respective groups. Result: The donor skin on Group II was accepted faster compared to Group I and Group III. The donor skin did not show color differences compared to surrounding skin, painless, bright red in bleeding test had faster both hair growth and drug absorption. Test toward the size of donor skin and the effect of drugs did not show a significant difference between each group. Conclusion: The observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats on Group II were accepted faster compared to Group I and III.

  2. Characterizing human skin blood flow regulation in response to different local skin temperature perturbations. (United States)

    Wu, Y; Nieuwenhoff, M D; Huygen, F J P M; van der Helm, F C T; Niehof, S; Schouten, A C


    Small nerve fibers regulate local skin blood flow in response to local thermal perturbations. Small nerve fiber function is difficult to assess with classical neurophysiological tests. In this study, a vasomotor response model in combination with a heating protocol was developed to quantitatively characterize the control mechanism of small nerve fibers in regulating skin blood flow in response to local thermal perturbation. The skin of healthy subjects' hand dorsum (n=8) was heated to 42°C with an infrared lamp, and then naturally cooled down. The distance between the lamp and the hand was set to three different levels in order to change the irradiation intensity on the skin and implement three different skin temperature rise rates (0.03°C/s, 0.02°C/s and 0.01°C/s). A laser Doppler imager (LDI) and a thermographic video camera recorded the temporal profile of the skin blood flow and the skin temperature, respectively. The relationship between the skin blood flow and the skin temperature was characterized by a vasomotor response model. The model fitted the skin blood flow response well with a variance accounted for (VAF) between 78% and 99%. The model parameters suggested a similar mechanism for the skin blood flow regulation with the thermal perturbations at 0.03°C/s and 0.02°C/s. But there was an accelerated skin vasoconstriction after a slow heating (0.01°C/s) (p-valueskin vasodilation was also observed in four out of the seven subjects during the slow heating (0.01°C/s). Our method provides a promising way to quantitatively assess the function of small nerve fibers non-invasively and non-contact. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A prospective, double-blind, split-subject study on local skin reactions after administration of human menopausal gonadotrophin preparations to healthy female volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odink, J.; Zuiderwijk, P.B.M.; Schoen, E.D.; Gan, R.A.


    This study was designed to investigate local reactions after the intracutaneous (i.c.) administration of two human menopausal gonadotrophin preparations. For this purpose, 20 healthy female volunteers received six i.c. injections simultaneously, viz. three different batches of both Humegon (Organon,

  4. Local Development of Subject Area Item Banks. (United States)

    Ward, Annie W.; Barlow, Gene


    It is feasible for school districts to develop and use subject area tests as reliable as those previously available only from commercial publishers. Three projects in local item development in a large school district are described. The first involved only Algebra 1. The second involved life science and career education at the elementary level; and…

  5. PH- Mapping Of Prepubertal Skin Of Indian Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta A B


    Full Text Available PH- mapping of skin was made by measuring the skin surface pH in 61 normal Indian subjects (35M, 26F in the prepubertal age group at 21 different sites from scalp to sole at an ambient temperature 25-32C and a relative humidity 60-65%. The pH values at axilla, umbilicus, palm, fingerfolds, foot, sole, and cheek were found to be consistently higher than those at scalp, forehead, retroauricular folds, antecubital and popliteal fossae, anterior arm, anterior the mean pH of male skin appeared to be lower than that of female. The highest pH recorded was in axilla (5.98 for male, 6.00 for female, irrespective of sex. The lowest value however was in anterior neck (4.59 for male and in antecubital fossa (4.83 for female. While the origin of the skin pH is yet to be definitely known, it was observed that a high density of both sweat gland and bacteria flora leads to a high pH, and high concentration of sebaceous gland and of bacterial flora to a lower pH.

  6. Characterizing human skin blood flow regulation in response to different local skin temperature perturbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.; Nieuwenhoff, M.D.; Huygen, Frank J.P.M.; van der Helm, F. C.T.; Niehof, S.P.; Schouten, A. C.


    Small nerve fibers regulate local skin blood flow in response to local thermal perturbations. Small nerve fiber function is difficult to assess with classical neurophysiological tests. In this study, a vasomotor response model in combination with a heating protocol was developed to quantitatively

  7. Characterizing human skin blood flow regulation in response to different local skin temperature perturbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.; Nieuwenhoff, M.D.; Huygen, F.J.P.M.; van der Helm, F.C.T.; Niehof, S.P.; Schouten, A.C.


    Small nerve fibers regulate local skin blood flow in response to local thermal perturbations. Small nerve fiber function is difficult to assess with classical neurophysiological tests. In this study, a vasomotor response model in combination with a heating protocol was developed to quantitatively

  8. Characterizing human skin blood flow regulation in response to different local skin temperature perturbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.; M.D. Nieuwenhoff (Mariska D.); F.J.P.M. Huygen (Frank); F.C.T. van der Helm (Frans C.); S.P. Niehof (Sjoerd); A.C. Schouten (A.)


    textabstractSmall nerve fibers regulate local skin blood flow in response to local thermal perturbations. Small nerve fiber function is difficult to assess with classical neurophysiological tests. In this study, a vasomotor response model in combination with a heating protocol was developed to

  9. Local heat preconditioning in skin sparing mastectomy: a pilot study. (United States)

    Mehta, Saahil; Rolph, Rachel; Cornelius, Victoria; Harder, Yves; Farhadi, Jian


    Experimental data has shown an association with a reduction of flap necrosis after local heat-application to a supraphysiological level resulting from the up-regulation of heat shock proteins, such as HSP-32. The proteins maintained capillary perfusion and increased tissue tolerance to ischaemia. The purpose of this translational study was to evaluate the effect of local heat preconditioning before skin sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction. A prospective non-randomised trial was performed from July 2009-April 2010. 50 consecutive patients at risk of skin flap necrosis (BMI >30, sternal-to-nipple distance>26 cm or breast size>C-cup) were included. Twenty-five patients were asked to heat-precondition their breast 24-h prior to surgery using a hot water bottle with a water temperature of 43 °C (thermometers provided), in three 30-min cycles interrupted by spontaneous cooling to room temperature. Skin flap necrosis was defined by the need for surgical debridement. LDI images were taken pre- and post-mastectomy to demonstrate an increase in tissue vascularity. 36% of women (n=25) without local heat-treatment developed skin flap necrosis, 12% developed skin flap necrosis in the treatment group, resulting in a 24% difference (n=25; p=0.047 (95%CI 1%-47%)). LDI scanning of the heated breast demonstrated an increase in vascularity compared to the contralateral non-heated breast. Median length of inpatient stay for treatment group was 4 days (95%CI(4, 7)), controls 8 days (95%CI(8, 9) (p=mastectomy. ACTRN12612001197820. II. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Local Melatoninergic System as the Protector of Skin Integrity

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    Andrzej T. Slominski


    Full Text Available The human skin is not only a target for the protective actions of melatonin, but also a site of melatonin synthesis and metabolism, suggesting an important role for a local melatoninergic system in protection against ultraviolet radiation (UVR induced damages. While melatonin exerts many effects on cell physiology and tissue homeostasis via membrane bound melatonin receptors, the strong protective effects of melatonin against the UVR-induced skin damage including DNA repair/protection seen at its high (pharmocological concentrations indicate that these are mainly mediated through receptor-independent mechanisms or perhaps through activation of putative melatonin nuclear receptors. The destructive effects of the UVR are significantly counteracted or modulated by melatonin in the context of a complex intracutaneous melatoninergic anti-oxidative system with UVR-enhanced or UVR-independent melatonin metabolites. Therefore, endogenous intracutaneous melatonin production, together with topically-applied exogenous melatonin or metabolites would be expected to represent one of the most potent anti-oxidative defense systems against the UV-induced damage to the skin. In summary, we propose that melatonin can be exploited therapeutically as a protective agent or as a survival factor with anti-genotoxic properties or as a “guardian” of the genome and cellular integrity with clinical applications in UVR-induced pathology that includes carcinogenesis and skin aging.

  11. Changes in subcutaneous blood flow during locally applied negative pressure to the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skagen, K; Henriksen, O


    The effect of locally applied subatmospheric pressure on subcutaneous blood flow was studied in 12 healthy subjects. Blood flow was measured on the forearm by the local 133Xe wash-out technique. Air suction between 10 mmHg and 250 mmHg was applied to the skin. Subatmospheric pressure of 20 mm......Hg caused only a minor increase of estimated vascular resistance of 9 per cent. Increasing the suction to 40 mmHg caused a pronounced vasoconstriction corresponding to an increase in vascular resistance of about 90%. Further increase in local suction beyond 40 mmHg caused no additional increase in vascular...... resistance. The vasoconstriction induced by local suction was abolished by local nervous blockade induced by lidocaine in low doses which do not affect myogenic activity of the vascular smooth muscle cells. This finding confirms previous studies that the vasoconstriction mainly is due to a local sympathetic...

  12. Mercury Levels in Locally Manufactured Mexican Skin-Lightening Creams

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    Luz O. Leal


    Full Text Available Mercury is considered one of the most toxic elements for plants and animals. Nevertheless, in the Middle East, Asia and Latin America, whitening creams containing mercury are being manufactured and purchased, despite their obvious health risks. Due to the mass distribution of these products, this can be considered a global public health issue. In Mexico, these products are widely available in pharmacies, beauty aid and health stores. They are used for their skin lightening effects. The aim of this work was to analyze the mercury content in some cosmetic whitening creams using the cold vapor technique coupled with atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS. A total of 16 skin-lightening creams from the local market were investigated. No warning information was noted on the packaging. In 10 of the samples, no mercury was detected. The mercury content in six of the samples varied between 878 and 36,000 ppm, despite the fact that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA has determined that the limit for mercury in creams should be less than 1 ppm. Skin creams containing mercury are still available and commonly used in Mexico and many developing countries, and their contents are poorly controlled.

  13. Mercury levels in locally manufactured Mexican skin-lightening creams. (United States)

    Peregrino, Claudia P; Moreno, Myriam V; Miranda, Silvia V; Rubio, Alma D; Leal, Luz O


    Mercury is considered one of the most toxic elements for plants and animals. Nevertheless, in the Middle East, Asia and Latin America, whitening creams containing mercury are being manufactured and purchased, despite their obvious health risks. Due to the mass distribution of these products, this can be considered a global public health issue. In Mexico, these products are widely available in pharmacies, beauty aid and health stores. They are used for their skin lightening effects. The aim of this work was to analyze the mercury content in some cosmetic whitening creams using the cold vapor technique coupled with atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS). A total of 16 skin-lightening creams from the local market were investigated. No warning information was noted on the packaging. In 10 of the samples, no mercury was detected. The mercury content in six of the samples varied between 878 and 36,000 ppm, despite the fact that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has determined that the limit for mercury in creams should be less than 1 ppm. Skin creams containing mercury are still available and commonly used in Mexico and many developing countries, and their contents are poorly controlled.

  14. Mercury Levels in Locally Manufactured Mexican Skin-Lightening Creams (United States)

    Peregrino, Claudia P.; Moreno, Myriam V.; Miranda, Silvia V.; Rubio, Alma D.; Leal, Luz O.


    Mercury is considered one of the most toxic elements for plants and animals. Nevertheless, in the Middle East, Asia and Latin America, whitening creams containing mercury are being manufactured and purchased, despite their obvious health risks. Due to the mass distribution of these products, this can be considered a global public health issue. In Mexico, these products are widely available in pharmacies, beauty aid and health stores. They are used for their skin lightening effects. The aim of this work was to analyze the mercury content in some cosmetic whitening creams using the cold vapor technique coupled with atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS). A total of 16 skin-lightening creams from the local market were investigated. No warning information was noted on the packaging. In 10 of the samples, no mercury was detected. The mercury content in six of the samples varied between 878 and 36,000 ppm, despite the fact that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has determined that the limit for mercury in creams should be less than 1 ppm. Skin creams containing mercury are still available and commonly used in Mexico and many developing countries, and their contents are poorly controlled. PMID:21776243

  15. A controlled laboratory comparison of 4 topical skin creams moisturizing capability on human subjects. (United States)

    Young, Daniel L; Chakravarthy, Debashish


    This study compares human skin capacitance (moisture) readings after the application of 4 different, commercially available, topical skin creams. Twenty-one subjects (15 women and 6 men) aged 49.38 ± 11.02) years (mean ± SD) participated. This study was conducted in a climate-controlled laboratory on healthy human subjects. Randomized experimental study comparing 4 topical skin creams for their effect on human skin capacitance (moisture). Subject forearm skin was conditioned for 7 days prior to testing by washing with a standard soap and application of no other products. Each subject was marked with 5 test sites on the forearms. Sites on the volar surface of each subject's forearms were randomly assigned for application of 1 of 4 product pairs, consisting of a cleanser and a topical skin cream or a control site. A Corneometer was used to measure skin capacitance. Each site on the arms was cleaned and dried, tested again for moisture content, subjected to topical skin cream application, and finally tested again for moisture content. Changes were measured by subtracting the capacitance readings at baseline from values measured following topical skin cream application for each test site. The mean change in capacitance was 13.9 for product 1, 10.3 for product 3, 8.7 for product 2, 1.6 for product 4, and 0.8 for the control site. The mean capacitance change in sites treated with product 1 (13.9 ± 8.0, mean ± SD) was significantly greater than all others. There was no difference between the change in capacitance of product 2 (mean = 8.7, SD = 4.9) and product 3 (10.3 ± 7.1) t(20) = 1.081, P = .293, nor between product 4 (1.6 ± 3.9) and the control site (0.3, ± 2.2) t(20) = 0.779, P = .445. The capacitance change of products 2 and 3 was greater than that of product 4 and the control site. Commercially available topical skin creams vary in their impact on human skin capacitance. In this study, sites tested with product 1 had a greater skin capacitance reading than

  16. On the role of skin in the regulation of local and systemic steroidogenic activities (United States)

    Slominski, Andrzej T.; Manna, Pulak R.; Tuckey, Robert C.


    The mammalian skin is a heterogeneous organ/tissue covering our body, showing regional variations and endowed with neuroendocrine activities. The latter is represented by its ability to produce and respond to neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, hormones and neurohormones, of which expression and phenotypic activities can be modified by ultraviolet radiation, chemical and physical factors, as well as by cytokines. The neuroendocrine contribution to the responses of skin to stress is served, in part, by local synthesis of all elements of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. Skin with subcutis can also be classified as a steroidogenic tissue because it expresses the enzyme, CYP11A1, which initiates steroid synthesis by converting cholesterol to pregnenolone, as in other steroidogenic tissues. Pregnenolone, or steroidal precursors from the circulation, are further transformed in the skin to corticosteroids or sex hormones. Furthermore, in the skin CYP11A1 acts on 7-dehydrocholesterol with production of 7-dehydropregnolone, which can be further metabolized to other Δ7steroids, which after exposure to UVB undergo photochemical transformation to vitamin D like compounds with a short side chain. Vitamin D and lumisterol, produced in the skin after exposure to UVB, are also metabolized by CYP11A1 to several hydroxyderivatives. Vitamin D hydroxyderivatives generated by action of CYP11A1 are biologically active and are subject to further hydroxylations by CYP27B1, CYP27A1 and CP24A. Establishment of which intermediates are produced in the epidermis in vivo and whether they circulate on the systemic level represent a future research challenge. In summary, skin is a neuroendocrine organ endowed with steroid/secosteroidogenic activities PMID:25988614

  17. The effect of local heat and cold therapy on the intra-articular and skin surface temperature of the knee


    Oosterveld, F. G. J.; Rasker, Hans J.; Jacobs, J.W.G.; Overmars, H.J.A.


    Objective. To evaluate the effects of local application of ice chips, ligno-paraffin, short-wave diathermy, and nitrogen-cold air on skin and intraarticular temperature. Methods. Forty-two healthy subjects were divided into 4 treatment groups. A temperature probe was inserted into the knee joint cavity and another placed on the overlying skin, and changes in temperature over 3 hours, by treatment group, were recorded. Results. The mean skin surface temperature dropped from 27.9°C to 11.5°C af...

  18. Proprioceptive localization of the hand changes when skin stretch around the elbow is manipulated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene A. Kuling


    Full Text Available Cutaneous information has been shown to influence proprioceptive position sense when subjects had to judge or match the posture of their limbs. In the present study, we tested whether cutaneous information also affects proprioceptive localization of the hand when moving it to a target. In an explorative study, we manipulated the skin stretch around the elbow by attaching elastic sports tape to one side of the arm. Subjects were asked to move the unseen manipulated arm to visually presented targets. We found that the tape induced a significant shift of the end-points of these hand movements. Surprisingly, this shift corresponded with an increase in elbow extension, irrespective of the side of the arm that was taped. A control experiment showed that this cannot be explained by how the skin stretches, because the skin near the elbow stretches to a similar extent on the inside and outside of the arm when the elbow angle increases and decreases, respectively. A second control experiment reproduced and extended the results of the main experiment for tape on the inside of the arm, and showed that the asymmetry was not just a consequence of the tape originally being applied slightly differently to the outside of the arm. However, the way in which the tape was applied does appear to matter, because applying the tape in the same way to the outside of the arm as to the inside of the arm influenced different subjects quite differently, suggesting that the relationship between skin stretch and sensed limb posture is quite complex. We conclude that the way the skin is stretched during a goal-directed movement provides information that helps guide the hand towards the target.

  19. Influence of local air velocity from air conditioner evaluated by salivary and skin biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Takahashi, Takayuki; Yoshino, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Makoto [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Nishimiya, Hajime [Asahi Kasei Homes Corporation, R and D Laboratories, 2-1 Samejima, Fuji, Shizuoka 416-8501 (Japan)


    The purpose of this paper is to reveal both the psychosomatic and the physical effects of local air velocity from an air conditioner using biomarkers which can be collected noninvasively. Salivary {alpha}-amylase activity (SAA) and salivary cortisol were used as the indexes of psychosomatic effects. The total protein (TP) collected from stratum corneum was used as an index of the physical condition of dry skin. A continuous experiment over a 5 days period in summer was conducted using 8 healthy young male adults for 2-types of airflow conditioners, a whole ceiling-type air conditioner (without local air velocity) and a normal-type air conditioner (with local air velocity). The subjects felt cool, windy, dry and uncomfortable when under the normal-type air conditioner as determined in a subjective evaluation. The SAA under the normal-type air conditioner fluctuated more widely than with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. The level of salivary cortisol decreased more in a day under the normal-type air conditioner than with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. These results showed that reducing local air velocity may provide more healthy psychosomatic conditions over the long-term. Moreover, the TP of a drying-exposed skin area showed a significant change during this experiment whereas the TP of drying-protected area was relatively unchanged. It was indicated that one week's exposure to local air velocity conditions possibly influences the drying of facial skin. Thus, air movement at low velocity can be provides more comfortable conditions not only psychosomatically but also physically. (author)

  20. The interrealtionship between locally applied heat, ageing and skin blood flow on heat transfer into and from the skin. (United States)

    Petrofsky, Jerrold; Alshahmmari, Faris; Yim, Jong Eun; Hamdan, Adel; Lee, Haneul; Neupane, Sushma; Shetye, Gauri; Moniz, Harold; Chen, Wei-Ti; Cho, Sungkwan; Pathak, Kunal; Malthane, Swapnil; Shenoy, Samruddha; Somanaboina, Karunakar; Alshaharani, Mastour; Nevgi, Bhakti; Dave, Bhargav; Desai, Rajavi


    In response to a thermal stress, skin blood flow (BF) increases to protect the skin from damage. When a very warm, noxious, heat source (44 °C) is applied to the skin, the BF increases disproportionately faster than the heat stress that was applied, creating a safety mechanism for protecting the skin. In the present investigation, the rate of rise of BF in response to applied heat at temperatures between 32 °C and 40 °C was examined as well as the thermal transfer to and from the skin with and without BF in younger and older subjects to see how the skin responds to a non-noxious heat source. Twenty male and female subjects (10 - 20-35 years, 10 - 40-70 years) were examined. The arms of the subjects were passively heated for 6 min with and without vascular occlusion by a thermode at temperatures of 32, 36, 38 or 40 °C. When occlusion was not used during the 6 min exposure to heat, there was an exponential rise in skin temperature and BF in both groups of subjects over the 6-min period. However, the older subjects achieved similar skin temperatures but with the expenditure of fewer calories from the thermode than was seen for the younger subjects (p<0.05). BF was significantly less in the older group than the younger group at rest and after exposure to each of the three warmest thermode temperatures (p<0.05). As was seen for noxious temperatures, after a delay, the rate of rise of BF at the three warmest thermode temperatures was faster than the rise in skin temperature in the younger group but less in the older group of subjects. Thus, a consequence of ageing is reduced excess BF in response to thermal stress increasing susceptibility to thermal damage. This must be considered in modelling of BF. Copyright © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

  1. The effect of local heat and cold therapy on the intra-articular and skin surface temperature of the knee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, F.G.J.; Rasker, Hans J.; Jacobs, J.W.G.; Overmars, H.J.A.


    Objective. To evaluate the effects of local application of ice chips, ligno-paraffin, short-wave diathermy, and nitrogen-cold air on skin and intraarticular temperature. Methods. Forty-two healthy subjects were divided into 4 treatment groups. A temperature probe was inserted into the knee joint

  2. The mental and subjective skin: Emotion, empathy, feelings and thermography. (United States)

    Salazar-López, E; Domínguez, E; Juárez Ramos, V; de la Fuente, J; Meins, A; Iborra, O; Gálvez, G; Rodríguez-Artacho, M A; Gómez-Milán, E


    We applied thermography to investigate the cognitive neuropsychology of emotions, using it as a somatic marker of subjective experience during emotional tasks. We obtained results that showed significant correlations between changes in facial temperature and mental set. The main result was the change in the temperature of the nose, which tended to decrease with negative valence stimuli but to increase with positive emotions and arousal patterns. However, temperature change was identified not only in the nose, but also in the forehead, the oro-facial area, the cheeks and in the face taken as a whole. Nevertheless, thermic facial changes, mostly nasal temperature changes, correlated positively with participants' empathy scores and their performance. We found that temperature changes in the face may reveal maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions and feelings like love. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Understanding excess skin in postbariatric patients: objective measurements and subjective experiences. (United States)

    Biörserud, Christina; Olbers, Torsten; Staalesen, Trude; Elander, Anna; Olsén, Monika Fagevik


    Excess skin is a well-known side effect of massive weight loss after bariatric surgery. However, there is a lack of longitudinal follow-ups. The primary aims of this study were to investigate the development and amount of excess skin after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and to relate objective results to subjective experiences. University hospital. From 2009 to 2012, 200 patients were included and assessed with respect to excess skin before and 18 months after bariatric surgery. Patients were measured according to a standardized protocol and completed a questionnaire regarding their subjective experience of excess skin. A follow-up visit was completed in 149 patients (78%). All ptosis measurements decreased after weight reduction except for ptosis on the thighs. When comparing objective measurements with patients' subjective experience and discomfort from excess skin, we found little or low correlation in most body parts (rs .03-.67). The prediction analysis indicated that, for every centimeter of ptosis on the abdomen preoperatively, there was a 2-fold greater probability of having a postoperative ptosis on the abdomen of>3 cm (OR = 2.32, 1.76-3.07). The objective measurement of excess skin provides unique information in postbariatric patients' body habitus. Although the measured excess skin decreased compared with preoperative measurements, patients seem to become more aware of and disturbed and discomforted by it after the weight loss. Importantly, the objectively assessed measurements of excess skin correlated fairly with the perceived discomfort. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Skin Protectants Made of Curable Polymers: Effect of Application on Local Skin Temperature


    Walt, Michael J.; Atwood, Nancy; Bernatchez, St?phanie F.; Ekholm, Bruce P.; Asmus, Robert


    Objective: To measure the skin temperature after application of a new skin protectant intended for incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD), compared with a commercial product with an analogous cyanoacrylate-based chemistry. Approach: Twelve healthy human volunteers received an application of the new product on one thigh and of the comparator on the other thigh. An infrared camera using ThermaCAM? software imaged the skin and measured the temperature at the skin surface over time to character...

  5. Efficacy and Tolerability of a Cosmetic Skin Care Product With Trans-4-t-butylcyclohexanol and Licochalcone A in Subjects With Sensitive Skin Prone to Redness and Rosacea. (United States)

    Jovanovic, Zorica; Angabini, Nariman; Ehlen, Sonja; Mokos, Zrinka Bukvic; Subotic, Milica; Neufang, Gitta


    BACKGROUND: Sensitive skin and rosacea are skin conditions, which may affect the quality of life of the patients considerably. In vitro and in vivo data indicated that the combination of trans-t-butylcyclohexanol and licochalcone A is an effective combination for alleviating the increased sensitivity of rosacea subtype I. OBJECTIVE: Objective of this open dermocosmetic study was to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of a skin care product containing the anti-inflammatory licochalcone A and the TRPV1 antagonist trans-t-butylcyclohexanol in subjects with sensitive skin prone to redness and rosacea. METHODS: 1221 subjects with sensitive skin and rosacea stage 0-II applied the test product twice daily for 4 weeks. Clinical assessment of sensitive skin and rosacea symptoms were performed at baseline and after 4 weeks. Additionally, at treatment end the test subjects filled a self-assessment questionnaire. RESULTS: After 4 weeks of application, both, clinical and subjective assessment have shown improvement of all symptoms of sensitive skin and rosacea in a significant number of subjects (P less than 0.001). The test product was efficacious and very well tolerated also when used in conjunction with pharmacological treatments of the skin condition under scrutiny. Conclusions: The study confirmed the good tolerability and efficacy of the skin care product in the management of sensitive skin prone to redness and rosacea when used alone or in combination with other therapies. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(6):605-611..

  6. Locally advanced skin cancer in an albino, a treatment dilemma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sternocleidomastoid muscle as well as a right eyelid tumour. Two months after the first surgical procedure, ... The tumour was deemed inoperable owing to its extension to the joint and bone. Radiotherapy is not readily ... of actinic injury to the skin, making squamous cell carcinoma the commonest skin malignancy in this ...

  7. Mercury levels in locally manufactured Mexican skin-lightening creams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peregrino, Claudia P; Moreno, Myriam V; Miranda, Silvia V; Rubio, Alma D; Leal, Luz O


    .... They are used for their skin lightening effects. The aim of this work was to analyze the mercury content in some cosmetic whitening creams using the cold vapor technique coupled with atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS...

  8. Local skin and eye lens equivalent doses in interventional neuroradiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandborg, Michael [Linkoeping University, Department of Radiological Sciences, Radiation Physics and Center for Medical Image Science and Visualisation (CMIV), Linkoeping (Sweden); Linkoeping University Hospital, Department of Medical Physics, Linkoeping (Sweden); Rossitti, Sandro [Linkoeping University Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Linkoeping (Sweden); Pettersson, Haakan [Linkoeping University Hospital, Department of Medical Physics, Linkoeping (Sweden)


    To assess patient skin and eye lens doses in interventional neuroradiology and to assess both stochastic and deterministic radiation risks. Kerma-area product (P{sub KA}) was recorded and skin doses measured using thermoluminescence dosimeters. Estimated dose at interventional reference point (IRP) was compared with measured absorbed doses. The average and maximum fluoroscopy times were 32 and 189 min for coiling and 40 and 144 min for embolisation. The average and maximum P{sub KA} for coiling were 121 and 436 Gy cm{sup 2}, respectively, and 189 and 677 Gy cm{sup 2} for embolisation. The average and maximum values of the measured maximum absorbed skin doses were 0.72 and 3.0 Sv, respectively, for coiling and 0.79 and 2.1 Sv for embolisation. Two out of the 52 patients received skin doses in excess of 2 Sv. The average and maximum doses to the eye lens (left eye) were 51 and 515 mSv (coiling) and 71 and 289 mSv (embolisation). The ratio between the measured dose and the dose at the IRP was 0.44 {+-} 0.18 mSv/mGy indicating that the dose displayed by the x-ray unit overestimates the maximum skin dose but is still a valuable indication of the dose. The risk of inducing skin erythema and lens cataract during our hospital procedures is therefore small. (orig.)

  9. Albinism, stigma, subjectivity and global-local discourses in Tanzania. (United States)

    Brocco, Giorgio


    Societal ideas and explanations of albinism at the local level in Tanzania are conceived in terms of family history, social relations, economic status, moral-religious positions, global-local flows of information and humanitarian actions on behalf of people with the congenital condition. This paper aims to show how the subjectivities of people with albinism in Tanzania are shaped and re-shaped through local moral conceptions as well as globalizing (bio)medical explanations of albinism. An exemplary case study of a 28-year-old woman, plus episodes from the lives of seven other informants with the condition, are analyzed in order to understand, on the one hand, local social relationships between people with albinism and other individuals in family and community settings, and on the other hand, the interconnections between persons with albinism and global humanitarian actors and the broadcast media. When stigma and marginalizing behaviors are perceived by individuals with albinism in Tanzania as impeding their social lives, they employ different coping strategies and discourses to enhance social acceptance.

  10. Niacinamide-containing facial moisturizer improves skin barrier and benefits subjects with rosacea. (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana; Ertel, Keith; Berge, Cindy


    A growing body of literature suggests that some moisturizers can improve stratum corneum barrier function, as well as ameliorate dry skin. The clinical signs and symptoms of rosacea, which include increased facial skin dryness and sensitivity, suggest a possible role for such moisturizers as an adjuvant in the management of this condition. This randomized, investigator-blind, controlled observational study (N = 50) was designed to assess whether a niacinamide-containing facial moisturizer would improve the stratum corneum barrier and thus provide a clinical benefit to subjects with rosacea. Subjects with rosacea applied the test moisturizer to their face and to one forearm twice daily for 4 weeks. The other forearm remained untreated as a control. Barrier function on the forearms was assessed instrumentally and using a dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) chemical probe. Stratum corneum hydration also was measured instrumentally. The dermatologist investigator evaluated each subject's rosacea condition over the course of the study, and subjects self-assessed their facial skin condition at study end. Instruments provided objective measures of stratum corneum barrier function and hydration on the face.

  11. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in Albinos with locally advanced skin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    or lack of melanin; a photo protective chemical responsible for pigmentation in the body. Two major forms are described;. Oculocutaneous (OCA) and Ocular albinism1. This makes albinos prone to the effects of ultraviolet radiation2,3 such as skin cancer of which squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the commonest histology4 ...

  12. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in Albinos with locally advanced skin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Albinism in Africa remains a public health concern with increasing numbers of advanced skin cancer in this population at presentation. There are challenges with availability of Radiotherapy (RT) units in Africa which is an important modality for controlling loco-regional disease alone or in combination with surgery. Proposed ...

  13. Local administration of autologous platelet-rich plasma in a female patient with skin ulcer defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Noskov


    Full Text Available The paper describes a clinical observation of the efficiency of local therapy with autologous platelet-rich plasma for .skin ulcer defect in a female with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

  14. Determination of skin temperature under a comfort-controlled liquid-cooled garment in exercising subjects (United States)

    Santamaria, L. J.


    The physiological responses of exercising subjects were investigated under conditions in which the temperature of the coolant water was varied according to the subjective state of thermal comfort. Conditioning water was maintained at a constant flow rate of 240 lb/hr and at a temperature controllable within the range of 45 to 90 F. In addition to skin temperatures, rectal temperature and heart rate were monitored in the course of each trial. Total and evaporative weight losses were determined by measurements before and after each test. The levels on metabolic loading, measured indirectly on the basis of O2 consumption in the course of treadmill activity, ranged from the resting state to 2000 BTU/hr at increments of about 400 BTU. Under the experimental conditions, six volunteer subjects established a level of thermal comfort, as sensed subjectively, by controlling inlet water within the available range of temperature.

  15. Histochemical localization of glutathione dependent NBT-reductase in mouse skin. (United States)

    Shukla, Y


    Localization of the glutathione dependent Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reductase in fresh frozen sections of mouse skin and possible dependence of NBT reductase on tissue thiol levels has been investigated. The fresh frozen tissue sections (8 m thickness) were prepared and incubated in medium containing NBT, reduced glutathione (GSH) and phosphate buffer. The staining for GSH was performed with mercury orange. The activity of the NBT-reductase in mouse skin has been found to be localized in the areas rich in glutathione and actively proliferating area of the skin. The activity of the NBT-reductase seems to be dependent on the glutathione contents.

  16. Anaphylaxis due to Brazil nut skin testing in a walnut-allergic subject. (United States)

    Senna, G; Bonadonna, P; Crivellaro, M; Schiappoli, M; Passalacqua, G


    The diagnosis and management of nut allergy can be difficult because of the possible severity of the clinical manifestations and the cross reactivity between different species. We report a case of anaphylaxis due to skin testing in a young adult with clinically ascertained walnut allergy. After an episode of anaphylaxis due to walnut ingestion, a routine diagnostic workup was carried out, involving skin prick test with commercial extracts, prick by prick with fresh food and CAP-RAST assay for different nuts. Immediately after pricking with fresh Brazil nut, a severe episode of anaphylaxis occurred, that required epinephrine and intravenous steroids. The subject had never eaten Brazil nut before. Therefore we hypothesize a cross reactivity effect, since this phenomenon is well known for tree nuts. Our case suggests that in vivo diagnosis, especially if fresh nuts are used, should be performed only if adequate equipment to treat anaphylaxis is available.

  17. Multiple skin neoplasms in subjects under 40 years of age in Goiania, Brazil (United States)

    Pereira, Samir; Curado, Maria Paula; Ribeiro, Ana Maria Quinteiro


    OBJECTIVE To describe the trend for malignant skin neoplasms in subjects under 40 years of age in a region with high ultraviolet radiation indices. METHODS A descriptive epidemiological study on melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers that was conducted in Goiania, Midwest Brazil, with 1,688 people under 40 years of age, between 1988 and 2009. Cases were obtained from Registro de Câncer de Base Populacional de Goiânia (Goiania’s Population-Based Cancer File). Frequency, trends, and incidence of cases with single and multiple lesions were analyzed; transplants and genetic skin diseases were found in cases with multiple lesions. RESULTS Over the period, 1,995 skin cancer cases were observed to found, of which 1,524 (90.3%) cases had single lesions and 164 (9.7%) had multiple lesions. Regarding single lesions, incidence on men was observed to have risen from 2.4 to 3.1/100,000 inhabitants; it differed significantly for women, shifting from 2.3 to 5.3/100,000 (Annual percentage change – [APC] 3.0%, p = 0.006). Regarding multiple lesions, incidence on men was observed to have risen from 0.30 to 0.98/100,000 inhabitants; for women, it rose from 0.43 to 1.16/100,000 (APC 8.6%, p = 0.003). Genetic skin diseases or transplants were found to have been correlated with 10.0% of cases with multiple lesions – an average of 5.1 lesions per patient. The average was 2.5 in cases without that correlation. CONCLUSIONS Skin cancer on women under 40 years of age has been observed to be increasing for both cases with single and multiple lesions. It is not unusual to find multiple tumors in young people – in most cases, they are not associated with genetic skin diseases or transplants. It is necessary to avoid excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation from childhood. PMID:26465667

  18. The effect of local heat and cold therapy on the intraarticular and skin surface temperature of the knee. (United States)

    Oosterveld, F G; Rasker, J J; Jacobs, J W; Overmars, H J


    To evaluate the effects of local application of ice chips, ligno-paraffin, short-wave diathermy, and nitrogen-cold air on skin and intraarticular temperature. Forty-two healthy subjects were divided into 4 treatment groups. A temperature probe was inserted into the knee joint cavity and another placed on the overlying skin, and changes in temperature over 3 hours, by treatment group, were recorded. The mean skin surface temperature dropped from 27.9 degrees C to 11.5 degrees C after application of ice chips, and from 28.8 degrees C to 13.8 degrees C after application of cold air. The mean intraarticular temperature decreased from 31.9 degrees C to 22.5 degrees C and from 32.9 degrees C to 28.8 degrees C, respectively, after these 2 treatments. Shortwave diathermy increased skin temperature by 2.4 degrees C; intraarticular temperature was increased only 1.4 degrees C by short-wave diathermy. Treatment with ligno-paraffin increased the skin surface temperature 8.9 degrees C; the temperature in the joint cavity was increased 3.5 degrees C. The use of short-wave diathermy and superficial heat packs in the treatment of patients with arthritis may potentially cause harm by increasing intraarticular temperature. This may have major implications regarding treatment policy for patients with arthritis.

  19. Repeated local administration of noradrenaline or saline inhibits thermal hyperalgesia in pain-sensitized human skin (United States)

    Drummond, Peter D; Lipnicki, Darren M


    Aims Noradrenaline increases thermal hyperalgesia in skin sensitized to heat by the topical application of capsaicin. The aim of this study was to determine whether desensitization to the hyperalgesic effects of noradrenaline would develop after repeated local administrations of noradrenaline in the skin of the forearm. Methods Noradrenaline and saline were administered to the forearm by iontophoresis (200 µA, 2 min, over a surface area of 3.1 cm2) two times per day for 4–10 days in 19 healthy subjects. The adequacy of the desensitization procedure was evaluated by measuring noradrenaline-induced vasoconstriction with laser Doppler fluxmetry. Thresholds and pain ratings to heat were then investigated at treated and control sites before and after the topical application of capsaicin, and after the iontophoresis of noradrenaline. Results At previously untreated sites blood flow was 49 ± 14% (± 95% confidence intervals) lower than flow at reference sites after the iontophoresis of noradrenaline. Vascular signs of adrenergic desensitization developed after 4–5 days of repeated local administration of noradrenaline in the majority of subjects. In those whose vessels constricted after the acute administration of noradrenaline, the adrenergic response averaged 23 ± 15% at the desensitized site compared with 61 ± 9% at previously untreated sites (P noradrenaline and saline treatments inhibited thermal hyperalgesia after the topical application of capsaicin. Heat-pain thresholds averaged 43.2 ± 2.5 °C and 43.0 ± 2.3 °C at the noradrenaline and saline pretreated sites compared with 41.4 ± 2.7 °C at the control site (P noradrenaline and saline pretreated sites compared with 5.3 ± 1.6 at the control site (P noradrenaline heat-pain ratings increased 1.6 ± 1.4 at the site pretreated with saline (P noradrenaline (not significant), consistent with local adrenergic desensitization. Conclusions We conclude that repeated iontophoreses of noradrenaline or saline

  20. Is Kinesio Taping to Generate Skin Convolutions Effective for Increasing Local Blood Circulation? (United States)

    Yang, Jae-Man; Lee, Jung-Hoon


    BACKGROUND It is unclear whether traditional application of Kinesio taping, which produces wrinkles in the skin, is effective for improving blood circulation. This study investigated local skin temperature changes after the application of an elastic therapeutic tape using convolution and non-convolution taping methods (CTM/NCTM). MATERIAL AND METHODS Twenty-eight pain-free men underwent CTM and NCTM randomly applied to the right and left sides of the lower back. Using infrared thermography, skin temperature was measured before, immediately after application, 5 min later, 15 min later, and after the removal of the tape. RESULTS Both CTM and NCTM showed a slight, but significant, decrease in skin temperature for up to 5 min. The skin temperature at 15 min and after the removal of the tape was not significantly different from the initial temperature for CTM and NCTM. There were also no significant differences in the skin temperatures between CTM and NCTM. CONCLUSIONS Our findings do not support a therapeutic effect of wrinkling the skin with elastic tape application as a technique to increase local blood flow.

  1. Validation of the thermophysiological model by Fiala for prediction of local skin temperatures (United States)

    Martínez, Natividad; Psikuta, Agnes; Kuklane, Kalev; Quesada, José Ignacio Priego; de Anda, Rosa María Cibrián Ortiz; Soriano, Pedro Pérez; Palmer, Rosario Salvador; Corberán, José Miguel; Rossi, René Michel; Annaheim, Simon


    The most complete and realistic physiological data are derived from direct measurements during human experiments; however, they present some limitations such as ethical concerns, time and cost burden. Thermophysiological models are able to predict human thermal response in a wide range of environmental conditions, but their use is limited due to lack of validation. The aim of this work was to validate the thermophysiological model by Fiala for prediction of local skin temperatures against a dedicated database containing 43 different human experiments representing a wide range of conditions. The validation was conducted based on root-mean-square deviation (rmsd) and bias. The thermophysiological model by Fiala showed a good precision when predicting core and mean skin temperature (rmsd 0.26 and 0.92 °C, respectively) and also local skin temperatures for most body sites (average rmsd for local skin temperatures 1.32 °C). However, an increased deviation of the predictions was observed for the forehead skin temperature (rmsd of 1.63 °C) and for the thigh during exercising exposures (rmsd of 1.41 °C). Possible reasons for the observed deviations are lack of information on measurement circumstances (hair, head coverage interference) or an overestimation of the sweat evaporative cooling capacity for the head and thigh, respectively. This work has highlighted the importance of collecting details about the clothing worn and how and where the sensors were attached to the skin for achieving more precise results in the simulations.

  2. Seizures during medetomindine sedation and local anaesthesia in two dogs undergoing skin biopsy. (United States)

    Rainger, Je; Baxter, Cg; Vogelnest, Lj; Dart, Cm


    Each of two dogs presented for multiple skin biopsies were sedated with intravenous medetomidine and lignocaine was injected subcutaneously to provide local anaesthesia for skin biopsy. One dog had a seizure during skin biopsy and again immediately following reversal of medetomidine with atipamezole. The other dog developed seizures 2 h following skin biopsy at which time the medetomidine was reversed with atipamezole. Both dogs were neurologically normal with no history of seizures prior to the procedure and remained neurologically normal for 14 weeks and 9 months, respectively, following the procedure. A drug interaction between the alpha(2)-adrenergic agonist medetomidine and lignocaine is suspected and highlights the potential for seizures following the subcutaneous administration of relatively large doses of lignocaine under medetomidine sedation.

  3. [Experience of local radiation therapy and total irradiation of the skin by electron beam in patients with primary B and T-cell lymphomas of the skin]. (United States)

    Il'in, N V; Korytova, L I; Leenman, E E; Vinogradova, Iu N; Nikolaeva, E N; Gracheva, A V; Cherviakov, A M


    The problem of the treatment of primary malignant lymphomas of the skin is now becoming increasingly important due to the increase of cases among people of working age and disability of these patients. In most cases lymphomas of the skin have a T-cell origin, the most common of skin lymphoma is mycosis fungoides. It is poorly studied the role of electronic radiation therapy in local and systemic skin lymphomas as well as methodological questions of its application, so research in this field is actual. Therefore the aim of the study is improving of the efficiency of therapy in patients affected by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with skin lesions by the use of local radiation therapy and total skin irradiation by electron beam.

  4. Cytochromes P450 and Skin Cancer: Role of Local Endocrine Pathways (United States)

    Slominski, Andrzej T.; Zmijewski, Michal A.; Semak, Igor; Zbytek, Blazej; Pisarchik, Alexander; Li, Wei; Zjawiony, Jordan; Tuckey, Robert C.


    Skin is the largest body organ forming a metabolically active barrier between external and internal environments. The metabolic barrier is composed of cytochromes P450 (CYPs) that regulate its homeostasis through activation or inactivation of biologically relevant molecules. In this review we focus our attention on local steroidogenic and secosteroidogenic systems in relation to skin cancer, e.g., prevention, attenuation of tumor progression and therapy. The local steroidogenic system is composed of locally expressed CYPs involved in local production of androgens, estrogens, gluco- and mineralo-corticosteroids from cholesterol (initiated by CYP11A1) or from steroid precursors delivered to the skin, and of their metabolism and/or inactivation. Cutaneous 7-hydroxylases (CYP7A1, CYP7B1 and CYP39) potentially can produce 7-hydroxy/oxy-steroids/sterols with modifying effects on local tumorigenesis. CYP11A1 also transforms 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC)→22(OH)7DHC→20,22(OH)2-7DHC→7-dehydropregnenolone, which can be further metabolized to other 5,7-steroidal dienes. These 5,7-dienal intermediates are converted by ultraviolet radiation B (UVB) into secosteroids which show pro-differentiation and anti-cancer properties. Finally, the skin is the site of activation of vitamin D3 through two alternative pathways. The classical one involves sequential hydroxylation at positions 25 and 1 to produce active 1,25(OH)2D3, which is further inactivated through hydroxylation at C24. The novel pathway is initiated by CYP11A1 with predominant production of 20(OH)D3 which is further metabolized to biologically active but non-calcemic D3-hydroxyderivatives. Classical and non-classical (novel) vitamin D analogs show pro-differentiation, anti-proliferative and anticancer properties. In addition, melatonin is metabolized by local CYPs. In conclusion cutaneously expressed CYPs have significant effects on skin physiology and pathology trough regulation of its chemical milieu. PMID:23869782

  5. Skin test reactivity of allergic subjects to basidiomycetes' crude extracts in a tropical environment. (United States)

    Rivera-Mariani, Félix E; Nazario-Jiménez, Sylvette; López-Malpica, Fernando; Bolaños-Rosero, Benjamín


    Fungal allergies can be detected by the skin prick test with extracts of the organisms, but not all fungi, including the basidiomycetes, are being examined. We determined the level of sensitization to basidiomycetes in allergic subjects and compared their reactivity to commercial extracts commonly used to detect allergies. Crude spore extracts of the basidiomycetes Ganoderma applanatum, Chlorophyllum molybdites, and Pleurotus ostreatus, which are known to release numerous spores, were examined along with commercial extracts on 33 subjects with asthma, allergic or non-allergic rhinitis. Overall, affected subjects showed the highest reactivity to mites (36%), followed by Ganoderma applanatum (30%), grass (27%) Chlorophyllum molybdites (12%) and Pleurotus ostreatus (12%). Allergic rhinitis patients were most reactive to mites (58%), grass (42%), Ganoderma applanatum (25%), Penicillium spp. (25%), and cat (17%). Those with asthma primarily responded to mites (44%), Ganoderma applanatum (44%), grass (33%), and Pleurotus ostreatus (22%). IgE levels correlated with positive basidiomycetes extracts. This finding, coupled with higher reactivity to basidiospores as compared to mitospores, and the similar sensitivities of patients to G. applanatum and mites, suggest that basidiomycetes are important allergen sources in the tropics.

  6. Skin prick test results of atopic asthmatic subjects in a chest disease clinic in Sanliurfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Koç


    Full Text Available Objective: Skin prick test (SPT is used widely to determine the allergens in atopic patients. In this study, we aimed to determine the spectrum of aeroallergen sensitivity of atopic asthmatic subjects in Şanlıurfa district. Methods: We evaluated clinical, demographic findings and SPT results of 95 male and 162 female in a total 257 patients who had asthma and allergic symptoms. Results: Most common allergens causing a sensitivity reaction detected in our clinic were as follows; cockroach (56.8%, wheat pollen (53.3%, corn pollen (47.4%, grass pollen (36.5%, poplar tree pollen (26%, house dust mite (19.4%, pepper (16.7% and cat dander (15.1%. Conclusion: High levels of sensitivity to wheat and corn pollens and relatively low sensitivity levels of cat dander results meet our expectations in the area of agricultural land and where pet ownership is not common.

  7. Application of dermal microdialysis for the determination of bioavailability of clobetasol propionate applied to the skin of human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Au, W L; Skinner, M F; Benfeldt, E


    Dermal microdialysis was used to assess the bioavailability of a topical corticosteroid, clobetasol propionate, following application onto the skin of human subjects. The penetration of clobetasol propionate from a 4% m/v ethanolic solution applied onto 4 sites on one forearm of healthy human vol...... drug of interest. Furthermore, the study clearly demonstrated the application of dermal microdialysis as a valuable tool to assess the bioavailability/bioequivalence of clobetasol propionate penetration into the skin following topical application....

  8. Hydrogel increases localized transport regions and skin permeability during low frequency ultrasound treatment (United States)

    Pereira, Tatiana Aparecida; Ramos, Danielle Nishida; Lopez, Renata F. V.


    Low frequency ultrasound (LFU) enhances skin permeability via the formation of heterogeneous localized transport regions (LTRs). In this work, hydrogels with different zeta potentials were used as the coupling medium for LFU to investigate their contribution to LTR patterns and to the skin penetration of two model drugs, calcein and doxorubicin (DOX). When hydrogels were used, LTRs covering at least a 3-fold greater skin area were observed compared to those resulting from traditional LFU treatment and sodium lauryl sulfate. More LTRs resulted in an enhancement of calcein skin permeation. The zeta potential of the hydrogels affected the skin penetration of the positively charged DOX; the cationic coupling medium decreased the DOX recovered from the viable epidermis by 2.8-fold, whereas the anionic coupling medium increased the DOX accumulation in the stratum corneum by 4.4-fold. Therefore, LFU/hydrogel treatment increases LTRs areas and can target ionized drugs to specific skin layers depending on the zeta potential of the coupling medium.

  9. Blood flow in the forearm in patients with Rheumatoid arthritis and healthy subjects under local thermotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mucha


    Full Text Available Objectives: Muscle blood flow in the forearm of patients with rheuma-toid arthritis and healthy volunteers following treatment with temperature increasingarm baths, mudpacks and short- or decimeter-wave diathermy was studied in thisinvestigation. The aim of the study was to find out the difference of reactive hyperemia between the different temperature methods as well as the influence on theconsensual reaction. Subjects: Eighty patients with rheumatoid arthritis, stage 3 according toSteinbrocker, as well as 80 healthy human subjects had been assigned numerically in the four therapy- and controlgroups. Patients with diseases influencing the peripheral blood flow were excluded. Design: Blood flow was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography in both forearms with the subjects lyingsupine. The application of the local heat therapies had been excluded on the left forearm. The forearm blood flow wasmonitored before heat therapy, directly after as well as in two further 10 minutes intervals. An analysis of variancewas used to determine the influence on blood flow of the response to the heat therapies in patients with rheumatoidarthritis and healthy subjects.Results: Under homogeneous starting conditions and a statistically uniformed high blood flow in rest the reactive values of blood flow on the left-hand side of application and the right consensual side showed high significant differencesbetween all methods of therapy. Differences between the patients and the healthy subjects only showed tendencies withpartially lower reactions, concerning the patients with rheumatoid arthritis. All methods of heat therapy caused a statistically provable consensual reaction that turned out smaller after diathermic methods. Here the post therapeuticreaction of the blood flow on the side of application was also lower or rather shorter. Conclusion: Greater differences of the blood flow in rest between the patients with rheumatoid arthritis and healthysubjects

  10. Local burn injury impairs epithelial permeability and antimicrobial peptide barrier function in distal unburned skin. (United States)

    Plichta, Jennifer K; Droho, Steve; Curtis, Brenda J; Patel, Parita; Gamelli, Richard L; Radek, Katherine A


    Our objective was to characterize the mechanisms by which local burn injury compromises epithelial barrier function in burn margin, containing the elements necessary for healing of the burn site, and in distal unburned skin, which serves as potential donor tissue. Experimental mouse scald burn injury. University Research Laboratory. C57/Bl6 Male mice, 8-12 weeks old. To confirm that dehydration was not contributing to our observed barrier defects, in some experiments mice received 1 mL of saline fluid immediately after burn, while a subgroup received an additional 0.5 mL at 4 hours and 1 mL at 24 hours following burn. We then assessed skin pH and transepidermal water loss every 12 hours on the burn wounds for 72 hours postburn. Burn margin exhibited increased epidermal barrier permeability indicated by higher pH, greater transepidermal water loss, and reduced lipid synthesis enzyme expression and structural protein production up to 96 hours postburn. By contrast, antimicrobial peptide production and protease activity were elevated in burn margin. Skin extracts from burn margin did not exhibit changes in the ability to inhibit bacterial growth. However, distal unburned skin from burned mice also demonstrated an impaired response to barrier disruption, indicated by elevated transepidermal water loss and reduced lipid synthesis enzyme and structural protein expression up to 96 hours postburn. Furthermore, skin extracts from distal unburned skin exhibited greater protease activity and a reduced capacity to inhibit bacterial growth of several skin pathogens. Finally, we established that antimicrobial peptide levels were also altered in the lung and bladder, which are common sites of secondary infection in burn-injured patients. These findings reveal several undefined deficiencies in epithelial barrier function at the burn margin, potential donor skin sites, and organs susceptible to secondary infection. These functional and biochemical data provide novel insights into

  11. Entactin: ultrastructural localization of an ubiquitous basement membrane glycoprotein in mouse skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horiguchi, Y; Fine, J D; Ljubimov, A V


    Entactin is a recently described sulfated glycoprotein component of mouse endodermal cell-derived extracellular matrix and is present in a number of basement membranes. It has been ultrastructurally localized to both lamina densa and adjacent epithelial cell membranes in rodent kidney. In the pre......Entactin is a recently described sulfated glycoprotein component of mouse endodermal cell-derived extracellular matrix and is present in a number of basement membranes. It has been ultrastructurally localized to both lamina densa and adjacent epithelial cell membranes in rodent kidney......-specific rat x mouse monoclonal antibody. At the light microscopic level, entactin was present in all skin basement membranes. On NaCl-split skin, staining was noted solely on the dermal portion. At the electron microscopic level, in intact skin, entactin was primarily localized to the lamina densa...... and adjacent upper papillary dermis. However, smaller amounts of immunoreaction products were also detectable within the lamina lucida and in close apposition to overlying hemidesmosomes. In partially separated skin, immunoreactants were similarly noted above the level of the lamina densa. However...

  12. A Comparative Study Between 1% and 0.1% Lidocain with Adrenaline in Skin Local Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zamanian


    Full Text Available Lidocain solution 1-2% have used with or without adrenaline for skin local anesthesia. Also normal salin, diphenhydramine and bacteriostatic salin have been used. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 1% lidocain with 0.1% lidocain in local skin anesthesia.This study was carried out by triple blind method on 140 patients that submitted to Hamedan Sina Hospital in 2000. These patients divided in two groups randomly, 70 cases received 1% lidocain and other 70 cases received 0.1% lidocain. The pain assessment score was between 0-10 that was asked from each patient and collected data analyzed by statistical methods.This study showed that 51.1% of patients that received 1% lidocain and 48.9% that received 0.1% lidocain did not have any pain during injection (P>0.05. Also 54.3% of patients that received 1% lidocain and 45.7% that received 0.1% lidocain solution did not have any pain throw the procedure (P>0.05.The effect of 0.1% lidocain solution had no much difference from 1% lidocain in skin local anesthesia and thus it is suggested to use it for wide anesthesia in skin surgeries.

  13. Pen needle design influences ease of insertion, pain, and skin trauma in subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstmark, Kezia A; Jensen, Morten L; Berg Madsen, Nils


    of insertion, pain and skin trauma. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: 30 subjects with injection-treated type 2 diabetes and body mass index 25-35 kg/m(2) were included in the single-blinded study. Each subject received abdominal insertions with 18 different types of needles. All needles were tested twice per...... was dependent of SBP increase. CONCLUSIONS: The shape and design of a needle and the needle tip affect ease of insertion, pain and skin trauma. Relations are seen across different data acquisition methods and across species, enabling needle performance testing outside of clinical trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION...

  14. Effect of Localized Mechanical Indentation on Skin Water Content Evaluated Using OCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit A. Gurjarpadhye


    Full Text Available The highly disordered refractive index distribution in skin causes multiple scattering of incident light and limits optical imaging and therapeutic depth. We hypothesize that localized mechanical compression reduces scattering by expulsing unbound water from the dermal collagen matrix, increasing protein concentration and decreasing the number of index mismatch interfaces between tissue constituents. A swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT system was used to assess changes in thickness and group refractive index in ex vivo porcine skin, as well as changes in signal intensity profile when imaging in vivo human skin. Compression of ex vivo porcine skin resulted in an effective strain of −58.5%, an increase in refractive index from 1.39 to 1.50, and a decrease in water volume fraction from 0.66 to 0.20. In vivo OCT signal intensity increased by 1.5 dB at a depth of 1 mm, possibly due to transport of water away from the compressed regions. These finding suggest that local compression could be used to enhance light-based diagnostic and therapeutic techniques.

  15. Patients' subjective visual experiences during vitreous surgery under local anesthesia. (United States)

    Yu, Ji-Feng; Liang, Li; Wen, Yu-Qin; Liu, Li; Huang, Yi-Fei


    To investigate patient's visual experience during vitreous surgery under local anesthesia. A prospective and randomized study of 76 patients that underwent vitreous surgeries in our hospital between July 2010 and December 2010 was designed. All patients were interviewed half an hour before and within 1 hour after the surgery using a standardized questionnaire. Basic characteristics of patients and their intraoperative visual experiences like light, color, moving object, pain, fear, and the desire for general anesthesia before and after the surgery were recorded. Sixty patients (78.9%) perceived at least light perception, and 16 patients (21.1%) got no light perception throughout the entire duration of the operation. Forty one patients (53.9%) perceived only light, while 19 patients (25%) experienced moving objects. Thirty nine patients (51.3%) were frightened during their intraoperative visual experiences. Patients with better preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were more likely to be frightened (p=0.002). The frightened experience was affected notably by the different perceptions during operation, moving object (p=0.024), light (p=0.071), and color (p=0.071). Patients below 50 years old, especially from 20 to 30, were more likely to choose general anesthesia after the vitreous surgery. Most patients (78.9%) experienced at least light perception during the vitreous surgery under local anesthesia. There were no significant differences between the various visual experiences and their basic characteristics. Patients with better preoperative BCVA, perceived moving objects in their visual sensations seemed more likely to be frightened.

  16. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 skin cancer prevention study of DFMO in subjects with previous history of skin cancer (United States)

    Bailey, HH; Kim, K; Verma, A; Sielaff, K; Larson, PO; Snow, S; Lenaghan, T; Viner, JL; Douglass, J; Dreckschmidt, N; Hamielec, M; Pomplun, M; Sharata, HH; Puchalsky, D; Berg, ER; Havighurst, T; Carbone, PP


    Preclinical studies have shown the inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) by α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and resultant decreases in tissue concentrations of polyamines (putrescine & spermidine) prevents neoplastic developments in many tissue types. Clinical studies of oral DFMO at 500 mg/m2/day revealed it to be safe and tolerable and resulted in significant inhibition of phorbol ester-induced skin ODC activity. Two hundred and ninety-one participants (mean 61 y.o., 60% male) with a history of prior non-melanoma skin cancer (mean 4.5 skin cancers) were randomized to oral DFMO (500 mg/m2/day) or placebo for 4–5 years. There was a trend toward a history of more prior skin cancers in subjects randomized to placebo, but all other characteristics including sunscreen and NSAID use were evenly distributed. Evaluation of 1200-person years of follow-up revealed a new non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) rate of 0.5 events/person/year. The primary endpoint, new NMSC’s, was not significantly different between subjects taking DFMO and placebo (260 vs. 363 cancers, p=0.069, two-sample t test). Evaluation of basal cell (BCC) and squamous cell (SCC) cancers separately revealed very little difference in SCC between treatment groups but a significant difference in new BCC (DFMO 163 cancers; Placebo 243 cancers; expressed as event rate 0.28 BCC/person/year vs. 0.40 BCC/person/year, p=0.03). Compliance with DFMO was >90% and it appeared to be well tolerated with evidence of mild ototoxicity as measured by serial audiometric examination when compared to placebo subjects. Analysis of normal skin biopsies revealed a significant (pskin cancer taking daily DFMO had an insignificant reduction (p=0.069), in new NMSC that was predominantly due to a marked reduction in new BCC. Based on these data, the potential of DFMO, alone or in combination, to prevent skin cancers should be explored further. PMID:20051371

  17. Seasonal dynamics of chemokine receptors and CD62L in subjects with asymptomatic skin sensitization to birch and grass pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assing, K; Bodtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.


    Asymptomatic skin sensitization (AS) has been shown to be a risk factor for respiratory allergic disease. CCR4, CXCR1 and CD62L have all been assigned a role in the immunopathogenesis of allergy. Memory T-cell expression of CCR4, CXCR1 and CD62L has not hitherto been investigated in subjects...

  18. Merkel cell tumor of the skin treated with localized radiotherapy: are widely negative margins required?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Parda


    Full Text Available Merkel’s cell carcinoma is a rare cutaneous tumor that can affect a wide variety of sites throughout the body. Commonly, it affects the skin alone and the management of limited disease can be confusing since the natural history of the disease involves distant metastasis. Traditional management has required wide local excision with negative margins of resection. We describe a case treated with local therapy alone and review the literature to suggest that complete microscopic excision may not be required if adjuvant radiotherapy is used.

  19. Human skin penetration and local effects of topical nano zinc oxide after occlusion and barrier impairment. (United States)

    Leite-Silva, V R; Sanchez, W Y; Studier, H; Liu, D C; Mohammed, Y H; Holmes, A M; Ryan, E M; Haridass, I N; Chandrasekaran, N C; Becker, W; Grice, J E; Benson, H A E; Roberts, M S


    Public health concerns continue to exist over the safety of zinc oxide nanoparticles that are commonly used in sunscreen formulations. In this work, we assessed the effects of two conditions which may be encountered in everyday sunscreen use, occlusion and a compromised skin barrier, on the penetration and local toxicity of two topically applied zinc oxide nanoparticle products. Caprylic/capric triglyceride (CCT) suspensions of commercially used zinc oxide nanoparticles, either uncoated or with a silane coating, were applied to intact and barrier impaired skin of volunteers, without and with occlusion for a period of six hours. The exposure time was chosen to simulate normal in-use conditions. Multiphoton tomography with fluorescence lifetime imaging was used to noninvasively assess zinc oxide penetration and cellular metabolic changes that could be indicative of toxicity. We found that zinc oxide nanoparticles did not penetrate into the viable epidermis of intact or barrier impaired skin of volunteers, without or with occlusion. We also observed no apparent toxicity in the viable epidermis below the application sites. These findings were validated by ex vivo human skin studies in which zinc penetration was assessed by multiphoton tomography with fluorescence lifetime imaging as well as Zinpyr-1 staining and toxicity was assessed by MTS assays in zinc oxide treated skin cryosections. In conclusion, applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles under occlusive in-use conditions to volunteers are not associated with any measurable zinc oxide penetration into, or local toxicity in the viable epidermis below the application site. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. QSAR Study of Skin Sensitization Using Local Lymph Node Assay Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Demchuk


    Full Text Available Abstract: Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD is a common work-related skin disease that often develops as a result of repetitive skin exposures to a sensitizing chemical agent. A variety of experimental tests have been suggested to assess the skin sensitization potential. We applied a method of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR to relate measured and calculated physical-chemical properties of chemical compounds to their sensitization potential. Using statistical methods, each of these properties, called molecular descriptors, was tested for its propensity to predict the sensitization potential. A few of the most informative descriptors were subsequently selected to build a model of skin sensitization. In this work sensitization data for the murine Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA were used. In principle, LLNA provides a standardized continuous scale suitable for quantitative assessment of skin sensitization. However, at present many LLNA results are still reported on a dichotomous scale, which is consistent with the scale of guinea pig tests, which were widely used in past years. Therefore, in this study only a dichotomous version of the LLNA data was used. To the statistical end, we relied on the logistic regression approach. This approach provides a statistical tool for investigating and predicting skin sensitization that is expressed only in categorical terms of activity and nonactivity. Based on the data of compounds used in this study, our results suggest a QSAR model of ACD that is based on the following descriptors: nDB (number of double bonds, C-003 (number of CHR3 molecular subfragments, GATS6M (autocorrelation coefficient and HATS6m (GETAWAY descriptor, although the relevance of the identified descriptors to the continuous ACD QSAR has yet to be shown. The proposed QSAR model gives a percentage of positively predicted responses of 83% on the training set of compounds, and in cross validation it correctly identifies 79% of

  1. New Mydriasis-Free Electroretinogram Recorded with Skin Electrodes in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Asakawa


    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the reproducibility and consistency of the new mydriasis-free electroretinogram (ERG with a skin electrode (RETeval device, to determine the normative values of parameters, and to clarify the usefulness of pupil records to colored-light stimulus. Methods. A total of 100 eyes of 50 healthy subjects (mean age, 21.4 years were enrolled. The diagnostic parameters obtained by the RETeval device were examined under the following conditions. The reproducibility was determined with the coefficient of variation (CV. The consistency was examined by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs. The mean value and the normal range were analyzed with a 95% confidence interval as the normative values of parameters. The correlation of parameters to pupil records (area ratio, constriction ratio and flicker ERG was also examined in the diabetic retinopathy assessment protocol. Results. From the CV for each of the two measurements, the amplitude has a low reproducibility compared with the implicit time. Generally good consistency was obtained with both ERG parameters (ICCs = 0.48–0.92. Moderate correlations were found for the white-, red-, and blue-light stimulus in the area ratio and the constriction ratio, respectively (r = 0.44–0.62; P = 0.010–<0.0001. No correlation was observed between pupil and flicker parameters (r = 0.06–0.34; P = 0.646–0.051. Conclusions. The RETeval device was suggested as a possible screening device to detect the visual afferent diseases by evaluating in combination with the ERG recording and the colored-light pupil response.

  2. The influence of local pressure on evaluation parameters of skin blood perfusion and fluorescence (United States)

    Zherebtsov, E. A.; Kandurova, K. Y.; Seryogina, E. S.; Kozlov, I. O.; Dremin, V. V.; Zherebtsova, A. I.; Dunaev, A. V.; Meglinski, I.


    This article presents the results of the study of the pressure applied on optical diagnostic probes as a significant factor affecting the results of measurements. During stepwise increasing and decreasing of local pressure on skin we conducted measurements using the methods of laser Doppler flowmetry and fluorescence spectroscopy. It was found out that pressure on optical probe has sufficient impact on skin microcirculation to affect registered fluorescence intensity. Data obtained in this study are of interest for design and development of diagnostic technologies for wearable devices. This data will also inform further investigation into issues of compensation of blood absorption influence on fluorescence spectrum, allowing increased accuracy and reproducibility of measurements by fluorescence spectroscopy methods in optical diagnosis.

  3. β-Adrenergic blockade does not impair the skin blood flow sensitivity to local heating in burned and nonburned skin under neutral and hot environments in children. (United States)

    Rivas, Eric; McEntire, Serina J; Herndon, David N; Mlcak, Ronald P; Suman, Oscar E


    We tested the hypothesis that propranolol, a drug given to burn patients to reduce hypermetabolism/cardiac stress, may inhibit heat dissipation by changing the sensitivity of skin blood flow (SkBF) to local heating under neutral and hot conditions. In a randomized double-blind study, a placebo was given to eight burned children, while propranolol was given to 13 burned children with similar characteristics (mean±SD: 11.9±3 years, 147±20 cm, 45±23 kg, 56±12% Total body surface area burned). Nonburned children (n=13, 11.4±3 years, 152±15 cm, 52±13 kg) served as healthy controls. A progressive local heating protocol characterized SkBF responses in burned and unburned skin and nonburned control skin under the two environmental conditions (23 and 34°C) via laser Doppler flowmetry. Resting SkBF was greater in burned and unburned skin compared to the nonburned control (main effect: skin, Pburned; 38±36 unburned vs 9±8 control %SkBFmax ). No difference was found for maximal SkBF capacity to local heating between groups. Additionally, dose-response curves for the sensitivity of SkBF to local heating were not different among burned or unburned skin, and nonburned control skin (EC50 , P>.05) under either condition. Therapeutic propranolol does not negatively affect SkBF under neutral or hot environmental conditions and further compromise temperature regulation in burned children. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Supraclavicular skin temperature as a measure of 18F-FDG uptake by BAT in human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariëtte R Boon

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT has emerged as a novel player in energy homeostasis in humans and is considered a potential new target for combating obesity and related diseases. The current 'gold standard' for quantification of BAT volume and activity is cold-induced 18F-FDG uptake in BAT. However, use of this technique is limited by cost and radiation exposure. Given the fact that BAT is a thermogenic tissue, mainly located in the supraclavicular region, the aim of the current study was to investigate whether cold-induced supraclavicular skin temperature and core body temperature may be alternative markers of BAT activation in humans.BAT volume and activity were measured in 24 healthy lean adolescent males (mean age 24.1±0.8 years, using cold-induced 18F-FDG uptake with PET-CT. Core body temperature was measured continuously in the small intestine with use of an ingestible telemetric capsule and skin temperature was measured by eighteen wireless iButtons attached to the skin following ISO-defined locations.Proximal and distal (hand/feet skin temperatures markedly decreased upon cold exposure, while supraclavicular skin temperature significantly increased (35.2±0.1 vs. 35.5±0.1°C, p = 0.001. Furthermore, cold-induced supraclavicular skin temperature positively correlated with both total (R2 = 0.28, P = 0.010 and clavicular BAT volume (R2 = 0.20, P = 0.030 and clavicular SUVmax (R2 = 0.27, P = 0.010, while core body temperature did not.Supraclavicular skin temperature as measured by iButtons may have predictive value for BAT detection in adult humans. This is highly desirable considering the increasing interest in pharmacological interventions to stimulate BAT in human subjects.NTR 2473.

  5. Supraclavicular skin temperature as a measure of 18F-FDG uptake by BAT in human subjects. (United States)

    Boon, Mariëtte R; Bakker, Leontine E H; van der Linden, Rianne A D; Pereira Arias-Bouda, Lenka; Smit, Frits; Verberne, Hein J; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D; Jazet, Ingrid M; Rensen, Patrick C N


    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has emerged as a novel player in energy homeostasis in humans and is considered a potential new target for combating obesity and related diseases. The current 'gold standard' for quantification of BAT volume and activity is cold-induced 18F-FDG uptake in BAT. However, use of this technique is limited by cost and radiation exposure. Given the fact that BAT is a thermogenic tissue, mainly located in the supraclavicular region, the aim of the current study was to investigate whether cold-induced supraclavicular skin temperature and core body temperature may be alternative markers of BAT activation in humans. BAT volume and activity were measured in 24 healthy lean adolescent males (mean age 24.1±0.8 years), using cold-induced 18F-FDG uptake with PET-CT. Core body temperature was measured continuously in the small intestine with use of an ingestible telemetric capsule and skin temperature was measured by eighteen wireless iButtons attached to the skin following ISO-defined locations. Proximal and distal (hand/feet) skin temperatures markedly decreased upon cold exposure, while supraclavicular skin temperature significantly increased (35.2±0.1 vs. 35.5±0.1°C, p = 0.001). Furthermore, cold-induced supraclavicular skin temperature positively correlated with both total (R2 = 0.28, P = 0.010) and clavicular BAT volume (R2 = 0.20, P = 0.030) and clavicular SUVmax (R2 = 0.27, P = 0.010), while core body temperature did not. Supraclavicular skin temperature as measured by iButtons may have predictive value for BAT detection in adult humans. This is highly desirable considering the increasing interest in pharmacological interventions to stimulate BAT in human subjects. NTR 2473.

  6. The effect of local application of natural hirudin on random pattern skin flap microcirculation in a porcine model. (United States)

    Yin, Guo-Qian; Sun, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Gang


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of local administration of hirudin in improving random pattern skin flap microcirculation in a porcine model. Five Chinese minipigs were used and six dorsal random pattern skin flaps were elevated in each animal (4 × 14 cm). All flaps (n = 30) were assigned to experimental (n = 10), control (n = 10), and sham (n = 10) groups. Flap edema measurement showed that edema in experimental flaps was more severe (P skin flap microcirculation in over dimensioned random pattern skin flaps in a porcine model.

  7. The effect of local hyperglycemia on skin cells in vitro and on wound healing in euglycemic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Carla R; Singh, Mansher; Sørensen, Jens A


    BACKGROUND: Multiple previous studies have established that high systemic blood glucose concentration impairs skin wound healing. However, the effects of local hyperglycemia on wound healing are not well defined. Comprehensive animal studies and in vitro studies using both fibroblasts and keratin......BACKGROUND: Multiple previous studies have established that high systemic blood glucose concentration impairs skin wound healing. However, the effects of local hyperglycemia on wound healing are not well defined. Comprehensive animal studies and in vitro studies using both fibroblasts...

  8. Primary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Skin with Multiple Local Recurrences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dimitrov Tonev


    Full Text Available Primary adenoid cystic carcinoma (PACC of the skin is a rare tumor with fewer than 70 cases studied in detail in the English literature. This type of tumor shows a prolonged course and a growth pattern usually manifested by multiple local recurrences and has a low potential for distant metastases. The most important modality for primary treatment is surgical resection followed by radiotherapy. We report a woman aged 43 years at the time of diagnosis, who presented with a slow-growing nodule in the right axilla without lymph node enlargement. A wide local excision was performed, and the histology revealed an adenoid cystic carcinoma. During the next 24 years, another four local recurrences were excised (the last one in 2015 and confirmed histologically to be adenoid cystic carcinoma. The patient was given 44 Gy of radiotherapy after the second surgery in 1996. PACC of the skin is a rare tumor with insufficient data concerning the efficacy of the surgical technique and chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment, even more so in the case of multiple recurrences. After the last recurrence, the patient was offered an active follow-up based on the long tumor-free intervals in the past and because the site of the primary tumor allowed further surgical excisions in future recurrences.

  9. Dissolving microneedles to obtain rapid local anesthetic effect of lidocaine at skin tissue. (United States)

    Ito, Yukako; Ohta, Junichi; Imada, Kazuki; Akamatsu, Shingo; Tsuchida, Nozomi; Inoue, Genta; Inoue, Nana; Takada, Kanji


    Dissolving microneedles (DMs) were applied to lidocaine for local anesthesia of the skin. Three DM array chips were prepared where lidocaine was localized at the acral portion of DMs (type 1), loaded in whole DMs (type 2), and lidocaine was loaded both in whole DMs and the chip (type 3). DM chips were 15-mm diameter with 225 DMs, each 500-μm long with a 300-μm diameter base. The lidocaine contents were (type 1) 0.08 ± 0.01 mg, (type 2) 0.22 ± 0.01 mg and (type 3) 8.52 ± 0.49 mg. Lidocaine was released from type 1 and 2 DM array chips within 10 min. Pharmacological activity of DMs were compared to lidocaine cream by the suppression of idiospasm of hair-removed rat skin. Type 1, 2 and 3 DMs showed faster onset time, 5 min, than lidocaine cream. Type 2 and 3 DMs showed stronger anti-idioplasmic activity than type 1 DMs. Pharmacokinetic study showed that tissue lidocaine levels, 62.8 ± 3.6 (type 1), 89.1 ± 9.9 (type 2) and 131.2 ± 10.2(type 3) μg/g wet weight at 5 min after the removal of DM were obtained higher than lidocaine cream, 26.2 ± 12.5 μg/g wet weight. Those results suggest the usefulness of type 2 DMs to obtain fast onset time for the local anesthesia in the skin.

  10. Analysis of inflammatory cells and mediators in skin wound biopsies to determine wound age in living subjects in forensic medicine. (United States)

    Fronczek, Judith; Lulf, Ronald; Korkmaz, H Ibrahim; Witte, Birgit I; van de Goot, Franklin R W; Begieneman, Mark P V; Schalkwijk, C G; Krijnen, Paul A J; Rozendaal, Lawrence; Niessen, Hans W M; Reijnders, Udo J L


    In forensic medicine it is important to determine the age of skin wounds in living subjects. The aim of this study was to assess whether analysis of inflammatory cells and inflammatory mediators in skin biopsies of wounds from living subjects could improve wound age determination. Biopsies (n=101), representing the superficial border area of a skin wound, were taken from skin injuries of known wound age (range: 4.5 hours to 25 days) of living subjects. All biopsies were analyzed for 3 inflammatory cell markers (MPO, CD45 and CD68) and 4 inflammatory mediators (MIP-1, IL-8, CML and vitronectin). For quantification, biopsies were subdivided in 4 different timeframes: 0.2-2 days, 2-4 days, 4-10 days and 10-25 days old wounds. Subsequently, a probability scoring system was developed. MPO, CD45, MIP-1, IL-8 (inflammatory cell markers) and N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) positivity were maximal in wounds of 0.2-2 days old and then decreased in time. Remarkably, CD45, CD68 and CML showed a minor but non-significant increase again in 10-25 days old wounds. MPO and CD68 positivity was significantly lower in 4-25 days old wounds compared to 0.2-4 days old wounds. MPO positivity was also significantly lower in 10-25 days old wounds compared to 0.2-10 days old wounds. For CD45, MIP-1, IL-8 and CML no significant differences between the age groups were found. In case of vitronectin positivity in the extravasate or when the number of MIP-1 or IL-8-positive cells was more than 10 cells/mm(2) the probability that a wound was more than 10 days old was 0%. A probability scoring system of all analyzed markers can be used to calculate individual wound age probabilities in biopsies of skin wounds of living subjects. We have developed a probability scoring system of inflammatory cells and mediators that can be used to determine wound age in skin biopsies of living subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Does skin moisture influence the blood flow response to local heat? A re-evaluation of the Pennes model. (United States)

    Petrofsky, J; Bains, G; Prowse, M; Gunda, S; Berk, L; Raju, C; Ethiraju, G; Vanarasa, D; Madani, P


    Pennes first described a model of heat transfer through the limb based only on calories delivered from a heat source, calories produced by metabolism and skin blood flow. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a moist versus a dry heat source on the skin in eliciting a blood flow response to add data to this model. Ten subjects were examined, both male and female, with a mean age of 32.5 +/- 11.6 years, mean height of 172.8 +/- 12.3 cm, and mean weight of 77.6 +/- 19.5 kg. Skin temperature was measured by a thermocouple placed on the skin and skin blood flow measured by a laser Doppler flow meter. The results of the experiments using a dry heat pack (commercially available chemical 42 degrees C cell dry heat source), moist hydrocollator pack (72.8 degrees C) separated from the skin by eight layers of towels, and whirlpool at 40 degrees C, showed that moist heat caused a significantly higher skin blood flow (about 500% greater) than dry heat (p heat was due to the greater rate of rise of skin temperature with moist versus dry heat while some of the increase in blood flow was due to the moisture itself. This could either be related to the greater heat flux across the skin with moist air or due to changing the ionic environment around skin thermo receptors by keeping the skin moist during heating. Skin thermo receptors are believed to be temperature sensitive calcium gated channels in endothelial cells which couple calcium influx to a release of nitric oxide. If true, reducing moisture in the skin might have the effect of altering ionic flux through these receptors. A correct model of skin heat flux should therefore take heat moisture content into consideration.

  12. Single-Stage Bipedicle Local Tissue Transfer and Skin Graft for Achilles Tendon Surgery Wound Complications. (United States)

    Dekker, Travis J; Avashia, Yash; Mithani, Suhail K; Matson, Andrew P; Lampley, Alexander J; Adams, Samuel B


    Achilles tendon and posterior heel wound complications are difficult to treat. These typically require soft tissue coverage via microvascular free tissue transfer at a tertiary referral center. Here, we describe coverage of a series of posterior heel and Achilles wounds via simple, local tissue transfer, called a bipedicle fasciocutaneous flap. This flap can be performed by an orthopaedic foot and ankle surgeon, without resources of tertiary/specialized care or microvascular support. Three patients with separate pathologies were treated with a single-stage bipedicle fasciocutaneous local tissue transfer. Case 1 was a patient with insertional wound breakdown after Achilles debridement and repair to the calcaneus. Case 2 was a heel venous stasis ulcer with calcaneal exposure in a diabetic patient with vasculopathy. Case 3 was a patient with wound breakdown following midsubstance Achilles tendon repair. All three cases were treated with a single-stage bipedicle local tissue transfer for posterior ankle and heel wound complications. All 3 patients demonstrated complete healing of the posterior defect, lateral ankle skin graft recipient site, and the skin graft donor site after surgery. Case 3 had a subsequent recurrent ulceration after initial healing. This was superficial and healed with local wound care. All patients regained full preoperative range of motion and were able to ambulate independently without modified footwear. The bipedicled fasciocutaneous flap described here offers a predictable single stage procedure that can be accomplished by an orthopaedic foot and ankle surgeon without resources of a tertiary care center for posterior foot and ankle defects. This flap can be performed with short operative times and can be customized to facilitate defect coverage. The flap is durable to withstand local tissue stresses required for early ambulation. Despite its reliability, patients require careful follow-up to manage underlying comorbid conditions that may

  13. Tuberculin skin testing in intravenous drug users: differences between HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative subjects. (United States)

    Portu, José J; Aldamiz-Etxebarria, Mikel; Agud, José M; Arévalo, José M; Almaraz, María J; Ayensa, Cándido


    The prevalence of tuberculin skin test reactions among intravenous drug abusers and differences in tuberculin skin test positivity between HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative subjects were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 1131 subjects. They were recruited from a therapeutic community, from those who attended the centre for the treatment of drug addiction and from those who visited for any reason an acute tertiary-care hospital in Vitoria-Gasteiz, Basque Country (Spain). All subjects underwent skin testing with purified protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin and testing for HIV antibodies. CD4(+) T-lymphocyte count was determined in HIV-seropositive individuals. Positive PPD tests were recorded in 35% of drug users who were HIV-seropositive and in 65% in those who were HIV-seronegative. In the HIV-infected group, there was a significant association between results of the tuberculin test and CD4(+) T-lymphocyte count. When the CD4(+) T-lymphocyte count was > or = 500 cells/mm(3), percentages of positive PPD tests were similar in HIV-seropositives and HIV-seronegatives (47% versus 65%) but when the CD4(+) count was < 500 cells/mm(3), positive PPD tests occurred in only 21% of HIV-seropositives. The PPD test showed a decreased sensitivity for detecting tuberculosis infection in HIV-infected intravenous drug users with CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts fewer than 500 cells/mm(3).

  14. Modeling the Subjective Quality of Highly Contrasted Videos Displayed on LCD With Local Backlight Dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Bech, Søren; Korhonen, Jari


    signal can then be used as input to objective quality metrics. The focus of this paper is on determining which characteristics of locally backlit displays influence quality assessment. A subjective experiment assessing the quality of highly contrasted videos displayed with various local backlight...

  15. Local and Modal Damage Indicators for Reinforced Concrete Shear Frames Subject to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köylüoglu, H. U.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Abbott, J.

    Local, modal and overall damage indicators for reinforced concrete shear frames subject to seismic excitation are defined and studied. Each storey of the shear frame is represented by a Clough and Johnston hysteretic oscillator with degrading elastic fraction of the restoring force. The local max...

  16. Calculation of local skin doses with ICRP adult mesh-type reference computational phantoms (United States)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Han, Haegin; Choi, Chansoo; Nguyen, Thang Tat; Lee, Hanjin; Shin, Bangho; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol


    Recently, Task Group 103 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) developed new mesh-type reference computational phantoms (MRCPs) for adult males and females in order to address the limitations of the current voxel-type reference phantoms described in ICRP Publication 110 due to their limited voxel resolutions and the nature of the voxel geometry. One of the substantial advantages of the MRCPs over the ICRP-110 reference phantoms is the inclusion of a 50-μm-thick radiosensitive skin basal-cell layer; however, a methodology for calculating the local skin dose (LSD), i.e., the maximum dose to the basal layer averaged over a 1-cm2 area, has yet to be developed. In the present study, a dedicated program for the LSD calculation with the MRCPs was developed based on the mean shift algorithm and the Geant4 Monte Carlo code. The developed program was used to calculate local skin dose coefficients (LSDCs) for electrons and alpha particles, which were then compared with the values given in ICRP Publication 116 that were produced with a simple tissue-equivalent cube model. The results of the present study show that the LSDCs of the MRCPs are generally in good agreement with the ICRP-116 values for alpha particles, but for electrons, significant differences are found at energies higher than 0.15 MeV. The LSDCs of the MRCPs are greater than the ICRP-116 values by as much as 2.7 times at 10 MeV, which is due mainly to the different curvature between realistic MRCPs ( i.e., curved) and the simple cube model ( i.e., flat).

  17. Behavior of Skin Friction of Piles subjected to Top-downward and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In situ results of Osterberg cell load test and the conventional static compression load test are compared. Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to study the effects of changes in boundary conditions, mechanism of pile-soil interaction and the accompanying change in soil stress, which are responsible for the difference in skin ...

  18. Modeling the subjective quality of highly contrasted videos displayed on LCD with local backlight dimming. (United States)

    Mantel, Claire; Bech, Søren; Korhonen, Jari; Forchhammer, Søren; Pedersen, Jesper Melgaard


    Local backlight dimming is a technology aiming at both saving energy and improving visual quality on television sets. As the rendition of the image is specified locally, the numerical signal corresponding to the displayed image needs to be computed through a model of the display. This simulated signal can then be used as input to objective quality metrics. The focus of this paper is on determining which characteristics of locally backlit displays influence quality assessment. A subjective experiment assessing the quality of highly contrasted videos displayed with various local backlight-dimming algorithms is set up. Subjective results are then compared with both objective measures and objective quality metrics using different display models. The first analysis indicates that the most significant objective features are temporal variations, power consumption (probably representing leakage), and a contrast measure. The second analysis shows that modeling of leakage is necessary for objective quality assessment of sequences displayed with local backlight dimming.

  19. Dissolving microneedles for enhanced local delivery of capsaicin to rat skin tissue. (United States)

    Ito, Yukako; Kobuchi, Shinji; Inoue, Genta; Kakumu, Eisaku; Aoki, Miki; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki; Takada, Kanji


    Capsaicin-loaded dissolving microneedles (DMNs) were prepared to investigate the analgesic effect of capsaicin on the skin. The dimensions of each microneedle (MN) were as follows: diameter of the basement, 17 mm; length, 500 μm; and width, 300 μm. The average capsaicin content in the DMNs loaded with a low and high dose of capsaicin was 8.8 ± 0.5 mg and 12.5 ± 0.4 mg. Almost all the capsaicin, 99.3 ± 4.1% and 99.7 ± 2.2% for low-dose and high-dose DMNs were released within 20 min. High amounts of capsaicin were recovered with 102.8 ± 0.1% of capsaicin after storage at 23 °C for 90 days. The pharmacological activity of capsaicin DMNs was compared to that of capsaicin cream as a positive control, by measuring the idiospasm of depilated rat skin. The time required to achieve 50% idiospasm suppression was 26.3 ± 1.9 min and 53.0 ± 2.3 min for low-dose and high-dose DMNs. A pharmacokinetic study showed high tissue capsaicin levels of 660.2 ± 120.6 and 1805.3 ± 218.1 μg/g wet weight for low-dose and high-dose DMNs at 5 min after administration. The results suggest that DMNs could exert a rapid local analgesic action on the skin.

  20. Transcriptomic variation of locally-infected skin of Epinephelus coioides reveals the mucosal immune mechanism against Cryptocaryon irritans. (United States)

    Hu, Yazhou; Li, Anxing; Xu, Yang; Jiang, Biao; Lu, Geling; Luo, Xiaochun


    Fish skin is the largest immunologically active mucosal organ, providing first-line defense against external pathogens. However, the skin-associated immune mechanisms of fish are still unclear. Cryptocaryon irritans is an obligate ectoparasitic ciliated protozoan that infects almost all marine fish, and is believed to be an excellent pathogen model to study fish mucosal immunity. In this study, a de novo transcriptome assembly of Epinephelus coioides skin post C. irritans tail-infection was performed for the first time using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2500 system. Comparative analyses of infected skin (group Isk) and uninfected skin (group Nsk) from the same challenged fish and control skin (group C) from uninfected control fish were conducted. As a result, a total of 91,082 unigenes with an average length of 2880 base pairs were obtained and among them, 38,704 and 48,617 unigenes were annotated based on homology with matches in the non-redundant and zebrafish database, respectively. Pairwise comparison resulted in 10,115 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) in the Isk/C group comparison (4,983 up-regulated and 5,132 down-regulated), 2,275 DEGs in the Isk/Nsk group comparison (1,319 up-regulated and 956 down-regulated) and 4,566 DEGs in the Nsk/C group comparison (1,534 up-regulated and 3,032 down-regulated). Seven immune-related categories including 91 differentially-expressed immune genes (86 up-regulated and 5 down-regulated) were scrutinized. Both DEGs and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis and immune-related gene expression analysis were used, and both analyses showed that the genes were more significantly altered in the locally-infected skin than in the uninfected skin of the same challenged fish. This suggests the skin's local immune response is important for host defense against this ectoparasite infection. Innate immune molecules, including hepcidin, C-type lectin, transferrin, transferrin receptor protein, serum amyloid A

  1. Subjective quality of video sequences rendered on LCD with local backlight dimming at different lighting conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Korhonen, Jari; Pedersen, Jesper Mørkhøj


    This paper focuses on the influence of ambient light on the perceived quality of videos displayed on Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) with local backlight dimming. A subjective test assessing the quality of videos with two backlight dimming methods and three lighting conditions, i.e. no light, low...

  2. Investigating subjective attributes of quality for videos displayed with local backlight dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, C.; Bech, Søren; Forchhammer, S.


    This paper investigates what composes the quality of videos displayed on LCD with local backlight dimming. In a subjective experiment, participants assessed the level of nine attributes defined using the Qualitative Descriptive Analysis method. Results show that three attributes (Contrast, Change...

  3. The respiratory allergen glutaraldehyde in the local lymph node assay: sensitization by skin exposure, but not by inhalation. (United States)

    van Triel, Jos J; van Bree, Bianca W J; Roberts, David W; Muijser, Hans; Duistermaat, Evert; Woutersen, Ruud A; Kuper, C Frieke


    Previously, a selection of low molecular weight contact and respiratory allergens had tested positive in both a skin and a respiratory local lymph node assay (LLNA), but formaldehyde was negative for sensitization by inhalation. To investigate whether this was due to intrinsic properties of aldehyde sensitizers, the structurally related allergen glutaraldehyde (GA) was tested. BALB/c mice were exposed by inhalation to 6 or 18ppm GA (respiratory LLNA), both generated as a vapor and as an aerosol. Other groups received 0.25% or 2.5% GA on the skin of the ears (skin LLNA). Lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production were measured in the draining lymph nodes. GA was positive in the skin LLNA and its cytokine profile (IL-4/IFN-γ) skewed towards a Th2-type immune response with increasing dose. Inhalation exposure did not result in increased lymphocyte proliferation or increased cytokine levels, despite comparable tissue damage (irritation) in the skin and respiratory tract. We hypothesize that the highly reactive and hydrophilic GA oligomerizes in the protein-rich mucous layer of the respiratory tract, which impedes sensitization but still facilitates local irritation. Within the context of risk assessment in respiratory allergy, our results stress the importance of prevention of skin--besides inhalation-- exposure to aldehydes like GA. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prediction of margin involvement and local recurrence after skin-sparing and simple mastectomy. (United States)

    Al-Himdani, S; Timbrell, S; Tan, K T; Morris, J; Bundred, N J


    Skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) facilitates immediate breast reconstruction. We investigated locoregional recurrence rates after SSM compared with simple mastectomy and the factors predicting oncological failure. Patients with early breast cancer that underwent mastectomy between 2000 and 2005 at a single institution were studied to ascertain local and systemic recurrence rates between groups. Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank test were used to evaluate disease-free survival. Patients (n = 577) underwent simple mastectomy (80%) or SSM (20%). Median follow up was 80 months. Patients undergoing SSM were of younger average age, less often had involved lymph nodes (22% vs 44%, p mastectomy respectively (p = 0.35). Predictors of locoregional recurrence were lymph node involvement (HR 8.0, for >4 nodes, p mastectomy radiotherapy. Re-excision of involved margins is essential to prevent local recurrence after mastectomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ the Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  5. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo


    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  6. Subjective Evaluation of the Microenvironment Generated by a Hospital Bed with Localized Ventilation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehayova, Nushka; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor


    A novel method for local hospital bed ventilation, called HBIVCU (Hospital Bed with Integrated Ventilation and Cleansing Unit), was studied in a human subject experiment. The goal of this study was to identify human response to the microenvironment generated by a hospital bed with installed HBIVCU...... and to compare with human response to the micro-environment at a hospital bed without local ventilation. 32 participants took part in two experimental conditions - hospital bed with and without installed HBIVCU. Subject’s votes on the bed microenvironment were collected via standardized questionnaires....... The subjects evaluated the perceived air quality in the ventilated bed as better compared to that in the non-ventilated bed. The whole body thermal sensation (WTS) and acceptability votes were decreasing over time for the non-ventilated bed condition. Significant differences in the local thermal sensation LTS...

  7. Local effects of immunosuppressants in the skin and impact on UV carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskamp, Pieter


    Skin cancer is a serious problem for many organ transplant recipients. Half of them develop skin cancer within 20 years after the transplantation. The main cause of this increased skin cancer risk is thought to be suppression of the immune system, a necessity to prevent rejection of the transplanted

  8. Safety of Local Intracutaneous Lidocaine Anesthesia Used by Dermatologic Surgeons for Skin Cancer Excision and Postcancer Reconstruction: Quantification of Standard Injection Volumes and Adverse Event Rates. (United States)

    Alam, Murad; Schaeffer, Matthew R; Geisler, Amelia; Poon, Emily; Fosko, Scott W; Srivastava, Divya


    Intracutaneous lidocaine is used for anesthesia in dermatologic surgery for skin cancer excision and repair with exceedingly low incidence of reported adverse events. To measure (1) the quantity of lidocaine typically used for facial skin cancer excision and reconstruction; and (2) the frequency and character of associated adverse events. Survey study of dermatologic surgeons with longitudinal reporting. Reported practice during 10 business days: (1) mean volume of 1% lidocaine per skin cancer excision; (2) maximum per excision; (3) mean per reconstruction; and (4) maximum per reconstruction. A total of 437 of 1,175 subjects contacted (37.2%) responded. Mean per excision was 3.44 mL (SD: 2.97), and reconstruction 11.70 mL (10.14). Maximum per excision was 6.54 mL (4.23), and reconstruction was 15.85 mL (10.39). No cases of lidocaine toxicity were reported, diagnosed, or treated. Incidence of adverse events possibly anesthesia related was >0.15%, with most (0.13%) being mild cases of dizziness, drowsiness, or lightheadedness from epinephrine tachycardia. Toxicity associated with local anesthesia other than lidocaine was not studied. Volumes of lidocaine in skin cancer excision and repair are modest and within safe limits. Lidocaine toxicity is exceedingly rare to entirely absent. For comparable indications, lidocaine is safer than conscious sedation or general anesthesia.

  9. Changes in histopathology and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 expression in skin graft with different time on Indonesian local cats. (United States)

    Erwin; Etriwati; Gunanti; Handharyani, Ekowati; Noviana, Deni


    A good skin graft histopathology is followed by formation of hair follicle, sweat gland, sebaceous gland, blood vessel, lightly dense connective tissue, epidermis, and dermis layer. This research aimed to observe histopathology feature and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 expression on cat skin post skin grafting within a different period of time. Nine male Indonesian local cats aged 1-2 years old weighing 3-4 kg were separated into three groups. First surgery created defect wound of 2 cm × 2 cm in size to whole groups. The wounds were left alone for several days, differing in interval between each group, respectively: Group I (for 2 days), Group II (for 4 days), and Group III (for 6 days). The second surgery was done to each group which harvested skin of thoracic area and applied it on recipient wound bed. On day 24 th post skin graft was an examination of histopathology and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 immunohistochemistry. Group I donor skin's epidermis layer had not formed completely whereas epidermis of donor skin of Groups II and III had completely formed. In all group hair follicle, sweat gland, sebaceous gland, and neovascularization were found. The density of connective tissue in Group I was very solid than other groups. Cytokeratin AE1/AE3 expression was found on donor skin's epithelial cell in epidermis and dermis layer with very brown intensity for Group II, brown intensity for Group II, and lightly brown for Group I. Histopathological structure and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 expression post skin graft are better in Groups II and III compared to Group I.

  10. Skin prick test reactivity to lupin in comparison to peanut, pea, and soybean in atopic and non-atopic German subjects: A preliminary cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Bähr, Melanie; Fechner, Anita; Kaatz, Martin; Jahreis, Gerhard


    The increasing use of lupin in food processing poses a problem of potential (cross-)allergic reactions. To evaluate the prevalence of sensitization to lupin in comparison to that of other legumes skin prick tests were performed with lupin, pea, peanut, and soybean in atopic (n = 81) and non-atopic (n = 102) German adults. Of these 183 subjects, 20 subjects had to be excluded due to invalid skin prick tests (reaction to histamine 2 mm). Thus, skin prick tests of 163 subjects were included in final analyses. Of 163 subjects, 18 had a positive reaction to at least one legume tested. Overall skin prick test reactivity was different among non-atopic and atopic subjects (P = 0.005). Altogether, six subjects (4%) were sensitized to lupin, 12 (7%) to pea, 5 (3%) to peanut, and 8 (5%) to soybean. Two (2%) of the 92 non-atopic subjects and 4 (6%) of the 71 atopic subjects had a positive skin prick test to lupin. Of the 6 subjects sensitized to lupin, 3 (50%) were also sensitized to pea, 3 (50%) to peanut, and 5 (83%) to soybean. In conclusion, the prevalence rates of lupin sensitization were comparable to or even lower than those of pea, peanut, and soybean. To date, lupin allergy is suspected to be relatively uncommon in the overall German population since lupin sensitization occurred in only 2% of non-atopic subjects. However, there is a clear risk of a lupin allergy in predisposed subjects, since the frequency of lupin sensitization was 6% in atopic subjects. In particular, subjects with existing sensitization or allergy to other legumes are at higher risk for a sensitization or allergy to lupin due to cross-reactivity.

  11. Local gene expression changes after UV-irradiation of human skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Weinkauf

    Full Text Available UV-irradiation is a well-known translational pain model inducing local inflammation and primary hyperalgesia. The mediators and receptor proteins specifically contributing to mechanical or heat hyperalgesia are still unclear. Therefore, we irradiated buttock skin of humans (n = 16 with 5-fold MED of UV-C and assessed the time course of hyperalgesia and axon reflex erythema. In parallel, we took skin biopsies at 3, 6 and 24 h after UVC irradiation and assessed gene expression levels (RT-PCR of neurotrophins (e.g. NGF, BDNF, GDNF, ion channels (e.g. NaV1.7, TRPV1, inflammatory mediators (e.g. CCL-2, CCL-3 and enzymes (e.g. PGES, COX2. Hyperalgesia to mechanical impact (12 m/s and heat (48 °C stimuli was significant at 6 h (p<0.05 and p<0.01 and 24 h (p<0.005 and p<0.01 after irradiation. Axon reflex erythema upon mechanical and thermal stimuli was significantly increased 3 h after irradiation and particularly strong at 6 h. A significant modulation of 9 genes was found post UV-C irradiation, including NGF (3, 6, 24 h, TrkA (6, 24 h, artemin, bradykinin-1 receptor, COX-2, CCL-2 and CCL-3 (3 and 6 h each. A significant down-regulation was observed for TRPV1 and iNOS (6, 24 h. Individual one-to-one correlation analysis of hyperalgesia and gene expression revealed that changes of Nav1.7 (SCN9A mRNA levels at 6 and 24 h correlated to the intensity of mechanical hyperalgesia recorded at 24 h post UV-irradiation (Pearson r: 0.57, p<0.04 and r: 0.82, p<0.001. Expression of COX-2 and mPGES at 6 h correlated to the intensity of heat-induced erythema 24 h post UV (r: 0.57, p<0.05 for COX-2 and r: 0.83, p<0.001 for PGES. The individual correlation analyses of functional readouts (erythema and pain response with local expression changes provided evidence for a potential role of Nav1.7 in mechanical hyperalgesia.

  12. [The experimental study of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on the repair of skin wound combined with local radiation injury]. (United States)

    Ai, Guoping; Su, Yongping; Yan, Guohe; Wang, Meng; Liu, Xiaohong; Xu, Hui; Cheng, Tianmin


    To explore the effects of swine bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) on the repair of skin wound combined local irradiation injury and theirs mechanism. MSC were isolated from the adult swine bone marrow and autologous MSC were directly transplanted into the local site full thickness skin incision round wounds combined with 20 Gy irradiation. By means of laser confocal microscopy, quantitative collagen measurement, ELSIA, fibroblasts scrap test, RT-PCR technology and so on in order to observe the effects of MSC promote the repair of wound and theirs mechanism. Transplanted autologous MSC into local skin wound combined with 20 Gy irradiation could accelerate the speed of wound healing, the healing time moved up 3 - 4 days. The granule tissues were abundant in the wounds and the content of collagen was increased in MSC groups. On one hand, MSC attracted the inflammatory cells and repaired cells to immigrate into wounds by themselves or secretion of IL-6, IL-8 and G-CSF and thus initiated the repairing processes. On the other hand, the wound microenviroment induced the proliferation and changes of I collagen mRNA expression of MSC showed that MSC could secrete extracellular matrix or differentiate into fibroblast. Local transplanted MSC promoted the repair of skin wounds combined with irradiation injury. The promotion effects were achieved by the interaction between MSC and wound microenviroment.

  13. Posturally induced microvascular constriction in patients with different stages of leg ischaemia: effect of local skin heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubbink, D. T.; Jacobs, M. J.; Tangelder, G. J.; Slaaf, D. W.; Reneman, R. S.


    1. Skin microcirculation was investigated in 12 asymptomatic subjects and 76 patients, grouped according to their ankle-to-brachial systolic blood pressure index, in order to evaluate to what extent posturally induced microvascular constriction is dependent on the stage of leg ischaemia at different

  14. NRP-1 Receptor Expression Mismatch in Skin of Subjects with Experimental and Diabetic Small Fiber Neuropathy. (United States)

    Van Acker, Nathalie; Ragé, Michael; Vermeirsch, Hilde; Schrijvers, Dorien; Nuydens, Rony; Byttebier, Geert; Timmers, Maarten; De Schepper, Stefanie; Streffer, Johannes; Andries, Luc; Plaghki, Léon; Cras, Patrick; Meert, Theo


    The in vivo cutaneous nerve regeneration model using capsaicin is applied extensively to study the regenerative mechanisms and therapeutic efficacy of disease modifying molecules for small fiber neuropathy (SFN). Since mismatches between functional and morphological nerve fiber recovery are described for this model, we aimed at determining the capability of the capsaicin model to truly mimic the morphological manifestations of SFN in diabetes. As nerve and blood vessel growth and regenerative capacities are defective in diabetes, we focused on studying the key regulator of these processes, the neuropilin-1 (NRP-1)/semaphorin pathway. This led us to the evaluation of NRP-1 receptor expression in epidermis and dermis of subjects presenting experimentally induced small fiber neuropathy, diabetic polyneuropathy and of diabetic subjects without clinical signs of small fiber neuropathy. The NRP-1 receptor was co-stained with CD31 vessel-marker using immunofluorescence and analyzed with Definiens® technology. This study indicates that capsaicin application results in significant loss of epidermal NRP-1 receptor expression, whereas diabetic subjects presenting small fiber neuropathy show full epidermal NRP-1 expression in contrast to the basal expression pattern seen in healthy controls. Capsaicin induced a decrease in dermal non-vascular NRP-1 receptor expression which did not appear in diabetic polyneuropathy. We can conclude that the capsaicin model does not mimic diabetic neuropathy related changes for cutaneous NRP-1 receptor expression. In addition, our data suggest that NRP-1 might play an important role in epidermal nerve fiber loss and/or defective regeneration and that NRP-1 receptor could change the epidermal environment to a nerve fiber repellant bed possibly through Sem3A in diabetes.

  15. Skin-derived precursors from human subjects with Type 2 diabetes yield dysfunctional vascular smooth muscle cells. (United States)

    Steinbach, Sarah K; Yau, Terrence M; Ouzounian, Maral; Abdel-Qadir, Husam; Chandy, Mark; Waddell, Thomas K; Husain, Mansoor


    Objective : Few methods enable molecular and cellular studies of vascular aging or Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Here, we report a new approach to studying human vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) pathophysiology by examining VSMCs differentiated from progenitors found in skin. Approach and results : Skin-derived precursors (SKPs) were cultured from biopsies ( N =164, ∼1 cm 2 ) taken from the edges of surgical incisions of older adults ( N =158; males 72%; mean age 62.7 ± 13 years) undergoing cardiothoracic surgery, and differentiated into VSMCs at high efficiency (>80% yield). The number of SKPs isolated from subjects with T2D was ∼50% lower than those without T2D (cells/g: 0.18 ± 0.03, N =58 versus 0.40 ± 0.05, N =100, P <0.05). Importantly, SKP-derived VSMCs from subjects with T2D had higher Fluo-5F-determined baseline cytosolic Ca 2+ concentrations (AU: 1,968 ± 160, N =7 versus 1,386 ± 170, N =13, P <0.05), and a trend toward greater Ca 2+ cycling responses to norepinephrine (NE) (AUC: 177,207 ± 24,669, N =7 versus 101,537 ± 15,881, N =20, P <0.08) despite a reduced frequency of Ca 2+ cycling (events s -1 cell -1 : 0.011 ± 0.004, N =8 versus 0.021 ± 0.003, N =19, P <0.05) than those without T2D. SKP-derived VSMCs from subjects with T2D also manifest enhanced sensitivity to phenylephrine (PE) in an impedance-based assay (EC 50 nM: 72.3 ± 63.6, N =5 versus 3,684 ± 3,122, N =9, P <0.05), and impaired wound closure in vitro (% closure: 21.9 ± 3.6, N =4 versus 67.0 ± 10.3, N =4, P <0.05). Compared with aortic- and saphenous vein-derived primary VSMCs, SKP-derived VSMCs are functionally distinct, but mirror defects of T2D also exhibited by primary VSMCs. Skin biopsies from older adults yield sufficient SKPs to differentiate VSMCs, which reveal abnormal phenotypes of T2D that survive differentiation and persist even after long-term normoglycemic culture. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  16. Noradrenaline and neuropeptide Y contribute to initial, but not sustained, vasodilatation in response to local skin warming in humans. (United States)

    Hodges, Gary J; Sparks, Paul A


    What is the central question of this study? Previous work has produced the counterintuitive finding that the vasoconstrictor neurotransmitters noradrenaline and neuropeptide Y are involved in vasodilatation. We aimed to discover whether sympathetic neurotransmitters are required for the sustained vasodilatation in response to local skin warming, as has been previously suggested, and to determine whether noradrenaline and neuropeptide Y are 'mediating' the sustained vasodilator response directly or acting to 'prime' (or kick-start) it. What is the main finding and its importance? We have found that noradrenaline and neuropeptide Y are required at the initiation of vasodilatation in response to local skin warming, if a complete vasodilator response is to be achieved; however, they are not required once vasodilatation has begun. In a three-part study, we examined whether noradrenaline, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were involved in the sustained vasodilatation in response to local skin warming. Forearm skin sites were instrumented with intradermal microdialysis fibres, local skin heaters and laser-Doppler flow probes. Local skin temperature (T(loc)) was increased from 34 to 42°C at a rate of 0.5°C (10 s)(-1). Laser-Doppler flow was expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; laser-Doppler flow/mean arterial pressure). In part 1, three skin sites were prepared; two were treated with the study vehicle (lactated Ringer solution), while the third site was treated with yohimbine and propranolol to antagonize α- and β-receptors, and 10 min of baseline data were record at a T(loc) of 34°C. Receptor antagonism was confirmed via infusion of clonidine. The T(loc) was increased to 42°C at all sites. Once CVC had stabilized, site 2 was treated with yohimbine and propranolol to examine the effect of adrenergic receptor blockade on sustained vasodilatation of the skin. Receptor antagonism was again confirmed via infusion of clonidine

  17. Cytokine profile in Montenegro skin test of patients with localized cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. (United States)

    Nogueira, Marcia Ferraz; Goto, Hiro; Sotto, Mírian Nacagami; Cucé, Luiz Carlos


    American tegumentary leishmaniasis presents as two major clinical forms: localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL). The immune response in leishmaniasis is efficiently evaluated by the response to Leishmania antigen through the Montenegro skin test (MST). Both LCL and MCL present positive response to MST, indicating that the patients present cell-mediated immunity against the parasite - Leishmania. In spite of the presence of immunity in MCL, this is not sufficient to stop disease progression and prevent resistance to treatment. In this study we demonstrated interleukin (IL) 2, 4, 5 and interferon (IFN) gamma expression in biopsies of MST of ten patients with American tegumentary leishmaniasis. The obtained results were compared between LCL (n = 5) and MCL (n = 5) patients. The MST of MCL patients displayed a higher expression of IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5, in comparison to LCL. There was no significant difference in IFN-gamma expression between groups. The obtained results suggest the role of IL-4 and IL-5 in the maintenance of the immunopathogenic mechanism of the destructive lesions that characterize MCL.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Ivliyeva


    Full Text Available The problems of creation of local history atlases of municipal areas by students cartographers within performance of final qualification papers are considered in the article. The choice of such subject demands from the trained in fact carrying out independent innovative complex research. The technology of creation of local history atlases of certain areas includes design and formation of base of spatial data of GIS, drawing up on its basis all-geographical and thematic maps, development of registration and computer design of maps. Considering this subject through the prism of competence-based approach of modern FGOS, it is possible to notice that the performance of the corresponding final qualification paper promotes development of both common cultural and all-professional competences of students.

  19. Elevated skin autofluorescence is strongly associated with foot ulcers in patients with diabetes : a cross-sectional, observational study of Chinese subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Hang; Han, Chun-mao; Hu, Xin-lei; Ye, Wan-lan; Huang, Wen-juan; Smit, Andries J.

    This study was designed to evaluate the association between skin autofluorescence (AF), an indicator of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), and foot ulcers in subjects with diabetes. In this study, 195 Chinese diabetic subjects were examined. Their feet were examined regardless of whether an

  20. Analysis of spatial mobility in subjects from a Dengue endemic urban locality in Morelos State, Mexico. (United States)

    Falcón-Lezama, Jorge Abelardo; Santos-Luna, René; Román-Pérez, Susana; Martínez-Vega, Ruth Aralí; Herrera-Valdez, Marco Arieli; Kuri-Morales, Ángel Fernando; Adams, Ben; Kuri-Morales, Pablo Antonio; López-Cervantes, Malaquías; Ramos-Castañeda, José


    Mathematical models and field data suggest that human mobility is an important driver for Dengue virus transmission. Nonetheless little is known on this matter due the lack of instruments for precise mobility quantification and study design difficulties. We carried out a cohort-nested, case-control study with 126 individuals (42 cases, 42 intradomestic controls and 42 population controls) with the goal of describing human mobility patterns of recently Dengue virus-infected subjects, and comparing them with those of non-infected subjects living in an urban endemic locality. Mobility was quantified using a GPS-data logger registering waypoints at 60-second intervals for a minimum of 15 natural days. Although absolute displacement was highly biased towards the intradomestic and peridomestic areas, occasional displacements exceeding a 100-Km radius from the center of the studied locality were recorded for all three study groups and individual displacements were recorded traveling across six states from central Mexico. Additionally, cases had a larger number of visits out of the municipality´s administrative limits when compared to intradomestic controls (cases: 10.4 versus intradomestic controls: 2.9, p = 0.0282). We were able to identify extradomestic places within and out of the locality that were independently visited by apparently non-related infected subjects, consistent with houses, working and leisure places. Results of this study show that human mobility in a small urban setting exceeded that considered by local health authority's administrative limits, and was different between recently infected and non-infected subjects living in the same household. These observations provide important insights about the role that human mobility may have in Dengue virus transmission and persistence across endemic geographic areas that need to be taken into account when planning preventive and control measures. Finally, these results are a valuable reference when setting the

  1. EEG source localization and global dimensional complexity in high- and low- hypnotizable subjects: a pilot study. (United States)

    Isotani, T; Lehmann, D; Pascual-Marqui, R D; Kochi, K; Wackermann, J; Saito, N; Yagyu, T; Kinoshita, T; Sasada, K


    Individuals differ in hypnotizability. Information on hypnotizability-related EEG characteristics is controversial and incomplete, particularly on intracerebral source localization and EEG dimensionality. 19-channel, eyes-closed resting EEGs from right-handed, healthy, 8 high- and 4 low-hynotizable subjects (age: 26.7 +/- 7.3 years) were analyzed. Hypnotizability was rated after the subjects' ability to attain a deep hypnotic stage (amnesia). FFT Dipole Approximation analysis in seven EEG frequency bands showed significant differences (p Power spectral analysis of Global Field Power time series (curves) showed no overall power differences in any band. Full-band Global Dimensional Complexity was higher in high-hypnotizable subjects (p < 0.02). Thus, before hypnosis, high and low hypnotizables were in different brain electric states, with more posterior brain activity gravity centers (excitatory right, routine or relaxation left) and higher dimensional complexity (higher arousal) in high than low hypnotizables. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Safety and efficacy of two anti-acne/anti-aging treatments in subjects with photodamaged skin and mild to moderate acne vulgaris. (United States)

    Kircik, Leon H; Dahl, Amanda; Yatskayer, Margarita; Raab, Susana; Oresajo, Christian


    Although reliable prevalence data are not available, adult acne is thought to be somewhat common, and it is not unusual for patients to have acne as well as early signs of skin aging. A novel anti-acne/anti-aging formulation (Treatment A) has been developed for daily use by patients to address both signs of skin aging and facial acne vulgaris. The novel, non-prescription formulation includes several ingredients shown to target factors underlying the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris while also addressing multiple components in the pathophysiology of skin aging. A blinded, randomized, split-face study was conducted to evaluate and compare the tolerability and efficacy of the novel anti-acne/ anti-aging product in subjects with photodamaged skin and acne vulgaris relative to tretinoin cream 0.025% (Treatment B). All subjects also were given supportive skincare, consisting of a cleanser, moisturizer, and sunscreen. Each treatment was assessed for its effects on subjects' appearance, lesion count reductions, and tolerability. Treatment A produced statistically significantly greater improvements in skin tone evenness, skin tone clarity, and blemishes and blotchiness. There were also statistically greater reductions in total lesion count for acne patients on the side of the face treated with Treatment A compared to Treatment B; Treatment A was also associated with early (day 2) improvement in skin tone evenness and clarity, tactile skin smoothness, and blemishes and blotchiness. Both treatments demonstrated favorable tolerability. The novel topical anti-aging/anti-acne therapy (Treatment A) within a comprehensive skin care regimen of cleanser, moisturizer, and sunscreen may maximize efficacy and tolerability and contribute to our armamentarium for treating both photodamage and acne at the same time.

  3. Response-surface models for deterministic effects of localized irradiation of the skin by discrete {beta}/{gamma} -emitting sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, B.R.


    Individuals who work at nuclear reactor facilities can be at risk for deterministic effects in the skin from exposure to discrete {Beta}- and {gamma}-emitting ({Beta}{gamma}E) sources (e.g., {Beta}{gamma}E hot particles) on the skin or clothing. Deterministic effects are non-cancer effects that have a threshold and increase in severity as dose increases (e.g., ulcer in skin). Hot {Beta}{gamma}E particles are {sup 60}Co- or nuclear fuel-derived particles with diameters > 10 {mu}m and < 3 mm and contain at least 3.7 kBq (0.1 {mu}Ci) of radioactivity. For such {Beta}{gamma}E sources on the skin, it is the beta component of the dose that is most important. To develop exposure limitation systems that adequately control exposure of workers to discrete {Beta}{gamma}E sources, models are needed for systems that adequately control exposure of workers to discrete {Beta}{gamma}E sources, models are needed for evaluating the risk of deterministic effects of localized {Beta} irradiation of the skin. The purpose of this study was to develop dose-rate and irradiated-area dependent, response-surface models for evaluating risks of significant deterministic effects of localized irradiation of the skin by discrete {Beta}{gamma}E sources and to use modeling results to recommend approaches to limiting occupational exposure to such sources. The significance of the research results as follows: (1) response-surface models are now available for evaluating the risk of specific deterministic effects of localized irradiation of the skin; (2) modeling results have been used to recommend approaches to limiting occupational exposure of workers to {Beta} radiation from {Beta}{gamma}E sources on the skin or on clothing; and (3) the generic irradiated-volume, weighting-factor approach to limiting exposure can be applied to other organs including the eye, the ear, and organs of the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract and can be used for both deterministic and stochastic effects.

  4. Evaluation of the antiseptic efficacy and local tolerability of a polihexanide-based antiseptic on resident skin flora. (United States)

    Egli-Gany, Dianne; Brill, Florian H H; Hintzpeter, Matthias; Andrée, Simone; Pavel, Viktoria


    The primary objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of polihexanide 0.02% and 0.04% with chlorhexidine 0.05% after 30 minutes of topical treatment on healthy intact skin. This study was performed as a double-blind, randomized, comparator-controlled, 3-arm, crossover study. : A phase I dermatological study unit. Twenty healthy volunteers with intact skin. : Test areas of 5 cm on the subjects' arms were treated with the investigational products using a polyurethane swab. Skin swabs were taken before and after treatment for quantitative microbial evaluation. The main outcome measure was the log reduction factor of colony-forming units on the skin after 30 minutes of treatment. No statistically significant difference was seen between both of the polihexanide test products (mean lgRF polihexanide 0.02%, 1.2251 [SD, 0.9399]; mean lgRF polihexanide 0.04%, 1.8991 [SD, 0.88]) and the comparator, chlorhexidine 0.05% (P > .1). The results of this study indicate that polihexanide is a suitable alternative to chlorhexidine for skin and wound antisepsis.

  5. Percutaneous penetration of sodium lauryl sulphate is increased in uninvolved skin of patients with atopic dermatitis compared with control subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakasa, I.; de Jongh, C. M.; Verberk, M. M.; Bos, J. D.; Kezić, S.


    BACKGROUND: Involved regions of the skin in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) have been shown to have higher transepidermal water loss (TEWL), indicating a compromised skin barrier. Whether uninvolved skin also has diminished barrier characteristics is controversial. OBJECTIVES: To study the

  6. The effect of local cryotherapy on subjective and objective recovery characteristics following an exhaustive jump protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hohenauer E


    Full Text Available Erich Hohenauer,1-3 Peter Clarys,3 Jean-Pierre Baeyens,2-4 Ron Clijsen,1-31Department of Business Economics, Health and Social Care, University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Southern Switzerland, Landquart, Switzerland; 2University College Physiotherapy, Thim van der Laan, Landquart, Switzerland; 3Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium; 4Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, BelgiumAbstract: The purpose of this controlled trial was to investigate the effects of a single local cryotherapy session on the recovery characteristics over a period of 72 hours. Twentytwo young and healthy female (n=17; mean age: 21.9±1.1 years and male (n=5;mean age:25.4±2.8 years adults participated in this study. Following an exhaustive jump protocol (3×30 countermovement jumps, half of the participants received either a single local cryotherapy application (+8°C or a single local thermoneutral application (+32°C of 20-minute duration using two thigh cuffs. Subjective measures of recovery (delayed-onset muscle soreness and ratings of perceived exertion and objective measures of recovery (vertical jump performanceand peak power output were assessed immediately following the postexercise applications (0 hours and at 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours after the jump protocol. Local cryotherapy failed to significantly affect any subjective recovery variable during the 72-hour recovery period (P>0.05. After 72 hours, the ratings of perceived exertion were significantly lower in the thermoneutral group compared to that in the cryotherapy group (P=0.002. No significant differences were observed between the cryotherapy and the thermoneutral groups with respect to any of the objective recovery variables. In this experimental study, a 20-minute cryotherapy cuff application failed to demonstrate a positive effect on any objective measures of recovery. The effects of local

  7. Effects of nanodiamonds of explosive synthesis on the skin of experimental animals locally exposed to cobalt and chrome ions. (United States)

    Prokhorenkov, V I; Vasil'eva, E Yu; Puzyr', A P; Bondar', V S


    Experiments in vivo demonstrated the protective effect of modified nanodiamonds on guinea pig skin after local exposure cobalt ions, but not chrome ions. The observed differences are determined by different adsorption of these ions by nanodiamonds: in vitro experiments showed that nanodiamonds adsorbed cobalt ions, but not chrome ions from water solutions. The perspectives of using modified nanodiamonds as a new adsorbent for prevention of allergic contact dermatitis induced by ions of bivalent metals are discussed.

  8. A novel method to determine lean body water using localized skin biopsies: correlation between lean skin water and lean body water in an overhydration model. (United States)

    Campbell, S E; Ostrowski, R; Hoarau, C; Durr, N; Debreczeny, M P


    To determine the relationship between total body water (TBW) fraction and local water content measured in the skin (SW) this study assessed eight anesthetized piglets in an overhydration model. TBW was assessed by deuterium oxide dilution and body mass measurements taken throughout the experiments, and by whole body carcass analysis at the end of each experiment. Additionally, extracellular water and plasma volume were assessed using bromide dilution and Evan's blue dilution, respectively. SW was assessed by tissue biopsies taken at 60-min intervals throughout the experiment. Lean body water (LBW) fraction and lean skin water (LSW) fraction were assessed by extracting the fat from the carcass and biopsy samples. A correlation does exist between TBW fraction and SW fraction with r2=0.58 (P<0.05); however, the strongest correlation occurred between the LBW fraction and LSW fraction with r2=0.87 (P<0.05) and an SE of prediction of 0.77%. These data demonstrate that LSW gives an accurate and precise estimate of LBW and could therefore be used to determine the hydration index in appropriate research settings.

  9. Finite element modeling of laminated composite plates with locally delaminated interface subjected to impact loading. (United States)

    Abo Sabah, Saddam Hussein; Kueh, Ahmad Beng Hong


    This paper investigates the effects of localized interface progressive delamination on the behavior of two-layer laminated composite plates when subjected to low velocity impact loading for various fiber orientations. By means of finite element approach, the laminae stiffnesses are constructed independently from their interface, where a well-defined virtually zero-thickness interface element is discreetly adopted for delamination simulation. The present model has the advantage of simulating a localized interfacial condition at arbitrary locations, for various degeneration areas and intensities, under the influence of numerous boundary conditions since the interfacial description is expressed discretely. In comparison, the model shows good agreement with existing results from the literature when modeled in a perfectly bonded state. It is found that as the local delamination area increases, so does the magnitude of the maximum displacement history. Also, as top and bottom fiber orientations deviation increases, both central deflection and energy absorption increase although the relative maximum displacement correspondingly decreases when in contrast to the laminates perfectly bonded state.

  10. Finite Element Modeling of Laminated Composite Plates with Locally Delaminated Interface Subjected to Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddam Hussein Abo Sabah


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of localized interface progressive delamination on the behavior of two-layer laminated composite plates when subjected to low velocity impact loading for various fiber orientations. By means of finite element approach, the laminae stiffnesses are constructed independently from their interface, where a well-defined virtually zero-thickness interface element is discreetly adopted for delamination simulation. The present model has the advantage of simulating a localized interfacial condition at arbitrary locations, for various degeneration areas and intensities, under the influence of numerous boundary conditions since the interfacial description is expressed discretely. In comparison, the model shows good agreement with existing results from the literature when modeled in a perfectly bonded state. It is found that as the local delamination area increases, so does the magnitude of the maximum displacement history. Also, as top and bottom fiber orientations deviation increases, both central deflection and energy absorption increase although the relative maximum displacement correspondingly decreases when in contrast to the laminates perfectly bonded state.

  11. Finite Element Modeling of Laminated Composite Plates with Locally Delaminated Interface Subjected to Impact Loading (United States)

    Abo Sabah, Saddam Hussein; Kueh, Ahmad Beng Hong


    This paper investigates the effects of localized interface progressive delamination on the behavior of two-layer laminated composite plates when subjected to low velocity impact loading for various fiber orientations. By means of finite element approach, the laminae stiffnesses are constructed independently from their interface, where a well-defined virtually zero-thickness interface element is discreetly adopted for delamination simulation. The present model has the advantage of simulating a localized interfacial condition at arbitrary locations, for various degeneration areas and intensities, under the influence of numerous boundary conditions since the interfacial description is expressed discretely. In comparison, the model shows good agreement with existing results from the literature when modeled in a perfectly bonded state. It is found that as the local delamination area increases, so does the magnitude of the maximum displacement history. Also, as top and bottom fiber orientations deviation increases, both central deflection and energy absorption increase although the relative maximum displacement correspondingly decreases when in contrast to the laminates perfectly bonded state. PMID:24696668

  12. Cyclin D1 localizes in the cytoplasm of keratinocytes during skin differentiation and regulates cell–matrix adhesion (United States)

    Fernández-Hernández, Rita; Rafel, Marta; Fusté, Noel P; Aguayo, Rafael S; Casanova, Josep M; Egea, Joaquim; Ferrezuelo, Francisco; Garí, Eloi


    The function of Cyclin D1 (CycD1) has been widely studied in the cell nucleus as a regulatory subunit of the cyclin-dependent kinases Cdk4/6 involved in the control of proliferation and development in mammals. CycD1 has been also localized in the cytoplasm, where its function nevertheless is poorly characterized. In this work we have observed that in normal skin as well as in primary cultures of human keratinocytes, cytoplasmic localization of CycD1 correlated with the degree of differentiation of the keratinocyte. In these conditions, CycD1 co-localized in cytoplasmic foci with exocyst components (Sec6) and regulators (RalA), and with β1 integrin, suggesting a role for CycD1 in the regulation of keratinocyte adhesion during differentiation. Consistent with this hypothesis, CycD1 overexpression increased β1 integrin recycling and drastically reduced the ability of keratinocytes to adhere to the extracellular matrix. We propose that localization of CycD1 in the cytoplasm during skin differentiation could be related to the changes in detachment ability of keratinocytes committed to differentiation. PMID:23839032

  13. Appearance self-esteem in systemic sclerosis--subjective experience of skin deformity and its relationship with physician-assessed skin involvement, disease status and psychological variables.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van; Vonk, M.C.; Teunissen, H.; Hoogen, F.H.J. van den


    OBJECTIVES: To determine the importance of skin deformity in systemic sclerosis (SSc) relative to other disease stressors and to find psychological correlates of appearance self-esteem (ASE) after controlling for disease status. METHODS: Disease-related stressors, symptoms, physical and

  14. You are what you eat: within-subject increases in fruit and vegetable consumption confer beneficial skin-color changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross D Whitehead

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fruit and vegetable consumption and ingestion of carotenoids have been found to be associated with human skin-color (yellowness in a recent cross-sectional study. This carotenoid-based coloration contributes beneficially to the appearance of health in humans and is held to be a sexually selected cue of condition in other species. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we investigate the effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on skin-color longitudinally to determine the magnitude and duration of diet change required to change skin-color perceptibly. Diet and skin-color were recorded at baseline and after three and six weeks, in a group of 35 individuals who were without makeup, self-tanning agents and/or recent intensive UV exposure. Six-week changes in fruit and vegetable consumption were significantly correlated with changes in skin redness and yellowness over this period, and diet-linked skin reflectance changes were significantly associated with the spectral absorption of carotenoids and not melanin. We also used psychophysical methods to investigate the minimum color change required to confer perceptibly healthier and more attractive skin-coloration. Modest dietary changes are required to enhance apparent health (2.91 portions per day and attractiveness (3.30 portions. CONCLUSIONS: Increased fruit and vegetable consumption confers measurable and perceptibly beneficial effects on Caucasian skin appearance within six weeks. This effect could potentially be used as a motivational tool in dietary intervention.

  15. You are what you eat: within-subject increases in fruit and vegetable consumption confer beneficial skin-color changes. (United States)

    Whitehead, Ross D; Re, Daniel; Xiao, Dengke; Ozakinci, Gozde; Perrett, David I


    Fruit and vegetable consumption and ingestion of carotenoids have been found to be associated with human skin-color (yellowness) in a recent cross-sectional study. This carotenoid-based coloration contributes beneficially to the appearance of health in humans and is held to be a sexually selected cue of condition in other species. Here we investigate the effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on skin-color longitudinally to determine the magnitude and duration of diet change required to change skin-color perceptibly. Diet and skin-color were recorded at baseline and after three and six weeks, in a group of 35 individuals who were without makeup, self-tanning agents and/or recent intensive UV exposure. Six-week changes in fruit and vegetable consumption were significantly correlated with changes in skin redness and yellowness over this period, and diet-linked skin reflectance changes were significantly associated with the spectral absorption of carotenoids and not melanin. We also used psychophysical methods to investigate the minimum color change required to confer perceptibly healthier and more attractive skin-coloration. Modest dietary changes are required to enhance apparent health (2.91 portions per day) and attractiveness (3.30 portions). Increased fruit and vegetable consumption confers measurable and perceptibly beneficial effects on Caucasian skin appearance within six weeks. This effect could potentially be used as a motivational tool in dietary intervention.

  16. Relation between food and drinking habits, and skin autofluorescence and intima media thickness in subjects at high cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochemsen, B. M.; Van Doormaal, J. J.; Mulder, G.; Volmer, M.; Graaff, R.; Smit, A. J.; Mulder, Douwe J.


    We investigated the relations between food and drinking habits, and estimated exogenous advanced glycation end products (AGE) intake, skin autofluorescence (AF) as a marker of AGE accumulation, and intima media thickness (IMT). IMT of the carotid artery and skin AF were measured in 147 elderly

  17. Analysis of morphological characteristics and expression levels of extracellular matrix proteins in skin wounds to determine wound age in living subjects in forensic medicine. (United States)

    Fronczek, Judith; Lulf, Ronald; Korkmaz, H Ibrahim; Witte, Birgit I; van de Goot, Franklin R W; Begieneman, Mark P V; Krijnen, Paul A J; Rozendaal, Lawrence; Niessen, Hans W M; Reijnders, Udo J L


    Wound age determination in living subjects is important in routine diagnostics in forensic medicine. Macroscopical description of a wound to determine wound age however is inadequate. The aim of this study was to assess whether it would be feasible to determine wound age via analysis of morphological characteristics and extracellular matrix proteins in skin biopsies of living subjects referred to a forensic outpatient clinic. Skin biopsies (n=101), representing the border area of the wound, were taken from skin injuries of known wound age (range: 4.5h-25 days) in living subjects. All biopsies were analyzed for 3 morphological features (ulceration, parakeratosis and hemorrhage) and 3 extracellular matrix markers (collagen III, collagen IV and α-SMA). For quantification, biopsies were subdivided in 4 different timeframes: 0.2-2 days, 2-4 days, 4-10 days and 10-25 days old wounds. Subsequently, a probability scoring system was developed. For hemorrhage, collagen III, collagen IV and α-SMA expression no relation with wound age was found. Ulceration was only found in wounds of 0.2-2, 2-4 and 4-10 days old, implying that the probability that a wound was more than 10 days old in case of ulceration is equal to 0%. Also parakeratosis was almost exclusively found in wounds of 0.2-2, 2-4 and 4-10 days old, except for one case with a wound age of 15 days old. The probability scoring system of all analyzed markers, as depicted above, however can be used to calculate individual wound age probabilities in biopsies of skin wounds of living subjects. We have developed a probability scoring system, analysing morphological characteristics and extracellular matrix proteins in superficial skin biopsies of wounds in living subjects that can be applied in forensic medicine for wound age determination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The relationship between local scalp skin temperature and cutaneous perfusion during scalp cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Francis-Paul E.M.; Rajan, Vinayakrishnan; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Gerard M.J.; van Steenhoven, Anton A.


    Cooling the scalp during administration of chemotherapy can prevent hair loss. It reduces both skin blood flow and hair follicle temperature, thus affecting drug supply and drug effect in the hair follicle. The extent to which these mechanisms contribute to the hair preservative effect of scalp

  19. Effects of various induced local environmental conditions and histopathological studies in experimental Dermatophilus congolensis infection on the bovine skin. (United States)

    Oduye, O O


    Although localised to the site of inoculation, experimental cutaneous streptothricosis was readily produced on scarified and/or defatted bovine skin infected with nutrient broth cultures of Dermatophilus congolensis. There was no difference in the extent and duration of lesions produced by either method. D congolensis failed to infect intact normal skin. Simulated rainfall and insect bite did not effect spread and production of generalized streptothricosis. On the other hand, localised experimental lesions regressed more rapidly when subjected to simulated rainfall. The histopathological changes were characterised by invasion of hair follicles by the germinating hyphae and mycelia of D gongolensis, accumulation of neutrophilic exudate beneath the infected epidermis, migration of some neutrophils through the epidermis resulting in intra-epidermal microabscess formation and regeneration of new epidermis from follicular sheath epithelium.

  20. Stratum Corneum Lipids: Their Role for the Skin Barrier Function in Healthy Subjects and Atopic Dermatitis Patients. (United States)

    van Smeden, Jeroen; Bouwstra, Joke A


    Human skin acts as a primary barrier between the body and its environment. Crucial for this skin barrier function is the lipid matrix in the outermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC). Two of its functions are (1) to prevent excessive water loss through the epidermis and (2) to avoid that compounds from the environment permeate into the viable epidermal and dermal layers and thereby provoke an immune response. The composition of the SC lipid matrix is dominated by three lipid classes: cholesterol, free fatty acids and ceramides. These lipids adopt a highly ordered, 3-dimensional structure of stacked densely packed lipid layers (lipid lamellae): the lateral and lamellar lipid organization. The way in which these lipids are ordered depends on the composition of the lipids. One very common skin disease in which the SC lipid barrier is affected is atopic dermatitis (AD). This review addresses the SC lipid composition and organization in healthy skin, and elaborates on how these parameters are changed in lesional and nonlesional skin of AD patients. Concerning the lipid composition, the changes in the three main lipid classes and the importance of the carbon chain lengths of the lipids are discussed. In addition, this review addresses how these changes in lipid composition induce changes in lipid organization and subsequently correlate with an impaired skin barrier function in both lesional and nonlesional skin of these patients. Furthermore, the effect of filaggrin and mutations in the filaggrin gene on the SC lipid composition is critically discussed. Also, the breakdown products of filaggrin, the natural moisturizing factor molecules and its relation to SC-pH is described. Finally, the paper discusses some major changes in epidermal lipid biosynthesis in patients with AD and other related skin diseases, and how inflammation has a deteriorating effect on the SC lipids and SC biosynthesis. The review ends with perspectives on future studies in relation to

  1. Assessment of the skin sensitization potential of topical medicaments using the local lymph node assay: an interlaboratory evaluation. (United States)

    Kimber, I; Hilton, J; Dearman, R J; Gerberick, G F; Ryan, C A; Basketter, D A; Lea, L; House, R V; Ladics, G S; Loveless, S E; Hastings, K L


    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a method for the predictive identification of chemicals that have a potential to cause skin sensitization. Activity is measured as a function of lymph node cell (LNC) proliferative responses stimulated by topical application of test chemicals. Those chemicals that induce a threefold or greater increase in LNC proliferation compared with concurrent vehicle controls are classified as skin sensitizers. In the present investigations we have evaluated further the reliability and accuracy of the LLNA. In the context of an international interlaboratory trial the sensitization potentials of six materials with a history of use in topical medicaments have been evaluated: benzoyl peroxide, hydroquinone, penicillin G, streptomycin sulfate, ethylenediamine dihydrochloride, and methyl salicylate. Each chemical was analyzed in the LLNA by all five laboratories. Either the standard LLNA protocol or minor modifications of it were used. Benzoyl peroxide and hydroquinone, both human contact allergens, elicited strong LLNA responses in each laboratory. Penicillin G, another material shown previously to cause allergic contact dermatitis in humans, was also positive in all laboratories. Streptomycin sulfate induced equivocal responses, in that this material provoked a positive LLNA response in only one of the five laboratories, and then only at the highest concentration tested. Ethylenediamine dihydrochloride dissolved in a 3:1 mixture of acetone with water, or in 4:1 acetone:olive oil (one laboratory), was uniformly negative. However, limited further testing with the free base of ethylene diamine yielded a positive LLNA response when applied in acetone:olive oil (AOO). Finally, methyl salicylate, a nonsensitizing skin irritant, was negative at all test concentrations in each laboratory. Collectively these data serve to confirm that the local lymph node assay is sufficiently robust to yield equivalent results when performed independently in

  2. The historical regional studies, local history and urban history: the demarcation of subject fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Koval’s’ka­Pavelko


    It is proved that combines subject field of urban history, historical regional studies and local history in terms of research into the history of urban settlements. In historical research focus of urban history is urban lifestyle that allows you to analyze the city in their integrity – both sociocultural phenomena with their own phases of development, in the broad political and ideological context. It is noted that the historical urban studies urbanization, which are connected with the adoption of urban lifestyles as a phenomenon of culture and modern civilization. Urbanization represented in two dimensions – dynamic and static. Since urbanization is a process that characterize the dynamic parameters (rates of urbanization, while urbanization is characterized by static parameters (the number and proportion of urban population, the number of urban settlements, its area, etc.. This feature of the urban historical approaches to the historical regional studies.

  3. Shear Induced Reaction Localizations and Mechanisms of Energy Dissipation in PBX Subjected to Strong Shock (United States)

    Plaksin, Igor


    Paper addresses two emerging topics: how reaction initiation arises when PBX is subjected to shock and how detonation wave becomes oscillating. We apply the 96-channel optical analyzer for simultaneous measurements of radiation from the reaction spots surface and stress field caused by shock or detonation reaction zone in multi-layer optical monitor. This metrology allows meso-scale probing of the 3-D structure of shock- or detonation- reaction-zone as well as revealing mechanisms of its formation at different initiation scenarios. The dominant role of the shear driven plastic deformation in initiation scenario is disclosed in all tested PBX-s (including simulants of PBXN-110, PBAN-128, PBXN-109, 111, 121 and B-2208), in wide range of PBX sample sizes: from 1 mm^3 (single crystal within the binder) up to few cm^3. This research is complementing a separate, longer running, theoretical effort by Dr. Steve Coffey that examines the solid state--quantum physics responsible for initiation of explosive crystals subjected to shock or impact. Finally, this represents a novel research effort to relate plastic deformation, energy dissipation and localization in crystals to shear and shear deformation. The accompanying experimental results strongly support Coffey's theoretical prediction that initiation is due to shear driven plastic deformation and is not due solely to uniform shock pressure. Finally, we will present and discuss the recently revealed phenomenon of the thermal precursor origination caused by the reaction front radiation. The role of this earlier unknown energy localization mechanism, at Shock-to-Detonation transition in PBX, will be shown as a function of HMX particle sizes and the PBX porosity.

  4. Tenskinmetric Evaluation of Surface Energy Changes in Adult Skin: Evidence from 834 Normal Subjects Monitored in Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Dal Bosco


    Full Text Available To evaluate the influence of the skin aging critical level on the adult skin epidermal functional state, an improved analytical method based on the skin surface energetic measurement (TVS modeling was developed. Tenskinmetric measurements were carried out non-invasively in controlled conditions by contact angle method using only a water-drop as reference standard liquid. Adult skin was monitored by TVS Observatory according to a specific and controlled thermal protocol (Camianta protocol in use at the interconnected “Mamma Margherita Terme spa” of Terme Euganee. From June to November 2013, the surface free energy and the epidermal hydration level of adult skin were evaluated on arrival of 265 male and 569 female adult volunteers (51–90 years of age and when they departed 2 weeks later. Sensitive measurements were carried out at 0.1 mN/m. High test compliance was obtained (93.2% of all guests. Very interesting results are obtained. The high sensitivity and discrimination power of tenskinmetry combined with a thermal Camianta protocol demonstrate the possibility to evaluate at baseline level the surface energetic changes and the skin reactivity which occurs on adult skin.

  5. Fully automated quality assurance and localization of volumetric MEG for single-subject mapping. (United States)

    Stevens, Tynan; Bardouille, Tim; Stroink, Gerhard; Boe, Shaun; Patterson, Steve; Beyea, Steven


    Robust and reproducible source mapping with magnetoencephalography is particularly challenging at the individual level. We evaluated a receiver-operating characteristic reliability (ROC-r) method for automated production of volumetric MEG maps in single-subjects. ROC-r provides quality assurance comparable to that offered by goodness-of-fit (GoF) and confidence volume (CV) for equivalent current dipole (ECD) modeling. ROC-r utilizes within-session reproducibility for quality assurance, latency identification, and thresholding of volumetric source maps. We tested ROC-r on simulated and real MEG with a strongly focal source, using somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs) elicited by bilateral median nerve stimulation (MNS). For quality assurance, the ROC-r reliable fraction (FR) was compared to the ECD GoF and CV. Peak beamformer locations and latencies identified by ROC-r were compared to the ECD for co-localization accuracy. The predominant component of the SEF response occurred around 35ms, contralateral to the MNS. FR and 1/CV were more strongly correlated (mean Pearson's correlation: 0.76; 95% CI 0.60-0.87) than FR and GoF (0.65; 95% CI 0.32-0.85). There was no difference in the latency of the peak GoF (35.0+/-0.6ms), CV (34.8+/-0.7ms) and FR (35.5+/-0.8ms). The ECD fits and ROC-r peaks co-localized to within a mean (median) distance of 8.3+/-5.9mm (6.2mm). ROC-r volumetric mapping co-localized closely with the standard ECD approach. This analysis can be added to any whole-brain MEG source imaging protocol, and is especially useful for single-subject mapping. Additionally, the development of FR as an analogue to GoF or CV for volumetric mapping is a critical improvement for clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Temporal localization of immunoreactive transforming growth factor beta1 in normal equine skin and in full-thickness dermal wounds. (United States)

    Theoret, Christine L; Barber, Spencer M; Gordon, John R


    To describe the localization of immunoreactive transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 in both normal skin and full-thickness dermal wounds of the limb and the thorax of the horse. Six full-thickness excisional wounds were created on the lateral aspect of one metacarpal region and on the midthoracic area of each horse. Sequentially collected tissue specimens from wound margins were assessed for TGF-beta1 expression by immunohistochemistry. Four horses (2 to 4 years of age). A neutralizing monoclonal anti-human TGF-beta1 antibody was used to detect the spatial expression of TGF-beta1 protein by immunohistochemical localization in biopsies obtained before wounding and at 12 and 24 hours, and 5, 10, and 14 days. No differences in localization of immunoreactive TGF-beta1 were detected between limb and thorax, for either intact skin or wounds. Unwounded epidermis stained moderately for TGF-beta1 protein throughout all layers, whereas the dermis was relatively devoid of immunoreactivity. During the acute stage of repair, migrating epithelium lost its stain, whereas cells of epidermal appendages remained strongly immunoreactive. The epithelium recovered its TGF-beta1 immunoreactivity during wound remodeling, although cells of the stratum corneum remained negative. Macrophages of the inflammatory exudate had positive cytoplasmic staining that diminished with time. Immunoreactivity of granulation tissue fibroblasts was evident early on and increased throughout the repair process. TGF-beta1 is constitutively expressed in normal, unwounded equine epithelium. Its expression is upregulated within the skin on injury and is associated with the cells involved in wound repair. A more precise understanding of the temporal and spatial expression of TGF-beta1 during wound repair in horses should provide the groundwork for possible future manipulations of both normal and aberrant tissue repair. Copyright 2002 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons

  7. Subjective quality of videos displayed with local backlight dimming at different peak white and ambient light levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Korhonen, Jari; Forchhammer, Søren


    In this paper the influence of ambient light and peak white (maximum brightness) of a display on the subjective quality of videos shown with local backlight dimming is examined. A subjective experiment investigating those factors is set-up using high contrast test sequences. The results are firstly...

  8. Malassezia intra-specific diversity and potentially new species in the skin microbiota from Brazilian healthy subjects and seborrheic dermatitis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Cardoso Soares

    Full Text Available Malassezia yeasts are part of the resident cutaneous microbiota, and are also associated with skin diseases such as seborrheic dermatitis (SD. The role these fungi play in skin diseases and why they are pathogenic for only some individuals remain unclear. This study aimed to characterize Malassezia microbiota from different body sites in healthy and SD subjects from Brazil. Scalp and forehead samples from healthy, mild SD and severe SD subjects were collected. Non-scalp lesions from severe SD patients were also sampled. 5.8S rDNA/ITS2 amplicons from Malassezia sp. were analyzed by RFLP and sequencing. Results indicate that Malassezia microbiota did not group according to health condition or body area. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that three groups of sequences did not cluster together with any formally described species, suggesting that they might belong to potential new species. One of them was found in high proportions in scalp samples. A large variety of Malassezia subtypes were detected, indicating intra-specific diversity. Higher M. globosa proportions were found in non-scalp lesions from severe SD subjects compared with other areas, suggesting closer association of this species with SD lesions from areas other than scalp. Our results show the first panorama of Malassezia microbiota in Brazilian subjects using molecular techniques and provide new perspectives for further studies to elucidate the association between Malassezia microbiota and skin diseases.

  9. Effect of blasts on subject-specific computational models of skin and bone sections at various locations on the human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Chanda


    Full Text Available Blast injuries are very common among soldiers deployed in politically unstable regions such as Afghanistan and Iraq, and also in a battle field anywhere in the world. Understanding the mechanics of interaction of blasts with the skin and bone at various parts of the human body is the key to designing effective personal protective equipment (PPE's which can mitigate blast impacts. In the current work, subject-specific 3D computational models of the skin (with the three layers namely the epidermis, dermis and the hypodermis (muscles and bone sections from various parts of the human body (such as the elbow, finger, wrist, cheek bone, forehead, shin etc. have been developed to study the effect of blast loading. Non-linear material properties have been adopted for the skin and stress impulses at the different skin layers and bone sections are estimated. To date, such an extensive study on the effect of blast loading on the human skin and bone has not been attempted. The results of this study would be indispensable for medical practitioners to understand the effect of blast trauma and plan effective post-traumatic surgical strategies, and also for developing better PPE designs for the military in the future.

  10. Histochemical localization of sialic acids and antimicrobial substances in eccrine glands of porcine snout skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Fukui


    Full Text Available The distribution of sialic acids and antimicrobial products (lysozyme, IgA, lactoferrin, β-defensin 2 as well as Rab3D in the eccrine glands of porcine snout skin was studied by sialoglycoconjugate histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. The secretory epithelium consisted of two types of secretory cells: dark and clear cells. The dark cells exhibited considerable amounts of sialoglycoconjugates, which included O-acetylated sialic acids, whereas sialic acids in the sequence Siaα2-3Gal1-4GlcNAc were confined to some of the dark cells. All antimicrobial substances and Rab3D were demonstrated to be also mainly present in some of the dark cells. Additionally, in the cytological and cytochemical features, the different characteristics were observed among the dark cells. The results obtained are discussed with regard to the functional significance of the eccrine glands. The secretory products elaborated by this gland type may function as protective agents in order to preserve the skin integrity of the snout region, considering that sialic acids and antimicrobial substances are important in general defense mechanisms.

  11. Increase in skin surface elasticity in normal volunteer subjects following the use of copper oxide impregnated socks. (United States)

    Dykes, P


    Copper is an essential mineral involved in the formation and stabilisation of extracellular skin proteins. As copper can be absorbed through intact skin, we reasoned that using socks containing copper-impregnated fibres may have an effect on skin elasticity. A double blind, placebo controlled study was conducted in which one group of healthy volunteers (n = 32) wore socks with fibres containing microscopic copper oxide particles and the other group wore identical socks without copper oxide (n = 28). The socks were worn for at least 10 h a day for 4 weeks. Skin elasticity measurements were taken from three separate test sites on the side of the ankle using a Cutometer at baseline and after 2 and 4 weeks of product use. There was an increase in the mean net skin elasticity (R5) of 6.4% (P = 0.6) and 31.4% (P = 0.004) after 2 and 4 weeks respectively, in the group of individuals that used the copper oxide containing socks, but no increase in the group of individuals that used the control socks. Similarly, there was an increase in the mean biological elasticity (R7 values) of 3% (P = 0.55) and 20.7% (0.014) after 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, only in the group of individuals that used the copper oxide containing socks. The differences between treatments (i.e. socks used) were statistically significant at 4 weeks (P = 0.0058 and P = 0.0327 for R5 and R7, respectively). Using copper oxide containing socks results in an increase in skin elasticity of the feet. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Dosimetric comparison of axilla and groin radiotherapy techniques for high-risk and locally advanced skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattes, Malcolm D.; Zhou, Ying; Berry, Sean L.; Barker, Christopher A. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States)


    Radiation therapy targeting axilla and groin lymph nodes improves regional disease control in locally advanced and high-risk skin cancers. However, trials generally used conventional two-dimensional radiotherapy (2D-RT), contributing towards relatively high rates of side effects from treatment. The goal of this study is to determine if three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), or volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) may improve radiation delivery to the target while avoiding organs at risk in the clinical context of skin cancer regional nodal irradiation. Twenty patients with locally advanced/high-risk skin cancers underwent computed tomography simulation. The relevant axilla or groin planning target volumes and organs at risk were delineated using standard definitions. Paired t-tests were used to compare the mean values of several dose-volumetric parameters for each of the 4 techniques. In the axilla, the largest improvement for 3D-CRT compared to 2D-RT was for homogeneity index (13.9 vs. 54.3), at the expense of higher lung V{sub 20} (28.0% vs. 12.6%). In the groin, the largest improvements for 3D-CRT compared to 2D-RT were for anorectum D{sub max} (13.6 vs. 38.9 Gy), bowel D{sub 200cc} (7.3 vs. 23.1 Gy), femur D{sub 50} (34.6 vs. 57.2 Gy), and genitalia D{sub max} (37.6 vs. 51.1 Gy). IMRT had further improvements compared to 3D-CRT for humerus D{sub mean} (16.9 vs. 22.4 Gy), brachial plexus D{sub 5} (57.4 vs. 61.3 Gy), bladder D{sub 5} (26.8 vs. 36.5 Gy), and femur D{sub 50} (18.7 vs. 34.6 Gy). Fewer differences were observed between IMRT and VMAT. Compared to 2D-RT and 3D-CRT, IMRT and VMAT had dosimetric advantages in the treatment of nodal regions of skin cancer patients.

  13. The Effects of Hearing Aids on Localization of White Noise by Blind Subjects. (United States)

    Bergen, Bruce R.


    An investigation was conducted to observe the effects of hearing aids on the ability of 20 blind veterans to localize white noise. In all cases, Ss performed more poorly on a localization task while wearing a hearing aid. (Author)

  14. Determination of the maximum rate of eccrine sweat glands’ ion reabsorption using the galvanic skin conductance to local sweat rate relationship. (United States)

    Amano, Tatsuro; Gerrett, Nicola; Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Nishiyasu, Takeshi; Havenith, George; Kondo, Narihiko


    The purpose of the present study was to develop and describe a simple method to evaluate the rate of ion reabsorption of eccrine sweat glands in human using the measurement of galvanic skin conductance (GSC) and local sweating rate (SR). This purpose was investigated by comparing the SR threshold for increasing GSC with following two criteria of sweat ion reabsorption in earlier studies such as (1) the SR threshold for increasing sweat ion was at approximately 0.2–0.5 mg/cm2/min and (2) exercise heat acclimation improved the sweat ion reabsorption ability and would increase the criteria 1. Seven healthy non-heat-acclimated male subjects received passive heat treatment both before and after 7 days of cycling in hot conditions (50% maximum oxygen uptake, 60 min/day, ambient temperature 32 °C, and 50% relative humidity). Subjects became partially heat-acclimated, as evidenced by the decreased end-exercise heart rate (p rate of perceived exhaustion (p maximum rate of sweat ion reabsorption of eccrine sweat glands in humans.

  15. Influence of age, spatial memory, and ocular fixation on localization of auditory, visual, and bimodal targets by human subjects. (United States)

    Dobreva, Marina S; O'Neill, William E; Paige, Gary D


    A common complaint of the elderly is difficulty identifying and localizing auditory and visual sources, particularly in competing background noise. Spatial errors in the elderly may pose challenges and even threats to self and others during everyday activities, such as localizing sounds in a crowded room or driving in traffic. In this study, we investigated the influence of aging, spatial memory, and ocular fixation on the localization of auditory, visual, and combined auditory-visual (bimodal) targets. Head-restrained young and elderly subjects localized targets in a dark, echo-attenuated room using a manual laser pointer. Localization accuracy and precision (repeatability) were quantified for both ongoing and transient (remembered) targets at response delays up to 10 s. Because eye movements bias auditory spatial perception, localization was assessed under target fixation (eyes free, pointer guided by foveal vision) and central fixation (eyes fixed straight ahead, pointer guided by peripheral vision) conditions. Spatial localization across the frontal field in young adults demonstrated (1) horizontal overshoot and vertical undershoot for ongoing auditory targets under target fixation conditions, but near-ideal horizontal localization with central fixation; (2) accurate and precise localization of ongoing visual targets guided by foveal vision under target fixation that degraded when guided by peripheral vision during central fixation; (3) overestimation in horizontal central space (±10°) of remembered auditory, visual, and bimodal targets with increasing response delay. In comparison with young adults, elderly subjects showed (1) worse precision in most paradigms, especially when localizing with peripheral vision under central fixation; (2) greatly impaired vertical localization of auditory and bimodal targets; (3) increased horizontal overshoot in the central field for remembered visual and bimodal targets across response delays; (4) greater vulnerability to

  16. Attenuation fluctuations and local dermal reflectivity are indicators of immune cell infiltrate and epidermal hyperplasia in skin inflammation (United States)

    Phillips, Kevin G.; Wang, Yun; Choudhury, Niloy; Levitz, David; Swanzey, Emily; Lagowski, James; Kulesz-Martin, Molly; Jacques, Steven


    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease resulting from genetic and environmental alterations of cutaneous immune responses responsible for skin homeostasis. While numerous therapeutic targets involved in the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis have been identified, the in vivo dynamics of psoriasis remains under investigated. To elucidate the spatial-temporal morphological evolution of psoriasis we undertook in vivo time course focus-tracked optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to non-invasively document dermal alterations due to immune cell infiltration and epidermal hyperplasia in an Imiquimod (IMQ) induced model of psoriasis-like inflammation in DBA2/C57Bl6 hybrid mice. Quantitative appraisal of dermal architectural changes was achieved through a three parameter fit of OCT axial scans in the dermis of the form A(z) = ρ exp(-mu;z +ɛ(z)). Ensemble averaging of the fit parameters over 2000 axial scans per mouse in each treatment arm revealed that the local dermal reflectivity ρ, decreased significantly in response to 6 day IMQ treatment (p = 0.0001), as did the standard deviation of the attenuation fluctuation std(ɛ(z)), (p = 0.04), in comparison to cream controls and day 1 treatments. No significant changes were observed in the average dermal attenuation rate, μ. Our results suggest these label-free OCT-based metrics can be deployed to investigate new therapeutic targets in animal models as well as aid in clinical staging of psoriasis in conjunction with the psoriasis area and severity index.

  17. Gene expression profile of cytokines and chemokines in skin lesions from Brazilian Indians with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis. (United States)

    Costa-Silva, Matheus Fernandes; Gomes, Luciana Inácia; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Rodrigues-Silva, Renata; Freire, Janaína de Moura; Quaresma, Patrícia Flávia; Pascoal-Xavier, Marcelo Antônio; Mendes, Tiago Antônio de Oliveira; Serakides, Rogéria; Zauli, Danielle Alves Gomes; Campi-Azevedo, Ana Carolina; Melo, Maria Norma; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Peruhype-Magalhães, Vanessa; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa


    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by dermotropic Leishmania species belonging to the Viannia subgenera, with Leishmania (V.) braziliensis considered the main agent in Brazil. After infection, a local inflammatory process is initiated, inducing the expression of several cytokine/chemokine genes. We evaluated the immunity to CL of patients living in the indigenous community Xakriabá, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, by performing detailed analyses of the mRNA expression of different cytokines and chemokines in CL lesions, considering the time evolution (recent or late). We also studied the profile of the inflammatory infiltrate by histopathological analysis. The histopathological features of recent CL lesions showed an intense inflammatory reaction, characterized by the presence of both mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells, whereas late CL lesions exhibited a predominance of mononuclear leukocytes. The gene expression of cytokines/chemokines in skin biopsies from the CL group showed higher transcript levels of modulatory (IL10 and TGFB1), anti-inflammatory (IL4), and pro-inflammatory (TNF, IFNG, IL12B, CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CXCL10) biomarkers in recent lesions than in late lesions. Our findings suggest that differential gene expression of cytokines and chemokines found in skin lesions from CL patients is associated with time evolution of lesions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Local, regional, and systemic recurrence rates in patients undergoing skin-sparing mastectomy compared with conventional mastectomy. (United States)

    Yi, Min; Kronowitz, Steven J; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Feig, Barry W; Symmans, W Fraser; Lucci, Anthony; Ross, Merrick I; Babiera, Gildy V; Kuerer, Henry M; Hunt, Kelly K


    Although the use of SSM is becoming more common, there are few data on long-term, local-regional, and distant recurrence rates after treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine the rates of local, regional, and systemic recurrence, and survival in breast cancer patients who underwent skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) or conventional mastectomy (CM) at our institution. Patients with stage 0 to III unilateral breast cancer who underwent total mastectomy at our center from 2000 to 2005 were included in this study. Kaplan-Meier curves were calculated, and the log-rank test was used to evaluate the differences between overall and disease-free survival rates in the 2 groups. Of 1810 patients, 799 (44.1%) underwent SSM and 1011 (55.9%) underwent CM. Patients who underwent CM were older (58.3 vs 49.3 years, P<.0001) and were more likely to have stage IIB or III disease (53.0% vs 31.8%, P<.0001). Significantly more patients in the CM group received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and adjuvant radiation therapy (P<.0001). At a median follow-up of 53 months, 119 patients (6.6%) had local, regional, or systemic recurrences. The local, regional, and systemic recurrence rates did not differ significantly between the SSM and CM groups. After adjusting for clinical TNM stage and age, disease-free survival rates between the SSM and CM groups did not differ significantly. SSM is an acceptable treatment option for patients who are candidates for immediate breast reconstruction. Local-regional recurrence rates are similar to those of patients undergoing CM. Cancer 2011. © 2010 American Cancer Society. Copyright © 2010 American Cancer Society.

  19. Distinct effects of subcellular glycogen localization on tetanic relaxation time and endurance in mechanically skinned rat skeletal muscle fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joachim; Schrøder, H D; Rix, C G


    In vitro experiments indicate a non-metabolic role of muscle glycogen in contracting skeletal muscles. Since the sequence of events in excitation\\#8211;contraction (E\\#8211;C) coupling is known to be located close to glycogen granules, at specific sites on the fibre, we hypothesized...... that the distinct compartments of glycogen have specific effects on muscle fibre contractility and fatigability. Single skeletal muscle fibres (n = 19) from fed and fasted rats were mechanically skinned and divided into two segments. In one segment glycogen localization and volume fraction were estimated......, range 22-252 contractions). Initially the total myofibrillar glycogen volume percentage was 0.46 +/- 0.07%, with 72 +/- 3% in the intermyofibrillar space and 28 +/- 3% in the intramyofibrillar space. The intramyofibrillar glycogen content was positively correlated with the fatigue resistance capacity (r...

  20. Tissue dielectric constant (TDC) as an index of localized arm skin water: differences between measuring probes and genders. (United States)

    Mayrovitz, H N; Weingrad, D N; Brlit, F; Lopez, L B; Desfor, R


    An easily measured, non-invasive, quantitative estimate of local skin tissue water is useful to assess local lymphedema and its change. One method uses skin tissue dielectric constant (TDC) values that at 300 MHz TDC depend on free and bound water within the measurement volume. In practice such measurements have been done with a research-type multi-probe, but recently a hand-held compact-probe has become available that may be more clinically convenient. Because most available published data is based on multiprobe measurements it is important to characterize possible differences between devices that unless known might lead to ambiguous quantitative comparisons between TDC values. Thus, our purpose was to evaluate potential differences in measured TDC values between multi-probe and compact-probe devices with respect to probe effective sampling depth, anatomical site, and gender and also to compare compact-probe TDC values measured on women with and without breast cancer (BC). TDC was measured bilaterally on forearms and biceps of 32 male and 32 female volunteers and on 12 female patients awaiting surgery for breast cancer. Results show that 1) TDC values at 2.5 mm depth were significantly less than at 1.5 mm; 2) Female TDC values were significantly less than male values; 3) TDC values were not different between females with and without BC; and 4) dominant/non-dominant arm TDC ratios were not significantly different for any probe among genders or arm anatomical site. These findings indicate that probe type differences in absolute TDC values are present and should be taken into account when TDC values are compared. However, comparisons based on inter-arm TDC ratios are not statistically different among probes with respect to gender or anatomical location.

  1. Variations of the histomorphological characteristics of human skin of different body regions in subjects of different age. (United States)

    Kakasheva-Mazhenkovska, L; Milenkova, L; Gjokik, G; Janevska, V


    The aim of this paper was to create a reference model for the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of healthy human skin in different body regions and different life periods. For this purpose we have taken skin biopsy specimens from 15 different body regions: capillitium, forehead, cheeks, anterior neck, thorax, axilla, abdomen, back, gluteus, anterior arm, anterior forearm, palm, anterior leg, anterior lower leg and sole. The biopsies were histologically elaborated according to a standard paraffin technique, and the obtained histological slides were qualitatively and quantitatively analysed with the use of a computer system for image processing and analysis (Lucia M, Version 3, System for Image Processing and Analysis). The examinees were divided by age into five groups: from full-term infants up to the age of 1 year; from the age of 2 up to the age of 12 years; from the age of 13 up to the age of 22; from the age of 23 up to the age of 55; from the age of 56 up to the age of 73. In each exemplar were determined: the total skin thickness in each region at each age group, total thickness of the epidermis, total thickness of the corium, thickness of the papillary and reticular layers of the corium. In this period the thickening is about 4-4.5 times. The growth of the thickness comes as a result of the growth of the thickness of the reticular corium, values of which grow by 4-5 times. The height of the epidermis in newborns shows higher values than the second group (childhood). In the third and fourth group the values of the epidermis are from 1.5 to 2.5 times higher on those parts of the body which are uncovered and exposed to externalities. The essence of the changes that happen to the skin is structural final formation, which is turbulent and targeted in youth (in order to harmonize structural and functional abilities of the human organism) and in mature age to synchronize the function of the skin with the other systems of the organism.

  2. Subjective Health Complaints in Individuals with Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis: Associations with the Severity of the Skin Condition and Illness Perceptions - A Cross-Sectional Study. (United States)

    Nordbø, Emma Charlott Andersson; Aamodt, Geir; Ihlebæk, Camilla Martha


    High comorbidity has been reported among persons with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA), but the occurrence of subjective health complaints (SHCs) in these patient groups is poorly understood. The study aimed to describe the prevalence of SHCs among individuals with psoriasis and PsA in Norway, and investigate whether the severity of their skin condition and their illness perceptions were associated with the number and severity of health complaints. Participants were recruited through the Psoriasis and Eczema Association of Norway (PEF) (n = 942). The participants answered a self-administered questionnaire covering subjective health complaints, the severity of their skin condition, and their illness perceptions measured with the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ-R). The prevalence and severity of SHCs were high. Participants with PsA reported more complaints and higher severity of complaints compared with participants with psoriasis. In both groups, the severity of the skin condition was associated with the number and severity of SHCs. Cognitive illness perceptions (consequences) and emotional illness perceptions (emotional affect) were associated with SHCs in participants with psoriasis, whereas only cognitive illness perceptions (consequences and identity) were associated with SHCs in participants with PsA. The high prevalence and severity of SHCs among individuals with psoriasis and PsA were associated with the severity of the skin condition and illness perceptions. Somatic and cognitive sensitizations are proposed as possible mechanisms. The findings suggest that holistic approaches are essential when managing these patient groups in health care institutions and clinical practice.

  3. Skin electroporation: effects on transgene expression, DNA persistence and local tissue environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Anna-Karin; Eriksson, Fredrik; Timmons, James A


    . METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study investigates intradermal DNA electrovaccination in detail and describes the effects on expression of the vaccine antigen, plasmid persistence and the local tissue environment. Gene profiling of the vaccination site showed that the combination of DNA......-administered, PSA-specific T cells were induced and concurrently the luciferase expression became undetectable. Electroporation did not affect the long-term persistence of the PSA-expressing plasmid. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides important insights to how DNA delivery by intradermal...

  4. A controlled trial of pain on skin infiltration with local anaesthetics. (United States)

    Morris, R W; Whish, D K


    A double-blind, randomised controlled trial was performed to compare the pain experienced on intradermal and subcutaneous injection of lignocaine 1% with adrenaline 1:100,000, lignocaine 1%, procaine 1% and normal saline. A linear analogue pain scale was used to assess pain. Lignocaine with adrenaline caused the most pain and was more painful than lignocaine 1%, which in turn was more painful than procaine or normal saline. These differences were significant at p less than 0.05 or greater for all comparisons except procaine 1% and normal saline. In conclusion, procaine 1% appears to be the local anaesthetic of choice from among those tested for intradermal and subcutaneous injection.

  5. Subjective Response to Foot-Fall Noise, Including Localization of the Source Position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Hwang, Ha Dong; Jeong, Cheol-Ho


    Although an impact noise level is objectively evaluated the same according to current standards, a lightweight floor structure is often subjectively judged more annoying than a heavy homogeneous structure. The hypothesis of the present investigation is that the subjective judgment of impact noise...

  6. Impact of sleep restriction on local immune response and skin barrier restoration with and without 'multi-nutrient' nutrition intervention. (United States)

    Smith, Tracey J; Wilson, Marques A; Karl, J Philip; Orr, Jeb; Smith, Carl D; Cooper, Adam D; Heaton, Kristin J; Young, Andrew J; Montain, Scott J


    Systemic immune function is impaired by sleep restriction. However, the impact of sleep restriction on local immune responses, and to what extent any impairment can be mitigated by nutritional supplementation is unknown. We assessed the effect of 72-h sleep restriction (2-h nightly sleep) on local immune function and skin barrier restoration of an experimental wound, and determined the influence of habitual protein intake (1.5 g·kg-1·d-1) supplemented with arginine, glutamine, zinc sulfate, vitamin C, vitamin D3 and omega-3 fatty acids compared to lower protein intake (0.8 g·kg-1·d-1) without supplemental nutrients on these outcomes. Wounds were created in healthy adults by removing the top layer of ≤ 8 forearm blisters induced via suction, after adequate sleep (AS) or 48-h of a 72-h sleep restriction period (SR; 2-h nightly sleep). A subset of participants undergoing sleep restriction received supplemental nutrients during and after sleep restriction (SR+). Wound fluid was serially sampled 48-hpost-blistering to assess local cytokine responses. The IL-8 response of wound fluid was higher for AS compared to SR (area-under-the-curve (log10), 5.1±0.2 and 4.9±0.2 pg·mL-1, respectively (P=0.03); and, both IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations were higher for SR+ compared to SR (psleep disruption delays wound healing. Supplemental nutrition may mitigate some decrements in local immune responses, without detectable effects on wound healing rate. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Applied Physiology.

  7. Discrepancies between Skinned Single Muscle Fibres and Whole Thigh Muscle Function Characteristics in Young and Elderly Human Subjects


    Hyunseok Jee; Jae-Young Lim


    We aimed to analyse the mechanical properties of skinned single muscle fibres derived from the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle in relation to those of the whole intact thigh muscle and to compare any difference between young and older adults. Sixteen young men (29.25 ? 4.65 years), 11 older men (71.45 ? 2.94 years), 11 young women (29.64 ? 4.88 years), and 7 older women (67.29 ? 1.70 years) were recruited. In vivo analyses were performed for mechanical properties such as isokinetic performance, ...

  8. Sleep Deprivation in Young and Healthy Subjects Is More Sensitively Identified by Higher Frequencies of Electrodermal Activity than by Skin Conductance Level Evaluated in the Time Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Posada-Quintero


    Full Text Available We analyzed multiple measures of the autonomic nervous system (ANS based on electrodermal activity (EDA and heart rate variability (HRV for young healthy subjects undergoing 24-h sleep deprivation. In this study, we have utilized the error awareness test (EAT every 2 h (13 runs total, to evaluate the deterioration of performance. EAT consists of trials where the subject is presented words representing colors. Subjects are instructed to press a button (“Go” trials or withhold the response if the word presented and the color of the word mismatch (“Stroop No-Go” trial, or the screen is repeated (“Repeat No-Go” trials. We measured subjects' (N = 10 reaction time to the “Go” trials, and accuracy to the “Stroop No-Go” and “Repeat No-Go” trials. Simultaneously, changes in EDA and HRV indices were evaluated. Furthermore, the relationship between reactiveness and vigilance measures and indices of sympathetic control based on HRV were analyzed. We found the performance improved to a stable level from 6 through 16 h of deprivation, with a subsequently sustained impairment after 18 h. Indices of higher frequencies of EDA related more to vigilance measures, whereas lower frequencies index (skin conductance leve, SCL measured the reactiveness of the subject. We conclude that indices of EDA, including those of the higher frequencies, termed TVSymp, EDASymp, and NSSCRs, provide information to better understand the effect of sleep deprivation on subjects' autonomic response and performance.

  9. Melanin distribution in human epidermis affords localized protection against DNA photodamage and concurs with skin cancer incidence difference in extreme phototypes. (United States)

    Fajuyigbe, Damilola; Lwin, Su M; Diffey, Brian L; Baker, Richard; Tobin, Desmond J; Sarkany, Robert P E; Young, Antony R


    Epidermal DNA damage, especially to the basal layer, is an established cause of keratinocyte cancers (KCs). Large differences in KC incidence (20- to 60-fold) between white and black populations are largely attributable to epidermal melanin photoprotection in the latter. The cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) is the most mutagenic DNA photolesion; however, most studies suggest that melanin photoprotection against CPD is modest and cannot explain the considerable skin color-based differences in KC incidence. Along with melanin quantity, solar-simulated radiation-induced CPD assessed immediately postexposure in the overall epidermis and within 3 epidermal zones was compared in black West Africans and fair Europeans. Melanin in black skin protected against CPD by 8.0-fold in the overall epidermis and by 59.0-, 16.5-, and 5.0-fold in the basal, middle, and upper epidermis, respectively. Protection was related to the distribution of melanin, which was most concentrated in the basal layer of black skin. These results may explain, at least in part, the considerable skin color differences in KC incidence. These data suggest that a DNA protection factor of at least 60 is necessary in sunscreens to reduce white skin KC incidence to a level that is comparable with that of black skin.-Fajuyigbe, D., Lwin, S. M., Diffey, B. L., Baker, R., Tobin, D. J., Sarkany, R. P. E., Young, A. R. Melanin distribution in human epidermis affords localized protection against DNA photodamage and concurs with skin cancer incidence difference in extreme phototypes.

  10. Localization and patterns of Cerebral dyschromatopsia: A study of subjects with prospagnosia. (United States)

    Moroz, Daniel; Corrow, Sherryse L; Corrow, Jeffrey C; Barton, Alistair R S; Duchaine, Brad; Barton, Jason J S


    Cerebral dyschromatopsia is sometimes associated with acquired prosopagnosia. Given the variability in structural lesions that cause acquired prosopagnosia, this study aimed to investigate the structural correlates of prosopagnosia-associated dyschromatopsia, and to determine if such colour processing deficits could also accompany developmental prosopagnosia. In addition, we studied whether cerebral dyschromatopsia is typified by a consistent pattern of hue impairments. We investigated hue discrimination in a cohort of 12 subjects with acquired prosopagnosia and 9 with developmental prosopagnosia, along with 42 matched controls, using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test. We found impaired hue discrimination in six subjects with acquired prosopagnosia, five with bilateral and one with a unilateral occipitotemporal lesion. Structural MRI analysis showed maximum overlap of lesions in the right and left lingual and fusiform gyri. Fourier analysis of their error scores showed tritanopic-like deficits and blue-green impairments, similar to tendencies displayed by the healthy controls. Three subjects also showed a novel fourth Fourier component, indicating additional peak deficits in purple and green-yellow regions. No subject with developmental prosopagnosia had impaired hue discrimination. In our subjects with prosopagnosia, dyschromatopsia occurred in those with acquired lesions of the fusiform gyri, usually bilateral but sometimes unilateral. The dyschromatopsic deficit shows mainly an accentuation of normal tritatanopic-like tendencies. These are sometimes accompanied by additional deficits, although these could represent artifacts of the testing procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cutaneous localization in multiple myeloma in the context of bortezomib-based treatment: how do myeloma cells escape from the bone marrow to the skin? (United States)

    Marchica, Valentina; Accardi, Fabrizio; Storti, Paola; Mancini, Cristina; Martella, Eugenia; Dalla Palma, Benedetta; Bolzoni, Marina; Todoerti, Katia; Marcatti, Magda; Schifano, Chiara; Bonomini, Sabrina; Sammarelli, Gabriella; Neri, Antonino; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Aversa, Franco; Giuliani, Nicola


    The skin is a possible site of extramedullary localization in multiple myeloma (MM) patients; however, the mechanisms involved in this process are poorly understood. We describe the case of a refractory MM patient who developed a cutaneous localization under bortezomib treatment and we further expanded observations in other eight MM patients. We focused on the expression of genes involved in plasma cell skin homing, including CCR10, which was highly expressed. Moreover, we observed a lack of CXCR4 surface expression and the down-regulation of ICAM1/CD54 throughout the progression of the disease, suggesting a possible mechanism driving the escape of MM cells from the bone marrow into the skin.

  12. Local complex permittivity measurements of porcine skin tissue in the frequency range from 1 GHz to 15 GHz by evanescent microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleismit, Richard A; Kozlowski, Gregory; Foy, Brent D [Department of Physics, Wright State University, 3640 Col. Glenn Hwy, Dayton, OH 45435-0001 (United States); Hull, Barbara E [Department of Biological Sciences, Wright State University, 3640 Col. Glenn Hwy, Dayton, OH 45435-0001 (United States); Kazimierczuk, Marian [Department of Electrical Engineering, Wright State University, 3640 Col. Glenn Hwy, Dayton, OH 45435-0001 (United States)], E-mail:


    The near-field evanescent microwave microscope is based on a coaxial transmission line resonator with a silver plated tungsten tip protruding through an end-wall aperture. The sensor is used to measure the local dielectric properties of porcine skin in the frequency range from 1 GHz to 15 GHz. The dielectric property of the skin within the near field of the tip frustrates the electric field and measurably changes the transmission line's resonant frequency and quality factor (Q). The shift of the resonator's frequency and Q is measured as a function of tip-sample separation, and a quantitative relationship between the real and imaginary parts of the local dielectric constant using the method of images is established. The associated changes in quality factor image scans of subsurface tissue structure and dielectric properties of skin surface lesions are presented.

  13. Effects of Locally Applied Glycerol and Xylitol on the Hydration, Barrier Function and Morphological Parameters of the Skin. (United States)

    Korponyai, Csilla; Szél, Edit; Behány, Zoltán; Varga, Erika; Mohos, Gábor; Dura, Ágnes; Dikstein, Shabtay; Kemény, Lajos; Erős, Gábor


    Glycerol and xylitol hydrate the skin and improve its barrier function over a short period. We studied the effects of glycerol and xylitol on the physiological properties and morphology of the skin after longer-term application. Twelve volunteers with dry skin were examined. Three areas on the arms were determined. Area 1 served as untreated control. The vehicle was applied to area 2, while area 3 was treated twice daily with a formulation containing glycerol (5%) and xylitol (5%) for 14 days. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), hydration and biomechanical properties of the skin were monitored. Biopsies were taken for routine histology and immunohistochemistry for filaggrin and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). The polyols increased the skin hydration and protein quantity of filaggrin, elevated the interdigitation index, decreased the TEWL and improved the biomechanical properties of the skin, but did not change the protein expression of MMP-1. A combination of glycerol and xylitol can be useful additional therapy for dry skin.

  14. Subjective comparison of brightness preservation methods for local backlight dimming displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Mantel, Claire; Forchhammer, Søren


    Local backlight dimming is a popular technology in high quality Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs). In those displays, the backlight is composed of contributions from several individually adjustable backlight segments, set at different backlight luminance levels in different parts of the screen......, according to the luma of the target image displayed on LCD. Typically, transmittance of the liquid crystal cells (pixels) located in the regions with dimmed backlight is increased in order to preserve their relative brightness with respect to the pixels located in the regions with bright backlight...... ordering to compare the relevant methods on a real-life LCD with a local backlight dimming capability. In general, our results show that locally adapted brightness preservation methods produce more preferred visual outcome than global methods, but dependency on the content is also observed. Based...

  15. Chaos suppression and desynchronization phenomena in periodically coupled pendula subjected to localized heterogeneous forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon, R. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Apartado Postal 382, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain)], E-mail:; Martinez, P.J. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, E.U.I.T.I., Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Martinez, J.A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Electronica y Automatica, E.P.S., Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, E-02071 Albacete (Spain); Lenci, S. [Dipartimento di Architettura, Costruzioni e Strutture, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)


    The suppressory effects of localized heterogeneous periodic pulses on the chaotic behaviour of sinusoidally coupled nonlinear pendula are studied. We assume that when the pendula are driven synchronously, i.e., all driving pulses have the same waveform, the chains display chaotic dynamics. It is shown that decreasing the impulse transmitted by the pulses of a minimal number of pendula results in regularization with the whole array exhibiting frequency synchronization over a wide range of coupling periods. These findings demonstrate that decreasing the impulse transmitted by localized external forces can tame chaos and lead to frequency-locked states in networks of periodically coupled dissipative systems.

  16. A comparison between 133Xenon washout technique and Laser Doppler flowmetry in the measurement of local vasoconstrictor effects on the microcirculation in subcutaneous tissue and skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J; Bülow, J; Lassen, N A


    Changes in skin blood flow measured by Laser Doppler flowmetry and changes in subcutaneous blood flow measured by 133Xenon washout technique were compared during activation of the local sympathetic mediated veno-arteriolar vasoconstrictor reflex by lowering the area of investigation below heart l...

  17. Subjective response to foot-fall noise, including localization of the source position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Hwang, Ha Dong; Jeong, Cheol-Ho


    annoyance, using simulated binaural room impulse responses, with sources being a moving point source or a non-moving surface source, and rooms being a room with a reverberation time of 0.5 s or an anechoic room. The paper concludes that no strong effect of the source localization on the annoyance can...

  18. Investigating subjective attributes of quality for videos displayed with local backlight dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Bech, Søren; Forchhammer, Søren


    This paper investigates what composes the quality of videos displayed on LCD with local backlight dimming. In a sub- jective experiment, participants assessed the level of nine attributes defined using the Qualitative Descriptive Anal- ysis method. Results show that three attributes (Contrast...

  19. Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence kinetics and localization after topical application of ALA pentyl ester and ALA on hairless mouse skin with UVB-induced early skin cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, J. T.; de Bruijn, H. S.; Beijersbergen van Henegouwen, G. M.; Star, W. M.; Sterenborg, H. J.


    In order to improve the efficacy of 5-aminolevulinic acid-based (ALA) photodynamic therapy (PDT), different ALA derivatives are presently being investigated. ALA esters are more lipophilic and therefore may have better skin penetration properties than ALA, possibly resulting in enhanced

  20. Use of laser speckle contrast imaging to reveal changes in temperature and blood perfusion in the skin of healthy subjects after administration of heated moxa sticks and daiwenjiu ointment. (United States)

    Xu, Qingyan; Yang, Jinsheng; Wang, Liang; Deng, Zi; Wang, Yingying; Yang, Li; Wu, Peng; Li, Liang


    To investigate the influence of heated moxa sticks ("moxibustion") and Daiwenjiu ointment (DO) on changes in temperature and blood perfusion volume on the skin of the backs of healthy subjects. DO was spread on the left side of the body, and the right side of the body was treated with a heated moxa stick. Images denoting blood perfusion and body temperature were collected 7-8 cm lateral to the spinous process of the sixth thoracic vertebra using laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI). Data obtained from eight-frame images were analyzed and used to calculate the mean blood perfusion volume. Simultaneously, blood-perfusion images were collected from the body surface and used to compare the change in blood flow on the body surface and the actual position of imaging. After moxibustion, a rapid increase in blood perfusion volume and body temperature was noted in the local skin surface. The maximum blood perfusion volume and body temperature was noted at 20 min (P temperature (P temperature after treatment with moxibustion, but the respective changes seen in the DO group were gradual and moderate.

  1. Assessment of local skin reactions with a sequential regimen of cryosurgery followed by ingenol mebutate gel, 0.015%, in patients with actinic keratosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldenberg G


    Full Text Available Gary Goldenberg,1 Brian Berman2,3 1Department of Dermatology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, 2Center for Clinical and Cosmetic Research, Aventura, FL, 3Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: Lesion-directed and field-directed therapies are used to treat actinic keratosis (AK. Therapeutic approaches that combine both types of therapies may improve the successful elimination of AKs. A randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of topical field treatment with ingenol mebutate gel, 0.015%, after cryosurgery to AKs on the face and scalp. Patients with 4–8 visible discrete AKs in a 25-cm2 contiguous area received cryosurgery of all AKs at baseline. After a 3-week healing period, patients applied ingenol mebutate gel, 0.015%, or vehicle gel once daily for 3 consecutive days to the treatment area. The incidence, severity, and time course of the development and resolution of local skin reactions were measured from baseline to week 11. Local skin reactions peaked shortly after completion of ingenol mebutate treatment and generally resolved within 2 weeks. The mean (95% confidence interval composite score (maximum range, 0–24 for these reactions was higher in patients with treatment of AKs on the face, 9.3 (8.5–10.1, as compared with the scalp, 5.8 (4.3–7.4. Erythema and flaking/scaling were the major contributors to the composite local skin reaction score. These results show that local skin reactions associated with ingenol mebutate treatment of the face or scalp are well tolerated after recent cryosurgery. Keywords: ingenol mebutate gel, actinic keratosis, field therapy, local skin reaction

  2. Dive Tourism and Local Communities: Active Participation or Subject to Impacts?Case Studies from Malaysia


    Daldeniz, Bilge; Hampton, Mark P.


    Dive tourism impacts were examined in three Malaysian islands: Perhentian(backpackers), Redang (package tourism) and Mabul (upmarket dive tourism). Qualitative local participation approaches were applied to investigate whether host communities were merely reactive to dive tourism’s impacts. Dive tourism affected many aspects of community life. Besides physical/environmental impacts (new infrastructure), research found varied economic impacts including employment/business opportunities and dif...

  3. Local effects in the respiratory tract: relevance of subjectively measured irritation for setting occupational exposure limits. (United States)

    Arts, Josje H E; de Heer, Cees; Woutersen, Ruud A


    Chemosensory effects of stimulation by a chemical can either be irritating (trigeminal stimulation) or odorous (olfactory stimulation) or both. For odorous irritants, a clear-cut distinction between odour and irritation is difficult to make. The differences in the lowest concentration found to be irritating to the respiratory tract in humans when compared to experimental animals has brought much debate in the process of setting occupational exposure limits (OELs) for such chemicals. In this paper it will be discussed as to how far subjectively measured sensory irritation threshold levels can be used to establish OELs. Data on respiratory irritation of four odorous irritants were retrieved from public literature and discussed, viz. acetone, formaldehyde, furfural and sulphur dioxide. Objective measures of irritation yielded results that differed from subjective evaluations. Important factors modulating the reported levels of irritation and health symptoms include the perception of odour intensity, exposure history and the individual's bias to report irritation on the basis of his/her prejudice or knowledge of the compound. Subjective measures alone are less appropriate for establishing sensory irritation thresholds of odorous irritants and are, therefore, less suitable to establish OELs without supporting evidence. Objectively measured irritation in humans, the Alarie assay (an experimental animal test assessing the concentration that results in a 50% reduction of the breathing frequency) and repeated exposure studies in animals may be of help to study objective irritation. If subjective measurements are used to study sensory irritation, the study design should at least include: measurement of both incidence and severity determined at several concentrations, an appropriate (0 ppm) control condition, preferably a non-irritant odorant control exposure, validated questionnaires and correct concentration measurements.

  4. Enhanced skin toxicity with concomitant cetuximab and radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bujor, L.; Grillo, I.M.; Pimentel, N. [Hospital Santa Maria, Radioterapia, Lisboa (Portugal); Macor, C.; Catarina, M. [Hospital Santa Maria, ORL, Lisboa (Portugal); Ribeiro, L. [Hospital Santa Maria, Oncologia, Lisboa (Portugal)


    Purpose: When associated with radiotherapy the monoclonal antibodies such as cetuximab might be exacerbate skin toxicity. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze acute dermatological toxicity in ten consecutive patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma treated from march 2008 to May 2009 according to Bonner protocol. Patients and methods: We have treated with radiotherapy and cetuximab ten patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx or oral cavity, stage 3-4B and non metastatic. All our patients were 3D planned and scheduled for conventional fractionation 70 Gy/35 fractions over 47 days, five days weekly. Uninvolved neck received 50 Gy and gross nodal disease received 70 Gy as the primary tumor. Cetuximab was administered one week before radiotherapy at a loading dose of 400 mg per square meter of body surface area over 120 minutes, followed by weekly 60 minutes infusions at 250 mg per square meter for the duration of radiotherapy. Results: In eight patients (80%) grade 3 radiation dermatitis occurred as early as with 28 Gy at a median dose of 42 Gy (range 28-60 Gy). the median radiotherapy dose was 6 Gy with an overall treatment time of 57.7 days (range 41-70 days). were administered 78 cycles of cetuximab, one patient discontinued after five cycles due to infusion reactions. There was no correlation between toxicity and acne-like rash due to cetuximab. Conclusion: Our results albeit in disagreement with the original study are rather similar with the experience of other European centers that encounter grade 3-4 radiation dermatitis in 49% of their patients or Australian centers that reported 79% of same degree of toxicity. (authors)

  5. Multiscale modeling of localized resistive heating in nanocrystalline metals subjected to electropulsing (United States)

    Zhao, Jingyi; Wang, G.-X.; Dong, Yalin; Ye, Chang


    Many electrically assisted processes have been reported to induce changes in microstructure and metal plasticity. To understand the physics-based mechanisms behind these interesting phenomena, however, requires an understanding of the interaction between the electric current and heterogeneous microstructure. In this work, multiscale modeling of the electric current flow in a nanocrystalline material is reported. The cellular automata method was used to track the nanoscale grain boundaries in the matrix. Maxwell's electromagnetic equations were solved to obtain the electrical potential distribution at the macro scale. Kirchhoff's circuit equation was solved to obtain the electric current flow at the micro/nano scale. The electric current distribution at two representative locations was investigated. A significant electric current concentration was observed near the grain boundaries, particularly near the triple junctions. This higher localized electric current leads to localized resistive heating near the grain boundaries. The electric current distribution could be used to obtain critical information such as localized resistive heating rate and extra system free energy, which are critical for explaining many interesting phenomena, including microstructure evolution and plasticity enhancement in many electrically assisted processes.

  6. Individualized Gaussian process-based prediction and detection of local and global gray matter abnormalities in elderly subjects. (United States)

    Ziegler, G; Ridgway, G R; Dahnke, R; Gaser, C


    Structural imaging based on MRI is an integral component of the clinical assessment of patients with potential dementia. We here propose an individualized Gaussian process-based inference scheme for clinical decision support in healthy and pathological aging elderly subjects using MRI. The approach aims at quantitative and transparent support for clinicians who aim to detect structural abnormalities in patients at risk of Alzheimer's disease or other types of dementia. Firstly, we introduce a generative model incorporating our knowledge about normative decline of local and global gray matter volume across the brain in elderly. By supposing smooth structural trajectories the models account for the general course of age-related structural decline as well as late-life accelerated loss. Considering healthy subjects' demography and global brain parameters as informative about normal brain aging variability affords individualized predictions in single cases. Using Gaussian process models as a normative reference, we predict new subjects' brain scans and quantify the local gray matter abnormalities in terms of Normative Probability Maps (NPM) and global z-scores. By integrating the observed expectation error and the predictive uncertainty, the local maps and global scores exploit the advantages of Bayesian inference for clinical decisions and provide a valuable extension of diagnostic information about pathological aging. We validate the approach in simulated data and real MRI data. We train the GP framework using 1238 healthy subjects with ages 18-94 years, and predict in 415 independent test subjects diagnosed as healthy controls, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Discrepancies between Skinned Single Muscle Fibres and Whole Thigh Muscle Function Characteristics in Young and Elderly Human Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunseok Jee


    Full Text Available We aimed to analyse the mechanical properties of skinned single muscle fibres derived from the vastus lateralis (VL muscle in relation to those of the whole intact thigh muscle and to compare any difference between young and older adults. Sixteen young men (29.25±4.65 years, 11 older men (71.45±2.94 years, 11 young women (29.64±4.88 years, and 7 older women (67.29±1.70 years were recruited. In vivo analyses were performed for mechanical properties such as isokinetic performance, isometric torque, and power. Specific force and maximum shortening velocity (Vo were measured with single muscle fibres. Sex difference showed greater impact on the functional properties of both the whole muscle (p<0.01 and single muscle fibres than aging (p<0.05. Sex difference, rather than aging, yielded more remarkable differences in gross mechanical properties in the single muscle fibre study in which significant differences between young men and young women were found only in the cross-sectional area and Vo (p<0.05. Age and sex differences reflect the mechanical properties of both single muscle fibres and whole thigh muscle, with the whole muscle yielding more prominent functional properties.

  8. Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject (United States)

    Holboke, Monica J.; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Li, Xingde; Shah, Natasha; Fishkin, Joshua B.; Kidney, D.; Butler, J.; Chance, Britton; Yodh, Arjun G.


    We describe an approach that combines clinical ultrasound and photon migration techniques to enhance the sensitivity and information content of diffuse optical tomography. Measurements were performed on a postmenopausal woman with a single 1.8 X 0.9 cm malignant ductal carcinoma in situ approximately 7.4 mm beneath the skin surface (UCI IRB protocol 95-563). The ultrasound-derived information about tumor geometry enabled us to segment the breast tissue into tumor and background regions. Optical data was obtained with a multifrequency, multiwavelength hand-held frequency-domain photon migration backscattering probe. The optical properties of the tumor and background were then computed using the ultrasound-derived geometrical constraints. An iterative perturbative approach, using parallel processing, provided quantitative information about scattering and absorption simultaneously with the ability to incorporate and resolve complex boundary conditions and geometries. A three to four fold increase in the tumor absorption coefficient and nearly 50% reduction in scattering coefficient relative to background was observed ((lambda) equals 674, 782, 803, and 849 nm). Calculations of the mean physiological parameters reveal fourfold greater tumor total hemoglobin concentration [Hbtot] than normal breast (67 (mu) M vs 16 (mu) M) and tumor hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SOx) values of 63% (vs 73% and 68% in the region surrounding the tumor and the opposite normal tissue, respectively). Comparison of semi-infinite to heterogeneous models shows superior tumor/background contrast for the latter in both absorption and scattering. Sensitivity studies assessing the impact of tumor size and refractive index assumptions, as well as scan direction, demonstrate modest effects on recovered properties.

  9. In vivo determination of local skin optical properties and photon path length by use of spatially resolved diffuse reflectance with applications in laser Doppler flowmetry. (United States)

    Larsson, Marcus; Nilsson, Henrik; Strömberg, Tomas


    Methods for local photon path length and optical properties estimation, based on measured and simulated diffuse reflectance within 2 mm from the light source, are proposed and evaluated in vivo on Caucasian human skin. The accuracy of the methods was good (2%-7%) for path length and reduced scattering but poor for absorption estimation. Reduced scattering and absorption were systematically lower in the fingertip than in the forearm skin (633 nm). A maximum intrasite and interindividual variation of approximately 35% in an average photon path length was found. The methodology was applied in laser Doppler flowmetry, where path-length normalization of the estimated perfusion removed the optical property dependency.

  10. High dose rate brachytherapy using custom made superficial mould applicators and Leipzig applicators for non melanoma localized skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellizzon, A. Cassio A.; Miziara, Daniela; Lima, Flavia Pedroso de; Miziara, Miguel


    Purpose: advances in technology and the commercial production of Leipzig applicators allowed High Dose Rate after-load brachytherapy (HDR-BT) to address a number of the challenges associated with the delivery of superficial radiation to treat localized non melanoma skin cancer (NMSK). We reviewed our uni-institutional experience on the treatment of NMSK with HDR-BT. Methods: data were collected retrospectively from patients attending the Radiation Oncology Department at AV Carvalho Insitute, Sao Paulo, Brazil. HDR-BT was done using the stepping source HDR 192Ir Microselectron (Nucletron BV). The planning target volume consisted of the macroscopic lesion plus a 5mm to 10mm margin.The depth of treatment was 0.5 cm in smaller (< 2.0 cm) tumors and 10 to 15 mm for lesions bigger than that. Results: Thirteen patients were treated with HDR-BT from June, 2007 to June 2013. The median age and follow up time were 72 (38-90) years old and 36 (range, 7-73) months, respectively. There a predominance of males (61.5%) and of patients referred for adjuvant treatment due positive surgical margins or because they have had only a excision biopsy without safety margins (61.5%). Six (46.2%) patients presented with squamous cell carcinoma and 7 (53.8%) patients presented with basal cell carcinoma. The median tumor size was 20 (range, 5-42) mm. Patients were treated with a median total dose of 40 Gy (range, 20 -60), given in 10 (range, 2-15) fractions, given daily or twice a week. All patients responded very well to treatment and only one patient has failed locally so far, after 38 months of the end of the irradiation. The crude and actuarial 3-year local control rates were 100% and 80%, respectively. Moist desquamation, grade 2 RTOG, was observed in 4 (30.8%) patients. Severe late complication, radiation-induced dyspigmentation, occurred in 2 patients and 1 of the patients also showed telangiectasia in the irradiated area. The cosmetic result was considered good in 84% (11/13) patients

  11. Comparison of Local Recurrence After Simple and Skin-Sparing Mastectomy Performed in Patients with Ductal Carcinoma In Situ. (United States)

    Timbrell, Simon; Al-Himdani, Sarah; Shaw, Oliver; Tan, Kian; Morris, Julie; Bundred, Nigel


    The incidence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is increasing with the use of screening mammography, and approximately 30% of all women diagnosed with DCIS are treated by mastectomy. There is increasing use of a skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) approach to surgically excise DCIS as this facilitates immediate breast reconstruction. The rates of locoregional recurrence (LRR) after simple mastectomy performed for pure DCIS are historically reported as 1%; however, international data suggest that LRR after SSM may be higher. To determine our rates of LRR and compare the effect of the type of mastectomy performed, we undertook a retrospective review of all patients who underwent a mastectomy for pure DCIS at our institution between 2000 and 2010. In total, 199 patients underwent a mastectomy for pure DCIS (with eight local recurrences), all of which were invasive ductal carcinoma. The recurrences all occurred after SSM, which was associated with a higher 5-year LRR of 5.9% (5/102) compared with 0% in the simple mastectomy group (0/97; p = 0.012), log-rank. Univariate analysis showed the two factors that predicted the risk of recurrence were a young age at mastectomy and close or involved margins. These data highlight the importance of achieving clear margins, especially in young women with estrogen receptor-negative DCIS who have a higher risk of invasive recurrence. Women undergoing a mastectomy for DCIS should be counseled as to the importance of achieving clear margins and the potential increased need for further excision, post-mastectomy radiotherapy and post-reconstruction mammography in order to prevent LRR after SSM.

  12. Spatial distribution of nanoparticles in PWR nanofluid coolant subjected to local nucleate boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirghaffari, Reza; Jahanfarnia, Gholamreza [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering


    Nanofluids have shown to be promising as an alternative for a PWR reactor coolant or as a safety system coolant to cover the core in the event of a loss of coolant accident. The nanoparticles distribution and neutronic parameters are intensively affected by the local boiling of nanofluid coolant. The main goal of this study was the physical-mathematical modeling of the nanoparticles distribution in the nucleate boiling of nanofluids within the viscous sublayer. Nanoparticles concentration, especially near the heat transfer surfaces, plays a significant role in the enhancement of thermal conductivity of nanofluids and prediction of CHF, Hide Out and Return phenomena. By solving the equation of convection-diffusion for the liquid phase near the heating surface and the bulk stream, the effect of heat flux on the distribution of nanoparticles was studied. The steady state mass conservation equations for liquids, vapors and nanoparticles were written for the flow boiling within the viscous sublayer adjacent the fuel cladding surface. The derived differential equations were discretized by the finite difference method and were solved numerically. It was found out that by increasing the surface heat flux, the concentration of nanoparticles increased.

  13. Altered intestinal functions and increased local inflammation in insulin-resistant obese subjects: a gene-expression profile analysis. (United States)

    Veilleux, Alain; Mayeur, Sylvain; Bérubé, Jean-Christophe; Beaulieu, Jean-François; Tremblay, Eric; Hould, Frédéric-Simon; Bossé, Yohan; Richard, Denis; Levy, Emile


    Metabolic alterations relevant to postprandial dyslipidemia were previously identified in the intestine of obese insulin-resistant subjects. The aim of the study was to identify the genes deregulated by systemic insulin resistance in the intestine of severely obese subjects. Transcripts from duodenal samples of insulin-sensitive (HOMA-IR insulin-resistant (HOMA-IR > 7, n = 9) obese subjects were assayed by microarray (Illumina HumanHT-12). A total of 195 annotated genes were identified as differentially expressed between these two groups (Fold change > 1.2). Of these genes, 36 were found to be directly involved in known intestinal functions, including digestion, extracellular matrix, endocrine system, immunity and cholesterol metabolism. Interestingly, all differentially expressed genes (n = 8) implicated in inflammation and oxidative stress were found to be upregulated in the intestine of insulin-resistant compared to insulin-sensitive subjects. Metabolic pathway analysis revealed that several signaling pathways involved in immunity and inflammation were significantly enriched in differently expressed genes and were predicted to be activated in the intestine of insulin-resistant subjects. Using stringent criteria (Fold change > 1.5; FDR insulin-resistant compared to insulin-sensitive subjects: the transcripts of the insulinotropic glucose-dependant peptide (GIP) and of the β-microseminoprotein (MSMB) were significantly reduced, but that of the humanin like-1 (MTRNR2L1) was significantly increased. These results underline that systemic insulin resistance is associated with remodeling of key intestinal functions. Moreover, these data indicate that small intestine metabolic dysfunction is accompanied with a local amplification of low-grade inflammatory process implicating several pathways. Genes identified in this study are potentially triggered throughout the development of intestinal metabolic abnormalities, which could contribute to

  14. Case Study of Local Damage Indicators for a 2-Bay, 6-Storey RC-Frame subject to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    A simulation study of a 2-bay, 6storey model test RC-frame(scale 1:5) subject to earthquakes is considered in this paper. Based on measured (simulated) storey accelerations and ground surface accelerations several indices for the storey damage, including interstorey drift, flexural damage ratios......, normalized cumulative dissipated energy, Park and Ang's indicator, a low-cycle fatigue damage index and a recently proposed local softening damage index estimated from time-varying eigenfrequencies are used to evaluate the damage state of the structure after the earthquake. Storey displacements are obtained...

  15. Case Study of Local Damage Indicators for a 2-Bay, 6-Storey RC-Frame subject to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning


    A simulation study of a 2-bay, 6storey model test RC-frame(scale 1:5) subject to earthquakes is considered in this paper. Based on measured (simulated) storey accelerations and ground surface accelerations several indices for the storey damage, including interstorey drift, flexural damage ratios......, normalized cumulative dissipated energy, Park and Ang's indicator, a low-cycle fatigue damage index and a recently proposed local softening damage index estimated from time-varying eigenfrequencies are used to evaluate the damage state of the structure after the earthquake. Storey displacements are obtained...

  16. Characteristics of subjective recognition and computer-aided image analysis of facial erythematous skin diseases: a cornerstone of automated diagnosis. (United States)

    Choi, J W; Kim, B R; Lee, H S; Youn, S W


    Rosacea and seborrhoeic dermatitis are common diseases that cause facial erythema. They have common features and are frequently misdiagnosed. To extract characteristic features of erythrotelangiectatic rosacea (ETR), papulopustular rosacea (PPR) and seborrhoeic dermatitis (SEB) through computer-aided image analysis (CAIA) and compare them with subjectively recognized features and to use these findings to construct a decision tree for differential diagnosis. Thirty-four clinical photos of patients with facial erythema were assessed: 12 patients were classified as showing ETR, 12 as PPR and 10 as SEB. Five dermatologists blinded to the original diagnosis gave their impressions of each photo. The mean, SD and T-zone to U-zone (T/U) ratios of the erythema parameter a* (a* of the L*a*b* colour space) were calculated for each photo using CAIA. These CAIA parameters were compared between impression groups. The most closely related CAIA parameter for each disease was established using the receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis. A decision tree which predicts the diagnosis from given CAIA parameters was constructed. All the photos classified as PPR generated impressions of PPR. However, approximately 30% of the photos classified as ETR generated impressions of SEB and vice versa. PPR was characterized by a large SD of erythema of the cheek, ETR was characterized by a large mean erythema of the U-zone, and SEB was characterized by a large T/U ratio of mean erythema. Fifteen additional photos were examined: the decision tree predicted the original diagnosis for 14, but incorrectly predicted one case of ETR as SEB. The CAIA result of facial erythema is well correlated with the actual clinical diagnosis. The accuracy of differential diagnosis using a decision tree with CAIA parameters is as good as that of global examination impressions of dermatologists. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. Pengembangan Subject Specific Pedagogy (SSP Tematik Berbasis Local Wisdom Untuk Membangun Karakter Hormat dan Kepedulian Siswa SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaliyah Ulfah


    Full Text Available This study aims at generating possible thematic Subject Specific Pedagogy (SSP based on local wisdom and examining the results teachers and students perception on the pedagogical approach developed in the preliminary field testing. Drawing upon the notion of research and development by Borg & Gall, this research was conducted through different stages involving information gathering, planning, developing preliminary product, preliminary field testing, and revising. The subjects were a small group of second grade students of SD Muhammadiyah Bodon and SD Muhammadiyah Sidoarum Yogyakarta. Each consists of 10 students. The data gathering instrument consists of product validation, character observation sheets, and teacher assessment sheets. The data gathering instrument consists of product validation tool, character observation sheets, and teachers’ assessment sheets. The SSP product generated in this study consists of lesson plans, teaching materials, worksheets, and expert perception. According to the experts of media, materials, and evaluation, the SSP product is in good categories. First grade teachers result a good score to the syllabus and lesson plans, while the worksheets and evaluation are in very good category. The results from the students responses to the textbooks is 78, which is in very good category, while the students worksheets score 71 which includes in excellent category. Therefore, the developed thematic SSP based on local wisdom can be declared appropriate for use in learning.

  18. [Skin cancer in primary care: frequency, need to further education and subjective diagnostic certainty. A cross sectional survey among general practitioners in Canton of Zurich

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badertscher, N.; Senn, O.; Rossi, P.O.; Wensing, M.; Rosemann, T.; Tandjung, R.


    BACKGROUND: Incidence of malignant skin lesions is rising in Switzerland. We wanted to assess the frequency of patients with suspicious skin lesions in daily practice. Furthermore, we asked for diagnostic certainty and the need of further education in skin cancer. METHODS: Survey with 1212 GPs in

  19. Visualization studies of human skin in vitro/in vivo under the influence of an electrical field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatouros, N.E.; Groenink, H.W.M.; Graaff, de A.M.; Aelst, van A.C.; Koerten, H.K.; Bouwstra, J.A.


    The aim of this study was to investigate the local changes in the ultrastructure of human skin after iontophoresis, using cryo-scanning, transmission and freeze fracture electron microscopy in human skin in vitro and in vivo. Human dermatomed skin was subjected to passive diffusion for 6 hours

  20. Differential Utilization and Localization of ErbB Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Skin Compared to Normal and Malignant Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan W. Stoll


    Full Text Available Induction of heparin-binding epidermal growth factorlike growth factor (HB-EGF mRNA in mouse skin organ culture was blocked by two pan-ErbB receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK inhibitors but not by genetic ablation of ErbB1, suggesting involvement of multiple ErbB species in skin physiology. Human skin, cultured normal keratinocytes, and A431 skin carcinoma cells expressed ErbB1, ErbB2, and ErbB3, but not ErbB4. Skin and A431 cells expressed more ErbB3 than did keratinocytes. Despite strong expression of ErbB2 and ErbB3, heregulin was inactive in stimulating tyrosine phosphorylation in A431 cells. In contrast, it was highly active in MDA-MB-453 breast carcinoma cells. ErbB2 displayed punctate cytoplasmic staining in A431 and keratinocytes, compared to strong cell surface staining in MDA-MB-453. In skin, ErbB2 was cytoplasmic in basal keratinocytes, assuming a cell surface pattern in the upper suprabasal layers. In contrast, ErbB1 retained a cell surface distribution in all epidermal layers. Keratinocyte proliferation in culture was found to be ErbB1-RTK-dependent, using a selective inhibitor. These results suggest that in skin keratinocytes, ErbB2 transduces ligand-dependent differentiation signals, whereas ErbB1 transduces ligand-dependent proliferation/survival signals. Intracellular sequestration of ErbB2 may contribute to the malignant phenotype of A431 cells, by allowing them to respond to ErbB1dependent growth/survival signals, while evading ErbB2-dependent differentiation signals.

  1. Changes in pulse rate, respiratory rate, blood oxygenation, perfusion index, skin conductance, and their variability induced during and after grounding human subjects for 40 minutes. (United States)

    Chevalier, Gaetan


    Previous studies have shown that grounding produces quantifiable physiologic changes. This study was set up to reproduce and expand earlier electrophysiologic and physiologic parameters measured immediately after grounding with improved methodology and state-of-the-art equipment. A multiparameter double-blind experiment was conducted with 14 men and 14 women (age range: 18-80) in relatively good health. Subjects were screened for health problems using a commonly used health questionnaire. They were seated in a comfortable recliner and measured during 2-hour grounding sessions, leaving time for signals to stabilize before, during, and after grounding (40 minutes for each period). Sham 2-hour grounding sessions were also recorded with the same subjects as controls. This report presents results for 5 of the 18 parameters measured. The parameters reported here are: skin conductance (SC), blood oxygenation (BO), respiratory rate (RR), pulse rate (PR), and perfusion index (PI). This study was performed in a rented facility in Encinitas, California. The facility was chosen in a quiet area for its very low electromagnetic noise. For each session, statistical analyses were performed on four 10-minute segments: before and after grounding (sham grounding for control session) and before and after ungrounding (sham ungrounding). There was an immediate decrease in SC at grounding and an immediate increase at ungrounding on all subjects. RR increased during grounding, and the effect lasted after ungrounding. RR variance increased immediately after grounding then decreased. BO variance decreased during grounding, followed by a dramatic increase after ungrounding. PR and PI variances increased toward the end of the grounding period, and this change persisted after ungrounding. These results warrant further research to determine how grounding affects the body. Grounding could become important for relaxation, health maintenance and disease prevention.

  2. Localization of the rabies virus antigen in Merkel cells in the follicle-sinus complexes of muzzle skins of rabid dogs. (United States)

    Shimatsu, Taichi; Shinozaki, Harumi; Kimitsuki, Kazunori; Shiwa, Nozomi; Manalo, Daria L; Perez, Rodolfo C; Dilig, Joselito E; Yamada, Kentaro; Boonsriroj, Hassadin; Inoue, Satoshi; Park, Chun-Ho


    The direct fluorescent antibody test (dFAT) on fresh brain tissues is the gold standard for rabies virus antigen detection in dogs. However, this method is laborious and holds a high risk of virus exposure for the experimenter. Skin biopsies are useful for the diagnosis of humans and animals. In mammals, the tactile hair, known as the follicle-sinus complex (FSC), is a specialized touch organ that is abundant in the muzzle skin. Each tactile hair is equipped with more than 2,000 sensory nerve endings. Therefore, this organ is expected to serve as an alternative postmortem diagnostic material. However, the target cells and localization of rabies virus antigen in the FSCs remain to be defined. In the present study, muzzle skins were obtained from 60 rabid dogs diagnosed with rabies by dFAT at the Research Institute of Tropical Medicine in the Philippines. In all dogs, virus antigen was clearly detected in a part of the outer root sheath at the level of the ring sinus of the FSCs, and the majority of cells were positive for the Merkel cell (MC) markers cytokeratin 20 and CAM5.2. Our results suggest that MCs in the FSCs of the muzzle skin are a target for virus replication and could serve as a useful alternative specimen source for diagnosis of rabies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Local activation of coagulation factor XIII reduces systemic complications and improves the survival of mice after Streptococcus pyogenes M1 skin infection. (United States)

    Deicke, Christin; Chakrakodi, Bhavya; Pils, Marina C; Dickneite, Gerhard; Johansson, Linda; Medina, Eva; Loof, Torsten G


    Coagulation is a mechanism for wound healing after injury. Several recent studies delineate an additional role of the intrinsic pathway of coagulation, also known as the contact system, in the early innate immune response against bacterial infections. In this study, we investigated the role of factor XIII (FXIII), which is activated upon coagulation induction, during Streptococcus pyogenes-mediated skin and soft tissue infections. FXIII has previously been shown to be responsible for the immobilization of bacteria within a fibrin network which may prevent systemic bacterial dissemination. In order to investigate if the FXIII-mediated entrapment of S. pyogenes also influences the disease outcome we used a murine S. pyogenes M1 skin and soft tissue infection model. Here, we demonstrate that a lack of FXIII leads to prolonged clotting times, increased signs of inflammation, and elevated bacterial dissemination. Moreover, FXIII-deficient mice show an impaired survival when compared with wildtype animals. Additionally, local reconstitution of FXIII-deficient mice with a human FXIII-concentrate (Fibrogammin(®)P) could reduce the systemic complications, suggesting a protective role for FXIII during early S. pyogenes skin infection. FXIII therefore might be a possible therapeutically application to support the early innate immune response during skin infections caused by S. pyogenes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. The local skin dose conversion coefficients of electrons, protons and alpha particles calculated using the Geant4 code. (United States)

    Zhang, Bintuan; Dang, Bingrong; Wang, Zhuanzi; Wei, Wei; Li, Wenjian


    The skin tissue-equivalent slab reported in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 116 to calculate the localised skin dose conversion coefficients (LSDCCs) was adopted into the Monte Carlo transport code Geant4. The Geant4 code was then utilised for computation of LSDCCs due to a circular parallel beam of monoenergetic electrons, protons and alpha particles electrons and alpha particles are found to be in good agreement with the results using the MCNPX code of ICRP 116 data. The present work thus validates the LSDCC values for both electrons and alpha particles using the Geant4 code.

  5. Assessing complexity of skin blood flow oscillations in response to locally applied heating and pressure in rats: Implications for pressure ulcer risk (United States)

    Liao, Fuyuan; O'Brien, William D.; Jan, Yih-Kuen


    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of local heating on the complexity of skin blood flow oscillations (BFO) under prolonged surface pressure in rats. Eleven Sprague-Dawley rats were studied: 7 rats underwent surface pressure with local heating (△t=10 °C) and 4 rats underwent pressure without heating. A pressure of 700 mmHg was applied to the right trochanter area of rats for 3 h. Skin blood flow was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry. The loading period was divided into nonoverlapping 30 min epochs. For each epoch, multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MDFA) was utilized to compute DFA coefficients and complexity of endothelial related metabolic, neurogenic, and myogenic frequencies of BFO. The results showed that under surface pressure, local heating led to a significant decrease in DFA coefficients of myogenic frequency during the initial epoch of loading period, a sustained decrease in complexity of myogenic frequency, and a significantly higher degree of complexity of metabolic frequency during the later phase of loading period. Surrogate tests showed that the reduction in complexity of myogenic frequency was associated with a loss of nonlinearity whereas increased complexity of metabolic frequency was associated with enhanced nonlinearity. Our results indicate that increased metabolic activity and decreased myogenic response due to local heating manifest themselves not only in magnitudes of metabolic and myogenic frequencies but also in their structural complexity. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using complexity analysis of BFO to monitor the ischemic status of weight-bearing skin and risk of pressure ulcers.

  6. Vasomotion in human skin before and after local heating recorded with laser Doppler flowmetry. A method for induction of vasomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J; Bülow, J; Lassen, N A


    Rhythmical variations in blood cell flux in human skin have been studied using laser Doppler flowmetry. The fluctuations in blood cell flux could be divided into two different categories named alpha- and beta-oscillations with a median frequency of 6.8 min-1 and 1.5 min-1, respectively. The ampli...

  7. Effect of low-level laser therapy on blood flow and oxygen- hemoglobin saturation of the foot skin in healthy subjects: a pilot study (United States)

    Heu, Franziska; Forster, Clemens; Namer, Barbara; Dragu, Adrian; Lang, Werner


    Background and aims: This study on healthy test subjects intends to show whether one-off Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) has an instant effect on the perfusion or the oxygenation of the skin tissue. These possible instant effects may have an influence on the accelerated wound healing which is often observed after application of LLLT, in addition to the usual postulated effects of LLLT which occur with a time delay normally. Study design/materials and methods: The study was carried out double-blind and placebo-controlled in two batches of testing. The test subjects received one-off LLLT on a defined area of the arch of the foot. Simultaneously a placebo treatment was carried out on the corresponding contralateral area. In the first batch of tests, the blood flow was measured immediately before and after treatment using thermography and LDI. In the second batch of tests, the blood flow and the oxygen saturation were determined immediately before and after the treatment using an O2C device. Results: No evidence that the LLLT has a significant instant effect on the circulation or the oxygen saturation could be found. Conclusion: No immediate effect of an LLLT on the perfusion or oxygenation situation is to be expected with physiologically normal starting conditions. An additional investigation should be carried out in which either the radiation dose is varied or the starting conditions are pathological (e.g. chronic wounds) in order to rule out immediate effects on circulation or oxygen saturation as the cause of the improved wound healing which is often observed. PMID:24155546

  8. Fluorescence investigation of the detachment of aluminum phthalocyanine molecules from aluminum phthalocyanine nanoparticles in monocytes/macrophages and skin cells and their localization in monocytes/macrophages. (United States)

    Breymayer, Jasmin; Rück, Angelika; Ryabova, Anastasiya V; Loschenov, Victor B; Steiner, Rudolf W


    Nanoparticles made from aluminum phthalocyanine (AlPc) are non-fluorescent in the nanoparticle form. Once AlPc molecules become detached from the particle, fluorescence occurs. Preliminary work showed the benefit of using aluminum phthalocyanine nanoparticles (nAlPc) for the rating of the rejection risk of skin autografts in mice by measuring fluorescence intensities of detached AlPc. Skin autografts showing a high fluorescence intensity were finally rejected suggesting an inflammatory process. In contrast, autografts with normal autofluorescence were accepted. This work was focused on the mechanism of this finding. The aim is detecting inflammatory processes and the potential use of nAlPc for PDT as a new treatment modality. The effect of the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocyte/macrophage murine cell line J774A.1 on the monomerization of internalized nAlPc was tested. Further, we investigated the influence of J774A.1 cells and the normal skin cell lines L-929 or HaCaT on the dissolution of nAlPc by laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry. Localization of AlPc molecules after uptake and dissolution of nanoparticles by the cells was surveyed. In co-culture models composed of J774A.1 and HaCaT/L-929 cells, the AlPc fluorescence intensity in J774A.1 cells is 1.38/1.89 fold higher, respectively. According to localization measurements in J774A.1 cells it can be assumed that nAlPc is taken up via endocytosis and remains in endosomes and/or lysosomes dissolving there. Detached molecules of AlPc cause rapture of the endosomal and/or lysosomal membrane after irradiation to become quite uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm. Evidence for monocytes/macrophages being the origin of the measured AlPc fluorescence in rejected skin autografts was confirmed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sensitive skin is not limited to the face. (United States)

    Saint-Martory, C; Roguedas-Contios, A M; Sibaud, V; Degouy, A; Schmitt, A M; Misery, L


    Sensitive skin (or reactive or hyper-reactive skin) is defined as skin that reacts by erythema and/or subjective symptoms (pricking, burning, pain, pruritus etc.) to stimuli that are not pathogens in themselves (e.g. wind, heat, cold, water, cosmetics, stress). This phenomenon is very frequent, occurring in about 50% of the European population. Sensitive skin is always reported on the face. The aim of our study was to determine if it can occur in other localizations. We have performed this study in two centres. One was a department of dermatology in a university hospital while the other one was a centre for cosmetological studies. A questionnaire was given to women aged > 15 years. The questions were: Do you have sensitive skin? If yes, in which localization? What are the symptoms and triggering factors? Four hundred subjects were included in the study (200 in each centre). The two populations were similar in terms of age, sex, and most of the results. The mean age was 40 years. Eighty-five per cent of the 400 subjects declared that they had sensitive skin on the face, and 70% had sensitive skin in another area: hands (58%), scalp (36%), feet (34%), neck (27%), torso (23%) or back (21%). Triggering factors included cold (66%), heat (28%), stress (61%), sun exposure (51%), wind (42%), water from a shower (29%) or a swimming pool (40%), soaps (42%), cosmetics (28%) and pollution (18%). Friction from clothes was reported in 28% of cases. Sensitive skin was observed as redness in most cases along with various subjective symptoms. The proportion of subjects presenting with sensitive skin is probably overestimated. However, the main result of this study is that sensitive skin is not restricted to the face but rather it is also present at other localizations, mainly the hands, and often the scalp and feet.

  10. Human skin basement membrane-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycan: distinctive differences in ultrastructural localization as a function of developmental age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horiguchi, Y; Fine, J D; Couchman, J R


    at different developmental ages using two monoclonal antibodies to a well-characterized basement membrane-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycan. A series of foetal skin specimens (range, 54-142 gestational days) were examined using an immunoperoxidase immunoelectron microscopic technique. In specimens...... representing very early developmental ages, very diffuse immunoreaction products were detected. However, by approximately 76 gestational days, some accentuation of heparan sulphate proteoglycan was noted along the lamina densa, and by 142 gestational days, the distribution of heparan sulphate proteoglycan...... was identical to that observed in neonatal and adult human skin. These findings demonstrate that active remodelling of the dermo-epidermal junction occurs during at least the first two trimesters, and affects not only basement membrane-associated structures but also specific antigens....

  11. Immunohistochemical localization of Toll-like receptor 2 in skin Langerhans' cells of striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba). (United States)

    Lauriano, E R; Silvestri, G; Kuciel, M; Zuwała, K; Zaccone, D; Palombieri, D; Alesci, A; Pergolizzi, S


    The skin is the primary interface between the body and the environment, and has a central role in host defence. In the epidermis, Langerhans' cells form an interconnecting network of dendritic cells, that play a central role within inflammatory and immune responses of terrestrial and aquatic mammals, but few studies aimed at their characterization have been carried out in cetaceans, so far. Toll-like receptors are crucial players in the innate immune response to microbial invaders. These receptors are expressed on immune cells, such as monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and granulocytes. The aim of this preliminary study was to describe the expression of Toll-like receptor 2 in a stranded striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) skin. Immunoreactive cells were predominantly found within the stratified squamous epithelium. Other Toll-like receptor 2 positive cells of varying morphology, were found, and may help to increase the knowledge on the interaction occurring between dolphins and the environment in which they live at their most crucial interface: the skin. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Subject-specific modulation of local field potential spectral power during brain-machine interface control in primates (United States)

    So, Kelvin; Dangi, Siddharth; Orsborn, Amy L.; Gastpar, Michael C.; Carmena, Jose M.


    Objective. Intracortical brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have predominantly utilized spike activity as the control signal. However, an increasing number of studies have shown the utility of local field potentials (LFPs) for decoding motor related signals. Currently, it is unclear how well different LFP frequencies can serve as features for continuous, closed-loop BMI control. Approach. We demonstrate 2D continuous LFP-based BMI control using closed-loop decoder adaptation, which adapts decoder parameters to subject-specific LFP feature modulations during BMI control. We trained two macaque monkeys to control a 2D cursor in a center-out task by modulating LFP power in the 0-150 Hz range. Main results. While both monkeys attained control, they used different strategies involving different frequency bands. One monkey primarily utilized the low-frequency spectrum (0-80 Hz), which was highly correlated between channels, and obtained proficient performance even with a single channel. In contrast, the other monkey relied more on higher frequencies (80-150 Hz), which were less correlated between channels, and had greater difficulty with control as the number of channels decreased. We then restricted the monkeys to use only various sub-ranges (0-40, 40-80, and 80-150 Hz) of the 0-150 Hz band. Interestingly, although both monkeys performed better with some sub-ranges than others, they were able to achieve BMI control with all sub-ranges after decoder adaptation, demonstrating broad flexibility in the frequencies that could potentially be used for LFP-based BMI control. Significance. Overall, our results demonstrate proficient, continuous BMI control using LFPs and provide insight into the subject-specific spectral patterns of LFP activity modulated during control.

  13. Ultrastructural localization of the core protein of a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in adult rat skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, K J; Horiguchi, Y; Couchman, J R


    , fibronectin, and entactin/nidogen. IN this paper we show, using core protein-specific antibodies, the presence of a newly described basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan at the epithelial/mesenchymal interface of adult rat skin. Ultrastructurally, this antigen was proven to reside......Basement membranes are complex extracellular matrices present at epithelial/mesenchymal interfaces of tissues. The dermal-epidermal junction has been shown to contain numerous components, some of the most well known being laminin, types IV and VII collagens, heparan sulfate proteoglycan...

  14. Optical microscopy of targeted drug delivery and local distribution in skin of a topical minocycline: implications in translational research and guidance for therapeutic dose selection (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Hermsmeier, Maiko; Sawant, Tanvee; Lac, Diana; Yamamoto, Akira; Chen, Xin; Huang, Susan Y.; Nagavarapu, Usha; Evans, Conor L.; Chan, Kin Foong; Daniels, AnnaMarie


    Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory skin condition commonly resulting in negative aesthetic and social impacts on those affected. Minocycline, currently available as an oral antibiotic for moderate to severe acne, has a known minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the acne-causing bacterium Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) in vitro, with its anti-inflammatory properties also eliciting inhibitory effects on pro-inflammatory molecules. A novel topical gel composition containing solubilized minocycline (BPX-01) has been developed to directly deliver the drug to the skin. Because minocycline is a known fluorophore, fluorescence microscopy and concurrent quantitative measurements were performed on excised human facial skin dosed with different concentrations, in order to determine the spatial distribution of the drug and quantification of its local concentration in the epidermis and the pilosebaceous unit where P. acnes generally reside. Local minocycline delivery confirmed achievement of an adequate therapeutic dose to support clinical studies. Subsequently, a 4-week double-blind, randomized, vehicle controlled clinical study was performed to assess the safety and efficacy of 1% minocycline BPX-01 applied daily. No instances of cutaneous toxicity were reported, and a greater than 1 log reduction of P. acnes count was observed at week 4 with statistical significance from baseline and vehicle control. In addition, no detectable amounts of minocycline in the plasma were reported, suggesting the potential of this new formulation to diminish the known systemic adverse effects associated with oral minocycline. Follow-on clinical plans are underway to further establish the safety of BPX-01 and to evaluate its efficacy against inflammatory acne lesions in a 225 patient multi-center dose-finding study.

  15. Skin color independent assessment of aging using skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsier, Marten; Nur, Erfan; Han Chunmao, [No Value; Lutgers, Helen L.; Links, Thera P.; Smit, Andries J.; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Graaff, Reindert


    Skin autofluorescence (AF) for the non-invasive assessment of the amount of accumulated tissue Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) increases with aging. In subjects with darker skin colors, measurements typically result in lower AF values than in subjects with fair skin colors, e. g. due to

  16. Population aging in local areas and subjective well-being of older adults: Findings from two studies in Japan. (United States)

    Saito, Tami; Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Harada, Ken; Kai, Ichiro


    Subjective well-being (SWB) of older adults could be affected by both individual and community characteristics. However, the effect of community characteristics, such as population aging in local areas, remains unclear. This study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the area-level population aging and SWB of older individuals from two distinct surveys. Those analyzed were 572 respondents aged 75 years and older for a cross-sectional survey in a metropolitan area in Tokyo, Japan (Study 1) and 1,257 and 859 respondents for a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis, respectively, for a 2-year longitudinal survey project in urban and rural areas of Fukui Prefecture (Study 2). Area-level population aging was assessed by the number of people aged 65 years or older per 100 residents. SWB was assessed with the Life Satisfaction Index-A (LSIA). Multilevel analysis was performed to examine unconditional and conditional associations between the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents and the individual-level LSIA scores. The area-level number of older adults per 100 residents was significantly and positively associated with the LSIA scores in Study 1 (p = 0.042), even after controlling for the area- and individual-level covariates. In Study 2, we also found a significant effect of the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents on LSIA scores in the longitudinal multivariate analysis (p = 0.049). Findings from two survey projects suggested cross-validity in the positive effect of area-level population aging on older adults' SWB. Policymakers should consider older citizens' SWB in the recent urban-to-rural migration governmental policy as well as in urban renovation planning.

  17. Skin barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    on the subject. It covers new basic research on skin markers, including results on filaggrin and on methods for the assessment of the barrier function. Biological variation and aspects of skin barrier function restoration are discussed as well. Further sections are dedicated to clinical implications of skin...... barrier integrity, factors influencing the penetration of the skin, influence of wet work, and guidance for prevention and saving the barrier. Distinguished researchers have contributed to this book, providing a comprehensive and thorough overview of the skin barrier function. Researchers in the field...

  18. Characterizing the Vertical Distribution of Hydraulic Conductivity Using the Multilevel Slug Test Subject to Skin Effects: Comparison of the Uniform-head and Uniform-flux Wellbore Conditions (United States)

    wei-Chiang, C.; Chen, C. S.


    The multilevel slug test (MLST) is an in-well technique in characterizing the vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity K(z) in granular or fractured formations. In modeling MLST, the well screen is either simulated as a uniform-flux (UF) or a uniform head (UH) condition. This study investigates the impact of the skin effect, positive or negative, on the UH and UF models. The positive skin effect, as associated with a reduced hydraulic conductivity surrounding the well due to drilling mud invasion, is taken into account by making use of a skin factor, Sk.The negative skin effect, as associated with an increased hydraulic conductivity due to overdeveloping of the well, is modeled by using an effective well radius, re, which is greater than or equal to the well radius, rw. The UF and UH models are compared using different values of Sk and re for a variety of the partial penetration ratio of screen length to aquifer thickness, φ, the vertical anisotropy ratio of hydraulic conductivity, κ, and the aspect ratio of rw to the screen length, α. It is found that (1) the two models yield results of negligible difference when the well fully penetrates the aquifer (i.e., φ=1) regardless of the values of α,κ, Sk or re, (2) the two models yield essentially the same results for negative skin for all α and κ, (3) the difference between the two models decreases as Sk gets larger, regardless of the values of α, φ, or κ, yet it becomes negligible for Sk is greater than unity, and (4) when the skin effect is absent, the maximum difference between the two models is within 3-5%. As a result, it is suggested the UF model be used since it is mathematically easier to solve than the UH model, with or without skin effects.

  19. Dry skin conditions are related to the recovery rate of skin temperature after cold stress rather than to blood flow. (United States)

    Yoshida-Amano, Yasuko; Nomura, Tomoko; Sugiyama, Yoshinori; Iwata, Kayoko; Higaki, Yuko; Tanahashi, Masanori


    Cutaneous blood flow plays an important role in the thermoregulation, oxygen supply, and nutritional support necessary to maintain the skin. However, there is little evidence for a link between blood flow and skin physiology. Therefore, we conducted surveys of healthy volunteers to determine the relationship(s) between dry skin properties and cutaneous vascular function. Water content of the stratum corneum, transepidermal water loss, and visual dryness score were investigated as dry skin parameters. Cutaneous blood flow in the resting state, the recovery rate (RR) of skin temperature on the hand after a cold-stress test, and the responsiveness of facial skin blood flow to local cooling were examined as indices of cutaneous vascular functions. The relationships between dry skin parameters and cutaneous vascular functions were assessed. The RR correlated negatively with the visual dryness score of skin on the leg but correlated positively with water content of the stratum corneum on the arm. No significant correlation between the resting state of blood flow and dry skin parameters was observed. In both the face and the body, deterioration in skin dryness from summer to winter was significant in subjects with low RR. The RR correlated well with the responsiveness of facial skin blood flow to local cooling, indicating that the RR affects systemic dry skin conditions. These results suggest that the RR but not blood flow at the resting state is associated with dry skin conditions and is involved in skin homeostasis during seasonal environmental changes. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society of Dermatology.

  20. New Techniques for Cartilage Magnetic Resonance Imaging Relaxation Time Analysis: Texture Analysis of Flattened Cartilage and Localized Intra- and Inter-subject Comparisons


    Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Link, Thomas M.; Majumdar, Sharmila


    MR relaxation time measurements of knee cartilage have shown potential to characterize knee osteoarthritis (OA). In this work, techniques that allow localized intra- and inter-subject comparisons of cartilage relaxation times, as well as cartilage flattening for texture analysis parallel and perpendicular to the natural cartilage layers, are presented. The localized comparisons are based on the registration of bone structures and the assignment of relaxation time feature vectors to each point...

  1. Localized Scleroderma (United States)

    ... scleroderma, or who are experts at examining the skin, can arrive at the diagnosis without much difficulty after a careful examination. In ... especially in patients who continue to have active skin problems or develop new ... Diagnosis of Localized Scleroderma? The diagnosis of localized scleroderma ...

  2. Comparison of hamstring muscle behavior for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) patient and normal subject during local marching (United States)

    Amineldin@Aminudin, Nurul Izzaty Bt.; Rambely, A. S.


    This study aims to investigate the hamstring muscle activity after the surgery by carrying out an electromyography experiment on the hamstring and to compare the behavior of the ACL muscle activity between ACL patient and control subject. Electromyography (EMG) is used to study the behavior of muscles during walking activity. Two hamstring muscles involved which are semitendinosus and bicep femoris. The EMG data for both muscles were recorded while the subject did maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and marching. The study concluded that there were similarities between bicep femoris of the ACL and control subjects. The analysis showed that the biceps femoris muscle of the ACL subject had no abnormality and the pattern is as normal as the control subject. However, ACL patient has poor semitendinosus muscle strength compared to that of control subject because the differences of the forces produced. The force of semitendinosus value for control subject was two times greater than that of the ACL subject as the right semitendinosus muscle of ACL subject was used to replace the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) that was injured.

  3. Effects of repeated administration of intradermal skin test by Mantoux method on delayed-type hypersensitivity responses in healthy young and elderly subjects (United States)

    Multi-test CMI to test immune response is no longer commercially available. DTH response is a highly suitable marker of immune function. Because delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin test can predict morbidity and mortality, it may be clinically meaningful test to evaluate the effect of nutrition...

  4. Spectral components of laser Doppler flowmetry signals recorded in healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects at rest and during a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application: scalogram analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humeau, Anne [Groupe ISAIP-ESAIP, 18 rue du 8 mai 1945, BP 80022, 49180 Saint Barthelemy d' Anjou cedex (France); Koitka, Audrey [Laboratoire de Physiologie et d' Explorations Vasculaires, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d' Angers, 49033 Angers cedex 01 (France); Abraham, Pierre [Laboratoire de Physiologie et d' Explorations Vasculaires, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d' Angers, 49033 Angers cedex 01 (France); Saumet, Jean-Louis [Laboratoire de Physiologie et d' Explorations Vasculaires, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d' Angers, 49033 Angers cedex 01 (France); L' Huillier, Jean-Pierre [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Arts et Metiers (ENSAM), Laboratoire Procedes-Materiaux-Instrumentation (LPMI), 2 boulevard du Ronceray, BP 3525, 49035 Angers cedex (France)


    A significant transient increase in laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals is observed in response to a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application in healthy subjects. This reflex may be impaired in diabetic patients. The work presents a signal processing providing the clarification of this phenomenon. Scalogram analyses of LDF signals recorded at rest and during a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application are performed on healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects. Three frequency bands, corresponding to myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial related metabolic activities, are studied. The results show that, at rest, the scalogram energy of each frequency band is significantly lower for diabetic patients than for healthy subjects, but the scalogram relative energies do not show any statistical difference between the two groups. Moreover, the neurogenic and endothelial related metabolic activities are significantly higher during the progressive pressure than at rest, in healthy and diabetic subjects. However, the relative contribution of the endothelial related metabolic activity is significantly higher during the progressive pressure than at rest, in the interval 200-400 s following the beginning of the pressure application, but only for healthy subjects. These results may improve knowledge on cutaneous microvascular responses to injuries or local pressures initiating diabetic complications.

  5. The 24-hour skin hydration and barrier function effects of a hyaluronic 1%, glycerin 5%, and Centella asiatica stem cells extract moisturizing fluid: an intra-subject, randomized, assessor-blinded study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milani M


    Full Text Available Massimo Milani,1 Adele Sparavigna2 1Difa Cooper, Caronno Pertusella, Varese, 2Dermatologic Institute Dermig Milan, Milan, Italy Introduction: Moisturizing products are commonly used to improve hydration in skin dryness conditions. However, some topical hydrating products could have negative effects on skin barrier function. In addition, hydrating effects of moisturizers are not commonly evaluated up to 24 hours after a single application. Hyaluronic acid (HA and glycerin are very well-known substances able to improve skin hydration. Centella asiatica extract (CAE could exert lenitive, anti-inflammatory and reepithelialization actions. Furthermore, CAE could inhibit hyaluronidase enzyme activity, therefore prolonging the effect of HA. A fluid containing HA 1%, glycerin 5% and stem cells CAE has been recently developed (Jaluronius CS [JCS] fluid. Study aim: To evaluate and compare the 24-hour effects of JCS fluid on skin hydration and on transepidermal water loss (TEWL in healthy subjects in comparison with the control site. Subjects and methods: Twenty healthy women, mean age 40 years, were enrolled in an intra-subject (right vs left, randomized, assessor-blinded, controlled, 1-day trial. The primary end points were the skin hydration and TEWL, evaluated at the volar surface of the forearm and in standardized conditions (temperature- and humidity-controlled room: 23°C and 30% of humidity using a corneometer and a vapometer device at baseline, 1, 8 and 24 hours after JCS fluid application. Measurements were performed by an operator blinded for the treatments. Results: Skin hydration after 24 hours was significantly higher (P=0.001; Mann–Whitney U test in the JCS-treated area in comparison with the control site. JCS induced a significant (P=0.0001 increase in skin hydration at each evaluation time (+59% after 1 hour, +48% after 8 hours and +29% after 24 hours in comparison with both baseline (P=0.0001 and non-treated control site (P=0

  6. [Local barrier creams for skin care in newborns, infants and toddlers with incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) – Narrative Review! (United States)

    Reick, Sibylle; Hubenthal, Natalie; Zimmermann, Marit; Hering, Thomas


    Background: The incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) is a common condition in newborns, infants and toddlers. For the therapy nurses and parents have the choice between numerous barrier creams based on zinc oxide, Dexpanthenol or Vaseline in various combinations of active agents and with additional ingredients. Research question: Which combination of active ingredients in local barrier creams reduce pain, severity of or duration of healing in IAD in neonates, infants and young children? Method: MEDLINE and CINAHL was systematically search for randomized controlled trials on the effect of barrier creams in pediatric patients with IAD. These were evaluated on validity and applicability. Results: 15 RCTs were found, of which six were included in the systematic review. The methodological quality of these trials ranges from good to poor, partially high bias risk were recognizable. Barrier creams containing the active ingredients zinc oxide / lanolin, zinc oxide / cod liver oil, zinc oxide / Dexpanthenol, paraffin / beeswax / Dexpanthenol show effects. They reduce the IAD-associated symptoms. Conclusions: The investigated barrier creams can be used in the pediatric nursing for the treatment of IAD. Because of limitations it cannot be ruled out that further studies will change the results.

  7. Development and initial validation of the localized scleroderma skin damage index and physician global assessment of disease damage: a proof-of-concept study. (United States)

    Arkachaisri, Thaschawee; Vilaiyuk, Soamarat; Torok, Kathryn S; Medsger, Thomas A


    To develop and assess the psychometric properties of the Localized Scleroderma (LS) Skin Damage Index (LoSDI) and Physician Global Assessment of disease Damage (PGA-D). Damage was defined as irreversible/persistent changes (>6 months) due to previous active disease/complications of therapy. Eight rheumatologists assessed the importance of 17 variables in formulating the PGA-D/LoSDI. LS patients were evaluated by two rheumatologists using both tools to assess their psychometric properties. LoSDI was calculated by summing three scores for cutaneous features of damage [dermal atrophy (DAT), subcutaneous atrophy (SAT) and dyspigmentation (DP)] measured at 18 anatomic sites. Patient GA of disease severity (PtGA-S), Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) and PGA-D were recorded at the time of each examination. Thirty LS patients (112 lesions) and nine patient-visit pairs (18 lesions) were included for inter- and intra-rater reliability study. LoSDI and its domains DAT, SAT, DP and PGA-D demonstrated excellent inter- and intra-rater reliability (reliability coefficients 0.86-0.99 and 0.74-0.96, respectively). LoSDI correlated moderately with PGA-D and poorly with PtGA-S and CDLQI. PGA-D correlated moderately with PtGA-S, but poorly with CDLQI. To complete the LS Cutaneous Assessment Tool (LoSCAT), we developed and evaluated the psychometric properties of the LoSDI and PGA-D in addition to the LS Skin Severity Index (LoSSI). These instruments will facilitate evaluation of LS patients for individual patient management and clinical trials. LoSDI and PGA-D demonstrated excellent reliability and high validity. LoSCAT provides an improved understanding of LS natural history. Further study in a larger group of patients is needed to confirm these preliminary findings.

  8. Steroid-Free Over-the-Counter Eczema Skin Care Formulations Reduce Risk of Flare, Prolong Time to Flare, and Reduce Eczema Symptoms in Pediatric Subjects With Atopic Dermatitis. (United States)

    Weber, Teresa M; Samarin, Frank; Babcock, Michael J; Filbry, Alexander; Rippke, Frank


    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic skin condition associated with decreased barrier function resulting in periodic flare-ups of erythematous and pruritic lesions. Guidelines recommend daily treatment of atopic skin with emollient moisturizers for prevention of flares and maintenance of the flare-free state. This study evaluated the efficacy of 2 steroid-free, nonprescription eczema skin care formulations for reducing the risk of flare and relieving symptoms in infants and children with AD: Body Cream for the daily maintenance treatment of atopic skin and Flare Treatment for the treatment of atopic flares. After a 2-week washout period, subjects (N=45; mean age 3.5 years) were randomized to cleanser plus daily moisturizing with Body Cream (moisturizer group) or cleanser only (control group) for 6 months or until flare. Subjects experiencing flare received Flare Treatment for 4 weeks. The incidence of flare was significantly lower in the moisturizer group compared with the control group (21% vs 65%; P=.006), while the median time to flare was shorter in the control group (28 vs >180 days). Risk of flare was reduced by 44.1% after 6 months of Body Cream application. Flare Treatment reduced overall eczema symptom severity at week 2 and week 4; 78.9% of flares had improved or cleared at week 4. Body Cream reduced the incidence of flare and the time to flare, reinforcing guidelines that daily emollient therapy should be an integral part of the maintenance treatment plan for the prevention of disease flares. Body Cream and Flare Treatment are effective over-the-counter steroid-free options for management of AD in children.

  9. Change Blindness Is Influenced by Both Contrast Energy and Subjective Importance within Local Regions of the Image. (United States)

    Zuiderbaan, Wietske; van Leeuwen, Jonathan; Dumoulin, Serge O


    Our visual system receives an enormous amount of information, but not all information is retained. This is exemplified by the fact that subjects fail to detect large changes in a visual scene, i.e., change-blindness. Current theories propose that our ability to detect these changes is influenced by the gist or interpretation of an image. On the other hand, stimulus-driven image features such as contrast energy dominate the representation in early visual cortex (De Valois and De Valois, 1988; Boynton et al., 1999; Olman et al., 2004; Mante and Carandini, 2005; Dumoulin et al., 2008). Here we investigated whether contrast energy contributes to our ability to detect changes within a visual scene. We compared the ability to detect changes in contrast energy together with changes to a measure of the interpretation of an image. We used subjective important aspects of the image as a measure of the interpretation of an image. We measured reaction times while manipulating the contrast energy and subjective important properties using the change blindness paradigm. Our results suggest that our ability to detect changes in a visual scene is not only influenced by the subjective importance, but also by contrast energy. Also, we find that contrast energy and subjective importance interact. We speculate that contrast energy and subjective important properties are not independently represented in the visual system. Thus, our results suggest that the information that is retained of a visual scene is both influenced by stimulus-driven information as well as the interpretation of a scene.

  10. Change Blindness Is Influenced by Both Contrast Energy and Subjective Importance within Local Regions of the Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wietske Zuiderbaan


    Full Text Available Our visual system receives an enormous amount of information, but not all information is retained. This is exemplified by the fact that subjects fail to detect large changes in a visual scene, i.e., change-blindness. Current theories propose that our ability to detect these changes is influenced by the gist or interpretation of an image. On the other hand, stimulus-driven image features such as contrast energy dominate the representation in early visual cortex (De Valois and De Valois, 1988; Boynton et al., 1999; Olman et al., 2004; Mante and Carandini, 2005; Dumoulin et al., 2008. Here we investigated whether contrast energy contributes to our ability to detect changes within a visual scene. We compared the ability to detect changes in contrast energy together with changes to a measure of the interpretation of an image. We used subjective important aspects of the image as a measure of the interpretation of an image. We measured reaction times while manipulating the contrast energy and subjective important properties using the change blindness paradigm. Our results suggest that our ability to detect changes in a visual scene is not only influenced by the subjective importance, but also by contrast energy. Also, we find that contrast energy and subjective importance interact. We speculate that contrast energy and subjective important properties are not independently represented in the visual system. Thus, our results suggest that the information that is retained of a visual scene is both influenced by stimulus-driven information as well as the interpretation of a scene.

  11. Skin Biopsy (United States)

    ... The Procedure Safety Results en español Biopsia de piel What Is a Skin Biopsy and Who Would ... skin infections, such as staph diseases, such as cancer other medical problems that may affect the skin, ...

  12. Microwave-aided skin drug penetration and retention of 5-fluorouracil-loaded ethosomes. (United States)

    Khan, Nauman Rahim; Wong, Tin Wui


    Skin drug retention is required in local treatment of skin cancer. This study investigated the interplay effects of ethosomes and microwave in transdermal drug delivery. Skin pre-treatment by microwave and applied with liquified medicine is deemed to 'cement' the skin thereby raising skin drug deposition. 5-fluorouracil-loaded ethosomes were prepared and subjected to size, zeta potential, morphology, drug content, drug release and skin permeation tests. The molecular characteristics of untreated, microwave and/or ethosome-treated skins were examined by Fourier transform infrared and raman spectroscopy, thermal and electron microscopy techniques. The skin drug retention was promoted using larger ethosomes with negative zeta potentials that repelled anionic lipids of skin and hindered vesicle permeation into deep layers. These ethosomes had low ethanol content. They were less able to fluidize the lipid and defluidize the protein domains at epidermis to enlarge aqueous pores for drug permeation. Pre-treatment of skin by 2450 MHz microwave for 2.5 min further increased skin drug penetration and retention of low ethanol ethosomes and provided lower drug permeation than cases treated for 1.15 min and 5 min. A 2.5 min treatment might be accompanied by specific dermal protein fluidization via C=O moiety which translated to macromolecular swelling, narrowing of intercellular spaces at lower skin layers, increased drug retention and reduced drug permeation. Ethosomes and microwave synergized to promote skin drug retention.

  13. A micromechanical comparison of human and porcine skin before and after preservation by freezing for medical device development (United States)

    Ranamukhaarachchi, S. A.; Lehnert, S.; Ranamukhaarachchi, S. L.; Sprenger, L.; Schneider, T.; Mansoor, I.; Rai, K.; Häfeli, U. O.; Stoeber, B.


    Collecting human skin samples for medical research, including developing microneedle-based medical devices, is challenging and time-consuming. Researchers rely on human skin substitutes and skin preservation techniques, such as freezing, to overcome the lack of skin availability. Porcine skin is considered the best substitute to human skin, but their mechanical resemblance has not been fully validated. We provide a direct mechanical comparison between human and porcine skin samples using a conventional mechano-analytical technique (microindentation) and a medical application (microneedle insertion), at 35% and 100% relative humidity. Human and porcine skin samples were tested immediately after surgical excision from subjects, and after one freeze-thaw cycle at -80 °C to assess the impact of freezing on their mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of fresh human and porcine skin (especially of the stratum corneum) were found to be different for bulk measurements using microindentation; and both types of skin were mechanically affected by freezing. Localized in-plane mechanical properties of skin during microneedle insertion appeared to be more comparable between human and porcine skin samples than their bulk out-of-plane mechanical properties. The results from this study serve as a reference for future mechanical tests conducted with frozen human skin and/or porcine skin as a human skin substitute.

  14. Skin Pedagogies and Abject Bodies (United States)

    Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth


    How does the beauty industry "narrate the skin"? What does it teach women from different cultural groups about the female body? How does skin function as a site where female subjection and abjection are produced and reproduced? In this paper we examine the skin industry pointing to its extreme commodification of the female body and to the…

  15. Hemodynamic response after injection of local anesthetics with or without adrenaline in adult Nigerian subjects undergoing simple tooth extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olutayo James


    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to determine the changes in the blood pressure (BP and the pulse rate (PR of normotensive patients having dental extraction under the administration of 2% lignocaine local anesthetic with or without adrenaline. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out on 325 consecutive normotensive patients who presented at the exodontia clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH, Lagos, Yoruba State, Nigeria from December 2004 to August 2005 for simple tooth extraction. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups according to the type of anesthetic solution employed. Group A had tooth extraction done under the administration of 2% lignocaine with adrenaline (1:80,000 while group B had tooth extraction done under the administration of 2% lignocaine local anesthetic without vasoconstrictor (plain lignocaine. Each patient had single tooth extracted. The following parameters were monitored in each of the surgical interventions: systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, and PR. Measurements were taken in the waiting room before surgery, during the surgery after local anesthesia, during tooth extraction, and 15 min after tooth extraction. Results: The sample consisted of 176 females and 149 males. Age range of the patients was 18-89 years with the mean age of 35.08 ± 15.60 years. The hemodynamic responses to lignocaine with adrenaline (1:80,000 and plain lignocaine essentially follow the same pattern in the study. There was no statistically significant difference between the measured parameters in the two groups after the administration of local anesthetics. Conclusion: This study, therefore, shows that there was no difference in the hemodynamic changes observed with the use of lignocaine with adrenaline or plain lignocaine during a simple tooth extraction in healthy adults.

  16. Solution of Two-dimensional Parabolic Equation Subject to Non-local Boundary Conditions Using Homotopy Perturbation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puskar Raj SHARMA


    Full Text Available Aim of the paper is to investigate solution of twodimensional linear parabolic partial differential equation with non-local boundary conditions using Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM. This method is not only reliable in obtaining solution of such problems in series form with high accuracy but it also guarantees considerable saving of the calculation volume and time as compared to other methods. The application of the method has been illustrated through an example

  17. Coffee polyphenols extracted from green coffee beans improve skin properties and microcirculatory function. (United States)

    Fukagawa, Satoko; Haramizu, Satoshi; Sasaoka, Shun; Yasuda, Yuka; Tsujimura, Hisashi; Murase, Takatoshi


    Coffee polyphenols (CPPs), including chlorogenic acid, exert various physiological activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CPPs on skin properties and microcirculatory function in humans. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 49 female subjects with mildly xerotic skin received either a test beverage containing CPPs (270 mg/100 mL/day) or a placebo beverage for 8 weeks. The ingestion of CPPs significantly lowered the clinical scores for skin dryness, decreased transepidermal water loss, skin surface pH, and increased stratum corneum hydration and the responsiveness of skin blood flow during local warming. Moreover, the amounts of free fatty acids and lactic acid in the stratum corneum significantly increased after the ingestion of CPPs. These results suggest that an 8-week intake of CPPs improve skin permeability barrier function and hydration, with a concomitant improvement in microcirculatory function, leading to efficacy in the alleviation of mildly xerotic skin.

  18. Comparison of Speech-in-Noise and Localization Benefits in Unilateral Hearing Loss Subjects Using Contralateral Routing of Signal Hearing Aids or Bone-Anchored Implants. (United States)

    Snapp, Hillary A; Holt, Fred D; Liu, Xuezhong; Rajguru, Suhrud M


    To compare the benefit of wireless contralateral routing of signal (CROS) technology to bone-anchored implant (BAI) technology in monaural listeners. Prospective, single-subject. Tertiary academic referral center. Adult English speaking subjects using either a CROS hearing aid or BAI as treatment for unilateral severe-profound hearing loss. Aided performance utilizing the subjects BAI or CROS hearing device. Outcome measures included speech-in-noise perception using the QuickSIN (Etymotic Research, Elkgrove Village, IL, 2001) speech-in-noise test and localization ability using narrow and broadband stimuli. Performance was measured in the unaided and aided condition and compared with normal hearing controls. Subjective outcomes measures included the Speech Spatial and Qualities hearing scale and the Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile. A significant improvement in speech-in-noise performance for monaural listeners (p noise performance. CROS and BAI hearing devices do not provide any localization benefit in the horizontal plane for monaural listeners and there is no significant difference between systems.

  19. Comparing the effects of mitochondrial targeted and localized antioxidants with cellular antioxidants in human skin cells exposed to UVA and hydrogen peroxide. (United States)

    Oyewole, Anne O; Wilmot, Marie-Claire; Fowler, Mark; Birch-Machin, Mark A


    Skin cancer and aging are linked to increased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly following exposure to ultraviolet A (UVA) in sunlight. As mitochondria are the main source of cellular ROS, this study compared the protective effects of mitochondria-targeted and -localized antioxidants (MitoQ and tiron, respectively) with cellular antioxidants against oxidative stress-induced [UVA and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)] mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in human dermal fibroblasts. With the use of a long quantitative PCR assay, tiron (EC50 10 mM) was found to confer complete (100%) protection (Pantioxidants investigated. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway provides cellular protection against oxidative stress. An ELISA assay for the Nrf2 target gene heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and studies using Nrf2 small interfering RNA both indicated that tiron's mode of action was Nrf2 independent. The comet assay showed that tiron's protective effect against H2O2-induced nuclear DNA damage was greater than the cellular antioxidants and MitoQ (Pantioxidants.

  20. Analyzing the effect of large rotations on the seismic response of structures subjected to foundation local uplift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Abbas N.


    Full Text Available This work deals with seismic analysis of structures by taking into account soil-structure interaction where the structure is modeled by an equivalent flexible beam mounted on a rigid foundation that is supported by a Winkler like soil. The foundation is assumed to undergo local uplift and the rotations are considered to be large. The coupling of the system is represented by a series of springs and damping elements that are distributed over the entire width of the foundation. The non-linear equations of motion of the system were derived by taking into account the equilibrium of the coupled foundation-structure system where the structure was idealized as a single-degree-of-freedom. The seismic response of the structure was calculated under the occurrence of foundation uplift for both large and small rotations. The non-linear differential system of equations was integrated by using the Matlab command ode15s. The maximum response has been determined as function of the intensity of the earthquake, the slenderness of the structure and the damping ratio. It was found that considering local uplift with small rotations of foundation under seismic loading leads to unfavorable structural response in comparison with the case of large rotations.

  1. Inter-subject correlation of brain hemodynamic responses during watching a movie: localization in space and frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka-Pekka Kauppi


    Full Text Available Cinema is a promising naturalistic stimulus that enables, for instance, elicitation of robust emotions during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Inter-subject correlation (ISC has been used as a model-free analysis method to map the highly complex hemodynamic responses that are evoked during watching a movie. Here, we extended the ISC analysis to frequency domain using wavelet analysis combined with non-parametric permutation methods for making voxel-wise statistical inferences about frequency-band specific ISC. We applied these novel analysis methods to a dataset collected in our previous study where 12 subjects watched an emotionally engaging movie “Crash” during fMRI scanning. Our results suggest that several regions within the frontal and temporal lobes show ISC predominantly at low frequency bands, whereas visual cortical areas exhibit ISC also at higher frequencies. It is possible that these findings relate to recent observations of a cortical hierarchy of temporal receptive windows, or that the types of events processed in temporal and prefrontal cortical areas (e.g., social interactions occur over longer time periods than the stimulus features processed in the visual areas. Software tools to perform frequency-specific ISC analysis, together with a visualization application, are available as open source Matlab code.

  2. Mode of action of cupping--local metabolism and pain thresholds in neck pain patients and healthy subjects. (United States)

    Emerich, M; Braeunig, M; Clement, H W; Lüdtke, R; Huber, R


    Cupping worldwide has been part of traditional medicine systems and is in the western world used as CAM therapy mainly for treating pain syndromes. The mode of action is up to now unclear. In order to investigate its mechanism we measured in parallel metabolic changes in the tissue under the cupping glass and pressure pain thresholds. In 12 volunteers (6 healthy subjects and 6 patients with chronic neck pain) a microdialysis system was implanted subcutaneously on both sides (left and right) above the trapezius muscle. After baseline measures cupping was performed at one randomly selected side (left or right), the other side served as control. Every 20 min during baseline measures and for 280 min after cupping, microdialysis probes for detection of lactate, pyruvate, glucose and glycerin were taken. In addition, pain thresholds were measured before and after cupping with algometry. Cupping resulted in a strong increase of lactate (beginning 160 min after cupping until the end of the measurements) and the lactate/pyruvate ratio, indicating an anaerobe metabolism in the surrounding tissue. Baseline pain thresholds were non-significantly lower in neck pain patients compared to healthy controls and slightly increased immediately after cupping (pcupping in healthy subjects and on the foot in neck pain patients). After 280 min no more significant changes of pain thresholds were detected. Cupping induces >280 min lasting anaerobe metabolism in the subcutaneous tissue and increases immediate pressure pain thresholds in some areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of strength training with blood flow restriction on torque, muscle activation and local muscular endurance in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JBC Sousa


    Full Text Available The present study aimed to analyse the effects of six weeks of strength training (ST, with and without blood flow restriction (BFR, on torque, muscle activation, and local muscular endurance (LME of the knee extensors. Thirty-seven healthy young individuals were divided into four groups: high intensity (HI, low intensity with BFR (LI+BFR, high intensity and low intensity + BFR (COMB, and low intensity (LI. Torque, muscle activation and LME were evaluated before the test and at the 2nd, 4th and 6th weeks after exercise. All groups had increased torque, muscle activation and LME (p<0.05 after the intervention, but the effect size and magnitude were greater in the HI, LI+BFR and COMB groups. In conclusion, the groups with BFR (LI+BFR and COMB produced magnitudes of muscle activation, torque and LME similar to those of the HI group.

  4. Development of Robust Behaviour Recognition for an at-Home Biomonitoring Robot with Assistance of Subject Localization and Enhanced Visual Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevrez Imamoglu


    Full Text Available Our research is focused on the development of an at-home health care biomonitoring mobile robot for the people in demand. Main task of the robot is to detect and track a designated subject while recognizing his/her activity for analysis and to provide warning in an emergency. In order to push forward the system towards its real application, in this study, we tested the robustness of the robot system with several major environment changes, control parameter changes, and subject variation. First, an improved color tracker was analyzed to find out the limitations and constraints of the robot visual tracking considering the suitable illumination values and tracking distance intervals. Then, regarding subject safety and continuous robot based subject tracking, various control parameters were tested on different layouts in a room. Finally, the main objective of the system is to find out walking activities for different patterns for further analysis. Therefore, we proposed a fast, simple, and person specific new activity recognition model by making full use of localization information, which is robust to partial occlusion. The proposed activity recognition algorithm was tested on different walking patterns with different subjects, and the results showed high recognition accuracy.

  5. [Aged skin and skin care]. (United States)

    Proksch, E


    Aged skin is the sum of chronological und UV-induced aging. Light-exposed skin is unattractive, with irregular pigmentation, roughness und scaliness. The skin is often dry and itches. The present paper provides an overview of diseases of aging skin and describes how to prevent or reduce disease by prophylactic and therapeutic skin care. Aged skin can develop into several skin diseases, e.g., different types of eczema and skin cancer. In the body folds we often find an irritant contact eczema caused by friction from skin to skin, sweating, and urinary and fecal incontinence. In the bedridden, bed sores can also develop. Furthermore, there is a delay in wound healing owing to old age. Use of adequate creams and ointments is very helpful in preventing and improving most skin diseases of mature skin. However, the knowledge of aged people and healthcare professionals about the importance of skin care is low. Older people are often unable to care for their skin because they are lacking the physical and mental ability. Healthcare professionals are not sufficiently trained about the value of proper skin care. Adequate studies on the role of skin care and selection of the correct preparation in various aged-related diseases are lacking.

  6. Variation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen-specific IFN-γ and IL-17 responses in healthy tuberculin skin test (TST-positive human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Fan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the variation of IFN-γ and IL-17 responses to M. tuberculosis antigens in healthy TST+ humans. METHODS: We isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 21 TST+ healthy adults, stimulated them with phytohemagglutinin (PHA, PPD, Ag85B, ESAT-6, and live M. bovis BCG, and assayed IFN-γ and IL-17 secretion by ELISA in supernatants after 24 or 72 hours of incubation respectively. RESULTS: As in other studies, we found a wide range of IFN-γ responses to M. tuberculosis antigens; the variation significantly exceeded that observed in the same donors to the polyclonal T cell stimulus, phytohemagglutinin (PHA. In addition, we assayed IL-17 secretion in response to the same stimuli, and found less subject-to-subject variation. Analysis of the ratio of IFN-γ to IL-17 secretion on a subject-to-subject basis also revealed a wide range, with the majority of results distributed in a narrow range, and a minority with extreme results all of which were greater than that in the majority of subjects. The data suggest that study of exceptional responses to M. tuberculosis antigens may reveal immunologic correlates with specific outcomes of M. tuberculosis infection. CONCLUSION: Variation of IFNγ and IFN-γ/IL-17 responses to mycobacterial antigens exceeds that of responses to the polyclonal stimulus, PHA, in TST positive healthy humans. This indicates a quantitative spectrum of human immune responses to infection with M. tuberculosis. Since the outcome of human infection with M. tuberculosis varies greatly, systematic study of multiple immune responses to multiple antigens is likely to reveal correlations between selected immune responses and the outcomes of infection.

  7. Predisposing factors for adverse skin reactions with percutaneous bone anchored hearing devices implanted with skin reduction techniques. (United States)

    Candreia, Claudia; Birrer, Ruth; Fistarol, Susanna; Kompis, Martin; Caversaccio, Marco; Arnold, Andreas; Stieger, Christof


    We present an analysis of adverse events after implantation of bone anchored hearing device in our patient population with focus on individual risk factors for peri-implant skin reactions. The investigation involved a chart review of adult Baha patients (n = 179) with 203 Bahas implanted with skin reduction techniques between 1993 and 2009, a questionnaire (n = 97) and a free clinical examination (n = 47). Skin reactions were graded by severity from 0 (no skin reaction) to 4 (implant loss resulting from infection) according to Holgers. We analyzed the skin reaction rate (SRR) defined as the number of skin reactions per year and the worst Holgers grade (WHG), which indicates the grade of the worst skin reaction per implant. We defined 20 parameters including the demographic characteristics, surgery details, subjective benefits, handling and individual factors. The most frequent adverse events (85 %) were skin reactions. The average SRR was 0.426 per Baha year. Six parameters showed an association with the SRR or the WHG. The clinically most relevant factors are an elevated Body Mass Index (BMI, p = 0.02) and darker skin type (p = 0.03). The SRR increased with the distance between the tragus and the implant (p = 0.02). Regarding the identified risk factors, the SRR might be reduced by selecting a location for the implant near the pinna and by specific counseling regarding post-operative care for patients with darker skin type or an elevated Body Mass Index (BMI). Few of the factors analyzed were found to influence the SRR and WHG. Since most adverse skin reactions could be treated easily with local therapy, our results suggest that in adult patients, individual risk factors for skin reactions are not a contraindication for Baha implantation. Thus, patients can be selected purely on audiological criteria.

  8. Human ochocerciasis in Ekong community, Akamkpa local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence and intensity of onchocerciasis in Ekong Community of Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria was investigated. A total of 316 subjects were screened for skin microfilariae (mf) and clinical manifestations, using standard parasitological and clinical methods of diagnosis. Two hundred ...

  9. Skin Infections (United States)

    ... Abscess Cellulitis Taking Care of Your Skin Abscess Impetigo Ringworm Cellulitis Should I Pop My Pimple? Tips for Taking Care of Your Skin Impetigo Paronychia Pityriasis Rosea Abscess Contact Us Print Resources ...

  10. Skin Aging (United States)

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  11. Skin Dictionary (United States)

    ... benefits Become a member DermCare Team Professionalism and ethics My account Member directory Publications JAAD JAAD Case ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising Public and patients SPOT Skin Cancer™ Community programs & ...

  12. Sagging Skin (United States)

    ... Hands Age Spots Aging Skin Birthmarks Burn Scars Cellulite Crow's Feet Droopy Eyelids Excess Fat Excessive Sweating ... Hands Age Spots Aging Skin Birthmarks Burn Scars Cellulite Crow's Feet Droopy Eyelids Excess Fat Excessive Sweating ...

  13. Skin Pigment (United States)

    ... Summer Camp Tips for Kids With Asthma, Allergies Antioxidants: The Good Health Helpers As Stroke 'Liquefies' Brain ... Skin Cancer Additional Content Medical News Overview of Skin Pigment By Shinjita Das, MD, Instructor in Dermatology; ...

  14. Skin Cancer (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  15. Your Skin (United States)

    ... and a little waterproofing. previous continue Skin Can Warm and Cool You Your skin can help if you're feeling too hot or too cold. Your blood ... you're ice-skating or sledding? When you're cold, your blood vessels keep your ... and keeping the warm blood away from the skin's surface. You might ...

  16. Expression and localization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and nuclear factor kappaB in normal and lesional psoriatic skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Majken; Henningsen, Jeanette; Johansen, Claus


    Abnormal epidermal proliferation and differentiation characterize the inflammatory skin disease psoriasis. Here we demonstrate that expression of PPARdelta mRNA and protein is markedly upregulated in psoriatic lesions and that lipoxygenase products accumulating in psoriatic lesions are potent...

  17. Application of IATA - A case study in evaluating the global and local performance of a Bayesian Network model for Skin Sensitization (United States)

    Since the publication of the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) for skin sensitization, there have been many efforts to develop systematic approaches to integrate the information generated from different key events for decision making. The types of information characterizing key event...

  18. Investigation of thermomechanical couplings, strain localization and shape memory properties in a shape memory polymer subjected to loading at various strain rates (United States)

    Pieczyska, E. A.; Staszczak, M.; Maj, M.; Kowalczyk-Gajewska, K.; Golasiński, K.; Cristea, M.; Tobushi, H.; Hayashi, S.


    This paper presents experimental and modeling results of the effects of thermomechanical couplings occurring in a polyurethane shape memory polymer (SMP) subjected to tension at various strain rates within large strains. The SMP mechanical curves, recorded using a testing machine, and the related temperature changes, measured in a contactless manner using an IR camera, were used to investigate the polymer deformation process at various loading stages. The effects of thermomechanical couplings allowed the determination of the material yield point in the initial loading stage, the investigation of nucleation and development of the strain localization at larger strains and the estimation of the effects of thermoelastic behavior during the unloading process. The obtained stress-strain and thermal characteristics, the results of the dynamic mechanical analysis and estimated values of the shape fixity and shape recovery parameters confirmed that the shape memory polymer (T g = 45 °C) is characterized by good mechanical and shape memory properties, as well as high sensitivity to the strain rate. The mechanical response of the SMP subjected to tension was simulated using the finite element method and applying the large strain, two-phase model. Strain localization observed in the experiment was well reproduced in simulations and the temperature spots were correlated with the accumulated viscoplastic deformation of the SMP glassy phase.

  19. Skin CCR10+ CD8+ T cells support resident Treg cells through the B7.2/receptor axis to regulate local immune homeostasis and response (United States)

    Fu, Yaoyao; Yang, Jie; Xiong, Na


    Resident T cells in barrier tissues are important in protecting against foreign agents but could also contribute to inflammatory diseases if dysregulated. How T cell homeostasis is maintained in barrier tissues is still poorly understood. Herein we report that resident CD8+ T cells directly support maintenance of regulatory T (Treg) cells in the skin to promote immune homeostasis. Impaired establishment of resident CD8+ T cells due to knockout of the skin-homing chemokine receptor CCR10 resulted in altered balance of resident Treg and CD4+ effector T (Teff) cells in the skin and over-reactive inflammatory responses to cutaneous stimulations. Furthermore, B7.2 expressed on skin CD8+ T cells is involved in supporting survival of Treg cells, likely through interaction with its receptor CTLA-4, which is highly expressed on skin Treg cells. Our findings provide novel insight into T cell homeostatic regulation in the skin and may help understand pathobiology of tissue inflammatory diseases. PMID:27183612

  20. fMRI of pain studies using laser-induced heat on skin with and without the loved one near the subject - a pilot study on 'love hurts' (United States)

    Sofina, T.; Kamil, W. A.; Ahmad, A. H.


    The aims of this study are to image and investigate the areas of brain response to laser-induced heat pain, to analyse for any difference in the brain response when a subject is alone and when her loved one is present next to the MRI gantry. Pain stimuli was delivered using Th-YAG laser to four female subjects. Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD) fMRI experiment was performed using blocked design paradigm with five blocks of painful (P) stimuli and five blocks of non-painful (NP) stimuli arranged in pseudorandom order with an 18 seconds rest (R) between each stimulation phase. Brain images were obtained from 3T Philips Achieva MRI scanner using 32-channel SENSE head coil. A T1-weighted image (TR/TE/slice/FOV = 9ms/4ms/4mm slices/240×240mm) was obtained for verification of brain anatomical structures. An echo-planar-imaging sequence were used for the functional scans (TR/TE/slice/flip/FOV=2000ms/35ms/4mm slices/90°/220×220mm). fMRI data sets were analysed using SPM 8.0 involving preprocessing steps followed by t-contrast analysis for individuals and FFX analysis. In both with and without-loved-one conditions, neuronal responses were seen in the somatosensory gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, thalamus and insula regions, consistent with pain-related areas. FFX analysis showed that the presence of loved one produced more activation in the frontal and supramarginal gyrus during painful and non-painful stimulations compared to absence of a loved one. Brain response to pain is modulated by the presence of a loved one, causing more activation in the cognitive/emotional area i.e. 'love hurts'.

  1. Increase in net activity of serine proteinases but not gelatinases after local endotoxin exposure in the peripheral airways of healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaretha E Smith

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that activation of the innate immune response induces an imbalance in the proteolytic homeostasis in the peripheral airways of healthy subjects, towards excess serine or gelatinase proteinase activity. During bronchoscopy, 18 healthy human subjects underwent intra-bronchial exposure to endotoxin and contra-lateral exposure to vehicle. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL samples were harvested 24 or 48 hours (h later. We quantified archetype proteinases, anti-proteinases, inflammatory BAL cells, and, importantly, total plus net proteinase activities using functional substrate assays. As expected, endotoxin exposure increased the concentrations of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN's and macrophages, of proteinases and the anti-proteinases tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, α-1-antitrypsin and, to a lesser extent, secretory leukoproteinase inhibitor, at both time points. Notably, at these time points, endotoxin exposure substantially increased the quantitative NE/SLPI ratio and the net serine proteinase activity corresponding to neutrophil elastase (NE. Endotoxin exposure also increased the total gelatinase activity corresponding to matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9; an activity dominating over that of MMP-2. However, endotoxin exposure had no impact on net gelatinolytic activity at 24 or 48 h after exposure. Thus, local activation of the innate immune response induces an imbalance towards increased net serine proteinase activity in the proteolytic homeostasis of the peripheral airways in healthy subjects. Hypothetically, this serine proteinase activity can contribute to tissue remodelling and hypersecretion via NE from PMN's, if it is triggered repeatedly, as might be the case in chronic inflammatory airway disorders.

  2. Immediate Effects of Combining Local Techniques in the Craniomandibular Area and Hamstring Muscle Stretching in Subjects with Temporomandibular Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Study. (United States)

    Rodriguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Cocera-Morata, Francisco Miguel; Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos; Ricard, François; Almazán-Campos, Ginés; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Ángel


    To assess the immediate effects on vertical mouth opening, orofacial mechanosensitivity, and lumbar and suboccipital mobility after adding a myofascial induction technique to a multimodal protocol in subjects with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A randomized and double-blind controlled trial was carried out. University-based physical therapy research clinic. Sixty subjects (35±11.22 years) with TMD, and restricted mobility of the mandibular condyles and the first cervical vertebrae, were recruited and randomized to either a control group (CG) (n=30) or an experimental group (EG) (n=30). The CG underwent a neuromuscular technique over the masseter muscles and passive hamstring muscle stretching. A suboccipital muscle inhibition technique was added to this protocol in the EG. Primary measurements were made of vertical mouth opening and pressure pain threshold of the masseter muscles. Secondary outcome measures included pressure algometry of the trigeminal nerve, suboccipital range of motion, and lumbar spine mobility, assessed with the sit-and-reach (SAR) test and lumbar forward bending. All evaluations were collected at baseline and immediately after intervention. In the intragroup comparison, the EG observed an increase in suboccipital flexion (p0.05). The inclusion of a myofascial induction maneuver in a protocol combining local (neuromuscular treatment) and distal techniques (hamstring stretching) in subjects with TMD has no impact on improving mouth opening, suboccipital and lumbar mobility, and orofacial sensitivity to mechanical pressure.

  3. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases (United States)

    ... a serious case, you might need medical help. Impetigo —A skin infection caused by bacteria. Usually the ... and form a thick crust. You can treat impetigo with antibiotics. Melanoma © 2008 Logical Images, Inc. Melanoma — ...

  4. A case of radiation-induced skin ulcer, cerebral meningioma and skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Yuki; Yano, Kenji [Kure National Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan)


    We report a case of radiation-induced skin ulcer, cerebral meningioma, and skin cancer in a 69-year-old woman who had undergone local irradiation and application of radium directly to the skin for actinomycosis of the face at the age of twenty. Some forty to fifty years later, a skin ulcer in the preauricular area in the center of the radiodermatitis, cerebral meningioma in the right sphenoid ridge, and a keratotic skin tumor in the right auricle all developed within the previously irradiated region. The cerebral meningioma was extirpated. The skin ulcer was excised and covered with a forearm flap. After the skin tumor was excised and the subcutaneous tumor in the postauricular area was excised, the postoperative histopathological diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma with lymph node metastasis. It was considered that the squamous cell carcinoma was derived from irradiated keratosis. Four months later, right neck lymph node dissection was performed. Both the meningioma and squamous cell carcinoma satisfied Cahan's criteria for radiation-induced tumors. So we diagnosed these as radiation-induced cerebral meningioma and squamous cell carcinoma. We haven't detected any recurrence of the squamous cell carcinoma for two years. We learned from this case that chronic radiation disturbances cause an irreversible reaction and various radiolesions, including malignancies, can occur after a long period of latency. It is important to never underestimate a small lesion in the irradiated area, to plan early preventive surgical treatment to remove skin that may have been over-subjected to irradiation, and to continue long-term follow-up for patients with chronic radiodermatitis. (author)

  5. P16INK4a Positive Cells in Human Skin Are Indicative of Local Elastic Fiber Morphology, Facial Wrinkling, and Perceived Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaijer, Mariëtte E C; Gunn, David A; Adams, Peter D


    Senescent cells are more prevalent in aged human skin compared to young, but evidence that senescent cells are linked to other biomarkers of aging is scarce. We counted cells positive for the tumor suppressor and senescence associated protein p16INK4a in sun-protected upper-inner arm skin biopsies......INK4a positive cells were significantly associated with age-associated elastic fiber morphologic characteristics, such as longer and a greater number of elastic fibers. The p16INK4a positive epidermal cells (identified as primarily melanocytes) were also significantly associated with more facial...... wrinkles and a higher perceived age. Participants in the lowest tertile of epidermal p16INK4a counts looked 3 years younger than those in the highest tertile, independently of chronological age and elastic fiber morphology. In conclusion, p16INK4a positive cell numbers in sun-protected human arm skin...

  6. Occupational skin cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawkrodger, D.J. [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Dermatology


    Skin cancer due to occupation is more common than is generally recognized, although it is difficult to obtain an accurate estimate of its prevalence. Over the past two centuries, occupational skin cancers have particularly been due to industrial exposure of men (it seems more so than women) to chemical carcinogens such as polycyclic hydrocarbons (e.g. from coal tar products) or to arsenic. Industrial processes have improved in most Western countries to limit this type of exposure, but those with outdoor occupations are still exposed to solar ultraviolet irradiation without this being widely recognized as an industrial hazard. Ionizing radiation such as X-rays can also cause skin cancer. Occupational skin cancers often resemble skin tumours found in non-occupational subjects, e.g. basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, but some pre-malignant lesions can be more specific and point to an occupational origin, e.g. tar keratoses or arsenical keratoses. An uncommon but well-recognized cause of occupational skin cancer is that which results from scar formation following an industrial burn. In the future it will be necessary to focus on preventative measures, e.g. for outdoor workers, the need to cover up in the sun and use sun protective creams and a campaign for earlier recognition of skin cancers, which are usually curable if treated in their early stages.

  7. Comparison of the Effects of Local Cryotherapy and Passive Cross-Body Stretch on Extensibility in Subjects with Posterior Shoulder Tightness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyue-nam Park


    Full Text Available The objective was to compare the immediate effects of local cryotherapy (LC and passive cross-body stretch on the extensibility of the posterior shoulder muscle in individuals with posterior shoulder tightness. Eighty-seven healthy subjects with a between-shoulder difference in internal rotation (IR range of motion (ROM greater than 10° were randomly divided into three groups: LC group, stretching group, and control group (n = 29 in each group. Subjects in the LC group received LC on infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles and subjects in the stretching group performed passive cross-body stretch. Stretch sensation was measured at the end range of passive IR and horizontal adduction (HA using numerical rating scale, and the pressure pain threshold (PPT at the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles was measured using pressure algometry. Passive and active ROM of IR and HA of the glenohumeral joint were measured using an inclinometer. All measurements were performed at pre-intervention, post- intervention, and 10-min follow-up. Stretch sensation was significantly decreased and PPT was significantly increased in the LC and stretching groups at post-intervention, and these effects were maintained at 10-min follow-up, compared to the control group. Both the LC group and stretching group had a significantly greater increase in passive and active ROM of IR and HA, compared to the control group at post-intervention and 10-min follow-up. However, there were no significant differences in stretch sensation, PPT, or ROM of IR and HA between the LC group and stretching group. LC can be used to decrease the stretch sensation and increase PPT and ROM of IR and HA as much as a stretching exercise. LC could be an alternative method for increasing the restricted ROM of glenohumeral IR and HA for individuals with posterior shoulder tightness, especially for patients and sports players who have severe stretching discomfort.

  8. Distribution, ultrastructural localization, and ontogeny of the core protein of a heparan sulfate proteoglycan in human skin and other basement membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horiguchi, Y; Couchman, J R; Ljubimov, A V


    components, such as laminin and type IV collagen. Immunoelectron microscopy on adult skin and neonatal foreskin showed staining primarily within the lamina densa (LD) and sub-lamina densa regions of the dermoepidermal junction (DEJ) and vascular BM. In neonatal foreskin, additional staining was noted...

  9. Skin colorimetric parameters involved in skin age perception. (United States)

    Puccetti, Germain; Nguyen, Tung; Stroever, Cristina


    Age perception is based on a number of facial attributes such as wrinkles, skin gravity effects, feature lines, and skin optical appearance. The colorimetric and optical diffusion properties of skin have been compared with the consumer interpretation of 'skin age' of cheek area pictures without wrinkles or feature lines. Controlled lighting images of skin were taken with the Visia CR. Skin sections from the cheek area were selected without eye region wrinkles or naso-labial lines for consumer interpretation. These same skin sections were analyzed for optical roughness and colorimetric parameters in the LCH color space, by distinguishing several roughness parameters according to their physical scale. Three main optical parameters of skin were found to influence the consumer's interpretation of skin 'visual age': the chroma (color saturation), lightness, and the local light-diffusing ability of skin. For the chroma and lightness, mainly large-scale inhomogeneities in the 0.8-2 cm(-1) range are taken into account by the consumer. Surprisingly, variations in the skin hue show a total absence of correlation with the consumer grading. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Platelet-activating factor induces histamine release from human skin mast cells in vivo, which is reduced by local nerve blockade. (United States)

    Petersen, L J; Church, M K; Skov, P S


    Intradermal injection of platelet-activating factor (PAF) causes wheal and flare reactions, which are inhibited by antihistamines. However, PAF does not release histamine from human dispersed skin mast cells in vitro. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent and possible mechanisms of PAF-induced histamine release in human skin in vivo with the use of dermal microdialysis. Hollow dialysis fibers were inserted into the upper dermis in forearm skin and each fiber was perfused with Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution at a rate of 3.0 microliters/min. PAF (4.5 to 36 mumol/L), lyso-PAF (36 mumol/L), vehicle (negative control), and codeine 750 or 250 mumol/L (positive control) were injected intradermally above separate fibers. Dialysate was collected in 2-minute fractions for 20 minutes and histamine analyzed spectrofluorometrically. PAF, but not lyso-PAF, caused statistically significant dose-related histamine release and wheal and flare reactions. Intradermal mepivacaine administration significantly abrogated flare reactions by PAF and codeine and inhibited histamine release and wheal reactions by PAF but not by codeine. Long-term topical capsaicin administration inhibited histamine release and wheal reactions by PAF but not by codeine. It inhibited flare reactions induced by both compounds. PAF did not release histamine from blood basophils. These data suggest that PAF induced histamine release from mast cells in intact human skin indirectly via neurogenic activation. Further, on the intradermal injection of PAF histamine release and the skin responses, the wheal and the flare, are differentially regulated by neurogenic components.

  11. Preparation of Artificial Skin that Mimics Human Skin Surface and Mechanical Properties. (United States)

    Shimizu, Rana; Nonomura, Yoshimune


    We have developed an artificial skin that mimics the morphological and mechanical properties of human skin. The artificial skin comprises a polyurethane block possessing a microscopically rough surface. We evaluated the tactile sensations when skin-care cream was applied to the artificial skin. Many subjects perceived smooth, moist, and soft feels during the application process. Cluster analysis showed that these characteristic tactile feels are similar to those when skin-care cream is applied to real human skin. Contact angle analysis showed that an oil droplet spread smoothly on the artificial skin surface, which occurred because there were many grooves several hundred micrometers in width on the skin surface. In addition, when the skin-care cream was applied, the change in frictional force during the dynamic friction process increased. These wetting and frictional properties are important factors controlling the similarity of artificial skin to real human skin.

  12. Skin abscess (United States)

    ... can help identify the cause of the infection. Treatment You can apply moist heat (such as warm compresses) to help the abscess ... if you develop new symptoms during or after treatment of a skin abscess. Prevention ... the skin around minor wounds clean and dry to prevent infection. Call your provider if you ...

  13. Co-encapsulation of paclitaxel and C6 ceramide in tributyrin-containing nanocarriers improve co-localization in the skin and potentiate cytotoxic effects in 2D and 3D models. (United States)

    Carvalho, Vanessa F M; Migotto, Amanda; Giacone, Daniela V; de Lemos, Débora P; Zanoni, Thalita B; Maria-Engler, Silvya S; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia V; Lopes, Luciana B


    Considering that tumor development is generally multifactorial, therapy with a combination of agents capable of potentiating cytotoxic effects is promising. In this study, we co-encapsulated C6 ceramide (0.35%) and paclitaxel (0.50%) in micro and nanoemulsions containing tributyrin (a butyric acid pro-drug included for potentiation of cytotoxicity), and compared their ability to co-localize the drugs in viable skin layers. The nanoemulsion delivered 2- and 2.4-fold more paclitaxel into viable skin layers of porcine skin in vitro at 4 and 8h post-application than the microemulsion, and 1.9-fold more C6 ceramide at 8h. The drugs were co-localized mainly in the epidermis, suggesting the nanoemulsion ability for a targeted delivery. Based on this result, the nanoemulsion was selected for evaluation of the nanocarrier-mediated cytotoxicity against cells in culture (2D model) and histological changes in a 3D melanoma model. Encapsulation of the drugs individually decreased the concentration necessary to reduce melanoma cells viability to 50% (EC50) by approximately 4- (paclitaxel) and 13-fold (ceramide), demonstrating an improved nanoemulsion-mediated drug delivery. Co-encapsulation of paclitaxel and ceramide further decreased EC50 by 2.5-4.5-fold, and calculation of the combination index indicated a synergistic effect. Nanoemulsion topical administration on 3D bioengineered melanoma models for 48h promoted marked epidermis destruction, with only few cells remaining in this layer. This result demonstrates the efficacy of the nanoemulsion, but also suggests non-selective cytotoxic effects, which highlights the importance of localizing the drugs within cutaneous layers where the lesions develop to avoid adverse effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. In vitro human skin permeation of endoxifen: potential for local transdermal therapy for primary prevention and carcinoma in situ of the breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee O


    Full Text Available Oukseub Lee1, David Ivancic1, Robert T Chatterton Jr2, Alfred W Rademaker3, Seema A Khan11Department of Surgery, 2Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology, 3Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAPurpose: Oral tamoxifen, a triphenylethylene (TPE, is useful for breast cancer prevention, but its adverse effects limit acceptance by women. Tamoxifen efficacy is related to its major metabolites 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT and N-desmethyl-4-hydroxytamoxifen (endoxifen [ENX]. Transdermal delivery of these to the breast may avert the toxicity of oral tamoxifen while maintaining efficacy. We evaluated the relative efficiency of skin permeation of 4-OHT and ENX in vitro, and tested oleic acid (OA as a permeation-enhancer.Methods: 4-OHT, ENX, and estradiol (E2 (0.2 mg/mL of 0.5 µCi 3H/mg were dissolved in 60% ethanol-phosphate buffer, ±OA (0.1%–5%. Permeation through EpiDermTM (Matek Corp, Ashland, MA and split-thickness human skin was calculated based on the amount of the agents recovered from the receiver fluid and skin using liquid scintillation counting over 24 hours.Results: In the EpiDerm model, the absorption of 4-OHT and ENX was 10%–11%; total penetration (TP was 26%–29% at 24 hours and was decreased by OA. In normal human skin, the absorption of 4-OHT and ENX was 0.3%; TP was 2%–4% at 24 hours. The addition of 1% OA improved the permeation of ENX significantly more than that of 4-OHT (P < 0.004; further titration of OA at 0.25%–0.5% further improved the permeation of ENX to a level similar to that of estradiol.Conclusion: The addition of OA to ENX results in a favorable rapid delivery equivalent to that of estradiol, a widely used transdermal hormone. The transdermal delivery of ENX to the breast should be further developed in preclinical and clinical studies.Keywords: endoxifen, breast cancer prevention, human skin, transdermal, oleic acid

  15. Numerical simulation of flows in a circular pipe transversely subjected to a localized impulsive body force with applications to blunt traumatic aortic rupture (United States)

    Di Labbio, G.; Keshavarz-Motamed, Z.; Kadem, L.


    Much debate surrounds the mechanisms responsible for the occurrence of blunt traumatic aortic rupture in car accidents, particularly on the role of the inertial body force experienced by the blood due to the abrupt deceleration. The isolated influence of such body forces acting on even simple fluid flows is a fundamental problem in fluid dynamics that has not been thoroughly investigated. This study numerically investigates the fundamental physical problem, where the pulsatile flow in a straight circular pipe is subjected to a transverse body force on a localized volume of fluid. The body force is applied as a brief rectangular impulse in three distinct cases, namely during the accelerating, peak, and decelerating phases of the pulsatile flow. A dimensionless number, termed the degree of influence of the body force (Ψ), is devised to quantify the relative strength of the body force over the flow inertia. The impact induces counter-rotating cross-stream vortices at the boundaries of the forced section accompanied by complex secondary flow structures. This secondary flow is found to develop slowest for an impact occurring during an accelerating flow and fastest during a decelerating flow. The peak skewness of the velocity field, however, occurred at successively later times for the three respective cases. After the impact, these secondary flows act to restore the unforced state and such dominant spatial structures are revealed by proper orthogonal decomposition of the velocity field. This work presents a new class of problems that requires further theoretical and experimental investigation.

  16. Differences in tooth shade value according to age, gender and skin color: A pilot study. (United States)

    Veeraganta, Sumanth K; Savadi, Ravindra C; Baroudi, Kusai; Nassani, Mohammad Z


    The purpose was to investigate the differences in tooth shade value according to age, gender and skin color among a sample of the local population in Bengaluru, India. The study comprised 100 subjects belonging to both gender between the age groups of 16 years to 55 years. Tooth shade values of permanent maxillary left or right central incisors were recorded using the Vitapan 3D-Master shade guide. Skin color was matched using the Radiance compact makeup shades as a guide. Chi-square statistical test demonstrated that younger subjects have lighter tooth shade values. No statistically significant differences were recorded in tooth shade value according to gender or skin color. Within the limitations of the current study, it can be concluded that tooth shade value is significantly influenced by age. Gender and skin color appear not to have a significant relation to tooth shade value.

  17. Near real-time skin deformation mapping (United States)

    Kacenjar, Steve; Chen, Suzie; Jafri, Madiha; Wall, Brian; Pedersen, Richard; Bezozo, Richard


    A novel in vivo approach is described that provides large area mapping of the mechanical properties of the skin in human patients. Such information is important in the understanding of skin health, cosmetic surgery[1], aging, and impacts of sun exposure. Currently, several methods have been developed to estimate the local biomechanical properties of the skin, including the use of a physical biopsy of local areas of the skin (in vitro methods) [2, 3, and 4], and also the use of non-invasive methods (in vivo) [5, 6, and 7]. All such methods examine localized areas of the skin. Our approach examines the local elastic properties via the generation of field displacement maps of the skin created using time-sequence imaging [9] with 2D digital imaging correlation (DIC) [10]. In this approach, large areas of the skin are reviewed rapidly, and skin displacement maps are generated showing the contour maps of skin deformation. These maps are then used to precisely register skin images for purposes of diagnostic comparison. This paper reports on our mapping and registration approach, and demonstrates its ability to accurately measure the skin deformation through a described nulling interpolation process. The result of local translational DIC alignment is compared using this interpolation process. The effectiveness of the approach is reported in terms of residual RMS, image entropy measures, and differential segmented regional errors.

  18. [Skin sensitization of 3, 4-bis (4'-aminofurazano-3') furoxan in mice evaluated by BrdU-ELISA local lymph node assay]. (United States)

    Wang, H; Gao, J H; Liu, Z Y; Yue, H; Gao, Y C; Xue, Z; Zhang, Z Z; Zhou, Y S


    Objective: To investigate skin sensitization of 3, 4-bis (4'-aminofurazano-3') furoxan (DATF) in mice using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (BrdU-ELISA) . Methods: A total of 30 specific pathogen-free BALB/C mice were randomly divided into high-, medium-, and low-dose DATF groups, positive control group, and solvent control group, with six mice in each group. The mice in the high-, medium-, and low-dose DATF groups were treated with 50%, 25%, and 10% (0.5, 0.25, and 0.10 g/ml) DATF solution, those in the positive control group were treated with 1% 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzol (DNCB) , and those in the solvent control group were treated with acetone/olive oil (4∶1) . After treatment, retroauricular lymph nodes were collected and cell suspension was prepared. ELISA was used to measure the level of cell proliferation after the addition of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) , and the BrdU labeling index (LI) and test substance concentration at a stimulation index (SI) of 1.6 (EC1.6) were calculated. Results: There were no significant differences in auricular thickness between groups (P>0.05) , and DAFT did not have skin irritation. Compared with the solvent control group, the high-dose DATF group and the positive control group showed significant increases in the weight of lymph nodes (P<0.05) . Compared with the solvent control group, all the other groups showed significant increases in BrdU LI (P<0.01) . The low-, medium-, and high-dose DATF groups had SIs of 6.1, 8.8, and 12.1, respectively, and the EC1.6 of DATF was 2.2%, which suggested that DATF had strong sensitization. Conclusion: DATF has strong skin sensitization in mice, with reference to the guideline of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development Item No. 442B (OECD TG 442B) .

  19. Teleost skin, an ancient mucosal surface that elicits gut-like immune responses. (United States)

    Xu, Zhen; Parra, David; Gómez, Daniela; Salinas, Irene; Zhang, Yong-An; von Gersdorff Jørgensen, Louise; Heinecke, Rasmus Demuth; Buchmann, Kurt; LaPatra, Scott; Sunyer, J Oriol


    Skin homeostasis is critical to preserve animal integrity. Although the skin of most vertebrates is known to contain a skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT), very little is known about skin B-cell responses as well as their evolutionary origins. Teleost fish represent the most ancient bony vertebrates containing a SALT. Due to its lack of keratinization, teleost skin possesses living epithelial cells in direct contact with the water medium. Interestingly, teleost SALT structurally resembles that of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and it possesses a diverse microbiota. Thus, we hypothesized that, because teleost SALT and gut-associated lymphoid tissue have probably been subjected to similar evolutionary selective forces, their B-cell responses would be analogous. Confirming this hypothesis, we show that IgT, a teleost immunoglobulin specialized in gut immunity, plays the prevailing role in skin mucosal immunity. We found that IgT(+) B cells represent the major B-cell subset in the skin epidermis and that IgT is mainly present in polymeric form in the skin mucus. Critically, we found that the majority of the skin microbiota are coated with IgT. Moreover, IgT responses against a skin parasite were mainly limited to the skin whereas IgM responses were almost exclusively detected in the serum. Strikingly, we found that the teleost skin mucosa showed key features of mammalian mucosal surfaces exhibiting a mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Thus, from an evolutionary viewpoint, our findings suggest that, regardless of their phylogenetic origin and tissue localization, the chief immunoglobulins of all mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue operate under the guidance of primordially conserved principles.

  20. Effects of skin surface temperature on photoplethysmograph. (United States)

    Jeong, In Cheol; Yoon, Hyungro; Kang, Hyunjeong; Yeom, Hojun


    Photoplethysmograph (PPG) has been widely used to investigate various cardiovascular conditions. Previous studies demonstrated effects of temperature of the measurement environment; however, an integrated evaluation has not been established in environments with gradual air temperature variation. The purpose of this study is to investigate variations and relationships of blood pressure (BP), PPG and cardiovascular parameters such as heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral resistance (TPR), by changing skin surface temperature (SST). Local mild cooling and heating was conducted on 16 healthy subjects. The results showed that local SST changes affected Finometer blood pressures (Finger BP), PPG components and TPR, but not the oscillometric blood pressure (Central BP), HR, SV and CO, and indicated that temperature must be maintained and monitored to reliably evaluate cardiovascular conditions in temperature-varying environments.

  1. Effects of Skin Surface Temperature on Photoplethysmograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Choel Jeong


    Full Text Available Photoplethysmograph (PPG has been widely used to investigate various cardiovascular conditions. Previous studies demonstrated effects of temperature of the measurement environment; however, an integrated evaluation has not been established in environments with gradual air temperature variation. The purpose of this study is to investigate variations and relationships of blood pressure (BP, PPG and cardiovascular parameters such as heart rate (HR, stroke volume (SV, cardiac output (CO and total peripheral resistance (TPR, by changing skin surface temperature (SST. Local mild cooling and heating was conducted on 16 healthy subjects. The results showed that local SST changes affected Finometer blood pressures (Finger BP, PPG components and TPR, but not the oscillometric blood pressure (Central BP, HR, SV and CO, and indicated that temperature must be maintained and monitored to reliably evaluate cardiovascular conditions in temperature-varying environments.

  2. Dry Skin (Xerosis) (United States)

    ... Dry skin: Symptoms Dry skin: Causes Dry skin: Treatment Dry skin: Tips Tips Dry skin: Tips for managing Here are tips that can prevent dry skin or keep it from getting worse. Do not use hot water . Hot water removes your natural skin oils more ...

  3. Skin - clammy (United States)

    ... the clammy skin may be due to heat exhaustion and the person is awake and can swallow: Have the person drink plenty of (non-alcoholic) fluids Move the person to a cool, shaded place When to Contact a Medical Professional Seek immediate medical help if the person has ...

  4. Declawing ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus) to minimize skin damage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Abstract. Preliminary genetic parameters for nodule traits of ostrich skins were estimated to examine whether genetic improvement of skin quality is feasible. Average nodule size and density per dm² were determined on five localities on each of 439 ostrich skins. An animal model with random animal and skin permanent.

  5. Is genetic selection for skin nodule traits of ostriches feasible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary genetic parameters for nodule traits of ostrich skins were estimated to examine whether genetic improvement of skin quality is feasible. Average nodule size and density per dmยฒ were determined on five localities on each of 439 ostrich skins. An animal model with random animal and skin permanent ...

  6. No increase of local recurrence rate in breast cancer patients treated with skin-sparing mastectomy followed by immediate breast reconstruction. (United States)

    van Mierlo, D R J; Lopez Penha, T R; Schipper, R J; Martens, M H; Serroyen, J; Lobbes, M B I; Heuts, E M; Tuinder, S; Smidt, M L


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of local recurrence after SSM with IBR and to determine whether complications lead to postponement of adjuvant therapy. Patients that underwent IBR after SSM between 2004 and 2011 were included. A total of 157 reconstruction procedures were performed in 147 patients for invasive breast cancer (n = 117) and ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 40). The median follow-up was 39 months [range 6-97]. Estimated 5-year local recurrence rate was 2.9% (95% CI 0.1-5.7). The median time to start adjuvant therapy was 27.5 days [range 19-92] in 18 patients with complications, and 23.5 days [range 8-54] in 46 patients without complications (p = 0.025). In our single-institution cohort, IBR after SSM carried an acceptable local recurrence rate. Complications caused a delay of adjuvant treatment but this was within guidelines and therefore not clinically relevant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Monitoring pigmented skin lesions (United States)

    Wallace, Vincent P.; Bamber, Jeffery C.; Ott, Robert J.; Crawford, Diane C.; Mortimer, Peter S.


    The rising incidence of skin cancer has led to an increase in the number of patients with skin lesions that require diagnosis, mostly using subjective visual examination. Successful treatment depends on early diagnosis. Unfortunately diagnostic accuracy, even by experts, can be as low as 56%; therefore, an accurate, objective diagnostic aid is greatly needed. Reflectance characteristics of pigmented skin lesions were documented to evaluate their diagnostic potential. Reflectance spectra in the wavelength range 320-1100nm were obtained from 260 lesions. Differences between spectra from benign and malignant lesions were utilized by extracting features with the best discriminating power. Discrimination was evaluated using two techniques: multivariate statistical analysis and artificial neural networks, using histology as the standard. Each technique was tested in a blind study and assessed in terms of its ability to diagnose new cases and compared to the clinical diagnosis. The artificial neural network achieved the best diagnostic performance for discriminating between malignant melanoma and benign nevi, having a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 65%. Utilization of visible and infrared techniques for monitoring skin lesions has lead to improvements in diagnostic accuracy. We conclude that these techniques are worthy of further development and evaluation in clinical practice as a screening tool.

  8. Skin Cancer Foundation (United States)

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the only ... Handbook A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Information on medications and procedures The ...

  9. Skin Cancer Treatment (United States)

    ... Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Skin Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends mostly ...

  10. Skin lesion removal (United States)

    Shave excision - skin; Excision of skin lesions - benign; Skin lesion removal - benign; Cryosurgery - skin, benign; BCC - removal; Basal cell cancer - removal; Actinic keratosis - removal; Wart - removal; Squamous cell - removal; ...

  11. The effect of age on skin color and color heterogeneity in four ethnic groups. (United States)

    de Rigal, Jean; Des Mazis, Isabelle; Diridollou, Stephane; Querleux, Bernard; Yang, Grace; Leroy, Frederce; Barbosa, Vietoria Holloway


    Few comparative data are available on age-related changes in skin color among different ethnic groups. The aim of the study was to measure and analyze the skin color and color heterogeneity in four different ethnic groups living in the same local environment and to determine the effects of age on these skin color characteristics. Female volunteers (385) from four ethnic populations (African-American, Caucasian, Chinese and Mexicans) living in the same city were enrolled after informed consent. Skin color was measured on two facial areas, forehead and cheek. The subjects were further divided into six age ranges: 19-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70 and 71-87 years to determine any age-related effects on the skin color and color heterogeneity in both areas. According to the L(*)a(*)b(*) CIE system, clarity (fairness/lightness) was found to be lower in the African-American group whereas the hue was lower in Caucasians, which means more red skin. A clear, statistically significant darkening of the skin with age was observed in all ethnic groups, while evidence of yellowing of the skin was shown in the Chinese volunteers. Overall, the skin color of the face of African-Americans was more heterogeneous than in the other ethnic groups, but showed the least increase with age. Our study revealed interesting differences in skin color and color heterogeneity with respect to ethnicity and age-related alterations. Data obtained are very useful in improving our knowledge about the skin of people of different origins and helps in the development of specific cosmetic products that are well adapted to all these populations.

  12. Seismotectonics of thin- and thick-skinned deformation in the Andean foreland from local network data - Evidence for a seismogenic lower crust (United States)

    Smalley, Robert, Jr.; Isacks, Bryan L.


    Local network data from San Juan, Argentina, provides new information about crustal seismicity in the Andean foreland above a horizontal segment of the subducted Nazca Plate. Two areas of foreland seismicity are found, one associated with the Sierras Pampeanas basement uplifts, and the other beneath, but not within, the Precordillera foreland fold-thrust belt. The Precordillera seismicity provides direct evidence for basement deformation beneath the sediments of the thrust belt and supports the idea that its eastern part is significantly modified by underlying basement deformation. In both areas, events are concentrated between 15 and 35 km depth and have volumetric, rather than planar, faultlike distributions. The depth distribution is unusually deep for intraplate earthquakes and suggests a brittle-ductile transition near 30-35 km.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanthi Kumari


    Full Text Available A 50 years old male patient presented with fever, cough and dyspnea of 45 days duration and skin lesions of 20 days duration which he related to the local application of dettol after shaving. Examination revealed anemia, left basal pneumonitis and non pruritic, non tender, reddish purple nodular lesions over the face, behind the ear, chest and lower back (picture. There was no involvement of oral cavity or mucocutaneous junction. Peripheral nerves not thickened and there were no hypo-pigmented patches in the skin or organomegaly. Investigation revealed microcytic anemia, no abnormal cells in the peripheral smear. X ray showed left basal pneumonitis. Patient was treated with antibiotics and blood transfusion.

  14. The efficacy of seven ethnobotanicals in the treatment of skin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 23, 2012 ... Key words: Skin pathogens, antimicrobial screening, methanol extract, indigenous recipes Ethnobotanicals,. Nigeria. INTRODUCTION ... Microorganisms and culture media. The microorganisms were clinical isolates of skin pathogens (C. albicans ..... oil from local spices in Nigeria. Acta phytopathologica et.

  15. Increased minimal vascular resistance and arteriolar hyalinosis in skin on the leg in insulin-dependent diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J; Nørgaard, T; Parving, H H


    Minimal vascular resistance (MVR) was determined in a paralysed cutaneous vascular bed at the dorsum of the foot in diabetic patients. Twelve long-term insulin-dependent diabetic (IDDM) patients with and nine short-term IDDM patients without nephropathy and retinopathy and eight control subjects...... were investigated. The vascular bed was paralysed by local injection of histamine. Skin perfusion pressure was varied by applying graded external counter pressure over the investigated area. Skin blood flow was measured by the local 99mTc wash-out technique before, during and after three to five step...

  16. Skin perfusion pressure measured with a photo sensor in an air-filled plastic balloon: validity and reproducibility on the lower leg in normal subjects and patients suspected of obliterative arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen Levin; Nielsen, Anne Lerberg; Vind, Susanne Haase


    An inflatable small plastic bag including a photo sensor was constructed for measurement of skin perfusion pressure avoiding the rim of the photo sensor over bony and tendineous surfaces of the tibia below the knee, at the ankle, and on the dorsal forefoot. Compression was obtained using a conical...

  17. Skin collagen glycation, glycoxidation, and crosslinking are lower in subjects with long-term intensive versus conventional therapy of type 1 diabetes - Relevance of glycated collagen products versus HbA(1c) as markers of diabetic complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monnier, VM; Bautista, O; Kenny, D; Sell, DR; Fogarty, J; Dahms, W; Cleary, PA; Lachin, J; Genuth, S

    The relationships between long-term intensive control of glycemia and indicators of skin collagen glycation (furosine), glycoxidation (pentosidine and N-epsilon-[carboxymethyl]-lysine [CML]), and crosslinking (acid and pepsin solubility) were examined in 216 patients with type 1 diabetes from the

  18. Localized and non‐localized effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis on accumulation of osmolytes and aquaporins and on antioxidant systems in maize plants subjected to total or partial root drying

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    The arbuscular mycorrhizal ( AM ) symbiosis alters host plant physiology under drought stress, but no information is available on whether or not the AM affects respond to drought locally or systemically. A split...

  19. Evaluation of the single radiosensitivity in patients subjected to medical exposure that show severe skin reactions; Evaluacion de la radiosensibilidad individual en pacientes sometidos a exposiciones medicas que manifiestan reacciones cutaneas severas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.B. [Laboratorio de Dosimetria Biologica, Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250 (C1429BNP), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Portas, M. [Hospital de Quemados del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Perez, M.R. [Laboratorio de Radiopatologia, Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail:


    The Burnt Hospital of the Buenos Aires City Government (HQGCBA) it is a hospital of reference of the Net of Medical Responses in Radiological Emergencies of the Argentine Republic. In the mark of an agreement among the HQGCBA and the Authority Regulatory Nuclear (ARN), it is in execution a study protocol for the one boarding diagnoses and therapeutic of radioinduced cutaneous leisure. They exist individual variations that can condition the response to the ionizing radiations (IR), so much in accidental exposures as having programmed (radiotherapy, radiology interventionist). In this context, the individual radiosensitivity is evaluated in the patients signed up in this protocol that presented sharp or late cutaneous reactions, with grades of severity 3-4 (approaches EORTC/RTOG). The capacity of repair of the DNA was evaluated in outlying blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro (2 Gy, gamma of Co-60) by means of the micronucleus techniques and comet essay in alkaline conditions. In this work two cases in those that is applied this study protocol, the therapeutic answer and its correlate with the discoveries of the radiosensitivity tests is presented. Case 1: patient of feminine sex, subjected to external radiotherapy by a breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma; developed sharp cutaneous radiotoxicity grade 3 (confluent humid epithelitis) that motivate the interruption of the treatment. Case 2: patient of masculine sex, subjected to a coronary angioplasty (interventionist radiology); developed late cutaneous radiotoxicity grade 4 (ulceration in dorsal region). Both patients were treated with topical trolamine associated to systemic administration of pentoxiphiline and antioxidants. The therapeutic answer is evaluated by means of clinical pursuit, photographic serial register and complementary exams (thermography and ultrasonography of high frequency). In the case 1 the answer was very favorable, with precocious local improvement and complete remission of symptoms and

  20. Estimation of localization and dipole moment of alpha- and theta-rhythm sources by cluster analysis in healthy subjects and schizophrenics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkhlyutov, VM; Shchuchkin, YV; Ushakov, VL; Strelets, VB; Pirogov, YA


    In 12 healthy subjects and 9 schizophrenic patients in the background conditions (with eyes closed) EEG was recorded from 16 standard derivations (10-20 system) during 3 min. The record underwent the spectral analysis detecting alpha- and theta-frequency bands. After the preliminary narrow band

  1. Skin lymphoma. (United States)

    Morris, S L


    Lymphoma arising from the skin is the second most common site of extra-nodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Over the last 25 years, the incidence has been rising. There is now a new World Health Organization/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer joint classification for cutaneous lymphomas and new proposed International Society for Cutaneous Lymphomas/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer staging systems. This overview examines the role of radiotherapy in the current management of cutaneous T- and B-cell lymphomas encompassing technological advances, new systemic therapies and novel radio-enhancing therapies now available. Modern total skin electron beam radiotherapy and the current low-dose and combination approaches are reviewed. Radiotherapy has remained the most successful treatment for cutaneous lymphoma over the last 50 years and with the technological advances and combination approaches available now and in the future will remain so for the next 50 years. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Skin Keratins. (United States)

    Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A


    Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Precision Diagnosis Of Melanoma And Other Skin Lesions From Digital Images


    Bhattacharya, Abhishek; Young, Albert; Wong, Andrew; Stalling, Simone; Wei, Maria; Hadley, Dexter


    Melanoma will affect an estimated 73,000 new cases this year and result in 9,000 deaths, yet precise diagnosis remains a serious problem. Without early detection and preventative care, melanoma can quickly spread to become fatal (Stage IV 5-year survival rate is 20-10%) from a once localized skin lesion (Stage IA 5- year survival rate is 97%). There is no biomarker for melanoma in clinical use, and the current diagnostic criteria for skin lesions remains subjective and imprecise. Accurate dia...

  4. [Skin-to-skin caesarean section: a hype or better patient care? (United States)

    Korteweg, F J; de Boer, H D; van der Ploeg, J M; Buiter, H D; van der Ham, D P


    A caesarean section (CS) is one of the most common surgical procedures performed in the world, for which there are minimal variations in the surgical approach. During the last few years the "skin-to-skin" CS, also coined "natural" or "gentle" CS, is on the rise; parental participation, slow delivery and direct skin-to-skin contact are important aspects. Most Dutch hospitals offer some form of "skin-to-skin" CS but there are local differences in availability and performance of the procedure. Since 2011, the standard procedure in the Martini Hospital in Groningen is the "skin-to-skin" CS (for both elective and emergency CS, 24/7). We describe our method and share our retrospective data, and demonstrate that this procedure does not result in more complications for mother or baby.

  5. Localized and non-localized effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis on accumulation of osmolytes and aquaporins and on antioxidant systems in maize plants subjected to total or partial root drying. (United States)

    Bárzana, Gloria; Aroca, Ricardo; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel


    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis alters host plant physiology under drought stress, but no information is available on whether or not the AM affects respond to drought locally or systemically. A split-root system was used to obtain AM plants with total or only half root system colonized as well as to induce physiological drought affecting the whole plant or non-physiological drought affecting only the half root system. We analysed the local and/or systemic nature of the AM effects on accumulation of osmoregulatory compounds and aquaporins and on antioxidant systems. Maize plants accumulated proline both, locally in roots affected by drought and systemically when the drought affected the whole root system, being the last effect ampler in AM plants. PIPs (plasma membrane intrinsic proteins) aquaporins were also differently regulated by drought in AM and non-AM root compartments. When the drought affected only the AM root compartment, the rise of lipid peroxidation was restricted to such compartment. On the contrary, when the drought affected the non-AM root fraction, the rise of lipid peroxidation was similar in both root compartments. Thus, the benefits of the AM symbiosis not only rely in a lower oxidative stress in the host plant, but it also restricts locally such oxidative stress. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [Skin and menopause]. (United States)

    Bensaleh, H; Belgnaoui, F Z; Douira, L; Berbiche, L; Senouci, K; Hassam, B


    Important changes related to declining level of several hormones occur during menopause: vasomotor instability, bone loss, anxiety, sexual dysfunction, skin aging... Our objective was a review of the literature concerning the histological and clinical changes seen in post menopausal skin, and also an analysis of the effect of hormonal replacement therapy in slowing down the aging process. Decline in progesterone increases the impact of androgen on the sebaceous glands and hair. Decreased estrogen slows down mitotic activity in the epidermal basal layer, reduces the synthesis of collagen and contributes to thickening of the dermo-epidermal junction. This hypoestrogenemia may be spontaneously attenuated by local synthesis of oestradiol in peripheral target tissues according to the intracrine process. This new hormonal pattern is associated with skin atrophy, hyperseborrhea, increased pilosity on the cheeks and upper lip, loss of scalp hair, increase in degeneration of elastic tissue, atrophy and dryness of the vaginal mucosa. Estrogen treatment in post menopausal women has been shown to increase collagen content, dermal thickness and elasticity. Biophysical properties are also significantly improved for the parameters reflecting hydration and sebum secretion. However, numerous side effects such as increased incidence of cancer and cardiovascular morbidity limit the use of this treatment. So non hormonal alternatives are proposed. Laser and lifting remain the most important options.

  7. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer (United States)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer Order the free Anyone Can ... rarely, younger children can develop skin cancer. How can people with dark skin get skin cancer? Although ...

  8. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening (United States)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go to ... all skin colors can get skin cancer. Skin Cancer Screening Key Points Tests are used to screen for ...

  9. Epidemiology of "fragile skin": results from a survey of different skin types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haftek M


    Full Text Available Marek Haftek,1 Christine Coutanceau,2 Charles Taïeb3 1Université Lyon 1, Laboratoire de Recherche Dermatologique, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Lyon, 2Département Médical, Laboratoires Dermatologiques A-Derma, Lavaur, 3Public Health, Pierre Fabre SA, Paris, France Background: Epidemiologic information regarding the prevalence of "fragile skin" in different adult populations is currently limited. The objective of the current survey was to assess the occurrence of perceived "fragile skin" across different skin types in the general adult population. Methods: Individuals aged 15–65 years from five representative geographic regions (France, Spain, Sweden, Japan, and the US were interviewed and grouped into the following skin types: Caucasian North skin (n=1,218, Caucasian South skin (n=1,695, Asian skin (n=1,500, and Black skin (n=500. The main survey question was "In your opinion, do you have fragile skin?" Concepts relating to the nature and appearance of an individual's skin were also evaluated. Results: A total of 4,913 individuals were interviewed. Subjects in the Caucasian North, Caucasian South, Asian, and Black skin type groups responded positively to the question "In your opinion, do you have fragile skin?" in the following proportions: 24.44%, 29.71%, 52.67%, and 42.20%, respectively. With the exception of individuals in the Black skin group, "fragile skin" was prevalent in significantly more women than men (P<0.0001. Compared with other age categories, the prevalence of "fragile skin" was significantly higher in individuals aged 15–34 years (P<0.0001, regardless of skin type. In general, individuals reporting "fragile skin" were 2–3-fold more likely to respond positively to a series of questions relating to the nature and appearance of their skin. The prevalence of "fragile skin" was also higher in individuals who experienced dermatosis (skin lesions of any type in the previous 12 months. Conclusion: Whilst these

  10. A preliminary investigation of the impact of oily skin on quality of life and concordance of self-perceived skin oiliness and skin surface lipids (sebum). (United States)

    Wu, Y; Niu, Y; Zhong, S; Liu, H; Zhen, Y; Saint-Leger, D; Verschoore, M


    This preliminary study investigated both the impact of oily skin on quality of life (QoL) and the agreement between subjective oily skin self-assessment and objective skin surface sebum measurement in young to middle-aged Chinese women in Beijing. A 18-item Chinese version of the Oily Skin Self-Image Questionnaire (OSSIQ) was used to assess the impact of oily skin on QoL in 300 healthy female subjects (age groups: 20-25; 26-30; 31-35,). The subjects were divided equally into the oily skin group and the non-oily skin group based on their self-perception of skin oiliness. The level of skin surface lipids (SSL) was measured on the middle of the forehead, and both cheeks using the Sebumeter(®). In order to assess the agreement between self-perceived skin oiliness and measured SSL, we tentatively used the SSL median value as a dividing point to regroup all subjects. The results indicate that the Chinese version of the OSSIQ distinguished the oily skin group from the non-oily skin group. Subjects in the oily skin group had significant higher emotional status score and behavior score when compared with subjects in the non-oily skin group. Subjects in the oily skin group had higher SSL when compared with subjects in the non-oily skin group, especially in younger age groups. The agreement between self-perceived skin oiliness and measured SSL was moderately strong in younger age groups, and declined with age. These results strongly suggest that having oily skin can cause a significant negative impact on QoL among Chinese women. The Chinese version of the OSSIQ is a reliable and valid tool for assessing the impact of oily skin on QoL. The accuracy of oily skin self-assessment declines with age. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  11. Skin Allergy Quiz (United States)

    ... time. Some common medications that can cause skin allergy include penicillin, sulfa drugs, barbiturates and anticonvulsants just to mention a few. Some of the symptoms from drug allergies might be hives, skin rash, itchy skin or ...

  12. Allergy testing - skin (United States)

    ... allergy skin tests if you have: Hay fever ( allergic rhinitis ) and asthma symptoms that are not well controlled with medicine Hives and angioedema Food allergies Skin rashes ( dermatitis ), in which the skin ...

  13. Core temperature affects scalp skin temperature during scalp cooling. (United States)

    Daanen, Hein A M; Peerbooms, Mijke; van den Hurk, Corina J G; van Os, Bernadet; Levels, Koen; Teunissen, Lennart P J; Breed, Wim P M


    The efficacy of hair loss prevention by scalp cooling to prevent chemotherapy induced hair loss has been shown to be related to scalp skin temperature. Scalp skin temperature, however, is dependent not only on local cooling but also on the thermal status of the body. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of body temperature on scalp skin temperature. We conducted experiments in which 13 healthy subjects consumed ice slurry to lower body temperature for 15 minutes after the start of scalp cooling and then performed two 12-minute cycle exercise sessions to increase body core temperature. Esophageal temperature (Tes ), rectal temperature (Tre ), mean skin temperature (eight locations, Tskin ), and mean scalp temperature (five locations, Tscalp ) were recorded. During the initial 10 minutes of scalp cooling, Tscalp decreased by >15 °C, whereas Tes decreased by 0.2 °C. After ice slurry ingestion, Tes , Tre , and Tskin were 35.8, 36.5, and 31.3 °C, respectively, and increased after exercise to 36.3, 37.3, and 33.0 °C, respectively. Tscalp was significantly correlated to Tes (r = 0.39, P scalp cooling contributes to the decrease in scalp temperature and may improve the prevention of hair loss. This may be useful if the desired decrease of scalp temperature cannot be obtained by scalp cooling systems. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  14. Use of a Purse-String Suture to Reduce Skin Graft Requirements. (United States)

    McCue, Jonathan; Kalliainen, Loree K


    When a wound cannot be closed in a linear fashion and either a local flap or skin graft is needed, a purse-string suture can be a useful adjunct to wound closure. Local tissue architecture is maintained in cases where clear surgical margins have not been achieved at the time of extirpative skin cancer surgery. We hypothesized that this technique could be applied to a range of wound sizes and locations to avoid or reduce the need for skin grafting. We applied a non-absorbable purse-string suture to wounds in 18 patients over a 15-month period and measured the defect size before and after application of the suture intraoperatively. Residual defects were covered with full- or split-thickness skin grafts. Postoperative wound area, scar hypertrophy, partial graft loss and dehiscence following suture removal were additional outcomes. Ten patients achieved primary wound closure with the purse-string suture, while additional skin grafting was required in eight patients. Wounds closed primarily did not re-expand. Skin-grafted subjects had a 53.8% intraoperative wound area reduction but the skin grafts expanded during recovery, and ultimate reduction diminished to 11% on late follow-up. Wounds accounting for this late re-expansion were located on the extremities. Purse-string sutures are helpful for wound closure in wounds that cannot be closed primarily. They can decrease the size of a skin graft if the wound cannot be closed completely. Wound re-expansion, particularly in extremity defects, may occur following early removal of the tension-bearing purse string.

  15. Severe delayed skin reactions related to drugs in the paediatric age group: A review of the subject by way of three cases (Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis and DRESS). (United States)

    Belver, M T; Michavila, A; Bobolea, I; Feito, M; Bellón, T; Quirce, S


    Severe delayed drug-induced skin reactions in children are not common but potentially serious. This article describes aspects concerning the etiology, pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of these processes; it presents three paediatric cases, namely STS (Steven Johnson Syndrome), TEN (toxic epidermal necrolysis), probably related to amoxicillin/clavulanate and ibuprofen and DRESS (a drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) secondary to phenytoin; and in relation to them, the diagnosis and the treatment of these processes are discussed and reviewed. The AGEP (acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis) is also reviewed. The aetiological diagnosis of severe non-immediate reactions is difficult, and the value of current allergological testing is not well defined in these cases. Diagnosis is based on clinical history, the empirical risk of drugs to trigger SJS/TEN or DRESS, and the in vivo and in vitro testing of the suspect drug. Skin biopsy confirms that the clinical diagnosis and delayed hypersensitivity tests, especially the patch test and the lymphoblastic transformation test (LTT), may be important to confirm the aetiological diagnosis, in our cases emphasising the latter. These diseases can be life threatening (especially DRESS and TEN) and/or have a high rate of major complications or sequelae (SJS/TEN). The three cases described progressed well without sequelae. All were treated with corticosteroids, which is the most currently accepted treatment although the effect has not been clearly demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. 9 CFR 311.6 - Diamond-skin disease. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Diamond-skin disease. 311.6 Section... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.6 Diamond-skin disease. Carcasses of hogs affected with diamond-skin disease when localized and not associated with systemic change...

  17. Delayed grafting for banked skin graft in lymph node flap transfer. (United States)

    Ciudad, Pedro; Date, Shivprasad; Orfaniotis, Georgios; Dower, Rory; Nicoli, Fabio; Maruccia, Michele; Lin, Shu-Ping; Chuang, Chu-Yi; Chuang, Tsan-Yu; Wang, Gou-Jen; Chen, Hung-Chi


    Over the last decade, lymph node flap (LNF) transfer has turned out to be an effective method in the management of lymphoedema of extremities. Most of the time, the pockets created for LNF cannot be closed primarily and need to be resurfaced with split thickness skin grafts. Partial graft loss was frequently noted in these cases. The need to prevent graft loss on these iatrogenic wounds made us explore the possibility of attempting delayed skin grafting. We have herein reported our experience with delayed grafting with autologous banked split skin grafts in cases of LNF transfer for lymphoedema of the extremities. Ten patients with International Society of Lymphology stage II-III lymphoedema of upper or lower extremity were included in this study over an 8-month period. All patients were thoroughly evaluated and subjected to lymph node flap transfer. The split skin graft was harvested and banked at the donor site, avoiding immediate resurfacing over the flap. The same was carried out in an aseptic manner as a bedside procedure after confirming flap viability and allowing flap swelling to subside. Patients were followed up to evaluate long-term outcomes. Flap survival was 100%. Successful delayed skin grafting was done between the 4th and 6th post-operative day as a bedside procedure under local anaesthesia. The split thickness skin grafts (STSG) takes more than 97%. One patient needed additional medications during the bedside procedure. All patients had minimal post-operative pain and skin graft requirement. The patients were also reported to be satisfied with the final aesthetic results. There were no complications related to either the skin grafts or donor sites during the entire period of follow-up. Delayed split skin grafting is a reliable method of resurfacing lymph node flaps and has been shown to reduce the possibility of flap complications as well as the operative time and costs. © 2016 Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Expert System For Diagnosis Of Skin Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A.L.C. Amarathunga


    Full Text Available Abstract Dermatology is a one of major session of medicine that concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of skin diseases. Skin diseases are the most common form of disease in humans. Recently many of researchers have advocated and developed the imaging of human vision or in the loop approach to visual object recognition. This research paper presents a development of a skin diseases diagnosis system which allows user to identify diseases of the human skin and to provide advises or medical treatments in a very short time period. For this purpose user will have to upload an image of skin disease to our system and answer questions based on their skin condition or symptoms. It will be used to detect diseases of the skin and offer a treatment recommendation. This system uses technologies such as image processing and data mining for the diagnosis of the disease of the skin. The image of skin disease is taken and it must be subjected to various preprocessing for noise eliminating and enhancement of the image. This image is immediately segmentation of images using threshold values. Finally data mining techniques are used to identify the skin disease and to suggest medical treatments or advice for users. This expert system exhibits disease identification accuracy of 85 for Eczema 95 for Impetigo and 85 for Melanoma.

  19. [Radiotherapy of skin cancers]. (United States)

    Hennequin, C; Rio, E; Mahé, M-A


    The indications of radiotherapy for skin cancers are not clearly defined because of the lack of randomised trials or prospective studies. For basal cell carcinomas, radiotherapy frequently offers a good local control, but a randomized trial showed that surgery is more efficient and less toxic. Indications of radiotherapy are contra-indications of surgery for patients older than 60, non-sclerodermiform histology and occurring in non-sensitive areas. Adjuvant radiotherapy could be proposed to squamous cell carcinomas, in case of poor prognostic factors. Dose of 60 to 70Gy are usually required, and must be modulated to the size of the lesions. Adjuvant radiotherapy seems beneficial for desmoplastic melanomas but not for the other histological types. Prophylactic nodal irradiation (45 to 50Gy), for locally advanced tumours (massive nodal involvement), decreases the locoregional failure rate but do not increase survival. Adjuvant radiotherapy (50 to 56Gy) for Merckel cell carcinomas increases also the local control rate, as demonstrated by meta-analysis and a large epidemiological study. Nodal areas must be included, if there is no surgical exploration (sentinel lymph node dissection). Kaposi sarcomas are radiosensitive and could be treated with relatively low doses (24 to 30Gy). Also, cutaneous lymphomas are good indications for radiotherapy: B lymphomas are electively treated with limited fields. The role of total skin electron therapy for T-lymphomas is still discussed; but palliative radiotherapy is very efficient in case of cutaneous nodules. Copyright © 2016 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. The Development of Cooperative Learning Model Based on Local Wisdom of Bali for Physical Education, Sport and Health Subject in Junior High School (United States)

    Yoda, I. K.


    The purpose of this research is to develop a cooperative learning model based on local wisdom (PKBKL) of Bali (Tri Pramana’s concept), for physical education, sport, and health learning in VII grade of Junior High School in Singaraja-Buleleng Bali. This research is the development research of the development design chosen refers to the development proposed by Dick and Carey. The development of model and learning devices was conducted through four stages, namely: (1) identification and needs analysis stage (2) the development of design and draft of PKBKL and RPP models, (3) testing stage (expert review, try out, and implementation). Small group try out was conducted on VII-3 grade of Undiksha Laboratory Junior High School in the academic year 2013/2014, large group try out was conducted on VIIb of Santo Paulus Junior High School Singaraja in the academic year 2014/2015, and the implementation of the model was conducted on three (3) schools namely SMPN 2 Singaraja, SMPN 3 Singaraja, and Undiksha laboratory Junior High School in the academic year 2014/2015. Data were collected using documentation, testing, non-testing, questionnaire, and observation. The data were analyzed descriptively. The findings of this research indicate that: (1) PKBKL model has met the criteria of the operation of a learning model namely: syntax, social system, principles of reaction, support system, as well as instructional and nurturing effects, (2) PKBKL model is a valid, practical, and effective model, (3) the practicality of the learning devices (RPP), is at the high category. Based on the research results, there are two things recommended: (1) in order that learning stages (syntax) of PKBKL model can be performed well, then teachers need to have an understanding of the cooperative learning model of Student Team Achievement Division (STAD) type and the concepts of scientifically approach well, (2) PKBKL model can be performed well on physical education, sport and health learning, if the

  1. Genetics of aplasia cutis reveal novel regulators of skin morphogenesis. (United States)

    Marneros, Alexander G


    The molecular mechanisms that control skin morphogenesis are complex and only incompletely understood. Aplasia cutis manifests with localized skin defects at birth and is a feature in various syndromes. Identifying the genes that cause these genetic skin conditions provides the opportunity to define novel regulators of skin morphogenesis. Recently, human genetic approaches have led to the identification of aplasia cutis-causing mutations in genes that have previously not been implicated to have an important role in skin biology. These findings reveal novel molecular mechanisms that are involved in skin formation during development.

  2. Estrogens and aging skin


    Thornton, M. Julie


    Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity...

  3. Psychiatric Morbidity among Subjects with Leprosy and Albinism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Skin, which is the largest organ in the body, carries immense psychological significance. Disfiguring skin disorders may impact negatively on the mental health of individuals. Aim: This study compared the psychiatric morbidity of subjects with leprosy and albinism. Subjects and Methods: One hundred subjects ...

  4. An experimental study on mother-infant skin-to-skin contact in full-terms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, R.; Cillessen, L.J.G.; Zijlmans, M.A.C.


    In premature infants, daily skin-to-skin contact (SSC) has various beneficial effects on the health of the infant and the mother. These beneficial effects might extend to full-term infants. This experimental within-subject study examines the immediate effects of SSC on full-terms’ cortisol

  5. Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... 76,690; deaths: 9,480. Read More "Skin Cancer" Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk ...

  6. Skin cancer in skin of color. (United States)

    Bradford, Porcia T


    In general, skin cancer is uncommon in people of color when compared to Caucasians. When it does occur, it is often associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Differences in survival rates may be attributed to skin cancers being diagnosed at a more advanced stage, and socioeconomic factors such as lack of adequate insurance coverage and lack of transportation can function as barriers to timely diagnosis and early treatment. In addition to advanced stage at presentation, malignant skin lesions in skin of color often present in an atypical fashion. Because skin cancer prevention and screening practices historically have been lower among Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians, and given the changing demographics in the United States, interventions that are tailored to each of these groups will be needed. Public educational campaigns should be expanded to educate people of all skin types with emphasis on skin cancers occurring in areas not exposed to the sun (Byrd-Miles et al., 2007), since sunlight is not as important an etiologic factor in the pathogenesis of skin cancer in people of color. Dermatologists and primary care physicians should instruct their darker-skinned patients on how to perform routine skin self-examinations. Physicians should also encourage patients to ask their specialists such as their gynecologist, dentist, and ophthalmologist to look for abnormal pigmentation during routine exams. To reduce the burden of skin cancer, several prevention methods for all people have been strongly encouraged, including monthly self-examinations, daily use of SPF 30 or greater sunscreen, sunglasses with UV-absorbing lenses, and avoiding tanning booths (American Cancer Society, 2008) (see Table 7). In addition, recommendations for clinicians to promote the prevention of skin cancer in skin of color have also been made, including closely monitoring changing pigmented lesions on the palms and soles and hyperkeratotic or poorly healing ulcers in immunosuppressed patients

  7. Skin Cancer and UV Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarbuk Anita


    Full Text Available The incidence of skin cancer is increasing by epidemic proportions. Basal cell cancer remains the most common skin neoplasm, and simple excision is generally curative. On the other hand, aggressive local growth and metastasis are common features of malignant melanoma, which accounts for 75% of all deaths associated with skin cancer. The primary cause of skin cancer is long exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-R crossed with the amount of skin pigmentation and family genetics. It is believed that in childhood and adolescence, 80% of UV-R gets absorbed while in the remaining, 20 % gets absorbed later in the lifetime. This suggests that proper and early photoprotection may reduce the risk of subsequent occurrence of skin cancer. Reducing the exposure time to sunlight, using sunscreens and protective textiles are the three ways of UV protection. Most people think that all the clothing will protect them, but it does not provide full sun screening properties. Literature sources claim that only 1/3 of the spring and summer collections tested give off proper UV protection. This is very important during the summer months, when UV index is the highest. Fabric UV protection ability highly depends on large number of factors such as type of fiber, fabric surface, construction, porosity, density, moisture content, type and concentration of dyestuff, fluorescent whitening agents, UV-B protective agents (UV absorbers, as well as nanoparticles, if applied. For all of these reasons, in the present paper, the results of UV protecting ability according to AS/NZS 4399:1996 will be discussed to show that standard clothing materials are not always adequate to prevent effect of UV-R to the human skin; and to suggest the possibilities for its improvement for this purpose enhancing light conversion and scattering. Additionally, the discrepancy in UV protection was investigated in distilled water as well as Adriatic Sea water.

  8. Nutritional and antioxidant status by skin types among female adults (United States)

    Bae, Hyun Sook; Choi, Sung Im


    This study was performed to analyze the relationship among sebum · hydration content of the skin and nutritional intake, serum antioxidant minerals and antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxide concentration in 50 female subjects in their 20s. The skin type was divided into Dry Skin, Mixed Skin, and Oily Skin, and the dry skin group was 14%, the mixed skin group was 56%, and the oily skin group was 30% of all subjects. The average age of the subjects was 20.54 ± 1.43 years and BMI was 20.66. The average sebum content in each group was in the order of T-zone>forehead>chin>cheek. In case of the T-zone, a significant difference between the dry skin group and the oily skin group was observed, suggesting that the area is most sensitive to sebum content by skin type. Significant differences were not observed in energy and nutrient intakes by skin type. Serum concentrations of antioxidant minerals such as copper, manganese, zinc and selenium were not significantly different among the groups, but the dry skin group tended to be higher than the oily skin group. Serum catalase was significantly higher in the oily skin group (P < 0.05), and MDA was significantly higher in the mixed skin group (P < 0.05). The hydration of the cheek and serum zinc showed a negative correlation, and the sebum content of the cheek and GPx showed a significant negative correlation. The hydration of the forehead and serum copper showed a significant negative correlation, and the hydration of the forehead and GPx showed a significant positive correlation. The hydration of the chin and serum SOD showed a significant positive correlation. With these results, it is considered that the basic condition of nutritional status can affect the skin health. PMID:20607067

  9. Digital dermoscopy to determine skin melanin index as an objective indicator of skin pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Majewski


    Full Text Available Clinical assessment of skin photosensitivity is subjectively determined by erythema and tanning responses to sunlight recalled by the subject, alternatively known as Fitzpatrick Skin Phototype (SPT. Responses may be unreliable due to recall bias, subjective bias by clinicians and subjects, and lack of cultural sensitivity of the questions. Analysis of red-green-blue (RGB color spacing of digital images may provide an objective determination of SPT. This paper presents the studies to assess the melanin index (MI, as determined by RGB images obtained by both standard digital camera as well as by videodermoscope, and to correlate the MI with SPT based upon subjects’ verbal responses to standardized questions administered by a dermatologist.A sample of subjects representing all SPTs I–VI was selected. Both the digital camera and videodermoscope were calibrated at standard illumination, light source and white balance. Images of constitutive skin of the upper ventral arm were taken of each subject using both instruments.The studies showed that 58 subjects (20 M, 38 F were enrolled in the study (mean age: 47 years; range: 20–89, stratified to skin phototype I–VI. MI obtained by using both digital camera and videodermoscope increased significantly as the SPT increased p = 0.004 and p < 0.0001, respectively and positively correlated with dermatologist-assessed SPT (Spearman correlation, r = 0.48 and r = 0.84, respectively.Digital imaging can quantify melanin content in order to quantitatively approximate skin pigmentation in all skin phototypes including Type VI skin. This methodology holds promise as a simple, non-invasive, rapid and objective approach to reliably determine skin phototype and, with further investigation, may prove to be both practical and useful in the prediction of skin cancer risk.

  10. Thermosensitive Hydrogel Mask Significantly Improves Skin Moisture and Skin Tone; Bilateral Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Quattrone


    Full Text Available Objective: A temperature-sensitive state-changing hydrogel mask was used in this study. Once it comes into contact with the skin and reaches the body temperature, it uniformly and quickly releases the active compounds, which possess moisturizing, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and regenerative properties. Methods: An open label clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of the test product on skin hydration, skin tone and skin ageing. Subjects applied the product to one side of their face and underwent Corneometer® and Chromameter measurements, Visual assessment of facial skin ageing and facial photography. All assessments and Self-Perception Questionnaires (SPQ were performed at baseline, after the first application of the test product and after four applications. Results: After a single treatment we observed an increase in skin moisturisation, an improvement of skin tone/luminosity and a reduction in signs of ageing, all statistically significant. After four applications a further improvement in all measured parameters was recorded. These results were confirmed by the subjects’ own perceptions, as reported in the SPQ both after one and four applications. Conclusion: The hydrogel mask tested in this study is very effective in improving skin hydration, skin radiance and luminosity, in encouraging an even skin tone and in reducing skin pigmentation.

  11. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen


    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  12. Evaluation of a Topical Anti-inflammatory/Antifungal Combination Cream in Mild-to-moderate Facial Seborrheic Dermatitis: An Intra-subject Controlled Trial Examining Treated vs. Untreated Skin Utilizing Clinical Features and Erythema-directed Digital Photography. (United States)

    Dall'Oglio, Federica; Tedeschi, Aurora; Guardabasso, Vincenzo; Micali, Giuseppe


    To evaluate if nonprescription topical agents may provide positive outcomes in the management of mild-to-moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis by reducing inflammation and scale production through clinical evaluation and erythema-directed digital photography. Open-label, prospective, not-blinded, intra-patient, controlled, clinical trial (target area). Twenty adult subjects affected by mild-to-moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis were enrolled and instructed to apply the study cream two times daily, initially on a selected target area only for seven days. If the subject developed visible improvement, it was advised to extend the application to all facial affected area for 21 additional days. Efficacy was evaluated by measuring the grade of erythema (by clinical examination and by erythema-directed digital photography), desquamation (by clinical examination), and pruritus (by subject-completed visual analog scale). Additionally, at the end of the protocol, a Physician Global Assessment was carried out. Eighteen subjects completed the study, whereas two subjects were lost to follow-up for nonadherence and personal reasons, respectively. Day 7 data from target areas showed a significant reduction in erythema. At the end of study, a significant improvement was recorded for erythema, desquamation, and pruritus compared to baseline. Physician Global Assessment showed improvement in 89 percent of patients, with a complete response in 56 percent of cases. These preliminary results indicate that the study cream may be a viable nonprescription therapeutic option for patients affected by facial seborrheic dermatitis able to determine early and significant improvement. This study also emphasizes the advantages of using an erythema-directed digital photography system for assisting in a simple, more accurate erythema severity grading and therapeutic monitoring in patients affected by seborrheic dermatitis.

  13. Consequences of urban pollution upon skin status. A controlled study in Shanghai area. (United States)

    Lefebvre, M-A; Pham, D-M; Boussouira, B; Qiu, H; Ye, C; Long, X; Chen, R; Gu, W; Laurent, A; Nguyen, Q-L


    After preliminary studies aimed at measuring pertinent biochemical parameters, potentially modified in subjects exposed to bad environmental conditions, a dedicated study was performed in Shanghai city to evaluate the effect of Urban pollution upon human skin and to collect feedback from the volunteers under study. This study was performed during summer 2008 in two different districts of Shanghai, on 159 local residents: 79 subjects from Xu Jia Hui (a centre Shanghainese area), more exposed to pollution, and 80 subjects from Chong Ming, an agricultural region closely located north of Shanghai (pollution, according to official data. Biochemical parameters were measured on skin, and feedback from volunteers was collected through a graduated 'Likert scale' questionnaire under a point scale (strongly agree, agree, disagree, strongly disagree and none). The study demonstrated significant differences in several biochemical parameters measured in Chong Ming area, as compared to Urban area, with an increased ratio of squalene/lipids, a lower level of lactic acid and a better cohesion of stratum corneum. Both sebum excretion rate and sebum casual levels did not differ between the two districts. The volunteer's feedback evidenced a perceived link between pollution and their skin problems. This study demonstrated a significant impact of the pollution upon the skin status, as illustrated by changes in superficial biochemical parameters and volunteers' perception. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  14. A flexible skin piloerection monitoring sensor (United States)

    Kim, Jaemin; Seo, Dae Geon; Cho, Young-Ho


    We have designed, fabricated, and tested a capacitive-type flexible micro sensor for measurement of the human skin piloerection arisen from sudden emotional and environmental change. The present skin piloerection monitoring methods are limited in objective and quantitative measurement by physical disturbance stimulation to the skin due to bulky size and heavy weight of measuring devices. The proposed flexible skin piloerection monitoring sensor is composed of 3 × 3 spiral coplanar capacitor array using conductive polymer for having high capacitive density and thin enough thickness to be attached to human skin. The performance of the skin piloerection monitoring sensor is characterized using the artificial bump, representing human skin goosebump; thus, resulting in the sensitivity of -0.00252%/μm and the nonlinearity of 25.9% for the artificial goosebump deformation in the range of 0-326 μm. We also verified successive human skin piloerection having 3.5 s duration on the subject's dorsal forearms, thus resulting in the capacitance change of -6.2 fF and -9.2 fF for the piloerection intensity of 145 μm and 194 μm, respectively. It is demonstrated experimentally that the proposed sensor is capable to measure the human skin piloerection objectively and quantitatively, thereby suggesting the quantitative evaluation method of the qualitative human emotional status for cognitive human-machine interfaces applications.

  15. Musculoskeletal MRI findings of juvenile localized scleroderma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eutsler, Eric P. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Horton, Daniel B. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Division of Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Wilmington, DE (United States); Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Department of Pediatrics, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Epelman, Monica [Nemours Children' s Health System/Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Orlando, FL (United States); Finkel, Terri [Nemours Children' s Health System/Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Orlando, FL (United States); Averill, Lauren W. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE (United States)


    Juvenile localized scleroderma comprises a group of autoimmune conditions often characterized clinically by an area of skin hardening. In addition to superficial changes in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, juvenile localized scleroderma may involve the deep soft tissues, bones and joints, possibly resulting in functional impairment and pain in addition to cosmetic changes. There is literature documenting the spectrum of findings for deep involvement of localized scleroderma (fascia, muscles, tendons, bones and joints) in adults, but there is limited literature for the condition in children. We aimed to document the spectrum of musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of both superficial and deep juvenile localized scleroderma involvement in children and to evaluate the utility of various MRI sequences for detecting those findings. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated 20 MRI studies of the extremities in 14 children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Each imaging sequence was also given a subjective score of 0 (not useful), 1 (somewhat useful) or 2 (most useful for detecting the findings). Deep tissue involvement was detected in 65% of the imaged extremities. Fascial thickening and enhancement were seen in 50% of imaged extremities. Axial T1, axial T1 fat-suppressed (FS) contrast-enhanced and axial fluid-sensitive sequences were rated most useful. Fascial thickening and enhancement were the most commonly encountered deep tissue findings in extremity MRIs of children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Because abnormalities of the skin, subcutaneous tissues and fascia tend to run longitudinally in an affected limb, axial T1, axial fluid-sensitive and axial T1-FS contrast-enhanced sequences should be included in the imaging protocol. (orig.)

  16. Cutting Edge: Skin CCR10+ CD8+ T Cells Support Resident Regulatory T Cells through the B7.2/Receptor Axis To Regulate Local Immune Homeostasis and Response. (United States)

    Fu, Yaoyao; Yang, Jie; Xiong, Na


    Resident T cells in barrier tissues are important in protecting against foreign agents but can also contribute to inflammatory diseases if dysregulated. How T cell homeostasis is maintained in barrier tissues is still poorly understood. We report that resident CD8(+) T cells directly support maintenance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the skin to promote immune homeostasis. Impaired establishment of resident CD8(+) T cells caused by knockout of the skin-homing chemokine receptor CCR10 resulted in an altered balance of resident Tregs and CD4(+) effector T cells in the skin and overreactive inflammatory responses to cutaneous stimulations. Furthermore, B7.2 expressed on skin CD8(+) T cells supports the survival of Tregs, likely through interaction with its receptor CTLA-4, which is highly expressed on skin Tregs. Our findings provide novel insights into T cell homeostatic regulation in the skin and may improve our understanding of the pathobiology of tissue inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  17. Quantitative characterization of mechanically indented in vivo human skin in adults and infants using optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Huang, Pin-Chieh; Pande, Paritosh; Shelton, Ryan L.; Joa, Frank; Moore, Dave; Gillman, Elisa; Kidd, Kimberly; Nolan, Ryan M.; Odio, Mauricio; Carr, Andrew; Boppart, Stephen A.


    Influenced by both the intrinsic viscoelasticity of the tissue constituents and the time-evolved redistribution of fluid within the tissue, the biomechanical response of skin can reflect not only localized pathology but also systemic physiology of an individual. While clinical diagnosis of skin pathologies typically relies on visual inspection and manual palpation, a more objective and quantitative approach for tissue characterization is highly desirable. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an interferometry-based imaging modality that enables in vivo assessment of cross-sectional tissue morphology with micron-scale resolution, which surpasses those of most standard clinical imaging tools, such as ultrasound imaging and magnetic resonance imaging. This pilot study investigates the feasibility of characterizing the biomechanical response of in vivo human skin using OCT. OCT-based quantitative metrics were developed and demonstrated on the human subject data, where a significant difference between deformed and nondeformed skin was revealed. Additionally, the quantified postindentation recovery results revealed differences between aged (adult) and young (infant) skin. These suggest that OCT has the potential to quantitatively assess the mechanically perturbed skin as well as distinguish different physiological conditions of the skin, such as changes with age or disease.

  18. Human fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase gene (FBP1): Exon-intron organization, localization to chromosome bands 9q22.2-q22.3, and mutation screening in subjects with fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Maghrabi, M.R.; Jiang, W. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)] [and others


    Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (EC is a key regulatory enzyme of gluconeogenesis that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to generate fructose-6-phosphate and inorganic phosphate. Deficiency of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase is associated with fasting hypoglycemia and metabolic acidosis because of impaired gluconeogenesis. We have cloned and characterized the human liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase gene (FBP1). FBP1, localized to chromosome bands 9q22.2-q22.3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization, consists of seven exons that span > 31 kb, and the six introns are in the same position as in the rat gene. FBP1 was screened for mutations in two subjects with fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency. Four nucleotide substitutions were identified, two of which were silent mutations in the codons for Ala-216 (GCT {yields} GCC) and Gly-319 (GGG {yields} GGA). The other substitutions were in intron 3, a C {yields} T substitution 7 nucleotides downstream from the splice donor site, and in the promoter region, an A {yields} T substitution 188 nucleotides upstream from the start of transcription. These nucleotide substitutions were also found in normal unaffected subjects and thus are not the cause of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency in the two subjects studied. The molecular basis of hepatic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency in these subjects remains undetermined but could result from unidentified mutations in the promoter that decrease expression or from mutations in another gene that indirectly lead to decreased fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activity. 18 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Oily skin: an overview. (United States)

    Sakuma, Thais H; Maibach, Howard I


    Oily skin (seborrhea) is a common cosmetic problem that occurs when oversized sebaceous glands produce excessive amounts of sebum giving the appearance of shiny and greasy skin. This paper overviews the main concepts of sebaceous gland anatomy and physiology, including the biosynthesis, storage and release of sebum, as well as its relationship to skin hydration and water barrier function. We also address how skin oiliness may vary according to diet, age, gender, ethnicity and hot humid climates. The deeper understanding of this skin type provides the opportunity to better guide patients regarding skin care and also assist in the development of sebosuppressive agents. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Viral Skin Diseases. (United States)

    Ramdass, Priya; Mullick, Sahil; Farber, Harold F


    In the vast world of skin diseases, viral skin disorders account for a significant percentage. Most viral skin diseases present with an exanthem (skin rash) and, oftentimes, an accompanying enanthem (lesions involving the mucosal membrane). In this article, the various viral skin diseases are explored, including viral childhood exanthems (measles, rubella, erythema infectiosum, and roseola), herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, viral zoonotic infections [orf, monkeypox, ebola, smallpox]), and several other viral skin diseases, such as human papilloma virus, hand, foot, and mouth disease, molluscum contagiosum, and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamberg, Anna Lei; Sølvsten, Henrik; Lei, Ulrikke


    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database was established in 2008. The aim of this database was to collect data on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) treatment and improve its treatment in Denmark. NMSC is the most common malignancy in the western countries and represents...... a significant challenge in terms of public health management and health care costs. However, high-quality epidemiological and treatment data on NMSC are sparse. STUDY POPULATION: The NMSC database includes patients with the following skin tumors: basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen......'s disease, and keratoacanthoma diagnosed by the participating office-based dermatologists in Denmark. MAIN VARIABLES: Clinical and histological diagnoses, BCC subtype, localization, size, skin cancer history, skin phototype, and evidence of metastases and treatment modality are the main variables...

  2. Cytokine profile in Montenegro skin test of patients with localized cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis Perfil de citocinas na intradermorreação de Montenegro em doentes de leishmaniose cutânea localizada e cutâneo-mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Ferraz Nogueira


    Full Text Available American tegumentary leishmaniasis presents as two major clinical forms: localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL. The immune response in leishmaniasis is efficiently evaluated by the response to Leishmania antigen through the Montenegro skin test (MST. Both LCL and MCL present positive response to MST, indicating that the patients present cell-mediated immunity against the parasite - Leishmania. In spite of the presence of immunity in MCL, this is not sufficient to stop disease progression and prevent resistance to treatment. In this study we demonstrated interleukin (IL 2, 4, 5 and interferon (IFN gamma expression in biopsies of MST of ten patients with American tegumentary leishmaniasis. The obtained results were compared between LCL (n = 5 and MCL (n = 5 patients. The MST of MCL patients displayed a higher expression of IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5, in comparison to LCL. There was no significant difference in IFN-gamma expression between groups. The obtained results suggest the role of IL-4 and IL-5 in the maintenance of the immunopathogenic mechanism of the destructive lesions that characterize MCL.A leishmaniose tegumentar americana apresenta duas formas clínicas mais comuns: a leishmaniose cutânea localizada e a leishmaniose cutâneo-mucosa. A imunidade da leishmaniose é avaliada pela resposta ao antígeno Leishmania através da Intradermorreação de Montenegro. Estas duas formas apresentam resposta positiva, indicando que o paciente apresenta imunidade celular contra o parasita Leishmania. Apesar da presença da imunidade celular na leishmaniose cutâneo-mucosa, esta não é suficiente para barrar a progressão da doença e a resistência ao tratamento. Neste estudo, detectamos quatro citocinas por imunohistoquímica, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5 e IFN-gama nas biópsias da intradermorreação de Montenegro de pacientes com leishmaniose tegumentar americana (n = 10, cinco com leishmaniose cutânea e cinco com cut

  3. Investigation of pajama properties on skin under mild cold conditions: the interaction between skin and clothing. (United States)

    Yao, Lei; Gohel, Mayur D I; Li, Yi; Chung, Waiyee J


    Clothing is considered the second skin of the human body. The aim of this study was to determine clothing-wearer interaction on skin physiology under mild cold conditions. Skin physiological parameters, subjective sensory response, stress level, and physical properties of clothing fabric from two longitude parallel-designed wear trials were studied. The wear trials involved four kinds of pajamas made from cotton or polyester material that had hydrophilic or hydrophobic treatment, conducted for three weeks under mild cold conditions. Statistical tools, factor analysis, hierarchical linear regression, and logistic regression were applied to analyze the strong predictors of skin physiological parameters, stress level, and sensory response. A framework was established to illustrate clothing-wearer interactions with clothing fabric properties, skin physiology, stress level, and sensory response under mild cold conditions. Fabric has various effects on the human body under mild cold conditions. A fabric's properties influence skin physiology, sensation, and psychological response. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  4. Skin Stem Cells in Skin Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollapour Sisakht


    Full Text Available Context Preclinical and clinical research has shown that stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many diseases. This article describes skin stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications. Evidence Acquisition Compared with conventional methods, cell therapy reduces the surgical burden for patients because it is simple and less time-consuming. Skin cell therapy has been developed for variety of diseases. By isolation of the skin stem cell from the niche, in vitro expansion and transplantation of cells offers a surprising healing capacity profile. Results Stem cells located in skin cells have shown interesting properties such as plasticity, transdifferentiation, and specificity. Mesenchymal cells of the dermis, hypodermis, and other sources are currently being investigated to promote regeneration. Conclusions Because skin stem cells are highly accessible from autologous sources and their immunological profile is unique, they are ideal for therapeutic approaches. Optimization of administrative routes requires more investigation own to the lack of a standard protocol.

  5. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin (United States)

    ... Hands Age Spots Aging Skin Birthmarks Burn Scars Cellulite Crow's Feet Droopy Eyelids Excess Fat Excessive Sweating ... Hands Age Spots Aging Skin Birthmarks Burn Scars Cellulite Crow's Feet Droopy Eyelids Excess Fat Excessive Sweating ...

  6. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ... video. UPDATED: November 23, 2016 Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ...

  7. Necrotizing Skin Infections (United States)

    ... Summer Camp Tips for Kids With Asthma, Allergies Antioxidants: The Good Health Helpers As Stroke 'Liquefies' Brain ... Video) Skin Cancer Additional Content Medical News Necrotizing Skin Infections By A. Damian Dhar, MD, JD, Private ...

  8. Basal cell skin cancer (United States)

    Basal cell skin cancer almost never spreads. If it is left untreated, it may spread into surrounding areas and nearby tissues and bone. In these cases, treatment can injure the appearance of the skin.

  9. Skin care and incontinence (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Skin care and incontinence URL of this page: // Skin care and incontinence To use ...

  10. Skin lesion of blastomycosis (United States)

    ... page: // Skin lesion of blastomycosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A skin lesion of blastomycosis is a symptom of an infection ...

  11. Skin lesion aspiration (United States)

    ... page: // Skin lesion aspiration To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Skin lesion aspiration is the withdrawal of fluid from a ...

  12. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ...

  13. High skin temperature and hypohydration impair aerobic performance. (United States)

    Sawka, Michael N; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W


    This paper reviews the roles of hot skin (>35°C) and body water deficits (>2% body mass; hypohydration) in impairing submaximal aerobic performance. Hot skin is associated with high skin blood flow requirements and hypohydration is associated with reduced cardiac filling, both of which act to reduce aerobic reserve. In euhydrated subjects, hot skin alone (with a modest core temperature elevation) impairs submaximal aerobic performance. Conversely, aerobic performance is sustained with core temperatures >40°C if skin temperatures are cool-warm when euhydrated. No study has demonstrated that high core temperature (∼40°C) alone, without coexisting hot skin, will impair aerobic performance. In hypohydrated subjects, aerobic performance begins to be impaired when skin temperatures exceed 27°C, and even warmer skin exacerbates the aerobic performance impairment (-1.5% for each 1°C skin temperature). We conclude that hot skin (high skin blood flow requirements from narrow skin temperature to core temperature gradients), not high core temperature, is the 'primary' factor impairing aerobic exercise performance when euhydrated and that hypohydration exacerbates this effect.

  14. [Prevention and treatment of skin complications following BAHA implantation]. (United States)

    Fan, Yue; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Pu; Zhu, Xiao-li; Yang, Hua; Chen, Xiao-wei; Gao, Zhi-qiang


    To discuss the skin complications of 16 cases received bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) implantations, and the clinical experience for prevention and treatment skin complications following BAHA. Retrospective review 16 patients who received BAHA implantation from December 2010 to March 2013, and summarize the complications and treatment. Four patients (1/4) suffered from skin complications. According to Holgers classification, two patients (1/8) had a Holgers Grade 1-2 skin reaction and cured by local application of antibiotics. Two patients (1/8) experienced Holgers Grade 3 skin reaction received revision surgeries for excessive soft tissue growth. One patient replaced the BAHA abutment with a longer 9.0mm one. Infection and skin overgrowth around the abutment was the common complications of BAHA implantation. Standardize the peri-operative managements, and clean the skin regularly would prevent the skin complication. Additional surgical intervention should be applied timely in the cases of severe complications.

  15. Correlation between chloride flux via the mitochondria-rich cells and transepithelial water movement in isolated frog skin (Rana esculenta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Robert


    Antidiuretic hormone; chloride transport; electroosmosis; Frog skin; Intercalated cells; Local osmosis; Mitochondria-rich cells.......Antidiuretic hormone; chloride transport; electroosmosis; Frog skin; Intercalated cells; Local osmosis; Mitochondria-rich cells....

  16. Psychoneuroimmunology and the Skin. (United States)

    Honeyman, Juan F


    The nervous, immune, endocrine and integumentary systems are closely related and interact in a number of normal and pathological conditions. Nervous system mediators may bring about direct changes to the skin or may induce the release of immunological or hormonal mediators that cause pathological changes to the skin. This article reviews the psychological mechanisms involved in the development of skin diseases.

  17. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.


    Purpose of review: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. Recent findings: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing

  18. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.J.M.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing

  19. On skin expansion. (United States)

    Pamplona, Djenane C; Velloso, Raquel Q; Radwanski, Henrique N


    This article discusses skin expansion without considering cellular growth of the skin. An in vivo analysis was carried out that involved expansion at three different sites on one patient, allowing for the observation of the relaxation process. Those measurements were used to characterize the human skin of the thorax during the surgical process of skin expansion. A comparison between the in vivo results and the numerical finite elements model of the expansion was used to identify the material elastic parameters of the skin of the thorax of that patient. Delfino's constitutive equation was chosen to model the in vivo results. The skin is considered to be an isotropic, homogeneous, hyperelastic, and incompressible membrane. When the skin is extended, such as with expanders, the collagen fibers are also extended and cause stiffening in the skin, which results in increasing resistance to expansion or further stretching. We observed this phenomenon as an increase in the parameters as subsequent expansions continued. The number and shape of the skin expanders used in expansions were also studied, both mathematically and experimentally. The choice of the site where the expansion should be performed is discussed to enlighten problems that can lead to frustrated skin expansions. These results are very encouraging and provide insight into our understanding of the behavior of stretched skin by expansion. To our knowledge, this study has provided results that considerably improve our understanding of the behavior of human skin under expansion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Responsive corneosurfametry following in vivo skin preconditioning. (United States)

    Uhoda, E; Goffin, V; Pierard, G E


    Skin is subjected to many environmental threats, some of which altering the structure and function of the stratum corneum. Among them, surfactants are recognized factors that may influence irritant contact dermatitis. The present study was conducted to compare the variations in skin capacitance and corneosurfametry (CSM) reactivity before and after skin exposure to repeated subclinical injuries by 2 hand dishwashing liquids. A forearm immersion test was performed on 30 healthy volunteers. 2 daily soak sessions were performed for 5 days. At inclusion and the day following the last soak session, skin capacitance was measured and cyanoacrylate skin-surface strippings were harvested. The latter specimens were used for the ex vivo microwave CSM. Both types of assessments clearly differentiated the 2 hand dishwashing liquids. The forearm immersion test allowed the discriminant sensitivity of CSM to increase. Intact skin capacitance did not predict CSM data. By contrast, a significant correlation was found between the post-test conductance and the corresponding CSM data. In conclusion, a forearm immersion test under realistic conditions can discriminate the irritation potential between surfactant-based products by measuring skin conductance and performing CSM. In vivo skin preconditioning by surfactants increases CSM sensitivity to the same surfactants.

  1. Effects of local fatigue on myoelectrical activity of erector spine muscles and the center for pressure displacement of the feet during balance recovery following postural perturbation in kyphotic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rooholah Rezaee


    Full Text Available Background: kyphosis deformity affects postural control. Muscular fatigue is one of the factors that can impair the mechanism of body balance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of local fatigue on the myoelectrical activity of erector spine muscles and the center for pressure displacement of the feet during balance recovery following postural perturbation in kyphotic subjects. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 12 male students with>40 degrees thoracic kyphosis and 12 controls were selected to participate in the study. A flexible ruler was used to measure thoracic kyphosis. For postural control assessment, each subject underwent unexpected, forward-backward perturbations while standing on a foot scan mounted on a movable plate triggered by a weight equivalent to 10% of the subjects’ body weight. Experimental procedure was measured before (3 trails and after (3 trials the fatigue protocol. The myoelectric activity of the erector spine and multi fidus was compared in the groups using repeated measures of ANOVA and independent t-test (P<0.05. Results: There was no significant difference in the foot center of pressure displacement in both groups after muscular fatigue. After fatigue, there was an increase in the activity of longissimus thoracis (P=0.001 and iliocostalis thoracis (P= 0.001 in control group, while no significant difference was reported for the muscular activity of multifidus (p=0.084. The activity of langisimus thoracis was significantly increased (P=0.028 in kyphtic group after fatigue. Conclusion: erector spine muscles fatigue could not significantly affect the postural control in both groups, but the electrical activity of erector spine muscles during balance recovery following postural perturbation in kyphotic subjects was different than the controls.


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Generalized density-functional theory: Conquering the N-representability problem with exact functionals for the electron pair density and the second-order re- duced density matrix. 507. Chemical reactivity of hypervalent silicon com- pounds: The local hard and soft acids and bases prin- ciple viewpoint. 525. A philicity based ...


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  4. Skin lesion removal-aftercare (United States)

    Shave excision - skin aftercare; Excision of skin lesions - benign aftercare; Skin lesion removal - benign aftercare; Cryosurgery - skin aftercare; BCC - removal aftercare; Basal cell cancer - removal aftercare; Actinic keratosis - removal aftercare; Wart - ...

  5. Gram stain of skin lesion (United States)

    Skin lesion gram stain ... skin sore. This procedure is called a skin lesion biopsy . Before the biopsy, your provider will numb ... means bacteria have been found in the skin lesion. Further tests are needed to confirm the results. ...

  6. Local Foods, Local Places (United States)

    The Local Foods, Local Places technical assistance program protects human health and the environment, spurs revitalization, increases access to healthy foods, and creates economic opportunities by promoting local foods.

  7. Skin disease in dermatomyositis. (United States)

    Zaba, Lisa C; Fiorentino, David F


    This review will provide the clinician with an update on the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and therapy for skin disease in dermatomyositis. Recent insights into the role for interferon in skin disease as well as the development and validation of quantitative tools to measure skin disease activity allow the possibility that, for the first time, dermatomyositis skin disease can serve as a valid outcome for clinical trials of targeted therapies. Also, the increasing appreciation of the heterogeneity of skin disease in dermatomyositis has already provided evidence that clinical subtypes of disease can provide important prognostic and diagnostic information to the clinician. It is becoming apparent that the skin inflammation alone has implications for systemic and malignancy risk in dermatomyositis patients, and that there may be several pathogenic similarities between muscle and skin inflammation in dermatomyositis. Recent data on therapy for calcinosis cutis highlights that more prospective studies are needed to evaluate how best to manage all manifestations of skin inflammation in dermatomyositis. A more careful description and classification of skin disease in dermatomyositis may allow the clinician to predict more accurately which patients will be at higher risk for cancer, lung disease, or muscle inflammation. In addition, given the similarities in perturbed gene expression between skin and muscle tissue, it is likely that analysis of a more readily evaluable target organ such as skin might shed light on mechanisms of disease propagation throughout the body.

  8. Human age and skin physiology shape diversity and abundance of Archaea on skin. (United States)

    Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Probst, Alexander J; Birarda, Giovanni; Auerbach, Anna; Koskinen, Kaisa; Wolf, Peter; Holman, Hoi-Ying N


    The human skin microbiome acts as an important barrier protecting our body from pathogens and other environmental influences. Recent investigations have provided evidence that Archaea are a constant but highly variable component of the human skin microbiome, yet factors that determine their abundance changes are unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the abundance of archaea on human skin is influenced by human age and skin physiology by quantitative PCR of 51 different skin samples taken from human subjects of various age. Our results reveal that archaea are more abundant in human subjects either older than 60 years or younger than 12 years as compared to middle-aged human subjects. These results, together with results obtained from spectroscopy analysis, allowed us gain first insights into a potential link of lower sebum levels and lipid content and thus reduced skin moisture with an increase in archaeal signatures. Amplicon sequencing of selected samples revealed the prevalence of specific eury- and mainly thaumarchaeal taxa, represented by a core archaeome of the human skin.

  9. Sensitive skin: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun C Inamadar


    Full Text Available Sensitive skin is less tolerant to frequent and prolonged use of cosmetics and toiletries. It is self-diagnosed and typically unaccompanied by any obvious physical signs of irritation. With the change in lifestyle and also with increased opportunity to use many new brands of cosmetics and toiletries, there has been an increase in females complaining of unique sensation in their facial skin. Sensitive skin presents as smarting, burning, stinging, itching, and/or tight sensation in their facial skin. The condition is found in more than 50% of women and 40% of men, creating a sizable demand for products designed to minimize skin sensitivity. Good numbers of invasive and non-invasive tests are designed to evaluate and predict the sensitive skin. Management includes guidelines for selecting suitable cosmetics and toiletries in sensitive skin individuals.

  10. Sensitive skin: an overview. (United States)

    Inamadar, Arun C; Palit, Aparna


    Sensitive skin is less tolerant to frequent and prolonged use of cosmetics and toiletries. It is self-diagnosed and typically unaccompanied by any obvious physical signs of irritation. With the change in lifestyle and also with increased opportunity to use many new brands of cosmetics and toiletries, there has been an increase in females complaining of unique sensation in their facial skin. Sensitive skin presents as smarting, burning, stinging, itching, and/or tight sensation in their facial skin. The condition is found in more than 50% of women and 40% of men, creating a sizable demand for products designed to minimize skin sensitivity. Good numbers of invasive and non-invasive tests are designed to evaluate and predict the sensitive skin. Management includes guidelines for selecting suitable cosmetics and toiletries in sensitive skin individuals.

  11. Skin absorption through atopic dermatitis skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Overgaard, A-S; Kezic, S; Jakasa, I


    Patients with atopic dermatitis have skin barrier impairment in both lesional and non-lesional skin. They are typically exposed to emollients daily and topical anti-inflammatory medicaments intermittently, hereby increasing the risk of developing contact allergy and systemic exposed to chemicals...... ingredients found in these topical preparations. We systematically searched for studies that investigated skin absorption of various penetrants, including medicaments, in atopic dermatitis patients, but also animals with experimentally induced dermatitis. We identified 40 articles, i.e. 11 human studies...... examining model penetrants, 26 human studies examining atopic dermatitis drugs and 3 animal studies. We conclude that atopic dermatitis patients have nearly two-fold increased skin absorption when compared to healthy controls. There is a need for well-designed epidemiological and dermato...

  12. The relationship between skin aging and steady state ultraweak photon emission as an indicator of skin oxidative stress in vivo. (United States)

    Gabe, Y; Osanai, O; Takema, Y


    Ultraweak photon emission (UPE) is one potential method to evaluate the oxidative status of the skin in vivo. However, little is known about how the daily oxidative stress of the skin is related to skin aging-related alterations in vivo. We characterized the steady state UPE and performed a skin survey. We evaluated the skin oxidative status by UPE, skin elasticity, epidermal thickness and skin color on the inner upper arm, the outer forearm, and the buttock of 70 Japanese volunteers. The steady state UPE at the three skin sites increased with age. Correlation analysis revealed that the steady state UPE only from the buttock was related to skin elasticity, which showed age-dependent changes. Moreover, analysis by age group indicated that b* values of the inner upper arm of subjects in their 20s were inversely correlated with UPE as occurred in buttock skin. In contrast, photoaged skin did not show a clear relationship with steady state UPE because the accumulation of sun-exposure might influence the sensitivity to oxidative stress. These results suggest that steady state UPE reflects not only intrinsic skin aging and cutaneous color but also the current oxidative status independent of skin aging. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Understanding engineered nanomaterial skin interactions and the modulatory effects of ultraviolet radiation skin exposure. (United States)

    Jatana, Samreen; DeLouise, Lisa A


    The study of engineered nanomaterials for the development of technological applications, nanomedicine, and nano-enabled consumer products is an ever-expanding discipline as is the concern over the impact of nanotechnology on human environmental health and safety. In this review, we discuss the current state of understanding of nanomaterial skin interactions with a specific emphasis on the effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) skin exposure. Skin is the largest organ of the body and is typically exposed to UVR on a daily basis. This necessitates the need to understand how UVR skin exposure can influence nanomaterial skin penetration, alter nanomaterial systemic trafficking, toxicity, and skin immune function. We explore the unique dichotomy that UVR has on inducing both deleterious and therapeutic effects in skin. The subject matter covered in this review is broadly informative and will raise awareness of potential increased risks from nanomaterial skin exposure associated with specific occupational and life style choices. The UVR-induced immunosuppressive response in skin raises intriguing questions that motivate future research directions in the nanotoxicology and nanomedicine fields. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. High temperature skin friction measurement (United States)

    Tcheng, Ping; Holmes, Harlan K.; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.


    Skin friction measurement in the NASA Langley hypersonic propulsion facility is described. The sensor configuration utilized an existing balance, modified to provide thermal isolation and an increased standoff distance. For test run times of about 20 sec and ambient-air cooling of the test section and balance, the modified balance performed satisfactorily, even when it was subjected to acoustic and structural vibration. The balance is an inertially balanced closed-loop servo system where the current to a moving-coil motor needed to restore or null the output from the position sensor is a measure of the force or skin friction tending to displace the moving element. The accuracy of the sensor is directly affected by the position sensor in the feedback loop, in this case a linear-variable differential transformer which has proven to be influenced by temperature gradients.

  15. Age influences the skin reaction pattern to mechanical stress and its repair level through skin care products. (United States)

    Zouboulis, Christos C; Elewa, Rana; Ottaviani, Monica; Fluhr, Joachim; Picardo, Mauro; Bernois, Armand; Heusèle, Catherine; Camera, Emanuela


    Skin aging is associated with alterations of surface texture, sebum composition and immune response. Mechanical stress induces repair mechanisms, which may be dependent on the age and quality of the skin. The response to mechanical stress in young and aged individuals, their subjective opinion and the objective effectiveness of skin care products were evaluated by biophysical skin quality parameters (stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, skin pH, pigmentation and erythema) at baseline, 1, 6, 24h and 7days at the forearms of 2 groups of healthy volunteers, younger than 35 years (n=11) and older than 60 years (n=13). In addition, casual surface lipid composition was studied under the same conditions at the baseline and day 7 after mechanical stress induction. Evaluations were also performed in stressed skin areas treated daily with skin care products and the subjective opinion of the volunteers was additionally documented. The tested groups exhibited age-associated baseline skin functions as well as casual surface lipid composition and different reaction patterns to mechanical stress. Skin care was more effective in normalizing skin reaction to stress in the young than in the aged group. The subjective volunteer opinion correlated with the objective measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Skin physiology in men and women: in vivo evaluation of 300 people including TEWL, SC hydration, sebum content and skin surface pH. (United States)

    Luebberding, S; Krueger, N; Kerscher, M


    Evidence is given that differences in skin physiological properties exist between men and women. However, despite an assessable number of available publications, the results are still inconsistent. Therefore, the aim of this clinical study is the first systematic assessment of gender-related differences in skin physiology in men and women, with a special focus on changes over lifetime. A total of 300 healthy male and female subjects (20-74 years) were selected following strict criteria including age, sun behaviour or smoking habits. TEWL, hydration level, sebum production and pH value were measured with worldwide-acknowledged biophysical measuring methods at forehead, cheek, neck, volar forearm and dorsum of hand. Until the age of 50 men's TEWL is significantly lower than the water loss of women of the same age, regardless of the location. With ageing gender-related differences in TEWL assimilate. Young men show higher SC hydration in comparison with women. But, whereas SC hydration is stable or even increasing in women over lifetime, the skin hydration in men is progressively decreasing, beginning at the age of 40. Sebum production in male skin is always higher and stays stable with increasing age, whereas sebum production in women progressively decreases over lifetime. Across all localizations and age groups, the pH value in men is below 5, the pH value of female subjects is, aside from limited expectations, higher than 5. Skin physiological distinctions between the sexes exist and are particularly remarkable with regard to sebum production and pH value. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. A Comparison Between 0,25% Tumeric Extract Cream and Grated Tumeric for Skin Discoloration


    Farida Tabri, Farida Tabri


    - Abstract: Turmeric has been found to have some efficacies in repairing the skin texture including its ability to enlighten the color of the skin associated to premature skin aging. This study aims to compare between the 0.25% turmeric extract cream and grated turmeric in skin color change. Samples in this study were collected from women subjects that were selected randomly and consecutively. There were 22 women subjects involved in this study that were assigned into two treatmen...

  18. Biaxial mechanical characterization of bat wing skin. (United States)

    Skulborstad, A J; Swartz, S M; Goulbourne, N C


    The highly flexible and stretchable wing skin of bats, together with the skeletal structure and musculature, enables large changes in wing shape during flight. Such compliance distinguishes bat wings from those of all other flying animals. Although several studies have investigated the aerodynamics and kinematics of bats, few have examined the complex histology and mechanical response of the wing skin. This work presents the first biaxial characterization of the local deformation, mechanical properties, and fiber kinematics of bat wing skin. Analysis of these data has provided insight into the relationships among the structural morphology, mechanical properties, and functionality of wing skin. Large spatial variations in tissue deformation and non-negligible fiber strains in the cross-fiber direction for both chordwise and spanwise fibers indicate fibers should be modeled as two-dimensional elements. The macroscopic constitutive behavior was anisotropic and nonlinear, with very low spanwise and chordwise stiffness (hundreds of kilopascals) in the toe region of the stress-strain curve. The structural arrangement of the fibers and matrix facilitates a low energy mechanism for wing deployment and extension, and we fabricate examples of skins capturing this mechanism. We propose a comprehensive deformation map for the entire loading regime. The results of this work underscore the importance of biaxial field approaches for soft heterogeneous tissue, and provide a foundation for development of bio-inspired skins to probe the effects of the wing skin properties on aerodynamic performance.

  19. Effect of bicellar systems on skin properties. (United States)

    Barbosa-Barros, L; Barba, C; Cócera, M; Coderch, L; López-Iglesias, C; de la Maza, A; López, O


    Bicelles are discoidal aggregates formed by a flat dimyristoyl-glycero-phosphocholine (DMPC) bilayer, stabilized by a rim of dihexanoyl-glycero-phosphocholine (DHPC) in water. Given the structure, composition and the dimensions of these aggregates around 10-50 nm diameter, their use for topical applications is a promising strategy. This work evaluates the effect of DMPC/DHPC bicelles with molar ratio (2/1) on intact skin. Biophysical properties of the skin, such as transepidermal water loss (TEWL), elasticity, skin capacitance and irritation were measured in healthy skin in vivo. To study the effect of the bicellar systems on the microstructure of the stratum corneum (SC) in vitro, pieces of native tissue were treated with the aforementioned bicellar system and evaluated by freeze substitution applied to transmission electron microscopy (FSTEM). Our results show that bicelles increase the TEWL, the skin elastic parameters and, decrease skin hydration without promoting local signs of irritation and without affecting the SC lipid microstructure. Thus, a permeabilizing effect of bicelles on the skin takes place possibly due to the changes in the phase behaviour of the SC lipids by effect of phospholipids from bicelles.

  20. [Specific and nonspecific skin manifestations in leukemia]. (United States)

    Büchner, St A


    The cutaneous manifestations of leukemias are conventionally divided into nonspecific benign lesions and specific malignant lesions. Specific lesions (leukemia cutis) are localized or disseminated infiltrations of the skin by malignant leukemic cells which may involve all layers of the skin. The clinical appearance of leukemia cutis is variable and may range from papules and nodules to a generalized cutaneous eruption and erythroderma. The histopathologic examination of the skin lesion is essential for diagnosis of leukemia cutis. Specific skin lesions are usually observed in patients with an aggressive clinical course and are associated with a poor prognosis. However, an overall survival of patients with specific skin lesions of chronic lymphocytic leukemia is significantly better, as compared with other types of leukemia. Rarely, skin lesions containing leukemic cells are present before evidence of leukemia cutis can be detected in the peripheral blood and bone marrow (aleukemic leukaemia cutis). Leukemic skin lesions should be differentiated from numerous nonspecific lesions, which may be present in up to 80% of all patients with leukemia.

  1. Whitening effect of alpha-bisabolol in Asian women subjects. (United States)

    Lee, J; Jun, H; Jung, E; Ha, J; Park, D


    Although skin pigmentation, which results from the production and distribution of melanin in the epidermis, is the major physiological defence against solar irradiation, hyperpigmentation is a common and distressing problem caused by various inflammatory skin disorders, such as eczema, allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis. We evaluated the effects of a preparation containing alpha-bisabolol on pigmented skin of a group of subjects. The effectiveness of the active compound, alpha-bisabolol, in a base-cream preparation for the treatment of pigmented skin was tested on 28 female subjects as follows: the cream was applied once a day to the back for 8 weeks. These same women also applied a vehicle control cream to the pigmented skin. The results were evaluated by clinical and biophysical test methods. After 8 weeks of treatment of the alpha-bisabolol-containing cream, there was significant lightening effect in the pigmented skin for the majority of the subjects who tested the cream.

  2. Stretchable silicon nanoribbon electronics for skin prosthesis (United States)

    Kim, Jaemin; Lee, Mincheol; Shim, Hyung Joon; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Cho, Hye Rim; Son, Donghee; Jung, Yei Hwan; Soh, Min; Choi, Changsoon; Jung, Sungmook; Chu, Kon; Jeon, Daejong; Lee, Soon-Tae; Kim, Ji Hoon; Choi, Seung Hong; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong


    Sensory receptors in human skin transmit a wealth of tactile and thermal signals from external environments to the brain. Despite advances in our understanding of mechano- and thermosensation, replication of these unique sensory characteristics in artificial skin and prosthetics remains challenging. Recent efforts to develop smart prosthetics, which exploit rigid and/or semi-flexible pressure, strain and temperature sensors, provide promising routes for sensor-laden bionic systems, but with limited stretchability, detection range and spatio-temporal resolution. Here we demonstrate smart prosthetic skin instrumented with ultrathin, single crystalline silicon nanoribbon strain, pressure and temperature sensor arrays as well as associated humidity sensors, electroresistive heaters and stretchable multi-electrode arrays for nerve stimulation. This collection of stretchable sensors and actuators facilitate highly localized mechanical and thermal skin-like perception in response to external stimuli, thus providing unique opportunities for emerging classes of prostheses and peripheral nervous system interface technologies.

  3. Non-lipophilic mycobiota of human skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Talaga


    Full Text Available The human skin is inhabited by many species of bacteria and fungi, which are its natural microbiota. Fungi colonizing the skin, including those causing disease, characterized by great variety and variability, can be influenced by various factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the composition of the non-lipid-dependent fungal microbiota of skin, including the presence of species potentially pathogenic for humans. Fifty-six volunteers of both sexes aged 22–78 were subjected to the study. Swabs were taken from the face, chest, back and interdigital spaces of hands. Mycobiota isolated proved to vary both in terms of the location of occurrence and gender of patients. Interdigital spaces of hands, dominated by yeasts, constitute a location on human skin most contaminated with fungi. Molds were more often isolated from the face and chest. The back was the least contaminated location. There was no difference in fungal incidence in relation to sex.

  4. Fillers in the skin of color population. (United States)

    Heath, Candrice R; Taylor, Susan C


    The skin of color population in the United States is rapidly growing and the cosmetic industry is responding to the demand for skin of color targeted treatments. The aging face in skin of color patients has a unique pattern that can be successfully augmented by dermal fillers. Though many subjects with skin of color were not included in the pre-market dermal filler clinical trials, some post-market studies have examined the safety and risks of adverse events in this population. The safety data from a selection of these studies was examined. Though pigmentary changes occurred, there have been no reports of keloid development. Developing a patient-specific care plan and instituting close follow up is emphasized.

  5. Local anaesthetic toxicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Austrian pharmacologist Karl Damian Ritter von Schorff was the first to think of cocaine as a narcotic. He noticed skin insensibility after the application of cocaine and postulated a central nervous system effect as mechanism of action. In 1884,. Sigmund Freud proposed the use of cocaine as local anaesthetic to his friend ...

  6. Penetration of the laser light into the skin in vitro. (United States)

    Kolárová, H; Ditrichová, D; Wagner, J


    Knowledge of the optical parameters of the skin is important for all kinds of phototherapy. We analyzed penetration of laser light and proved different optical properties of in vitro specimens of normal skin and granular tissue from skin ulcers. An He-Ne laser (lambda = 632.8 nm, output 50 mW) and a semiconductor laser (lambda = 675 nm, output 21 mW) were used. The distribution of laser radiation was detected by a CCD camera and evaluated by the image analysis software DIPS. Transmittance in granular tissue was about 2.5 times higher than that in normal skin. In the thickest skin sample (2 cm), approximately 0.3% of He-Ne laser and 2.1% of semiconductor laser light penetrated. The results demonstrate the percentage of incident light penetrating the individual skin layers in different localizations on the skin surface, which is a decisive factor for the selection of the radiation dose.

  7. Dysbiotic bacterial and fungal communities not restricted to clinically affected skin sites in dandruff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Cardoso Soares


    Full Text Available Dandruff is a prevalent chronic inflammatory skin condition of the scalp that has been associated with Malassezia yeasts. However, the microbial role has not been elucidated yet, and the etiology of the disorder remains poorly understood. Using high-throughput 16S rDNA and ITS1 sequencing, we characterized cutaneous bacterial and fungal microbiotas from healthy and dandruff subjects, comparing scalp and forehead (lesional and non-lesional skin sites. Bacterial and fungal communities from dandruff analyzed at genus level differed in comparison with healthy ones, presenting higher diversity and greater intragroup variation. The microbial shift was observed also in non-lesional sites from dandruff subjects, suggesting that dandruff is related to a systemic process that is not restricted to the site exhibiting clinical symptoms. In contrast, Malassezia microbiota analyzed at species level did not differ according to health status. A 2-step OTU assignment using combined databases substantially increased fungal assigned sequences, and revealed the presence of highly prevalent uncharacterized Malassezia organisms (>37% of the reads. Although clinical symptoms of dandruff manifest locally, microbial dysbiosis beyond clinically affected skin sites suggests that subjects undergo systemic alterations, which could be considered for redefining therapeutic approaches.

  8. Ultrasound skin imaging. (United States)

    Alfageme Roldán, F


    The interaction of high-frequency ultrasound waves with the skin provides the basis for noninvasive, fast, and accessible diagnostic imaging. This tool is increasingly used in skin cancer and inflammatory conditions as well as in cosmetic dermatology. This article reviews the basic principles of skin ultrasound and its applications in the different areas of dermatology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEDV. All rights reserved.

  9. The skin microbiome


    Grice, Elizabeth A.; Segre, Julia A.


    The skin is the human body’s largest organ, colonized by a diverse milieu of microorganisms, most of which are harmless or even beneficial to their host. Colonization is driven by the ecology of the skin surface, which is highly variable depending on topographical location, endogenous host factors and exogenous environmental factors. The cutaneous innate and adaptive immune responses can modulate the skin microbiota, but the microbiota also functions in educating the immune system. The develo...

  10. Hyperkeratotic warty skin lesion of foot caused by Fusarium oxysporum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Kaur


    Full Text Available Fusarium species are common soil-inhabiting organisms and plant pathogens. Human infections are usually precipitated by local or systemic predisposing factors, and disseminated infection is associated with impaired immune responses. Skin infections caused by Fusarium spp. include keratitis, onychomycosis, mycetoma, painful discrete erythematous nodules. Hyperkeratotic skin lesions caused by Fusarium spp. are, however, rarely reported. We report a case of hyperkeratotic verrucous warty skin lesion in the foot of a 50-year-old immunocompetent male, farmer by occupation.

  11. Biogeography and individuality shape function in the human skin metagenome


    Oh, Julia; Byrd, Allyson L.; Deming, Clay; Conlan, Sean; Kong, Heidi H.; Segre, Julia A.


    Summary The varied topography of human skin offers a unique opportunity to study how the body?s microenvironments influence the functional and taxonomic composition of microbial communities. Phylogenetic marker gene-based studies have identified many bacteria and fungi that colonize distinct skin niches. Here, metagenomic analyses of diverse body sites in healthy humans demonstrate that local biogeography and strong individuality define the skin microbiome. We developed a relational analysis ...

  12. Decreased distensibility of resistance vessels of the skin in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with microangiopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J; Nørgaard, T; Parving, H H


    The distensibility of the resistance vessels of the skin at the dorsum of the foot was determined in 11 long-term type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with nephropathy and retinopathy, nine short-term type 1 diabetic patients without clinical microangiopathy and in nine healthy non......-diabetic subjects. Blood flow was measured by the local 133Xe-xenon washout technique in a vascular bed locally paralysed by the injection of histamine. Blood flow was measured before, during and after a 40 mmHg increase of the vascular transmural pressure, induced by head-up tilt. The mean increase in blood flow...

  13. Under Persistent Assault: Understanding the Factors that Deteriorate Human Skin and Clinical Efficacy of Topical Antioxidants in Treating Aging Skin


    Patricia K. Farris; Yevgeniy Krol


    Recent studies contend that the skin is subject to far more damage than just ultraviolet (UV) light, with infrared radiation and pollution now clearly demonstrated to degrade cutaneous tissue. While consumers continue to strive for new ways to augment the aesthetic appeal and improve the health of their skin, awareness regarding environmental insults and effective ways to protect the skin remains low. New advances in dermatologic science have exponentially increased the available information ...

  14. Friction, adhesion and durability and influence of humidity on adhesion and surface charging of skin and various skin creams using atomic force microscopy. (United States)

    Tang, W; Bhushan, B; Ge, S


    Skin cream is commonly used to improve skin health and create a smooth, soft and moist perception by altering the surface roughness, friction, adhesion, elasticity and surface charging of skin surface. In this study, we present the first systematic study on friction, adhesion, durability and influence of humidity on adhesion and surface charging of skin and various skin creams using atomic force microscopy. Skin is subjected to various daily activities with time, and the durability is closely tied to product compositions. Durability of various skin creams was studied by repeated cycling tests. In order to better understand the frictional behaviour, the dynamic viscosities of various skin creams were measured. Skin cream thinly coats the skin surface and can cause drastic changes in the mechanical properties. In addition to mechanical properties, adhesive force is one of the important factors in determining the tactile perception of skin cream and is directly affected by the film thickness. Because the environmental dependence of skin and skin cream is of importance, the influence of humidity on adhesive force, film thickness and Young's modulus mapping were measured using force distance technique. The health and feel of skin are significantly affected by its surface charging, the surface potential of skin and various cream-treated skins was measured using the Kelvin probe method.

  15. Approximate relationship between frequency-dependent skin depth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The illustrative application of effective skin depth depicts that effective skin depth has direct relation with the EM response of the local source over the layered earth and thus, can be linked to the direct current earth response functions as an aidfor estimating the optimum depth and electrical parameters through comparative ...

  16. Prevalence of fungal organisms associated with skin infections in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty-five skin specimens were collected from eight Hospitals in Ihiala Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria to determine the prevalence of fungal organisms associated with skin infections in the area. The samples were treated with potassium hydroxide and examined under the microscope, and cultured on ...

  17. Improvement of sheep skin quality after treatment with diazinon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cockle, otherwise known as ekek locally, has been economically the most important skin defect among the tanneries in Ethiopia for the last three decades. The disease has been experimented on since 1996 when FAO sponsored the trials on sheep and goat skin improvement trial (TCP/ETH/4558&6712) and found that ...

  18. Core temperature affects scalp skin temperature during scalp cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Peerbooms, M.; van den Hurk, C.J.G.; van Os, B.; Levels, K.; Teunissen, L.P.J.; Breed, W.P.M.


    Background: The efficacy of hair loss prevention by scalp cooling to prevent chemotherapy induced hair loss has been shown to be related to scalp skin temperature. Scalp skin temperature, however, is dependent not only on local cooling but also on the thermal status of the body. Objectives: This

  19. The skin prick test - European standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinzerling, Lucie; Mari, Adriano; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Bresciani, Megon; Burbach, Guido; Darsow, Ulf; Durham, Stephen; Fokkens, Wytske; Gjomarkaj, Mark; Haahtela, Tari; Bom, Ana Todo; Wöhrl, Stefan; Maibach, Howard; Lockey, Richard


    Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase

  20. Thermistor holder for skin-temperature measurements (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Williams, B. A.


    Sensing head of thermistor probe is supported in center area of plastic ring which has tabs so that it can be anchored in place by rubber bands or adhesive tapes. Device attaches probes to human subjects practically, reliably, and without affecting characteristics of skin segment being measured.

  1. Allergy Skin Tests (United States)

    ... Histamine. In most people, this substance causes a skin response. If you don't react to histamine, your ... days or more to produce results. A positive skin test means that you may be allergic to a particular substance. Bigger wheals usually indicate a greater degree of sensitivity. A ...

  2. Deformable skinning on bones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bent Dalgaard; Petersen, Kim Steen; Jakobsen, Bjarke


    Applying skin to a model is a relatively simple task to implement. Nonetheless it seems that no good resource exists that describes both the concepts and math necessary to understand and implement skinning. The intention of this article is an attempt to give a thoroughly description of the theore...

  3. Skin tribology: Science friction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Emile; Zeng, Xiangqiong; Masen, Marc Arthur


    The application of tribological knowledge is not just restricted to optimizing mechanical and chemical engineering problems. In fact, effective solutions to friction and wear related questions can be found in our everyday life. An important part is related to skin tribology, as the human skin is

  4. Dark Skin No Shield from Deadly Skin Cancer (United States)

    ... 166194.html Dark Skin No Shield From Deadly Skin Cancer Death rates from melanoma are higher for people ... deadly melanomas, an expert warns. This type of skin cancer can be affected by genetics and is far ...

  5. Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix (United States)

    ... Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it ...

  6. Outdoor sports and skin cancer. (United States)

    Moehrle, Matthias


    Ultraviolet radiation is estimated to be one of the most important risk factors for nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Athletes practicing outdoor sports receive considerable UV doses because of training and competition schedules with high sun exposure, and in alpine sports, by altitude-related increase of UV radiation and reflection from snow- and ice-covered surfaces. Extreme UV exposure in outdoor sports such as skiing, mountaineering, cycling, or triathlon has been documented in a series of dosimetric studies. Sweating because of physical exercise may contribute to UV-related skin damage as it increases the individual photosensitivity of the skin, facilitating the risk of sunburns. Large epidemiological studies showed that recreational activities such as sun exposure on the beach or during water sports were associated with an increased risk of basal cell carcinoma, whereas skiing has been shown to be at increased risk for squamous cell carcinoma. Risk factors of cutaneous melanoma such as the number of melanocytic nevi and solar lentigines have been found to be more frequent in subjects practicing endurance outdoor sports. An increased risk for cutaneous melanoma may be assumed for these athletes. In addition to the important sun exposure, exercise-induced immunosuppression may increase the risk for nonmelanoma skin cancer and cutaneous melanoma in athletes. Frequently, athletes seem to know little about the risk of sun exposure. Protective means such as avoiding training and competition with considerable sun exposure, choosing adequate clothing, and applying water-resistant sunscreen still need to be propagated in the community of outdoor sportsmen.

  7. Bionanomaterials for skin regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Leonida, Mihaela D


    This book gives a concise overview of bionanomaterials with applications for skin regeneration. The advantages and challenges of nanoscale materials are covered in detail, giving a basic view of the skin structure and conditions that require transdermal or topical applications. Medical applications, such as wound healing, care for burns, skin disease, and cosmetic care, such as aging of the skin and photodamage, and how they benefit from bionanomaterials, are described in detail. A final chapter is devoted to the ethical and social issues related to the use of bionanomaterials for skin regeneration. This is an ideal book for researchers in materials science, medical scientists specialized in dermatology, and cosmetic chemists working in formulations. It can also serve as a reference for nanotechnologists, dermatologists, microbiologists, engineers, and polymer chemists, as well as students studying in these fields.

  8. Comparative study in Japan and China concerning aspiration of Asian women towards quality of skin fairness (United States)

    Saito, Miho; Matsumoto, Junko; Date, Akira; Li, Junfang


    Beauty is a world common aspiration, but perceptions of what make a woman beautiful vary across culture and countries. A series of Saito's studies indicated that unlike much of the Western world, in Asia, one common desire is fairer skin tone that epitomizes feminine beauty. Using 105 Japanese women and 105 Chinese women as subjects, a comparative study concerning aspiration of Asian Women toward skin fairness was conducted. In this study, four real skin photo images that have skin tone variations (fair/dark) and skin texture variations (rough/smooth) were used. The fifty-two words describe personality were shown to the subject. The subjects were required to match a suitable skin photo image to the descriptive words. The overall result between China and Japan were very consistent. Both in China and Japan, fairer skin tone with smoother skin texture was accepted very positively. Fairer skin tone with rougher texture tends to provide passive and conservative impression while smoother skin texture with darker skin tone tends to provide friendly and delight impression. The results suggested that in addition to skin tone, the skin texture plays an important role for the personal impressions and it works as a trigger to enhance 'ideal skin fairness' for Asian women.

  9. Comparison of neonatal skin sensor temperatures with axillary temperature: does skin sensor placement really matter? (United States)

    Schafer, Dorothea; Boogaart, Sheri; Johnson, Lynette; Keezel, Catherine; Ruperts, Liga; Vander Laan, Karen J


    Appropriate thermoregulation affects both morbidity and mortality in the neonatal setting. Nurses rely on information from temperature sensors and radiant warmers or incubators to appropriately maintain a neonate's body temperature. Skin temperature sensors must be repositioned to prevent skin irritation and breakdown. This study addresses whether there is a significant difference between skin sensor temperature readings from 3 locations on the neonate and whether there is a significant difference between skin sensor temperatures compared with digital axillary temperatures. The study participants included 36 hemodynamically stable neonates, with birth weight of 750 g or more and postnatal age of 15 days or more, in a neonatal intensive care unit. Gestational age ranged from 29.6 to 36.1 weeks at the time of data collection. A method-comparison design was used to evaluate the level of agreement between skin sensor temperatures and digital axillary thermometer measurements. When the neonate's skin sensor was scheduled for routine site change, 3 new skin sensors were placed-1 each on the right upper abdomen, left flank, and right axilla. The neonate was placed in a supine position and redressed or rewrapped if previously dressed or wrapped. Subjects served as their own controls, with temperatures measured at all 3 skin sensor sites and followed by a digital thermometer measurement in the left axilla. The order of skin sensor temperature measurements was randomly assigned by a computer-generated number sequence. An analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to test for statistical differences between the skin sensor temperatures. The difference in axillary and skin sensor temperatures was calculated by subtracting the reference standard temperature (digital axillary) from the test temperatures (skin temperatures at 3 different locations), using the Bland-Altman method. The level of significance was set at P temperature readings obtained from the 3 sites (F2

  10. Inhibition of bcl-2 and cox-2 Protein Expression after Local Application of a New Carmustine-Loaded Clinoptilolite-Based Delivery System in a Chemically Induced Skin Cancer Model in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mihaela Ghiciuc


    Full Text Available Our research has focused on in vitro and in vivo evaluations of a new Carmustine (BCNU-loaded clinoptilolite-based delivery system. Two clinoptilolite ionic forms—hydrogen form (HCLI and sodium form (NaCLI—were prepared, allowing a loading degree of about 5–6 mg BCNU/g of zeolite matrix due to the dual porous feature of clinoptilolite. Clinoptilolite-based delivery systems released 35.23% of the load in 12 h for the BCNU@HCLI system and only 10.82% for the BCNU@NaCLI system. The BCNU@HCLI system was chosen to develop gel and cream semisolid dosage forms. The cream (C_BCNU@HCLI released 29.6% of the loaded BCNU after 12 h in the Nylon synthetic membrane test and 31.6% in the collagen membrane test, higher by comparison to the gel. The new cream was evaluated in vivo in a chemically induced model of skin cancer in mice. Quantitative immunohistochemistry analysis showed stronger inhibition of B-cell lymphoma-2 (bcl-2 and cyclooxygenase 2 (cox-2 protein expression, known markers for cancer survival and aggressiveness, after the treatment with C_BCNU@HCLI by comparison to all the control treatment types, including an off-label magistral formula commercially available Carmustine cream as reference, bringing evidence that a clinoptilolite-based delivery systems could be used as a cancer drug carriers and controlled release systems (skin-targeted topical delivery systems.

  11. Inhibition of bcl-2 and cox-2 Protein Expression after Local Application of a New Carmustine-Loaded Clinoptilolite-Based Delivery System in a Chemically Induced Skin Cancer Model in Mice. (United States)

    Ghiciuc, Cristina Mihaela; Strat, Aurel Lulu; Ochiuz, Lacramioara; Lupusoru, Catalina Elena; Ignat, Maria; Vasile, Aurelia; Grigorovici, Alexandru; Stoleriu, Iulian; Solcan, Carmen


    Our research has focused on in vitro and in vivo evaluations of a new Carmustine (BCNU)-loaded clinoptilolite-based delivery system. Two clinoptilolite ionic forms-hydrogen form (HCLI) and sodium form (NaCLI)-were prepared, allowing a loading degree of about 5-6 mg BCNU/g of zeolite matrix due to the dual porous feature of clinoptilolite. Clinoptilolite-based delivery systems released 35.23% of the load in 12 h for the BCNU@HCLI system and only 10.82% for the BCNU@NaCLI system. The BCNU@HCLI system was chosen to develop gel and cream semisolid dosage forms. The cream (C_BCNU@HCLI) released 29.6% of the loaded BCNU after 12 h in the Nylon synthetic membrane test and 31.6% in the collagen membrane test, higher by comparison to the gel. The new cream was evaluated in vivo in a chemically induced model of skin cancer in mice. Quantitative immunohistochemistry analysis showed stronger inhibition of B-cell lymphoma-2 (bcl-2) and cyclooxygenase 2 (cox-2) protein expression, known markers for cancer survival and aggressiveness, after the treatment with C_BCNU@HCLI by comparison to all the control treatment types, including an off-label magistral formula commercially available Carmustine cream as reference, bringing evidence that a clinoptilolite-based delivery systems could be used as a cancer drug carriers and controlled release systems (skin-targeted topical delivery systems).

  12. Higher sweating rate and skin blood flow during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. (United States)

    Lee, Haneul; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Shah, Nirali; Awali, Abdulaziz; Shah, Karan; Alotaibi, Mohammed; Yim, JongEun


    Evaporation by sweating is the most effective way to remove heat from the body. Sweat rates increase under both local and whole-body heat stress. Men and women differ in how they respond to heat, because sexual steroids alter resting body core temperature and the threshold for sweating and skin blood flow (SBF) during heating. The purpose of the present study was to compare local sweat rates and cutaneous vasodilatation during heat exposure in women with a regular menstrual cycle. The cutaneous vasodilatation was judged by measuring the SBF. Eight female and nine male subjects participated in this study, and their age range was 24-29 years. Female subjects were tested twice throughout one full menstrual cycle: once during the middle follicular phases and once during the luteal phase. Subjects remained in a temperature-regulated room at 41°C and 21% of relative humidity for 40 minutes. Sweat rate was recorded from the forehead, forearm, and thigh, and skin temperature and SBF were measured on the thigh and forehead. We found that the sweating rate and SBF were greater in the luteal phase compared to follicular phase (p0.05). We propose the enhanced sympathetic activity in the luteal phase with a regular menstrual cycle.

  13. Influence of age and sun exposure on the biophysical properties of the human skin: an in vivo study. (United States)

    Adhoute, H; de Rigal, J; Marchand, J P; Privat, Y; Leveque, J L


    The physical properties of the skin were measured by using noninvasive methods on 72 people displaying various levels of solar elastosis on the neck. The physical parameters measured were the skin extensibility, the elastic recovery, the skin colour, the skin thickness and the electrical conductance. The correlation between the above parameters, the clinical grades of elastosis and the chronological age of each subject were studied using two different statistical approaches. They both showed that elastotic skin is less elastic, dryer, darker, more erythematous and less yellowish than the nonexposed skin. The similarities and differences between the properties of elastotic skin and purely chronologically aged skin are discussed.

  14. Cell-Type-Specific Differentiation and Molecular Profiles in Skin Transplantation: Implication of Medical Approach for Genetic Skin Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noritaka Oyama


    Full Text Available Skin is highly accessible and valuable organ, which holds promise to accelerate the understanding of future medical innovation in association with skin transplantation, engineering, and wound healing. In skin transplantation biology, multistage and multifocal damages occur in both grafted donor and perilesional host skin and need to be repaired properly for the engraftment and maintenance of characteristic skin architecture. These local events are more unlikely to be regulated by the host immunity, because human skin transplantation has accomplished the donor skin engraftment onto the immunocompromised or immunosuppressive animals. Recent studies have emerged the importance of α-smooth muscle actin- (SMA- positive myofibroblasts, via stage- and cell-specific contribution of TGFβ, PDGF, ET-1, CCN-2 signalling pathways, and mastocyte-derived mediators (e.g., histamine and tryptase, for the functional reorganisation of the grafted skin. Moreover, particular cell lineages from bone marrow (BM cells have been shown to harbour the diferentiation capacity into multiple skin cell phenotypes, including epidermal keratinocytes and dermal endothelial cells and pericytes, undercontrolled by chemokines or cytokines. From a dermatological viewpoint, we review the recent update of cell-type- and molecular-specific action associated with reconstitution of the grafted skin and also focus on the novel application of BM transplantation medicine in genetic skin diseases.

  15. Characterization of suspected illegal skin whitening cosmetics. (United States)

    Desmedt, B; Van Hoeck, E; Rogiers, V; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; De Paepe, K; Deconinck, E


    An important group of suspected illegal cosmetics consists of skin bleaching products, which are usually applied to the skin of the face, hands and décolleté for local depigmentation of hyper pigmented regions or more importantly, for a generalized reduction of the skin tone. These cosmetic products are suspected to contain illegal active substances that may provoke as well local as systemic toxic effects, being the reason for their banning from the EU market. In that respect, illegal and restricted substances in cosmetics, known to have bleaching properties, are in particular hydroquinone, tretinoin and corticosteroids. From a legislative point of view, all cosmetic products containing a prohibited whitening agent are illegal and must be taken off the EU market. A newly developed screening method using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-time off flight-mass spectrometry allows routine analysis of suspected products. 163 suspected skin whitening cosmetics, collected by Belgian inspectors at high risk sites such as airports and so-called ethnic cosmetic shops, were analyzed and 59% were classified as illegal. The whitening agents mostly detected were clobetasol propionate and hydroquinone, which represent a serious health risk when repeatedly and abundantly applied to the skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Skin temperature: its role in thermoregulation. (United States)

    Romanovsky, A A


    This review analyses whether skin temperature represents ambient temperature and serves as a feedforward signal for the thermoregulation system, or whether it is one of the body's temperatures and provides feedback. The body is covered mostly by hairy (non-glabrous) skin, which is typically insulated from the environment (with clothes in humans and with fur in non-human mammals). Thermal signals from hairy skin represent a temperature of the insulated superficial layer of the body and provide feedback to the thermoregulation system. It is explained that this feedback is auxiliary, both negative and positive, and that it reduces the system's response time and load error. Non-hairy (glabrous) skin covers specialized heat-exchange organs (e.g. the hand), which are also used to explore the environment. In thermoregulation, these organs are primarily effectors. Their main thermosensory-related role is to assess local temperatures of objects explored; these local temperatures are feedforward signals for various behaviours. Non-hairy skin also contributes to the feedback for thermoregulation, but this contribution is limited. Autonomic (physiological) thermoregulation does not use feedforward signals. Thermoregulatory behaviours use both feedback and feedforward signals. Implications of these principles to thermopharmacology, a new approach to achieving biological effects by blocking temperature signals with drugs, are discussed.

  17. The Skin Microbiome in Atopic Dermatitis and Its Relationship to Emollients. (United States)

    Lynde, Charles W; Andriessen, Anneke; Bertucci, Vince; McCuaig, Catherine; Skotnicki, Sandy; Weinstein, Miriam; Wiseman, Marni; Zip, Catherine


    Human-associated bacterial communities on the skin, skin microbiome, likely play a central role in development of immunity and protection from pathogens. In atopic patients, the skin bacterial diversity is smaller than in healthy subjects. To review treatment strategies for atopic dermatitis in Canada, taking the skin microbiome concept into account. An expert panel of 8 Canadian dermatologists explored the role of skin microbiome in clinical dermatology, specifically looking at atopic dermatitis. The panel reached consensus on the following: (1) In atopic patients, the skin microbiome of lesional atopic skin is different from nonlesional skin in adjacent areas. (2) Worsening atopic dermatitis and smaller bacterial diversity are strongly associated. (3) Application of emollients containing antioxidant and antibacterial components may increase microbiome diversity in atopic skin. The skin microbiome may be the next frontier in preventive health and may impact the approach to atopic dermatitis treatment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Hybrid oil film approach to measuring skin friction distribution (United States)

    Kurita, Mitsuru; Iijima, Hidetoshi


    This paper describes a technique for quantitatively measuring the time-averaged skin friction distribution on a wind tunnel test model. The technique is a hybrid oil film approach that is based on the combination of the qualitative skin friction distribution obtained from luminescent oil film and the quantitative local skin friction measurements obtained from oil film interferometry in another blowing of the same flow condition. To demonstrate its validity, the proposed method was applied to the flow field around a vortex generator on a flat plate, and successfully measured the quantitative skin friction distribution.

  19. Phenol esterase activity of porcine skin. (United States)

    Laszlo, Joseph A; Smith, Leslie J; Evans, Kervin O; Compton, David L


    The alkyl esters of plant-derived phenols may serve as slow-release sources for cutaneous delivery of antioxidants. The ability of skin esterases to hydrolyze phenolic esters was examined. Esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol were prepared from decanoic and lipoic acids. Ferulic acid was esterified with octadecanol, glycerol, and dioleoylglycerol. These phenolic derivatives were treated in taurodeoxycholate microemulsion and unilamellar liposomes with ex vivo porcine skin and an aqueous extract of the skin. Extracted esterases hydrolyzed the microemulsions at rates in the order: tyrosyl lipoate > tyrosyl decanoate > hydroxytyrosyl lipoate > hydroxytyrosyl decanoate. The tyrosyl decanoate was subject to comparatively little hydrolysis (10-30% after 24h) when incorporated into liposomes, while hydroxytyrosyl decanoate in liposomes was not hydrolyzed at all by the skin extract. Ferulate esters were not hydrolyzed by the extract in aqueous buffer, microemulsion, nor liposomes. Tyrosyl decanoate applied topically to skin explants in microemulsion were readily hydrolyzed within 4h, while hydrolysis was minimal when applied in liposomes. These findings indicate that porcine skin displays a general esterase activity toward medium-chain esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, which can be moderated by the physiochemical properties of the lipid vehicle, but no feruloyl esterase activity. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Anetoderma: biochemical and ultrastructural demonstration of an elastin defect in the skin of three patients. (United States)

    Oikarinen, A I; Palatsi, R; Adomian, G E; Oikarinen, H; Clark, J G; Uitto, J


    Three patients with localized cutaneous lesions characteristic of anetoderma were studied. Clinically, the onset of the disease was between the ages of 17 and 25, and numerous flaccid, saclike skin lesions developed over several subsequent years. Histologically, the lesions were characterized by paucity and fragmentation of the elastic fibers. Electron microscopy demonstrated that the elastic fibers, both in papillary and deep reticular dermis in the lesional skin, were fragmented and irregular in appearance. The concentration of elastin, determined by a radioimmunoassay of desmosine, an elastin-specific cross-link compound, was markedly reduced in the lesions, as compared with unaffected skin from the same patients or with normal skin from unrelated control subjects. In contrast, the concentrations of hydroxyproline, an index of collagen, or deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), a measure of cellularity, were not changed in the lesions. Thus, the results indicate that in the three patients studied, the elastic fibers are defective and reduced in quantity. These observations suggest that the deficiency of elastin in the dermis may lead to development of the cutaneous lesions of anetoderma.

  1. Skin Picking Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Cetinay Aydin


    Full Text Available Skin picking disorder is not a dermatological disorder and it is a table characterized with picking skin excessively and repetitively, leading to damage in skin tissue. Unlike normal picking behaviour, psychogenic skin picking is repetitive and it can lead to severe damage in the skin and even complications which constitute vital danger. While some patients define frequent but short lasting picking attacks, others define rarer attacks which last a few hours. Skin picking disorder, which is not included in the classification systems up to DSM-5 as a separate diagnosis category, is included as an independent diagnosis in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Associated Disorders category in DSM-5. In case reports, open label studies and double blind studies selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are shown to be effective in the treatment of skin picking disorder. Mostly, cognitive-behaviourial techniques are used and have been proven to be useful in psychotherapy. Habit reversal is one of the behaviourial techniques which are frequently applied, give positive results in which well-being state can be maintained. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 401-428

  2. Skin and antioxidants. (United States)

    Poljsak, Borut; Dahmane, Raja; Godic, Aleksandar


    It is estimated that total sun exposure occurs non-intentionally in three quarters of our lifetimes. Our skin is exposed to majority of UV radiation during outdoor activities, e.g. walking, practicing sports, running, hiking, etc. and not when we are intentionally exposed to the sun on the beach. We rarely use sunscreens during those activities, or at least not as much and as regular as we should and are commonly prone to acute and chronic sun damage of the skin. The only protection of our skin is endogenous (synthesis of melanin and enzymatic antioxidants) and exogenous (antioxidants, which we consume from the food, like vitamins A, C, E, etc.). UV-induced photoaging of the skin becomes clinically evident with age, when endogenous antioxidative mechanisms and repair processes are not effective any more and actinic damage to the skin prevails. At this point it would be reasonable to ingest additional antioxidants and/or to apply them on the skin in topical preparations. We review endogenous and exogenous skin protection with antioxidants.

  3. Danish translation and validation of the International Skin Tear Advisory Panel Skin Tear Classification System. (United States)

    Skiveren, J; Bermark, S; LeBlanc, K; Baranoski, S


    The aim of this study was to translate, validate and establish reliability of the International Skin Tear Classification System in Danish. Phase 1 of the project involved the translation of the International Skin Tear Advisory Panel (ISTAP) Skin Tear Classification System into Danish, using the forward-back translation method described by the principles of good practice for the translation process for patient-reported outcomes. In Phase 2, the Danish group sought to replicate the ISTAP validation study and validate the classification system with registered nurses (RN) and social and health-care assistants (non-RN) from both primary health care and a Danish university hospital in Copenhagen. Thirty photographs, with equal representation of the three types of skin tears, were selected to test validity. The photographs chosen were those originally used for internal and external validation by the ISTAP group. The subjects were approached in their place of work and invited to participate in the study and to attend an educational session related to skin tears. The Danish translation of the ISTAP classification system was tested on 270 non-wound specialists. The ISTAP classification system was validated by 241 RNs, and 29 non-RN. The results indicated a moderate level of agreement on classification of skin tears by type (Fleiss' Kappa=0.460). A moderate level of agreement was demonstrated for both the RN group and the non-RN group (Fleiss' Kappa=0.464 and 0.443, respectively). The ISTAP Skin Tear Classification System was developed with the goal of establishing a global language for describing and documenting skin tears and to raise the health-care community's awareness of skin tears. The Danish translation of the ISTAP classification system supports the earlier ISTAP study and further validates the classification system. The Danish translation of the classification system is vital to the promotion of skin tears in both research and the clinical settings in Denmark.

  4. Evaluating local and overall thermal comfort in buildings using thermal manikins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, E.


    Evaluation methods of human thermal comfort that are based on whole-body heat balance with its surroundings may not be adequate for evaluations in non-uniform thermal conditions. Under these conditions, the human body's segments may experience a wide range of room physical parameters and the evaluation of the local (segmental) thermal comfort becomes necessary. In this work, subjective measurements of skin temperature were carried out to investigate the human body's local responses due to a step change in the room temperature; and the variability in the body's local temperatures under different indoor conditions and exposures as well as the physiological steady state local temperatures. Then, a multi-segmental model of human thermoregulation was developed based on these findings to predict the local skin temperatures of individuals' body segments with a good accuracy. The model predictability of skin temperature was verified for steady state and dynamic conditions using measured data at uniform neutral, cold and warm as well as different asymmetric thermal conditions. The model showed very good predictability with average absolute deviation ranged from 0.3-0.8 K. The model was then implemented onto the control system of the thermal manikin 'THERMINATOR' to adjust the segmental skin temperature set-points based on the indoor conditions. This new control for the manikin was experimentally validated for the prediction of local and overall thermal comfort using the equivalent temperature measure. THERMINATOR with the new control mode was then employed in the evaluation of localized floor-heating system variants towards maximum energy efficiency. This aimed at illustrating a design strategy using the thermal manikin to find the optimum geometry and surface area of a floor-heater for a single seated person. Furthermore, a psychological comfort model that is based on local skin temperature was adapted for the use with the model of human

  5. Facial skin pores: a multiethnic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flament F


    Full Text Available Frederic Flament,1 Ghislain Francois,1 Huixia Qiu,2 Chengda Ye,2 Tomoo Hanaya,3 Dominique Batisse,3 Suzy Cointereau-Chardon,1 Mirela Donato Gianeti Seixas,4 Susi Elaine Dal Belo,4 Roland Bazin5 1Department of Applied Research and Development, L’Oreal Research and Innovation, Paris, France; 2Department of Applied Research and Development, L’Oreal Research and Innovation, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Applied Research and Development, L’Oreal Research and Innovation, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Applied Research and Development, L’Oreal Research and Innovation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 5RB Consult, Bievres, France Abstract: Skin pores (SP, as they are called by laymen, are common and benign features mostly located on the face (nose, cheeks, etc that generate many aesthetic concerns or complaints. Despite the prevalence of skin pores, related literature is scarce. With the aim of describing the prevalence of skin pores and anatomic features among ethnic groups, a dermatoscopic instrument, using polarized lighting, coupled to a digital camera recorded the major features of skin pores (size, density, coverage on the cheeks of 2,585 women in different countries and continents. A detection threshold of 250 µm, correlated to clinical scorings by experts, was input into a specific software to further allow for automatic counting of the SP density (N/cm2 and determination of their respective sizes in mm2. Integrating both criteria also led to establishing the relative part of the skin surface (as a percentage that is actually covered by SP on cheeks. The results showed that the values of respective sizes, densities, and skin coverage: 1 were recorded in all studied subjects; 2 varied greatly with ethnicity; 3 plateaued with age in most cases; and 4 globally reflected self-assessment by subjects, in particular those who self-declare having “enlarged pores” like Brazilian women. Inversely, Chinese women were clearly

  6. Study of mast cell count in skin tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher Hesham


    Full Text Available Background: Skin tags or acrochordons are common tumors of middle-aged and elderly subjects. They consist of loose fibrous tissue and occur mainly on the neck and major flexures as small, soft, pedunculated protrusions. Objectives: The aim was to compare the mast cells count in skin tags to adjacent normal skin in diabetic and nondiabetic participants in an attempt to elucidate the possible role of mast cells in the pathogenesis of skin tags. Participants and Methods: Thirty participants with skin tags were divided into group I (15 nondiabetic participants and group II (15 diabetic participants. Three biopsies were obtained from each participant: a large skin tag, a small skin tag and adjacent normal skin. Mast cell count from all the obtained sections was carried out, and the mast cell density was expressed as the average mast cell count/high power field (HPF. Results: A statistically significant increase in mast cells count in skin tags in comparison to normal skin was detected in group I and group II. There was no statistically significant difference between mast cell counts in skin tags of both the groups. Conclusion: Both the mast cell mediators and hyperinsulinemia are capable of inducing fibroblast proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia that are the main pathologic abnormalities seen in all types of skin tags. However, the presence of mast cells in all examined skin tags regardless of diabetes and obesity may point to the possible crucial role of mast cells in the etiogenesis of skin tags through its interaction with fibroblasts and keratinocytes.

  7. Pathophysiological Mechanisms in Sclerosing Skin Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Eckes


    Full Text Available Sclerosing skin diseases represent a large number of distinct disease entities, which include systemic sclerosis, localized scleroderma, and scleredema adultorum. These pathologies have a common clinical appearance and share histological features. However, the specific interplay between cytokines and growth factors, which activate different mesenchymal cell populations and production of different extracellular matrix components, determines the biomechanical properties of the skin and the clinical features of each disease. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying these events is prerequisite for developing novel targeted therapeutic approaches.

  8. Nanoscale alterations of corneocytes indicate skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franz, J; Beutel, M; Gevers, K


    BACKGROUND: The skin barrier protects the organism against exogenous stressors and simultaneously prevents excessive water loss. While the delicate regulation of skin barrier is not completely understood, morphological and histological evaluation remain key features of clinical investigations. Here......-objects were identified and these were quantitated through computer vision. RESULTS: Typical dimensions of 273 nm height and 305 nm width. We showed that their density does not correlate to age or pigmentation in healthy subjects, but that they were clearly elevated in corneocytes from patients with atopic...

  9. Measurement of diffusion coefficient of propylene glycol in skin tissue (United States)

    Genin, Vadim D.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Genina, Elina A.; Tuchin, Valery V.


    Optical clearing of the rat skin under the action of propylene glycol was studied ex vivo. It was found that collimated transmittance of skin samples increased, whereas weight and thickness of the samples decreased during propylene glycol penetration in skin tissue. A mechanism of the optical clearing under the action of propylene glycol is discussed. Diffusion coefficient of propylene glycol in skin tissue ex vivo has been estimated as (1.35±0.95)×10-7 cm2/s with the taking into account of kinetics of both weight and thickness of skin samples. The presented results can be useful for enhancement of many methods of laser therapy and optical diagnostics of skin diseases and localization of subcutaneous neoplasms.

  10. Skin Rejuvenation with Non-Invasive Pulsed Electric Fields (United States)

    Golberg, Alexander; Khan, Saiqa; Belov, Vasily; Quinn, Kyle P.; Albadawi, Hassan; Felix Broelsch, G.; Watkins, Michael T.; Georgakoudi, Irene; Papisov, Mikhail; Mihm, Martin C., Jr.; Austen, William G., Jr.; Yarmush, Martin L.


    Degenerative skin diseases affect one third of individuals over the age of sixty. Current therapies use various physical and chemical methods to rejuvenate skin; but since the therapies affect many tissue components including cells and extracellular matrix, they may also induce significant side effects, such as scarring. Here we report on a new, non-invasive, non-thermal technique to rejuvenate skin with pulsed electric fields. The fields destroy cells while simultaneously completely preserving the extracellular matrix architecture and releasing multiple growth factors locally that induce new cells and tissue growth. We have identified the specific pulsed electric field parameters in rats that lead to prominent proliferation of the epidermis, formation of microvasculature, and secretion of new collagen at treated areas without scarring. Our results suggest that pulsed electric fields can improve skin function and thus can potentially serve as a novel non-invasive skin therapy for multiple degenerative skin diseases.

  11. Skin Rejuvenation with Non-Invasive Pulsed Electric Fields (United States)

    Golberg, Alexander; Khan, Saiqa; Belov, Vasily; Quinn, Kyle P.; Albadawi, Hassan; Felix Broelsch, G.; Watkins, Michael T.; Georgakoudi, Irene; Papisov, Mikhail; Mihm Jr., Martin C.; Austen Jr., William G.; Yarmush, Martin L.


    Degenerative skin diseases affect one third of individuals over the age of sixty. Current therapies use various physical and chemical methods to rejuvenate skin; but since the therapies affect many tissue components including cells and extracellular matrix, they may also induce significant side effects, such as scarring. Here we report on a new, non-invasive, non-thermal technique to rejuvenate skin with pulsed electric fields. The fields destroy cells while simultaneously completely preserving the extracellular matrix architecture and releasing multiple growth factors locally that induce new cells and tissue growth. We have identified the specific pulsed electric field parameters in rats that lead to prominent proliferation of the epidermis, formation of microvasculature, and secretion of new collagen at treated areas without scarring. Our results suggest that pulsed electric fields can improve skin function and thus can potentially serve as a novel non-invasive skin therapy for multiple degenerative skin diseases. PMID:25965851

  12. Pathological skin picking: case presentation and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabela Sarbu


    Full Text Available Pathological skin picking is a condition in which patients induce skin lesions through repetitive, compulsive excoriations of normal skin or skin with minor surface irregularities and they admit their role in the production of the lesions, but are unable to stop their behavior. Psychiatric comorbidities most often associated with skin picking include obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, body dysmorphic disorders, trichotillomania and compulsive-buying disorder. We report the case of a 17 year old female patient who addressed the dermatology department of our hospital with an eruption consisting of erythematous papules and plaques. The local examination revealed several clues of paramount importance in drawing the final conclusion and the psychiatric examination helped establish the diagnosis of pathological skin picking in a patient with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  13. Introducing the SKIN score: a validated scoring system to assess severity of mastectomy skin flap necrosis. (United States)

    Lemaine, Valerie; Hoskin, Tanya L; Farley, David R; Grant, Clive S; Boughey, Judy C; Torstenson, Tiffany A; Jacobson, Steven R; Jakub, James W; Degnim, Amy C


    With increasing use of immediate breast reconstruction (IBR), mastectomy skin flap necrosis (MSFN) is a clinical problem that deserves further study. We propose a validated scoring system to discriminate MSFN severity and standardize its assessment. Women who underwent skin-sparing (SSM) or nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) and IBR from November 2009 to October 2010 were studied retrospectively. A workgroup of breast and plastic surgeons scored postoperative photographs using the skin ischemia necrosis (SKIN) score to assess depth and surface area of MSFN. We evaluated correlation of the SKIN score with reoperation for MSFN and its reproducibility in an external sample of surgeons. We identified 106 subjects (175 operated breasts: 103 SSM, 72 NSM) who had ≥1 postoperative photograph within 60 days. SKIN scores correlated strongly with need for reoperation for MSFN, with an AUC of 0.96 for SSM and 0.89 for NSM. External scores agreed well with the gold standard scores for the breast mound photographs with weighted kappa values of 0.82 (depth), 0.56 (surface area), and 0.79 (composite score). The agreement was similar for the nipple-areolar complex photographs: 0.75 (depth), 0.63 (surface area), and 0.79 (composite score). A simple scoring system to assess the severity of MSFN is proposed, incorporating both depth and surface area of MSFN. The SKIN score correlates strongly with the need for reoperation to manage MSFN and is reproducible among breast and plastic surgeons.

  14. Item reduction and psychometric validation of the Oily Skin Self Assessment Scale (OSSAS) and the Oily Skin Impact Scale (OSIS). (United States)

    Arbuckle, Robert; Clark, Marci; Harness, Jane; Bonner, Nicola; Scott, Jane; Draelos, Zoe; Rizer, Ronald; Yeh, Yating; Copley-Merriman, Kati


    Developed using focus groups, the Oily Skin Self Assessment Scale (OSSAS) and Oily Skin Impact Scale (OSIS) are patient-reported outcome measures of oily facial skin. The aim of this study was to finalize the item-scale structure of the instruments and perform psychometric validation in adults with self-reported oily facial skin. The OSSAS and OSIS were administered to 202 adult subjects with oily facial skin in the United States. A subgroup of 152 subjects returned, 4 to 10 days later, for test–retest reliability evaluation. Of the 202 participants, 72.8% were female; 64.4% had self-reported nonsevere acne. Item reduction resulted in a 14-item OSSAS with Sensation (five items), Tactile (four items) and Visual (four items) domains, a single blotting item, and an overall oiliness item. The OSIS was reduced to two three-item domains assessing Annoyance and Self-Image. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the construct validity of the final item-scale structures. The OSSAS and OSIS scales had acceptable item convergent validity (item-scale correlations >0.40) and floor and ceiling effects (oily skin severity (P oily skin (P oily facial skin), as assessments of self-reported oily facial skin severity and its emotional impact, respectively.

  15. Evaluation of mean skin temperature formulas by infrared thermography (United States)

    Choi, J. K.; Miki, K.; Sagawa, S.; Shiraki, K.

    To study the reliabiliity of formulas for calculating mean skin temperature (Tsk), values were computed by 18 different techniques and were compared with the mean of 10,841 skin temperatures measured by infrared thermography. One hundred whole-body infrared thermograms were scanned in ten resting males while changing the air temperature from 40° C to 4° C. Local, regional average and mean skin temperatures were obtained using an image processing system. The agreement frequency, defined as the percentage of the calculated Tsk values which agreed with the corresponding infrared thermographic Tsk within +/-0.2° C, ranged for with the various formulas from 7% to 80%. In many sites, the local skin temperature did not coincide with the regional average skin temperature. When the local skin temperatures which showed the highest percentage similarity to the regional average skin temperature within +/-0.4° C were applied to the formula, the agreement frequency was markedly improved for all formulas. However, the agreement frequency was not affected by changing the weighting factors from specific constants to individually measured values of regional surface area. By applying the physiologically reliable accuracy range of +/-0.2° C in the moderate and +/-0.4° C in the cool condition, agreement frequencies of at least 95% were observed in formulas involving seven or more skin temperature measurement sites, including the hand and foot. We conclude that calculation of a reliable mean skin temperature must involve more than seven skin temperature measurement sites regardless of ambient temperature. Optimal sites for skin temperature measurement are proposed for various formulas.

  16. Danish translation and validation of the International Skin Tear Advisory Panel Skin Tear Classification System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiveren, J; Bermark, S; LeBlanc, K


    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to translate, validate and establish reliability of the International Skin Tear Classification System in Danish. METHOD: Phase 1 of the project involved the translation of the International Skin Tear Advisory Panel (ISTAP) Skin Tear Classification System...... and external validation by the ISTAP group. The subjects were approached in their place of work and invited to participate in the study and to attend an educational session related to skin tears. RESULTS: The Danish translation of the ISTAP classification system was tested on 270 non-wound specialists...... into Danish, using the forward-back translation method described by the principles of good practice for the translation process for patient-reported outcomes. In Phase 2, the Danish group sought to replicate the ISTAP validation study and validate the classification system with registered nurses (RN...

  17. Aging changes in skin (United States)

    ... It is more noticeable in sun-exposed areas (solar elastosis). Elastosis produces the leathery, weather-beaten appearance ... Good nutrition and adequate fluids are also helpful. Dehydration increases the risk of skin injury. Sometimes minor ...

  18. Designing pliable structural Skins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Peters, Brady; Nielsen, Stig Anton


    Structural stability can be formed through structured or seemingly unstructured approaches to fold, plead or crumble paper. This paper reports on two projects that showcase how computational design approaches can help to widen the understanding and use of structural skins....

  19. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Doctor Glossary of Terms Resources Resources Global Resources Cancer Centers Online Resources The Melanoma Book Clinical Trials Download a Skin Self-Exam Card Download a Patient Navigation Card Events, Webinars & Videos Events, Webinars & Videos ...

  20. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Doctor Glossary of Terms Resources Resources Global Resources Cancer Centers Online Resources The Melanoma Book Clinical Trials Download a Skin Self-Exam Card Download a Patient Navigation Card ...

  1. Allergy Skin Tests (United States)

    ... medications: Know your options Allergy skin tests About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  2. Bacterial Skin Infections (United States)

    ... Summer Camp Tips for Kids With Asthma, Allergies Antioxidants: The Good Health Helpers As Stroke 'Liquefies' Brain ... Cancer Additional Content Medical News Overview of Bacterial Skin Infections By A. Damian Dhar, MD, JD, Private ...

  3. Fungal Skin Infections (United States)

    ... Summer Camp Tips for Kids With Asthma, Allergies Antioxidants: The Good Health Helpers As Stroke 'Liquefies' Brain ... and itching. Some Antifungal Drugs Applied to the Skin (Topical Drugs) Amorolfine Butoconazole Butenafine Ciclopirox Clotrimazole Econazole ...

  4. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T


    suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably...

  5. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... us for One-on-One Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video ... develop personalized strategies with patients so they may live longer, better lives. Our Vision: A future where ...

  6. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Download a Skin Self-Exam Card Download a Patient Navigation Card Events, Webinars & Videos Events, Webinars & Videos Melanoma Patient Video Events Host an Event Past Webinars Upcoming ...

  7. Skin, Hair, and Nails (United States)

    ... they're cut off from their supply of nourishment and start to form a hard protein called ... yeast Candida . Yeast infections of the skin in older children, teens, and adults are less common. Tinea ...

  8. Skin Cancer Prevention (United States)

    ... Having a weakened immune system . Being exposed to arsenic . Risk factors for melanoma skin cancer: Having a ... such as “NCI’s PDQ cancer information summary about breast cancer prevention states the risks in the following way: [ ...

  9. Skin self-exam (United States)

    ... Names Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; ... 2015 Updated by: Yi-Bin Chen, MD, Leukemia/Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. ...

  10. Stages of Skin Cancer (United States)

    ... with a nozzle is used to spray liquid nitrogen or liquid carbon dioxide to freeze and destroy ... or small particles to rub away skin cells. Radiation therapy Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that ...

  11. Radiation therapy -- skin care (United States)

    ... this page: // Radiation therapy - skin care To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. When you have radiation treatment for cancer, you may have some changes ...

  12. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenefelt PD


    Full Text Available Philip D Shenefelt,1 Debrah A Shenefelt2 1Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, 2Congregation Or Ahavah, Lutz, FL, USA Abstract: Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. Keywords: skin, skin disorders, spiritual, religious

  13. Skin Cancer - Multiple Languages (United States)

    ... Expand Section Skin Cancer: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Cáncer de piel: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National Library of Medicine Ukrainian (українська ) Expand Section Skin Cancer - українська (Ukrainian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Characters ...

  14. Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Learn how to evaluate people for latent TB infection with the Mantoux tuberculin skin test. This podcast includes sections on administering and reading the Mantoux tuberculin skin test, the standard method for detecting latent TB infection since the 1930s.  Created: 11/22/2006 by National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 12/12/2006.

  15. ReciPlySkin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic Larsen, Olga; Andersen, Mikkel; Munk-Andersen, Niklas


    The report presents process that enbabled the production of the ReciPlySkin structure exhibited at the Circular Economy Exhibition at KADK during the Autumn 2017. The concept, design, detailed design and production are presented in this report.......The report presents process that enbabled the production of the ReciPlySkin structure exhibited at the Circular Economy Exhibition at KADK during the Autumn 2017. The concept, design, detailed design and production are presented in this report....

  16. Reflectance confocal microscopy for the evaluation of sensitive skin. (United States)

    Ma, Y-F; Yuan, C; Jiang, W-C; Wang, X-L; Humbert, P


    Nowadays, the diagnosis for sensitive skin relies on subjective assessment or on the combination of subjective and objective evaluation. No quantitative evaluation is available. It could be expected that confocal microscopy imaging could be of interest to better define the condition. Total 166 healthy female subjects were recruited in this study. Firstly, all subjects completed the sensitive questionnaire. Then, the cutaneous structures were measured by the reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) on the face and fossa cubitalia. The lactic acid sting test was conducted finally. According to the results of self-perception sensitive skin questionnaire and lactic acid stinging test to evaluate facial skin sensitivity the both positive subjects were regarded as sensitive skin group and both negative group as healthy control group. The results of RCM indicating that the proportion of 'disarranged honeycomb pattern' and 'spongiform edema' in the sensitive group and healthy control group were statistically different (P 0.05). The epidermal thickness was 38.88 ± 6.81 μm, healthy control group was 40.31 ± 9.37 μm in, respectively, sensitive skin group and healthy control group, there was no significant statistical difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The honeycomb structure depth of sensitive group was 20.57 ± 4.86 μm. It was for 23.27 ± 6.38 μm, healthy control group the difference being statistically different between the two groups (P skin signs of RCM evaluation of sensitive skin effectively. Indeed, sensitive skin honeycomb structure depth was thinner compared with healthy control group. Such a specific pattern has good clinical and monitoring value for the further exploration. RCM could provide new data and patterns for the evaluation of sensitive skin. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Discomfort due to skin humidity with different fabric textures and materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Rasmussen, Leif Winsnes; Mackeprang, Jørgen


    discomfort. Thirty-eight subjects (18 females and 20 males) were exposed to three levels of skin relative humidity (30%, 50% and 70%) at sedentary activity, at low stepping activity and at high stepping activity. At moderate temperatures and activity levels, neither material nor texture significantly...... impacted the clothing comfort, perceived skin humidity or humidity of clothing, or the acceptability of skin humidity. Clothing comfort and acceptability deteriorated significantly with increasing skin humidity. In addition, the subjects perceived their skin or clothing as being more humid with increasing...... skin humidity. Based on the experimental results, a model was developed that predicts the percentage of persons dissatisfied due to humid skin or clothing. At different combinations of air humidity, air and mean radiant temperature, air velocity and clothing, the skin humidity model predicts discomfort...

  18. Non-animal testing strategies for assessment of the skin corrosion and skin irritation potential of ingredients and finished products. (United States)

    Robinson, M K; Cohen, C; de Fraissinette, A de Brugerolle; Ponec, M; Whittle, E; Fentem, J H


    The dermatotoxicologist today is faced with a dilemma. Protection of workers and consumers from skin toxicities (irritation and allergy) associated with exposure to products, and the ingredients they contain, requires toxicological skin testing prior to manufacture, transport, or marketing. Testing for skin corrosion or irritation has traditionally been conducted in animals, particularly in rabbits via the long established Draize test method. However, this procedure, among others, has been subject to criticism, both for its limited predictive capacity for human toxicity, as well as for its use of animals. In fact, legislation is pending in the European Union which would ban the sale of cosmetic products, the ingredients of which have been tested in animals. These considerations, and advancements in both in vitro skin biology and clinical testing, have helped drive an intensive effort among skin scientists to develop alternative test methods based either on in vitro test systems (e.g. using rat, pig or human skin ex vivo, or reconstructed human skin models) or ethical clinical approaches (human volunteer studies). Tools are now in place today to enable a thorough skin corrosion and irritation assessment of new ingredients and products without the need to test in animals. Herein, we describe general testing strategies and new test methods for the assessment of skin corrosion and irritation. The methods described, and utilized within industry today, provide a framework for the practicing toxicologist to support new product development initiatives through the use of reliable skin safety testing and risk assessment tools and strategies.

  19. Principles of brain plasticity in improving sensorimotor function of the knee and leg in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ageberg, Eva; Bjorkman, Anders; Rosen, Birgitta


    and foot to improve sensorimotor function can be applied on the knee. We hypothesized that temporary anesthesia of the skin area above and below the knee would improve sensorimotor function of the ipsilateral knee and leg. METHODS: In this first double-blind exploratory study, 28 uninjured subjects (mean...... age 26 years, range 19-34, 50% women) were randomized to temporary local cutaneous application of anesthetic (EMLA) (n=14) or placebo cream (n=14). Fifty grams of EMLA, or placebo, was applied on the leg 10 cm above and 10 cm below the center of patella, leaving the area around the knee without cream...

  20. Cutaneous Flaps for Closing Skin Defects in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Beteg


    Full Text Available Cutaneous flaps are used for closing wounds caused by traumatic accidents, oncological surgery (tumor removal, and burns (thermal, chemical, radiations. Skin grafting has the advantages of requiring just only one surgery for closing the defects once the wound bed is adequately prepared. The objective of the study was  to describe and asses the eficiency  of local cutaneous flaps for closing  skin defects in dogs. Seven dogs  underwent reconstruction of soft tissue wounds resulted from traumatic lesion or  after large tumors removal. Skin defects were located on the trunk and limbs. Cutaneous local flaps(advancement and rotational were created by surgical preparations and mobilization the full tickness skin fold to enabling closure of adjacent defects. After wound debridment or tumoral removal a very carefull atraumatic and aseptical preparation of the flaps  were performed to preserve vascularization for adecquate blood supply. Cutaneous local flaps  proved effective for closing large defects in all dogs. Partial marginal necrosis of a portion of the flap occurred in one dog because of  procedure and technique errors, but the concurent remanent defects were adequate  to primary closure.  The wounds ultimately healed , without major complications. The skin local flaps(advancement and rotational are a versatile technique that could be  use in a variety of locations, depending on skin defects shape and localization. The clinical results are comparable with those reported for  advanced reconstructive procedure.

  1. Sebusuppressive efficacy of the antioxidant bis-ethylhexyl hydroxydimethoxy benzylmalonate in the treatment of oily and blemished skin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gerlach, Nicole; Graf, Ruediger; Witte, Gabriele; Lefort, Marina; Pfluecker, Frank; Heinrich, Ulrike; Tronnier, Hagen


    ...) as an active ingredient in the treatment of oily and blemished skin. This study was carried out as a randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind study on 44 test subjects with blemished skin over a period of 8 weeks...

  2. Skin conditions: emerging drug-resistant skin infections and infestations. (United States)

    Zuniga, Ramiro; Nguyen, Tam


    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin infections are increasingly common. Automated microbiology systems are now available to detect MRSA and to determine antibiotic resistance patterns. Abscesses should be drained and antibiotics administered, with systemic antibiotics used to manage more severe infections. Until sensitivities are known and depending on local resistance rates, clindamycin is an option for empiric management of stable patients without bacteremia. For patients who are more ill, linezolid and vancomycin are alternatives, the latter being first-line treatment for children hospitalized with MRSA skin infections. Drug resistance also occurs in head lice management. Although topical permethrin is still the first-line drug management, its effectiveness has decreased due to permethrin-resistant strains. Patients who do not benefit from 2 applications of permethrin can be treated with topical malathion or topical ivermectin. Though not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treating head lice, oral ivermectin is sometimes used for difficult-to-treat cases. Permethrin is also the first-line management for scabies, though there is a concern that permethrin-resistant scabies may soon occur. For patients with scabies who do not benefit from topical treatment, oral ivermectin is recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, although it is not approved by the FDA for this purpose. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  3. Pred-Skin: A Fast and Reliable Web Application to Assess Skin Sensitization Effect of Chemicals. (United States)

    Braga, Rodolpho C; Alves, Vinicius M; Muratov, Eugene N; Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Trospsha, Alexander; Andrade, Carolina Horta


    Chemically induced skin sensitization is a complex immunological disease with a profound impact on quality of life and working ability. Despite some progress in developing alternative methods for assessing the skin sensitization potential of chemical substances, there is no in vitro test that correlates well with human data. Computational QSAR models provide a rapid screening approach and contribute valuable information for the assessment of chemical toxicity. We describe the development of a freely accessible web-based and mobile application for the identification of potential skin sensitizers. The application is based on previously developed binary QSAR models of skin sensitization potential from human (109 compounds) and murine local lymph node assay (LLNA, 515 compounds) data with good external correct classification rate (0.70-0.81 and 0.72-0.84, respectively). We also included a multiclass skin sensitization potency model based on LLNA data (accuracy ranging between 0.73 and 0.76). When a user evaluates a compound in the web app, the outputs are (i) binary predictions of human and murine skin sensitization potential; (ii) multiclass prediction of murine skin sensitization; and (iii) probability maps illustrating the predicted contribution of chemical fragments. The app is the first tool available that incorporates quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models based on human data as well as multiclass models for LLNA. The Pred-Skin web app version 1.0 is freely available for the web, iOS, and Android (in development) at the LabMol web portal ( ), in the Apple Store, and on Google Play, respectively. We will continuously update the app as new skin sensitization data and respective models become available.

  4. Does poor sleep quality affect skin ageing? (United States)

    Oyetakin-White, P; Suggs, A; Koo, B; Matsui, M S; Yarosh, D; Cooper, K D; Baron, E D


    Sleep is important for growth and renewal of multiple physiological systems. The effects of chronic poor sleep quality on human skin function and visible signs of ageing have not been elucidated. To evaluate the effect of chronic poor sleep quality on measures of skin health and ageing. Self-perceived satisfaction with appearance was also assessed. 60 healthy caucasian women, who were categorized as poor quality sleepers [Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) > 5, sleep duration ≤ 5 h] or good quality sleepers (PSQI ≤ 5, sleep duration 7-9 h). A validated clinical tool, SCINEXA(TM) , was used to assess intrinsic and extrinsic skin ageing. Dark under-eye circles were evaluated using standardized photos. Measurement of in vivo transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was used to assess recovery of the skin barrier after tape stripping. Subjects were exposed to simulated solar ultraviolet light, and recovery from erythema was monitored. Subjects also completed a questionnaire evaluating self-perception of attractiveness. Good sleepers had significantly lower intrinsic skin ageing scores by SCINEXA(TM) . At baseline, poor sleepers had significantly higher levels of TEWL. At 72 h after tape stripping, good sleepers had 30% greater barrier recovery compared with poor sleepers. At 24 h after exposure to ultraviolet light, good sleepers had significantly better recovery from erythema. Good sleepers also reported a significantly better perception of their appearance and physical attractiveness compared with poor sleepers. This study indicates that chronic poor sleep quality is associated with increased signs of intrinsic ageing, diminished skin barrier function and lower satisfaction with appearance. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. A multiscale analysis of frictional interaction between human skin and nonwoven fabrics


    Cottenden, D. J.


    Various hygiene products, notably incontinence pads, bring nonwoven “topsheet” fabrics into contact with individuals’ skin. This contact can damage the skin in various ways, including abrading it by friction, a mechanism enhanced by the presence of moisture. In recent years skin-nonwoven friction has been the subject of significant experimental study in the Continence and Skin Technology Group, UCL, in the course of which methods have been developed which can detect differences ...

  6. The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database. (United States)

    Lamberg, Anna Lei; Sølvsten, Henrik; Lei, Ulrikke; Vinding, Gabrielle Randskov; Stender, Ida Marie; Jemec, Gregor Borut Ernst; Vestergaard, Tine; Thormann, Henrik; Hædersdal, Merete; Dam, Tomas Norman; Olesen, Anne Braae


    The Danish Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database was established in 2008. The aim of this database was to collect data on nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) treatment and improve its treatment in Denmark. NMSC is the most common malignancy in the western countries and represents a significant challenge in terms of public health management and health care costs. However, high-quality epidemiological and treatment data on NMSC are sparse. The NMSC database includes patients with the following skin tumors: basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease, and keratoacanthoma diagnosed by the participating office-based dermatologists in Denmark. Clinical and histological diagnoses, BCC subtype, localization, size, skin cancer history, skin phototype, and evidence of metastases and treatment modality are the main variables in the NMSC database. Information on recurrence, cosmetic results, and complications are registered at two follow-up visits at 3 months (between 0 and 6 months) and 12 months (between 6 and 15 months) after treatment. In 2014, 11,522 patients with 17,575 tumors were registered in the database. Of tumors with a histological diagnosis, 13,571 were BCCs, 840 squamous cell carcinomas, 504 Bowen's disease, and 173 keratoakanthomas. The NMSC database encompasses detailed information on the type of tumor, a variety of prognostic factors, treatment modalities, and outcomes after treatment. The database has revealed that overall, the quality of care of NMSC in Danish dermatological clinics is high, and the database provides the necessary data for continuous quality assurance.

  7. Skin and Soft Tissue Infections. (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Kalyanakrishnan; Salinas, Robert C; Agudelo Higuita, Nelson Ivan


    Skin and soft tissue infections result from microbial invasion of the skin and its supporting structures. Management is determined by the severity and location of the infection and by patient comorbidities. Infections can be classified as simple (uncomplicated) or complicated (necrotizing or nonnecrotizing), or as suppurative or nonsuppurative. Most community-acquired infections are caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and beta-hemolytic streptococcus. Simple infections are usually monomicrobial and present with localized clinical findings. In contrast, complicated infections can be mono- or polymicrobial and may present with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The diagnosis is based on clinical evaluation. Laboratory testing may be required to confirm an uncertain diagnosis, evaluate for deep infections or sepsis, determine the need for inpatient care, and evaluate and treat comorbidities. Initial antimicrobial choice is empiric, and in simple infections should cover Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species. Patients with complicated infections, including suspected necrotizing fasciitis and gangrene, require empiric polymicrobial antibiotic coverage, inpatient treatment, and surgical consultation for debridement. Superficial and small abscesses respond well to drainage and seldom require antibiotics. Immunocompromised patients require early treatment and antimicrobial coverage for possible atypical organisms.

  8. [Physiological skin changes during pregnancy]. (United States)

    Schmutz, Jean-Luc


    A NATURAL PHENOMENON: Pregnancy is a period of hormone, immunological, metabolic and vascular changes. Modifications of the skin, mucosa and integuments are therefore physiological. The modifications are in pigmentation, but also affect nevi, the connective tissue, vessels and appendices. Modifications in pigmentation exist in more than 9 pregnancies out of 10 in the form of local melanosis. Melasma, also know as the 'pregnancy mask' or chloasma, is fairly rare. These disorders in pigmentation are also observed in black-skinned women. Changes in nevi (darker brown colour, increase in size) occur in around 15% of pregnancies. MODIFICATIONS IN CONNECTIVE TISSUE: Characterised by vergetures, affecting 60 to 90% of women, appear between the 6th and 8th month of pregnancy and for which there is no satisfactory treatment. Vascular modifications are generally proliferative and due to estrogen impregnation that affects the arteriolar and venous systems. Stellar angiomas are present in 50 to 70% of Caucasian women. Bilateral palmar erythema may also be associated with these angiomas. Varicose veins and varicosities of the lower limbs induced by excessive venous pressure are frequent, as well as oedema (salt-water retention, increased capillary permeability). MODIFICATIONS IN THE APPENDICES: These concern the activity of the sweat glands, the size of the sebaceous glands (Montgomery tubercles), the nails and hair growth.

  9. Precision Diagnosis Of Melanoma And Other Skin Lesions From Digital Images. (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Abhishek; Young, Albert; Wong, Andrew; Stalling, Simone; Wei, Maria; Hadley, Dexter


    Melanoma will affect an estimated 73,000 new cases this year and result in 9,000 deaths, yet precise diagnosis remains a serious problem. Without early detection and preventative care, melanoma can quickly spread to become fatal (Stage IV 5-year survival rate is 20-10%) from a once localized skin lesion (Stage IA 5- year survival rate is 97%). There is no biomarker for melanoma in clinical use, and the current diagnostic criteria for skin lesions remains subjective and imprecise. Accurate diagnosis of melanoma relies on a histopathologic gold standard; thus, aggressive excision of melanocytic skin lesions has been the mainstay of treatment. It is estimated that 36 biopsies are performed for every melanoma confirmed by pathology among excised lesions. There is significant morbidity in misdiagnosing melanoma such as progression of the disease for a false negative prediction vs the risks of unnecessary surgery for a false positive prediction. Every year, poor diagnostic precision adds an estimated $673 million in overall cost to manage the disease. Currently, manual dermatoscopic imaging is the standard of care in selecting atypical skin lesions for biopsy, and at best it achieves 90% sensitivity but only 59% specificity when performed by an expert dermatologist. Many computer vision (CV) algorithms perform better than dermatologists in classifying skin lesions although not significantly so in clinical practice. Meanwhile, open source deep learning (DL) techniques in CV have been gaining dominance since 2012 for image classification, and today DL can outperform humans in classifying millions of digital images with less than 5% error rates. Moreover, DL algorithms are readily run on commoditized hardware and have a strong online community of developers supporting their rapid adoption. In this work, we performed a successful pilot study to show proof of concept to DL skin pathology from images. However, DL algorithms must be trained on very large labelled datasets of

  10. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T


    Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings...... suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably...... pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic...

  11. Predicting Biological Age from a Skin Surface Capacitive Analysis (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Alessandro; Gherardi, Alessandro; Ferri, Massimo

    The skin is the largest (and the most exposed) organ of the body both in terms of surface area and weight. Its care is of great importance for both aesthetics and health issues. Often, the skin appearance gives us information about the skin health status as well as hints at the biological age. Therefore, the skin surface characterization is of great significance for dermatologists as well as for cosmetic scientists in order to evaluate the effectiveness of medical or cosmetic treatments. So far, no in vivo measurements regarding skin topography characterization could be achieved routinely to evaluate skin aging. This work describes how a portable capacitive device, normally used for fingerprint acquisition, can be utilized to achieve measures of skin aging routinely. The capacitive images give a high resolution (50 μm) representation of skin topography, in terms of wrinkles and cells. In this work, we have addressed the latter: through image segmentation techniques, cells have been localized and identified and a feature related to their area distribution has been generated. Accurate experiments accomplished in vivo show how the feature we conceived is linearly related to skin aging. Besides, since this finding has been achieved using a low cost portable device, this could boost research in this field as well as open doors to an application based on an embedded system.

  12. Skin cancer recognition by using a neuro-fuzzy system. (United States)

    Salah, Bareqa; Alshraideh, Mohammad; Beidas, Rasha; Hayajneh, Ferial


    Skin cancer is the most prevalent cancer in the light-skinned population and it is generally caused by exposure to ultraviolet light. Early detection of skin cancer has the potential to reduce mortality and morbidity. There are many diagnostic technologies and tests to diagnose skin cancer. However many of these tests are extremely complex and subjective and depend heavily on the experience of the clinician. To obviate these problems, image processing techniques, a neural network system (NN) and a fuzzy inference system were used in this study as promising modalities for detection of different types of skin cancer. The accuracy rate of the diagnosis of skin cancer by using the hierarchal neural network was 90.67% while using neuro-fuzzy system yielded a slightly higher rate of accuracy of 91.26% in diagnosis skin cancer type. The sensitivity of NN in diagnosing skin cancer was 95%, while the specificity was 88%. Skin cancer diagnosis by neuro-fuzzy system achieved sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 89%.

  13. Skin in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Sujata


    Full Text Available Screening for cutaneous disorders was undertaken in 1,175 pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic. Skin disease or STD being encountered in 114 (9.7%. Pruritus was present in 7.1 percent and was mostly due to candidiadis. The physiological skin changes were frequently observed. Candidiasis was by far the commonest infection with a 2.9 percent incidence. Syphilis was the commonest STD followed by Donovanosis and condyloma acuminata. Specific pregnancy dermatoses were seen in 1.5 percent and included prurigo gestationis, pruritic urticarial papules and plaques (PUPPP and pruritus gravidarum.

  14. Nicotinamide and the skin. (United States)

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L


    Nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3, boosts cellular energy and regulates poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1, an enzyme with important roles in DNA repair and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide shows promise for the treatment of a wide range of dermatological conditions, including autoimmune blistering disorders, acne, rosacea, ageing skin and atopic dermatitis. In particular, recent studies have also shown it to be a potential agent for reducing actinic keratoses and preventing skin cancers. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  15. Aerobic training increases skin perfusion by a nitric oxide mechanism in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colberg SR


    Full Text Available Sheri R Colberg1, Laura C Hill2, Henri K Parson3, Kathleen S Thomas1, Aaron I Vinik31Old Dominion University, Norfolk; 2State University of New York at Cortland, New York; 3Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VirginiaAbstract: It is well known that a number of locally released vasodilatory and ­vasoconstrictive ­compounds can affect skin perfusion. This study investigated the effects of aerobic training on the contribution of nitric oxide (NO, prostaglandins (PG, and endothelial-derived ­hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF in stimulated dorsal foot skin perfusion in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM. Ten previously sedentary, older individuals with T2DM (57.0 ± 3.1 years and nine sedentary controls (53.5 ± 3.2 years were tested before and after undertaking six months of moderate a­erobic training three times weekly in a supervised setting. All subjects underwent measurement of ­baseline (32°C and heat-stimulated (40°C and 44°C dorsal foot skin perfusion starting one hour after ­ingestion of a single, oral 325 mg dose of aspirin, a known inhibitor of PG synthesis. Before aspirin ­ingestion, a subcutaneous microdialysis probe was inserted into each foot dorsum to administer either saline (PG pathway only blocked by aspirin in the left foot or L-NAME (N(G-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester; thereby inhibiting both PG and NO pathways in the right foot. Normative data collected previously on subjects undergoing saline administration via ­microdialysis without aspirin ingestion served as a control group. Significantly lower responsiveness of maximal perfusion was found with the EDHF pathway alone unblocked compared with NO and EDHF unblocked after training. Maximal suppression attributable directly to NO, PG, and EDHF was not significantly different when examined by subject group and training status. However, ­contributions of NO, PG, and EDHF to maximal perfusion were significantly increased, decreased, and unchanged by aerobic training

  16. Skin friction under pressure. The role of micromechanics (United States)

    Leyva-Mendivil, Maria F.; Lengiewicz, Jakub; Limbert, Georges


    The role of contact pressure on skin friction has been documented in multiple experimental studies. Skin friction significantly raises in the low-pressure regime as load increases while, after a critical pressure value is reached, the coefficient of friction of skin against an external surface becomes mostly insensitive to contact pressure. However, up to now, no study has elucidated the qualitative and quantitative nature of the interplay between contact pressure, the material and microstructural properties of the skin, the size of an indenting slider and the resulting measured macroscopic coefficient of friction. A mechanistic understanding of these aspects is essential for guiding the rational design of products intended to interact with the skin through optimally-tuned surface and/or microstructural properties. Here, an anatomically-realistic 2D multi-layer finite element model of the skin was embedded within a computational contact homogenisation procedure. The main objective was to investigate the sensitivity of macroscopic skin friction to the parameters discussed above, in addition to the local (i.e. microscopic) coefficient of friction defined at skin asperity level. This was accomplished via the design of a large-scale computational experiment featuring 312 analyses. Results confirmed the potentially major role of finite deformations of skin asperities on the resulting macroscopic friction. This effect was shown to be modulated by the level of contact pressure and relative size of skin surface asperities compared to those of a rigid slider. The numerical study also corroborated experimental observations concerning the existence of two contact pressure regimes where macroscopic friction steeply and non-linearly increases up to a critical value, and then remains approximately constant as pressure increases further. The proposed computational modelling platform offers attractive features which are beyond the reach of current analytical models of skin

  17. Differentiation between Acute Skin Rejection in Allotransplantation and T-Cell Mediated Skin Inflammation Based on Gene Expression Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Wolfram


    Full Text Available Advances in microsurgical techniques and immunosuppressive medication have rendered transplantation of vascularized composite allografts possible, when autologous tissue is neither available nor sufficient for reconstruction. However, skin rejection and side effects of long-term immunosuppression still remain a major hurdle for wide adoption of this excellent reconstructive technique. Histopathologic changes during acute skin rejection in vascular composite allotransplantation often mimic inflammatory skin disorders and are hard to distinguish. Hence, the identification of diagnostic and therapeutic markers specific for skin rejection is of particular clinical need. Here we present novel markers allowing for early differentiation between rejection in hind limb allotransplantation and contact hypersensitivity. Assessment of Ccl7, Il18, and Il1b expression is most indicative of distinguishing skin rejection from skin inflammatory disorders. Gene expression levels varied significantly across skin types and regions, indicating localization specific mechanism of leukocyte migration and infiltration. Expression of Il12b, Il17a, and Il1b gene expression levels differed significantly between rejection and inflammation, independent of the skin type. In synopsis of the RNA expression profile and previously assessed protein expression, the Il1 family appears as a promising option for accurate skin rejection diagnosis and, as a following step, for development of novel rejection treatments.

  18. Does wearing thermal underwear in mild cold affect skin temperatures and perceived thermal sensation in the hands and feet of the elderly? (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Kim, Myung-Ju; Choi, Jeong-Wha; Stone, Eric A; Hauver, Richard A


    The present study was to investigate whether increasing thermal insulation affects thermal sensation in the hands and feet; and whether aging is an influential factor in the relationship between thermal responses and subjective thermal perceptions. Six young males (YM), 5 young females (YF), 6 elderly males (OM), and 6 elderly females (OF) volunteered as subjects. Subjects conducted two trials at a constant air temperature of 19 degrees C: One condition included thermal underwear (19CUW) while the other did not (19C). The results showed that (1) rectal temperature (T(re)) did not show any significant differences between conditions with and without thermal underwear. The T(re) of the OF was greater than that of the YF (pcold did not affect local skin temperatures and thermal sensation in the hands and feet for the elderly male and female groups. Adding thermal underwear in mild cold affected the hand skin temperature and thermal sensation of the young female group. In particular, elderly females had specific features concerning local skin temperatures and thermal sensations distinguished from elderly males and young groups.

  19. Coverage error of commercial skin pigments as compared to human facial skin tones. (United States)

    Hungerford, Elizabeth; Beatty, Mark W; Marx, David B; Simetich, Bobby; Wee, Alvin G


    It is unknown if present-day pigments used for intrinsic colouration of maxillofacial prostheses are representative of human facial skin tones. This study's purpose was to measure L*a*b* values of pigmented elastomers coloured by eleven skin tone pigments and determine coverage error (CE) when the pigments were compared to human facial lip and nose colour data. 11 skin tone pigments were combined at 0.1%, 1% and 10% by weight with A-2186 elastomer (n=3). L*a*b* values were measured with a spectrophotometer and group means were used to calculate ΔE* colour differences with each L*a*b* value obtained for human nose and lip. Pigmented elastomer CEs were calculated for nose and lip. Results were compared to CEs for proposed shade guide colours obtained from clustering analyses of facial skin colours. L* values of pigmented elastomers generally were higher than those measured for nose and lip, whereas a* values were lower. CEs for pigmented elastomers were higher than those obtained from the proposed shade guide obtained from clustered skin measurements. Overall, the current commercial elastomers appeared to be too white and not red enough to adequately match the skin tones of the subject population. Adjustments must be made to the existing pigmenting system in order to adequately match the skin colours of the study population. The creation of a shade guide and a collection of intrinsic pigments representing the realm of human facial skin colours would greatly decrease the time a patient must sit while the clinician is obtaining an acceptable colour match for the silicone to be used for processing the final prosthesis, thereby increasing both patient satisfaction and clinician productivity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Measuring skin conductance over clothes. (United States)

    Hong, Ki Hwan; Lee, Seung Min; Lim, Yong Gyu; Park, Kwang Suk


    We propose a new method that measures skin conductance over clothes to nonintrusively monitor the changes in physiological conditions affecting skin conductance during daily activities. We selected the thigh-to-thigh current path and used an indirectly coupled 5-kHz AC current for the measurement. While varying the skin conductance by the Valsalva maneuver method, the results were compared with the traditional galvanic skin response (GSR) measured directly from the fingers. Skin conductance measured using a 5-kHz current displayed a highly negative correlation with the traditional GSR and the current measured over clothes reflected the rate of change of the conductance of the skin beneath.

  1. Treated-skin temperature regularities revealed by IR thermography (United States)

    Vainer, Boris G.


    Experimental results disclosing temperature change of human skin affected by various unnatural factors are presented in detail. Thermograms are obtained with the IR thermograph containing high performance InAs CID FPA-based photosensitive unit. Using logarithmic scale of time, evolution of skin temperature after moistening, spirit sponging, and olive oil lubrication is investigated. A comparative analysis of the resulting effects of treatments including alpha-hydroxy acid, cosmetic regenerating cream, spirit, and water, is made. Quantitative distinctions between skin regions characterized by ordinary, and depleted blood supply, including areas located directly above surface main vessels, are revealed. Strongly logarithmic time- dependence of a skin temperature is discovered when the skin is cooled down after its preliminary heating with a hot wax. Non-monotonic change of a local temperature during electrically active procedure is described. Low level light therapy equipment is also applied. A special role of the temperature of nose is discussed.

  2. Preliminary characterization of human skin microbiome in healthy Egyptian individuals. (United States)

    Ramadan, M; Solyman, S; Taha, M; Hanora, A


    Human skin is a large, complex ecosystem that harbors diverse microbial communities. The rapid advances in molecular techniques facilitate the exploration of skin associated bacterial populations. The objective of this study was to perform a preliminary characterization of skin associated bacterial populations in Egyptian individuals. Samples were collected from five healthy subjects from two skin sites; Antecubital Fossa (AF) and Popliteal Fossa (PF). Genomic DNA was extracted and used to amplify bacterial 16S rRNA genes which were sequenced on Illumina MiSeq platform. The two sites showed distinct diversity where PF was more diverse than AF. Taxonomic analysis of sequences revealed four main phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Deinococcus-Thermus, with Proteobacteria presenting the highest diversity. Klebsiella, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Escherichia were the most predominant genera. Our data suggest that environmental factors can shape the composition of the skin microbiome in certain geographical regions. This study presents a new insight for subsequent analyses of human microbiome in Egypt.

  3. Micro-fractional epidermal powder delivery for improved skin vaccination. (United States)

    Chen, Xinyuan; Kositratna, Garuna; Zhou, Chang; Manstein, Dieter; Wu, Mei X


    Skin vaccination has gained increasing attention in the last two decades due to its improved potency compared to intramuscular vaccination. Yet, the technical difficulty and frequent local reactions hamper its broad application in the clinic. In the current study, micro-fractional epidermal powder delivery (EPD) is developed to facilitate skin vaccination and minimize local adverse effects. EPD is based on ablative fractional laser or microneedle treatment of the skin to generate microchannel (MC) arrays in the epidermis followed by topical application of powder drug/vaccine-coated array patches to deliver drug/vaccine into the skin. The novel EPD delivered more than 80% sulforhodamine b (SRB) and model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) into murine, swine, and human skin within 1h. EPD of OVA induced anti-OVA antibody titer at a level comparable to intradermal (ID) injection and was much more efficient than tape stripping in both delivery efficiency and immune responses. Strikingly, the micro-fractional delivery significantly reduced local side effects of LPS/CpG adjuvant and BCG vaccine, leading to complete skin recovery. In contrast, ID injection induced severe local reactions that persisted for weeks. While reducing local reactogenicity, EPD of OVA/LPS/CpG and BCG vaccine generated a comparable humoral immune response to ID injection. EPD of vaccinia virus encoding OVA induced significantly higher and long-lasting interferon γ-secreting CD8+ T cells than ID injection. In conclusion, EPD represents a promising technology for needle-free, painless skin vaccination with reduced local reactogenicity and at least sustained immunogenicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Measurement of interstitial cetirizine concentrations in human skin: correlation of drug levels with inhibition of histamine-induced skin responses. (United States)

    Petersen, L J; Church, M K; Rihoux, J P; Skov, P S


    The purpose of the present study was to measure the concentrations of cetirizine in the extracellular water compartment in intact human skin and assess simultaneously inhibition of histamine-induced wheal and flare reactions. Skin cetirizine levels were collected by the microdialysis technique and analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Skin levels in 20 subjects were compared to plasma levels for 4 h after a single oral dose of 10 or 20 mg of cetirizine. Skin prick tests were performed with histamine 100 mg/ml. Plasma cetirizine levels increased within 30 min to reach peak values of 315+/-10 and 786+/-45 ng/ml 90-120 min after administration of 10 and 20 mg of cetirizine. This was followed by a slow decline. In the skin, dialysate cetirizine levels (non-protein-bound fraction only) peaked at 1.6+/-0.1 and 2.4+/-0.3 ng/ml at 120-180 min. In vivo recovery of cetirizine was 14.4+/-4.3%. It was estimated that the non-protein-bound concentration of cetirizine in the skin was 50-70% of corresponding plasma values. Both 10- and 20-mg doses of cetirizine inhibited wheal and flare reactions over 240 min. The time vs concentration profile of cetirizine in skin dialysate paralleled the inhibition of skin reactions, but no significant correlations were found between individual cetirizine levels in skin or plasma with wheal and flare reactions. Cetirizine concentrations in the skin could be monitored by the microdialysis technique. The results indicate no simple linear correlation between cetirizine skin levels and inhibition of skin reactions.

  5. Preventing Skin Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    A man and a woman talk about how they’ve learned to protect their skin from the sun over the years. .  Created: 5/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/18/2016.

  6. Stress and the skin. (United States)

    Reich, A; Wójcik-Maciejewicz, A; Slominski, A T


    Emotional stress can affect, reveal or even exacerbate a number of skin disorders including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, pruritus, alopecia areata, lichen planus, seborrheic dermatitis, rosacea or urticaria, although the direct pathophysiologic link between stress factors and cutaneous disease manifestation remains unclear. However, there is an increasing evidence that stress influences disease processes and contributes to the inflammation through modulating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and releasing neuropeptides, neurotrophins, lymphokines and other chemical mediators from nerve endings and dermal cells. The central role in cellular skin reactivity to various stressors might be attributed to dermal mast cells, as they show close connections with sensory nerve endings and may release a huge number of proinflammatory mediators. However, many other cells also actively take part in skin response to stress. Although our knowledge is still not complete, one of the most distinct aspect is that the skin, endocrine, nervous and immune systems cannot longer be treated autonomously, but have to be considered as a large multidirectional complex of which interacting nature is still poorly understood.

  7. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Melanoma Book Clinical Trials Download a Skin Self-Exam Card Download a Patient Navigation Card Events, Webinars & Videos Events, Webinars & Videos Melanoma Patient Video Events Host an Event Past Webinars Upcoming Webinars Volunteer Blog Blog Melanoma? The ...

  8. Parasites and the skin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 11, 2009 ... basin, the Caribbean and Latin America. It is transmitted by the bite of the phlebotomus sandfly. Dogs and rodents are the intermediate hosts. There are three forms of leishmaniasis: • cutaneous leishmaniasis, which is restricted to the skin and is seen more often in the old world, as seen in our patient.

  9. Skin Conditions during Pregnancy (United States)

    ... the navel to pubic hair that darkens during pregnancy. Melasma: A common skin problem that causes brown to gray-brown patches on the face. Also known as “chloasma” or “mask of pregnancy.” Rectum: The last part of the digestive tract. ...

  10. Squamous cell skin cancer (United States)

    ... squamous cell cancer include: Having light-colored skin, blue or green eyes, or blond or red hair Long-term, daily sun exposure (such as in people who work outside) Many severe sunburns early in life Older age Having had many x-rays Chemical exposure A weakened immune system, especially in ...

  11. Dyspigmentation, skin physiology, and a novel approach to skin lightening. (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe; Dahl, Amanda; Yatskayer, Margarita; Chen, Nannan; Krol, Yevgeniy; Oresajo, Christian


    Even facial pigmentation is considered a universal sign of youth and beauty in all cultures and at all ages in both men and women. The recent FDA concern about the safety of topical hydroquinone has provided the impetus for research into new pigment lightening alternatives in the cosmetic OTC market. This research examined a novel hydroxyphenoxy propionic acid, ellagic acid, yeast extract, and salicylic acid formulation applied twice daily compared to the standard prescription combination of 4% hydroquinone cream and 0.025% tretinoin cream applied nightly. This single-center investigator-blinded 12 week study enrolled 82 subjects (7 male, 75 female) ages 25-60 years divided into 2 balanced groups of 41 subjects each with one group using a novel hydroxyphenoxy propionic acid, ellagic acid, yeast extract, and salicylic acid formulation applied twice daily compared to the standard prescription combination of 4% hydroquinone cream and 0.025% tretinoin cream applied nightly. Significant tolerability issues arose with the prescription combinations that were not seen with the cosmetic formulation. In terms of ability to even skin tone, decrease spot intensity, decrease spot size, and improve overall pigmentation, both products demonstrated parity. This research demonstrated the value of cosmetic formulations as part of a treatment regimen for pigmentation issues. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Evaluation of out-in skin transparency using a colorimeter and food dye in patients with atopic dermatitis. (United States)

    Mochizuki, H; Tadaki, H; Takami, S; Muramatsu, R; Hagiwara, S; Mizuno, T; Arakawa, H


    Atopic dermatitis is a disease of skin barrier dysfunction and outside stimuli can cross the skin barrier. To examine a new method for evaluating the outside to inside skin transparency with a colorimeter and yellow dyes. In study 1, a total of 28 volunteer subjects (24 normal and four with atopic dermatitis) participated. After provocation with yellow dye, the skin colour of all the subjects was measured using a colorimeter. The skin transparency index was calculated by the changes of the skin colour to yellow. Other variables of skin function, including transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum hydration, were also measured. In study 2, the skin transparency index was evaluated for a cohort of 38 patients with atopic dermatitis, 27 subjects with dry skin and 29 healthy controls. In study 1, the measurement of skin colour (b*) using tartrazine showed good results. There was a significant relationship between the skin transparency index with tartrazine and the atopic dermatitis score (P = 0.014). No other measurements of skin function, including the TEWL, were correlated. In study 2, the skin transparency index score obtained with tartrazine in the patients with atopic dermatitis was significantly higher than that of the controls and those with dry skin (P < 0.001 and P = 0.022, respectively). However, the TEWL in patients with atopic dermatitis was not significantly higher than that of patients with dry skin and the TEWL in subjects with dry skin was not higher than that of the controls. This method, which used a colorimeter and food dye, is noninvasive, safe and reliable for the evaluation of out-in skin transparency and can demonstrate the characteristic dysfunction in the skin barrier in patients with atopic dermatitis.

  13. Tips for Relieving Dry Skin (United States)

    ... skin include lactic acid, urea, hyaluronic acid, dimethicone, glycerin, lanolin, mineral oil, and petrolatum. Tip: Carry a ... using: Deodorant soaps Skin care products that contain alcohol, fragrance, retinoids, or alpha-hydroxy acid (AHA) Avoiding ...

  14. Candida infection of the skin (United States)

    ... this page: // Candida infection of the skin To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Candida infection of the skin is a yeast infection ...

  15. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer (United States)

    ... involves the cells that produce the skin pigment melanin, which is responsible for skin and hair color. ... acted like a carrier pigeon to deliver a gene encoding a specific protein, called a T cell ...

  16. Skin aging and oxidative stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahsanuddin, Sayeeda; Lam, Minh; D. Baron, Elma


    .... Here, we review the critical role that oxidative stress plays in skin aging, including its effects on signaling pathways involved in skin matrix formation and degradation, proteasome activity, as well as DNA structure...

  17. Penile Reconstruction with Skin Grafts and Dermal Matrices: Indications and Management. (United States)

    Triana Junco, Paloma; Dore, Mariela; Nuñez Cerezo, Vanesa; Jimenez Gomez, Javier; Miguel Ferrero, Miriam; Díaz González, Mercedes; Lopez-Pereira, Pedro; Lopez-Gutierrez, Juan Carlos


    Introduction  The penis eventually needs specific cutaneous coverage in the context of reconstructive procedures following trauma or congenital anomalies. Local flaps are the first choice but are not always available after multiple previous procedures. In these cases, skin graft and dermal matrices should be considered. Materials and Methods  This study was a retrospective review of the past 4 years of four patients with severe loss of penile shaft skin who underwent skin reconstruction. Dermal matrices and skin grafts were utilized. Dermal matrices were placed for a median of 4.5 weeks (3.0-6.0 weeks). The skin graft was harvested from the inner thigh region for split-thickness skin graft (STSG) and the inguinal region for full-thickness skin graft (FTSG). Results  The four patients presented with complete loss of skin in the penile shaft. One patient had a vesical exstrophy, one had a buried penis with only one corpus cavernosum, one had a wide congenital lymphedema of the genitalia, and one had a lack of skin following circumcision at home. They underwent reconstruction with three patients undergoing split-thickness skin graft; two dermal matrices; and one full-thickness graft, respectively, thereby achieving a good cosmetic and functional result. There were no complications, and all the patients successfully accepted the graft. Conclusion  Dermal matrices and skin grafts may serve as effective tools in the management of severe penile skin defects unable to be covered with local flaps.

  18. Colloidal Oatmeal (Avena Sativa) Improves Skin Barrier Through Multi-Therapy Activity. (United States)

    Ilnytska, Olha; Kaur, Simarna; Chon, Suhyoun; Reynertson, Kurt A; Nebus, Judith; Garay, Michelle; Mahmood, Khalid; Southall, Michael D


    Oats (Avena sativa) are a centuries-old topical treatment for a variety of skin barrier conditions, including dry skin, skin rashes, and eczema; however, few studies have investigated the actual mechanism of action for the skin barrier strengthening activity of colloidal oatmeal. Four extracts of colloidal oatmeal were prepared with various solvents and tested in vitro for skin barrier related gene expression and activity. Extracts of colloidal oatmeal were found to induce the expression of genes related to epidermal differentiation, tight junctions and lipid regulation in skin, and provide pH-buffering capacity. Colloidal oatmeal boosted the expression of multiple target genes related to skin barrier, and resulted in recovery of barrier damage in an in vitro model of atopic dermatitis. In addition, an investigator-blinded study was performed with 50 healthy female subjects who exhibited bilateral moderate to severe dry skin on their lower legs. Subjects were treated with a colloidal oatmeal skin protectant lotion. Clinically, the colloidal oatmeal lotion showed significant clinical improvements in skin dryness, moisturization, and barrier. Taken together, these results demonstrate that colloidal oatmeal can provide clinically effective benefits for dry and compromised skin by strengthening skin barrier. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(6):684-690.

  19. The spectrum of skin diseases in a rural setting in Cameroon (sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bissek Anne-Cécile


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin disorders are generally considered to be more prevalent in the rural areas of Cameroon. This study was carried out to verify this assumption by describing the spectrum of skin disorders in a rural setting of Cameroon. Methods We carried out a community-based clinical skin examination of 400 consenting subjects from 4 villages of Cameroon: Nyamanga (27%, Yebekolo (24%, Mbangassina (23% and Bilomo (26%. Results The overall prevalence of skin diseases in our sample was 62% {95% CI: 57.2%, 66.8%} (248/400. The commonest skin disorders were: fungal infections (25.4%, parasitic infestations (21.4%, atrophic skin disorders (11.7%, hypertrophic skin disorders (9.7%, disorders of skin appendages {acne} (8.9%, benign neoplasm (6.5%, bacterial skin infections (5.2%, pigmentation disorders (4.8%, and dermatitis/eczema (4.0%. Skin infections and infestations constituted 52.82% of all skin disorders. The overall prevalence of infectious and parasitic infestation was 32.75% {95%CI: 28.17%, 37.59%} (131/400 as against 29.25% {95%CI: 24.83%, 33.98%} (117/400 for non-infectious disorders. Among people with skin infections/parasitic infestations, those with fungal infections and onchocercal skin lesions were the most prevalent, accounting for 48.1% (63/131 and 35.1% (46/131; and an overall prevalence of 15.75% {95%CI: 12.3%, 19.7%} (63/400 and 11.5% {95%CI: 8.5%, 15.0%} (46/400 respectively. There was secondary bacterial infection in 12.1% {95%CI: 8.31%, 16.82%} (30/248 of subjects with skin diseases. Hypertrophic and atrophic disorders of the skin were mainly keloids (9.68%, scarification marks (6.05% and burn scars (5.65%. Skin diseases like dermatitis and eczema (4.03%, malignant tumours and pigmentation disorders were rare in our sample. The proportion of subjects diagnosed with skin disorders after examination (62.8% was significantly higher than the proportion of 40.8% that declared having skin diseases (p  Conclusion The

  20. Skin sensitization potency and cross-reactivity of p-phenylenediamine and its derivatives evaluated by non-radioactive murine local lymph node assay and guinea-pig maximization test. (United States)

    Yamano, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Mitsuru


    p-Phenylenediamine (PPD)-related chemicals have been used as antioxidants in rubber products, and many cases of contact dermatitis caused by these chemicals have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate relative sensitizing potency and cross-reactivity among PPD derivatives. Five PPD derivatives, p-aminodiphenylamine (PADPA), N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPPD), N-isopropyl-N'-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine (IPPD), N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N'-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMBPPD), N-(1-methylheptyl)-N'-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine (MHPPD), and the core chemical PPD were evaluated for their sensitizing potency and cross-reactivity using the non-radioactive murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and the guinea-pig maximization test (GPMT). PPD and all the derivatives were identified as primary sensitizers in both tests. The order of potency in the LLNA was as follows: IPPD and PADPA > PPD > DMBPPD and MHPPD > DPPD. In the GPMT, all six groups of animals sensitized with one of these chemicals cross-reacted to four other derivatives. Specifically, the five groups that have a common basic PADPA structure, that is PADPA, DPPD, IPPD, DMBPPD, and MHPPD, all reacted to each other at almost the same scores, while none of them reacted to PPD. The cross-reactivity profile found in the study was to some extent different from that in previous human data, where distinction between cross-reaction and concomitant primary sensitization is not always clear.

  1. In vivo optical elastography: stress and strain imaging of human skin lesions (United States)

    Es'haghian, Shaghayegh; Gong, Peijun; Kennedy, Kelsey M.; Wijesinghe, Philip; Sampson, David D.; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Kennedy, Brendan F.


    Probing the mechanical properties of skin at high resolution could aid in the assessment of skin pathologies by, for example, detecting the extent of cancerous skin lesions and assessing pathology in burn scars. Here, we present two elastography techniques based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) to probe the local mechanical properties of skin. The first technique, optical palpation, is a high-resolution tactile imaging technique, which uses a complaint silicone layer positioned on the tissue surface to measure spatially-resolved stress imparted by compressive loading. We assess the performance of optical palpation, using a handheld imaging probe on a skin-mimicking phantom, and demonstrate its use on human skin. The second technique is a strain imaging technique, phase-sensitive compression OCE that maps depth-resolved mechanical variations within skin. We show preliminary results of in vivo phase-sensitive compression OCE on a human skin lesion.

  2. Skin Detection of Animation Characters


    Kazi Tanvir Ahmed Siddiqui; Abu Wasif


    The increasing popularity of animes makes it vulnerable to unwanted usages like copyright violations and pornography. That’s why, we need to develop a method to detect and recognize animation characters. Skin detection is one of the most important steps in this way. Though there are some methods to detect human skin color, but those methods do not work properly for anime characters. Anime skin varies greatly from human skin in color, texture, tone and in different kinds of lightin...

  3. A novel image processing workflow for the in vivo quantification of skin microvasculature using dynamic optical coherence tomography. (United States)

    Zugaj, D; Chenet, A; Petit, L; Vaglio, J; Pascual, T; Piketty, C; Bourdes, V


    Currently, imaging technologies that can accurately assess or provide surrogate markers of the human cutaneous microvessel network are limited. Dynamic optical coherence tomography (D-OCT) allows the detection of blood flow in vivo and visualization of the skin microvasculature. However, image processing is necessary to correct images, filter artifacts, and exclude irrelevant signals. The objective of this study was to develop a novel image processing workflow to enhance the technical capabilities of D-OCT. Single-center, vehicle-controlled study including healthy volunteers aged 18-50 years. A capsaicin solution was applied topically on the subject's forearm to induce local inflammation. Measurements of capsaicin-induced increase in dermal blood flow, within the region of interest, were performed by laser Doppler imaging (LDI) (reference method) and D-OCT. Sixteen subjects were enrolled. A good correlation was shown between D-OCT and LDI, using the image processing workflow. Therefore, D-OCT offers an easy-to-use alternative to LDI, with good repeatability, new robust morphological features (dermal-epidermal junction localization), and quantification of the distribution of vessel size and changes in this distribution induced by capsaicin. The visualization of the vessel network was improved through bloc filtering and artifact removal. Moreover, the assessment of vessel size distribution allows a fine analysis of the vascular patterns. The newly developed image processing workflow enhances the technical capabilities of D-OCT for the accurate detection and characterization of microcirculation in the skin. A direct clinical application of this image processing workflow is the quantification of the effect of topical treatment on skin vascularization. © 2018 The Authors. Skin Research and Technology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Transcranial cerebral oximetry in random normal subjects (United States)

    Misra, Mukesh; Stark, Jennifer; Dujovny, Manuel; Alp, M. Serdar; Widman, Ronald; Ausman, James I.


    Near infrared optical spectroscopy is becoming a useful method for monitoring regional cerebral oxygenation status. The method is simple, reliable and noninvasive and the information which it provides is clinically significant in managing a growing number of neurological ailments. Use of this technique has been described previously by numerous authors. In the present study, regional cerebral oxygen saturation was measured at rest in 94 subjects randomly elected from a diverse population of individuals. This sample consisted of 38 males and 65 females, with the age ranging from 18 - 70. There were 68 light-skinned individuals and 35 with darker skin comprising various ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Mean regional cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation was recorded as 67.14 plus or minus 8.84%. The association of the mean regional cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation in various group of individuals in relationship of their age, race, sex and skin color is examined.

  5. Prototype tactile feedback system for examination by skin touch. (United States)

    Lee, O; Lee, K; Oh, C; Kim, K; Kim, M


    Diagnosis of conditions such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, in the case of induration, involves palpating the infected area via hands and then selecting a ratings score. However, the score is determined based on the tester's experience and standards, making it subjective. To provide tactile feedback on the skin, we developed a prototype tactile feedback system to simulate skin wrinkles with PHANToM OMNI. To provide the user with tactile feedback on skin wrinkles, a visual and haptic Augmented Reality system was developed. First, a pair of stereo skin images obtained by a stereo camera generates a disparity map of skin wrinkles. Second, the generated disparity map is sent to an implemented tactile rendering algorithm that computes a reaction force according to the user's interaction with the skin image. We first obtained a stereo image of skin wrinkles from the in vivo stereo imaging system, which has a baseline of 50.8 μm, and obtained the disparity map with a graph cuts algorithm. The left image is displayed on the monitor to enable the user to recognize the location visually. The disparity map of the skin wrinkle image sends skin wrinkle information as a tactile response to the user through a haptic device. We successfully developed a tactile feedback system for virtual skin wrinkle simulation by means of a commercialized haptic device that provides the user with a single point of contact to feel the surface roughness of a virtual skin sample. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Measurement of skin temperature after infrared laser stimulation. (United States)

    Leandri, M; Saturno, M; Spadavecchia, L; Iannetti, G D; Cruccu, G; Truini, A


    Several types of lasers are available for eliciting laser evoked responses (LEPs). In order to understand advantages and drawbacks of each one, and to use it properly, it is important that the pattern of skin heating is known and duly considered. This study was aimed at assessing the skin temperature during and immediately after irradiation with pulses by Nd:YAP and CO(2) lasers. The back of the non-dominant hand was irradiated in 8 subjects. Temperatures were measured by a fast analogical pyrometer (5 ms response time). Stimuli were tested on natural colour (white) and blackened skin. Nd:YAP pulses yielded temperatures that were correlated with pulse energy, but not with pulse duration; much higher temperatures were obtained irradiating blackened skin than white skin (ranges 100-194 degrees C vs 35-46 degrees C). Temperature decay was extremely slow in white skin, reaching its basal value in more than 30 s. CO(2) pulses delivered with power of 3W and 6W yielded temperatures of 69-87 degrees C on white skin, and 138-226 degrees C on blackened skin. Temperature decay was very fast (4-8 ms). Differences in peak temperatures and decay times between lasers and tested conditions depend on energy and volume of heated skin. The highest temperatures are reached with lesser degree of penetration, as in the case of CO(2) laser and blackened skin. Taking into account the temperature decay time of the skin, the minimum interstimulus interval to get reliable LEPs should be no less than 10 s for Nd:YAP and 100 ms for CO(2) laser. Another important practical consequence of the heating pattern is that the Nd:YAP pulses will activate warmth receptors more easily than CO(2).

  7. Skin simulators for dermatological procedures


    Wang, Xiaojie; Albahrani, Yasser; Pan, Michael; Levitt, Jacob


    Background: A variety of skin simulators are available on which to practice procedures; however, choice of a suboptimal substitute compromises realism and productive practice. Objective: Skin simulators for basic dermatological procedures are reviewed. Methods: The authors’ anecdotal experience with various skin simulators for different procedures is shared. Results: The following simulators are suggested:  an unripe banana ...

  8. Skin disorders affecting the feet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skin disorders on the feet can affect the glabrous skin on the dorsal aspects, or the thick skin on the plantar aspects, thereof, or both. Some can affect one foot, and others both of them. These diseases can be inflammatory, genetically inherited, infectious and neoplastic in origin. It is important to identify them and to.

  9. Maintaining Healthy Skin -- Part 1 (United States)

    ... problems. Tips for maintaining good skin care: Avoid soaps labeled "antibacterial" or "antimicrobial." These tend to reduce the skin's acidity, which acts as a protection from infection. Keep the skin clean and dry. Wash with soap and water daily, then rinse and dry thoroughly. ...

  10. Design of flexible skin based on a mixed cruciform honeycomb (United States)

    Rong, Jiaxin; Zhou, Li


    As the covering of morphing wings, flexible skin is required to provide adequate cooperation deformation, keep the smoothness of the aerodynamic configuration and bear the air load. The non-deformation direction of flexible skin is required to be restrained to keep the smoothness during morphing. This paper studies the deformation mechanisms of a cruciform honeycomb under zero Poisson's ratio constraint. The morphing capacity and in-plane modulus of the cruciform honeycomb are improved by optimizing the shape parameters of honeycomb unit. To improve the out-of-plane bending capacity, a zero Poisson's ratio mixed cruciform honeycomb is proposed by adding ribs into cruciform honeycomb, which can be used as filling material of flexible skin. The mechanical properties of the mixed honeycomb are studied by theoretical analysis and simulation. The local deformation of flexible skin under air load is also analyzed. Targeting the situation of non-uniform air load, a gradient density design scheme is referred. According to the design requirements of the variable camber trailing edge wing flexible skin, the specific design parameters and performance parameters of the skin based on the mixed honeycomb are given. The results show that the zero Poisson's ratio mixed cruciform honeycomb has a large bending rigidity itself and can have a better deformation capacity in-plane and a larger bending rigidity out-of-plane by optimizing the shape parameters. Besides, the designed skin also has advantages in driving force, deformation capacity and quality compared with conventional skin.

  11. [Skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction]. (United States)

    Vlastos, Georges; Elias, Badwi; Meyer, Olna; Harder, Yves; Schäfer, Pierre; Pittet, Brigitte


    Skin-sparing mastectomy is a new surgical approach that allows a mastectomy while preserving the natural envelope of the breast. Skin-sparing mastectomy followed by immediate reconstruction can be used for prophylaxis for high- risk patients or BRCA carriers. It represents an effective treatment option for patients with extensive DCIS or early invasive breast cancer, but is contraindicated for inflammatory breast cancer and extensive skin involvement by the tumor. Skin-sparing mastectomy had similar surgical outcomes compared to non- skin- sparing mastectomy, but skin flap ischemia and necrosis is more common and is associated with a range of risk factors, including smoking. Skin-sparing mastectomy seems to be an oncologically safe technique and does not increase in particular the risk of local, regional or systemic recurrences. It facilitates immediate breast reconstruction using implants or myocutaneous flaps, resulting in excellent cosmesis and high level of patient satisfaction. This article reviews the published data on skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate reconstruction and aim to establish its current role in clinical practice, as there is a lack of prospective data.

  12. Definition of Sensitive Skin: An Expert Position Paper from the Special Interest Group on Sensitive Skin of the International Forum for the Study of Itch. (United States)

    Misery, Laurent; Ständer, Sonja; Szepietowski, Jacek C; Reich, Adam; Wallengren, Joanna; Evers, Andrea W M; Takamori, Kenji; Brenaut, Emilie; Le Gall-Ianotto, Christelle; Fluhr, Joachim; Berardesca, Enzo; Weisshaar, Elke


    Sensitive skin is a frequent complaint in the general population, in patients, and among subjects suffering from itch. The International Forum for the Study of Itch (IFSI) decided to initiate a special interest group (SIG) on sensitive skin. Using the Delphi method, sensitive skin was defined as "A syndrome defined by the occurrence of unpleasant sensations (stinging, burning, pain, pruritus, and tingling sensations) in response to stimuli that normally should not provoke such sensations. These unpleasant sensations cannot be explained by lesions attributable to any skin disease. The skin can appear normal or be accompanied by erythema. Sensitive skin can affect all body locations, especially the face". This paper summarizes the background, unresolved aspects of sensitive skin and the process of developing this definition.

  13. Invited Review Vitamin D and skin cancer† (United States)

    Burns, Erin M.; Elmets, Craig A.; Yusuf, Nabiha


    Vitamin D signaling plays a key role in various important processes, including cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, immune regulation, hormone secretion, and skeletal health. Further, vitamin D production and supplementation have been shown to exert protective effects via an unknown signaling mechanism involving the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in several diseases and cancer types, including skin cancer. With over 3.5 million new diagnoses in 2 million patients annually, skin cancer is the most common cancer type in the United States. While ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation is the main etiologic factor for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), UVB also induces cutaneous vitamin D production. This paradox has been the subject of contradictory findings in the literature in regards to amount of sun exposure necessary for appropriate vitamin D production, as well as any beneficial or detrimental effects of vitamin D supplementation for disease prevention. Further clinical and epidemiological studies are necessary to elucidate the role of vitamin D in skin carcinogenesis. PMID:25378147

  14. Is skin penetration a determining factor in skin sensitization ... (United States)

    Summary:Background. It is widely accepted that substances that cannot penetrate through the skin will not be sensitisers. Thresholds based on relevant physicochemical parameters such as a LogKow > 1 and a MW 1 is a true requirement for sensitisation.Methods. A large dataset of substances that had been evaluated for their skin sensitisation potential, together with measured LogKow values was compiled from the REACH database. The incidence of skin sensitisers relative to non-skin sensitisers below and above the LogKow = 1 threshold was evaluated. Results. 1482 substances with associated skin sensitisation outcomes and measured LogKow values were identified. 305 substances had a measured LogKow penetrate the stratum corneum is a key determinant of skin sensitisation potential and potency. Using the REACH data extracted to test out the validity of common assumptions in the skin sensitization AOP. Builds on trying to develop a proof of concept IATA

  15. "Shades of beauty": examining the relationship of skin color to perceptions of physical attractiveness. (United States)

    Frisby, Cynthia M


    The purpose of this research project was to investigate the relationship between skin color and level of perceived physical attractiveness. Previous research suggested that skin color plays an important role in how we perceive an individual's physical attractiveness. The current study was conducted to determine how influential the role of race is on perceptions of physical attractiveness. In this study, 79 subjects were asked to evaluate images of potential endorsers to be used in an upcoming advertising campaign. The images were those of females of varying skin tones. Data were then collected and analyzed to determine whether skin tone and level of skin color can in fact influence the physical attractiveness stereotype.

  16. Skin barrier in rosacea* (United States)

    Addor, Flavia Alvim Sant'Anna


    Recent studies about the cutaneous barrier demonstrated consistent evidence that the stratum corneum is a metabolically active structure and also has adaptive functions, may play a regulatory role in the inflammatory response with activation of keratinocytes, angiogenesis and fibroplasia, whose intensity depends primarily on the intensity the stimulus. There are few studies investigating the abnormalities of the skin barrier in rosacea, but the existing data already show that there are changes resulting from inflammation, which can generate a vicious circle caused a prolongation of flare-ups and worsening of symptoms. This article aims to gather the most relevant literature data about the characteristics and effects of the state of the skin barrier in rosacea. PMID:26982780

  17. Skin contamination dosimeter (United States)

    Hamby, David M [Corvallis, OR; Farsoni, Abdollah T [Corvallis, OR; Cazalas, Edward [Corvallis, OR


    A technique and device provides absolute skin dosimetry in real time at multiple tissue depths simultaneously. The device uses a phoswich detector which has multiple scintillators embedded at different depths within a non-scintillating material. A digital pulse processor connected to the phoswich detector measures a differential distribution (dN/dH) of count rate N as function of pulse height H for signals from each of the multiple scintillators. A digital processor computes in real time from the differential count-rate distribution for each of multiple scintillators an estimate of an ionizing radiation dose delivered to each of multiple depths of skin tissue corresponding to the multiple scintillators embedded at multiple corresponding depths within the non-scintillating material.

  18. Vibroacoustic Skin Diagnostics Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana М. Yatsun


    Full Text Available The article deals with the mathematical modeling of biological diagnosis of complex heterogeneous structure (skin, using non-destructive control method. The mathematical model, describing interaction of the material with electrodynamic vibration generator and sensor system, controlling the propagation of small disturbances was developed. The influence of material model parameters on the spectrum in the course of the propagation of the surface disturbance

  19. Skin lesions in sadomasochism. (United States)

    Sønderbo, K; Nyfors, A


    This paper presents the case of a 35-year-old man who consulted the department of venereology because of healing problems with some wounds caused by burning his skin perianally with cigarettes as part of a sexual satisfaction ritual. Knowledge of such lesions may be useful to physicians and social workers. Sadomasochism and 'offers' in the intimate-massage clinics in Copenhagen are surveyed.

  20. Brachytherapy in the treatment of skin cancer: an overview. (United States)

    Skowronek, Janusz


    The incidence of skin cancer worldwide is constantly growing and it is the most frequently diagnosed tumor. Brachytherapy (BT) in particular localizations is a valuable tool of the exact radiation depot inside the tumor mass. In localizations such as the face, skull skin and inoperable tumors, relapses after surgery, radiotherapy are usually not suitable for primary or secondary invasive treatment. Brachytherapy is a safe procedure for organs at risk according to rapid fall of a dose outside the axis of the applicator with satisfactory dose localization inside the target. The complications rate is acceptable and treatment costs are low. In some tumors (great skin lesions in the scalp, near eyes or on the nose) BT allows for a great dose reduction in surrounding healthy tissues. Brachytherapy provides minimal dose delivery to surrounding healthy tissue, thus enabling good functional and cosmetic results. Treatment is possible almost in all cases on an outpatient basis.