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Sample records for subjects local skin

  1. Local heat stress and skin blood flowmotion in subjects with familial predisposition or newly diagnosed hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryglewska, Barbara; Nęcki, Mirosław; Cwynar, Marcin; Baron, Tomasz; Grodzicki, Tomasz

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the skin microcirculation blood flow and flowmotion response to heat stress in normotensive subjects with familial predisposition to hypertension and in hypertensive patients. Normotensives without [NT(-)] or with [NT(+)] familial predisposition and subjects with newly diagnosed hypertension (HT) were studied. Clinic blood pressure (BP) measurements and ambulatory BP monitoring as well as laboratory assessments were performed. Resting (RF), heat (HF) and maximal heat (MHF) blood flows were measured using PeriFlux laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and expressed as absolute units (AU) and as index of cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). Spectral analysis of the skin LDF signal was performed by means of the Perisoft dedicated software. Kruskall-Wallis analysis of variance, χ(2) statistic and multivariate reverse regression analysis were used for calculation. The studied population consisted of 70 persons (mean age 36.1 ± 10.3 years, 44.3% women): 17 NT(-), 22 NT(+) and 31 HT, age and gender matched. Higher values of body mass index (BMI), and insulin, glucose and triglyceride levels were observed in HT than in NT groups. RF, HF and MHF were similar in all study groups, but CVC of maximal heat flow differed (p=0.02); in particular, lower values were observed in the HT than in NT(-) group (p=0.01). The study groups differed with regard to total power (p=0.01) and myogenic (p=0.03) origin flowmotion with the lowest values in the NT(+) group. BMI and night BP characteristics were strong predictors of reduction of CVC, MHF and myogenic origin flowmotion. Skin microcirculation response to local heat stress is altered in hypertensive patients with decrease in maximal heat CVC values. Moreover, normotensive subjects with familial predisposition to hypertension are characterized by diminished myogenic origin of skin blood flowmotion.

  2. Subjective and objective observation of skin graft recovery on Indonesian local cat with different periods of transplantation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin; Gunanti; Handharyani, Ekowati; Noviana, Deni

    2016-05-01

    The success of a skin graft in a cat is highly dependent on the granulation formed by the base of recipient bed. Granulation by the base of recipient bed will form after several days after injury. This research aimed to observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats with different periods of donor skin placement. Nine male Indonesian local cats aged 1-2 years old, weighing 3-4 kg were divided into three groups. The first surgery for creating defect wound of 2 cm×2 cm in size was performed in the whole group. The wound was left for several days with the respective interval for each group, respectively: Group I (for 2 days), Group II (for 4 days), and Group III (for 6 days). In the whole group, the second surgery was done by the harvesting skin of thoracic area which then applied on recipient bed of respective groups. The donor skin on Group II was accepted faster compared to Group I and Group III. The donor skin did not show color differences compared to surrounding skin, painless, bright red in bleeding test had faster both hair growth and drug absorption. Test toward the size of donor skin and the effect of drugs did not show a significant difference between each group. The observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats on Group II were accepted faster compared to Group I and III.

  3. Subjective and objective observation of skin graft recovery on Indonesian local cat with different periods of transplantation time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The success of a skin graft in a cat is highly dependent on the granulation formed by the base of recipient bed. Granulation by the base of recipient bed will form after several days after injury. This research aimed to observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats with different periods of donor skin placement. Materials and Methods: Nine male Indonesian local cats aged 1-2 years old, weighing 3-4 kg were divided into three groups. The first surgery for creating defect wound of 2 cm×2 cm in size was performed in the whole group. The wound was left for several days with the respective interval for each group, respectively: Group I (for 2 days, Group II (for 4 days, and Group III (for 6 days. In the whole group, the second surgery was done by the harvesting skin of thoracic area which then applied on recipient bed of respective groups. Result: The donor skin on Group II was accepted faster compared to Group I and Group III. The donor skin did not show color differences compared to surrounding skin, painless, bright red in bleeding test had faster both hair growth and drug absorption. Test toward the size of donor skin and the effect of drugs did not show a significant difference between each group. Conclusion: The observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats on Group II were accepted faster compared to Group I and III.

  4. Ultrasonic evaluation of local human skin anisotropy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tokar, Daniel; Převorovský, Zdeněk; Hradilová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 12 (2014) ISSN 1435-4934. [European Conference on Non-Destructive Testing (ECNDT 2014) /11./. Praha, 06.10.2014-10.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : anisotropy * ultrasonic testing * human skin in-vivo * fabric-fiber composite * signal processing Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics http://www.ndt.net/events/ECNDT2014/app/content/Paper/324_Tokar.pdf

  5. The local lymph node assay and skin sensitization testing.

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    Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J

    2010-01-01

    The mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a method for the identification and characterization of skin sensitization hazards. In this context the method can be used both to identify contact allergens, and also determine the relative skin sensitizing potency as a basis for derivation of effective risk assessments.The assay is based on measurement of proliferative responses by draining lymph node cells induced following topical exposure of mice to test chemicals. Such responses are known to be causally and quantitatively associated with the acquisition of skin sensitization and therefore provide a relevant marker for characterization of contact allergic potential.The LLNA has been the subject of exhaustive evaluation and validation exercises and has been assigned Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test guideline 429. Herein we describe the conduct and interpretation of the LLNA.

  6. Skin acceptability of a cosmetic moisturizer formulation in female subjects with sensitive skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisbet SJ

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie J Nisbet Skin Health Medical Affairs, GSK Consumer Healthcare, Weybridge, Surrey, UK Purpose: This 3-week, open-label, noncomparative clinical study evaluated the skin acceptability of a cosmetic moisturizer in subjects with sensitive skin, by monitoring adverse events (AEs and cutaneous discomfort related to normal usage.Materials and methods: Female subjects aged between 18–60 years, with Fitzpatrick phototype classification I–IV and sensitive skin, verified by a positive reaction on the stinging test at screening, were included. Subjects applied the moisturizer to their face and body twice daily for 21±2 days at home and recorded study product usage and feelings of cutaneous discomfort (eg, dryness, prickling, stinging, and itching in a diary; any AEs were reported to the clinic. At study end, skin acceptability of the moisturizer was investigator-assessed based on the nature of AEs and subjects’ self-reported feelings of discomfort, and by clinical evaluation of skin reactions in the area of moisturizer application (appearance of erythema, formation of edema, and skin desquamation; scored according to an adapted Draize and Kligman scale. Only subjects with a treatment compliance of ≥80% were included in the final analysis.Results: In total, 35 subjects initiated and completed the study; all were compliant to the minimum study product usage. Per investigator clinical dermatological assessment at study end, none of the 35 subjects had skin reactions in the area of moisturizer application and there were no reported AEs. One subject reported sensations of mild prickling and itching immediately after applying the moisturizer (not classified as AEs, which spontaneously remitted after complete absorption of the product and were noted only in exposed areas. These events were considered by the investigator as being possibly/probably related to the use of study product; however, no clinical signs of skin reaction were observed in

  7. Skin blood flow and local temperature independently modify sweat rate during passive heat stress in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Wingo, Jonathan E.; Low, David A.; Keller, David M.; Brothers, R. Matthew; Shibasaki, Manabu; Crandall, Craig G.

    2010-01-01

    Sweat rate (SR) is reduced in locally cooled skin, which may result from decreased temperature and/or parallel reductions in skin blood flow. The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that decreased skin blood flow and decreased local temperature each independently attenuate sweating. In protocols I and II, eight subjects rested supine while wearing a water-perfused suit for the control of whole body skin and internal temperatures. While 34°C water perfused the suit, four microdial...

  8. PH- Mapping Of Prepubertal Skin Of Indian Subjects

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    Gupta A B

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available PH- mapping of skin was made by measuring the skin surface pH in 61 normal Indian subjects (35M, 26F in the prepubertal age group at 21 different sites from scalp to sole at an ambient temperature 25-32C and a relative humidity 60-65%. The pH values at axilla, umbilicus, palm, fingerfolds, foot, sole, and cheek were found to be consistently higher than those at scalp, forehead, retroauricular folds, antecubital and popliteal fossae, anterior arm, anterior the mean pH of male skin appeared to be lower than that of female. The highest pH recorded was in axilla (5.98 for male, 6.00 for female, irrespective of sex. The lowest value however was in anterior neck (4.59 for male and in antecubital fossa (4.83 for female. While the origin of the skin pH is yet to be definitely known, it was observed that a high density of both sweat gland and bacteria flora leads to a high pH, and high concentration of sebaceous gland and of bacterial flora to a lower pH.

  9. Changes in subcutaneous blood flow during locally applied negative pressure to the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skagen, K; Henriksen, O

    1983-01-01

    The effect of locally applied subatmospheric pressure on subcutaneous blood flow was studied in 12 healthy subjects. Blood flow was measured on the forearm by the local 133Xe wash-out technique. Air suction between 10 mmHg and 250 mmHg was applied to the skin. Subatmospheric pressure of 20 mm...

  10. Skin blood flow and local temperature independently modify sweat rate during passive heat stress in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Jonathan E; Low, David A; Keller, David M; Brothers, R Matthew; Shibasaki, Manabu; Crandall, Craig G

    2010-11-01

    Sweat rate (SR) is reduced in locally cooled skin, which may result from decreased temperature and/or parallel reductions in skin blood flow. The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that decreased skin blood flow and decreased local temperature each independently attenuate sweating. In protocols I and II, eight subjects rested supine while wearing a water-perfused suit for the control of whole body skin and internal temperatures. While 34°C water perfused the suit, four microdialysis membranes were placed in posterior forearm skin not covered by the suit to manipulate skin blood flow using vasoactive agents. Each site was instrumented for control of local temperature and measurement of local SR (capacitance hygrometry) and skin blood flow (laser-Doppler flowmetry). In protocol I, two sites received norepinephrine to reduce skin blood flow, while two sites received Ringer solution (control). All sites were maintained at 34°C. In protocol II, all sites received 28 mM sodium nitroprusside to equalize skin blood flow between sites before local cooling to 20°C (2 sites) or maintenance at 34°C (2 sites). In both protocols, individuals were then passively heated to increase core temperature ~1°C. Both decreased skin blood flow and decreased local temperature attenuated the slope of the SR to mean body temperature relationship (2.0 ± 1.2 vs. 1.0 ± 0.7 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1)·°C(-1) for the effect of decreased skin blood flow, P = 0.01; 1.2 ± 0.9 vs. 0.07 ± 0.05 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1)·°C(-1) for the effect of decreased local temperature, P = 0.02). Furthermore, local cooling delayed the onset of sweating (mean body temperature of 37.5 ± 0.4 vs. 37.6 ± 0.4°C, P = 0.03). These data demonstrate that local cooling attenuates sweating by independent effects of decreased skin blood flow and decreased local skin temperature.

  11. Efficacy of a shower cream and a lotion with skin-identical lipids in healthy subjects with atopic dry skin.

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    Berardesca, Enzo; Mortillo, Susan; Cameli, Norma; Ardigo, Marco; Mariano, Maria

    2018-05-10

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, pruritic inflammatory skin disease that adversely affects quality of life. The current study evaluates the efficacy of a shower cream and a lotion, each with skin-identical lipids and emollients, in the treatment of atopic dry skin of subjects with a history of atopic condition. In all, 40 healthy females with clinically dry skin on the lower legs were enrolled in the study and underwent 4 weeks of daily use of the shower cream and 2 additional weeks of both the shower cream and the body lotion. Subjects were evaluated at day 0, week 4, and week 6. Skin barrier function was assessed by Tewameter ® , skin hydration by Corneometer ® , smoothness and desquamation by Visioscan ® , and stratum corneum architecture by reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). The investigator assessed the degree of dryness, roughness, redness, cracks, tingling and itch, and subjective self-assessment evaluated the perception of skin soothing, smoothness, and softness. Skin barrier function and skin moisture maintenance were significantly improved using the shower cream. The lotion with physiological lipids, together with the shower cream, also improved skin barrier function and moisture. Both the shower cream and the body lotion reduced clinical dryness, roughness, redness, cracks, tingling and itch, according to the dermatologist, and increased soothing, smoothness, and softness, according to the subjects of the study. The combination of a shower cream and a lotion with physiological lipids efficiently restores skin barrier function and increases skin hydration, becoming an effective skin-care option for patients with atopic dry skin. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Characterizing human skin blood flow regulation in response to different local skin temperature perturbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.; Nieuwenhoff, M.D.; Huygen, Frank J.P.M.; van der Helm, F. C.T.; Niehof, S.P.; Schouten, A. C.

    2017-01-01

    Small nerve fibers regulate local skin blood flow in response to local thermal perturbations. Small nerve fiber function is difficult to assess with classical neurophysiological tests. In this study, a vasomotor response model in combination with a heating protocol was developed to quantitatively

  13. LOCALIZATION OF PERMEABILITY BARRIERS IN THE FROG SKIN EPITHELIUM

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    Martinez-Palomo, A.; Erlij, D.; Bracho, H.

    1971-01-01

    Ruthenium red and colloidal lanthanum were used to determine the site of the structural barriers to diffusion within the intercellular spaces of frog skin epithelium. Electron micrographs show that occluding zonules located at the outer border of the stratum corneum and at the outer layer of the stratum granulosum are true tight junctions since they are impermeable to these tracers. Measurement of 140La uptake by the living skin shows that lanthanum moves across the external surface of the skin readily, into and out of a compartment that has a limited capacity and is bounded on its internal side by a barrier impermeable to lanthanum. Examination of these skins with the electron microscope suggests that the compartment is localized between the external membrane of the cells at the outer layer of the s. granulosum and at the outermost surface of the skin. These observations and other findings described in the literature indicate that the site of the external high resistance barrier of the frog skin is localized at the outer border of the s. granulosum. PMID:4329611

  14. The contribution of skin blood flow in warming the skin after the application of local heat; the duality of the Pennes heat equation.

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    Petrofsky, Jerrold; Paluso, Dominic; Anderson, Devyn; Swan, Kristin; Yim, Jong Eun; Murugesan, Vengatesh; Chindam, Tirupathi; Goraksh, Neha; Alshammari, Faris; Lee, Haneul; Trivedi, Moxi; Hudlikar, Akshay N; Katrak, Vahishta

    2011-04-01

    As predicted by the Pennes equation, skin blood flow is a major contributor to the removal of heat from an external heat source. This protects the skin from erythema and burns. But, for a person in a thermally neutral room, the skin is normally much cooler than arterial blood. Therefore, if skin blood flow (BF) increases, it should initially warm the skin paradoxically. To examine this phenomenon, 10 young male and female subjects participated in a series of experiments to examine the contribution of skin blood flow in the initial warming the skin after the application of local heat. Heat flow was measured by the use of a thermode above the brachioradialis muscle. The thermode was warmed by constant temperature water at 44°C entering the thermode at a water flow rate of 100 cm(3)/min. Skin temperature was measured by a thermistor and blood flow in the underlying skin was measured by a laser Doppler imager in single point mode. The results of the experiments showed that, when skin temperature is cool (31-32°C), the number of calories being transferred to the skin from the thermode cannot account for the rise in skin temperature alone. A significant portion of the rise in skin temperature is due to the warm arterialized blood traversing the skin from the core areas of the body. However, as skin temperature approaches central core temperature, it becomes less of a heat source and more of a heat sync such that when skin temperature is at or above core temperature, the blood flow to the skin, as predicted by Pennes, becomes a heat sync pulling heat from the thermode. Copyright © 2010 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The influence of incontinence on the characteristic properties of the skin in bedridden elderly subjects.

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    Fujimura, Tsutomu; Makino, Mayumi; Takagi, Miyuki; Maki, Kumiko; Murakami, Emiko; Tasaka, Yoshiko; Sato, Noriko; Akiba, Shunichi; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Kitahara, Takashi; Ando, Kikue

    2016-05-01

    The mechanisms of skin breakdown induced by incontinence have been proposed from a variety of experimental studies. However, studies on the influence of skin properties caused by incontinence of bedridden subjects are very limited. This work was conducted to reveal how incontinence influences skin properties by comparing bedridden incontinent elderly subjects with age-matched healthy continent elderly and middle-aged subjects. Bedridden incontinent elderly subjects (n = 35, 83.5 ± 9.7 years, mean age ± SD), healthy continent elderly (n = 41, 75.9 ± 5.6 years), and middle-aged (n = 20, 41.3 ± 2.8 years) were recruited for this study. Skin surface pH, capacitance/hydration, transepidermal water loss, and bacteria on forearm and buttock skin were measured. Hydration and transepidermal water loss values between healthy elderly subjects and incontinent elderly subjects were significantly different on buttock skin. Significant differences between those two groups were also observed regarding pH and total bacteria levels on buttock skin. The forearm skin showed no significant difference in these parameters. No significant influence was observed between with and without urination at the measurement time except for the pH of buttock skin. No significant correlation was observed except between pH and bacteria levels on buttock skin of incontinent elderly subjects. In this study, we clarified the characteristic features of skin induced by incontinence. Our results indicate that these parameters are adequate not only to evaluate the characteristic skin features of bedridden incontinent subjects but also to develop new diapers to avoid the diaper dermatitis caused by incontinence. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  16. Changes in dermal interstitial ATP levels during local heating of human skin.

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    Gifford, Jayson R; Heal, Cory; Bridges, Jarom; Goldthorpe, Scott; Mack, Gary W

    2012-12-15

    Heating skin is believed to activate vanilloid type III and IV transient receptor potential ion channels (TRPV3, TRPV4, respectively), resulting in the release of ATP into the interstitial fluid. We examined the hypothesis that local skin heating would result in an accumulation of ATP in the interstitial fluid that would be related with a rise in skin blood flow (SkBF) and temperature sensation. Two microdialysis probes were inserted into the dermis on the dorsal aspect of the forearm in 15 young, healthy subjects. The probed skin was maintained at 31°C, 35°C, 39°C and 43°C for 8 min periods, during which SkBF was monitored as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). Dialysate was collected and analysed for ATP ([ATP](d)) using a luciferase-based assay, and ratings of perceived warmth were taken at each temperature. At a skin temperature of 31°C, [ATP](d) averaged 18.93 ± 4.06 nm and CVC averaged 12.57 ± 1.59% peak. Heating skin to 35°C resulted in an increase in CVC (17.63 ± 1.27% peak; P ATP](d). Heating skin to 39°C and 43°C resulted in a decreased [ATP](d) (5.88 ± 1.68 nm and 8.75 ± 3.44 nm, respectively; P ATP does not occur during local heating, and therefore does not have a role in temperature sensation or the dilator response in human skin. Nevertheless, the low threshold of dilatation (35°C) indicates a possible role for the TRPV3, TRPV4 channels or the sensitization of other ion channels in mediating the dilator response.

  17. Subjective facial skin type, based on the sebum related symptoms, can reflect the objective casual sebum level in acne patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, C W; Choi, J W; Youn, S W

    2013-05-01

    The relationship between the subjective skin type and the casual sebum level was not fully clarified. To investigate the characteristics of subjective skin type and to find the relationship between the subjective skin types and the skin type-related symptoms, casual sebum level, along with the objective skin type. Seven hundred and nine patients, clinically diagnosed with acne, were included. The questionnaire and the casual sebum level measurement were performed. The determining symptoms of each subjective skin type were investigated. The 95% confidence interval of casual sebum level of each subjective skin type was calculated. The most frequent subjective skin type was the combination type. The dryness, tightness, and oiliness can be conclusive symptoms in determining the subjective skin type. The mean and the 95% confidence interval of the casual sebum level was highest in the oily skin type, followed by the combination, normal, and dry skin type. We found that the subjective skin type was determined by the skin type-related symptoms. The 95% confidence intervals of the casual sebum level of each subjective skin type were established. Based on the skin type-related symptoms, the casual sebum level of acne patients can be estimated. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Mercury Levels in Locally Manufactured Mexican Skin-Lightening Creams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz O. Leal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is considered one of the most toxic elements for plants and animals. Nevertheless, in the Middle East, Asia and Latin America, whitening creams containing mercury are being manufactured and purchased, despite their obvious health risks. Due to the mass distribution of these products, this can be considered a global public health issue. In Mexico, these products are widely available in pharmacies, beauty aid and health stores. They are used for their skin lightening effects. The aim of this work was to analyze the mercury content in some cosmetic whitening creams using the cold vapor technique coupled with atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS. A total of 16 skin-lightening creams from the local market were investigated. No warning information was noted on the packaging. In 10 of the samples, no mercury was detected. The mercury content in six of the samples varied between 878 and 36,000 ppm, despite the fact that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA has determined that the limit for mercury in creams should be less than 1 ppm. Skin creams containing mercury are still available and commonly used in Mexico and many developing countries, and their contents are poorly controlled.

  19. Diffuse and localized reflectance measurements of hemoglobin and hematocrit in human skin

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    Khalil, Omar S.; Wu, Xiaomao; Yeh, Shu-Jen; Jeng, Tzyy-Wen

    2001-05-01

    We conducted visible/near infrared optical measurements on the forearm of human subjects using a commercial diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer, and a breadboard temperature- controlled localized reflectance tissue photometer. Calibration relationships were established between skin reflectance signal and reference blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, or hematocrit values (Hct). These were then used to predict Hb and Hct values from optical measurement in a cross validation analysis. Different linear least- squares models for the prediction of Hb and Hct are presented and shows the ability to predict both. It was possible to screen prospective blood donors with low Hb concentration. It was possible to predict anemic subjects in the limited prospective blood donor population.

  20. Maximum skin hyperaemia induced by local heating: possible mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Kim M; Hannemann, Michael M; Tooke, John E; Clough, Geraldine F; Shore, Angela C

    2006-01-01

    Maximum skin hyperaemia (MH) induced by heating skin to > or = 42 degrees C is impaired in individuals at risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Interpretation of these findings is hampered by the lack of clarity of the mechanisms involved in the attainment of MH. MH was achieved by local heating of skin to 42-43 degrees C for 30 min, and assessed by laser Doppler fluximetry. Using double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study designs, the roles of prostaglandins were investigated by inhibiting their production with aspirin and histamine, with the H1 receptor antagonist cetirizine. The nitric oxide (NO) pathway was blocked by the NO synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl esther (L-NAME), and enhanced by sildenafil (prevents breakdown of cGMP). MH was not altered by aspirin, cetirizine or sildenafil, but was reduced by L-NAME: median placebo 4.48 V (25th, 75th centiles: 3.71, 4.70) versus L-NAME 3.25 V (3.10, 3.80) (p = 0.008, Wilcoxon signed rank test). Inhibition of NO production (L-NAME) resulted in a more rapid reduction in hyperaemia after heating (p = 0.011), whereas hyperaemia was prolonged in the presence of sildenafil (p = 0.003). The increase in skin blood flow was largely confined to the directly heated area, suggesting that the role of heat-induced activation of the axon reflex was small. NO, but not prostaglandins, histamine or an axon reflex, contributes to the increase in blood flow on heating and NO is also a component of the resolution of MH after heating. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. The effect of a daily facial cleanser for normal to oily skin on the skin barrier of subjects with acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe D

    2006-07-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin disorder that affects many people every year, especially the teenaged population. People with acne find the condition especially difficult to manage because of the disease's chronicity and variability in response to treatment. Acne is the result of pores clogged with shed skin cells combined with sebum in the hair follicle. Successful treatment of acne is important because acne has the potential to result in lasting physical and emotional scarring. For many years, physicians have agreed that although cleansing is not effective on its own, effective cleansing is an important part of any acne treatment regimen. However, patients have not been satisfied with the types of cleansers available. In addition to containing dyes and perfumes that can irritate and exacerbate acne, these cleansers often are too harsh and can result in excessive drying of the skin, which leads to overcompensation by the oil glands and ultimately to more oil on the surface of the skin. This study examined the use of a daily facial cleanser formulated for normal to oily skin in subjects with mild facial acne. The cleanser was studied for 2 weeks in the absence of additional treatments to eliminate the confounding effects of various treatments. Subjects were monitored for skin barrier function through transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and corneometry, sebum level, and lesion counts. The results of the study indicate that the facial cleanser is gentle and does not damage the skin barrier or result in sebum overcompensation; additionally, the cleanser is effective at deep-pore cleansing, which may help to manage some acne-associated symptoms.

  2. Etiology of chronic skin lesions in subjects with peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisari, G; Chisari, E M; Borzì, A M; Grasso, A; Chisari, C G

    2018-01-01

    Skin lesions can be defined as lesions that result in loss of tissues and their joints, and often this cutaneous skin process is a primary or secondary consequence of the structural changes in the skin itself. Subjects with peripheral arteripathies that develop chronic skin lesions in the lower extremities of the Western world are constantly increasing. We conducted a study on the etiologic incidence of chronic skin lesions in peripheral arterial disease CSLpa subjects in the lower limbs compared to subjects with chronic skin lesions CSL (controls). 30 subjects with peripheral atheropathies PA (22 F - 8 M mean age 74,5 ± 4,9) and with chronic skin lesions (CSLpa) in the lower limbs "A" group were admitted to our study according to a randomized and compared to 30 no peripheral atheropathies subjects (19 F-11 M, mean age 81,5 ± 7,3 - controls) group B with chronic skin lesions (CSL). These two groups "A" and "B" have been studied and compared on the basis of infectious etiology responsible for the infectious skin process. In the subjects of the "A" group we found a 12 positive assay of 40.0% of the examinations, while in the group "B" we achieved a total cultured positivity of 9 cases corresponding to 30.0% of the examinations . For the number of bacterial species identified for "A" group we obtained 3 mono microbial and 6 poly microbial bacteriological tests and for group "B" we observed 7 mono microbial and 2 poly microbial tests. All bacteriological isolates showed "in vitro" sensitivity to satisfactory ciprofloxacin with MICs range of 0.78-1.56mg/L. The data observed after 4 weeks after the amniotic membrane (MA) in the two study groups A and B were respectively the following: and for group A 50% scarring, 46.6% partial resolution and in one case worsening for the B-healing group in 63.3%, the partial resolution in the remaining 36.6. The data from this study show a different etiology between subjects with CSLpa than subjects with CSL. This phenomenon confirms

  3. Ethnic differences in objective and subjective skin irritation response: an international study.

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    Lee, E; Kim, S; Lee, J; Cho, S-A; Shin, K

    2014-08-01

    Due to global marketing in the cosmetics industry, it is important to assess ethnic population susceptibility when evaluating the safety of cosmetic products or chemicals. To investigate ethnic variations in skin irritation response to positive irritants. Clinical testing was performed in four countries on two ethnic groups - Asian and Caucasian. We performed patch tests on the subjects' back with 0.5% aqueous sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and 0.15% retinol prepared in 1,3-butylene glycol. Stinging tests were performed using 5% aqueous lactic acid and 0.001% (w/v) capsaicin prepared in 10% ethanol solution separately. The incidence of self-perceived skin sensitivity was similar in the two ethnic groups. However, the incidence of adverse skin reaction to cosmetics appeared significantly higher in Asian (33.0%) than in Caucasian subjects (11.3%). For standard positive irritants such as 0.5% aqueous SLS solution, Asian subjects showed significantly higher scores than Caucasian subjects. The incidence of positive reaction to the 0.15% retinol patch test tended to be higher in Asian than in Caucasian subjects. Our data also showed that neurosensitivity to 5% lactic acid and 0.001% capsaicin was higher in Asian than in Caucasian subjects. Although self-reported skin sensitivity does not appear to differ according to ethnicity, there are ethnic differences in objective and subjective skin irritation responses to several standard positive materials. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Evaluation of the effect of localized skin cooling on nasal airway volume by acoustic rhinometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagiwa, M; Hilberg, O; Pedersen, O F; Lundqvist, G R

    1990-04-01

    Ten healthy subjects (four men and six women) were subjected to localized skin cooling by submersion for 5 min of both feet and, in another experiment, one hand and forearm into ice-cold water. Repeated measurements of nasal cavity volumes by a new method, acoustic rhinometry, showed characteristic patterns ranging from marked increases in volumes lasting the entire exposure period to transient monophasic or biphasic responses to no change at all. The pattern in individual subjects was reproducible with the two methods of cooling, and it could be characterized by five types when related to baseline measurements during the preexposure period. Because of large minute-to-minute variations, probably determined by local differences and fluctuations in blood flow in tissues through the nose, evaluation of induced changes in the nasal cavity volume cannot be based on single measurements as has frequently been done in the past by using rhinomanometry as the experimental method. The mechanisms behind the characteristic patterns in immediate human nasal response to local skin cooling challenge remains to be explored.

  5. The mental and subjective skin: Emotion, empathy, feelings and thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-López, E; Domínguez, E; Juárez Ramos, V; de la Fuente, J; Meins, A; Iborra, O; Gálvez, G; Rodríguez-Artacho, M A; Gómez-Milán, E

    2015-07-01

    We applied thermography to investigate the cognitive neuropsychology of emotions, using it as a somatic marker of subjective experience during emotional tasks. We obtained results that showed significant correlations between changes in facial temperature and mental set. The main result was the change in the temperature of the nose, which tended to decrease with negative valence stimuli but to increase with positive emotions and arousal patterns. However, temperature change was identified not only in the nose, but also in the forehead, the oro-facial area, the cheeks and in the face taken as a whole. Nevertheless, thermic facial changes, mostly nasal temperature changes, correlated positively with participants' empathy scores and their performance. We found that temperature changes in the face may reveal maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions and feelings like love. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reconstruction of Nasal Skin Cancer Defects with Local Flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Salgarelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of nasal defects must preserve the integrity of complex facial functions and expressions, as well as facial symmetry and a pleasing aesthetic outcome. The reconstructive modality of choice will depend largely on the location, size, and depth of the surgical defect. Individualized therapy is the best course, and numerous flaps have been designed to provide coverage of a variety of nasal-specific defects. We describe our experience in the aesthetic reconstruction of nasal skin defects following oncological surgery. The use of different local flaps for nasal skin cancer defects is reported in 286 patients. Complications in this series were one partial flap dehiscence that healed by secondary intention, two forehead flaps, and one bilobed flap with minimal rim necrosis that resulted in an irregular scar requiring revision. Aesthetic results were deemed satisfactory by all patients and the operating surgeons. The color and texture matches were aesthetically good, and the nasal contour was distinct in all patients. All scars were inconspicuous and symmetrical. No patient had tenting or a flat nose.

  7. Reconstruction of Nasal Skin Cancer Defects with Local Flaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgarelli, A. C.; Bellini, P.; Multinu, A.; Consolo, U.; Magnoni, C.; Francomano, M.; Fantini, F.; Seidenari, S.

    2011-01-01

    Reconstruction of nasal defects must preserve the integrity of complex facial functions and expressions, as well as facial symmetry and a pleasing aesthetic outcome. The reconstructive modality of choice will depend largely on the location, size, and depth of the surgical defect. Individualized therapy is the best course, and numerous flaps have been designed to provide coverage of a variety of nasal-specific defects. We describe our experience in the aesthetic reconstruction of nasal skin defects following oncological surgery. The use of different local flaps for nasal skin cancer defects is reported in 286 patients. Complications in this series were one partial flap dehiscence that healed by secondary intention, two forehead flaps, and one bilobed flap with minimal rim necrosis that resulted in an irregular scar requiring revision. Aesthetic results were deemed satisfactory by all patients and the operating surgeons. The color and texture matches were aesthetically good, and the nasal contour was distinct in all patients. All scars were inconspicuous and symmetrical. No patient had tenting or a flat nose.

  8. Influence of local air velocity from air conditioner evaluated by salivary and skin biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Takahashi, Takayuki; Yoshino, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Makoto [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Nishimiya, Hajime [Asahi Kasei Homes Corporation, R and D Laboratories, 2-1 Samejima, Fuji, Shizuoka 416-8501 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is to reveal both the psychosomatic and the physical effects of local air velocity from an air conditioner using biomarkers which can be collected noninvasively. Salivary {alpha}-amylase activity (SAA) and salivary cortisol were used as the indexes of psychosomatic effects. The total protein (TP) collected from stratum corneum was used as an index of the physical condition of dry skin. A continuous experiment over a 5 days period in summer was conducted using 8 healthy young male adults for 2-types of airflow conditioners, a whole ceiling-type air conditioner (without local air velocity) and a normal-type air conditioner (with local air velocity). The subjects felt cool, windy, dry and uncomfortable when under the normal-type air conditioner as determined in a subjective evaluation. The SAA under the normal-type air conditioner fluctuated more widely than with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. The level of salivary cortisol decreased more in a day under the normal-type air conditioner than with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. These results showed that reducing local air velocity may provide more healthy psychosomatic conditions over the long-term. Moreover, the TP of a drying-exposed skin area showed a significant change during this experiment whereas the TP of drying-protected area was relatively unchanged. It was indicated that one week's exposure to local air velocity conditions possibly influences the drying of facial skin. Thus, air movement at low velocity can be provides more comfortable conditions not only psychosomatically but also physically. (author)

  9. The interrealtionship between locally applied heat, ageing and skin blood flow on heat transfer into and from the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, Jerrold; Alshahmmari, Faris; Yim, Jong Eun; Hamdan, Adel; Lee, Haneul; Neupane, Sushma; Shetye, Gauri; Moniz, Harold; Chen, Wei-Ti; Cho, Sungkwan; Pathak, Kunal; Malthane, Swapnil; Shenoy, Samruddha; Somanaboina, Karunakar; Alshaharani, Mastour; Nevgi, Bhakti; Dave, Bhargav; Desai, Rajavi

    2011-07-01

    In response to a thermal stress, skin blood flow (BF) increases to protect the skin from damage. When a very warm, noxious, heat source (44 °C) is applied to the skin, the BF increases disproportionately faster than the heat stress that was applied, creating a safety mechanism for protecting the skin. In the present investigation, the rate of rise of BF in response to applied heat at temperatures between 32 °C and 40 °C was examined as well as the thermal transfer to and from the skin with and without BF in younger and older subjects to see how the skin responds to a non-noxious heat source. Twenty male and female subjects (10 - 20-35 years, 10 - 40-70 years) were examined. The arms of the subjects were passively heated for 6 min with and without vascular occlusion by a thermode at temperatures of 32, 36, 38 or 40 °C. When occlusion was not used during the 6 min exposure to heat, there was an exponential rise in skin temperature and BF in both groups of subjects over the 6-min period. However, the older subjects achieved similar skin temperatures but with the expenditure of fewer calories from the thermode than was seen for the younger subjects (p<0.05). BF was significantly less in the older group than the younger group at rest and after exposure to each of the three warmest thermode temperatures (p<0.05). As was seen for noxious temperatures, after a delay, the rate of rise of BF at the three warmest thermode temperatures was faster than the rise in skin temperature in the younger group but less in the older group of subjects. Thus, a consequence of ageing is reduced excess BF in response to thermal stress increasing susceptibility to thermal damage. This must be considered in modelling of BF. Copyright © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

  10. Acute skin lesions due to localized ''hot particle'' radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.; Carsten, A.L.; Kaurin, D.G.L.; Schaefer, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose of the studies was to determine incidence and severity of lesions resulting from localized deposition of dose to the skin from small ( 2 at 70μm depth) from isotopes having max beta particle energies from about 0.3-3 MeV. Incidence of erythema and scabs (indicating ulceration) were scored routinely for up to 71 days post-irradiation. Responses followed normal probability distributions, and thus, no true threshold could be defined. Ten and 50% incidence rates were deduced using probit analyses. Lowest dose producing 10% incidence was about 1 Gy for exposures to Yb-175 (0.5 MeV max energy) beta particles. Severity of lesions was estimated using diameters and persistence. From preliminary considerations of probability of induction, size, and persistence of acute lesions, a special limit for hot particle exposures in the range of 5-50 Gy may be reasonable, with an action level between about 1 Gy and the limit

  11. Semi-automated algorithm for localization of dermal/epidermal junction in reflectance confocal microscopy images of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurugol, Sila; Dy, Jennifer G.; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; Gossage, Kirk W.; Weissmann, Jesse; Brooks, Dana H.

    2011-03-01

    The examination of the dermis/epidermis junction (DEJ) is clinically important for skin cancer diagnosis. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is an emerging tool for detection of skin cancers in vivo. However, visual localization of the DEJ in RCM images, with high accuracy and repeatability, is challenging, especially in fair skin, due to low contrast, heterogeneous structure and high inter- and intra-subject variability. We recently proposed a semi-automated algorithm to localize the DEJ in z-stacks of RCM images of fair skin, based on feature segmentation and classification. Here we extend the algorithm to dark skin. The extended algorithm first decides the skin type and then applies the appropriate DEJ localization method. In dark skin, strong backscatter from the pigment melanin causes the basal cells above the DEJ to appear with high contrast. To locate those high contrast regions, the algorithm operates on small tiles (regions) and finds the peaks of the smoothed average intensity depth profile of each tile. However, for some tiles, due to heterogeneity, multiple peaks in the depth profile exist and the strongest peak might not be the basal layer peak. To select the correct peak, basal cells are represented with a vector of texture features. The peak with most similar features to this feature vector is selected. The results show that the algorithm detected the skin types correctly for all 17 stacks tested (8 fair, 9 dark). The DEJ detection algorithm achieved an average distance from the ground truth DEJ surface of around 4.7μm for dark skin and around 7-14μm for fair skin.

  12. The effect of the moisture content of a local heat source on the blood flow response of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, Jerrold Scott; Bains, Gurinder; Raju, Chinna; Lohman, Everett; Berk, Lee; Prowse, Michelle; Gunda, Shashi; Madani, Piyush; Batt, Jennifer

    2009-09-01

    Numerous studies have examined the effect of local and global heating of the body on skin blood flow. However, the effect of the moisture content of the heat source on the skin blood flow response has not been examined. Thirty-three subjects, without diabetes or cardiovascular disease, between the ages of 22 and 32 were examined to determine the relationship between the effects of dry vs. moist heat applied for the same length of time and with the skin clamped at the same skin temperature on the blood flow response of the skin. The skin, heated with an infrared heat lamp (skin temperature monitored with a thermocouple) to 40 degrees C for 15 min, was either kept moist with wet towels or, in a separate experiment, kept dry with Drierite (a desiccant) between the towels to remove any moisture. Before and after heat exposure of the forearm, blood pressure, heart rate, skin moisture content, skin temperature, and skin blood flow were recorded. The results of the experiment showed that there was no change in skin moisture after 15 min exposure to dry heat at 40 degrees C. However, with moist heat, skin moisture increased by 43.7%, a significant increase (P heat, blood flow increased from the resting value by 282.3% whereas with moist heat, blood flow increased by 386% over rest, a significant increase over dry heat (P heat was a better heating modality than dry heat. The reason may be linked to moisture sensitivity in calcium channels in the vascular endothelial cell.

  13. Evaluation Methodology between Globalization and Localization Features Approaches for Skin Cancer Lesions Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, H. M.; Al-azawi, R. J.; Abdulhameed, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    Huge efforts have been put in the developing of diagnostic methods to skin cancer disease. In this paper, two different approaches have been addressed for detection the skin cancer in dermoscopy images. The first approach uses a global method that uses global features for classifying skin lesions, whereas the second approach uses a local method that uses local features for classifying skin lesions. The aim of this paper is selecting the best approach for skin lesion classification. The dataset has been used in this paper consist of 200 dermoscopy images from Pedro Hispano Hospital (PH2). The achieved results are; sensitivity about 96%, specificity about 100%, precision about 100%, and accuracy about 97% for globalization approach while, sensitivity about 100%, specificity about 100%, precision about 100%, and accuracy about 100% for Localization Approach, these results showed that the localization approach achieved acceptable accuracy and better than globalization approach for skin cancer lesions classification.

  14. Case Report: Locally advanced skin cancer in an albino, a treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Report: Locally advanced skin cancer in an albino ... headache, anorexia, weight loss, night sweats, dizziness, change in ... This was the case with our patient, whose five ... We need more interventional studies in treatment of locally.

  15. Calculation of skin dose due to beta contamination using the new quantity of the ICRP 116: the local skin dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgois, L.; Menard, S.; Comte, N.

    2017-01-01

    Values of the new protection quantity Local Skin Dose 'LSD', introduced by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 116, were calculated for 134 β - or β + emitting radionuclides, using the Monte Carlo code MCNP6. Two types of source geometry are considered: a point source and disc-type surface contamination (the source is placed in contact with the skin). This new protection quantity is compared with the operational quantity H2 (0.07, 0 deg.), leading us to conclude that, in accordance with the rules of the ICRP, the operational quantity over-estimates the protection quantity to a reasonable extent, except in very rare cases for very low average beta energies. Thus, with the new skin model described in ICRP 116, there are no longer any major differences between the operational quantities and protection quantities estimated with the skin model described in ICRP 74. (authors)

  16. Albinism, stigma, subjectivity and global-local discourses in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocco, Giorgio

    2016-12-01

    Societal ideas and explanations of albinism at the local level in Tanzania are conceived in terms of family history, social relations, economic status, moral-religious positions, global-local flows of information and humanitarian actions on behalf of people with the congenital condition. This paper aims to show how the subjectivities of people with albinism in Tanzania are shaped and re-shaped through local moral conceptions as well as globalizing (bio)medical explanations of albinism. An exemplary case study of a 28-year-old woman, plus episodes from the lives of seven other informants with the condition, are analyzed in order to understand, on the one hand, local social relationships between people with albinism and other individuals in family and community settings, and on the other hand, the interconnections between persons with albinism and global humanitarian actors and the broadcast media. When stigma and marginalizing behaviors are perceived by individuals with albinism in Tanzania as impeding their social lives, they employ different coping strategies and discourses to enhance social acceptance.

  17. Differential inhibitory effect on human nociceptive skin senses induced by local stimulation of thin cutaneous fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, H J; Schouenborg, J

    1999-03-01

    It is known that stimulation of thin cutaneous nerve fibers can induce long lasting analgesia through both supraspinal and segmental mechanisms, the latter often exhibiting restricted receptive fields. On this basis, we recently developed a new method, termed cutaneous field stimulation (CFS), for localized stimulation of A delta and C fibers in the superficial part of the skin. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of CFS on non-nociceptive and nociceptive skin senses. We compared the effects of CFS with those of conventional transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), known to preferentially activate coarse myelinated fibers. A battery of sensory tests were made on the right volar forearm of 20 healthy subjects. CFS (16 electrodes, 4 Hz per electrode, 1 ms, up to 0.8 mA) and TENS (100 Hz, 0.2 ms, up to 26 mA) applied either on the right volar forearm (homotopically), or on the lower right leg (heterotopically) were used as conditioning stimulation for 25 min. The tactile threshold was not affected by either homo- or heterotopical CFS or TENS. The mean thresholds for detecting warming or cooling of the skin were increased by 0.4-0.9 degrees C after homo- but not heterotopical CFS and TENS. Regarding nociceptive skin senses, homo- but not heterotopical CFS, markedly reduced CO2-laser evoked A delta- and C fiber mediated heat pain to 75 and 48% of control, respectively, and mechanically evoked pain to 73% of control. Fabric evoked prickle, was not affected by CFS. Neither homo- nor heterotopical TENS induced any marked analgesic effects. It is concluded that different qualities of nociception can be differentially controlled by CFS.

  18. Is Kinesio Taping to Generate Skin Convolutions Effective for Increasing Local Blood Circulation?

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jae-Man; Lee, Jung-Hoon

    2018-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether traditional application of Kinesio taping, which produces wrinkles in the skin, is effective for improving blood circulation. This study investigated local skin temperature changes after the application of an elastic therapeutic tape using convolution and non-convolution taping methods (CTM/NCTM). Material/Methods Twenty-eight pain-free men underwent CTM and NCTM randomly applied to the right and left sides of the lower back. Using infrared thermography, skin ...

  19. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in Albinos with locally advanced skin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    advanced skin cancer at a Blantyre Hospital: - Case. Series. I A. Chidothe , ... posing difficulties for standard of care for units that do not have access to functional RT ... 3: A 19 year old boy presented with a 5 year history of a left parietal ulcer.

  20. Histamine response and local cooling in the human skin: involvement of H1- and H2-receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, M; Jamieson, M J; Kirch, W

    1999-08-01

    Histamine may contribute locally to cutaneous blood flow control under normal and pathologic conditions. The objective of this study was to observe the influence of skin temperature on histamine vasodilation, and the roles of H1-and H2-receptors using novel noninvasive methods. Eleven healthy subjects received, double-blind, single doses of the H1-receptor antagonist cetirizine (10 mg), cetirizine (10 mg) plus the H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine (400 mg), or placebo on separate occasions. Histamine was dosed cumulatively by iontophoresis to the forearm skin at 34 degrees C and 14 degrees C. Laser-Doppler flux (LDF) was measured at the same sites using customised probeholder/iontophoretic chambers with Peltier cooling elements. Finger mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured and cutaneous vascular conductance calculated as LDF/MAP. Histamine vasodilation was reduced in cold skin. Cetirizine shifted the histamine dose-response at both temperatures: statistically significantly at 14 degrees C only. Combined H1- and H2-receptor antagonism shifted the response significantly at both temperatures. H1- and H2-receptors mediate histamine-induced skin vasodilation. The sensitivity of these receptors, particularly the H1- receptor, is attenuated at low skin temperature. Whether the reduced effect in cold skin represents specific receptor or postreceptor desensitization, or nonspecific attenuation of cutaneous vasodilation remains to be elucidated.

  1. Infusion pressure and pain during microneedle injection into skin of human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Jyoti; Park, Sohyun; Bondy, Brian; Felner, Eric I.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Infusion into skin using hollow microneedles offers an attractive alternative to hypodermic needle injections. However, the fluid mechanics and pain associated with injection into skin using a microneedle have not been studied in detail before. Here, we report on the effect of microneedle insertion depth into skin, partial needle retraction, fluid infusion flow rate and the co-administration of hyaluronidase on infusion pressure during microneedle-based saline infusion, as well as on associated pain in human subjects. Infusion of up to a few hundred microliters of fluid required pressures of a few hundred mmHg, caused little to no pain, and showed weak dependence on infusion parameters. Infusion of larger volumes up to 1 mL required pressures up to a few thousand mmHg, but still usually caused little pain. In general, injection of larger volumes of fluid required larger pressures and application of larger pressures cause more pain, although other experimental parameters also played a significant role. Among the intradermal microneedle groups, microneedle length had little effect; microneedle retraction lowered infusion pressure but increased pain; lower flow rate reduced infusion pressure and kept pain low; and use of hyaluronidase also lowered infusion pressure and kept pain low. We conclude that microneedles offer a simple method to infuse fluid into the skin that can be carried out with little to no pain. PMID:21684001

  2. Local administration of autologous platelet-rich plasma in a female patient with skin ulcer defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Noskov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a clinical observation of the efficiency of local therapy with autologous platelet-rich plasma for .skin ulcer defect in a female with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

  3. Characterization of the early local immune response to Ixodes ricinus tick bites in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Martin; Means, Terry; Haas, Josef; Steere, Allen C; Müllegger, Robert R

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the immunomodulation by tick saliva during a natural tick bite in human skin, the site of the tick-host interaction. We examined the expression of chemokines, cytokines and leucocyte markers on the mRNA levels and histopathologic changes in human skin biopsies of tick bites (n=37) compared to unaffected skin (n=9). Early tick-bite skin lesions (skin. With longer tick attachment (>24 hours), the numbers of innate immune cells and mediators (not significantly) declined, whereas the numbers of lymphocytes (not significantly) increased. Natural tick bites by Ixodes ricinus ticks initially elicit a strong local innate immune response in human skin. Beyond 24 hours of tick attachment, this response usually becomes less, perhaps because of immunomodulation by tick saliva. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Histochemical Localization of Glutathione Dependent NBT-Reductase in Mouse Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective Localization of the glutathione dependent Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reductase in fresh frozen sections of mouse skin and possible dependence of NBT reductase on tissue thiol levels has been investigated. Methods The fresh frozen tissue sections (8m thickness) were prepared and incubated in medium containing NBT, reduced glutathione (GSH) and phosphate buffer. The staining for GSH was performed with mercury orange. Results  The activity of the NBT-reductase in mouse skin has been found to be localized in the areas rich in glutathione and actively proliferating area of the skin. Conclusion The activity of the NBT-reductase seems to be dependent on the glutathione contents.

  5. Alternatively activated macrophages (M2 macrophages) in the skin of patient with localized scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi-Kuwata, Nobuyo; Makino, Takamitsu; Inoue, Yuji; Takeya, Motohiro; Ihn, Hironobu

    2009-08-01

    Localized scleroderma is a connective tissue disorder that is limited to the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Macrophages have been reported to be particularly activated in patients with skin disease including systemic sclerosis and are potentially important sources for fibrosis-inducing cytokines, such as transforming growth factor beta. To clarify the features of immunohistochemical characterization of the immune cell infiltrates in localized scleroderma focusing on macrophages, skin biopsy specimens were analysed by immunohistochemistry. The number of cells stained with monoclonal antibodies, CD68, CD163 and CD204, was calculated. An evident macrophage infiltrate and increased number of alternatively activated macrophages (M2 macrophages) in their fibrotic areas were observed along with their severity of inflammation. This study revealed that alternatively activated macrophages (M2 macrophages) may be a potential source of fibrosis-inducing cytokines in localized scleroderma, and may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of localized scleroderma.

  6. Is Kinesio Taping to Generate Skin Convolutions Effective for Increasing Local Blood Circulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jae-Man; Lee, Jung-Hoon

    2018-01-14

    BACKGROUND It is unclear whether traditional application of Kinesio taping, which produces wrinkles in the skin, is effective for improving blood circulation. This study investigated local skin temperature changes after the application of an elastic therapeutic tape using convolution and non-convolution taping methods (CTM/NCTM). MATERIAL AND METHODS Twenty-eight pain-free men underwent CTM and NCTM randomly applied to the right and left sides of the lower back. Using infrared thermography, skin temperature was measured before, immediately after application, 5 min later, 15 min later, and after the removal of the tape. RESULTS Both CTM and NCTM showed a slight, but significant, decrease in skin temperature for up to 5 min. The skin temperature at 15 min and after the removal of the tape was not significantly different from the initial temperature for CTM and NCTM. There were also no significant differences in the skin temperatures between CTM and NCTM. CONCLUSIONS Our findings do not support a therapeutic effect of wrinkling the skin with elastic tape application as a technique to increase local blood flow.

  7. Artificial Skin Ridges Enhance Local Tactile Shape Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzhi Sam Ge

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental requirements for an artificial hand to successfully grasp and manipulate an object is to be able to distinguish different objects’ shapes and, more specifically, the objects’ surface curvatures. In this study, we investigate the possibility of enhancing the curvature detection of embedded tactile sensors by proposing a ridged fingertip structure, simulating human fingerprints. In addition, a curvature detection approach based on machine learning methods is proposed to provide the embedded sensors with the ability to discriminate the surface curvature of different objects. For this purpose, a set of experiments were carried out to collect tactile signals from a 2 × 2 tactile sensor array, then the signals were processed and used for learning algorithms. To achieve the best possible performance for our machine learning approach, three different learning algorithms of Naïve Bayes (NB, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN, and Support Vector Machines (SVM were implemented and compared for various parameters. Finally, the most accurate method was selected to evaluate the proposed skin structure in recognition of three different curvatures. The results showed an accuracy rate of 97.5% in surface curvature discrimination.

  8. From Cell to Tissue Properties-Modeling Skin Electroporation With Pore and Local Transport Region Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermol-Cerne, Janja; Miklavcic, Damijan

    2018-02-01

    Current models of tissue electroporation either describe tissue with its bulk properties or include cell level properties, but model only a few cells of simple shapes in low-volume fractions or are in two dimensions. We constructed a three-dimensional model of realistically shaped cells in realistic volume fractions. By using a 'unit cell' model, the equivalent dielectric properties of whole tissue could be calculated. We calculated the dielectric properties of electroporated skin. We modeled electroporation of single cells by pore formation on keratinocytes and on the papillary dermis which gave dielectric properties of the electroporated epidermis and papillary dermis. During skin electroporation, local transport regions are formed in the stratum corneum. We modeled local transport regions and increase in their radii or density which affected the dielectric properties of the stratum corneum. The final model of skin electroporation accurately describes measured electric current and voltage drop on the skin during electroporation with long low-voltage pulses. The model also accurately describes voltage drop on the skin during electroporation with short high-voltage pulses. However, our results indicate that during application of short high-voltage pulses additional processes may occur which increase the electric current. Our model connects the processes occurring at the level of cell membranes (pore formation), at the level of a skin layer (formation of local transport region in the stratum corneum) with the tissue (skin layers) and even level of organs (skin). Using a similar approach, electroporation of any tissue can be modeled, if the morphology of the tissue is known.

  9. Salient points in reconstruction of nasal skin after tumor ablation with local flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ebrahimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A variety of nasal skin reconstruction methods are available to meet the esthetic patient's needs. In this article, we review some of modifications of these procedures and share our experience in reconstruction of different parts of the nasal skin following skin tumor ablation. Patients and Methods : From January 2010 to January 2014, 171 patients underwent nasal skin reconstruction after excising cancerous lesions of the involved nasal skin. The patient's history, pre- and post-operation photographs, and the surgery data were collected and assessed. Demographic data related to the type of cancer, defect size and location, type of reconstruction were collected. Results: A variety of local flaps were used based on location and defect features. Nearly all flaps healed primarily without postsurgical significant complications. Conclusion: According to the results and the outcomes of the operations, we concluded that a certain flaps are more effective than others in nasal skin reconstruction. Local flap reconstruction of the nose has good esthetic result with low complication rate.

  10. Differences in laser-Doppler indices between skin-surface measurement sites in subjects with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiu, Hsin; Hu, Hsiao-Feng; Tsai, Hung-Chi

    2018-01-01

    This study performed laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) measurements with the aim of identifying differences in diabetes-induced microcirculatory-blood-flow (MBF) responses between the following skin surface measurement sites: an acupoint around the wrist, an acupoint around the ankle, and a nearby nonacupoint around the ankle. The 67 study subjects were assigned to diabetic, prediabetic, and healthy groups according to the results of oral glucose tolerance tests. Beat-to-beat and spectral analyses were applied to the LDF waveform to obtain the foot delay time (FDT), the flow rise time (FRT), and the relative energy contributions (RECs) in five frequency bands. FRT and FDT were significantly shorter and the RECs of the endothelial-, neural-, and myogenic-related frequency bands were significantly smaller in the diabetic group than in the control group at the acupoint around the ankle, but there were no such prominent differences at the other sites. The acupoint around the ankle was better than the nearby nonacupoint and the acupoint around the wrist for distinguishing the age-matched diabetic, prediabetic, and healthy subjects. These findings imply that when monitoring diabetes-induced MBF responses, the measurement locations should be chosen carefully in order to minimize interference effects and to improve the ability to distinguish subjects with different conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A novel local anesthetic system: transcriptional transactivator peptide-decorated nanocarriers for skin delivery of ropivacaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen CY

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chuanyu Chen, Peijun You Department of Anesthesiology, Shandong Jining No 1 People’s Hospital, Jining, Shandong, People’s Republic of China Purpose: Barrier properties of the skin and physicochemical properties of drugs are the main factors for the delivery of local anesthetic molecules. The present work evaluates the anesthetic efficacy of drug-loaded nanocarrier (NC systems for the delivery of local anesthetic drug, ropivacaine (RVC. Methods: In this study, transcriptional transactivator peptide (TAT-decorated RVC-loaded NCs (TAT-RVC/NCs were successfully fabricated. Physicochemical properties of NCs were determined in terms of particle size, zeta potential, drug encapsulation efficiency, drug-loading capacity, stability, and in vitro drug release. The skin permeation of NCs was examined using a Franz diffusion cell mounted with depilated mouse skin in vitro, and in vivo anesthetic effect was evaluated in mice. Results: The results showed that TAT-RVC/NCs have a mean diameter of 133.2 nm and high drug-loading capacity of 81.7%. From the in vitro skin permeation results, it was observed that transdermal flux of TAT-RVC/NCs was higher than that of RVC-loaded NCs (RVC/NCs and RVC injection. The evaluation of in vivo anesthetic effect illustrated that TAT-RVC/NCs can enhance the transdermal delivery of RVC by reducing the pain threshold in mice. Conclusion: These results indicate that TAT-decorated NCs systems are useful for overcoming the barrier function of the skin, decreasing the dosage of RVC and enhancing the anesthetic effect. Therefore, TAT-decorated NCs can be used as an effective transdermal delivery system for local anesthesia. Keywords: local anesthetic system, ropivacaine, transcriptional transactivator peptide, nanocarriers, skin delivery

  12. Effect of local allergen priming on early, late, delayed-phase, and epicutaneous skin reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weller, F. R.; Weller, M. S.; Jansen, H. M.; de Monchy, J. G.

    1996-01-01

    Allergic disease is reflected in a chronic inflammatory response to an allergen. It is thought that local allergen priming underlies this chronicity. To assess the effect of allergen priming on the amplitude and histologic effect of the allergic reaction, four sequential, intracutaneous skin tests

  13. Effect of local allergen priming on early, late, delayed-phase, and epicutaneous skin reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weller, FR; Weller, MS; Jansen, HM; deMonchy, JGR

    1996-01-01

    Allergic disease is renected in a chronic inflammatory response to an allergen. It is thought that local allergen priming underlies this chronicity. To assess the effect of allergen priming on the amplitude and histologic effect of the allergic reaction, four sequential, intracutaneous skin tests

  14. In situ localization of chloroquine and immunohistological studies in UVB-irradiated skin of photosensitive patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjölin-Forsberg, G.; Berne, B.; Eggelte, T. A.; Karlsson-Parra, A.

    1995-01-01

    Chloroquine can prevent photosensitivity reactions, but its mechanism of action is poorly understood. To investigate if the drug may interfere with inflammatory or immunological mechanisms of the UV-induced erythema of photosensitive patients, we studied the localization of chloroquine in the skin

  15. [Experimental model of severe local radiation injuries of the skin after X-rays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotenko, K V; Moroz, B B; Nasonova, T A; Dobrynina, O A; LIpengolz, A A; Gimadova, T I; Deshevoy, Yu B; Lebedev, V G; Lyrschikova, A V; Eremin, I I

    2013-01-01

    The experimental model of severe local radiation injuries skin under the influence of a relatively soft X-rays on a modified device RAP 100-10 produced by "Diagnostica-M" (Russia) was proposed. The model can be used as pre-clinical studies in small experimental animals in order to improve the treatment of local radiation injuries, especially in the conditions of application of cellular therapy.

  16. Pen needle design influences ease of insertion, pain, and skin trauma in subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstmark, Kezia A; Jensen, Morten L; Berg Madsen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    subject and in random order. Penetration force (PF) through the skin, pain perception on 100 mm visual analog scale, and change in skin blood perfusion (SBP) were quantified after the insertions. RESULTS: Needle diameter was positively related to PF and SBP (ptrend relation...... of insertion, pain and skin trauma. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: 30 subjects with injection-treated type 2 diabetes and body mass index 25-35 kg/m(2) were included in the single-blinded study. Each subject received abdominal insertions with 18 different types of needles. All needles were tested twice per....... Lack of needle lubrication and small 'needle hooks' increased PF and SBP (pskin and in polyurethane rubber were linearly related, and pain outcome...

  17. Skin irritation, false positives and the local lymph node assay: a guideline issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David A; Kimber, Ian

    2011-10-01

    Since the formal validation and regulatory acceptance of the local lymph node assay (LLNA) there have been commentaries suggesting that the irritant properties of substances can give rise to false positives. As toxicology aspires to progress rapidly towards the age of in vitro alternatives, it is of increasing importance that issues relating to assay selectivity and performance are understood fully, and that true false positive responses are distinguished clearly from those that are simply unpalatable. In the present review, we have focused on whether skin irritation per se is actually a direct cause of true false positive results in the LLNA. The body of published work has been examined critically and considered in relation to our current understanding of the mechanisms of skin irritation and skin sensitisation. From these analyses it is very clear that, of itself, skin irritation is not a cause of false positive results. The corollary is, therefore, that limiting test concentrations in the LLNA for the purpose of avoiding skin irritation may lead, unintentionally, to false negatives. Where a substance is a true false positive in the LLNA, the classic example being sodium lauryl sulphate, explanations for that positivity will have to reach beyond the seductive, but incorrect, recourse to its skin irritation potential. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Blood flow in the forearm in patients with Rheumatoid arthritis and healthy subjects under local thermotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mucha

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Muscle blood flow in the forearm of patients with rheuma-toid arthritis and healthy volunteers following treatment with temperature increasingarm baths, mudpacks and short- or decimeter-wave diathermy was studied in thisinvestigation. The aim of the study was to find out the difference of reactive hyperemia between the different temperature methods as well as the influence on theconsensual reaction. Subjects: Eighty patients with rheumatoid arthritis, stage 3 according toSteinbrocker, as well as 80 healthy human subjects had been assigned numerically in the four therapy- and controlgroups. Patients with diseases influencing the peripheral blood flow were excluded. Design: Blood flow was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography in both forearms with the subjects lyingsupine. The application of the local heat therapies had been excluded on the left forearm. The forearm blood flow wasmonitored before heat therapy, directly after as well as in two further 10 minutes intervals. An analysis of variancewas used to determine the influence on blood flow of the response to the heat therapies in patients with rheumatoidarthritis and healthy subjects.Results: Under homogeneous starting conditions and a statistically uniformed high blood flow in rest the reactive values of blood flow on the left-hand side of application and the right consensual side showed high significant differencesbetween all methods of therapy. Differences between the patients and the healthy subjects only showed tendencies withpartially lower reactions, concerning the patients with rheumatoid arthritis. All methods of heat therapy caused a statistically provable consensual reaction that turned out smaller after diathermic methods. Here the post therapeuticreaction of the blood flow on the side of application was also lower or rather shorter. Conclusion: Greater differences of the blood flow in rest between the patients with rheumatoid arthritis and healthysubjects

  19. Sensing the environment: regulation of local and global homeostasis by the skin's neuroendocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Andrzej T; Zmijewski, Michal A; Skobowiat, Cezary; Zbytek, Blazej; Slominski, Radomir M; Steketee, Jeffery D

    2012-01-01

    Skin, the body's largest organ, is strategically located at the interface with the external environment where it detects, integrates, and responds to a diverse range of stressors including solar radiation. It has already been established that the skin is an important peripheral neuro-endocrine-immune organ that is tightly networked to central regulatory systems. These capabilities contribute to the maintenance of peripheral homeostasis. Specifically, epidermal and dermal cells produce and respond to classical stress neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, and hormones. Such production is stimulated by ultraviolet radiation (UVR), biological factors (infectious and noninfectious), and other physical and chemical agents. Examples of local biologically active products are cytokines, biogenic amines (catecholamines, histamine, serotonin, and N-acetyl-serotonin), melatonin, acetylocholine, neuropeptides including pituitary (proopiomelanocortin-derived ACTH, beta-endorphin or MSH peptides, thyroid-stimulating hormone) and hypothalamic (corticotropin-releasing factor and related urocortins, thyroid-releasing hormone) hormones as well as enkephalins and dynorphins, thyroid hormones, steroids (glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, sex hormones, 7-delta steroids), secosteroids, opioids, and endocannabinoids. The production of these molecules is hierarchical, organized along the algorithms of classical neuroendocrine axes such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), hypothalamic-thyroid axis (HPT), serotoninergic, melatoninergic, catecholaminergic, cholinergic, steroid/secosteroidogenic, opioid, and endocannbinoid systems. Dysregulation of these axes or of communication between them may lead to skin and/ or systemic diseases. These local neuroendocrine networks are also addressed at restricting maximally the effect of noxious environmental agents to preserve local and consequently global homeostasis. Moreover, the skin-derived factors/systems can also activate cutaneous nerve

  20. A Comparison of the Local Flap and Skin Graft by Location of Face in Reconstruction after Resection of Facial Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Suk; Kim, Jun Oh; Kim, Nam Gyun; Lee, Yoon Jung; Park, Young Ji; Kim, Jun Sik

    2017-12-01

    Surgery for reconstruction of defects after surgery should be performed selectively and the many points must be considered. The authors conducted this study to compare the local flap and skin graft by facial location in the reconstruction after resection of facial skin cancer. The authors performed the study in patients that had received treatment in Department of Plastic Surgery, Gyeongsang National University. The cases were analyzed according to the reconstruction methods for the defects after surgery, sex, age, tumor site, and tumor size. Additionally, the authors compared differences of aesthetic satisfaction (out of 5 points) of patients in the local flap and skin graft by facial location after resection of facial skin cancer by dividing the face into eight areas. A total of 153 cases were confirmed. The most common facial skin cancer was basal cell carcinoma (56.8%, 87 cases), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (37.2%, 57 cases) and bowen's disease (5.8%, 9 cases). The most common reconstruction method was local flap 119 cases (77.7%), followed by skin graft 34 cases (22.3%). 86 patients answered the questionnaire and mean satisfaction of the local flap and skin graft were 4.3 and 3.5 ( p =0.04), respectively, indicating that satisfaction of local flap was significantly high. When comparing satisfaction of patients according to results, local flap shows excellent effects in functional and cosmetic aspects would be able to provide excellent results rather than using a skin graft with poor touch and tone compared to the surrounding normal skin.

  1. Quantitative relationship between the local lymph node assay and human skin sensitization assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, K; Akkan, Z

    2004-06-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a new test method which allows for the quantitative assessment of sensitizing potency in the mouse. Here, we investigate the quantitative correlation between results from the LLNA and two human sensitization tests--specifically, human repeat insult patch tests (HRIPTs) and human maximization tests (HMTs). Data for 57 substances were evaluated, of which 46 showed skin sensitizing properties in human tests, whereas 11 yielded negative results in humans. For better comparability data from mouse and human tests were transformed to applied doses per skin area, which ranged over four orders of magnitude for the substances considered. Regression analysis for the 46 human sensitizing substances revealed a significant positive correlation between the LLNA and human tests. The correlation was better between LLNA and HRIPT data (n=23; r=0.77) than between LLNA and HMT data (n=38; r=0.65). The observed scattering of data points is related to various uncertainties, in part associated with insufficiencies of data from older HMT studies. Predominantly negative results in the LLNA for another 11 substances which showed no skin sensitizing activity in human maximization tests further corroborate the correspondence between LLNA and human tests. Based on this analysis, the LLNA can be considered a reliable basis for relative potency assessments for skin sensitizers. Proposals are made for the regulatory exploitation of the LLNA: four potency groups can be established, and assignment of substances to these groups according to the outcome of the LLNA can be used to characterize skin sensitizing potency in substance-specific assessments. Moreover, based on these potency groups, a more adequate consideration of sensitizing substances in preparations becomes possible. It is proposed to replace the current single concentration limit for skin sensitizers in preparations, which leads to an all or nothing classification of a preparation as sensitizing to

  2. Influence of local air velocity from air conditioner evaluated by salivary and skin biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Takahashi, Takayuki; Yoshino, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Makoto; Nishiyama, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to reveal both the psychosomatic and the physical effects of local air velocity from an air conditioner using biomarkers which can be collected noninvasively. Salivary α-amylase activity (SAA) and salivary cortisol were used as the indexes of psychosomatic effects. The total protein (TP) collected from stratum corneum was used as an index of the physical condition of dry skin. A continuous experiment over a 5 days period in summer was conducted using 8 healthy you...

  3. Relative roles of local and reflex components in cutaneous vasoconstriction during skin cooling in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Guy E; Zhao, Kun; Kosiba, Wojciech A; Johnson, John M

    2006-06-01

    The reduction in skin blood flow (SkBF) with cold exposure is partly due to the reflex vasoconstrictor response from whole body cooling (WBC) and partly to the direct effects of local cooling (LC). Although these have been examined independently, little is known regarding their roles when acting together, as occurs in environmental cooling. We tested the hypothesis that the vasoconstrictor response to combined LC and WBC would be additive, i.e., would equal the sum of their independent effects. We further hypothesized that LC would attenuate the reflex vasoconstrictor response to WBC. We studied 16 (7 women, 9 men) young (30.5+/-2 yr) healthy volunteers. LC and WBC were accomplished with metal Peltier cooler-heater probe holders and water-perfused suits, respectively. Forearm SkBF was monitored by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as LDF/blood pressure. Subjects underwent 15 min of LC alone or 15 min of WBC with and without simultaneous LC, either at equal levels (34-31 degrees C) or as equipotent stimuli (34-28 degrees C LC; 34-31 degrees C WBC). The fall in CVC with combined WBC and LC was greater (Pcooling, but it was only significantly greater than for LC alone with equal levels of cooling (51.3+/-8% combined vs. 29.5+/-4% LC). The sum of the independent effects of WBC and LC was greater than their combined effects (74.9+/-4 vs. 51.3+/-8% equal and 73.6+/-7 vs. 57.0+/-5% equipotent; Pcooling, but also suppresses the reflex response, resulting in a nonadditive effect of these two components.

  4. Transport Pathways and Enhancement Mechanisms within Localized and Non-Localized Transport Regions in Skin Treated with Low-Frequency Sonophoresis and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Polat, Baris E.; Figueroa, Pedro L.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in transdermal drug delivery utilizing low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) have revealed that skin permeability enhancement is not homogenous across the skin surface. Instead, highly perturbed skin regions, known as localized transport regions (LTRs), exist. Despite these findings, little research has been conducted to identify intrinsic properties and formation mechanisms of LTRs and the surrounding less-perturbed non-LTRs. By independently analyz...

  5. New Mydriasis-Free Electroretinogram Recorded with Skin Electrodes in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Asakawa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the reproducibility and consistency of the new mydriasis-free electroretinogram (ERG with a skin electrode (RETeval device, to determine the normative values of parameters, and to clarify the usefulness of pupil records to colored-light stimulus. Methods. A total of 100 eyes of 50 healthy subjects (mean age, 21.4 years were enrolled. The diagnostic parameters obtained by the RETeval device were examined under the following conditions. The reproducibility was determined with the coefficient of variation (CV. The consistency was examined by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs. The mean value and the normal range were analyzed with a 95% confidence interval as the normative values of parameters. The correlation of parameters to pupil records (area ratio, constriction ratio and flicker ERG was also examined in the diabetic retinopathy assessment protocol. Results. From the CV for each of the two measurements, the amplitude has a low reproducibility compared with the implicit time. Generally good consistency was obtained with both ERG parameters (ICCs = 0.48–0.92. Moderate correlations were found for the white-, red-, and blue-light stimulus in the area ratio and the constriction ratio, respectively (r = 0.44–0.62; P = 0.010–<0.0001. No correlation was observed between pupil and flicker parameters (r = 0.06–0.34; P = 0.646–0.051. Conclusions. The RETeval device was suggested as a possible screening device to detect the visual afferent diseases by evaluating in combination with the ERG recording and the colored-light pupil response.

  6. Uncovering different masking factors on wrist skin temperature rhythm in free-living subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Martinez-Nicolas

    Full Text Available Most circadian rhythms are controlled by a major pacemaker located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus. Some of these rhythms, called marker rhythms, serve to characterize the timing of the internal temporal order. However, these variables are susceptible to masking effects as the result of activity, body position, light exposure, environmental temperature and sleep. Recently, wrist skin temperature (WT has been proposed as a new index for evaluating circadian system status. In light of previous evidence suggesting the important relationship between WT and core body temperature regulation, the aim of this work was to purify the WT pattern in order to obtain its endogenous rhythm with the application of multiple demasking procedures. To this end, 103 subjects (18-24 years old were recruited and their WT, activity, body position, light exposure, environmental temperature and sleep were recorded under free-living conditions for 1 week. WT demasking by categories or intercepts was applied to simulate a "constant routine" protocol (awakening, dim light, recumbent position, low activity and warm environmental temperature. Although the overall circadian pattern of WT was similar regardless of the masking effects, its amplitude was the rhythmic parameter most affected by environmental conditions. The acrophase and mesor were determined to be the most robust parameters for characterizing this rhythm. In addition, a circadian modulation of the masking effect was found for each masking variable. WT rhythm exhibits a strong endogenous component, despite the existence of multiple external influences. This was evidenced by simultaneously eliminating the influence of activity, body position, light exposure, environmental temperature and sleep. We therefore propose that it could be considered a valuable and minimally-invasive means of recording circadian physiology in ambulatory conditions.

  7. Pen needle design influences ease of insertion, pain, and skin trauma in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Præstmark, Kezia A; Jensen, Morten L; Madsen, Nils B; Kildegaard, Jonas; Stallknecht, Bente M

    2016-01-01

    Pen needles used for subcutaneous injections have gradually become shorter, thinner and more thin walled, and thereby less robust to patient reuse. Thus, different needle sizes, alternative tip designs and needles resembling reuse were tested to explore how needle design influences ease of insertion, pain and skin trauma. 30 subjects with injection-treated type 2 diabetes and body mass index 25-35 kg/m 2 were included in the single-blinded study. Each subject received abdominal insertions with 18 different types of needles. All needles were tested twice per subject and in random order. Penetration force (PF) through the skin, pain perception on 100 mm visual analog scale, and change in skin blood perfusion (SBP) were quantified after the insertions. Needle diameter was positively related to PF and SBP (ptrend relation. Lack of needle lubrication and small 'needle hooks' increased PF and SBP (pskin and in polyurethane rubber were linearly related, and pain outcome was dependent of SBP increase. The shape and design of a needle and the needle tip affect ease of insertion, pain and skin trauma. Relations are seen across different data acquisition methods and across species, enabling needle performance testing outside of clinical trials. NCT02531776; results.

  8. QSAR Study of Skin Sensitization Using Local Lymph Node Assay Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Demchuk

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD is a common work-related skin disease that often develops as a result of repetitive skin exposures to a sensitizing chemical agent. A variety of experimental tests have been suggested to assess the skin sensitization potential. We applied a method of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR to relate measured and calculated physical-chemical properties of chemical compounds to their sensitization potential. Using statistical methods, each of these properties, called molecular descriptors, was tested for its propensity to predict the sensitization potential. A few of the most informative descriptors were subsequently selected to build a model of skin sensitization. In this work sensitization data for the murine Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA were used. In principle, LLNA provides a standardized continuous scale suitable for quantitative assessment of skin sensitization. However, at present many LLNA results are still reported on a dichotomous scale, which is consistent with the scale of guinea pig tests, which were widely used in past years. Therefore, in this study only a dichotomous version of the LLNA data was used. To the statistical end, we relied on the logistic regression approach. This approach provides a statistical tool for investigating and predicting skin sensitization that is expressed only in categorical terms of activity and nonactivity. Based on the data of compounds used in this study, our results suggest a QSAR model of ACD that is based on the following descriptors: nDB (number of double bonds, C-003 (number of CHR3 molecular subfragments, GATS6M (autocorrelation coefficient and HATS6m (GETAWAY descriptor, although the relevance of the identified descriptors to the continuous ACD QSAR has yet to be shown. The proposed QSAR model gives a percentage of positively predicted responses of 83% on the training set of compounds, and in cross validation it correctly identifies 79% of

  9. Merkel cell tumor of the skin treated with localized radiotherapy: are widely negative margins required?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Parda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Merkel’s cell carcinoma is a rare cutaneous tumor that can affect a wide variety of sites throughout the body. Commonly, it affects the skin alone and the management of limited disease can be confusing since the natural history of the disease involves distant metastasis. Traditional management has required wide local excision with negative margins of resection. We describe a case treated with local therapy alone and review the literature to suggest that complete microscopic excision may not be required if adjuvant radiotherapy is used.

  10. Mechanistic applicability domain classification of a local lymph node assay dataset for skin sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David W; Patlewicz, Grace; Kern, Petra S; Gerberick, Frank; Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J; Ryan, Cindy A; Basketter, David A; Aptula, Aynur O

    2007-07-01

    The goal of eliminating animal testing in the predictive identification of chemicals with the intrinsic ability to cause skin sensitization is an important target, the attainment of which has recently been brought into even sharper relief by the EU Cosmetics Directive and the requirements of the REACH legislation. Development of alternative methods requires that the chemicals used to evaluate and validate novel approaches comprise not only confirmed skin sensitizers and non-sensitizers but also substances that span the full chemical mechanistic spectrum associated with skin sensitization. To this end, a recently published database of more than 200 chemicals tested in the mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) has been examined in relation to various chemical reaction mechanistic domains known to be associated with sensitization. It is demonstrated here that the dataset does cover the main reaction mechanistic domains. In addition, it is shown that assignment to a reaction mechanistic domain is a critical first step in a strategic approach to understanding, ultimately on a quantitative basis, how chemical properties influence the potency of skin sensitizing chemicals. This understanding is necessary if reliable non-animal approaches, including (quantitative) structure-activity relationships (Q)SARs, read-across, and experimental chemistry based models, are to be developed.

  11. Biological dosimetry of local radiation accidents of skin: possible cytological and biochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potten, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    Skin erythema or skin reaction is a highly dose-dependent change in skin appearance. A few gray can usually be detected in humans but higher doses are usually required for experimental rodents. The disadvantages are that the end-point is subjective and the response strongly influenced by numerous physical and biological factors. Changes in the levels of pigmentation can be detected in the epidermis and possibly the hair follicles but generally these only become apparent after chronic exposures. The skin appendages, particularly the hair follicles, could represent sensitive systems for detecting radiation exposures, but the cyclic behaviour of the hair follicles is difficult to control or determine in an accident. Acute cell death can be measured in the follicle germ and changes in the thickness and appearance of the hair are easily detected: in severe cases there is loss of hair (epilation). The number of dead cells per follicle section increased at a rate of 2.9/Gy and doses of about 0.2Gy can be easily detected. The width of the hair is reduced by about 7-8%/Gy and this change, which results in a dysplastic hair is believed to be the consequences of cell death in the follicles. (author)

  12. Supraclavicular skin temperature as a measure of 18F-FDG uptake by BAT in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Mariëtte R; Bakker, Leontine E H; van der Linden, Rianne A D; Pereira Arias-Bouda, Lenka; Smit, Frits; Verberne, Hein J; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D; Jazet, Ingrid M; Rensen, Patrick C N

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has emerged as a novel player in energy homeostasis in humans and is considered a potential new target for combating obesity and related diseases. The current 'gold standard' for quantification of BAT volume and activity is cold-induced 18F-FDG uptake in BAT. However, use of this technique is limited by cost and radiation exposure. Given the fact that BAT is a thermogenic tissue, mainly located in the supraclavicular region, the aim of the current study was to investigate whether cold-induced supraclavicular skin temperature and core body temperature may be alternative markers of BAT activation in humans. BAT volume and activity were measured in 24 healthy lean adolescent males (mean age 24.1±0.8 years), using cold-induced 18F-FDG uptake with PET-CT. Core body temperature was measured continuously in the small intestine with use of an ingestible telemetric capsule and skin temperature was measured by eighteen wireless iButtons attached to the skin following ISO-defined locations. Proximal and distal (hand/feet) skin temperatures markedly decreased upon cold exposure, while supraclavicular skin temperature significantly increased (35.2±0.1 vs. 35.5±0.1°C, p = 0.001). Furthermore, cold-induced supraclavicular skin temperature positively correlated with both total (R2 = 0.28, P = 0.010) and clavicular BAT volume (R2 = 0.20, P = 0.030) and clavicular SUVmax (R2 = 0.27, P = 0.010), while core body temperature did not. Supraclavicular skin temperature as measured by iButtons may have predictive value for BAT detection in adult humans. This is highly desirable considering the increasing interest in pharmacological interventions to stimulate BAT in human subjects. NTR 2473.

  13. Skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Malignant disease involving the skin represents a significant work load to the general radiotherapist and can involve interesting diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Primary skin cancer is also relatively common and there is a need to provide an efficient service in which the first treatment is successful in the majority of patients. The reward for careful attention to technique is very considerable both in terms of clinical cancer control and functional results. Squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and intra-epidermal carcinoma constitute the majority of the lesions dealt with clinically, but metastatic disease, lymphomas, and malignant melanomas are also referred regularly for opinions and may require radiotherapy. The general principle of the techniques of assessment and radiotherapeutic management to be described are equally applicable to any malignant skin tumour once the decision has been made to accept it for radiotherapy. Dosage and fractionation may have to be adjusted to allow for the nature of the disease process and the intent of the treatment

  14. β-Adrenergic blockade does not impair the skin blood flow sensitivity to local heating in burned and nonburned skin under neutral and hot environments in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Eric; McEntire, Serina J; Herndon, David N; Mlcak, Ronald P; Suman, Oscar E

    2017-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that propranolol, a drug given to burn patients to reduce hypermetabolism/cardiac stress, may inhibit heat dissipation by changing the sensitivity of skin blood flow (SkBF) to local heating under neutral and hot conditions. In a randomized double-blind study, a placebo was given to eight burned children, while propranolol was given to 13 burned children with similar characteristics (mean±SD: 11.9±3 years, 147±20 cm, 45±23 kg, 56±12% Total body surface area burned). Nonburned children (n=13, 11.4±3 years, 152±15 cm, 52±13 kg) served as healthy controls. A progressive local heating protocol characterized SkBF responses in burned and unburned skin and nonburned control skin under the two environmental conditions (23 and 34°C) via laser Doppler flowmetry. Resting SkBF was greater in burned and unburned skin compared to the nonburned control (main effect: skin, Pburned; 38±36 unburned vs 9±8 control %SkBF max ). No difference was found for maximal SkBF capacity to local heating between groups. Additionally, dose-response curves for the sensitivity of SkBF to local heating were not different among burned or unburned skin, and nonburned control skin (EC 50 , P>.05) under either condition. Therapeutic propranolol does not negatively affect SkBF under neutral or hot environmental conditions and further compromise temperature regulation in burned children. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Transport pathways and enhancement mechanisms within localized and non-localized transport regions in skin treated with low-frequency sonophoresis and sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Baris E; Figueroa, Pedro L; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

    2011-02-01

    Recent advances in transdermal drug delivery utilizing low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) have revealed that skin permeability enhancement is not homogenous across the skin surface. Instead, highly perturbed skin regions, known as localized transport regions (LTRs), exist. Despite these findings, little research has been conducted to identify intrinsic properties and formation mechanisms of LTRs and the surrounding less-perturbed non-LTRs. By independently analyzing LTR, non-LTR, and total skin samples treated at multiple LFS frequencies, we found that the pore radii (r(pore)) within non-LTRs are frequency-independent, ranging from 18.2 to 18.5 Å, but significantly larger than r(pore) of native skin samples (13.6 Å). Conversely, r(pore) within LTRs increase significantly with decreasing frequency from 161 to 276 Å and to ∞ (>300 Å) for LFS/SLS-treated skin at 60, 40, and 20 kHz, respectively. Our findings suggest that different mechanisms contribute to skin permeability enhancement within each skin region. We propose that the enhancement mechanism within LTRs is the frequency-dependent process of cavitation-induced microjet collapse at the skin surface, whereas the increased r(pore) values in non-LTRs are likely due to SLS perturbation, with enhanced penetration of SLS into the skin resulting from the frequency-independent process of microstreaming. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Transport Pathways and Enhancement Mechanisms within Localized and Non-Localized Transport Regions in Skin Treated with Low-Frequency Sonophoresis and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Baris E.; Figueroa, Pedro L.; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in transdermal drug delivery utilizing low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) have revealed that skin permeability enhancement is not homogenous across the skin surface. Instead, highly perturbed skin regions, known as localized transport regions (LTRs), exist. Despite these findings, little research has been conducted to identify intrinsic properties and formation mechanisms of LTRs and the surrounding less-perturbed non-LTRs. By independently analyzing LTR, non-LTR, and total skin samples treated at multiple LFS frequencies, we found that the pore radii (rpore) within non-LTRs are frequency-independent, ranging from 18.2 – 18.5 Å, but significantly larger than rpore of native skin samples (13.6 Å). Conversely, rpore within LTRs increases significantly with decreasing frequency from 161 Å, to 276 Å, and to ∞ (>300Å) for LFS/SLS-treated skin at 60 kHz, 40 kHz, and 20 kHz, respectively. Our findings suggest that different mechanisms contribute to skin permeability enhancement within each skin region. We propose that the enhancement mechanism within LTRs is the frequency-dependent process of cavitation-induced microjet collapse at the skin surface, while the increased rpore values in non-LTRs are likely due to SLS perturbation, with enhanced penetration of SLS into the skin resulting from the frequency-independent process of microstreaming. PMID:20740667

  17. Quantitative Assessment of Skin Stiffness in Localized Scleroderma Using Ultrasound Shear-Wave Elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liyun; Yan, Feng; Yang, Yujia; Xiang, Xi; Qiu, Li

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of ultrasound shear-wave elastography (US-SWE) in characterization of localized scleroderma (LS), as well as in the disease staging. A total of 21 patients with 37 LS lesions were enrolled in this study. The pathologic stage (edema, sclerosis or atrophy) of the lesions was characterized by pathologic examination. The skin elastic modulus (E-values including E mean , E min , E max and E sd ) and thickness (h) was evaluated both in LS lesions and site-matched unaffected skin (normal controls) using US-SWE. The relative difference of E-values (E RD ) was calculated between each pair of lesions and its normal control for comparison among different pathologic stages. Of the 37 LS lesions, 2 were in edema, 22 were in sclerosis and 13 were in atrophy. US-SWE results showed a significant increase of skin elastic modulus and thickness in all lesions (p < 0.001 in sclerosis and p < 0.05 in atrophy) compared with the normal controls. The measured skin elastic modulus and thickness were greater in sclerosis than in atrophy. However, once normalized by skin thickness, the atrophic lesions, which were on average thinner, appeared significantly stiffer than those of the sclerosis (normalized E RD : an increase of 316.3% in atrophy vs. 50.6% in sclerosis compared with the controls, p = 0.007). These findings suggest that US-SWE allows for quantitative evaluation of the skin stiffness of LS lesions in different stages; however, the E-values directly provided by the US-SWE system alone do not distinguish between the stages, and the normalization by skin thickness is necessary. This non-invasive, real-time imaging technique is an ideal tool for assessing and monitoring LS disease severity and progression. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Automatic enhancement of skin fluorescence localization due to refractive index matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churmakov, Dmitry Y.; Meglinski, Igor V.; Piletsky, Sergey A.; Greenhalgh, Douglas A.

    2004-07-01

    Fluorescence diagnostic techniques are notable amongst many other optical methods, as they offer high sensitivity and non-invasive measurements of tissue properties. However, a combination of multiple scattering and physical heterogeneity of biological tissues hampers the interpretation of the fluorescence measurements. The analyses of the spatial distribution of endogenous and exogenous fluorophores excitations within tissues and their contribution to the detected signal localization are essential for many applications. We have developed a novel Monte Carlo technique that gives a graphical perception of how the excitation and fluorescence detected signal are localized in tissues. Our model takes into account spatial distribution of fluorophores and their quantum yields. We demonstrate that matching of the refractive indices of ambient medium and topical skin layer improves spatial localization of the detected fluorescence signal within the tissue. This result is consistent with the recent conclusion that administering biocompatible agents results in higher image contrast.

  19. A comparison between 133Xenon washout technique and Laser Doppler flowmetry in the measurement of local vasoconstrictor effects on the microcirculation in subcutaneous tissue and skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J; Bülow, J; Lassen, N A

    1987-01-01

    Changes in skin blood flow measured by Laser Doppler flowmetry and changes in subcutaneous blood flow measured by 133Xenon washout technique were compared during activation of the local sympathetic mediated veno-arteriolar vasoconstrictor reflex by lowering the area of investigation below heart...... forearm, and on the calf with preserved sympathetic nerve supply. The Laser Doppler method registered a 23% reduction in skin blood flow during lowering of the extremities independently of the sympathetic nerve supply to the skin. The 133Xenon method recorded a 44% decrease in blood flow in innervated...... level. The measurements were performed in tissue with and without sympathetic innervation. In five subjects, who all had been cervically sympathectomized for manual hyperhidrosis, the Laser Doppler and 133Xenon blood flow measurements were performed simultaneously on the sympathetically denervated...

  20. The effect of local hyperglycemia on skin cells in vitro and on wound healing in euglycemic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Carla R; Singh, Mansher; Sørensen, Jens A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple previous studies have established that high systemic blood glucose concentration impairs skin wound healing. However, the effects of local hyperglycemia on wound healing are not well defined. Comprehensive animal studies and in vitro studies using both fibroblasts and keratin......BACKGROUND: Multiple previous studies have established that high systemic blood glucose concentration impairs skin wound healing. However, the effects of local hyperglycemia on wound healing are not well defined. Comprehensive animal studies and in vitro studies using both fibroblasts...

  1. Inhibition by local bupivacaine-releasing microspheres of acute postoperative pain from hairy skin incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohri, Rachit; Wang, Jeffrey Chi-Fei; Blaskovich, Phillip D; Pham, Lan N; Costa, Daniel S; Nichols, Gary A; Hildebrand, William P; Scarborough, Nelson L; Herman, Clifford J; Strichartz, Gary R

    2013-09-01

    Acute postoperative pain causes physiological deficits and slows recovery. Reduction of such pain by local anesthetics that are delivered for several days postoperatively is a desirable clinical objective, which is approached by a new formulation and applied in animal studies reported here. We subcutaneously injected a new formulation of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid polymer microspheres, which provides steady drug release for 96+ hours into rats at the dorsal region 2 hours before surgery. A single 1.2-cm-long skin incision was followed by blunt dissection of skin away from the underlying fascia, and closed by 2 sutures, followed by 14 days of testing. Microspheres containing 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg bupivacaine were injected locally 2 hours before surgery; bupivacaine-free microspheres were the vehicle control, and bupivacaine HCl solution (0.5%), the positive control. Mechanical sensitivity was determined by the frequency of local muscle contractions to repeated pokes with nylon monofilaments (von Frey hairs) exerting 4 and 15 g forces, testing, respectively, allodynia and hyperalgesia, and by pinprick. Injection of bupivacaine microspheres (40 mg drug) into intact skin reduced responses to 15 g von Frey hairs for 6 hours and to pinprick for 36 hours. Respective reductions from bupivacaine HCl lasted for 3 and 2 hours. Skin incision and dissection alone caused mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia for 14 days. Microspheres containing 20 or 40 mg bupivacaine suppressed postoperative hypersensitivity for up to 3 days, reduced integrated allodynia (area under curve of response versus time) over postoperative days 1 to 5 by 51% ± 20% (mean ± SE) and 78% ± 12%, and reduced integrated hyperalgesia by 55% ± 13% and 64% ± 11%, for the respective doses. Five and ten milligrams bupivacaine in microspheres and the 0.5% bupivacaine solution were ineffective in reducing postoperative hypersensitivity, as were 40 mg bupivacaine microspheres injected contralateral to the

  2. Functional analyses of the skin surface of the areola mammae: comparison between healthy adult male and female subjects and between healthy individuals and patients with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, K; Tagami, H; Akaraphanth, R; Aiba, S

    2011-01-01

    Although the nipple and areola of the breast constitute a unique and prominent area on the chest, so far no study has been done on the functional properties of their skin surfaces. To study the stratum corneum (SC) covering the areola using noninvasive methods. Eighteen adult healthy subjects comprising nine men and nine women and 18 age- and sex-matched patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), none of whom had visible skin lesions, participated in the study. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin surface hydration and skin surface lipid levels were measured on the areola and adjacent breast skin. The size of the skin surface corneocytes of these skin regions was assessed. All the healthy subjects showed significantly higher TEWL accompanied by smaller sized corneocytes on the areola than on the adjacent breast skin. Only female subjects revealed a significantly higher skin surface hydration state together with significantly increased skin surface lipid levels on the areola than on the adjacent breast skin. These sex differences were observed even in patients with AD. Comparison between healthy individuals and the patients with AD demonstrated higher TEWL, decreased skin surface hydration state and lower skin surface lipid levels associated with smaller sized corneocytes in the areola in the patients with AD, especially in male patients. In adults, the SC barrier function and SC water-binding capacity of the areola were functionally poorer than in the adjacent skin, being covered by smaller sized corneocytes and lower amounts of skin surface lipids, especially in men and in patients with AD. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists 2011.

  3. Direct evidence for insulin-induced capillary recruitment in skin of healthy subjects during physiological hyperinsulinemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serne, EH; IJzerman, RG; Gans, ROB; Nijveldt, R; de Vries, G; Evertz, R; Donker, AJM; Stehouwer, CDA

    It has been proposed that insulin-mediated changes in muscle perfusion modulate insulin-mediated glucose uptake. However, the putative effects of insulin on the microcirculation that permit such modulation have not been studied in humans. We examined the effects of systemic hyperinsulinemia on skin

  4. Behavior of Skin Friction of Piles subjected to Top-downward and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In situ results of Osterberg cell load test and the conventional static compression load test are compared. Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to study the effects of changes in boundary conditions, mechanism of pile-soil interaction and the accompanying change in soil stress, which are responsible for the difference in skin ...

  5. Comparative evaluation of radiation injuries in skin histological structures under local irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolchanova, G.M.

    1978-01-01

    In order to evaluate quantitatively to what degree the various histologic structures of the skin undergo changes after a radiation injury and during the reparative process, white rats have been used to study these changes in relation to the radiation dose and the time elapsed after exposure. The rats have been locally exposed on a single occasion to long-wave (10.2 keV) x-radiation in doses of 250, 500, 1000, or 2000 R. Greatest changes in histologic structures occured with doses of 250-1000 R on days 96-115 postexposure. With higher doses, these changes are most clearly marked as early as on day 38

  6. Evaluation of the single radiosensitivity in patients subjected to medical exposure that show severe skin reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.B.; Portas, M.; Perez, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    The Burnt Hospital of the Buenos Aires City Government (HQGCBA) it is a hospital of reference of the Net of Medical Responses in Radiological Emergencies of the Argentine Republic. In the mark of an agreement among the HQGCBA and the Authority Regulatory Nuclear (ARN), it is in execution a study protocol for the one boarding diagnoses and therapeutic of radioinduced cutaneous leisure. They exist individual variations that can condition the response to the ionizing radiations (IR), so much in accidental exposures as having programmed (radiotherapy, radiology interventionist). In this context, the individual radiosensitivity is evaluated in the patients signed up in this protocol that presented sharp or late cutaneous reactions, with grades of severity 3-4 (approaches EORTC/RTOG). The capacity of repair of the DNA was evaluated in outlying blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro (2 Gy, gamma of Co-60) by means of the micronucleus techniques and comet essay in alkaline conditions. In this work two cases in those that is applied this study protocol, the therapeutic answer and its correlate with the discoveries of the radiosensitivity tests is presented. Case 1: patient of feminine sex, subjected to external radiotherapy by a breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma; developed sharp cutaneous radiotoxicity grade 3 (confluent humid epithelitis) that motivate the interruption of the treatment. Case 2: patient of masculine sex, subjected to a coronary angioplasty (interventionist radiology); developed late cutaneous radiotoxicity grade 4 (ulceration in dorsal region). Both patients were treated with topical trolamine associated to systemic administration of pentoxiphiline and antioxidants. The therapeutic answer is evaluated by means of clinical pursuit, photographic serial register and complementary exams (thermography and ultrasonography of high frequency). In the case 1 the answer was very favorable, with precocious local improvement and complete remission of symptoms and

  7. Local and Modal Damage Indicators for Reinforced Concrete Shear Frames Subject to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köylüoglu, H. U.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Abbott, J.

    Local, modal and overall damage indicators for reinforced concrete shear frames subject to seismic excitation are defined and studied. Each storey of the shear frame is represented by a Clough and Johnston hysteretic oscillator with degrading elastic fraction of the restoring force. The local max...

  8. Up-regulation of the chemokine CCL21 in the skin of subjects exposed to irritants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznitzky Raquel

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression of murine CCL21 by dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC has been demonstrated to be one of the most important steps in Langerhans cell emigration from skin. Previously, our group and others have found that this chemokine is up-regulated in different human inflammatory skin diseases mediated by diverse specific immune responses. This study was carried out to investigate the involvement of CCL21 in human skin after challenge with irritant agents responsible for inducing Irritant Contact Dermatitis (ICD. Results Eleven normal individuals were challenged with different chemical or physical irritants. Two patients with Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD were also challenged with the relevant antigen in order to have a positive control for CCL21 expression. Macroscopic as well as microscopic responses were evaluated. We observed typical ICD responses with mostly mononuclear cells in perivascular areas, but a predominance of polymorphonuclear cells away from the inflamed blood vessels and in the epidermis at 24 hours. Immunohistochemical studies showed up-regulation of CCL21 by lymphatic endothelial cells in all the biopsies taken from ICD and ACD lesions compared to normal skin. Kinetic study at 10, 48, 96 and 168 hours after contact with a classical irritant (sodium lauryl sulphate showed that the expression of CCL21 was increased in lymphatic vessels at 10 hours, peaked at 48 hours, and then gradually declined. There was a strong correlation between CCL21 expression and the macroscopic response (r = 0.69; p = 0.0008, but not between CCL21 and the number of infiltrating cells in the lesions. Conclusions These results provide new evidence for the role of CCL21 in inflammatory processes. Since the up-regulation of this chemokine was observed in ICD and ACD, it is tempting to speculate that this mechanism operates independently of the type of dermal insult, facilitating the emigration of CCR7+ cells.

  9. Skin reactions to histamine of healthy subjects after hypnotically induced emotions of sadness, anger, and happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariae, R; Jørgensen, M M; Egekvist, H; Bjerring, P

    2001-08-01

    The severity of symptoms in asthma and other hypersensitivity-related disorders has been associated with changes in mood but little is known about the mechanisms possibly mediating such a relationship. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of mood on skin reactivity to histamine by comparing the effects of hypnotically induced emotions on flare and wheal reactions to cutaneous histamine prick tests. Fifteen highly hypnotically susceptible volunteers had their cutaneous reactivity to histamine measured before hypnosis at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, and 15 min after the histamine prick. These measurements were repeated under three hypnotically induced emotions of sadness, anger, and happiness presented in a counterbalanced order. Skin reactions were measured as change in histamine flare and wheal area in mm2 per minute. The increase in flare reaction in the time interval from 1 to 3 min during happiness and anger was significantly smaller than flare reactions during sadness (P<0.05). No effect of emotion was found for wheal reactions. Hypnotic susceptibility scores were associated with increased flare reactions at baseline (r=0.56; P<0.05) and during the condition of happiness (r=0.56; P<0.05). Our results agree with previous studies showing mood to be a predictor of cutaneous immediate-type hypersensitivity and histamine skin reactions. The results are also in concordance with earlier findings of an association between hypnotic susceptibility and increased reactivity to an allergen.

  10. Calculation of local skin doses with ICRP adult mesh-type reference computational phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Han, Haegin; Choi, Chansoo; Nguyen, Thang Tat; Lee, Hanjin; Shin, Bangho; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol

    2018-01-01

    Recently, Task Group 103 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) developed new mesh-type reference computational phantoms (MRCPs) for adult males and females in order to address the limitations of the current voxel-type reference phantoms described in ICRP Publication 110 due to their limited voxel resolutions and the nature of the voxel geometry. One of the substantial advantages of the MRCPs over the ICRP-110 reference phantoms is the inclusion of a 50-μm-thick radiosensitive skin basal-cell layer; however, a methodology for calculating the local skin dose (LSD), i.e., the maximum dose to the basal layer averaged over a 1-cm2 area, has yet to be developed. In the present study, a dedicated program for the LSD calculation with the MRCPs was developed based on the mean shift algorithm and the Geant4 Monte Carlo code. The developed program was used to calculate local skin dose coefficients (LSDCs) for electrons and alpha particles, which were then compared with the values given in ICRP Publication 116 that were produced with a simple tissue-equivalent cube model. The results of the present study show that the LSDCs of the MRCPs are generally in good agreement with the ICRP-116 values for alpha particles, but for electrons, significant differences are found at energies higher than 0.15 MeV. The LSDCs of the MRCPs are greater than the ICRP-116 values by as much as 2.7 times at 10 MeV, which is due mainly to the different curvature between realistic MRCPs ( i.e., curved) and the simple cube model ( i.e., flat).

  11. Noninvasive evaluation of the chronic influence of local air velocity from an air conditioner using salivary cortisol and skin caspase-14 as biomarkers of psychosomatic and environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, M; Nishimiya, H

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate the possibility of evaluating the chronic influence of local air velocity from an air conditioner using noninvasive biomarkers. Over a consecutive 5-day period, 16 healthy young male adults were exposed to air flow from a whole ceiling-type air conditioner (low local air velocity) and from a commercial concentrated exhaust air conditioner (high local air velocity). Salivary cortisol was used as an index of the psychological effects and caspase-14, collected from the stratum corneum, was used as a marker of environmental stress on the skin. Local air velocity generated from the whole ceiling-type air conditioner where the subject's head was positioned was one-seventh that of the exhaust air conditioner. After exposure to the exhaust air conditioner for 5 days, salivary cortisol decreased significantly from morning to evening and skin caspase-14 gradually increased during the day. A significant increase in hydration index from the morning to the evening was found with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. The effects of chronic exposure to air movement generated by an air conditioner may be quantified by measurement of salivary cortisol and skin caspase-14.

  12. The local lymph node assay: current position in the regulatory classification of skin sensitizing chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David A; Gerberick, G Frank; Kimber, Ian

    2007-01-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is being used increasingly in the identification of skin sensitizing chemicals for regulatory purposes. In the context of new chemicals legislation (REACH) in Europe, it is the preferred assay. The rationale for this is that the LLNA quantitative and objective approach to skin sensitization testing allied with the important animal welfare benefits that the method offers. However, as with certain guinea pig sensitization tests before it, this increasing use also brings experience with an increasingly wide range of industrial and other chemicals where the outcome of the assay does not always necessarily meet with the expectations of those conducting it. Sometimes, the result appears to be a false negative, but rather more commonly, the complaint is that the chemical represents a false positive. Against this background we have here reviewed a number of instances where false positive and false negative results have been described and have sought to reconcile science with expectation. Based on these analyses, it is our conclusion that false positives and false negatives do occur in the LLNA, as they do with any other skin sensitization assay (and indeed with all tests used for hazard identification), and that this occurs for a number of reasons. We further conclude, however, that false positive results in the LLNA, as with the guinea pig maximization test, arise most commonly via failure to distinguish what is scientifically correct from that which is unpalatable. The consequences of this confusion are discussed in the article, particularly in relation to the need to integrate both potency measurement and risk assessments into classification and labelling schemes that aim to manage potential risks to human health.

  13. Evaluation of the performance of the reduced local lymph node assay for skin sensitization testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezendam, Janine; Muller, Andre; Hakkert, Betty C; van Loveren, Henk

    2013-06-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is the preferred method for classification of sensitizers within REACH. To reduce the number of mice for the identification of sensitizers the reduced LLNA was proposed, which uses only the high dose group of the LLNA. To evaluate the performance of this method for classification, LLNA data from REACH registrations were used and classification based on all dose groups was compared to classification based on the high dose group. We confirmed previous examinations of the reduced LLNA showing that this method is less sensitive compared to the LLNA. The reduced LLNA misclassified 3.3% of the sensitizers identified in the LLNA and misclassification occurred in all potency classes and that there was no clear association with irritant properties. It is therefore not possible to predict beforehand which substances might be misclassified. Another limitation of the reduced LLNA is that skin sensitizing potency cannot be assessed. For these reasons, it is not recommended to use the reduced LLNA as a stand-alone assay for skin sensitization testing within REACH. In the future, the reduced LLNA might be of added value in a weight of evidence approach to confirm negative results obtained with non-animal approaches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Transcriptomic variation of locally-infected skin of Epinephelus coioides reveals the mucosal immune mechanism against Cryptocaryon irritans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yazhou; Li, Anxing; Xu, Yang; Jiang, Biao; Lu, Geling; Luo, Xiaochun

    2017-07-01

    Fish skin is the largest immunologically active mucosal organ, providing first-line defense against external pathogens. However, the skin-associated immune mechanisms of fish are still unclear. Cryptocaryon irritans is an obligate ectoparasitic ciliated protozoan that infects almost all marine fish, and is believed to be an excellent pathogen model to study fish mucosal immunity. In this study, a de novo transcriptome assembly of Epinephelus coioides skin post C. irritans tail-infection was performed for the first time using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2500 system. Comparative analyses of infected skin (group Isk) and uninfected skin (group Nsk) from the same challenged fish and control skin (group C) from uninfected control fish were conducted. As a result, a total of 91,082 unigenes with an average length of 2880 base pairs were obtained and among them, 38,704 and 48,617 unigenes were annotated based on homology with matches in the non-redundant and zebrafish database, respectively. Pairwise comparison resulted in 10,115 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) in the Isk/C group comparison (4,983 up-regulated and 5,132 down-regulated), 2,275 DEGs in the Isk/Nsk group comparison (1,319 up-regulated and 956 down-regulated) and 4,566 DEGs in the Nsk/C group comparison (1,534 up-regulated and 3,032 down-regulated). Seven immune-related categories including 91 differentially-expressed immune genes (86 up-regulated and 5 down-regulated) were scrutinized. Both DEGs and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis and immune-related gene expression analysis were used, and both analyses showed that the genes were more significantly altered in the locally-infected skin than in the uninfected skin of the same challenged fish. This suggests the skin's local immune response is important for host defense against this ectoparasite infection. Innate immune molecules, including hepcidin, C-type lectin, transferrin, transferrin receptor protein, serum amyloid A

  15. Modeling the Subjective Quality of Highly Contrasted Videos Displayed on LCD With Local Backlight Dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Bech, Søren; Korhonen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Local backlight dimming is a technology aiming at both saving energy and improving visual quality on television sets. As the rendition of the image is specified locally, the numerical signal corresponding to the displayed image needs to be computed through a model of the display. This simulated...... signal can then be used as input to objective quality metrics. The focus of this paper is on determining which characteristics of locally backlit displays influence quality assessment. A subjective experiment assessing the quality of highly contrasted videos displayed with various local backlight......-dimming algorithms is set up. Subjective results are then compared with both objective measures and objective quality metrics using different display models. The first analysis indicates that the most significant objective features are temporal variations, power consumption (probably representing leakage...

  16. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  17. Effects of a synthetic retinoid on skin structure, matrix metalloproteinases, and procollagen in healthy and high-risk subjects with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Tahrani, Abd; Shakher, Jayadave; Varani, James; Hughes, Sharon; Dubb, Kiran; Stevens, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    In diabetes, foot ulceration may result from increased skin fragility. Retinoids can reverse some diabetes-induced deficits of skin structure and function, but their clinical utility is limited by skin irritation. The effects of diabetes and MDI 301, a nonirritating synthetic retinoid, and retinoic acid have been evaluated on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), procollagen expression, and skin structure in skin biopsies from nondiabetic volunteers and diabetic subjects at risk of foot ulceration using organ culture techniques. Zymography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were utilized for analysis of MMP-1, -2, and -9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and immunohistochemistry for type I procollagen protein abundance. Collagen structure parameters were assessed in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. The % of active MMP-1 and -9 was higher and TIMP-1 abundance was lower in subjects with diabetes. Type 1 procollagen abundance was reduced and skin structural deficits were increased in diabetes. Three μM MDI 301 reduced active MMP-1 and -9 abundance by 29% (P structural deficit scores. Two μM retinoic acid reduced MMP-1 but did not significantly affect skin structure. These data indicate that diabetic patients at risk of foot ulceration have deficits of skin structure and function. MDI 301 offers potential for repairing this skin damage complicating diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The respiratory allergen glutaraldehyde in the local lymph node assay: sensitization by skin exposure, but not by inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Triel, Jos J; van Bree, Bianca W J; Roberts, David W; Muijser, Hans; Duistermaat, Evert; Woutersen, Ruud A; Kuper, C Frieke

    2011-01-11

    Previously, a selection of low molecular weight contact and respiratory allergens had tested positive in both a skin and a respiratory local lymph node assay (LLNA), but formaldehyde was negative for sensitization by inhalation. To investigate whether this was due to intrinsic properties of aldehyde sensitizers, the structurally related allergen glutaraldehyde (GA) was tested. BALB/c mice were exposed by inhalation to 6 or 18ppm GA (respiratory LLNA), both generated as a vapor and as an aerosol. Other groups received 0.25% or 2.5% GA on the skin of the ears (skin LLNA). Lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production were measured in the draining lymph nodes. GA was positive in the skin LLNA and its cytokine profile (IL-4/IFN-γ) skewed towards a Th2-type immune response with increasing dose. Inhalation exposure did not result in increased lymphocyte proliferation or increased cytokine levels, despite comparable tissue damage (irritation) in the skin and respiratory tract. We hypothesize that the highly reactive and hydrophilic GA oligomerizes in the protein-rich mucous layer of the respiratory tract, which impedes sensitization but still facilitates local irritation. Within the context of risk assessment in respiratory allergy, our results stress the importance of prevention of skin--besides inhalation-- exposure to aldehydes like GA. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The respiratory allergen glutaraldehyde in the local lymph node assay: Sensitization by skin exposure, but not by inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triel, Jos J. van; Bree, Bianca W.J. van; Roberts, David W.; Muijser, Hans; Duistermaat, Evert; Woutersen, Ruud A.; Kuper, C. Frieke

    2011-01-01

    Previously, a selection of low molecular weight contact and respiratory allergens had tested positive in both a skin and a respiratory local lymph node assay (LLNA), but formaldehyde was negative for sensitization by inhalation. To investigate whether this was due to intrinsic properties of aldehyde sensitizers, the structurally related allergen glutaraldehyde (GA) was tested. BALB/c mice were exposed by inhalation to 6 or 18 ppm GA (respiratory LLNA), both generated as a vapor and as an aerosol. Other groups received 0.25% or 2.5% GA on the skin of the ears (skin LLNA). Lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production were measured in the draining lymph nodes. GA was positive in the skin LLNA and its cytokine profile (IL-4/IFN-γ) skewed towards a Th2-type immune response with increasing dose. Inhalation exposure did not result in increased lymphocyte proliferation or increased cytokine levels, despite comparable tissue damage (irritation) in the skin and respiratory tract. We hypothesize that the highly reactive and hydrophilic GA oligomerizes in the protein-rich mucous layer of the respiratory tract, which impedes sensitization but still facilitates local irritation. Within the context of risk assessment in respiratory allergy, our results stress the importance of prevention of skin - besides inhalation - exposure to aldehydes like GA.

  20. Vitamin E-deficiency did not exacerbate partial skin reactions in mice locally irradiated with X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, C.; Hayashi, Daisuke; Nemoto, Masato; Nyui, Minako; Anzai, Kazunori; Urano, Shiro

    2011-01-01

    We previously showed that free radicals and oxidative stress are involved in radiation-induced skin reactions. Since vitamin E (VE) is a particularly important lipophilic antioxidant, VE-deficient mice were used to examine its effects on radiation-induced skin damage. The VE content of the skin was reduced to one fourth of levels of normal mice. Neither the time of onset nor the extent of the reactions quantified with a scoring system differed between normal and VE-deficient mice after local X-irradiation (50 Gy). Similarly, there was no difference in the levels of the ascorbyl radical between the groups, although they were higher in irradiated skin than non-irradiated skin. X-irradiation increased the amount of Bax protein in the skin of normal mice both in the latent and acute inflammatory stages, time- and dose-dependently. The increase was associated with an increase in cytochrome c in the cytosolic fraction, indicating that apoptosis was also promoted by the irradiation. The increase in Bax protein correlated well with the thickness of the skin. Although a deficiency in VE should lower resistance to free radicals in the mitochondrial membrane and thus enhance radiation-induced Bax expression and apoptosis, it actually attenuated the increase in Bax protein caused by irradiation. (author)

  1. Human skin basement membrane-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycan: distinctive differences in ultrastructural localization as a function of developmental age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horiguchi, Y; Fine, J D; Couchman, J R

    1991-01-01

    was identical to that observed in neonatal and adult human skin. These findings demonstrate that active remodelling of the dermo-epidermal junction occurs during at least the first two trimesters, and affects not only basement membrane-associated structures but also specific antigens.......Recent studies have demonstrated that skin basement membrane components are expressed within the dermo-epidermal junction in an orderly sequence during human foetal development. We have investigated the ultrastructural localization of basement membrane-related antigens in human foetal skin...... at different developmental ages using two monoclonal antibodies to a well-characterized basement membrane-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycan. A series of foetal skin specimens (range, 54-142 gestational days) were examined using an immunoperoxidase immunoelectron microscopic technique. In specimens...

  2. Local effects of immunosuppressants in the skin and impact on UV carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskamp, Pieter

    2012-01-01

    Skin cancer is a serious problem for many organ transplant recipients. Half of them develop skin cancer within 20 years after the transplantation. The main cause of this increased skin cancer risk is thought to be suppression of the immune system, a necessity to prevent rejection of the transplanted

  3. Distribution and infection of Langerhans cells in the skin of HIV-infected healthy subjects and AIDS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H; Weier, S; Kojouharoff, G; Grez, M; Berger, S; Kappus, R; Shah, P M; Stutte, H J; Schmidts, H L

    1993-01-01

    The in situ content of cells of the reticuloendothelial system and lymphatic cells was examined in the skin of eight symptom-free HIV-positive individuals, three AIDS patients and eleven healthy immunocompetent volunteers. The epidermis was obtained in vivo by the suction blister technique. The numbers of CD68+, CD3+, CD8+, CD25-(IL2R)+ and HLA-DR+ intraepidermal cells proved to be independent of the number of CD4+ peripheral blood lymphocytes. At the same time, the intraepidermal concentrations of these cells were generally low in symptom-free HIV-infected individuals. The strong inverse correlation between the number of epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) and the severity of immunodeficiency was quantitatively confirmed; an increase in LC in symptom-free HIV-infected individuals was found. Thus, the reduction in these cells which was observed in the epidermis of AIDS patients began at a significantly elevated level. In contrast to results from other studies, in AIDS patients, in the present study, the concentration of epidermal LC did not differ significantly from that of healthy immunocompetent volunteers. The immunohistochemical technique can be as effective as in situ hybridization for the detection of HIV in the skin. Our results suggest that the viral load of the skin is rather low in HIV-infected subjects. HIV was demonstrated in one cell of one AIDS case by in situ techniques and this result was confirmed by a polymerase chain reaction examination using the same amount of tissue as for the in situ techniques.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Estimation of dose in skin through the use of radiochromic and radiographic films in patients subjected to interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Garcia, Juan Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Radiation doses in skin of patients subjected to interventional procedures is estimated from the utilization and analysis of GAFCHROMIC® XR-RV2 radiochromic films and KODAK® X-Omat films with aid of the ImageJ software. The distribution of the radiation fields in the films is generated to obtain the distribution of dose in skin and to find peaks of dose by isodose curves using ImageJ software. The calibration curves are realized from GAFCHROMIC® XR-RV2 radiochromic films, through the use of a densitometer and two types of scanners (reflection scanner and transmission scanner). The reflection scanner has digitalized color images of 48 bit in TIFF format. The scanner transmission has digitalized in grayscale images to 16 bit in TIFF format. Each method has determined the points with maximum dose in skin. The images of the areas of regions with maximum doses are obtained of the scanner. The quantified doses are compared in the radiochromic films with the band of doses supplied by the manufacturer. The methodologies for the estimation of the doses obtained are compared of the radiochromic films with those obtained with the KODAK® X-Omat films. The procedure of obtaining of the doses is validated in patients with KODAK® X-Omat films. The doses obtained have covered a range from the 0,1Gy to 9 Gy. Radiographic films have allowed an assessment of the doses to 900 cGy due to the saturation thereof, the doses found in that range have been consistent with the doses in radiochromic films [es

  5. NRP-1 Receptor Expression Mismatch in Skin of Subjects with Experimental and Diabetic Small Fiber Neuropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Van Acker

    Full Text Available The in vivo cutaneous nerve regeneration model using capsaicin is applied extensively to study the regenerative mechanisms and therapeutic efficacy of disease modifying molecules for small fiber neuropathy (SFN. Since mismatches between functional and morphological nerve fiber recovery are described for this model, we aimed at determining the capability of the capsaicin model to truly mimic the morphological manifestations of SFN in diabetes. As nerve and blood vessel growth and regenerative capacities are defective in diabetes, we focused on studying the key regulator of these processes, the neuropilin-1 (NRP-1/semaphorin pathway. This led us to the evaluation of NRP-1 receptor expression in epidermis and dermis of subjects presenting experimentally induced small fiber neuropathy, diabetic polyneuropathy and of diabetic subjects without clinical signs of small fiber neuropathy. The NRP-1 receptor was co-stained with CD31 vessel-marker using immunofluorescence and analyzed with Definiens® technology. This study indicates that capsaicin application results in significant loss of epidermal NRP-1 receptor expression, whereas diabetic subjects presenting small fiber neuropathy show full epidermal NRP-1 expression in contrast to the basal expression pattern seen in healthy controls. Capsaicin induced a decrease in dermal non-vascular NRP-1 receptor expression which did not appear in diabetic polyneuropathy. We can conclude that the capsaicin model does not mimic diabetic neuropathy related changes for cutaneous NRP-1 receptor expression. In addition, our data suggest that NRP-1 might play an important role in epidermal nerve fiber loss and/or defective regeneration and that NRP-1 receptor could change the epidermal environment to a nerve fiber repellant bed possibly through Sem3A in diabetes.

  6. Changes in histopathology and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 expression in skin graft with different time on Indonesian local cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin; Etriwati; Gunanti; Handharyani, Ekowati; Noviana, Deni

    2017-06-01

    A good skin graft histopathology is followed by formation of hair follicle, sweat gland, sebaceous gland, blood vessel, lightly dense connective tissue, epidermis, and dermis layer. This research aimed to observe histopathology feature and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 expression on cat skin post skin grafting within a different period of time. Nine male Indonesian local cats aged 1-2 years old weighing 3-4 kg were separated into three groups. First surgery created defect wound of 2 cm × 2 cm in size to whole groups. The wounds were left alone for several days, differing in interval between each group, respectively: Group I (for 2 days), Group II (for 4 days), and Group III (for 6 days). The second surgery was done to each group which harvested skin of thoracic area and applied it on recipient wound bed. On day 24 th post skin graft was an examination of histopathology and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 immunohistochemistry. Group I donor skin's epidermis layer had not formed completely whereas epidermis of donor skin of Groups II and III had completely formed. In all group hair follicle, sweat gland, sebaceous gland, and neovascularization were found. The density of connective tissue in Group I was very solid than other groups. Cytokeratin AE1/AE3 expression was found on donor skin's epithelial cell in epidermis and dermis layer with very brown intensity for Group II, brown intensity for Group II, and lightly brown for Group I. Histopathological structure and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 expression post skin graft are better in Groups II and III compared to Group I.

  7. A comparison between 133Xenon washout technique and Laser Doppler flowmetry in the measurement of local vasoconstrictor effects on the microcirculation in subcutaneous tissue and skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastrup, J.; Buelow, J.; Lassen, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in skin blood flow measured by Laser Doppler flowmetry and changes in subcutaneous blood flow measured by 133 Xenon washout technique were compared during activation of the local sympathetic mediated veno-arteriolar vaso-constrictor reflex by lowering the area of investigation below heart level. The measurements were performed in tissue with and without sympathetic innervation. In five subjects, who all had been cervically sympathectomized for manual hyperhidrosis, the Laser Doppler and 133 Xenon blood flow measurements were performed simultaneously on the sympathetically denervated forearm, and on the calf with preserved sympathetic nerve supply. The Laser Doppler method registered a 23% reduction in skin blood flow during lowering of the extremities independently of the sympathetic nerve supply to the skin. The 133 Xenon method recorded a 44% decrease in blood flow in innervated and unchanged blood flow in denervated subcutaneous tissue during lowering of the extremities. Our results indicate that the Laser Doppler method and 133 Xenon method are not comparable, and that the Laser Doppler method is not useful in measuring local sympathetic mediated blood flow changes. (author)

  8. Comparison between /sup 133/Xenon washout technique and Laser Doppler flowmetry in the measurement of local vasoconstrictor effects on the microcirculation in subcutaneous tissue and skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastrup, J.; Buelow, J.; Lassen, N.A.

    1987-10-01

    Changes in skin blood flow measured by Laser Doppler flowmetry and changes in subcutaneous blood flow measured by /sup 133/Xenon washout technique were compared during activation of the local sympathetic mediated veno-arteriolar vaso-constrictor reflex by lowering the area of investigation below heart level. The measurements were performed in tissue with and without sympathetic innervation. In five subjects, who all had been cervically sympathectomized for manual hyperhidrosis, the Laser Doppler and /sup 133/Xenon blood flow measurements were performed simultaneously on the sympathetically denervated forearm, and on the calf with preserved sympathetic nerve supply. The Laser Doppler method registered a 23% reduction in skin blood flow during lowering of the extremities independently of the sympathetic nerve supply to the skin. The /sup 133/Xenon method recorded a 44% decrease in blood flow in innervated and unchanged blood flow in denervated subcutaneous tissue during lowering of the extremities. Our results indicate that the Laser Doppler method and /sup 133/Xenon method are not comparable, and that the Laser Doppler method is not useful in measuring local sympathetic mediated blood flow changes.

  9. The respiratory allergen glutaraldehyde in the local lymph node assay: Sensitization by skin exposure, but not by inhalation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triel, J.J. van; Bree, B.W.J. van; Roberts, D.W.; Muijser, H.; Duistermaat, E.; Woutersen, R.A.; Kuper, C.F.

    2011-01-01

    Previously, a selection of low molecular weight contact and respiratory allergens had tested positive in both a skin and a respiratory local lymph node assay (LLNA), but formaldehyde was negative for sensitization by inhalation. To investigate whether this was due to intrinsic properties of aldehyde

  10. Local gene expression changes after UV-irradiation of human skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Weinkauf

    Full Text Available UV-irradiation is a well-known translational pain model inducing local inflammation and primary hyperalgesia. The mediators and receptor proteins specifically contributing to mechanical or heat hyperalgesia are still unclear. Therefore, we irradiated buttock skin of humans (n = 16 with 5-fold MED of UV-C and assessed the time course of hyperalgesia and axon reflex erythema. In parallel, we took skin biopsies at 3, 6 and 24 h after UVC irradiation and assessed gene expression levels (RT-PCR of neurotrophins (e.g. NGF, BDNF, GDNF, ion channels (e.g. NaV1.7, TRPV1, inflammatory mediators (e.g. CCL-2, CCL-3 and enzymes (e.g. PGES, COX2. Hyperalgesia to mechanical impact (12 m/s and heat (48 °C stimuli was significant at 6 h (p<0.05 and p<0.01 and 24 h (p<0.005 and p<0.01 after irradiation. Axon reflex erythema upon mechanical and thermal stimuli was significantly increased 3 h after irradiation and particularly strong at 6 h. A significant modulation of 9 genes was found post UV-C irradiation, including NGF (3, 6, 24 h, TrkA (6, 24 h, artemin, bradykinin-1 receptor, COX-2, CCL-2 and CCL-3 (3 and 6 h each. A significant down-regulation was observed for TRPV1 and iNOS (6, 24 h. Individual one-to-one correlation analysis of hyperalgesia and gene expression revealed that changes of Nav1.7 (SCN9A mRNA levels at 6 and 24 h correlated to the intensity of mechanical hyperalgesia recorded at 24 h post UV-irradiation (Pearson r: 0.57, p<0.04 and r: 0.82, p<0.001. Expression of COX-2 and mPGES at 6 h correlated to the intensity of heat-induced erythema 24 h post UV (r: 0.57, p<0.05 for COX-2 and r: 0.83, p<0.001 for PGES. The individual correlation analyses of functional readouts (erythema and pain response with local expression changes provided evidence for a potential role of Nav1.7 in mechanical hyperalgesia.

  11. The effect of local cryotherapy on subjective and objective recovery characteristics following an exhaustive jump protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenauer, Erich; Clarys, Peter; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Clijsen, Ron

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this controlled trial was to investigate the effects of a single local cryotherapy session on the recovery characteristics over a period of 72 hours. Twenty-two young and healthy female (n=17; mean age: 21.9±1.1 years) and male (n=5;mean age: 25.4±2.8 years) adults participated in this study. Following an exhaustive jump protocol (3×30 countermovement jumps), half of the participants received either a single local cryotherapy application (+8°C) or a single local thermoneutral application (+32°C) of 20-minute duration using two thigh cuffs. Subjective measures of recovery (delayed-onset muscle soreness and ratings of perceived exertion) and objective measures of recovery (vertical jump performance and peak power output) were assessed immediately following the postexercise applications (0 hours) and at 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours after the jump protocol. Local cryotherapy failed to significantly affect any subjective recovery variable during the 72-hour recovery period (P>0.05). After 72 hours, the ratings of perceived exertion were significantly lower in the thermoneutral group compared to that in the cryotherapy group (P=0.002). No significant differences were observed between the cryotherapy and the thermoneutral groups with respect to any of the objective recovery variables. In this experimental study, a 20-minute cryotherapy cuff application failed to demonstrate a positive effect on any objective measures of recovery. The effects of local thermoneutral application on subjective recovery characteristics were superior when compared to the effects of local cryotherapy application at 72 hours postapplication.

  12. The influence of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity and beta-1 receptor selectivity on the recovery of finger skin temperature after finger cooling in normotensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenders, J W; Salemans, J; de Boo, T; Lemmens, W A; Thien, T; van't Laar, A

    1986-03-01

    A double-blind randomized study was designed to investigate differences in the recovery of finger skin temperature after finger cooling during dosing with placebo or one of four beta-blockers: propranolol, atenolol, pindolol, and acebutolol. In 11 normotensive nonsmoking subjects, finger skin temperature was measured with a thermocouple before and 20 minutes after immersion of one hand in a water bath at 16 degrees C. This finger cooling test caused no significant changes in systemic hemodynamics such as arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and forearm blood flow. The recovery of finger skin temperature during propranolol dosing was better than that during pindolol and atenolol dosing. There were no differences between the recoveries of skin temperature during pindolol, atenolol, and acebutolol dosing. Thus we could demonstrate no favorable effect of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity or beta 1-selectivity on the recovery of finger skin temperature after finger cooling.

  13. Subjective quality of video sequences rendered on LCD with local backlight dimming at different lighting conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantel, Claire; Korhonen, Jari; Pedersen, Jesper M.; Bech, Søren; Andersen, Jakob Dahl; Forchhammer, Søren

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the influence of ambient light on the perceived quality of videos displayed on Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) with local backlight dimming. A subjective test assessing the quality of videos with two backlight dimming methods and three lighting conditions, i.e. no light, low light level (5 lux) and higher light level (60 lux) was organized to collect subjective data. Results show that participants prefer the method exploiting local dimming possibilities to the conventional full backlight but that this preference varies depending on the ambient light level. The clear preference for one method at the low light conditions decreases at the high ambient light, confirming that the ambient light significantly attenuates the perception of the leakage defect (light leaking through dark pixels). Results are also highly dependent on the content of the sequence, which can modulate the effect of the ambient light from having an important influence on the quality grades to no influence at all.

  14. Subjective quality of video sequences rendered on LCD with local backlight dimming at different lighting conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Korhonen, Jari; Pedersen, Jesper Mørkhøj

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the influence of ambient light on the perceived quality of videos displayed on Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) with local backlight dimming. A subjective test assessing the quality of videos with two backlight dimming methods and three lighting conditions, i.e. no light, low...... light level (5 lux) and higher light level (60 lux) was organized to collect subjective data. Results show that participants prefer the method exploiting local dimming possibilities to the conventional full backlight but that this preference varies depending on the ambient light level. The clear...... preference for one method at the low light conditions decreases at the high ambient light, confirming that the ambient light significantly attenuates the perception of the leakage defect (light leaking through dark pixels). Results are also highly dependent on the content of the sequence, which can modulate...

  15. Local dynamic stability and variability of gait are associated with fall history in elderly subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Toebes, M.J.P.; Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Furrer, R.; Dekker, J.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Gait parameters that can be measured with simple instrumentation may hold promise for identifying individuals at risk of falling. Increased variability of gait is associated with increased risk of falling, but research on additional parameters indicates that local dynamic stability (LDS) of gait may also be a predictor of fall risk. The objective of the present study was to assess the association between gait variability, LDS of gait and fall history in a large sample of elderly subjects.Subj...

  16. Analysis of spatial mobility in subjects from a Dengue endemic urban locality in Morelos State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón-Lezama, Jorge Abelardo; Santos-Luna, René; Román-Pérez, Susana; Martínez-Vega, Ruth Aralí; Herrera-Valdez, Marco Arieli; Kuri-Morales, Ángel Fernando; Adams, Ben; Kuri-Morales, Pablo Antonio; López-Cervantes, Malaquías; Ramos-Castañeda, José

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical models and field data suggest that human mobility is an important driver for Dengue virus transmission. Nonetheless little is known on this matter due the lack of instruments for precise mobility quantification and study design difficulties. We carried out a cohort-nested, case-control study with 126 individuals (42 cases, 42 intradomestic controls and 42 population controls) with the goal of describing human mobility patterns of recently Dengue virus-infected subjects, and comparing them with those of non-infected subjects living in an urban endemic locality. Mobility was quantified using a GPS-data logger registering waypoints at 60-second intervals for a minimum of 15 natural days. Although absolute displacement was highly biased towards the intradomestic and peridomestic areas, occasional displacements exceeding a 100-Km radius from the center of the studied locality were recorded for all three study groups and individual displacements were recorded traveling across six states from central Mexico. Additionally, cases had a larger number of visits out of the municipality´s administrative limits when compared to intradomestic controls (cases: 10.4 versus intradomestic controls: 2.9, p = 0.0282). We were able to identify extradomestic places within and out of the locality that were independently visited by apparently non-related infected subjects, consistent with houses, working and leisure places. Results of this study show that human mobility in a small urban setting exceeded that considered by local health authority's administrative limits, and was different between recently infected and non-infected subjects living in the same household. These observations provide important insights about the role that human mobility may have in Dengue virus transmission and persistence across endemic geographic areas that need to be taken into account when planning preventive and control measures. Finally, these results are a valuable reference when setting the

  17. Subjective Evaluation of the Microenvironment Generated by a Hospital Bed with Localized Ventilation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehayova, Nushka; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2016-01-01

    A novel method for local hospital bed ventilation, called HBIVCU (Hospital Bed with Integrated Ventilation and Cleansing Unit), was studied in a human subject experiment. The goal of this study was to identify human response to the microenvironment generated by a hospital bed with installed HBIVC...... and the LTS acceptability votes between the two conditions could be found only for some body parts and time intervals. No draught was reported....

  18. Red and green laser Doppler compared with capillary microscopy to assess skin microcirculation in the feet of healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulevski, I. I.; Ubbink, D. T.; Jacobs, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Skin microvasculature consists of nutritive capillaries and subpapillary arteriolar and venular plexus connected by arteriolovenular anastomoses. Capillary perfusion is of paramount importance for skin viability. Recently a new combined laser Doppler instrument has become available, featuring a

  19. Local Muscle Fatigue and 3D Kinematics of the Cervical Spine in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Daniel; Vogt, Lutz; Pippig, Torsten; Wall, Rudolf; Banzer, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    The authors aimed to further explore the effects of local muscle fatigue on cervical 3D kinematics and the interrelationship between these kinematic characteristics and local muscle endurance capacity in the unimpaired cervical spine. Twenty healthy subjects (38 ± 10 years; 5 women) performed 2 × 10 maximal cervical flexion-extension movements. Isometric muscle endurance tests (prone/supine lying) were applied between sets to induce local muscle fatigue quantified by Borg scale rates of perceived exertion (RPE) and slope in mean power frequency (MPF; surface electromyography; m. sternocleidomastoideus, m. splenius capitis). Cervical motion characteristics (maximal range of motion [ROM], coefficient of variation of the 10 repetitive movements, mean angular velocity, conjunct movements in transversal and frontal plane) were calculated from raw 3D ultrasonic movement data. Average isometric strength testing duration for flexion and extension correlated to the cervical ROM (r = .49/r = .48; p .05). Although subjects' cervical muscle endurance capacity and motor output seems to be conjugated, no impact of local cervical muscle fatigue on motor function was shown. These findings underline the importance of complementary measures to address muscular performance and kinematic characteristics in outcome assessment and functional rehabilitation of the cervical spine.

  20. Response-surface models for deterministic effects of localized irradiation of the skin by discrete β/γ -emitting sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.

    1995-01-01

    Individuals who work at nuclear reactor facilities can be at risk for deterministic effects in the skin from exposure to discrete Β- and γ-emitting (ΒγE) sources (e.g., ΒγE hot particles) on the skin or clothing. Deterministic effects are non-cancer effects that have a threshold and increase in severity as dose increases (e.g., ulcer in skin). Hot ΒγE particles are 60 Co- or nuclear fuel-derived particles with diameters > 10 μm and < 3 mm and contain at least 3.7 kBq (0.1 μCi) of radioactivity. For such ΒγE sources on the skin, it is the beta component of the dose that is most important. To develop exposure limitation systems that adequately control exposure of workers to discrete ΒγE sources, models are needed for systems that adequately control exposure of workers to discrete ΒγE sources, models are needed for evaluating the risk of deterministic effects of localized Β irradiation of the skin. The purpose of this study was to develop dose-rate and irradiated-area dependent, response-surface models for evaluating risks of significant deterministic effects of localized irradiation of the skin by discrete ΒγE sources and to use modeling results to recommend approaches to limiting occupational exposure to such sources. The significance of the research results as follows: (1) response-surface models are now available for evaluating the risk of specific deterministic effects of localized irradiation of the skin; (2) modeling results have been used to recommend approaches to limiting occupational exposure of workers to Β radiation from ΒγE sources on the skin or on clothing; and (3) the generic irradiated-volume, weighting-factor approach to limiting exposure can be applied to other organs including the eye, the ear, and organs of the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract and can be used for both deterministic and stochastic effects

  1. Response-surface models for deterministic effects of localized irradiation of the skin by discrete {beta}/{gamma} -emitting sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, B.R.

    1995-12-01

    Individuals who work at nuclear reactor facilities can be at risk for deterministic effects in the skin from exposure to discrete {Beta}- and {gamma}-emitting ({Beta}{gamma}E) sources (e.g., {Beta}{gamma}E hot particles) on the skin or clothing. Deterministic effects are non-cancer effects that have a threshold and increase in severity as dose increases (e.g., ulcer in skin). Hot {Beta}{gamma}E particles are {sup 60}Co- or nuclear fuel-derived particles with diameters > 10 {mu}m and < 3 mm and contain at least 3.7 kBq (0.1 {mu}Ci) of radioactivity. For such {Beta}{gamma}E sources on the skin, it is the beta component of the dose that is most important. To develop exposure limitation systems that adequately control exposure of workers to discrete {Beta}{gamma}E sources, models are needed for systems that adequately control exposure of workers to discrete {Beta}{gamma}E sources, models are needed for evaluating the risk of deterministic effects of localized {Beta} irradiation of the skin. The purpose of this study was to develop dose-rate and irradiated-area dependent, response-surface models for evaluating risks of significant deterministic effects of localized irradiation of the skin by discrete {Beta}{gamma}E sources and to use modeling results to recommend approaches to limiting occupational exposure to such sources. The significance of the research results as follows: (1) response-surface models are now available for evaluating the risk of specific deterministic effects of localized irradiation of the skin; (2) modeling results have been used to recommend approaches to limiting occupational exposure of workers to {Beta} radiation from {Beta}{gamma}E sources on the skin or on clothing; and (3) the generic irradiated-volume, weighting-factor approach to limiting exposure can be applied to other organs including the eye, the ear, and organs of the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract and can be used for both deterministic and stochastic effects.

  2. Evaluation of the antiseptic efficacy and local tolerability of a polihexanide-based antiseptic on resident skin flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli-Gany, Dianne; Brill, Florian H H; Hintzpeter, Matthias; Andrée, Simone; Pavel, Viktoria

    2012-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of polihexanide 0.02% and 0.04% with chlorhexidine 0.05% after 30 minutes of topical treatment on healthy intact skin. This study was performed as a double-blind, randomized, comparator-controlled, 3-arm, crossover study. : A phase I dermatological study unit. Twenty healthy volunteers with intact skin. : Test areas of 5 cm on the subjects' arms were treated with the investigational products using a polyurethane swab. Skin swabs were taken before and after treatment for quantitative microbial evaluation. The main outcome measure was the log reduction factor of colony-forming units on the skin after 30 minutes of treatment. No statistically significant difference was seen between both of the polihexanide test products (mean lgRF polihexanide 0.02%, 1.2251 [SD, 0.9399]; mean lgRF polihexanide 0.04%, 1.8991 [SD, 0.88]) and the comparator, chlorhexidine 0.05% (P > .1). The results of this study indicate that polihexanide is a suitable alternative to chlorhexidine for skin and wound antisepsis.

  3. Closure of the Radial Forearm Free Flap Donor Site Using the Combined Local Triangular Full-Thickness Skin Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Sánchez, Manuel; González-García, Raúl; Ruiz-Laza, Luis; Manzano Solo de Zaldívar, Damián; Moreno-García, Carlos; Monje, Florencio

    2016-01-01

    Traditional donor-site closure has been associated with serious esthetic and functional morbidity. The purpose of this study was to assess morbidity in esthetics and function and measure the postoperative complications of the radial forearm free flap (RFFF) donor site after using combined local triangular full-thickness skin grafting. This prospective study of patients who underwent reconstruction of head and neck defects using an RFFF was conducted from July 2008 through December 2014. The donor site was repaired with a combined local triangular full-thickness skin graft. Quality of the scar, color match, tendon exposure, presence of necrosis, dehiscence of the suture, and presence of dysesthesia were recorded and analyzed using SPSS 21.0 software. One hundred consecutive patients (71 male and 29 female) underwent RFFF harvesting. RFFF donor-site defects ranged from 15 to 70 cm2; partial skin graft loss occurred in 7% of patients. Five patients (5%) had small dehiscences of the forearm skin graft, and 2 cases (2%) presented tendon exposure. In all cases, these sites healed secondarily by conservative management, with no final impairment of function. Esthetic results were considered excellent in 87%, good in 11%, and suboptimal in 2% of the cases. The combined local triangular full-thickness skin graft is a reliable method for closing RFFF donor-site defects because it obviates a second surgical site, it provides excellent color match and pliability, and it can be used for covering large defects of the donor site. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Initial evaluation of an ultrasound measure for assessing the activity of skin lesions in juvenile localized scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S C; Liebling, M S; Haines, K A; Weiss, J E; Prann, A

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the construct validity of 2 proposed measures (the Ultrasound Disease Activity [U-DA] and the Tissue Thickness Score [TTS]) for evaluating sonographic differences in juvenile localized scleroderma skin lesions. We conducted a retrospective review of juvenile localized scleroderma patients who had ultrasound scans of their skin lesions between October 2005 and February 2009. Imaged lesions were classified as active or inactive based upon clinical assessment. Lesions had to have been imaged within 1 month of a clinic visit or have the same clinical assessment during both the visit before and the visit after the scan. Two physicians scored the scans using the U-DA, which scores for differences in lesion echogenicity and vascularity compared with normal tissue. Tissue thickness differences were evaluated by percent differences and by using the TTS. Wilcoxon's rank sum test was performed to assess differences. We studied 52 scans from 21 patients, 32 scans of active skin lesions and 20 scans of inactive skin lesions. Features reported by clinicians as indicative of active disease included erythema, warmth, violaceous color, new lesion, expansion of lesion, and induration. The U-DA was significantly different between active and inactive skin lesions (P = 0.0010) with significant differences found for the parameters of total echogenicity, hypodermis echogenicity, and deep tissue layer vascularity (P = 0.0014, P = 0.0023, and P = 0.0374, respectively). No significant differences were found for tissue layer thickness or TTS. The U-DA may be a useful tool in the identification of localized scleroderma activity. Further study is needed to prospectively evaluate the validity, reliability, and sensitivity of this potential monitoring tool. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  5. Chemical applicability domain of the local lymph node assay (LLNA) for skin sensitisation potency. Part 4. Quantitative correlation of LLNA potency with human potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David W; Api, Anne Marie

    2018-07-01

    Prediction of skin sensitisation potential and potency by non-animal methods is the target of many active research programmes. Although the aim is to predict sensitisation potential and potency in humans, data from the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) constitute much the largest source of quantitative data on in vivo skin sensitisation. The LLNA has been the preferred in vivo method for identification of skin sensitising chemicals and as such is potentially valuable as a benchmark for assessment of non-animal approaches. However, in common with all predictive test methods, the LLNA is subject to false positives and false negatives with an overall level of accuracy said variously to be approximately 80% or 90%. It is also necessary to consider the extent to which, for true positives, LLNA potency correlates with human potency. In this paper LLNA potency and human potency are compared so as to express quantitatively the correlation between them, and reasons for non-agreement between LLNA and human potency are analysed. This leads to a better definition of the applicability domain of the LLNA, within which LLNA data can be used confidently to predict human potency and as a benchmark to assess the performance of non-animal approaches. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Surgery combined with local 5-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy on skin cancer and its effect on the expression of cyclophilin A, cyclophilin B and CD147.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling; Han, Yingsheng

    2017-08-01

    The study evaluated an approach to treat skin cancer using surgery combined with local 5-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT). Seventy-six patients with skin cancer who were admitted to the Liaocheng People's Hospital from May 2014 to April 2015 were randomly divided into a control and an observation group (38 cases in each). The patients in the control group were treated with ALA-PDT alone. Those in the observation group were first subjected to surgical treatment, and then treated with ALA-PDT. The treatment efficacies of the two groups were compared. The expression of cancer markers CyPA, CyPB and CD147 were detected by immunohistochemical methods before and after the treatment. Our results showed the average healing time of the wounds of patients in the observation group was shorter, the number of treatments needed was less, the efficacy rate and the lesion appearance satisfaction were significantly higher, and the recurrence rate at 12 months after treatment and the incidence of adverse reactions were both significantly lower. Additionally, the levels of CyPA, CyPB and CD147 were reduced to a significantly higher degree after treatment in the observation group. No difference was found in the recurrence rate between the two groups at 6 months after treatment. We conclude that surgery combined with ALA-PDT is a safe and reliable treatment method, which can increase the survival rate while improving the recovery rate and appearance satisfaction in patients with skin cancer.

  7. Topical microemulsion containing Punica granatum extract: its control over skin erythema and melanin in healthy Asian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Rashida; Akhtar, Naveed; Mahmood, Tariq

    2014-12-01

    Punica granatum is apotent source of polyphenolic compounds with strong free radicals scavenging activity. The skin lightening effects of Punica granatum are assumed due to ellagic acid which acts by chelating copper at the active site of tyrosinase. To explore a topical microemulsion (O/W) of pomegranate (Punica granatum) extract for its control on skin erythema and melanin. Microemulsions were formulated using a polysorbate surfactant (Tween 80(®)) along with cosurfactant (propylene glycol) and were characterized regarding their stability. The placebo microemulsion (without extract) and the active microemulsion (containing Punica extract) were applied in a split face fashion by the volunteers (n = 11) for a period of 12 weeks. Skin erythema and melanin were measured at baseline and after every 15 days to determine any effect produced by these formulations. Active formulation showed a significant impact on skin erythema and melanin (p Punica granatum extract for conditions where elevated skin melanin and erythema have significantly prone skin physiology.

  8. Local elevation of CCL22: A new trend in immunotherapy (skin model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Yahia Elhussein Mohamed

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many evidences supported the suggestion that one of the reasons for the failure of immunosuppressant like Corticosteroides, Calcinurine inhibitors and VitD3 in reestablishing skin immune tolerance is relying on inhibition of CCL22 expression from skin dendritic cells. Inhibition of CCL22 decreases CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ regulatory T cells homing to macular area and reduces the suppression capacity of these cells that make a sort of an imbalance between effector and regulatory T cells. Addition of CCL22 into the skin lesion from external sources could change the ratio between effector and regulatory T cells which dramatically alter immune system and reestablish immune tolerance. This action can't be established by the later immunosuppressant (e.g. corticosteroids and calcinurine inhibitors alone which give CCL22 an important role in the treatment of skin autoimmune and graft rejection diseases.

  9. Effects of nanodiamonds of explosive synthesis on the skin of experimental animals locally exposed to cobalt and chrome ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorenkov, V I; Vasil'eva, E Yu; Puzyr', A P; Bondar', V S

    2014-12-01

    Experiments in vivo demonstrated the protective effect of modified nanodiamonds on guinea pig skin after local exposure cobalt ions, but not chrome ions. The observed differences are determined by different adsorption of these ions by nanodiamonds: in vitro experiments showed that nanodiamonds adsorbed cobalt ions, but not chrome ions from water solutions. The perspectives of using modified nanodiamonds as a new adsorbent for prevention of allergic contact dermatitis induced by ions of bivalent metals are discussed.

  10. Primary Observations on the Influence of 60Co Local Irradiation on Free Skin Flaps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建荣; 张园

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of postoperative radiation on free skin flaps.Methods Twenty-nine patients with free skin flaps applied to the plerosis of the postoperative defectwere followed up. Twenty-eight out of 29 patients received forearm free flaps while 1 had anterolater-al femoris skin flaps in a size ranging from 14 cm× 6 cm to 8 cm× 4 cm. These flaps were exposedto 60Co radiation ranging 40-69 Gy. Results Observation during irradiation: no visible changes ofskin flaps and oral mucous membrane were detected when irradiation dose was within 40 Gy; somechanges may be detected over 40 Gy. Observation 1 - 4 months after irradiation: pigmentations werefound in areas of erosion epidermis; skin flaps got dark but without evidence of necrosis. Observation2 years after irradiation: no necrosis happened in 29 skin flaps. Hairs were found on 15 of 29flaps. Sensation occurred within the margin of 1 cm. Conclusion Free skin flap can endure irradi-ation at the dose of 60 Gy.

  11. Coordination-resolved local bond relaxation, electron binding-energy shift, and Debye temperature of Ir solid skins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bo, Maolin [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies, Ministry of Education, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); Wang, Yan [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies, Ministry of Education, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); School of Information and Electronic Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan, Hunan 411201 (China); Huang, Yongli, E-mail: huangyongli@xtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies, Ministry of Education, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); Yang, Xuexian [Department of Physics, Jishou University, Jishou, Hunan 416000 (China); Yang, Yezi [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies, Ministry of Education, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); Li, Can [Center for Coordination Bond Engineering, School of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 330018 (China); Sun, Chang Q., E-mail: ecqsun@ntu.edu.sg [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies, Ministry of Education, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); NOVITAS, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Cohesive energy of the representative bond determines the core-level shift. • XPS derives the energy level of an isolated atom and its bulk shift. • XPS derives the local bond length, bond energy, binding energy density. • Thermal XPS resolves the Debye temperature and atomic cohesive energy. - Abstract: Numerical reproduction of the measured 4f{sub 7/2} energy shift of Ir(1 0 0), (1 1 1), and (2 1 0) solid skins turns out the following: (i) the 4f{sub 7/2} level of an isolated Ir atom shifts from 56.367 eV to 60.332 eV by 3.965 eV upon bulk formation; (ii) the local energy density increases by up to 130% and the atomic cohesive energy decreases by 70% in the skin region compared with the bulk values. Numerical match to observation of the temperature dependent energy shift derives the Debye temperature that varies from 285.2 K (Surface) to 315.2 K (Bulk). We clarified that the shorter and stronger bonds between under-coordinated atoms cause local densification and quantum entrapment of electron binding energy, which perturbs the Hamiltonian and the core shifts in the skin region.

  12. Localized skin changes at the site of immunization with highly irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni are associated with enhanced resistance to a challenge infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.L.; Smithers, S.R.

    1982-01-01

    The level of immunity to a percutaneous cercarial challenge with Schistosoma mansoni was assayed 4-6 weeks after immunization of mice with highly irradiated (20 krad.) cercariae or schistosomula. When immunization and challenge occurred through the same skin site, resistance, particularly that which occurred in the skin, was greater than that observed when immunization and challenge occurred in different sites. The enhanced resistance is believed to be due to localized changes in the skin; 4 weeks after exposure to irradiated cercariae, abdominal skin is characterized by a thickened epidermis, changes in the ground substance and a cellular infiltration of the dermis. A convenient mouse model is described in which one or both ear pinnae are exposed to irradiated cercariae and a percutaneous challenge is given via the abdomen, thus eliminating the effects of local skin changes. In this model, the majority of the challenge infection which succumbs to the immune response appears to be killed in the skin. (author)

  13. You are what you eat: within-subject increases in fruit and vegetable consumption confer beneficial skin-color changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross D Whitehead

    Full Text Available Fruit and vegetable consumption and ingestion of carotenoids have been found to be associated with human skin-color (yellowness in a recent cross-sectional study. This carotenoid-based coloration contributes beneficially to the appearance of health in humans and is held to be a sexually selected cue of condition in other species.Here we investigate the effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on skin-color longitudinally to determine the magnitude and duration of diet change required to change skin-color perceptibly. Diet and skin-color were recorded at baseline and after three and six weeks, in a group of 35 individuals who were without makeup, self-tanning agents and/or recent intensive UV exposure. Six-week changes in fruit and vegetable consumption were significantly correlated with changes in skin redness and yellowness over this period, and diet-linked skin reflectance changes were significantly associated with the spectral absorption of carotenoids and not melanin. We also used psychophysical methods to investigate the minimum color change required to confer perceptibly healthier and more attractive skin-coloration. Modest dietary changes are required to enhance apparent health (2.91 portions per day and attractiveness (3.30 portions.Increased fruit and vegetable consumption confers measurable and perceptibly beneficial effects on Caucasian skin appearance within six weeks. This effect could potentially be used as a motivational tool in dietary intervention.

  14. Relation between food and drinking habits, and skin autofluorescence and intima media thickness in subjects at high cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochemsen, B. M.; Van Doormaal, J. J.; Mulder, G.; Volmer, M.; Graaff, R.; Smit, A. J.; Mulder, Douwe J.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relations between food and drinking habits, and estimated exogenous advanced glycation end products (AGE) intake, skin autofluorescence (AF) as a marker of AGE accumulation, and intima media thickness (IMT). IMT of the carotid artery and skin AF were measured in 147 elderly

  15. Altered medial temporal activation related to local glutamate levels in subjects with prodromal signs of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, Isabel; Stone, James; Mechelli, Andrea; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Raffin, Marie; Allen, Paul; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Lythgoe, David; O'Gorman, Ruth; Seal, Marc; McGuire, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Both medial temporal cortical dysfunction and perturbed glutamatergic neurotransmission are regarded as fundamental pathophysiological features of psychosis. However, although animal models of psychosis suggest that these two abnormalities are interrelated, their relationship in humans has yet to be investigated. We used a combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate the relationship between medial temporal activation during an episodic memory task and local glutamate levels in 22 individuals with an at-risk mental state for psychosis and 14 healthy volunteers. We observed a significant between-group difference in the coupling of medial temporal activation with local glutamate levels. In control subjects, medial temporal activation during episodic encoding was positively associated with medial temporal glutamate. However, in the clinical population, medial temporal activation was reduced, and the relationship with glutamate was absent. In individuals at high risk of psychosis, medial temporal dysfunction seemed related to a loss of the normal relationship with local glutamate levels. This study provides the first evidence that links medial temporal dysfunction with the central glutamate system in humans and is consistent with evidence that drugs that modulate glutamatergic transmission might be useful in the treatment of psychosis. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Types of rabies vaccines which were locally injected to the subjects bitten by animals abroad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, N

    1997-08-01

    In recent years there have been a number of subjects who were bitten by supposed rabid animals in foreign rabies-epizootic countries and visited our hospital to received post-exposure therapy after their return to Japan. WHO recommends immediate washing of the wound with soap and water, application of human anti-rabies immunoglobulin and administration of tissue-culture rabies vaccine at 0, 3, 7, 14, 30, and 90 days after exposure. However, tissue-culture vaccines, are expensive and they are not always used in all parts of the world. The author checked whether the victims of animal bite were injected with rabies vaccines abroad or not and investigated the type of rabies vaccine when they were vaccinated. About a half of the consulted victims were locally injected with rabies vaccine. By mean of certificates of inoculation or empty boxes of vaccine, types of rabies vaccines were proved in 40 subjects of which 38 received tissue-culture vaccines. Sample-type vaccine was administered to one subject and suckling mouse vaccine was done to another one. When post-exposure prophylaxis was continued after return to Japan, it is important to know the sort of rabies vaccine injected abroad, because brain-tissue vaccines are less effective in inducing antibody than tissue-culture vaccines. Consequently both physicians and travelers should keep in mind that even now brain-tissue vaccines are used in some areas of the world.

  17. Local dynamic stability and variability of gait are associated with fall history in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toebes, Marcel J P; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Furrer, Regula; Dekker, Joost; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2012-07-01

    Gait parameters that can be measured with simple instrumentation may hold promise for identifying individuals at risk of falling. Increased variability of gait is associated with increased risk of falling, but research on additional parameters indicates that local dynamic stability (LDS) of gait may also be a predictor of fall risk. The objective of the present study was to assess the association between gait variability, LDS of gait and fall history in a large sample of elderly subjects. Subjects were recruited and tested at a large national fair. One hundred and thirty four elderly, aged 50-75, who were able to walk without aids on a treadmill, agreed to participate. After subjects walked on a treadmill, LDS (higher values indicate more instability) and variability parameters were calculated from accelerometer signals (trunk worn). Fall history was obtained by self-report of falls in the past 12 months. Gait variability and short-term LDS were, individually and combined, positively associated with fall history. In conclusion, both increased gait variability and increased short-term LDS are possible risk factors for falling in the elderly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Stratum Corneum Lipids: Their Role for the Skin Barrier Function in Healthy Subjects and Atopic Dermatitis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Smeden, Jeroen; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2016-01-01

    Human skin acts as a primary barrier between the body and its environment. Crucial for this skin barrier function is the lipid matrix in the outermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC). Two of its functions are (1) to prevent excessive water loss through the epidermis and (2) to avoid that compounds from the environment permeate into the viable epidermal and dermal layers and thereby provoke an immune response. The composition of the SC lipid matrix is dominated by three lipid classes: cholesterol, free fatty acids and ceramides. These lipids adopt a highly ordered, 3-dimensional structure of stacked densely packed lipid layers (lipid lamellae): the lateral and lamellar lipid organization. The way in which these lipids are ordered depends on the composition of the lipids. One very common skin disease in which the SC lipid barrier is affected is atopic dermatitis (AD). This review addresses the SC lipid composition and organization in healthy skin, and elaborates on how these parameters are changed in lesional and nonlesional skin of AD patients. Concerning the lipid composition, the changes in the three main lipid classes and the importance of the carbon chain lengths of the lipids are discussed. In addition, this review addresses how these changes in lipid composition induce changes in lipid organization and subsequently correlate with an impaired skin barrier function in both lesional and nonlesional skin of these patients. Furthermore, the effect of filaggrin and mutations in the filaggrin gene on the SC lipid composition is critically discussed. Also, the breakdown products of filaggrin, the natural moisturizing factor molecules and its relation to SC-pH is described. Finally, the paper discusses some major changes in epidermal lipid biosynthesis in patients with AD and other related skin diseases, and how inflammation has a deteriorating effect on the SC lipids and SC biosynthesis. The review ends with perspectives on future studies in relation to

  19. Tenskinmetric Evaluation of Surface Energy Changes in Adult Skin: Evidence from 834 Normal Subjects Monitored in Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Dal Bosco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the influence of the skin aging critical level on the adult skin epidermal functional state, an improved analytical method based on the skin surface energetic measurement (TVS modeling was developed. Tenskinmetric measurements were carried out non-invasively in controlled conditions by contact angle method using only a water-drop as reference standard liquid. Adult skin was monitored by TVS Observatory according to a specific and controlled thermal protocol (Camianta protocol in use at the interconnected “Mamma Margherita Terme spa” of Terme Euganee. From June to November 2013, the surface free energy and the epidermal hydration level of adult skin were evaluated on arrival of 265 male and 569 female adult volunteers (51–90 years of age and when they departed 2 weeks later. Sensitive measurements were carried out at 0.1 mN/m. High test compliance was obtained (93.2% of all guests. Very interesting results are obtained. The high sensitivity and discrimination power of tenskinmetry combined with a thermal Camianta protocol demonstrate the possibility to evaluate at baseline level the surface energetic changes and the skin reactivity which occurs on adult skin.

  20. Effectiveness of Acellular Dermal Matrix on Autologous Split-Thickness Skin Graft in Treatment of Deep Tissue Defect: Esthetic Subjective and Objective Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoo Jung; Park, Myong Chul; Park, Dong Ha; Hahn, Hyung Min; Kim, Sue Min; Lee, Il Jae

    2017-10-01

    A split-thickness skin graft (STSG) is performed to cover a large full-thickness skin defect. Esthetic and functional deficits can result, and many studies have sought to overcome them. This study compared the effectiveness of the acellular dermal matrix (ADM) graft and STSG concerning esthetic and functional effectiveness of ADM on scar quality. Of the patients who underwent anterolateral thigh free flap from 2011 to 2015, patients who received skin graft only (n = 10) or skin graft with ADM (n = 20) for coverage of the donor site were enrolled. In all cases, autologous STSG was performed with 1:1.5 meshed 0.008-0.010-inch-thick skin. In the skin graft with ADM group, 0.008-0.013-inch-thick meshed ADM (CGderm ® ; CGBio, Inc., Seungnam, Korea) was co-grafted. Negative-pressure wound therapy (CuraVAC ® ; CGBio, Inc., Seungnam, Korea) was applied to both groups in continuous mode at -120 mmHg. We investigate early outcomes (skin loss rate, duration of negative-pressure wound therapy, days to removal of stitches, days to achieve complete healing, and complications) and late outcomes in terms of scar quality (vascularity, pigmentation, pliability and height) and graft-related symptoms (itching sensation and pain). Assessments used the Vancouver Scar Scale and the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale. Skin fold was measured to evaluate the elasticity of scar tissue. In the Vancouver Scar Scale, vascularity subscore (p = 0.003) and total score (p = 0.016) were significantly lower in the skin graft with ADM group. In Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale, the pain (p = 0.037) and stiffness subscores (p = 0.002), and total score (p = 0.017) were significantly lower in the skin graft with ADM group. Skin graft with ADM results in better scar quality in objective and subjective aspects. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to

  1. Coordination-resolved local bond contraction and electron binding-energy entrapment of Si atomic clusters and solid skins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bo, Maolin; Huang, Yongli; Zhang, Ting [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Wang, Yan, E-mail: ywang8@hnust.edu.cn, E-mail: ecqsun@ntu.edu.sg [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); School of Information and Electronic Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Hunan 411201 (China); Zhang, Xi [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Li, Can [Center for Coordination Bond Engineering, School of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 330018 (China); Sun, Chang Q., E-mail: ywang8@hnust.edu.cn, E-mail: ecqsun@ntu.edu.sg [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Center for Coordination Bond Engineering, School of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 330018 (China)

    2014-04-14

    Consistency between x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements and density-function theory calculations confirms our bond order-length-strength notation-incorporated tight-binding theory predictions on the quantum entrapment of Si solid skin and atomic clusters. It has been revealed that bond-order deficiency shortens and strengthens the Si-Si bond, which results in the local densification and quantum entrapment of the core and valence electrons. Unifying Si clusters and Si(001) and (111) skins, this mechanism has led to quantification of the 2p binding energy of 96.089 eV for an isolated Si atom, and their bulk shifts of 2.461 eV. Findings evidence the significance of atomic undercoordination that is of great importance to device performance.

  2. Vasomotion in human skin before and after local heating recorded with laser Doppler flowmetry. A method for induction of vasomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J; Bülow, J; Lassen, N A

    1989-01-01

    neurogenic origin. A method for induction of regular amplified alpha-oscillations was discovered and evaluated. When heating the skin locally to 42 degrees C the blood cell flux increased and the pre-heating alpha- and beta-oscillations disappeared. During the post-heating period, amplified regular rhythmic......Rhythmical variations in blood cell flux in human skin have been studied using laser Doppler flowmetry. The fluctuations in blood cell flux could be divided into two different categories named alpha- and beta-oscillations with a median frequency of 6.8 min-1 and 1.5 min-1, respectively...... alpha-oscillations appeared. At the end of the post-heating period beta-oscillations re-appeared....

  3. First experience with hypothermia as a component of radiotherapy for locally-advanced skin cancer of the face

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shental', V.V.; Goldobenko, G.V.; Pustynskij, I.N.; Tkachev, S.I.

    2000-01-01

    The experience of applying hypothermia by radiation therapy in 20 patients with locally advanced skin cancer of the face is described. The radiation effect was achieved with application of photon (6 MeV) and electron (8-10 MeV) radiation and in rare cases with application of gamma-beams. The irradiation was accomplished give times a week with a single focal dose of 2 or 3 Gy. After 2-3 weeks interval the treatment continued by the same scheme up to the total dose of 60-65 Gy. Cooling the tumor by cryoirrigation with vapor-liquid nitrogen was conducted up to 0-5 deg C before each irradiation procedure. It is shown, that combination of cryogenic and radiation impacts on the tumor leads to complete regression of neoplasms oven in the patients with advanced inoperable forms of the head skin cancer. Good functional and cosmetic results are noted [ru

  4. The local-ladder effect: social status and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cameron; Kraus, Michael W; Galinsky, Adam D; Keltner, Dacher

    2012-07-01

    Dozens of studies in different nations have revealed that socioeconomic status only weakly predicts an individual's subjective well-being (SWB). These results imply that although the pursuit of social status is a fundamental human motivation, achieving high status has little impact on one's SWB. However, we propose that sociometric status-the respect and admiration one has in face-to-face groups (e.g., among friends or coworkers)-has a stronger effect on SWB than does socioeconomic status. Using correlational, experimental, and longitudinal methodologies, four studies found consistent evidence for a local-ladder effect: Sociometric status significantly predicted satisfaction with life and the experience of positive and negative emotions. Longitudinally, as sociometric status rose or fell, SWB rose or fell accordingly. Furthermore, these effects were driven by feelings of power and social acceptance. Overall, individuals' sociometric status matters more to their SWB than does their socioeconomic status.

  5. Intense pulsed light, near infrared pulsed light, and fractional laser combination therapy for skin rejuvenation in Asian subjects: a prospective multi-center study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Li; Wu, Jiaqiang; Qian, Hui; Lu, Zhong; Li, Yuanhong; Wang, Weizhen; Zhao, Xiaozhong; Tu, Ping; Yin, Rui; Xiang, Leihong

    2015-09-01

    Ablative skin rejuvenation therapies have limitations for Asian people, including post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation and long down time. Non-ablative lasers are safer but have limited efficacy. This study is to investigate the safety and efficacy of a combination therapy consisting of intense pulsed light (IPL), near infrared (NIR) light, and fractional erbium YAG (Er:YAG) laser for skin rejuvenation in Asian people. This study recruited 113 subjects from six sites in China. Subjects were randomly assigned to a full-face group, who received combination therapy, and split-face groups, in which one half of the face received combination therapy and the other half received IPL monotherapy. Each subject received five treatment sessions during a period of 90 days. Subjects were followed up at 1 and 3 months post last treatment. Three months after last treatment, the full-face group (n = 57) had a global improvement rate of 29 % and 29 % for wrinkles, 32 % for skin texture, 33 % for pigment spots, 28 % for pore size, respectively. For patients in the split-face groups (n = 54), monotherapy side had a global improvement rate of 23 % and 20 % for wrinkles, 27 % for skin texture, 25 % for pigment spots, 25 % for pore size, respectively. Both combination therapy and monotherapy resulted in significant improvements at the follow-up visits compared to baseline (P < 0.001). Combination therapy showed significantly greater improvements compared to monotherapy at two follow-up visits (P < 0.05). Combination therapy is a safe and more effective strategy than IPL monotherapy for skin rejuvenation in Asian people.

  6. Glycaemic responses after ingestion of some local foods by non-insulin dependent diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuo, P O; Ettyang, G A

    1996-12-01

    Fifteen non-insulin dependent diabetic volunteers, aged 51 +/- 3.9 years, were studied over a two month period to determine their glycaemic responses to various local foods. They were all on chlorpropamide and one subject was removed from analysis due to concurrent use of insulin. They received on separate occasions two servings of white bread, one serving of: brown bread, white lice, English potatoes, maize meal, millet and cassava each. Each meal contained 50 g of carbohydrate. A total of 107 glucose tolerance tests (GTTs) were performed and the glycaemic index (GI) for each food calculated. The mean blood sugars at 0,60 and 120 minutes were comparable for each food, and the peak rise occurred at 60 minutes. The highest rise (4.0 mmol/I) was seen with millet porridge. The highest GI was seen with white rice and the lowest with English potatoes (159.9 and 34.3 respectively). Overall, the cereals conferred higher GIs than the root vegetables. The GIs of English potatoes, maize meal, millet and cassava significantly differed from that of white bread. It is concluded that, using GIs, dietary guidelines comprising locally available and affordable foods can be made.

  7. NEO-INSTITUTIONALISM AND ENDOGENOUS DEVELOPMENT AS REGIONAL ALTERNATIVE. MODERNITY AND SUBJECTIVITY, LINKING AND LOCAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mateo Bastidas-Morales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of subjectivity involves overcoming criticism of individualism, utilitarianism and immediacy as the basis of society and consumer markets. Elemental is, with the addition of the individual as a subject of social action, the principal actor-oriented definition of welfare, community and local development. Obviously, the formation of human capital development. While it is imperative the state-society relationship in the context of the current modernization must also recover the principles of the community before the stressed relationship between the market-state. We intend here to link opposite the dichotomous thinking of Western rationalism, constitute an important element of social sustantivación. Along with this, the neo-institutionalism and institutional economics that questions the current neoliberal approves the participation of the state and, with new rules, can better confront the neoconservative positions. It is revalued, in the present work, interest in the new dynamics of social change in post-national or cosmopolitan side.

  8. Dynamic characteristics of laser Doppler flowmetry signals obtained in response to a local and progressive pressure applied on diabetic and healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeau, Anne; Koitka, Audrey; Abraham, Pierre; Saumet, Jean-Louis; L'Huillier, Jean-Pierre

    2004-09-01

    In the biomedical field, the laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) technique is a non-invasive method to monitor skin perfusion. On the skin of healthy humans, LDF signals present a significant transient increase in response to a local and progressive pressure application. This vasodilatory reflex response may have important implications for cutaneous pathologies involved in various neurological diseases and in the pathophysiology of decubitus ulcers. The present work analyses the dynamic characteristics of these signals on young type 1 diabetic patients, and on healthy age-matched subjects. To obtain accurate dynamic characteristic values, a de-noising wavelet-based algorithm is first applied to LDF signals. All the de-noised signals are then normalised to the same value. The blood flow peak and the time to reach this peak are then calculated on each computed signal. The results show that a large vasodilation is present on signals of healthy subjects. The mean peak occurs at a pressure of 3.2 kPa approximately. However, a vasodilation of limited amplitude appears on type 1 diabetic patients. The maximum value is visualised, on the average, when the pressure is 1.1 kPa. The inability for diabetic patients to increase largely their cutaneous blood flow may bring explanations to foot ulcers.

  9. Evaluation of hydrophilic permeant transport parameters in the localized and non-localized transport regions of skin treated simultaneously with low-frequency ultrasound and sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Joseph; Blankschtein, Daniel; Langer, Robert

    2008-02-01

    The porosity (epsilon), the tortuosity (tau), and the hindrance factor (H) of the aqueous pore channels located in the localized transport regions (LTRs) and the non-LTRs formed in skin treated simultaneously with low-frequency ultrasound (US) and the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), were evaluated for the delivery of four hydrophilic permeants (urea, mannitol, raffinose, and inulin) by analyzing dual-radiolabeled diffusion masking experiments for three different idealized cases of the aqueous pore pathway hypothesis. When epsilon and tau were assumed to be independent of the permeant radius, H was found to be statistically larger in the LTRs than in the non-LTRs. When a distribution of pore radii was assumed to exist in the skin, no statistical differences in epsilon, tau, and H were observed due to the large variation in the pore radii distribution shape parameter (3 A to infinity). When infinitely large aqueous pores were assumed to exist in the skin, epsilon was found to be 3-8-fold greater in the LTRs than in the non-LTRs, while little difference was observed in the LTRs and in the non-LTRs for tau. This last result suggests that the efficacy of US/SLS treatment may be enhanced by increasing the porosity of the non-LTRs.

  10. Malassezia intra-specific diversity and potentially new species in the skin microbiota from Brazilian healthy subjects and seborrheic dermatitis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Cardoso Soares

    Full Text Available Malassezia yeasts are part of the resident cutaneous microbiota, and are also associated with skin diseases such as seborrheic dermatitis (SD. The role these fungi play in skin diseases and why they are pathogenic for only some individuals remain unclear. This study aimed to characterize Malassezia microbiota from different body sites in healthy and SD subjects from Brazil. Scalp and forehead samples from healthy, mild SD and severe SD subjects were collected. Non-scalp lesions from severe SD patients were also sampled. 5.8S rDNA/ITS2 amplicons from Malassezia sp. were analyzed by RFLP and sequencing. Results indicate that Malassezia microbiota did not group according to health condition or body area. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that three groups of sequences did not cluster together with any formally described species, suggesting that they might belong to potential new species. One of them was found in high proportions in scalp samples. A large variety of Malassezia subtypes were detected, indicating intra-specific diversity. Higher M. globosa proportions were found in non-scalp lesions from severe SD subjects compared with other areas, suggesting closer association of this species with SD lesions from areas other than scalp. Our results show the first panorama of Malassezia microbiota in Brazilian subjects using molecular techniques and provide new perspectives for further studies to elucidate the association between Malassezia microbiota and skin diseases.

  11. Long-term changes in cell population kinetics of skin tissue after local beta-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, T [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1975-06-01

    Using /sup 3/H-thymidine autoradiography, long-term alterations in cell kinetics were studied in guinea pig skin after ..beta..irradiation with 3000 rads. After complete depopulation, epidermal basal cells at the radiation margin became proliferative 10 days postirradiation and spread over the depopulated area. When epithelization (20 days) was complete the cell cycle time of the basal cells reverted to normal, but the differentiation rate was much slower than that in unirradiated skin. This appeared to be a cause of the persistent (acanthotic) hyperplasia. Similar but slower changes were found in dermal tissue. Reparative proliferation of fibroblasts and capillary endothelial cells began at 20 and 30 days, respectively. Active fibroblastic proliferation was found as late as 110 days. This, along with the abortive nature of the reparative angiogenesis, seemed to be a cause of the later fibrosis (150 to 400 days).

  12. Effects of selective ultraviolet phototherapy (SUP) and local PUVA treatment on DNA synthesis in Guinea pig skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullmann, H.; Galosi, A.; Jakobeit, C.; Steigleder, G.K.

    1980-01-01

    The treatment with UV-light with wavelengths between 292.5-335 nm (known as selective UV-phototherapy, or SUP) and 320-390 nm (plus local treatment with 8-methoxypsoralen, known as PUVAsub(ex)) gave rise to a biphasic reaction of epidermal cell proliferation in guinea pig skin. A decrease of proliferative activity was followed by a synchronized stimulation of DNA synthesizing cells after 2-4 h. These quantitative displacements were accompanied by qualitative changes in the proliferative behaviour of epidermal cells in the S-compartment. (orig.) [de

  13. Down-regulation of microRNA-196a in the sera and involved skin of localized scleroderma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Takamitsu; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Etoh, Mitsuhiko; Yamane, Keitaro; Kajihara, Ikko; Makino, Katsunari; Ichihara, Asako; Igata, Toshikatsu; Sakai, Keisuke; Fukushima, Satoshi; Ihn, Hironobu

    2014-01-01

    Localized scleroderma (LSc) exhibits fibrosis of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. LSc shows an excessive deposition of type 1 collagen. To elucidate the mechanism of type 1 collagen overexpression in LSc, we investigated the epigenetics, focusing on microRNA (miRNA). miRNA expression profile was determined by PCR array analysis. The expression of microRNA-196a (miR-196a) in the skin tissue was examined by in situ hybridization or real-time PCR. The serum levels of miR-196a were measured by real-time PCR. PCR array analysis demonstrated that the miR-196a level was markedly decreased in LSc skin tissue in vivo. The transfection of specific inhibitor for miR-196a into normal cultured human dermal fibroblasts led to the up-regulation of type 1 collagen protein in vitro. Furthermore, the serum levels of miR-196a were significantly decreased in LSc patients. Down-regulation of miR-196a and subsequent overexpression of type 1 collagen in dermal fibroblasts may play a key role in the pathogenesis of LSc. The serum levels of miR-196a may be useful as a diagnostic marker of LSc.

  14. Chemical applicability domain of the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) for skin sensitisation potency. Part 2. The biological variability of the murine Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) for skin sensitisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David W; Api, Anne Marie; Aptula, Aynur O

    2016-10-01

    The Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) is the most common in vivo regulatory toxicology test for skin sensitisation, quantifying potency as the EC3, the concentration of chemical giving a threefold increase in thymidine uptake in the local lymph node. Existing LLNA data can, along with clinical data, provide useful comparator information on the potency of sensitisers. Understanding of the biological variability of data from LLNA studies is important for those developing non-animal based risk assessment approaches for skin allergy. Here an existing set of 94 EC3 values for 12 chemicals, all tested at least three times in the same vehicle have been analysed by calculating standard deviations (SD) for logEC3 values. The SDs range from 0.08 to 0.22. The overall SD for the 94 logEC3 values is 0.147. Thus the 95% confidence limits (2xSD) for LLNA EC3 values are within a factor of 2, comparable to those for physico-chemical measurements such as partition coefficients and solubility. The residual SDs of Quantitative Mechanistic Models (QMMs) based on physical organic chemistry parameters are similar to the overall SD of the LLNA, indicating that QMMs of this type are unlikely to be bettered for predictive accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Subjective quality of videos displayed with local backlight dimming at different peak white and ambient light levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Korhonen, Jari; Forchhammer, Søren

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the influence of ambient light and peak white (maximum brightness) of a display on the subjective quality of videos shown with local backlight dimming is examined. A subjective experiment investigating those factors is set-up using high contrast test sequences. The results are firstly...

  16. The impact of vehicle on the relative potency of skin-sensitizing chemicals in the local lymph node assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowsey, Ian R; Clapp, Catherine J; Safford, Bob; Gibbons, Ben T; Basketter, David A

    2008-01-01

    The identification and characterization of chemicals that possess skin-sensitizing potential are typically performed using predictive tests. However, human exposure to skin-sensitizing chemicals often occurs via a matrix (vehicle) that differs from that used in these tests. It is thus important to account for the potential impact of vehicle differences when undertaking quantitative risk assessment for skin sensitization. This is achieved through the application of a specific sensitization assessment factor (SAF), scaled between 1 and 10, when identifying an acceptable exposure level. The objective of the analysis described herein is to determine the impact of vehicle differences on local lymph node assay (LLNA) EC3 values (concentrations of test chemical required to provoke a 3-fold increase in lymph node cell proliferation). Initially, the inherent variability of the LLNA was investigated by examining the reproducibility of EC3 values for 14 chemicals that have been tested more than once in the same vehicle (4:1 acetone:olive oil, AOO). This analysis reveals that the variability in EC3 value for these chemicals following multiple assessments is LLNA using at least 2 of 15 different vehicles. These data demonstrate that often the variability in EC3 values observed for a given chemical in different vehicles is no greater than the 5-fold inherent variability observed when assessing a chemical in the same vehicle on multiple occasions. However, there are examples where EC3 values for a chemical differ by a factor of more than 10 between different vehicles. These observations were often associated with an apparent underestimation of potency (higher EC3 values) with predominantly aqueous vehicles or propylene glycol. These data underscore the need to consider vehicle effects in the context of skin-sensitization risk assessments.

  17. Reduced Arteriovenous Shunting Capacity After Local Heating and Redistribution of Baseline Skin Blood Flow in Type 2 Diabetes Assessed With Velocity-Resolved Quantitative Laser Doppler Flowmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Ingemar; Larsson, Marcus; Nyström, Fredrik H.; Länne, Toste; Östgren, Carl J.; Strömberg, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the microcirculatory velocity distribution in type 2 diabetic patients and nondiabetic control subjects at baseline and after local heating. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The skin blood flow response to local heating (44°C for 20 min) was assessed in 28 diabetic patients and 29 control subjects using a new velocity-resolved quantitative laser Doppler flowmetry technique (qLDF). The qLDF estimates erythrocyte (RBC) perfusion (velocity × concentration), in a physiologically relevant unit (grams RBC per 100 g tissue × millimeters per second) in a fixed output volume, separated into three velocity regions: v 10 mm/s. RESULTS The increased blood flow occurs in vessels with a velocity >1 mm/s. A significantly lower response in qLDF total perfusion was found in diabetic patients than in control subjects after heat provocation because of less high-velocity blood flow (v >10 mm/s). The RBC concentration in diabetic patients increased sevenfold for v between 1 and 10 mm/s, and 15-fold for v >10 mm/s, whereas no significant increase was found for v <1 mm/s. The mean velocity increased from 0.94 to 7.3 mm/s in diabetic patients and from 0.83 to 9.7 mm/s in control subjects. CONCLUSIONS The perfusion increase occurs in larger shunting vessels and not as an increase in capillary flow. Baseline diabetic patient data indicated a redistribution of flow to higher velocity regions, associated with longer duration of diabetes. A lower perfusion was associated with a higher BMI and a lower toe-to-brachial systolic blood pressure ratio. PMID:20393143

  18. 389 Allergic Reactions to Local Anesthetics: Detection by Skin Tests and Subcutaneous Provocation. Analysis of 160 Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcanjo, Luiz; Gonçalves Tavares, Tania Maria; Delcourt, Nathalia; Baroni, Juliana; Rios, João; Rios, José Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Background Adverse reactions to local anesthetics (LA) are frequent and often referred to as allergic. Although immune-mediated reactions are rare, it should be investigated for suspected cases. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of positive skin test to these drugs in patients with a suspected history of allergic reactions and describe the main socio-demographic characteristics of these individuals. Methods Retrospective study of medical records of patients attended at Policlínica Geral do Rio de Janeiro Allergic Clinic, between 2008 and 2011. The parameters evaluated were the test indication and the patient ages and gender. The drug tested was that the patient had a history of suspicion. Patients underwent skin prick and intradermal tests and subcutaneous provocation. Descriptive statistical analysis of the data was performed. Results It was performed 160 tests (125 female). Three of this total was excluded due to inconclusive results. In women, the highest proportion of tests was in the age group from 41 to 60 years (43%), while in males the higher concentration was at a youngest age group: 21 to 40 years (41%). The most common indication (103 cases, 65%) for the tests was a previous suspected anaphylactic reaction by LA. Seven of 157 tests had a positive result (4.4%), 6 of them occurred in women (4.8%). Only one test resulted in a type of anaphylactic reaction response (0.67%). All patients who presented positive response to the test had a history of per-anesthetic reaction that suggested an immune-mediated mechanism. Conclusions In patients with a history of previous reaction to local anesthetics, the skin tests with these drugs have a key role in the prevention of anaphylaxis, and on guidance for adequate anesthetic procedures.

  19. Analysis of composite hydrogen storage cylinders subjected to localized flame impingements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, J.; Chen, J.; Sundararaman, S.; Chandrashekhara, K. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Chernicoff, William [US Department of Transportation, Washington, DC 20509 (United States)

    2008-06-15

    A comprehensive non-linear finite element model is developed for predicting the behavior of composite hydrogen storage cylinders subjected to high pressure and localized flame impingements. The model is formulated in an axi-symmetric coordinate system and incorporates with various sub-models to describe the behavior of the composite cylinder under extreme thermo-mechanical loadings. A heat transfer sub-model is employed to predict the temperature evolution of the composite cylinder wall and accounts for heat transport due to decomposition and mass loss. A composite decomposition sub-model described by Arrhenius's law is implemented to predict the residual resin content of thermal damaged area. A sub-model for material degradation is implemented to account for the loss of mechanical properties. A progressive failure model is adopted to detect various types of mechanical failure. These sub-models are implemented in ABAQUS commercial finite element code using user subroutines. Numerical results are presented for thermal damage, residual properties and profile of resin content in the cylinder. The developed model provides a useful tool for safe design and structural assessment of high pressure composite hydrogen storage cylinders. (author)

  20. Seasonal dynamics of chemokine receptors and CD62L in subjects with asymptomatic skin sensitization to birch and grass pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assing, K; Bødtger, Uffe; Poulsen, L K

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic skin sensitization (AS) has been shown to be a risk factor for respiratory allergic disease. CCR4, CXCR1 and CD62L have all been assigned a role in the immunopathogenesis of allergy. Memory T-cell expression of CCR4, CXCR1 and CD62L has not hitherto been investigated in s...

  1. Skin reactions to human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 specific antigens intradermally injected in healthy subjects and patients with cervical neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hende, Muriel; van Poelgeest, Mariëtte I. E.; van der Hulst, Jeanette M.; de Jong, Joan; Drijfhout, Jan W.; Fleuren, Gert Jan; Valentijn, A. Rob P. M.; Wafelman, Amon R.; Slappendel, Gijs M.; Melief, Cornelis J. M.; Offringa, Rienk; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.; Kenter, Gemma G.

    2008-01-01

    We have tested the safety and feasibility of a synthetic long peptide-based HPV16-specific skin test to detect cellular immune responses to HPV16 E2, E6 and E7 in vivo. Women with cervical neoplasia (n = 11) and healthy individuals (n = 19) were intradermally challenged with 8 different pools of

  2. 3D skin surface reconstruction from a single image by merging global curvature and local texture using the guided filtering for 3D haptic palpation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K; Kim, M; Kim, K

    2018-05-11

    Skin surface evaluation has been studied using various imaging techniques. However, all these studies had limited impact because they were performed using visual exam only. To improve on this scenario with haptic feedback, we propose 3D reconstruction of the skin surface using a single image. Unlike extant 3D skin surface reconstruction algorithms, we utilize the local texture and global curvature regions, combining the results for reconstruction. The first entails the reconstruction of global curvature, achieved by bilateral filtering that removes noise on the surface while maintaining the edge (ie, furrow) to obtain the overall curvature. The second entails the reconstruction of local texture, representing the fine wrinkles of the skin, using an advanced form of bilateral filtering. The final image is then composed by merging the two reconstructed images. We tested the curvature reconstruction part by comparing the resulting curvatures with measured values from real phantom objects while local texture reconstruction was verified by measuring skin surface roughness. Then, we showed the reconstructed result of our proposed algorithm via the reconstruction of various real skin surfaces. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach is a promising technology to reconstruct an accurate skin surface with a single skin image. We proposed 3D skin surface reconstruction using only a single camera. We highlighted the utility of global curvature, which has not been considered important in the past. Thus, we proposed a new method for 3D reconstruction that can be used for 3D haptic palpation, dividing the concepts of local and global regions. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Hyaluronic acid: a unique topical vehicle for the localized delivery of drugs to the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M B; Jones, S A

    2005-05-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a naturally occurring polyanionic, polysaccharide that consists of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and beta-glucoronic acid. It is present in the intercellular matrix of most vertebrate connective tissues especially skin where it has a protective, structure stabilizing and shock-absorbing role. The unique viscoelastic nature of HA along with its biocompatibility and non-immunogenicity has led to its use in a number of clinical applications, which include: the supplementation of joint fluid in arthritis; as a surgical aid in eye surgery; and to facilitate the healing and regeneration of surgical wounds. More recently, HA has been investigated as a drug delivery agent for various routes of administration, including ophthalmic, nasal, pulmonary, parenteral and topical. In fact, regulatory approval in the USA, Canada and Europe was granted recently for 3% diclofenac in 2.5% HA gel, Solaraze, for the topical treatment of actinic keratoses, which is the third most common skin complaint in the USA. The gel is well tolerated, safe and efficacious and provides an attractive, cost-effective alternative to cryoablation, curettage or dermabrasion, or treatment with 5-fluorouracil. The purpose of this review is to describe briefly the physical, chemical and biological properties of HA together with some details of its medical and pharmaceutical uses with emphasis on this more recent topical application.

  4. Local cooling reduces skin ischemia under surface pressure in rats: an assessment by wavelet analysis of laser Doppler blood flow oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, Yih-Kuen; Liao, Fuyuan; Lee, Bernard; Foreman, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of local cooling on skin blood flow response to prolonged surface pressure and to identify associated physiological controls mediating these responses using the wavelet analysis of blood flow oscillations in rats. Twelve Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three protocols, including pressure with local cooling (Δt = −10 °C), pressure with local heating (Δt = 10 °C) and pressure without temperature changes. Pressure of 700 mmHg was applied to the right trochanter area of rats for 3 h. Skin blood flow was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry. The 3 h loading period was divided into non-overlapping 30 min epochs for the analysis of the changes of skin blood flow oscillations using wavelet spectral analysis. The wavelet amplitudes and powers of three frequencies (metabolic, neurogenic and myogenic) of skin blood flow oscillations were calculated. The results showed that after an initial loading period of 30 min, skin blood flow continually decreased under the conditions of pressure with heating and of pressure without temperature changes, but maintained stable under the condition of pressure with cooling. Wavelet analysis revealed that stable skin blood flow under pressure with cooling was attributed to changes in the metabolic and myogenic frequencies. This study demonstrates that local cooling may be useful for reducing ischemia of weight-bearing soft tissues that prevents pressure ulcers. (paper)

  5. β-adrenergic blockade does not impair the skin blood flow sensitivity to local heating in burned and non-burned skin under neutral and hot environments in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Eric; McEntire, Serina J.; Herndon, David N.; Mlcak, Ronald P.; Suman, Oscar E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Tested the hypothesis that propranolol, a drug given to burn patients to reduce hypermetabolism/cardiac stress, may inhibit heat dissipation by changing the sensitivity of skin blood flow (SkBF) to local heating under neutral and hot conditions. Methods In a randomized double-blind study, a placebo was given to 8 burned children while propranolol was given to 13 burned children with similar characteristics (mean ± SD: 11.9±3y, 147±20cm, 45±23kg, 56±12% TBSA). Non-burned children (n=13, 11.4±3y, 152±15cm, 52±13kg) served as healthy controls. A progressive local heating protocol characterized SkBF responses in burned and unburned skin and non-burned control skin under the two environmental conditions (23°C and 34°C) via laser-Doppler flowmetry. Results Resting SkBF was greater in burned and unburned skin compared to the non-burned control (main effect: skin, Pburned; 38±36 unburned vs 9±8 control %SkBFmax). No difference was found for maximal SkBF capacity to local heating between groups. Additionally, dose response curves for the sensitivity of SkBF to local heating were not different among burned or unburned skin, and non-burned control skin (EC50, P>0.05) under either condition. Conclusion Therapeutic propranolol does not negatively affect SkBF under neutral or hot environmental conditions and further compromise temperature regulation in burned children. PMID:28071840

  6. Collaboration with a local organization on the subjects of energy/radiation field in high school science education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takahiro; Mori, Chizuo

    2005-01-01

    We, high school teachers, collaborated with a local organization, Chubu Atomic Power Conference (partly in co-operation with The Radiation Education Forum), in the education on the subjects of energy and radiation fields. In addition to the subjects concerned with radiations, cloud chamber and personal radiation-monitor, we developed a few new subjects, which are not directly connected themselves with radiations, for the purpose to widen the fields and to bring the high acceptability of the subjects in high school side. (author)

  7. Dosimetric comparison of axilla and groin radiotherapy techniques for high-risk and locally advanced skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattes, Malcolm D.; Zhou, Ying; Berry, Sean L.; Barker, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy targeting axilla and groin lymph nodes improves regional disease control in locally advanced and high-risk skin cancers. However, trials generally used conventional two-dimensional radiotherapy (2D-RT), contributing towards relatively high rates of side effects from treatment. The goal of this study is to determine if three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), or volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) may improve radiation delivery to the target while avoiding organs at risk in the clinical context of skin cancer regional nodal irradiation. Twenty patients with locally advanced/high-risk skin cancers underwent computed tomography simulation. The relevant axilla or groin planning target volumes and organs at risk were delineated using standard definitions. Paired t-tests were used to compare the mean values of several dose-volumetric parameters for each of the 4 techniques. In the axilla, the largest improvement for 3D-CRT compared to 2D-RT was for homogeneity index (13.9 vs. 54.3), at the expense of higher lung V 20 (28.0% vs. 12.6%). In the groin, the largest improvements for 3D-CRT compared to 2D-RT were for anorectum D max (13.6 vs. 38.9 Gy), bowel D 200cc (7.3 vs. 23.1 Gy), femur D 50 (34.6 vs. 57.2 Gy), and genitalia D max (37.6 vs. 51.1 Gy). IMRT had further improvements compared to 3D-CRT for humerus D mean (16.9 vs. 22.4 Gy), brachial plexus D 5 (57.4 vs. 61.3 Gy), bladder D 5 (26.8 vs. 36.5 Gy), and femur D 50 (18.7 vs. 34.6 Gy). Fewer differences were observed between IMRT and VMAT. Compared to 2D-RT and 3D-CRT, IMRT and VMAT had dosimetric advantages in the treatment of nodal regions of skin cancer patients

  8. Dosimetric comparison of axilla and groin radiotherapy techniques for high-risk and locally advanced skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattes, Malcolm D.; Zhou, Ying; Berry, Sean L.; Barker, Christopher A. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Radiation therapy targeting axilla and groin lymph nodes improves regional disease control in locally advanced and high-risk skin cancers. However, trials generally used conventional two-dimensional radiotherapy (2D-RT), contributing towards relatively high rates of side effects from treatment. The goal of this study is to determine if three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), or volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) may improve radiation delivery to the target while avoiding organs at risk in the clinical context of skin cancer regional nodal irradiation. Twenty patients with locally advanced/high-risk skin cancers underwent computed tomography simulation. The relevant axilla or groin planning target volumes and organs at risk were delineated using standard definitions. Paired t-tests were used to compare the mean values of several dose-volumetric parameters for each of the 4 techniques. In the axilla, the largest improvement for 3D-CRT compared to 2D-RT was for homogeneity index (13.9 vs. 54.3), at the expense of higher lung V{sub 20} (28.0% vs. 12.6%). In the groin, the largest improvements for 3D-CRT compared to 2D-RT were for anorectum D{sub max} (13.6 vs. 38.9 Gy), bowel D{sub 200cc} (7.3 vs. 23.1 Gy), femur D{sub 50} (34.6 vs. 57.2 Gy), and genitalia D{sub max} (37.6 vs. 51.1 Gy). IMRT had further improvements compared to 3D-CRT for humerus D{sub mean} (16.9 vs. 22.4 Gy), brachial plexus D{sub 5} (57.4 vs. 61.3 Gy), bladder D{sub 5} (26.8 vs. 36.5 Gy), and femur D{sub 50} (18.7 vs. 34.6 Gy). Fewer differences were observed between IMRT and VMAT. Compared to 2D-RT and 3D-CRT, IMRT and VMAT had dosimetric advantages in the treatment of nodal regions of skin cancer patients.

  9. Failure mode and fracture behavior evaluation of pipes with local wall thinning subjected to bending load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Seok Hwan; Nam, Ki Woo; Kim, Seon Jin; Kim, Jin Hwan; Kim, Hyun Soo; Do, Jae Yoon

    2003-01-01

    Fracture behaviors of pipes with local wall thinning are very important for the integrity of nuclear power plant. In pipes of energy plants, sometimes, the local wall thinning may result from severe Erosion-Corrosion (E/C) damage. However, the effects of local wall thinning on strength and fracture behaviors of piping system were not well studied. In this paper, the monotonic bending tests were performed of full-scale carbon steel pipes with local wall thinning. A monotonic bending load was applied to straight pipe specimens by four-point loading at ambient temperature without internal pressure. From the tests, fracture behaviors and fracture strength of locally thinned pipe were manifested systematically. The observed failure modes were divided into four types; ovalization, crack initiation/growth after ovalization, local buckling and crack initiating/growth after local buckling. Also, the strength and the allowable limit of piping system with local wall thinning were evaluated

  10. The Effects of Hearing Aids on Localization of White Noise by Blind Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Bruce R.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to observe the effects of hearing aids on the ability of 20 blind veterans to localize white noise. In all cases, Ss performed more poorly on a localization task while wearing a hearing aid. (Author)

  11. Regional relation between skin blood flow and sweating to passive heating and local administration of acetylcholine in young, healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline J; Kenney, W Larry; Alexander, Lacy M

    2013-04-01

    Regional variation in sweating over the human body is widely recognized yet variation in vasomotor responses and mechanisms causing this variation remain unclear. This study aimed to explore the relation between regional sweating rates (RSR) and skin blood flow (SkBF) responses to thermal and pharmacological stimuli in young, healthy subjects. In nine subjects (23 ± 3 yr), intradermal microdialysis (MD) probes were inserted into the ventral forearm, abdomen, thigh, and lower back and perfused with lactated Ringer solution. RSR over each MD membrane were measured using ventilated capsules with a laser Doppler probe housed in each capsule for measurement of red cell flux (laser Doppler flux, LDF) as an index of SkBF. Subjects completed a whole body heating protocol to 1°C rise in oral temperature and an acetylcholine dose response (ACh 1 × 10(-7)-0.1 M; mean skin temperature 34°C). Maximal LDF were obtained at the end of both protocols (50 mM sodium nitroprusside).During heating RSR varied among sites (P back versus other sites (P back: r = 0.86 ± 0.04) but not latter stages of heating. No differences in RSR (P = 0.160) or SkBF (LDF, P = 0.841) were observed between sites during ACh perfusion. Taken together, these data suggest that increases in SkBF are necessary to initiate and increase sweating, but further rises in RSR are not fully dependent on SkBF in a dose-response manner. Furthermore, RSR cannot be explained by cholinergic sensitivity or variation in SkBF.

  12. Localization of sclerotic-type chronic graft-vs-host disease to sites of skin injury: potential insight into the mechanism of isomorphic and isotopic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martires, Kathryn J; Baird, Kristin; Citrin, Deborah E; Hakim, Fran T; Pavletic, Steven Z; Cowen, Edward W

    2011-09-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the variable manifestations of chronic cutaneous graft-vs-host disease (cGVHD) are poorly understood. Localization of sclerotic-type chronic graft-vs-host disease to sites of skin injury (isomorphic and isotopic responses), a recognized phenomenon in morphea, suggests a potential common pathway between cGVHD and other sclerotic skin conditions. Four cases of sclerotic-type cGVHD developed at the site of disparate skin injuries (ionizing radiotherapy, repeated needle sticks, central catheter site, and varicella-zoster virus infection). We review the spectrum of previously reported cases of sclerotic and nonsclerotic cGVHD relating to external forces on the skin. Localization of sclerotic-type cGVHD may occur after many types of skin injury, including UV and ionizing radiotherapy, needle sticks, viral infection, and pressure or friction. Recognition of this phenomenon may be helpful for the early diagnosis of sclerotic disease. Recent insights into the immunological consequences of minor skin injury may provide important clues to the underlying pathogenesis of cGVHD-mediated skin disease.

  13. 4D-Fingerprint Categorical QSAR Models for Skin Sensitization Based on Classification Local Lymph Node Assay Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Tseng, Yufeng J.; Pan, Dahua; Liu, Jianzhong; Kern, Petra S.; Gerberick, G. Frank; Hopfinger, Anton J.

    2008-01-01

    Currently, the only validated methods to identify skin sensitization effects are in vivo models, such as the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) and guinea pig studies. There is a tremendous need, in particular due to novel legislation, to develop animal alternatives, eg. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models. Here, QSAR models for skin sensitization using LLNA data have been constructed. The descriptors used to generate these models are derived from the 4D-molecular similarity paradigm and are referred to as universal 4D-fingerprints. A training set of 132 structurally diverse compounds and a test set of 15 structurally diverse compounds were used in this study. The statistical methodologies used to build the models are logistic regression (LR), and partial least square coupled logistic regression (PLS-LR), which prove to be effective tools for studying skin sensitization measures expressed in the two categorical terms of sensitizer and non-sensitizer. QSAR models with low values of the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic, χHL2, are significant and predictive. For the training set, the cross-validated prediction accuracy of the logistic regression models ranges from 77.3% to 78.0%, while that of PLS-logistic regression models ranges from 87.1% to 89.4%. For the test set, the prediction accuracy of logistic regression models ranges from 80.0%-86.7%, while that of PLS-logistic regression models ranges from 73.3%-80.0%. The QSAR models are made up of 4D-fingerprints related to aromatic atoms, hydrogen bond acceptors and negatively partially charged atoms. PMID:17226934

  14. Influence of age, spatial memory, and ocular fixation on localization of auditory, visual, and bimodal targets by human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobreva, Marina S; O'Neill, William E; Paige, Gary D

    2012-12-01

    A common complaint of the elderly is difficulty identifying and localizing auditory and visual sources, particularly in competing background noise. Spatial errors in the elderly may pose challenges and even threats to self and others during everyday activities, such as localizing sounds in a crowded room or driving in traffic. In this study, we investigated the influence of aging, spatial memory, and ocular fixation on the localization of auditory, visual, and combined auditory-visual (bimodal) targets. Head-restrained young and elderly subjects localized targets in a dark, echo-attenuated room using a manual laser pointer. Localization accuracy and precision (repeatability) were quantified for both ongoing and transient (remembered) targets at response delays up to 10 s. Because eye movements bias auditory spatial perception, localization was assessed under target fixation (eyes free, pointer guided by foveal vision) and central fixation (eyes fixed straight ahead, pointer guided by peripheral vision) conditions. Spatial localization across the frontal field in young adults demonstrated (1) horizontal overshoot and vertical undershoot for ongoing auditory targets under target fixation conditions, but near-ideal horizontal localization with central fixation; (2) accurate and precise localization of ongoing visual targets guided by foveal vision under target fixation that degraded when guided by peripheral vision during central fixation; (3) overestimation in horizontal central space (±10°) of remembered auditory, visual, and bimodal targets with increasing response delay. In comparison with young adults, elderly subjects showed (1) worse precision in most paradigms, especially when localizing with peripheral vision under central fixation; (2) greatly impaired vertical localization of auditory and bimodal targets; (3) increased horizontal overshoot in the central field for remembered visual and bimodal targets across response delays; (4) greater vulnerability to

  15. Subjective Health Complaints in Individuals with Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis: Associations with the Severity of the Skin Condition and Illness Perceptions - A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordbø, Emma Charlott Andersson; Aamodt, Geir; Ihlebæk, Camilla Martha

    2017-06-01

    High comorbidity has been reported among persons with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA), but the occurrence of subjective health complaints (SHCs) in these patient groups is poorly understood. The study aimed to describe the prevalence of SHCs among individuals with psoriasis and PsA in Norway, and investigate whether the severity of their skin condition and their illness perceptions were associated with the number and severity of health complaints. Participants were recruited through the Psoriasis and Eczema Association of Norway (PEF) (n = 942). The participants answered a self-administered questionnaire covering subjective health complaints, the severity of their skin condition, and their illness perceptions measured with the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ-R). The prevalence and severity of SHCs were high. Participants with PsA reported more complaints and higher severity of complaints compared with participants with psoriasis. In both groups, the severity of the skin condition was associated with the number and severity of SHCs. Cognitive illness perceptions (consequences) and emotional illness perceptions (emotional affect) were associated with SHCs in participants with psoriasis, whereas only cognitive illness perceptions (consequences and identity) were associated with SHCs in participants with PsA. The high prevalence and severity of SHCs among individuals with psoriasis and PsA were associated with the severity of the skin condition and illness perceptions. Somatic and cognitive sensitizations are proposed as possible mechanisms. The findings suggest that holistic approaches are essential when managing these patient groups in health care institutions and clinical practice.

  16. Attenuation fluctuations and local dermal reflectivity are indicators of immune cell infiltrate and epidermal hyperplasia in skin inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kevin G.; Wang, Yun; Choudhury, Niloy; Levitz, David; Swanzey, Emily; Lagowski, James; Kulesz-Martin, Molly; Jacques, Steven

    2012-02-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease resulting from genetic and environmental alterations of cutaneous immune responses responsible for skin homeostasis. While numerous therapeutic targets involved in the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis have been identified, the in vivo dynamics of psoriasis remains under investigated. To elucidate the spatial-temporal morphological evolution of psoriasis we undertook in vivo time course focus-tracked optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to non-invasively document dermal alterations due to immune cell infiltration and epidermal hyperplasia in an Imiquimod (IMQ) induced model of psoriasis-like inflammation in DBA2/C57Bl6 hybrid mice. Quantitative appraisal of dermal architectural changes was achieved through a three parameter fit of OCT axial scans in the dermis of the form A(z) = ρ exp(-mu;z +ɛ(z)). Ensemble averaging of the fit parameters over 2000 axial scans per mouse in each treatment arm revealed that the local dermal reflectivity ρ, decreased significantly in response to 6 day IMQ treatment (p = 0.0001), as did the standard deviation of the attenuation fluctuation std(ɛ(z)), (p = 0.04), in comparison to cream controls and day 1 treatments. No significant changes were observed in the average dermal attenuation rate, μ. Our results suggest these label-free OCT-based metrics can be deployed to investigate new therapeutic targets in animal models as well as aid in clinical staging of psoriasis in conjunction with the psoriasis area and severity index.

  17. The local lymph node assay and skin sensitization: a cut-down screen to reduce animal requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J; Betts, Catherine J; Gerberick, G Frank; Ryan, Cindy A; Kern, Petra S; Patlewicz, Grace Y; Basketter, David A

    2006-04-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA), an alternative approach to skin-sensitizing testing, has made a significant contribution to animal welfare by permitting a reduction and refinement of animal use. Although there is clearly an aspiration to eliminate the use of animals in such tests, it is appropriate also to consider other opportunities for refinement and reduction of animal use. We have therefore explored the use of a modified version of the LLNA for screening purposes when there is a need to evaluate the sensitizing activity of a large number of chemicals, as will be the case under the auspices of registration, evaluation and authorization of chemicals (REACH). Using an existing LLNA database of 211 chemicals, we have examined whether a cut-down assay comprising a single high-dose group and a concurrent vehicle control would provide a realistic approach for screening chemicals for sensitizing potential. The analyses reported here suggest this is the case. We speculate that the animal welfare benefits may be enhanced further by reducing the number of animals per experimental group. However, a detailed evaluation will be necessary to provide reassurance that a reduction in group size would provide adequate sensitivity across a range of skin sensitization potencies.

  18. Protein, RNA, and DNA synthesis in cultures of skin fibroblasts from healthy subjects and patients with rheumatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abakumova, O.Y.; Kutsenko, N.G.; Panasyuk, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    To study the mechanism of the lasting disturbance of fibroblast function, protein, RNA and DNA synthesis was investigated in skin fibroblasts from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic scleroderma (SS). The labeled precursors used to analyze synthesis of protein, RNA, and DNA were 14 C-protein hydrolysate, ( 14 C)uridine, and ( 14 C) thymidine. Stimulation was determined by measuring incorporation of ( 14 C)proline into fibroblast proteins. During analysis of stability of fast-labeled RNA tests were carried out to discover whether all measurable radioactivity belonged to RNA molecules

  19. Differences in time-domain and spectral indexes of skin-surface laser-Doppler signals between controls and breast-cancer subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiu, Hsin; Chen, Chao-Tsung; Hung, Shuo-Hui; Chen, Guan-Zhang; Huang, Yu-Ling

    2018-04-13

    There is an urgent need to improve the early diagnosis of breast cancer. The present study applied spectral and beat-to-beat analyses to laser-Doppler (LDF) data sequences measured on the skin surface on the back of the right hands, with the aim of comparing the different peripheral microcirculatory-blood-flow (MBF) perfusion condition between breast-cancer and control subjects. ECG and LDF signals were obtained simultaneously and noninvasively from 23 breast-cancer patients and 23 age-matched control subjects. Time-domain beat-to-beat indexes and their variability parameters were calculated. Spectral indexes were calculated using the Morlet wavelet transform. The beat-to-beat LDF pulse width and its variability were significantly smaller in cancer patients than in the controls. The energy contributions of endothelial-, neural-, and myogenic-related frequency bands were also significantly smaller in cancer patients. The present study has revealed significant differences in the beat-to-beat and spectral indexes of skin-surface-acquired LDF signals between control subjects and breast-cancer patients. This illustrates that LDF indexes may be useful for monitoring the changes in the MBF perfusion condition induced by breast cancer. Since the breast-cancer patients were at TNM stages 0- 2, the present findings may aid the development of indexes for detecting breast cancer.

  20. Subcutaneous L-tyrosine elicits cutaneous analgesia in response to local skin pinprick in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Hsia; Chiu, Chong-Chi; Liu, Kuo-Sheng; Chen, Yu-Wen; Wang, Jhi-Joung

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of the study was to estimate the ability of L-tyrosine to induce cutaneous analgesia and to investigate the interaction between L-tyrosine and the local anesthetic lidocaine. After subcutaneously injecting the rats with L-tyrosine and lidocaine in a dose-dependent manner, cutaneous analgesia (by blocking the cutaneous trunci muscle reflex-CTMR) was evaluated in response to the local pinprick. The drug-drug interaction was analyzed by using an isobolographic method. We showed that both L-tyrosine and lidocaine produced dose-dependent cutaneous analgesia. On the 50% effective dose (ED50) basis, the rank of drug potency was lidocaine (5.09 [4.88-5.38] μmol)>L-tyrosine (39.1 [36.5-41.8] μmol) (Ptyrosine lasted longer than that caused by lidocaine (Ptyrosine exhibited an additive effect on infiltrative cutaneous analgesia. Our pre-clinical study demonstrated that L-tyrosine elicits the local/cutaneous analgesia, and the interaction between L-tyrosine and lidocaine is additive. L-tyrosine has a lower potency but much greater duration of cutaneous analgesia than lidocaine. Adding L-tyrosine to lidocaine preparations showed greater duration of cutaneous analgesia compared with lidocaine alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Oncoplastic Resection of Retroareolar Breast Cancer: Central Quadrantectomy and Reconstruction by Local Skin-Glandular Flap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naguib, S.F.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Patients with central breast neoplasms account for 5 to 20% of breast cancer cases and, for a long time, they have been denied Breast Conservation Surgery (BCS) and conventionally treated with mastectomy. The high incidence of Nipple-Areola-Complex (NAC) involvement usually associated with these tumors necessitates nipple and areolar resection together with an adequate safety margin around the tumor, which yields an unacceptable cosmetic result. With the help of Oncoplastic Surgical Techniques, BCS can be offered to these patients. In this study central quadrantectomy and breast reconstruction by an infero-Iaterally based pedicled flap were evaluated. Patients and Methods: This study comprised 23 women with central breast tumors treated at the National Cancer Institute (NC]), Cairo University and at the Aswan Cancer Center, Egyptian Ministry of Health. Their ages ranged from 31 to 62 years (mean: 48.4±10.2 years). Twenty-two had a palpable mass, while only I had Paget's disease of the nipple without mass. The size of their tumors ranged from 4 to 33mm (mean: 16.9±8.6mm). Only 9 women showed clinical suspicion of NAC involvement in the form of nipple retraction. Seventeen cases had their tumors strictly in the retro-areolar region, while 5 had tumors extending for a maximum of I.5Cm beyond the areolar edge. All patients underwent central quadrantec-tomy with NAC resection removing a cylinder of breast tissue reaching down to the pectoral muscle together with axillary dissection. Advancement of an infero-Iaterally based skin-glandular flap was then carried out. All patients received adjuvant radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy or hormonal therapy. Results: Fourteen patients showed pathological evidence of nipple infiltration (60.8%). The free safety margin (SM) ranged from 9 to 13mm (mean: 10. 0.9mm). This could be accomplished from the first attempt in 18 patients; however, in 5 patients a second wider excision was needed to obtain an adequate

  2. Sleep Deprivation in Young and Healthy Subjects Is More Sensitively Identified by Higher Frequencies of Electrodermal Activity than by Skin Conductance Level Evaluated in the Time Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Posada-Quintero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed multiple measures of the autonomic nervous system (ANS based on electrodermal activity (EDA and heart rate variability (HRV for young healthy subjects undergoing 24-h sleep deprivation. In this study, we have utilized the error awareness test (EAT every 2 h (13 runs total, to evaluate the deterioration of performance. EAT consists of trials where the subject is presented words representing colors. Subjects are instructed to press a button (“Go” trials or withhold the response if the word presented and the color of the word mismatch (“Stroop No-Go” trial, or the screen is repeated (“Repeat No-Go” trials. We measured subjects' (N = 10 reaction time to the “Go” trials, and accuracy to the “Stroop No-Go” and “Repeat No-Go” trials. Simultaneously, changes in EDA and HRV indices were evaluated. Furthermore, the relationship between reactiveness and vigilance measures and indices of sympathetic control based on HRV were analyzed. We found the performance improved to a stable level from 6 through 16 h of deprivation, with a subsequently sustained impairment after 18 h. Indices of higher frequencies of EDA related more to vigilance measures, whereas lower frequencies index (skin conductance leve, SCL measured the reactiveness of the subject. We conclude that indices of EDA, including those of the higher frequencies, termed TVSymp, EDASymp, and NSSCRs, provide information to better understand the effect of sleep deprivation on subjects' autonomic response and performance.

  3. Melanin distribution in human epidermis affords localized protection against DNA photodamage and concurs with skin cancer incidence difference in extreme phototypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajuyigbe, Damilola; Lwin, Su M; Diffey, Brian L; Baker, Richard; Tobin, Desmond J; Sarkany, Robert P E; Young, Antony R

    2018-02-02

    Epidermal DNA damage, especially to the basal layer, is an established cause of keratinocyte cancers (KCs). Large differences in KC incidence (20- to 60-fold) between white and black populations are largely attributable to epidermal melanin photoprotection in the latter. The cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) is the most mutagenic DNA photolesion; however, most studies suggest that melanin photoprotection against CPD is modest and cannot explain the considerable skin color-based differences in KC incidence. Along with melanin quantity, solar-simulated radiation-induced CPD assessed immediately postexposure in the overall epidermis and within 3 epidermal zones was compared in black West Africans and fair Europeans. Melanin in black skin protected against CPD by 8.0-fold in the overall epidermis and by 59.0-, 16.5-, and 5.0-fold in the basal, middle, and upper epidermis, respectively. Protection was related to the distribution of melanin, which was most concentrated in the basal layer of black skin. These results may explain, at least in part, the considerable skin color differences in KC incidence. These data suggest that a DNA protection factor of at least 60 is necessary in sunscreens to reduce white skin KC incidence to a level that is comparable with that of black skin.-Fajuyigbe, D., Lwin, S. M., Diffey, B. L., Baker, R., Tobin, D. J., Sarkany, R. P. E., Young, A. R. Melanin distribution in human epidermis affords localized protection against DNA photodamage and concurs with skin cancer incidence difference in extreme phototypes.

  4. Effects of Locally Applied Glycerol and Xylitol on the Hydration, Barrier Function and Morphological Parameters of the Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korponyai, Csilla; Szél, Edit; Behány, Zoltán; Varga, Erika; Mohos, Gábor; Dura, Ágnes; Dikstein, Shabtay; Kemény, Lajos; Erős, Gábor

    2017-02-08

    Glycerol and xylitol hydrate the skin and improve its barrier function over a short period. We studied the effects of glycerol and xylitol on the physiological properties and morphology of the skin after longer-term application. Twelve volunteers with dry skin were examined. Three areas on the arms were determined. Area 1 served as untreated control. The vehicle was applied to area 2, while area 3 was treated twice daily with a formulation containing glycerol (5%) and xylitol (5%) for 14 days. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), hydration and biomechanical properties of the skin were monitored. Biopsies were taken for routine histology and immunohistochemistry for filaggrin and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). The polyols increased the skin hydration and protein quantity of filaggrin, elevated the interdigitation index, decreased the TEWL and improved the biomechanical properties of the skin, but did not change the protein expression of MMP-1. A combination of glycerol and xylitol can be useful additional therapy for dry skin.

  5. Subjective Response to Foot-Fall Noise, Including Localization of the Source Position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Hwang, Ha Dong; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2011-01-01

    annoyance, using simulated binaural room impulse responses, with sources being a moving point source or a nonmoving surface source, and rooms being a room with a reverberation time of 0.5 s or an anechoic room. The paper concludes that no strong effect of the source localization on the annoyance can...

  6. Subjective comparison of brightness preservation methods for local backlight dimming displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Mantel, Claire; Forchhammer, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Local backlight dimming is a popular technology in high quality Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs). In those displays, the backlight is composed of contributions from several individually adjustable backlight segments, set at different backlight luminance levels in different parts of the screen, acco...

  7. Local dynamic stability and variability of gait are associated with fall history in elderly subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, M.J.P.; Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Furrer, R.; Dekker, J.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Gait parameters that can be measured with simple instrumentation may hold promise for identifying individuals at risk of falling. Increased variability of gait is associated with increased risk of falling, but research on additional parameters indicates that local dynamic stability (LDS) of gait may

  8. Altered medial temporal activation related to local glutamate levels in subjects with prodromal signs of psychosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Valli, I; Stone, J; Mechelli, A; Bhattacharyya, S; Raffin, M; Allen, P; Fusar-Poli, P; Lythgoe, D; O'Gorman, R; Seal, M; McGuire, P

    2011-01-01

    In individuals at high risk of psychosis, medial temporal dysfunction seemed related to a loss of the normal relationship with local glutamate levels. This study provides the first evidence that links medial temporal dysfunction with the central glutamate system in humans and is consistent with evidence that drugs that modulate glutamatergic transmission might be useful in the treatment of psychosis.

  9. Buckling of plate strip subjected to localized corrosion a stochastic model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sadovský, Z.; Drdácký, Miloš

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 3 (2001), s. 247-259 ISSN 0263-8231 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/97/S051 Grant - others:GA SR(SK) GA2/5102/20 Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 0.429, year: 2001

  10. Dive Tourism and Local Communities: Active Participation or Subject to Impacts?Case Studies from Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Daldeniz, Bilge; Hampton, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    Dive tourism impacts were examined in three Malaysian islands: Perhentian(backpackers), Redang (package tourism) and Mabul (upmarket dive tourism). Qualitative local participation approaches were applied to investigate whether host communities were merely reactive to dive tourism’s impacts. Dive tourism affected many aspects of community life. Besides physical/environmental impacts (new infrastructure), research found varied economic impacts including employment/business opportunities and dif...

  11. Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence kinetics and localization after topical application of ALA pentyl ester and ALA on hairless mouse skin with UVB-induced early skin cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, J. T.; de Bruijn, H. S.; Beijersbergen van Henegouwen, G. M.; Star, W. M.; Sterenborg, H. J.

    2000-01-01

    In order to improve the efficacy of 5-aminolevulinic acid-based (ALA) photodynamic therapy (PDT), different ALA derivatives are presently being investigated. ALA esters are more lipophilic and therefore may have better skin penetration properties than ALA, possibly resulting in enhanced

  12. Real Estate as a Subject of Spatial Conflict Among Central and Local Authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Źróbek-Różańska Alina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, real estate located in rural areas neighboring cities are under pressure to become a location for the realization of urban and metropolitan projects. Thus, spatial conflicts are an inherent characteristic of modern urban development. Such conflicts vary in terms of the scope, intensity and course they take. An interesting case illustrating the given issue can be the conflict over real estate owned by the State Treasury (central authority and localized within the power of local authorities (gminas. Such a situation requires mediating and producing an outcome that satisfies the goals of both sides. The authors based the deliberations on the topic of spatial conflicts on the example of the relation between the Agricultural Property Agency division in Olsztyn (APA Olsztyn and the smallest local administration units (gminas located within the borders of the Warmia-Masuria (Województwo Warmińsko-Mazurskie and Podlasie (Województwo Podlaskie Provinces. The aim of the research was to describe the background for potential conflict and to study its proceedings. The aim was achieved through studies of relevant literature and data analysis.

  13. Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holboke, Monica J.; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Li, Xingde; Shah, Natasha; Fishkin, Joshua B.; Kidney, D.; Butler, J.; Chance, Britton; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2000-04-01

    We describe an approach that combines clinical ultrasound and photon migration techniques to enhance the sensitivity and information content of diffuse optical tomography. Measurements were performed on a postmenopausal woman with a single 1.8 X 0.9 cm malignant ductal carcinoma in situ approximately 7.4 mm beneath the skin surface (UCI IRB protocol 95-563). The ultrasound-derived information about tumor geometry enabled us to segment the breast tissue into tumor and background regions. Optical data was obtained with a multifrequency, multiwavelength hand-held frequency-domain photon migration backscattering probe. The optical properties of the tumor and background were then computed using the ultrasound-derived geometrical constraints. An iterative perturbative approach, using parallel processing, provided quantitative information about scattering and absorption simultaneously with the ability to incorporate and resolve complex boundary conditions and geometries. A three to four fold increase in the tumor absorption coefficient and nearly 50% reduction in scattering coefficient relative to background was observed ((lambda) equals 674, 782, 803, and 849 nm). Calculations of the mean physiological parameters reveal fourfold greater tumor total hemoglobin concentration [Hbtot] than normal breast (67 (mu) M vs 16 (mu) M) and tumor hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SOx) values of 63% (vs 73% and 68% in the region surrounding the tumor and the opposite normal tissue, respectively). Comparison of semi-infinite to heterogeneous models shows superior tumor/background contrast for the latter in both absorption and scattering. Sensitivity studies assessing the impact of tumor size and refractive index assumptions, as well as scan direction, demonstrate modest effects on recovered properties.

  14. Tissue distribution and subcellular localizations determine in vivo functional relationship among prostasin, matriptase, HAI-1, and HAI-2 in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shiao-Pieng; Kao, Chen-Yu; Chang, Shun-Cheng; Chiu, Yi-Lin; Chen, Yen-Ju; Chen, Ming-Hsing G; Chang, Chun-Chia; Lin, Yu-Wen; Chiang, Chien-Ping; Wang, Jehng-Kang; Lin, Chen-Yong; Johnson, Michael D

    2018-01-01

    The membrane-bound serine proteases prostasin and matriptase and the Kunitz-type protease inhibitors HAI-1 and HAI-2 are all expressed in human skin and may form a tightly regulated proteolysis network, contributing to skin pathophysiology. Evidence from other systems, however, suggests that the relationship between matriptase and prostasin and between the proteases and the inhibitors can be context-dependent. In this study the in vivo zymogen activation and protease inhibition status of matriptase and prostasin were investigated in the human skin. Immunohistochemistry detected high levels of activated prostasin in the granular layer, but only low levels of activated matriptase restricted to the basal layer. Immunoblot analysis of foreskin lysates confirmed this in vivo zymogen activation status and further revealed that HAI-1 but not HAI-2 is the prominent inhibitor for prostasin and matriptase in skin. The zymogen activation status and location of the proteases does not support a close functional relation between matriptase and prostasin in the human skin. The limited role for HAI-2 in the inhibition of matriptase and prostasin is the result of its primarily intracellular localization in basal and spinous layer keratinocytes, which probably prevents the Kunitz inhibitor from interacting with active prostasin or matriptase. In contrast, the cell surface expression of HAI-1 in all viable epidermal layers renders it an effective regulator for matriptase and prostasin. Collectively, our study suggests the importance of tissue distribution and subcellular localization in the functional relationship between proteases and protease inhibitors.

  15. Delivery and reveal of localization of upconversion luminescent microparticles and quantum dots in the skin in vivo by fractional laser microablation, multimodal imaging, and optical clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Elena K.; Yanina, Irina Yu; Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Konyukhova, Julia G.; Popov, Alexey P.; Speranskaya, Elena S.; Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; Goryacheva, Irina Yu.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.; Sukhorukov, Gleb B.; Meglinski, Igor V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2018-02-01

    Delivery and spatial localization of upconversion luminescent microparticles [Y2O3:Yb, Er] (mean size ˜1.6 μm) and quantum dots (QDs) (CuInS2/ZnS nanoparticles coated with polyethylene glycol-based amphiphilic polymer, mean size ˜20 nm) inside rat skin was studied in vivo using a multimodal optical imaging approach. The particles were embedded into the skin dermis to the depth from 300 to 500 μm through microchannels performed by fractional laser microablation. Low-frequency ultrasound was applied to enhance penetration of the particles into the skin. Visualization of the particles was revealed using a combination of luminescent spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, confocal microscopy, and histochemical analysis. Optical clearing was used to enhance the image contrast of the luminescent signal from the particles. It was demonstrated that the penetration depth of particles depends on their size, resulting in a different detection time interval (days) of the luminescent signal from microparticles and QDs inside the rat skin in vivo. We show that luminescent signal from the upconversion microparticles and QDs was detected after the particle delivery into the rat skin in vivo during eighth and fourth days, respectively. We hypothesize that the upconversion microparticles have created a long-time depot localized in the laser-created channels, as the QDs spread over the surrounding tissues.

  16. Ex vivo human skin evaluation of localized fat reduction and anti-aging effect by TriPollar radio frequency treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisnic, Sylvie; Branchet, Marie Christine

    2010-02-01

    A wide variety of radio frequency (RF) treatments for localized fat and cellulite reduction as well as anti-aging are available nowadays, but only a few have shown the biological mechanism responsible for the clinical results. To determine the biological mechanism of the TriPollar RF device for localized fat and cellulite reduction as well as the collagen remodeling effect. Human skin samples were collected from abdominoplasty surgery and facial lifts, in order to evaluate the lipolytic and anti-aging effects of the apollo device powered by TriPollar RF technology using an ex vivo human skin model. The anti-cellulite effect was evaluated by the dosage of released glycerol and histological analysis of the hypodermis. Skin tightening was evaluated by morphometric analysis of collagen fibers and the dosage of collagen synthesis. Following TriPollar treatment, a significant increase of glycerol release by skin samples was found. The structure of fat cells was altered in shape and a modification of the fibrous tract was also detected in the fat layer. Additional findings indicated stimulation of the dermal fibroblasts with increased collagen synthesis. The detected alteration in the hypodermal layer is manifested by fat and cellulite reduction accompanied by structural and biochemical improvement of dermal collagen, which result in overall skin tightening.

  17. Assessment of local skin reactions with a sequential regimen of cryosurgery followed by ingenol mebutate gel, 0.015%, in patients with actinic keratosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldenberg G

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gary Goldenberg,1 Brian Berman2,3 1Department of Dermatology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, 2Center for Clinical and Cosmetic Research, Aventura, FL, 3Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: Lesion-directed and field-directed therapies are used to treat actinic keratosis (AK. Therapeutic approaches that combine both types of therapies may improve the successful elimination of AKs. A randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of topical field treatment with ingenol mebutate gel, 0.015%, after cryosurgery to AKs on the face and scalp. Patients with 4–8 visible discrete AKs in a 25-cm2 contiguous area received cryosurgery of all AKs at baseline. After a 3-week healing period, patients applied ingenol mebutate gel, 0.015%, or vehicle gel once daily for 3 consecutive days to the treatment area. The incidence, severity, and time course of the development and resolution of local skin reactions were measured from baseline to week 11. Local skin reactions peaked shortly after completion of ingenol mebutate treatment and generally resolved within 2 weeks. The mean (95% confidence interval composite score (maximum range, 0–24 for these reactions was higher in patients with treatment of AKs on the face, 9.3 (8.5–10.1, as compared with the scalp, 5.8 (4.3–7.4. Erythema and flaking/scaling were the major contributors to the composite local skin reaction score. These results show that local skin reactions associated with ingenol mebutate treatment of the face or scalp are well tolerated after recent cryosurgery. Keywords: ingenol mebutate gel, actinic keratosis, field therapy, local skin reaction

  18. The Localized Scleroderma Skin Severity Index and Physician Global Assessment of Disease Activity: A Work in Progress Toward Development of Localized Scleroderma Outcome Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARKACHAISRI, THASCHAWEE; VILAIYUK, SOAMARAT; LI, SUZANNE; O’NEIL, KATHLEEN M.; POPE, ELENA; HIGGINS, GLORIA C.; PUNARO, MARILYNN; RABINOVICH, EGLA C.; ROSENKRANZ, MARGALIT; KIETZ, DANIEL A.; ROSEN, PAUL; SPALDING, STEVEN J.; HENNON, TERESA R.; TOROK, KATHRYN S.; CASSIDY, ELAINE; MEDSGER, THOMAS A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop and evaluate a Localized Scleroderma (LS) Skin Severity Index (LoSSI) and global assessments’ clinimetric property and effect on quality of life (QOL). Methods A 3-phase study was conducted. The first phase involved 15 patients with LS and 14 examiners who assessed LoSSI [surface area (SA), erythema (ER), skin thickness (ST), and new lesion/extension (N/E)] twice for inter/intrarater reliability. Patient global assessment of disease severity (PtGA-S) and Children’s Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) were collected for intrarater reliability evaluation. The second phase was aimed to develop clinical determinants for physician global assessment of disease activity (PhysGA-A) and to assess its content validity. The third phase involved 2 examiners assessing LoSSI and PhysGA-A on 27 patients. Effect of training on improving reliability/validity and sensitivity to change of the LoSSI and PhysGA-A was determined. Results Interrater reliability was excellent for ER [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.71], ST (ICC 0.70), LoSSI (ICC 0.80), and PhysGA-A (ICC 0.90) but poor for SA (ICC 0.35); thus, LoSSI was modified to mLoSSI. Examiners’ experience did not affect the scores, but training/practice improved reliability. Intrarater reliability was excellent for ER, ST, and LoSSI (Spearman’s rho = 0.71–0.89) and moderate for SA. PtGA-S and CDLQI showed good intrarater agreement (ICC 0.63 and 0.80). mLoSSI correlated moderately with PhysGA-A and PtGA-S. Both mLoSSI and PhysGA-A were sensitive to change following therapy. Conclusion mLoSSI and PhysGA-A are reliable and valid tools for assessing LS disease severity and show high sensitivity to detect change over time. These tools are feasible for use in routine clinical practice. They should be considered for inclusion in a core set of LS outcome measures for clinical trials. PMID:19833758

  19. The Lamb wave bandgap variation of a locally resonant phononic crystal subjected to thermal deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Li, Zhen; Li, Yue-ming

    2018-05-01

    A study on dynamical characteristics of a ternary locally resonant phononic crystal (PC) plate (i.e., hard scatterer with soft coating periodically disperse in stiff host matrix) is carried out in this paper. The effect of thermal deformation on the structure stiffness, which plays an important role in the PC's dynamical characteristics, is considered. Results show that both the start and the stop frequency of bandgap shift to higher range with the thermal deformation. In particular, the characteristics of band structure change suddenly at critical buckling temperature. The effect of thermal deformation could be utilized for tuning of phononic band structures, which can promote their design and further applications.

  20. Enhanced skin toxicity with concomitant cetuximab and radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bujor, L.; Grillo, I.M.; Pimentel, N. [Hospital Santa Maria, Radioterapia, Lisboa (Portugal); Macor, C.; Catarina, M. [Hospital Santa Maria, ORL, Lisboa (Portugal); Ribeiro, L. [Hospital Santa Maria, Oncologia, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: When associated with radiotherapy the monoclonal antibodies such as cetuximab might be exacerbate skin toxicity. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze acute dermatological toxicity in ten consecutive patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma treated from march 2008 to May 2009 according to Bonner protocol. Patients and methods: We have treated with radiotherapy and cetuximab ten patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx or oral cavity, stage 3-4B and non metastatic. All our patients were 3D planned and scheduled for conventional fractionation 70 Gy/35 fractions over 47 days, five days weekly. Uninvolved neck received 50 Gy and gross nodal disease received 70 Gy as the primary tumor. Cetuximab was administered one week before radiotherapy at a loading dose of 400 mg per square meter of body surface area over 120 minutes, followed by weekly 60 minutes infusions at 250 mg per square meter for the duration of radiotherapy. Results: In eight patients (80%) grade 3 radiation dermatitis occurred as early as with 28 Gy at a median dose of 42 Gy (range 28-60 Gy). the median radiotherapy dose was 6 Gy with an overall treatment time of 57.7 days (range 41-70 days). were administered 78 cycles of cetuximab, one patient discontinued after five cycles due to infusion reactions. There was no correlation between toxicity and acne-like rash due to cetuximab. Conclusion: Our results albeit in disagreement with the original study are rather similar with the experience of other European centers that encounter grade 3-4 radiation dermatitis in 49% of their patients or Australian centers that reported 79% of same degree of toxicity. (authors)

  1. Enhanced skin toxicity with concomitant cetuximab and radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujor, L.; Grillo, I.M.; Pimentel, N.; Macor, C.; Catarina, M.; Ribeiro, L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: When associated with radiotherapy the monoclonal antibodies such as cetuximab might be exacerbate skin toxicity. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze acute dermatological toxicity in ten consecutive patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma treated from march 2008 to May 2009 according to Bonner protocol. Patients and methods: We have treated with radiotherapy and cetuximab ten patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx or oral cavity, stage 3-4B and non metastatic. All our patients were 3D planned and scheduled for conventional fractionation 70 Gy/35 fractions over 47 days, five days weekly. Uninvolved neck received 50 Gy and gross nodal disease received 70 Gy as the primary tumor. Cetuximab was administered one week before radiotherapy at a loading dose of 400 mg per square meter of body surface area over 120 minutes, followed by weekly 60 minutes infusions at 250 mg per square meter for the duration of radiotherapy. Results: In eight patients (80%) grade 3 radiation dermatitis occurred as early as with 28 Gy at a median dose of 42 Gy (range 28-60 Gy). the median radiotherapy dose was 6 Gy with an overall treatment time of 57.7 days (range 41-70 days). were administered 78 cycles of cetuximab, one patient discontinued after five cycles due to infusion reactions. There was no correlation between toxicity and acne-like rash due to cetuximab. Conclusion: Our results albeit in disagreement with the original study are rather similar with the experience of other European centers that encounter grade 3-4 radiation dermatitis in 49% of their patients or Australian centers that reported 79% of same degree of toxicity. (authors)

  2. Localized solid-state amorphization at grain boundaries in a nanocrystalline Al solid solution subjected to surface mechanical attrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, X [State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Tao, N [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Hong, Y [State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Lu, J [LASMIS, University of Technology of Troyes, 10000, Troyes (France); Lu, K [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2005-11-21

    Using high-resolution electron microscopy, localized solid-state amorphization (SSA) was observed in a nanocrystalline (NC) Al solid solution (weight per cent 4.2 Cu, 0.3 Mn, the rest being Al) subjected to a surface mechanical attrition treatment. It was found that the deformation-induced SSA may occur at the grain boundary (GB) where either the high density dislocations or dislocation complexes are present. It is suggested that lattice instability due to elastic distortion within the dislocation core region plays a significant role in the initiation of the localized SSA at defective sites. Meanwhile, the GB of severely deformed NC grains exhibits a continuously varying atomic structure in such a way that while most of the GB is ordered but reveals corrugated configurations, localized amorphization may occur along the same GB.

  3. Local skin friction coefficients and boundary layer profiles obtained in flight from the XB-70-1 airplane at Mach numbers up to 2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, D. F.; Saltzman, E. J.

    1973-01-01

    Boundary-layer and local friction data for Mach numbers up to 2.5 and Reynolds numbers up to 3.6 x 10 to the 8th power were obtained in flight at three locations on the XB-70-1 airplane: the lower forward fuselage centerline (nose), the upper rear fuselage centerline, and the upper surface of the right wing. Local skin friction coefficients were derived at each location by using (1) a skin friction force balance, (2) a Preston probe, and (3) an adaptation of Clauser's method which derives skin friction from the rake velocity profile. These three techniques provided consistent results that agreed well with the von Karman-Schoenherr relationship for flow conditions that are quasi-two-dimensional. At the lower angles of attack, the nose-boom and flow-direction vanes are believed to have caused the momentum thickness at the nose to be larger than at the higher angles of attack. The boundary-layer data and local skin friction coefficients are tabulated. The wind-tunnel-model surface-pressure distribution ahead of the three locations and the flight surface-pressure distribution ahead of the wing location are included.

  4. Local full-thickness skin graft of the donor arm--a novel technique for the reduction of donor site morbidity in radial forearm free flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecke, B; Assaf, A T; Heiland, M; Al-Dam, A; Gröbe, A; Blessmann, M; Wikner, J

    2015-08-01

    A novel technique to reduce donor site morbidity after radial forearm free flap (RFFF) harvest, using a local full-thickness skin graft (FTSG), is described. Thirty consecutive patients undergoing RFFF for head and neck reconstruction were enrolled in a prospective study. Donor site defect closure was performed with spindle-shaped FTSGs excised from the wavelike skin incision made for the vascular pedicle. Both the removal site of the FTSG on the volar forearm and the covered RFFF donor site healed uneventfully in 29 cases, with no impairment of function related to the skin graft. No skin graft failure and no exposure, tenting, or adherence of the flexor tendons occurred. All patients expressed satisfaction with postoperative pain, the functional outcome, and cosmetic appearance. Primary donor site defect closure could be achieved in all cases with the use of a local FTSG. This graft can be gained at the access incision for the vascular pedicle, avoids expansion of the incision for a local flap technique, and does not prolong wound healing, and thus reduces both donor site and graft site morbidity of the RFFF. This technique leads to an inconspicuous aesthetic result with no apparent relevant functional deficits and avoids the need for a second donor site. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cytochemical localization of small intestinal glycoconjugates by lectin histochemistry in controls and subjects with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, L R; De Fontes, D; Cox, K L

    1983-05-01

    Human mucosal glycoconjugates were examined in normal small intestinal biopsies from five control subjects using six different fluorescein-conjugated lectins: Triticum vulgare agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA1), Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA1), glycin max-soy bean agglutinin (SBA), Dolichus biflorus agglutinin (DBA), and Arachis hypogaea peanut agglutinin (PNA). These plant agglutinins bind to specific nonreducing end-terminal carbohydrate residues. Only the lectins derived from WGA, which produced the strongest staining, and UEA1 consistently bound to both intestinal goblet cell mucin and epithelial cell microvillar membranes. The intensity of lectin binding was greatest in the upper villus and diminished down towards the crypt, being weakest in the crypt base. Similar histochemical studies carried out on small bowel biopsies from five patients with cystic fibrosis revealed no major qualitative differences between the intestinal glycoconjugates in normal subjects and those with cystic fibrosis. These results suggest that glycoconjugate biosynthesis of human intestinal goblet cell mucin and epithelial cell membranes may be complete and hence full differentiation achieved only when these cells have migrated out of the crypt and onto the villus.

  6. Investigation of photon-magnetic therapy efficacy in prevention and treatment of experimental local radiation skin lesions. Communication 1. The peculiarities of the course of radiation dermatitis in rats at spontaneous healing and at application of photon-magnetic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syimonova, L.Yi.; Byilogurova, L.V.; Gertman, V.Z.; Kurov, O.M.

    2012-01-01

    Local x-ray exposure of the rats at a dose of 50.0 Gy caused development of radiation dermatitis with imperfect skin healing with scars and incomplete restoration of the fleece as a consequence. Administration of photon-magnetic therapy positively influenced healing of skin radiation lesions in locally irradiated animals

  7. High dose rate brachytherapy using custom made superficial mould applicators and Leipzig applicators for non melanoma localized skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellizzon, A. Cassio A.; Miziara, Daniela; Lima, Flavia Pedroso de; Miziara, Miguel

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: advances in technology and the commercial production of Leipzig applicators allowed High Dose Rate after-load brachytherapy (HDR-BT) to address a number of the challenges associated with the delivery of superficial radiation to treat localized non melanoma skin cancer (NMSK). We reviewed our uni-institutional experience on the treatment of NMSK with HDR-BT. Methods: data were collected retrospectively from patients attending the Radiation Oncology Department at AV Carvalho Insitute, Sao Paulo, Brazil. HDR-BT was done using the stepping source HDR 192Ir Microselectron (Nucletron BV). The planning target volume consisted of the macroscopic lesion plus a 5mm to 10mm margin.The depth of treatment was 0.5 cm in smaller (< 2.0 cm) tumors and 10 to 15 mm for lesions bigger than that. Results: Thirteen patients were treated with HDR-BT from June, 2007 to June 2013. The median age and follow up time were 72 (38-90) years old and 36 (range, 7-73) months, respectively. There a predominance of males (61.5%) and of patients referred for adjuvant treatment due positive surgical margins or because they have had only a excision biopsy without safety margins (61.5%). Six (46.2%) patients presented with squamous cell carcinoma and 7 (53.8%) patients presented with basal cell carcinoma. The median tumor size was 20 (range, 5-42) mm. Patients were treated with a median total dose of 40 Gy (range, 20 -60), given in 10 (range, 2-15) fractions, given daily or twice a week. All patients responded very well to treatment and only one patient has failed locally so far, after 38 months of the end of the irradiation. The crude and actuarial 3-year local control rates were 100% and 80%, respectively. Moist desquamation, grade 2 RTOG, was observed in 4 (30.8%) patients. Severe late complication, radiation-induced dyspigmentation, occurred in 2 patients and 1 of the patients also showed telangiectasia in the irradiated area. The cosmetic result was considered good in 84% (11/13) patients

  8. High dose rate brachytherapy using custom made superficial mould applicators and Leipzig applicators for non melanoma localized skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellizzon, A. Cassio A.; Miziara, Daniela; Lima, Flavia Pedroso de; Miziara, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: advances in technology and the commercial production of Leipzig applicators allowed High Dose Rate after-load brachytherapy (HDR-BT) to address a number of the challenges associated with the delivery of superficial radiation to treat localized non melanoma skin cancer (NMSK). We reviewed our uni-institutional experience on the treatment of NMSK with HDR-BT. Methods: data were collected retrospectively from patients attending the Radiation Oncology Department at AV Carvalho Insitute, Sao Paulo, Brazil. HDR-BT was done using the stepping source HDR 192Ir Microselectron (Nucletron BV). The planning target volume consisted of the macroscopic lesion plus a 5mm to 10mm margin.The depth of treatment was 0.5 cm in smaller (< 2.0 cm) tumors and 10 to 15 mm for lesions bigger than that. Results: Thirteen patients were treated with HDR-BT from June, 2007 to June 2013. The median age and follow up time were 72 (38-90) years old and 36 (range, 7-73) months, respectively. There a predominance of males (61.5%) and of patients referred for adjuvant treatment due positive surgical margins or because they have had only a excision biopsy without safety margins (61.5%). Six (46.2%) patients presented with squamous cell carcinoma and 7 (53.8%) patients presented with basal cell carcinoma. The median tumor size was 20 (range, 5-42) mm. Patients were treated with a median total dose of 40 Gy (range, 20 -60), given in 10 (range, 2-15) fractions, given daily or twice a week. All patients responded very well to treatment and only one patient has failed locally so far, after 38 months of the end of the irradiation. The crude and actuarial 3-year local control rates were 100% and 80%, respectively. Moist desquamation, grade 2 RTOG, was observed in 4 (30.8%) patients. Severe late complication, radiation-induced dyspigmentation, occurred in 2 patients and 1 of the patients also showed telangiectasia in the irradiated area. The cosmetic result was considered good in 84% (11/13) patients

  9. Expression and Localization of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors and Nuclear Factor κB in Normal and Lesional Psoriatic Skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Majken; Henningsen, Jeanette; Johansen, Claus

    2003-01-01

    Abnormal epidermal proliferation and differentiation characterize the inflammatory skin disease psoriasis. Here we demonstrate that expression of PPARdelta mRNA and protein is markedly upregulated in psoriatic lesions and that lipoxygenase products accumulating in psoriatic lesions are potent...... activators of PPARdelta. The expression levels of NF-kappaB p50 and p65 were not significantly altered in lesional compared with nonlesional psoriatic skin. In the basal layer of normal epidermis both p50 and p65 were sequestered in the cytoplasm, whereas p50, but not p65, localized to nuclei...... in the suprabasal layers, and this distribution was maintained in lesional psoriatic skin. In normal human keratinocytes PPAR agonists neither impaired IL-1beta-induced translocation of p65 nor IL-1beta-induced NF-kappaB DNA binding. We show that PPARdelta physically interacts with the N-terminal Rel homology...

  10. European Dermatology Forum S1-guideline on the diagnosis and treatment of sclerosing diseases of the skin, Part 1: localized scleroderma, systemic sclerosis and overlap syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobler, R; Moinzadeh, P; Hunzelmann, N; Kreuter, A; Cozzio, A; Mouthon, L; Cutolo, M; Rongioletti, F; Denton, C P; Rudnicka, L; Frasin, L A; Smith, V; Gabrielli, A; Aberer, E; Bagot, M; Bali, G; Bouaziz, J; Braae Olesen, A; Foeldvari, I; Frances, C; Jalili, A; Just, U; Kähäri, V; Kárpáti, S; Kofoed, K; Krasowska, D; Olszewska, M; Orteu, C; Panelius, J; Parodi, A; Petit, A; Quaglino, P; Ranki, A; Sanchez Schmidt, J M; Seneschal, J; Skrok, A; Sticherling, M; Sunderkötter, C; Taieb, A; Tanew, A; Wolf, P; Worm, M; Wutte, N J; Krieg, T

    2017-09-01

    The term 'sclerosing diseases of the skin' comprises specific dermatological entities, which have fibrotic changes of the skin in common. These diseases mostly manifest in different clinical subtypes according to cutaneous and extracutaneous involvement and can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from each other. The present guideline focuses on characteristic clinical and histopathological features, diagnostic scores and the serum autoantibodies most useful for differential diagnosis. In addition, current strategies in the first- and advanced-line therapy of sclerosing skin diseases are addressed in detail. Part 1 of this guideline provides clinicians with an overview of the diagnosis and treatment of localized scleroderma (morphea), and systemic sclerosis including overlap syndromes of systemic sclerosis with diseases of the rheumatological spectrum. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  11. Spatial distribution of nanoparticles in PWR nanofluid coolant subjected to local nucleate boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirghaffari, Reza; Jahanfarnia, Gholamreza [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2016-12-15

    Nanofluids have shown to be promising as an alternative for a PWR reactor coolant or as a safety system coolant to cover the core in the event of a loss of coolant accident. The nanoparticles distribution and neutronic parameters are intensively affected by the local boiling of nanofluid coolant. The main goal of this study was the physical-mathematical modeling of the nanoparticles distribution in the nucleate boiling of nanofluids within the viscous sublayer. Nanoparticles concentration, especially near the heat transfer surfaces, plays a significant role in the enhancement of thermal conductivity of nanofluids and prediction of CHF, Hide Out and Return phenomena. By solving the equation of convection-diffusion for the liquid phase near the heating surface and the bulk stream, the effect of heat flux on the distribution of nanoparticles was studied. The steady state mass conservation equations for liquids, vapors and nanoparticles were written for the flow boiling within the viscous sublayer adjacent the fuel cladding surface. The derived differential equations were discretized by the finite difference method and were solved numerically. It was found out that by increasing the surface heat flux, the concentration of nanoparticles increased.

  12. Temperature behavior and annealing of insulated gate transistors subjected to localized lifetime control by proton implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogro-Campero, A.; Love, R.P.; Chang, M.F.; Dyer, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    Localized lifetime control by proton implantation can result in a considerable improvement (as much as an order of magnitude or more) in the trade-off between device turn-off time and forward voltage when compared with the unlocalized method of electron irradiation. The physical mechanisms responsible for the qualitative temperature dependences are identified: MOS channel resistance for forward voltage, carrier capture cross-section for turn-off time, and generation and diffusion components of leakage current. Since no catastrophic or unrecoverable behavior is observed, normal device operation within the tested temperature range is possible. Isothermal annealing curves of turn-off time measured after annealing, and corresponding to a few hours annealing time, reveal that a constant turn-off time is reached after about an hour. The constant value increases with temperature, but is still below the unimplanted value after 4 h at 525 0 C. The turn-off time was verified to be constant even after 24 h of annealing at 200 0 C. Lifetime control by proton implantation seems to be more thermally stable than that caused by electron irradiation. (author)

  13. Microbiological characteristics of subgingival microbiota in adult periodontitis, localized juvenile periodontitis and rapidly progressive periodontitis subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnenmacher, C; Mutters, R; de Jacoby, L F

    2001-04-01

    To describe the prevalence of the cultivable subgingival microbiota in periodontal diseases and to draw attention to the polymicrobial nature of periodontic infections. The study population consisted of 95 patients, 51 females and 44 males, aged 14-62 years. Twenty-nine patients exhibited adult periodontitis (AP), six localized juvenile periodontitis (LJP), and 60 rapidly progressive periodontitis (RPP). Two to four pooled bacterial samples were obtained from each patient. Samples were collected with sterile paper points from the deepest periodontal pockets. The samples were cultured under anaerobic and microaerophilic conditions using selective and non-selective media. Isolates were characterized to species level by conventional biochemical tests and by a commercial rapid test system. Prevotella intermedia and Capnocytophaga spp. were the most frequently detected microorganisms in all diagnostic groups. Porphyromonas gingivalis and Peptostreptococcus micros were found more frequently in AP and RPP patients, while Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Eikenella corrodens were associated with AP, LJP and RPP patients. The other bacterial species, including Actinomyces spp., Streptococcus spp. and Eubacterium spp., were detected at different levels in the three disease groups. The data show the complexity of the subgingival microbiota associated with different periodontal disease groups, indicating that the detection frequency and levels of recovery of some periodontal pathogens are different in teeth affected by different forms of periodontal disease.

  14. Localization of water channels in the skin of two species of desert toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) punctatus and Incilius (Bufo) alvarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Yuki; Takeuchi, Hiro-Aki; Hasegawa, Takahiro; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tanaka, Shigeyasu; Hillyard, Stanley D; Nagai, Takatoshi

    2011-09-01

    Anuran amphibians obtain water by osmosis across their ventral skin. A specialized region in the pelvic skin of semiterrestrial species, termed the seat patch, contains aquaporins (AQPs) that become inserted into the apical plasma membrane of the epidermis following stimulation by arginine vasotocin (AVT) to facilitate rehydration. Two AVT-stimulated AQPs, AQP-h2 and AQP-h3, have been identified in the epidermis of seat patch skin of the Japanese tree frog, Hyla japonica, and show a high degree of homology with those of bufonid species. We used antibodies raised against AQP-h2 and AQP-h3 to characterize the expression of homologous AQPs in the skin of two species of toads that inhabit arid desert regions of southwestern North America. Western blot analysis of proteins gave positive results for AQP-h2-like proteins in the pelvic skin and also the urinary bladder of Anaxyrus (Bufo) punctatus while AQP-h3-like proteins were found in extracts from the pelvic skin and the more anterior ventral skin, but not the urinary bladder. Immunohistochemical observations showed both AQP-h2- and AQP-h3-like proteins were present in the apical membrane of skin from the pelvic skin of hydrated and dehydrated A. punctatus. Further stimulation by AVT or isoproterenol treatment of living toads was not evident. In contrast, skin from hydrated Incilius (Bufo) alvarius showed very weak labeling of AQP-h2- and AQP-h3-like proteins and labeling turned intense following stimulation by AVT. These results are similar to those of tree frogs and toads that occupy mesic habitats and suggest this pattern of AQP expression is the result of phylogenetic factors shared by hylid and bufonid anurans.

  15. A one-dimensional model to describe flow localization in viscoplastic slender bars subjected to super critical impact velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz-Romero, A.; Rodríguez-Martínez, J. A.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we investigate flow localization in viscoplastic slender bars subjected to dynamic tension. We explore loading rates above the critical impact velocity: the wave initiated in the impacted end by the applied velocity is the trigger for the localization of plastic deformation. The problem has been addressed using two kinds of numerical simulations: (1) one-dimensional finite difference calculations and (2) axisymmetric finite element computations. The latter calculations have been used to validate the capacity of the finite difference model to describe plastic flow localization at high impact velocities. The finite difference model, which highlights due to its simplicity, allows to obtain insights into the role played by the strain rate and temperature sensitivities of the material in the process of dynamic flow localization. Specifically, we have shown that viscosity can stabilize the material behavior to the point of preventing the appearance of the critical impact velocity. This is a key outcome of our investigation, which, to the best of the authors' knowledge, has not been previously reported in the literature.

  16. Case Study of Local Damage Indicators for a 2-Bay, 6-Storey RC-Frame subject to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    1997-01-01

    A simulation study of a 2-bay, 6storey model test RC-frame(scale 1:5) subject to earthquakes is considered in this paper. Based on measured (simulated) storey accelerations and ground surface accelerations several indices for the storey damage, including interstorey drift, flexural damage ratios......, normalized cumulative dissipated energy, Park and Ang's indicator, a low-cycle fatigue damage index and a recently proposed local softening damage index estimated from time-varying eigenfrequencies are used to evaluate the damage state of the structure after the earthquake. Storey displacements are obtained...

  17. Case Study of Local Damage Indicators for a 2-Bay, 6-Storey RC-Frame subject to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    A simulation study of a 2-bay, 6storey model test RC-frame(scale 1:5) subject to earthquakes is considered in this paper. Based on measured (simulated) storey accelerations and ground surface accelerations several indices for the storey damage, including interstorey drift, flexural damage ratios......, normalized cumulative dissipated energy, Park and Ang's indicator, a low-cycle fatigue damage index and a recently proposed local softening damage index estimated from time-varying eigenfrequencies are used to evaluate the damage state of the structure after the earthquake. Storey displacements are obtained...

  18. Skin perfusion pressure measured with a photo sensor in an air-filled plastic balloon: validity and reproducibility on the lower leg in normal subjects and patients suspected of obliterative arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen Levin; Nielsen, Anne Lerberg; Vind, Susanne Haase

    2011-01-01

    An inflatable small plastic bag including a photo sensor was constructed for measurement of skin perfusion pressure avoiding the rim of the photo sensor over bony and tendineous surfaces of the tibia below the knee, at the ankle, and on the dorsal forefoot. Compression was obtained using a conical...... blood pressure cuff with continuous decrease from suprasystolic arm pressure. The validity of skin perfusion pressure with the new device was compared to that of isotope washout below the knee in normal subjects and in patients with an ischemic forefoot with acceptable agreement. The method had a high...... reproducibility within and between days in normal subjects. Compared to systolic arterial pressure measured using a strain gauge with a cuff on the ankle in normal subjects and patients with intermittent claudication the new device showed blood pressure in the skin closer to the diastolic pressure. The new...

  19. Skin graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin transplant; Skin autografting; FTSG; STSG; Split thickness skin graft; Full thickness skin graft ... donor site. Most people who are having a skin graft have a split-thickness skin graft. This takes ...

  20. Pengembangan Subject Specific Pedagogy (SSP Tematik Berbasis Local Wisdom Untuk Membangun Karakter Hormat dan Kepedulian Siswa SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaliyah Ulfah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at generating possible thematic Subject Specific Pedagogy (SSP based on local wisdom and examining the results teachers and students perception on the pedagogical approach developed in the preliminary field testing. Drawing upon the notion of research and development by Borg & Gall, this research was conducted through different stages involving information gathering, planning, developing preliminary product, preliminary field testing, and revising. The subjects were a small group of second grade students of SD Muhammadiyah Bodon and SD Muhammadiyah Sidoarum Yogyakarta. Each consists of 10 students. The data gathering instrument consists of product validation, character observation sheets, and teacher assessment sheets. The data gathering instrument consists of product validation tool, character observation sheets, and teachers’ assessment sheets. The SSP product generated in this study consists of lesson plans, teaching materials, worksheets, and expert perception. According to the experts of media, materials, and evaluation, the SSP product is in good categories. First grade teachers result a good score to the syllabus and lesson plans, while the worksheets and evaluation are in very good category. The results from the students responses to the textbooks is 78, which is in very good category, while the students worksheets score 71 which includes in excellent category. Therefore, the developed thematic SSP based on local wisdom can be declared appropriate for use in learning.

  1. Assessment of the skin sensitization potency of eugenol and its dimers using a non-radioisotopic modification of the local lymph node assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeyoshi, Masahiro; Noda, Shuji; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Kakishima, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Kanji; Kimber, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a serious health problem. There is a need to identify and characterize skin sensitization hazards, particularly with respect to relative potency, so that accurate risk assessments can be developed. For these purposes the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) was developed. Here, we have investigated further a modi fi cation of this assay, non-radioisotopic LLNA, which in place of tritiated thymidine to measure lymph node cell proliferation employs incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine. Using this method we have examined the skin sensitizing activity of eugenol, a known human contact allergen, and its dimers 2,2'-dihydroxyl-3,3'-dimethoxy-5,5'-diallyl-biphenyl (DHEA) and 4,5'-diallyl-2'-hydroxy-2,3'-dimethoxy phenyl ether (DHEB). Activity in the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) also measured. On the basis of GPMT assays, eugenol was classified as a mild skin sensitizer, DHEA as a weak skin sensitizer and DHEB as an extreme skin sensitizer. In the non-radioisotopic LLNA all chemicals were found to give positive responses insofar as each was able to provoke a stimulation index (SI) of >or=3 at one or more test concentrations. The relative skin sensitizing potency of these chemicals was evaluated in the non-radioisotopic LLNA by derivation of an ec(3) value (the concentration of chemical required to provoke an SI of 3). The ec(3) values calculated were 25.1% for eugenol, >30% for DHEA and 2.3% for DHEB. Collectively these data suggest that assessments of relative potency deriving from non-radioisotopic LLNA responses correlate well with evaluations based on GPMT results. These investigations provide support for the proposal that the non-radioisotopic LLNA may serve as an effective alternative to the GPMT where there is a need to avoid the use of radioisotopes. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. A multidisciplinary protocol for planned skin-preserving delayed breast reconstruction for patients with locally advanced breast cancer requiring postmastectomy radiation therapy: 3-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronowitz, Steven J; Lam, Candace; Terefe, Welela; Hunt, Kelly K; Kuerer, Henry M; Valero, Vicente; Lance, Samuel; Robb, Geoffrey L; Feng, Lei; Buchholz, Thomas A

    2011-06-01

    The authors examined the safety of a protocol for planned skin-preserving delayed breast reconstruction after postmastectomy radiotherapy with placement of a tissue expander for patients with locally advanced breast cancer (stages IIB and III). The authors compared 47 patients treated according to the protocol between December 2003 and May 2008 with 47 disease-stage-matched control patients who underwent standard delayed reconstruction after postmastectomy radiotherapy (no skin preservation or tissue expander) during the same period. Protocol-group complication rates were 21 percent for skin-preserving mastectomy and placement of the expander (stage 1), 5 percent for postmastectomy radiotherapy, 25 percent for expander reinflation after radiotherapy, and 24 percent for skin-preserving delayed reconstruction. The complication rate for standard delayed reconstruction was 38 percent. Tissue-expander loss rates were 32 percent overall, 9 percent for stage 1, 5 percent for postmastectomy radiotherapy, and 22 percent for reinflation. Wound-healing complications after reconstruction occurred in 3 percent of protocol-group and 10 percent of control-group patients. The median follow-up time for patients still alive at last follow-up was 40 months (range, 8.5 to 85.3 months). Three-year recurrence-free survival rates were 92 percent (95 percent CI, 83 to 100 percent) and 86 percent (95 percent CI, 76 to 98 percent) for the protocol and control groups, respectively (p = 0.87). In patients with locally advanced breast cancer, skin-preserving mastectomy with a deflated tissue expander on the chest wall during postmastectomy radiotherapy does not increase locoregional recurrence risk and is associated with lower complication rates of definitive reconstruction.

  3. Localization of the rabies virus antigen in Merkel cells in the follicle-sinus complexes of muzzle skins of rabid dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimatsu, Taichi; Shinozaki, Harumi; Kimitsuki, Kazunori; Shiwa, Nozomi; Manalo, Daria L; Perez, Rodolfo C; Dilig, Joselito E; Yamada, Kentaro; Boonsriroj, Hassadin; Inoue, Satoshi; Park, Chun-Ho

    2016-11-01

    The direct fluorescent antibody test (dFAT) on fresh brain tissues is the gold standard for rabies virus antigen detection in dogs. However, this method is laborious and holds a high risk of virus exposure for the experimenter. Skin biopsies are useful for the diagnosis of humans and animals. In mammals, the tactile hair, known as the follicle-sinus complex (FSC), is a specialized touch organ that is abundant in the muzzle skin. Each tactile hair is equipped with more than 2,000 sensory nerve endings. Therefore, this organ is expected to serve as an alternative postmortem diagnostic material. However, the target cells and localization of rabies virus antigen in the FSCs remain to be defined. In the present study, muzzle skins were obtained from 60 rabid dogs diagnosed with rabies by dFAT at the Research Institute of Tropical Medicine in the Philippines. In all dogs, virus antigen was clearly detected in a part of the outer root sheath at the level of the ring sinus of the FSCs, and the majority of cells were positive for the Merkel cell (MC) markers cytokeratin 20 and CAM5.2. Our results suggest that MCs in the FSCs of the muzzle skin are a target for virus replication and could serve as a useful alternative specimen source for diagnosis of rabies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative analysis of skin sensitization potency of acrylates (methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, butyl acrylate, and ethylhexyl acrylate) using the local lymph node assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearman, Rebecca J; Betts, Catherine J; Farr, Craig; McLaughlin, James; Berdasco, Nancy; Wiench, Karin; Kimber, Ian

    2007-10-01

    There are currently available no systematic experimental data on the skin sensitizing properties of acrylates that are of relevance in occupational settings. Limited information from previous guinea-pig tests or from the local lymph node assay (LLNA) is available; however, these data are incomplete and somewhat contradictory. For those reasons, we have examined in the LLNA 4 acrylates: butyl acrylate (BA), ethyl acrylate (EA), methyl acrylate (MA), and ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA). The LLNA data indicated that all 4 compounds have some potential to cause skin sensitization. In addition, the relative potencies of these acrylates were measured by derivation from LLNA dose-response analyses of EC3 values (the effective concentration of chemical required to induce a threefold increase in proliferation of draining lymph node cells compared with control values). On the basis of 1 scheme for the categorization of skin sensitization potency, BA, EA, and MA were each classified as weak sensitizers. Using the same scheme, EHA was considered a moderate sensitizer. However, it must be emphasized that the EC3 value for this chemical of 9.7% is on the borderline between moderate (10%) categories. Thus, the judicious view is that all 4 chemicals possess relatively weak skin sensitizing potential.

  5. The local skin dose conversion coefficients of electrons, protons and alpha particles calculated using the Geant4 code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bintuan; Dang, Bingrong; Wang, Zhuanzi; Wei, Wei; Li, Wenjian

    2013-10-01

    The skin tissue-equivalent slab reported in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 116 to calculate the localised skin dose conversion coefficients (LSDCCs) was adopted into the Monte Carlo transport code Geant4. The Geant4 code was then utilised for computation of LSDCCs due to a circular parallel beam of monoenergetic electrons, protons and alpha particles electrons and alpha particles are found to be in good agreement with the results using the MCNPX code of ICRP 116 data. The present work thus validates the LSDCC values for both electrons and alpha particles using the Geant4 code.

  6. In vivo evaluation of some biophysical parameters of the facial skin of Indian subjects living in Mumbai. Part II: Variability with age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomb, L; Flament, F; Wagle, A; Idelcaid, Y; Agrawal, D

    2018-04-01

    A previously published work explored the diversity of some biophysical parameters (colour, elasticity, sebum production, skin microrelief, etc.) of the skin of 1204 Indian women, differently aged, living in four Indian cities (Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata and Mumbai). The present work aimed at completing such research by focusing on possible gender-related differences in the same skin parameters, between Indian men and women living in the same Indian city (Mumbai). A total of 297 Indian men, differently aged (18-70y), were recruited in Mumbai, completing the panel of 303 women who were previously recruited in this same city. The same instrumental measurements of facial skin colour and its homogeneity, its mechanical properties, the sebum production, skin pores size, skin relief, etc. as in the previous work, were conducted. Overall, the facial skin colour shows a darker complexion in men as compared to women, on forehead, ocular region, lips, chin and cheek. The skin colour unevenness, which increases with age, was found higher in men, as compared to women. At comparable age, women and men present a same density of skin pores, whereas those of men appear larger, up to 55y. The deepness of Crow's feet wrinkles does not significantly differ between genders. A lesser extensibility was found on the cheeks of men. In men, the sebum production was found significantly higher than that of women at ages above 40y. This work indicates some commonly shared age-related skin features between women and men from Mumbai, despite slight different characteristics such as skin pigmentation, forehead/cheek colour contrast, mechanical properties and sebum production. © 2018 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  7. Assessing complexity of skin blood flow oscillations in response to locally applied heating and pressure in rats: Implications for pressure ulcer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Fuyuan; O'Brien, William D.; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of local heating on the complexity of skin blood flow oscillations (BFO) under prolonged surface pressure in rats. Eleven Sprague-Dawley rats were studied: 7 rats underwent surface pressure with local heating (△t=10 °C) and 4 rats underwent pressure without heating. A pressure of 700 mmHg was applied to the right trochanter area of rats for 3 h. Skin blood flow was measured using laser Doppler flowmetry. The loading period was divided into nonoverlapping 30 min epochs. For each epoch, multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MDFA) was utilized to compute DFA coefficients and complexity of endothelial related metabolic, neurogenic, and myogenic frequencies of BFO. The results showed that under surface pressure, local heating led to a significant decrease in DFA coefficients of myogenic frequency during the initial epoch of loading period, a sustained decrease in complexity of myogenic frequency, and a significantly higher degree of complexity of metabolic frequency during the later phase of loading period. Surrogate tests showed that the reduction in complexity of myogenic frequency was associated with a loss of nonlinearity whereas increased complexity of metabolic frequency was associated with enhanced nonlinearity. Our results indicate that increased metabolic activity and decreased myogenic response due to local heating manifest themselves not only in magnitudes of metabolic and myogenic frequencies but also in their structural complexity. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using complexity analysis of BFO to monitor the ischemic status of weight-bearing skin and risk of pressure ulcers.

  8. [A case of iatrogenic scrotal elephantiasis: reconstruction of the scrotal purse and the cutaneous sleeve of the penis with local skin flaps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masia, D-R; Castus, P; Delia, G; Casoli, V; Martine, D

    2008-02-01

    Scrotal elephantiasis is a pathology of often unknown etiology. Symptomatology is characterized by an oedematius infiltration of skin and subcutaneous tissue, hard-bound aspect and purplished color. The scrotum, the penis and the perineal area are gradually affected. This pathology is very invalidating for the patient, on functional, sexual and aesthetic aspects. The authors present the case of a 58-year-old man with an enormous scrotal mass invading the penis and drowning the testicular elements, which were impossible to palpate. The aetiology was determined by exclusion and an iatrogenic origin following the cure of bilateral inguinal hernia was retained. Resection of the scrotal mass was performed. The reconstruction of the scrotal purse and the cutaneous sleeve of the penis were carried out using local flaps of the remaining healthy skin.

  9. Acoustic emission energy b-value for local damage evaluation in reinforced concrete structures subjected to seismic loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagasta, Francisco; Zitto, Miguel E.; Piotrkowski, Rosa; Benavent-Climent, Amadeo; Suarez, Elisabet; Gallego, Antolino

    2018-03-01

    A modification of the original b-value (Gutenberg-Richter parameter) is proposed to evaluate local damage of reinforced concrete structures subjected to dynamical loads via the acoustic emission (AE) method. The modification, shortly called energy b-value, is based on the use of the true energy of the AE signals instead of its peak amplitude, traditionally used for the calculation of b-value. The proposal is physically supported by the strong correlation between the plastic strain energy dissipated by the specimen and the true energy of the AE signals released during its deformation and cracking process, previously demonstrated by the authors in several publications. AE data analysis consisted in the use of guard sensors and the Continuous Wavelet Transform in order to separate primary and secondary emissions as much as possible according to particular frequency bands. The approach has been experimentally applied to the AE signals coming from a scaled reinforced concrete frame structure, which was subjected to sequential seismic loads of incremental acceleration peak by means of a 3 × 3 m2 shaking table. For this specimen two beam-column connections-one exterior and one interior-were instrumented with wide band low frequency sensors properly attached on the structure. Evolution of the energy b-value along the loading process accompanies the evolution of the severe damage at the critical regions of the structure (beam-column connections), thus making promising its use for structural health monitoring purposes.

  10. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...

  11. Skin blood flow from gas transport: helium xenon and laser Doppler compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neufeld, G.R.; Galante, S.R.; Whang, J.M.; DeVries, D.; Baumgardner, J.E.; Graves, D.J.; Quinn, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    A study was designed to compare three independent measures of cutaneous blood flow in normal healthy volunteers: xenon-133 washout, helium flux, and laser velocimetry. All measurements were confined to the volar aspect of the forearm. In a large group of subjects we found that helium flux through intact skin changes nonlinearly with the controlled local skin temperature whereas helium flux through stripped skin, which is directly proportional to skin blood flow, changes linearly with cutaneous temperature over the range 33 degrees to 42 degrees. In a second group of six volunteers we compared helium flux through stripped skin to xenon-133 washout (intact skin) at a skin temperature of 33 degrees, and we found an essentially linear relationship between helium flux and xenon measured blood flow. In a third group of subjects we compared helium flux blood flow (stripped skin) to laser doppler velocimetric (LDV) measurements (intact skin) at adjacent skin sites and found a nonlinear increase in the LDV skin blood flow compared to that determined by helium over the same temperature range. A possible explanation for the nonlinear increases of helium flux through intact skin and of LDV output with increasing local skin temperature is that they reflect more than a change in blood flow. They may also reflect physical changes in the stratum corneum, which alters its diffusional resistance to gas flux and its optical characteristics

  12. Skin blood flow from gas transport: helium xenon and laser Doppler compared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufeld, G.R.; Galante, S.R.; Whang, J.M.; DeVries, D.; Baumgardner, J.E.; Graves, D.J.; Quinn, J.A.

    1988-03-01

    A study was designed to compare three independent measures of cutaneous blood flow in normal healthy volunteers: xenon-133 washout, helium flux, and laser velocimetry. All measurements were confined to the volar aspect of the forearm. In a large group of subjects we found that helium flux through intact skin changes nonlinearly with the controlled local skin temperature whereas helium flux through stripped skin, which is directly proportional to skin blood flow, changes linearly with cutaneous temperature over the range 33 degrees to 42 degrees. In a second group of six volunteers we compared helium flux through stripped skin to xenon-133 washout (intact skin) at a skin temperature of 33 degrees, and we found an essentially linear relationship between helium flux and xenon measured blood flow. In a third group of subjects we compared helium flux blood flow (stripped skin) to laser doppler velocimetric (LDV) measurements (intact skin) at adjacent skin sites and found a nonlinear increase in the LDV skin blood flow compared to that determined by helium over the same temperature range. A possible explanation for the nonlinear increases of helium flux through intact skin and of LDV output with increasing local skin temperature is that they reflect more than a change in blood flow. They may also reflect physical changes in the stratum corneum, which alters its diffusional resistance to gas flux and its optical characteristics.

  13. Skin perfusion pressure measured with a photo sensor in an air-filled plastic balloon: validity and reproducibility on the lower leg in normal subjects and patients suspected of obliterative arterial disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Steen Levin; Nielsen, Anne Lerberg; Vind, Susanne Haase; Thomassen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    An inflatable small plastic bag including a photo sensor was constructed for measurement of skin perfusion pressure avoiding the rim of the photo sensor over bony and tendineous surfaces of the tibia below the knee, at the ankle, and on the dorsal forefoot. Compression was obtained using a conical blood pressure cuff with continuous decrease from suprasystolic arm pressure. The validity of skin perfusion pressure with the new device was compared to that of isotope washout below the knee in normal subjects and in patients with an ischemic forefoot with acceptable agreement. The method had a high reproducibility within and between days in normal subjects. Compared to systolic arterial pressure measured using a strain gauge with a cuff on the ankle in normal subjects and patients with intermittent claudication the new device showed blood pressure in the skin closer to the diastolic pressure. The new pressure device thus had acceptable validity and reproducibility for estimation of the skin perfusion pressure and can be used on bony and tendineous sites on the lower limb in regions where critical wound healing is frequent, e.g. ankle and forefoot

  14. Influence of local or systemic corticosteroids on skin wound healing resistance Influência de corticosteróide local e sistêmico no processo cicatricial cutâneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ronaldo Alberti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the resistance of skin wound healing of mice submitted to local or systemic hydrocortisone administration, in different postoperative periods. METHODS: An incision and suture was performed on the thoracic skin of 130 male mice: Group 1 (n = 10 resistance of the integer skin; Group 2 (n = 30 submitted only to skin incision and suture; Group 3 (n = 30 skin incision and suture followed by administration of saline fluid; Group 4 (n = 30 skin incision and suture followed by administration of local hydrocortisone; Group 5 (n = 30 skin incision and suture followed by administration of systemic hydrocortisone. The resistance of the wound healing and the weight of the animals were studied on the seventh, 14th and 21st postoperative days. Histological examination was also performed. RESULTS: The mice that received corticoid (groups 4 and 5 presented significant decreasing on their weight (p = 0.02. The Groups 3, 4 and 5 showed lower scar resistance than Group 2 on the seventh postoperative day (p 0.05. CONCLUSION: Administration of hydrocortisone in mice is responsible for weight decreasing and reduction of the skin wound healing resistance during the first postoperative week.OBJETIVO: Comparar a resistência cicatricial cutânea de camundongos submetidos a administração de hidrocortisona por diferentes vias e em distintos períodos pós-operatórios. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 130 camundongos machos submetidos à incisão e sutura de pele da região dorsal do tórax: Grupo 1 (n = 10 resistência da pele íntegra; Grupo 2 (n = 30 incisão da pele e sutura, sem administração de corticóide; Grupo 3 (n = 30 incisão da pele e sutura, seguidas de injeção local de solução salina; Grupo 4 (n = 30 incisão da pele e sutura, seguidas de injeção local de hidrocortisona e Grupo 5 (n = 30 incisão da pele e sutura, seguidas de injeção intraperitoneal de hidrocortisona. Foram avaliadas a resistência cicatricial da pele e a varia

  15. Gene expression profiles in auricle skin as a possible additional endpoint for determination of sensitizers: A multi-endpoint evaluation of the local lymph node assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiyama, Hiromi; Maeda, Akihisa; Nakajima, Mayumi; Kitsukawa, Mika; Takahashi, Kei; Miyoshi, Tomoya; Mutsuga, Mayu; Asaoka, Yoshiji; Miyamoto, Yohei; Oshida, Keiyu

    2017-10-05

    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is widely used to test chemicals to induce skin sensitization. Exposure of mouse auricle skin to a sensitizer results in proliferation of local lymph node T cells, which has been measured by in vivo incorporation of H 3 -methyl thymidine or 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). The stimulation index (SI), the ratio of the mean proliferation in each treated group to that in the concurrent vehicle control group, is frequently used as a regulatory-authorized endpoint for LLNA. However, some non-sensitizing irritants, such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or methyl salicylate (MS), have been reported as false-positives by this endpoint. In search of a potential endpoint to enhance the specificity of existing endpoints, we evaluated 3 contact sensitizers; (hexyl cinnamic aldehyde [HCA], oxazolone [OXA], and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene [DNCB]), 1 respiratory sensitizer (toluene 2,4-diisocyanate [TDI]), and 2 non-sensitizing irritants (MS and SDS) by several endpoints in LLNA. Each test substance was applied to both ears of female CBA/Ca mice daily for 3 consecutive days. The ears and auricle lymph node cells were analyzed on day 5 for endpoints including the SI value, lymph node cell count, cytokine release from lymph node cells, and histopathological changes and gene expression profiles in auricle skin. The SI values indicated that all the test substances induced significant proliferation of lymph node cells. The lymph node cell counts showed no significant changes by the non-sensitizers assessed. The inflammatory findings of histopathology were similar among the auricle skins treated by sensitizers and irritants. Gene expression profiles of cytokines IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17 in auricle skin were similar to the cytokine release profiles in draining lymph node cells. In addition, the gene expression of the chemokine CXCL1 and/or CXCL2 showed that it has the potential to discriminate sensitizers and non-sensitizing irritants. Our results

  16. The 24-hour skin hydration and barrier function effects of a hyaluronic 1%, glycerin 5%, and Centella asiatica stem cells extract moisturizing fluid: an intra-subject, randomized, assessor-blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Massimo; Sparavigna, Adele

    2017-01-01

    Moisturizing products are commonly used to improve hydration in skin dryness conditions. However, some topical hydrating products could have negative effects on skin barrier function. In addition, hydrating effects of moisturizers are not commonly evaluated up to 24 hours after a single application. Hyaluronic acid (HA) and glycerin are very well-known substances able to improve skin hydration. Centella asiatica extract (CAE) could exert lenitive, anti-inflammatory and reepithelialization actions. Furthermore, CAE could inhibit hyaluronidase enzyme activity, therefore prolonging the effect of HA. A fluid containing HA 1%, glycerin 5% and stem cells CAE has been recently developed (Jaluronius CS [JCS] fluid). To evaluate and compare the 24-hour effects of JCS fluid on skin hydration and on transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in healthy subjects in comparison with the control site. Twenty healthy women, mean age 40 years, were enrolled in an intra-subject (right vs left), randomized, assessor-blinded, controlled, 1-day trial. The primary end points were the skin hydration and TEWL, evaluated at the volar surface of the forearm and in standardized conditions (temperature- and humidity-controlled room: 23°C and 30% of humidity) using a corneometer and a vapometer device at baseline, 1, 8 and 24 hours after JCS fluid application. Measurements were performed by an operator blinded for the treatments. Skin hydration after 24 hours was significantly higher ( P =0.001; Mann-Whitney U test) in the JCS-treated area in comparison with the control site. JCS induced a significant ( P =0.0001) increase in skin hydration at each evaluation time (+59% after 1 hour, +48% after 8 hours and +29% after 24 hours) in comparison with both baseline ( P =0.0001) and non-treated control site ( P =0.001). TEWL after 24 hours was significantly lower ( P =0.049; Mann-Whitney U test) in the JCS-treated area in comparison with the control site (13±4 arbitrary units [AU] vs 16±6 AU). JCS fluid

  17. Local Effects of Ice Floes on Skin Sea Surface Temperature in the Marginal Ice Zone from UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappa, C. J.; Brown, S.; Emery, W. J.; Adler, J.; Wick, G. A.; Steele, M.; Palo, S. E.; Walker, G.; Maslanik, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Recent years have seen extreme changes in the Arctic. Particularly striking are changes within the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean, and especially in the seas north of the Alaskan coast. These areas have experienced record warming, reduced sea ice extent, and loss of ice in areas that had been ice-covered throughout human memory. Even the oldest and thickest ice types have failed to survive through the summer melt period in areas such as the Beaufort Sea and Canada Basin, and fundamental changes in ocean conditions such as earlier phytoplankton blooms may be underway. Marginal ice zones (MIZ), or areas where the "ice-albedo feedback" driven by solar warming is highest and ice melt is extensive, may provide insights into the extent of these changes. Airborne remote sensing, in particular InfraRed (IR), offers a unique opportunity to observe physical processes at sea-ice margins. It permits monitoring the ice extent and coverage, as well as the ice and ocean temperature variability. It can also be used for derivation of surface flow field allowing investigation of turbulence and mixing at the ice-ocean interface. Here, we present measurements of visible and IR imagery of melting ice floes in the marginal ice zone north of Oliktok Point AK in the Beaufort Sea made during the Marginal Ice Zone Ocean and Ice Observations and Processes EXperiment (MIZOPEX) in July-August 2013. The visible and IR imagery were taken from the unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) ScanEagle. The visible imagery clearly defines the scale of the ice floes. The IR imagery show distinct cooling of the skin sea surface temperature (SST) as well as a intricate circulation and mixing pattern that depends on the surface current, wind speed, and near-surface vertical temperature/salinity structure. Individual ice floes develop turbulent wakes as they drift and cause transient mixing of an influx of colder surface (fresh) melt water. The upstream side of the ice floe shows the coldest skin SST, and

  18. Optical microscopy of targeted drug delivery and local distribution in skin of a topical minocycline: implications in translational research and guidance for therapeutic dose selection (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsmeier, Maiko; Sawant, Tanvee; Lac, Diana; Yamamoto, Akira; Chen, Xin; Huang, Susan Y.; Nagavarapu, Usha; Evans, Conor L.; Chan, Kin Foong; Daniels, AnnaMarie

    2017-02-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory skin condition commonly resulting in negative aesthetic and social impacts on those affected. Minocycline, currently available as an oral antibiotic for moderate to severe acne, has a known minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the acne-causing bacterium Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) in vitro, with its anti-inflammatory properties also eliciting inhibitory effects on pro-inflammatory molecules. A novel topical gel composition containing solubilized minocycline (BPX-01) has been developed to directly deliver the drug to the skin. Because minocycline is a known fluorophore, fluorescence microscopy and concurrent quantitative measurements were performed on excised human facial skin dosed with different concentrations, in order to determine the spatial distribution of the drug and quantification of its local concentration in the epidermis and the pilosebaceous unit where P. acnes generally reside. Local minocycline delivery confirmed achievement of an adequate therapeutic dose to support clinical studies. Subsequently, a 4-week double-blind, randomized, vehicle controlled clinical study was performed to assess the safety and efficacy of 1% minocycline BPX-01 applied daily. No instances of cutaneous toxicity were reported, and a greater than 1 log reduction of P. acnes count was observed at week 4 with statistical significance from baseline and vehicle control. In addition, no detectable amounts of minocycline in the plasma were reported, suggesting the potential of this new formulation to diminish the known systemic adverse effects associated with oral minocycline. Follow-on clinical plans are underway to further establish the safety of BPX-01 and to evaluate its efficacy against inflammatory acne lesions in a 225 patient multi-center dose-finding study.

  19. A Novel Technique for Split-Thickness Skin Donor Site Pain Control: Subcutaneous Catheters for Continuous Local Anesthetic Infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    the new: a novel approach to treating pain associated with rib fractures . World J Surg 2010;34:2359–62. 3. Wheatley GH III, Rosenbaum DH, Paul MC, et...has been described after laparotomy, tho- racotomy, inguinal hernia repair, and rib fractures .2–4 We describe our experience at the U.S. Army Insti...JAN 2012 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A novel technique for split-thickness skin donor site pain control

  20. Skin color independent assessment of aging using skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsier, M.; Nur, Erfan; Chunmao, Han; Lutgers, Helen L.; Links, Thera P.; Smit, Andries J.; Rakhorst, Gerhard; Graaff, Reindert

    2010-01-01

    Skin autofluorescence (AF) for the non-invasive assessment of the amount of accumulated tissue Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) increases with aging. In subjects with darker skin colors, measurements typically result in lower AF values than in subjects with fair skin colors, e.g. due to

  1. Skin color independent assessment of aging using skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsier, M.; Nur, E.; Chunmao, H.; Lutgers, H.L.; Links, T.P.; Smit, A.J.; Rakhorst, G.; de Graaff, R.

    2010-01-01

    Skin autofluorescence (AF) for the non-invasive assessment of the amount of accumulated tissue Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) increases with aging. In subjects with darker skin colors, measurements typically result in lower AF values than in subjects with fair skin colors, e. g. due to

  2. Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Skin KidsHealth / For Kids / Your Skin What's in this ... body) are really dead skin cells. Bye-Bye Skin Cells These old cells are tough and strong, ...

  3. Characterisation of the clinical and activated T cell response to repeat delayed-type hypersensitivity skin challenges in human subjects, with KLH and PPD, as a potential model to test T cell-targeted therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belson, Alexandra; Schmidt, Tim; Fernando, Disala; Hardes, Kelly; Scott, Nicola; Brett, Sara; Clark, Deborah; Oliveira, João Joaquim; Davis, Bill; McHugh, Simon; Stone, John

    2016-05-01

    To characterise the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin reaction to repeated challenges of keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) in healthy volunteers, as a potential model to test T cell-targeted investigational agents. Forty-nine subjects received either KLH, PPD, or PBS repeat skin challenges, and clinical assessments including induration, erythema and Laser Doppler Imaging. Skin biopsies or suction blisters were taken after challenge to investigate the cellular infiltrate of the challenge site, the T cell activation status, as determined by LAG-3 expression, and, specifically for the blister, the concentrations of inflammatory cytokines. Point estimates, estimates of variation and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were constructed for each type of challenge and timepoint. The DTH response could be measured at 48 and 120 h post-KLH and PPD challenge with induration, erythema and Laser Doppler Imaging, with 48 h post-challenge demonstrating the peak of the response. PPD was well tolerated in subjects after multiple challenges, however, a significant number of KLH-treated subjects demonstrated an injection site reaction 6-7 days following the SC injection. PPD demonstrated a boost effect on the second challenge as measured by increased induration, where as this was not noted consistently for KLH. Compared to unchallenged and PBS control-injected skin, increased T cell numbers were detected in the challenge site by both the skin suction blister and biopsy technique, at either time point following KLH or PPD challenge. Use of the T cell activation marker LAG-3 demonstrated the activated phenotype of these cells. In skin blisters, higher numbers of LAG-3+ T cells were detected at 48 h post-challenge, whereas in the biopsies, similar numbers of LAG-3+ cells were observed at both 48 and 120 h. Analysis of blister T cell subpopulations revealed some differences in phenotypes between the time points and between the CD4

  4. The effects of topical sodium cromoglicate on itch and flare in human skin induced by intradermal histamine: a randomised double-blind vehicle controlled intra-subject design trial

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Alan M; Stevens, Michael T; Church, Martin K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Itch is a prominent feature of many skin diseases, particularly atopic dermatitis and cutaneous mastocytosis. Sodium cromoglicate (SCG), a chromone developed for the treatment of allergic disease has been shown to reduce the severity of itch when applied topically to subjects with atopic dermatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether topical sodium cromoglicate can reduce the severity of itch induced by intradermal histamine. Methods SCG was introduced into t...

  5. Local lymph node assay (LLNA): comparison of different protocols by testing skin-sensitizing epoxy resin system components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamer, Armin O; Nies, Eberhard; Vohr, Hans-Werner

    2008-12-01

    Thirteen epoxy resin system components were tested in the LLNA with regard to their sensitizing potency. Lymph node stimulation was quantified not only by measuring the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine into the ear lymph nodes but also the counts of cells recovered from these organs. Equivalent figures were obtained with both endpoints used for the evaluation of lymph node cell proliferation if the reference stimulation indices were adjusted. When dissolved in acetone, all test substances showed skin-sensitizing potential, mainly on the boundary between "strong" and "moderate" according to common potency evaluation schemes. Replacing acetone with acetone/olive oil (4:1) as a vehicle for four selected test items, resulted in considerably lower estimated concentrations for sensitization induction. The challenges in comparing the results obtained by different LLNA variations are discussed.

  6. The effects of topical sodium cromoglicate on itch and flare in human skin induced by intradermal histamine: a randomised double-blind vehicle controlled intra-subject design trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Michael T

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Itch is a prominent feature of many skin diseases, particularly atopic dermatitis and cutaneous mastocytosis. Sodium cromoglicate (SCG, a chromone developed for the treatment of allergic disease has been shown to reduce the severity of itch when applied topically to subjects with atopic dermatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether topical sodium cromoglicate can reduce the severity of itch induced by intradermal histamine. Methods SCG was introduced into the skin of healthy volunteers both by iontophoresis and by topical application using a new 4% cutaneous emulsion (Altoderm™. The skin was then challenged with intradermal histamine. Measurements were made of severity of itch, size of wheal and flare and change in blood flux Results SCG significantly reduced the severity of itch (P = 0.0045 and flare (P = 0.0143 when delivered by iontophoresis. SCG 4% cutaneous emulsion significantly reduced severity of itch (P = 0.024 and flare (P = 0.015 in atopic subjects. Trend analysis showed increasing effect on itch with increased concentrations of SCG, which was significant (P = 0.046. There were no effects on wheal or blood flux. Conclusions Topically applied SCG, administered in a new cutaneous emulsion base, significantly reduced the itch and flare caused by intradermal histamine. The effect was greatest in atopic subjects and increased with the concentration of SCG in the emulsion. Trial registration ISRCTN35671014

  7. The effects of topical sodium cromoglicate on itch and flare in human skin induced by intradermal histamine: a randomised double-blind vehicle controlled intra-subject design trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Itch is a prominent feature of many skin diseases, particularly atopic dermatitis and cutaneous mastocytosis. Sodium cromoglicate (SCG), a chromone developed for the treatment of allergic disease has been shown to reduce the severity of itch when applied topically to subjects with atopic dermatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether topical sodium cromoglicate can reduce the severity of itch induced by intradermal histamine. Methods SCG was introduced into the skin of healthy volunteers both by iontophoresis and by topical application using a new 4% cutaneous emulsion (Altoderm™). The skin was then challenged with intradermal histamine. Measurements were made of severity of itch, size of wheal and flare and change in blood flux Results SCG significantly reduced the severity of itch (P = 0.0045) and flare (P = 0.0143) when delivered by iontophoresis. SCG 4% cutaneous emulsion significantly reduced severity of itch (P = 0.024) and flare (P = 0.015) in atopic subjects. Trend analysis showed increasing effect on itch with increased concentrations of SCG, which was significant (P = 0.046). There were no effects on wheal or blood flux. Conclusions Topically applied SCG, administered in a new cutaneous emulsion base, significantly reduced the itch and flare caused by intradermal histamine. The effect was greatest in atopic subjects and increased with the concentration of SCG in the emulsion. Trial registration ISRCTN35671014 PMID:21385340

  8. Prospective Internally Controlled Blind Reviewed Clinical Evaluation of Cryolipolysis Combined With Multipolar Radiofrequency andVaripulseTechnology for Enhanced Subject Results in Circumferential Fat Reduction and Skin Laxity of the Flanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, Julius; Gold, Michael; Sadick, Neil

    2016-11-01

    Increasing demand for non-invasive skin tightening and body contouring procedures has led to several technological in- novations in energy-based devices such as ultrasound, radiofrequency and cryolipolysis. An emerging trend in the eld is to evaluate whether combination therapies for skin laxity/body contouring using energy-based devices can deliver superior clinical results and patient satisfaction. As such, the objective of this prospective, internal-controlled, blind clinical study was to assess the safety and efficacy of cryolipolysis followed by multipolar radiofrequency with pulsed electromagnetic elds (PEMF) and adjustable pulsed suction for the treatment of skin laxity in the flanks. Ten subjects with focal adiposities in the anks were enrolled in the study. All subjects received one session of cryolipolysis treatment and after randomization received two sessions of radiofrequency with PEMF (spaced two weeks apart), followed by another two sessions of radiofrequency with PEMF and adjustable pulsed suction (spaced two weeks apart). Clinical photography was used to monitor the subject's results at baseline, one week, three, and six months post treatment. Blinded reviewers and the treating inves- tigator assessed the clinical outcomes using the Global Aesthetic Improvement (GAI) scale. Side effects were recorded at every visit and patient satisfaction was noted at the one week, three and six-month follow-up using a 5-scale subject satisfaction assessment questionnaire. Analysis of the blinded investigator ratings demonstrated statistical significant enhanced skin laxity mean improvement of 1 grade on the GAI scale in subject treated with the combination treatment (cryolipolysis+RF/PEMF/suction) compared with the cryolipolysis treatment alone. The unblinded investigator GAI ratings also showed enhanced (20%) mean improvement of laxity in the combination treated subjects versus those receiving cryolipolysis alone. Over half of the participants reported

  9. Clinical, biophysical, immunohistochemical, and in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy evaluation of the response of subjects with sensitive skin to home-use fractional non-ablative photothermolysis device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richters, R.J.; Hoogedoorn, L.; Uzunbajakava, N.E.; Janssen, L.D.; Tom Nuijs, A.M.; Erp, P.E.J. van; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fractional photothermolysis using professional devices is a well-accepted and a widely used technique for skin rejuvenation. Recently, the technology has also been implemented in devices for home-use. Yet, a subpopulation of consumers exists that reacts excessively to this stimulation

  10. A comparative evaluation of in vitro skin sensitisation tests: the human cell-line activation test (h-CLAT) versus the local lymph node assay (LLNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashikaga, Takao; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Sono, Sakiko; Kosaka, Nanae; Ishikawa, Makie; Nukada, Yuko; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Ito, Yuichi; Nishiyama, Naohiro; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2010-08-01

    We previously developed the human cell-line activation test (h-CLAT) in vitro skin sensitisation test, based on our reported finding that a 24-hour exposure of THP-1 cells (a human monocytic leukaemia cell line) to sensitisers is sufficient to induce the augmented expression of CD86 and CD54. The aim of this study is to confirm the predictive value of h-CLAT for skin sensitisation activity by employing a larger number of test chemicals. One hundred chemicals were selected, according to their categorisation in the local lymph node assay (LLNA), as being: extreme, strong, moderate and weak sensitisers, and non-sensitisers. The correlation of the h-CLAT results with the LLNA results was 84%. There were some false negatives (e.g. benzoyl peroxide, hexyl cinnamic aldehyde) and some false positives (e.g. 1-bromobutane, diethylphthalate). Eight out of the 9 false negatives (89%) were water-insoluble chemicals. The h-CLAT could positively predict not only extreme and strong sensitisers, but also moderate and weak sensitisers, though the detection rates of weak sensitisers and non-sensitisers were comparatively low. Some sensitisers enhanced both CD86 and CD54 levels, and some enhanced the level of only one of them. The use of the combination of CD86 and CD54 induction as a positive indicator, improved the accuracy of the test. In conclusion, the h-CLAT is expected to be a useful cell-based in vitro method for predicting skin sensitisation potential. 2010 FRAME.

  11. Categorical QSAR models for skin sensitization based on local lymph node assay measures and both ground and excited state 4D-fingerprint descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianzhong; Kern, Petra S.; Gerberick, G. Frank; Santos-Filho, Osvaldo A.; Esposito, Emilio X.; Hopfinger, Anton J.; Tseng, Yufeng J.

    2008-06-01

    In previous studies we have developed categorical QSAR models for predicting skin-sensitization potency based on 4D-fingerprint (4D-FP) descriptors and in vivo murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) measures. Only 4D-FP derived from the ground state (GMAX) structures of the molecules were used to build the QSAR models. In this study we have generated 4D-FP descriptors from the first excited state (EMAX) structures of the molecules. The GMAX, EMAX and the combined ground and excited state 4D-FP descriptors (GEMAX) were employed in building categorical QSAR models. Logistic regression (LR) and partial least square coupled logistic regression (PLS-CLR), found to be effective model building for the LLNA skin-sensitization measures in our previous studies, were used again in this study. This also permitted comparison of the prior ground state models to those involving first excited state 4D-FP descriptors. Three types of categorical QSAR models were constructed for each of the GMAX, EMAX and GEMAX datasets: a binary model (2-state), an ordinal model (3-state) and a binary-binary model (two-2-state). No significant differences exist among the LR 2-state model constructed for each of the three datasets. However, the PLS-CLR 3-state and 2-state models based on the EMAX and GEMAX datasets have higher predictivity than those constructed using only the GMAX dataset. These EMAX and GMAX categorical models are also more significant and predictive than corresponding models built in our previous QSAR studies of LLNA skin-sensitization measures.

  12. Skin sensitization potency of methyl methacrylate in the local lymph node assay: comparisons with guinea-pig data and human experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Catherine J; Dearman, Rebecca J; Heylings, Jon R; Kimber, Ian; Basketter, David A

    2006-09-01

    There is compelling evidence that contact allergens differ substantially (by 4 or 5 orders of magnitude) with respect to their inherent skin-sensitizing potency. Relative potency can now be measured effectively using the mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) and such data form the basis of risk assessment and risk management strategies. Such determinations also facilitate distinctions being drawn between the prevalence of skin sensitization to a particular contact allergen and inherent potency. The distinction is important because chemicals that are implicated as common causes of contact allergy are not necessarily potent sensitizers. One example is provided by nickel that is undoubtedly a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis, but is a comparatively weak sensitizer in predictive tests. In an attempt to explore other examples of contact allergens where there may exist a discrepancy between prevalence and potency, we describe here analyses conducted with methyl methacrylate (MMA). Results of LLNA studies have been interpreted in the context of historical clinical data on occupational allergic contact dermatitis associated with exposure to MMA.

  13. Skin sensitization potency of isoeugenol and its dimers evaluated by a non-radioisotopic modification of the local lymph node assay and guinea pig maximization test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeyoshi, Masahiro; Iida, Kenji; Suzuki, Keiko; Yamazaki, Shunsuke

    2008-05-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is the serious unwanted effect arising from the use of consumer products such as cosmetics. Isoeugenol is a fragrance chemical with spicy, carnation-like scent, is used in many kinds of cosmetics and is a well-known moderate human sensitizer. It was previously reported that the dimerization of eugenol yielded two types of dimer possessing different sensitization potencies. This study reports the differences in skin sensitization potencies for isoeugenol and two types of dimer, beta-O-4-dilignol and dehydrodiisoeugenol (DIEG), as evaluated by the non-radioisotopic local lymph node assay (non-RI LLNA) and guinea pig maximization test. In the guinea pig maximization test, isoeugenol, beta-O-4-dilignol and DIEG were classified as extreme, weak and moderate sensitizers, respectively. As for the results of non-RI LLNA, the EC3 for isoeugenol, beta-O-4-dilignol and DIEG were calculated as 12.7%, >30% and 9.4%, respectively. The two types of isoeugenol dimer showed different sensitizing activities similar to the case for eugenol dimers. A reduction of sensitization potency achieved by dimerization may lead to developing safer cosmetic ingredients. Isoeugenol dimers are not currently used for fragrance chemicals. However, the dimerization of isoeugenol may yield a promising candidate as a cosmetic ingredient with low sensitization risk. The data may also provide useful information for the structure-activity relationship (SAR) in skin sensitization. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. On the contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the carcinogenic impact of automobile exhaust condensate evaluated by local application onto mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmer, G; Brune, H; Deutsch-Wenzel, R; Naujack, K W; Misfeld, J; Timm, J

    1983-11-01

    The objective of this investigation was to identify the substances chiefly responsible for the carcinogenicity of automobile exhaust condensate using topical application onto the skin of mice. This was performed by comparing the carcinogenic effect of various fractions with that of an unseparated sample of automobile exhaust condensate, tested in 3 different doses. The probit and Weibull analysis of the result shows: (a) The condensate, emitted from a gasoline-driven automobile provokes local tumors after long-term application to the dorsal skin of mice. The tumor incidence demonstrates a clear cut dose-response relationship. (b) The fraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) containing more than 3 rings accounts for about 84-91% of the total carcinogenicity of automobile exhaust condensate. This fraction represents only about 3.5% by wt of the condensate. (c) The content of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (0.414 mg/g) accounts for 6-7.6% of the total carcinogenicity of automobile exhaust condensate, 15 selected PAHs for about 41%. (d) Regarding the minor effect of the PAH-free fraction (about 83% by wt), no hints for a cocarcinogenic activity were observed.

  15. Nutrition and skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Apostolos; Liakou, Aikaterini; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2016-09-01

    Nutrition has long been associated with skin health, including all of its possible aspects from beauty to its integrity and even the aging process. Multiple pathways within skin biology are associated with the onset and clinical course of various common skin diseases, such as acne, atopic dermatitis, aging, or even photoprotection. These conditions have been shown to be critically affected by nutritional patterns and dietary interventions where well-documented studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of essential nutrients on impaired skin structural and functional integrity and have restored skin appearance and health. Although the subject could be vast, the intention of this review is to provide the most relevant and the most well-documented information on the role of nutrition in common skin conditions and its impact on skin biology.

  16. Interactions of mean body and local skin temperatures in the modulation of human forearm and calf blood flows: a three-dimensional description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Joanne N; Matsuda-Nakamura, Mayumi; Taylor, Nigel A S

    2016-02-01

    The inter-relationships between mean body and local skin temperatures have previously been established for controlling hand and foot blood flows. Since glabrous skin contains many arteriovenous anastomoses, it was important to repeat those experiments on non-glabrous regions using the same sample and experimental conditions. Mild hypothermia (mean body temperature 31.4 °C), normothermia (control: 36.0 °C) and moderate hyperthermia (38.3 °C) were induced and clamped (climate chamber and water-perfusion garment) in eight males. Within each condition, five localised thermal treatments (5, 15, 25, 33, 40 °C) were applied to the left forearm and right calf. Steady-state forearm and calf blood flows were measured (venous occlusion plethysmography) for each of the resulting 15 combinations of clamped mean body and local skin temperatures. Under the normothermic clamp, cutaneous blood flows averaged 4.2 mL 100 mL(-1) min(-1) (±0.28: forearm) and 5.4 mL 100 mL(-1) min(-1) (±0.27: calf). When mildly hypothermic, these segments were unresponsive to localised thermal stimuli, but tracked those changes when normothermic and moderately hyperthermic. For deep-body (oesophageal) temperature elevations, forearm blood flow increased by 5.1 mL 100 mL(-1) min(-1) °C(-1) (±0.9) relative to normothermia, while the calf was much less responsive: 3.3 mL 100 mL(-1) min(-1) °C(-1) (±1.5). Three-dimensional surfaces revealed a qualitative divergence in the control of calf blood flow, with vasoconstrictor tone apparently being released more gradually. These descriptions reinforce the importance of deep-tissue temperatures in controlling cutaneous perfusion, with this modulation being non-linear at the forearm and appearing linear for the calf.

  17. local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio Amiguinho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-educational territorialisation in rural contexts is the topic of this text. The theme corresponds to a challenge to address it having as main axis of discussion either the problem of social exclusion or that of local development. The reasons to locate the discussion in this last field of analysis are discussed in the first part of the text. Theoretical and political reasons are there articulated because the question is about projects whose intentions and practices call for the political both in the theoretical debate and in the choices that anticipate intervention. From research conducted for several years, I use contributions that aim at discuss and enlighten how school can be a potential locus of local development. Its identification and recognition as local institution (either because of those that work and live in it or because of those that act in the surrounding context are crucial steps to progressively constitute school as a partner for development. The promotion of the local values and roots, the reconstruction of socio-personal and local identities, the production of sociabilities and the equation and solution of shared problems were the dimensions of a socio-educative intervention, markedly globalising. This scenario, as it is argued, was also, intentionally, one of transformation and of deliberate change of school and of the administration of the educative territoires.

  18. Spectral components of laser Doppler flowmetry signals recorded in healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects at rest and during a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application: scalogram analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humeau, Anne; Koitka, Audrey; Abraham, Pierre; Saumet, Jean-Louis; L'Huillier, Jean-Pierre

    2004-01-01

    A significant transient increase in laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals is observed in response to a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application in healthy subjects. This reflex may be impaired in diabetic patients. The work presents a signal processing providing the clarification of this phenomenon. Scalogram analyses of LDF signals recorded at rest and during a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application are performed on healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects. Three frequency bands, corresponding to myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial related metabolic activities, are studied. The results show that, at rest, the scalogram energy of each frequency band is significantly lower for diabetic patients than for healthy subjects, but the scalogram relative energies do not show any statistical difference between the two groups. Moreover, the neurogenic and endothelial related metabolic activities are significantly higher during the progressive pressure than at rest, in healthy and diabetic subjects. However, the relative contribution of the endothelial related metabolic activity is significantly higher during the progressive pressure than at rest, in the interval 200-400 s following the beginning of the pressure application, but only for healthy subjects. These results may improve knowledge on cutaneous microvascular responses to injuries or local pressures initiating diabetic complications

  19. Spectral components of laser Doppler flowmetry signals recorded in healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects at rest and during a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application: scalogram analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humeau, Anne [Groupe ISAIP-ESAIP, 18 rue du 8 mai 1945, BP 80022, 49180 Saint Barthelemy d' Anjou cedex (France); Koitka, Audrey [Laboratoire de Physiologie et d' Explorations Vasculaires, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d' Angers, 49033 Angers cedex 01 (France); Abraham, Pierre [Laboratoire de Physiologie et d' Explorations Vasculaires, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d' Angers, 49033 Angers cedex 01 (France); Saumet, Jean-Louis [Laboratoire de Physiologie et d' Explorations Vasculaires, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d' Angers, 49033 Angers cedex 01 (France); L' Huillier, Jean-Pierre [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Arts et Metiers (ENSAM), Laboratoire Procedes-Materiaux-Instrumentation (LPMI), 2 boulevard du Ronceray, BP 3525, 49035 Angers cedex (France)

    2004-09-07

    A significant transient increase in laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) signals is observed in response to a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application in healthy subjects. This reflex may be impaired in diabetic patients. The work presents a signal processing providing the clarification of this phenomenon. Scalogram analyses of LDF signals recorded at rest and during a local and progressive cutaneous pressure application are performed on healthy and type 1 diabetic subjects. Three frequency bands, corresponding to myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial related metabolic activities, are studied. The results show that, at rest, the scalogram energy of each frequency band is significantly lower for diabetic patients than for healthy subjects, but the scalogram relative energies do not show any statistical difference between the two groups. Moreover, the neurogenic and endothelial related metabolic activities are significantly higher during the progressive pressure than at rest, in healthy and diabetic subjects. However, the relative contribution of the endothelial related metabolic activity is significantly higher during the progressive pressure than at rest, in the interval 200-400 s following the beginning of the pressure application, but only for healthy subjects. These results may improve knowledge on cutaneous microvascular responses to injuries or local pressures initiating diabetic complications.

  20. Skin Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  1. Skin abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abscess - skin; Cutaneous abscess; Subcutaneous abscess; MRSA - abscess; Staph infection - abscess ... Skin abscesses are common and affect people of all ages. They occur when an infection causes pus ...

  2. Development and initial validation of the Localized Scleroderma Skin Damage Index and Physician Global Assessment of disease Damage: a proof-of-concept study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaiyuk, Soamarat; Torok, Kathryn S.; Medsger, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To develop and assess the psychometric properties of the Localized Scleroderma (LS) Skin Damage Index (LoSDI) and Physician Global Assessment of disease Damage (PGA-D). Methods. Damage was defined as irreversible/persistent changes (>6 months) due to previous active disease/complications of therapy. Eight rheumatologists assessed the importance of 17 variables in formulating the PGA-D/LoSDI. LS patients were evaluated by two rheumatologists using both tools to assess their psychometric properties. LoSDI was calculated by summing three scores for cutaneous features of damage [dermal atrophy (DAT), subcutaneous atrophy (SAT) and dyspigmentation (DP)] measured at 18 anatomic sites. Patient GA of disease severity (PtGA-S), Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) and PGA-D were recorded at the time of each examination. Results. Thirty LS patients (112 lesions) and nine patient-visit pairs (18 lesions) were included for inter- and intra-rater reliability study. LoSDI and its domains DAT, SAT, DP and PGA-D demonstrated excellent inter- and intra-rater reliability (reliability coefficients 0.86–0.99 and 0.74–0.96, respectively). LoSDI correlated moderately with PGA-D and poorly with PtGA-S and CDLQI. PGA-D correlated moderately with PtGA-S, but poorly with CDLQI. Conclusions. To complete the LS Cutaneous Assessment Tool (LoSCAT), we developed and evaluated the psychometric properties of the LoSDI and PGA-D in addition to the LS Skin Severity Index (LoSSI). These instruments will facilitate evaluation of LS patients for individual patient management and clinical trials. LoSDI and PGA-D demonstrated excellent reliability and high validity. LoSCAT provides an improved understanding of LS natural history. Further study in a larger group of patients is needed to confirm these preliminary findings. PMID:20008472

  3. Comparative potency of formulations of mometasone furoate in terms of inhibition of ′PIRHR′ in the forearm skin of normal human subjects measured with laser doppler velocimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulhalli Prabhakar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Topical glucocorticoid formulations are widely used for effective treatment and control of a variety of dermatoses. Mometasone furoate is a newer corticoid that has high potency but low systemic toxicity. Pharmaceutical factors are known to significantly influence potency and systemic absorption of topically applied glucocorticoids. We studied the potency of "Elocon", a topical formulation of mometasone furoate, compared with two other branded formulations of the same corticoid. METHODS: Corticoid potency was measured by employing a pharmacodynamic parameter of an inhibitory effect of the corticoid on post-ischemic-reactive-hyperemic-response (PIRHR in human forearm skin under occlusive dressing. The PIRHR was expressed in terms of % increase in the skin blood flow (SBF as measured with laser doppler velocimetry (LDV. RESULTS : All three active branded formulations of mometasone furoate produced significant inhibition of PIRHR. The AUC(0-2min of PIRHR was ( Mean ± SEM , Control = 213.52 ± 11.80, Placebo = 209.77 ± 19.31, Formulation A = 119.83 ± 13.71, Formulation C = 53.67 ± 4.85 and Formulation D = 111.46 ± 22.87. Formulation "C" exhibited significantly higher topical anti-inflammatory potency than formulations "A" or "D". CONCLUSIONS: Thus, branded formulations of the same glucocorticoid, mometasone furoate significantly differed in their topical anti-inflammatory potency. "Elocon" was significantly more potent than the two other branded formulations studied.

  4. Skin barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Renowned experts present the latest knowledge Although a very fragile structure, the skin barrier is probably one of the most important organs of the body. Inward/out it is responsible for body integrity and outward/in for keeping microbes, chemicals, and allergens from penetrating the skin. Since...... the role of barrier integrity in atopic dermatitis and the relationship to filaggrin mutations was discovered a decade ago, research focus has been on the skin barrier, and numerous new publications have become available. This book is an interdisciplinary update offering a wide range of information...... on the subject. It covers new basic research on skin markers, including results on filaggrin and on methods for the assessment of the barrier function. Biological variation and aspects of skin barrier function restoration are discussed as well. Further sections are dedicated to clinical implications of skin...

  5. Coffee polyphenols extracted from green coffee beans improve skin properties and microcirculatory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukagawa, Satoko; Haramizu, Satoshi; Sasaoka, Shun; Yasuda, Yuka; Tsujimura, Hisashi; Murase, Takatoshi

    2017-09-01

    Coffee polyphenols (CPPs), including chlorogenic acid, exert various physiological activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CPPs on skin properties and microcirculatory function in humans. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 49 female subjects with mildly xerotic skin received either a test beverage containing CPPs (270 mg/100 mL/day) or a placebo beverage for 8 weeks. The ingestion of CPPs significantly lowered the clinical scores for skin dryness, decreased transepidermal water loss, skin surface pH, and increased stratum corneum hydration and the responsiveness of skin blood flow during local warming. Moreover, the amounts of free fatty acids and lactic acid in the stratum corneum significantly increased after the ingestion of CPPs. These results suggest that an 8-week intake of CPPs improve skin permeability barrier function and hydration, with a concomitant improvement in microcirculatory function, leading to efficacy in the alleviation of mildly xerotic skin.

  6. Skin Pedagogies and Abject Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    How does the beauty industry "narrate the skin"? What does it teach women from different cultural groups about the female body? How does skin function as a site where female subjection and abjection are produced and reproduced? In this paper we examine the skin industry pointing to its extreme commodification of the female body and to the…

  7. Radiation reaction of skin treatment with nucliderm-gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandova, V.; Marinova, Ts.; Stefanova, D.; Pantev, T.; Yankova, S.

    1988-01-01

    The process of epithelization and the anticeptic effect of nucliderm-gel applied locally have been studied in 63 oncological patients subjected to radiotherapy. In all cases under study nucliderm-gel promotes skin epithelization and has a high antiseptic effect as compared with the drugs applied hitherto

  8. Hemodynamic response after injection of local anesthetics with or without adrenaline in adult Nigerian subjects undergoing simple tooth extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olutayo James

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to determine the changes in the blood pressure (BP and the pulse rate (PR of normotensive patients having dental extraction under the administration of 2% lignocaine local anesthetic with or without adrenaline. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out on 325 consecutive normotensive patients who presented at the exodontia clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH, Lagos, Yoruba State, Nigeria from December 2004 to August 2005 for simple tooth extraction. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups according to the type of anesthetic solution employed. Group A had tooth extraction done under the administration of 2% lignocaine with adrenaline (1:80,000 while group B had tooth extraction done under the administration of 2% lignocaine local anesthetic without vasoconstrictor (plain lignocaine. Each patient had single tooth extracted. The following parameters were monitored in each of the surgical interventions: systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, and PR. Measurements were taken in the waiting room before surgery, during the surgery after local anesthesia, during tooth extraction, and 15 min after tooth extraction. Results: The sample consisted of 176 females and 149 males. Age range of the patients was 18-89 years with the mean age of 35.08 ± 15.60 years. The hemodynamic responses to lignocaine with adrenaline (1:80,000 and plain lignocaine essentially follow the same pattern in the study. There was no statistically significant difference between the measured parameters in the two groups after the administration of local anesthetics. Conclusion: This study, therefore, shows that there was no difference in the hemodynamic changes observed with the use of lignocaine with adrenaline or plain lignocaine during a simple tooth extraction in healthy adults.

  9. Skin Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Miguel A; Zakaria, Alan; Nizran, Parminder

    2015-12-01

    Skin cancer accounts for most malignancies across the globe. They are primarily divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin malignancies. Nonmelanoma skin cancer includes basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Fair skin and chronic ultraviolet B exposure are the most important risk factors. Primary prevention is achieved by avoiding sun exposure and tanning beds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Skin tightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Kammer, Jenna N

    2011-01-01

    Skin tightening describes the treatment of skin laxity via radiofrequency (RF), ultrasound, or light-based devices. Skin laxity on the face is manifested by progressive loss of skin elasticity, loosening of the connective tissue framework, and deepening of skin folds. This results in prominence of submandibular and submental tissues. Genetic factors (chronological aging) and extrinsic factors (ultraviolet radiation) both contribute to skin laxity. There are many RF, ultrasound, and light-based devices directed at treating skin laxity. All of these devices target and heat the dermis to induce collagen contraction. Heating of the dermis causes collagen denaturation and immediate collagen contraction in addition to long-term collagen remodeling. Via RF, light, or ultrasound, these skin tightening devices deliver heat to the dermis to create new collagen and induce skin tightening. This chapter will provide an overview of the various skin tightening devices. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. A proposal on restart rule of nuclear power plants with piping having local wall thinning subjected to an earthquake. Former part. Aiming at further application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urabe, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    Restart rule of nuclear power plants (NPPs) with piping having local wall thinning subjected to an earthquake was proposed taking account of local wall thinning, seismic effects and restart of NPPs with applicability of 'Guidelines for NPP Response to an Earthquake (EPRI NP-6695)' in Japan. Japan Earthquake Damage Intensity Scale (JEDIS) and Earthquake Ground Motion Level (EGML) were introduced. JEDIS was classified into four scales obtained from damage level of components and structures of NPPs subjected to an earthquake, while EGML was divided into four levels by safe shutdown earthquake ground motion (So), elastic design earthquake ground motion (Sd) and design earthquake ground motion (Ss). Combination of JEDIS and EGML formulated 4 x 4 matrix and determined detailed conditions of restart of NPPs. As a response to an earthquake, operator walk inspections and evaluation of earthquake ground motion were conducted to know the level of JEDIS. JEDIS level requested respective allowable conditions of restart of NPP, which were scale level dependent and consisted of weighted combination of damage inspection (operator walk inspections, focused inspections/tests and expanded inspections), integrity evaluation and repair/replacement. If JEDIS were assigned greater than 3 with expanded inspections, inspection of piping with local wall thinning, its integrity evaluation and repair/replacement if necessary were requested. Inspection and evaluation of piping with local wall thinning was performed based on JSME or ASME codes. Detailed work flow charts were presented. Carbon steel piping and elbow was chosen for evaluation. (T. Tanaka)

  12. Analyzing the effect of large rotations on the seismic response of structures subjected to foundation local uplift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Abbas N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with seismic analysis of structures by taking into account soil-structure interaction where the structure is modeled by an equivalent flexible beam mounted on a rigid foundation that is supported by a Winkler like soil. The foundation is assumed to undergo local uplift and the rotations are considered to be large. The coupling of the system is represented by a series of springs and damping elements that are distributed over the entire width of the foundation. The non-linear equations of motion of the system were derived by taking into account the equilibrium of the coupled foundation-structure system where the structure was idealized as a single-degree-of-freedom. The seismic response of the structure was calculated under the occurrence of foundation uplift for both large and small rotations. The non-linear differential system of equations was integrated by using the Matlab command ode15s. The maximum response has been determined as function of the intensity of the earthquake, the slenderness of the structure and the damping ratio. It was found that considering local uplift with small rotations of foundation under seismic loading leads to unfavorable structural response in comparison with the case of large rotations.

  13. Mode of action of cupping--local metabolism and pain thresholds in neck pain patients and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerich, M; Braeunig, M; Clement, H W; Lüdtke, R; Huber, R

    2014-02-01

    Cupping worldwide has been part of traditional medicine systems and is in the western world used as CAM therapy mainly for treating pain syndromes. The mode of action is up to now unclear. In order to investigate its mechanism we measured in parallel metabolic changes in the tissue under the cupping glass and pressure pain thresholds. In 12 volunteers (6 healthy subjects and 6 patients with chronic neck pain) a microdialysis system was implanted subcutaneously on both sides (left and right) above the trapezius muscle. After baseline measures cupping was performed at one randomly selected side (left or right), the other side served as control. Every 20 min during baseline measures and for 280 min after cupping, microdialysis probes for detection of lactate, pyruvate, glucose and glycerin were taken. In addition, pain thresholds were measured before and after cupping with algometry. Cupping resulted in a strong increase of lactate (beginning 160 min after cupping until the end of the measurements) and the lactate/pyruvate ratio, indicating an anaerobe metabolism in the surrounding tissue. Baseline pain thresholds were non-significantly lower in neck pain patients compared to healthy controls and slightly increased immediately after cupping (pcupping in healthy subjects and on the foot in neck pain patients). After 280 min no more significant changes of pain thresholds were detected. Cupping induces >280 min lasting anaerobe metabolism in the subcutaneous tissue and increases immediate pressure pain thresholds in some areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) variability for assessing the prediction of skin sensitisation potential and potency of chemicals with non-animal approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Coralie; Barroso, João; Matys, Izabela; Worth, Andrew; Casati, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    The knowledge of the biological mechanisms leading to the induction of skin sensitisation has favoured in recent years the development of alternative non-animal methods. During the formal validation process, results from the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) are generally used as reference data to assess the predictive capacity of the non-animal tests. This study reports an analysis of the variability of the LLNA for a set of chemicals for which multiple studies are available and considers three hazard classification schemes: POS/NEG, GHS/CLP and ECETOC. As the type of vehicle used in a LLNA study is known to influence to some extent the results, two analyses were performed: considering the solvent used to test the chemicals and without considering the solvent. The results show that the number of discordant classifications increases when a chemical is tested in more than one solvent. Moreover, it can be concluded that study results leading to classification in the strongest classes (1A and EXT) seem to be more reliable than those in the weakest classes. This study highlights the importance of considering the variability of the reference data when evaluating non-animal tests. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Response localization of the pharmacological agents histamine and salbutamol along the respiratory system by forced oscillations in asthmatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, E F; Polko, A H; Visser, B F

    1989-01-01

    The bronchodilating effect of 1 mg and 0.4 mg salbutamol on the impedance of the respiratory system was studied in 25 asthmatic subjects after histamine-induced bronchoconstriction. Histamine caused an increase of respiratory resistance (Rrs) at lower frequencies and a frequency dependence of Rrs. Respiratory reactance (Xrs) decreased at all frequencies after histamine challenge. These changes can be explained by peripheral airway obstruction. Impedance measurements performed 5 min after inhalation of 1 mg and 0.4 mg salbutamol showed a decrease of Rrs values at lower frequencies, a disappearance of the frequency dependence of Rrs, and a significant increase of Xrs values. No significant differences in absolute changes of Rrs and Xrs are observed between the salbutamol regimens. These changes after inhalation of salbutamol can be explained by supposing a predominant action on the peripheral airways.

  16. Development of Robust Behaviour Recognition for an at-Home Biomonitoring Robot with Assistance of Subject Localization and Enhanced Visual Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamoglu, Nevrez; Dorronzoro, Enrique; Wei, Zhixuan; Shi, Huangjun; González, José; Gu, Dongyun; Yu, Wenwei

    2014-01-01

    Our research is focused on the development of an at-home health care biomonitoring mobile robot for the people in demand. Main task of the robot is to detect and track a designated subject while recognizing his/her activity for analysis and to provide warning in an emergency. In order to push forward the system towards its real application, in this study, we tested the robustness of the robot system with several major environment changes, control parameter changes, and subject variation. First, an improved color tracker was analyzed to find out the limitations and constraints of the robot visual tracking considering the suitable illumination values and tracking distance intervals. Then, regarding subject safety and continuous robot based subject tracking, various control parameters were tested on different layouts in a room. Finally, the main objective of the system is to find out walking activities for different patterns for further analysis. Therefore, we proposed a fast, simple, and person specific new activity recognition model by making full use of localization information, which is robust to partial occlusion. The proposed activity recognition algorithm was tested on different walking patterns with different subjects, and the results showed high recognition accuracy. PMID:25587560

  17. Development of Robust Behaviour Recognition for an at-Home Biomonitoring Robot with Assistance of Subject Localization and Enhanced Visual Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevrez Imamoglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research is focused on the development of an at-home health care biomonitoring mobile robot for the people in demand. Main task of the robot is to detect and track a designated subject while recognizing his/her activity for analysis and to provide warning in an emergency. In order to push forward the system towards its real application, in this study, we tested the robustness of the robot system with several major environment changes, control parameter changes, and subject variation. First, an improved color tracker was analyzed to find out the limitations and constraints of the robot visual tracking considering the suitable illumination values and tracking distance intervals. Then, regarding subject safety and continuous robot based subject tracking, various control parameters were tested on different layouts in a room. Finally, the main objective of the system is to find out walking activities for different patterns for further analysis. Therefore, we proposed a fast, simple, and person specific new activity recognition model by making full use of localization information, which is robust to partial occlusion. The proposed activity recognition algorithm was tested on different walking patterns with different subjects, and the results showed high recognition accuracy.

  18. Development of robust behaviour recognition for an at-home biomonitoring robot with assistance of subject localization and enhanced visual tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamoglu, Nevrez; Dorronzoro, Enrique; Wei, Zhixuan; Shi, Huangjun; Sekine, Masashi; González, José; Gu, Dongyun; Chen, Weidong; Yu, Wenwei

    2014-01-01

    Our research is focused on the development of an at-home health care biomonitoring mobile robot for the people in demand. Main task of the robot is to detect and track a designated subject while recognizing his/her activity for analysis and to provide warning in an emergency. In order to push forward the system towards its real application, in this study, we tested the robustness of the robot system with several major environment changes, control parameter changes, and subject variation. First, an improved color tracker was analyzed to find out the limitations and constraints of the robot visual tracking considering the suitable illumination values and tracking distance intervals. Then, regarding subject safety and continuous robot based subject tracking, various control parameters were tested on different layouts in a room. Finally, the main objective of the system is to find out walking activities for different patterns for further analysis. Therefore, we proposed a fast, simple, and person specific new activity recognition model by making full use of localization information, which is robust to partial occlusion. The proposed activity recognition algorithm was tested on different walking patterns with different subjects, and the results showed high recognition accuracy.

  19. Application of BALB/c mouse in the local lymph node assay:BrdU-ELISA for the prediction of the skin sensitizing potential of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Fenxia; Xing, Caihong; Li, Bin; Cheng, Juan; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Man

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a skin disease characterized by eczema and itching. A considerable proportion of chemicals induce ACD in humans. More than 10,000 substances should be tested for skin sensitization potential under the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances (REACH) regulation. The Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) has been designated as the first-choice in vivo assay for sensitization testing by REACH. The LLNA:BrdU-ELISA is a validated non-radioactive modification to the LLNA. For both the LLNA and the LLNA:BrdU-ELISA, CBA/JN mouse is the preferred mouse strain recommended in the regulatory guidelines. However, the availability of CBA/JN mouse in China is only limited to a few animal suppliers, which makes the mouse difficult to obtain. BALB/c mouse, which is widely commercially available, is considered for alternative use but it can only be used in the assay after it has been evaluated by formal validation study. Thus, a validation study was conducted in our laboratory to determine if BALB/c mouse could also be used in the LLNA:BrdU-ELISA. Forty-three test substances including 32 LLNA sensitizers and 11 LLNA non-sensitizers, their vehicles and each concentration used were the same as that used in the formal validation study for the LLNA:BrdU-ELISA using CBA/JN mouse. Female BALB/c mice of 8-10 weeks old were randomly allocated to groups (four mice per group). The test substance (25 μl) or the vehicle alone was applied to the dorsum of both ears daily for 3 consecutive days. A single intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ml of BrdU (10mg/ml) solution was given on day 5. On day 6, a pair of auricular lymph nodes from each mouse was excised, weighed and stored at -20°C until BrdU-ELISA was conducted. This validation study for the LLNA:BrdU-ELISA using BALB/c mouse correctly identified 30 of 31 sensitizers and 8 of 11 non-sensitizers. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, false positive rate, false negative rate

  20. Skin Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Skin Complications Diabetes can affect every part of the ... lipoidica diabeticorum, diabetic blisters, and eruptive xanthomatosis. General Skin Conditions Bacterial Infections Several kinds of bacterial infections ...

  1. Cryotherapy - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryosurgery - skin; Warts - freezing; Warts - cryotherapy; Actinic keratosis - cryotherapy; Solar keratosis - cryotherapy ... may be used to: Remove warts Destroy precancerous skin lesions (actinic keratoses or solar keratoses) In rare ...

  2. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types ... face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ...

  3. Sagging Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turkey neck,” this occurs as skin loses its elasticity and in cases where individuals have lost a ... technique or procedure is appropriate for my skin type? Did the doctor show me before-and-after ...

  4. Skin Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... like these: skin rashes or conditions, such as eczema or psoriasis skin infections, such as staph diseases, ...

  5. Effect of local wall thinning on the collapse behavior of pipe elbows subjected to a combined internal pressure and in-plane bending load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin-Weon; Na, Man-Gyun; Park, Chi-Yong

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of local wall thinning on the collapse behavior of pipe elbows subjected to a combined internal pressure and in-plane bending load. This study evaluated the global deformation behavior and collapse moment of the elbows, which contained various types of local wall-thinning defects at their intrados or extrados, using three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element analysis. The analysis results showed that the global deformation behavior of locally wall-thinned elbows was largely governed by the mode of the bending and the elbow geometry rather than the wall-thinning parameters, except for elbows with considerably large and deep wall thinning that showed plastic instabilities induced by local buckling and plastic collapsing in the thinned area. The reduction in the collapse moment with wall-thinning depth was considerable when local buckling occurred in the thinned areas, whereas the effect of the thinning depth was small when ovalization occurred. The effects of the circumferential thinning angle and thinning length on the collapse moment of elbows were not major for shallow wall-thinning cases. For deeper wall-thinning cases, however, their effects were significant and the dependence of collapse moment on the axial thinning length was governed by the stress type applied to the wall-thinned area. Typically, the reduction in the collapse moment due to local wall thinning was clearer when the thinning defect was located at the intrados rather than the extrados, and it was apparent for elbows with larger bend radius

  6. Evaluation of radioisotopic and non-radioisotopic versions of local lymph node assays for subcategorization of skin sensitizers compliant to UN GHS rev 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Soojin; Ahn, Il Young; Kim, Da-Eun; Lee, Jong Kwon; Sohn, Soojung; Jung, Mi-Sook; Heo, Yong; Omori, Takashi; Bae, SeungJin; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2017-04-01

    Recently UN GHS has introduced the sub-categorization of skin sensitizers for which ECt (concentration estimated to induce stimulation index above threshold) of the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is used as criteria. Non-radioisotopic variants of LLNA, LLNA: DA, LLNA: BrdU-ELISA, LNCC and LLNA: BrdU-FCM were developed yet their utilities for potency sub-categorization are not established. Here we assessed the agreement of LLNA variants with LLNA or human data in potency sub-categorization for 22 reference substances of OECD TG429. Concordance of sub-categorization with LLNA was highest for LLNA: BrdU-FCM(91%, κ = 0.833, weighted kappa) followed by LLNA: BrdU-ELISA (82%, κ = 0.744) and LLNA: DA (73%, κ = 0.656) whereas LNCC only showed a modest association (64%, κ = 0.441). With human data, LLNA agreed best (77%) followed by LLNA: DA and LLNA: BrdU-FCM(73%), LLNA: BrdU-ELISA (68%) and LNCC(55%). Bland-Altman plot revealed that ECt's of LLNA variants largely agreed with LLNA where most values fell within 95% limit of agreement. Correlation between ECt's of LLNA and LLNA variants were high except for LNCC(pair-wise with LLNA, LLNA: DA, r = 0.848, LLNA: BrdU-ELISA, r = 0.744, LLNA: BrdU-FCM, r=0.786, and LNCC, r = 0.561 by Pearson). Collectively, these results demonstrated that LLNA variants exhibit performance comparable to LLNA in the potency sub-categorization although additional substances shall be analyzed in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Skin Graft

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Ruka; Kishi, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Skin graft is one of the most indispensable techniques in plastic surgery and dermatology. Skin grafts are used in a variety of clinical situations, such as traumatic wounds, defects after oncologic resection, burn reconstruction, scar contracture release, congenital skin deficiencies, hair restoration, vitiligo, and nipple-areola reconstruction. Skin grafts are generally avoided in the management of more complex wounds. Conditions with deep spaces and exposed bones normally require the use o...

  8. Comparison of the skin sensitizing potential of unsaturated compounds as assessed by the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiling, R; Hollnagel, H M; Hareng, L; Eigler, D; Lee, M S; Griem, P; Dreessen, B; Kleber, M; Albrecht, A; Garcia, C; Wendel, A

    2008-06-01

    The skin sensitization potential of eight unsaturated and one saturated lipid (bio)chemicals was tested in both the LLNA and the GPMT to address the hypothesis that chemicals with unsaturated carbon-carbon double bonds may result in a higher number of unspecific (false positive) results in the LLNA compared to the GPMT. Seven substances (oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, undecylenic acid, maleic acid, squalene and octinol) gave clear positive results in the LLNA (stimulation index (SI)> or = 3) and thus would require labelling as skin sensitizer. Fumaric acid and succinic acid gave clearly negative results. In the GPMT, besides some sporadic skin reactions, reproducible skin reactions indicating an allergic response were found in a few animals for four test substances. Based on the GPMT results, only undecylenic acid would have to be classified and labelled as a skin sensitizer according to the European Dangerous Substance Directive (67/548/EEC) (results for linoleic acid were inconclusive), while the other seven test substances would not require labelling. Possible mechanisms for unspecific skin cell stimulation and lymph node responses are discussed. In conclusion, the suitability of the LLNA for unsaturated compounds bearing structural similarity to the tested substances should be carefully considered and the GPMT should remain available as an accepted test method for skin sensitization hazard identification.

  9. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  10. P16INK4a Positive Cells in Human Skin Are Indicative of Local Elastic Fiber Morphology, Facial Wrinkling, and Perceived Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaijer, Mariëtte E C; Gunn, David A; Adams, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Senescent cells are more prevalent in aged human skin compared to young, but evidence that senescent cells are linked to other biomarkers of aging is scarce. We counted cells positive for the tumor suppressor and senescence associated protein p16INK4a in sun-protected upper-inner arm skin biopsies...... wrinkles and a higher perceived age. Participants in the lowest tertile of epidermal p16INK4a counts looked 3 years younger than those in the highest tertile, independently of chronological age and elastic fiber morphology. In conclusion, p16INK4a positive cell numbers in sun-protected human arm skin...

  11. Potentiation by caffeine of x-ray damage to cultured human skin fibroblasts from normal subjects and ataxia-telangiectasia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furcinitti, P.S.

    1983-01-01

    Caffeine was found to potentiate x-ray-induced killing of human diploid fibroblasts from a normal subject and an ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) patient when it was present at 2 mM concentration for 30 to 66 h postirradiation. The dose-modifying factor for caffeine-treated normal cells had an average value of 1.26 +- 0.13 which did not vary significantly with treatment time or x-ray dose. The dose-modifying factor for caffeine-treated AT cells was 1.12 +- 0.12 at 30 h, rose to 1.66 +- 0.17 at 41 h, and decreased to 1.31 +- 0.13 at 66 h. Thus no clear difference was observed between these two cell strains' susceptibility to postirradiation caffeine treatment

  12. fMRI of pain studies using laser-induced heat on skin with and without the loved one near the subject - a pilot study on 'love hurts'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofina, T.; Kamil, W. A.; Ahmad, A. H.

    2014-11-01

    The aims of this study are to image and investigate the areas of brain response to laser-induced heat pain, to analyse for any difference in the brain response when a subject is alone and when her loved one is present next to the MRI gantry. Pain stimuli was delivered using Th-YAG laser to four female subjects. Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD) fMRI experiment was performed using blocked design paradigm with five blocks of painful (P) stimuli and five blocks of non-painful (NP) stimuli arranged in pseudorandom order with an 18 seconds rest (R) between each stimulation phase. Brain images were obtained from 3T Philips Achieva MRI scanner using 32-channel SENSE head coil. A T1-weighted image (TR/TE/slice/FOV = 9ms/4ms/4mm slices/240×240mm) was obtained for verification of brain anatomical structures. An echo-planar-imaging sequence were used for the functional scans (TR/TE/slice/flip/FOV=2000ms/35ms/4mm slices/90°/220×220mm). fMRI data sets were analysed using SPM 8.0 involving preprocessing steps followed by t-contrast analysis for individuals and FFX analysis. In both with and without-loved-one conditions, neuronal responses were seen in the somatosensory gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, thalamus and insula regions, consistent with pain-related areas. FFX analysis showed that the presence of loved one produced more activation in the frontal and supramarginal gyrus during painful and non-painful stimulations compared to absence of a loved one. Brain response to pain is modulated by the presence of a loved one, causing more activation in the cognitive/emotional area i.e. 'love hurts'.

  13. MR imaging manifestations of skin tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong-hyon; Kim, Jee Young [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, St. Vincent' s Hospital, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea); Chun, Kyung Ah [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Uijeongbu St. Mary Hospital, Uijeongbu, Gyeonggi-do (Korea); Jee, Won-Hee [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Sung, Mi-Sook [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Holy family Hospital, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea)

    2008-11-15

    In this study, we evaluated MR imaging findings of skin tumors and categorized them into four types: (1) discrete mass lesions of the dermis and epidermis, (2) mass lesions of the subcutis with or without abutment to the skin, (3) diffuse or localized skin thickening without a true mass, and (4) a skin mass with bone destruction. The categorization of MR images may be useful in the differential diagnosis of skin tumors. (orig.)

  14. Comparison of the effects of local cryotherapy and passive cross-body stretch on extensibility in subjects with posterior shoulder tightness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyue-Nam; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Weon, Jong-Hyuck; Choung, Sung-Dae; Kim, Si-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to compare the immediate effects of local cryotherapy (LC) and passive cross-body stretch on the extensibility of the posterior shoulder muscle in individuals with posterior shoulder tightness. Eighty-seven healthy subjects with a between-shoulder difference in internal rotation (IR) range of motion (ROM) greater than 10° were randomly divided into three groups: LC group, stretching group, and control group (n = 29 in each group). Subjects in the LC group received LC on infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles and subjects in the stretching group performed passive cross-body stretch. Stretch sensation was measured at the end range of passive IR and horizontal adduction (HA) using numerical rating scale, and the pressure pain threshold (PPT) at the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles was measured using pressure algometry. Passive and active ROM of IR and HA of the glenohumeral joint were measured using an inclinometer. All measurements were performed at pre-intervention, post- intervention, and 10-min follow-up. Stretch sensation was significantly decreased and PPT was significantly increased in the LC and stretching groups at post-intervention, and these effects were maintained at 10-min follow-up, compared to the control group. Both the LC group and stretching group had a significantly greater increase in passive and active ROM of IR and HA, compared to the control group at post-intervention and 10-min follow-up. However, there were no significant differences in stretch sensation, PPT, or ROM of IR and HA between the LC group and stretching group. LC can be used to decrease the stretch sensation and increase PPT and ROM of IR and HA as much as a stretching exercise. LC could be an alternative method for increasing the restricted ROM of glenohumeral IR and HA for individuals with posterior shoulder tightness, especially for patients and sports players who have severe stretching discomfort. Key PointsLocal cryotherapy (LC) decreased the

  15. Defense of cutaneous cells against uv irradiation. II. Restricted photomediated binding of trimethyl psoralen to pigmented skin in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, D.M.; Jegasothy, B.V.; Condit, E.S.

    1973-01-01

    Distinct differences in grain distribution were seen in autoradiographs of pigmented and nonpigmented skin from spotted guinea-pig ears subjected to photosensitizing conditions by the topical application of tritiated trimethyl psoralen ( 3 H TMP) and exposure to uv irradiation at 365 nm. Grains were localized over cells throughout the epidermis in nonpigmented skin, but they were not seen beneath the stratum corneum in pigmented skin. Since TMP covalently binds to epidermal nucleic acids only after irradiation, these experiments demonstrate that the compacted melanized cells of the outer epidermis shield the DNA of underlying cells by severely restricting the penetration of uv light into the skin. (auth)

  16. A case of radiation-induced skin ulcer, cerebral meningioma and skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuki; Yano, Kenji

    2000-01-01

    We report a case of radiation-induced skin ulcer, cerebral meningioma, and skin cancer in a 69-year-old woman who had undergone local irradiation and application of radium directly to the skin for actinomycosis of the face at the age of twenty. Some forty to fifty years later, a skin ulcer in the preauricular area in the center of the radiodermatitis, cerebral meningioma in the right sphenoid ridge, and a keratotic skin tumor in the right auricle all developed within the previously irradiated region. The cerebral meningioma was extirpated. The skin ulcer was excised and covered with a forearm flap. After the skin tumor was excised and the subcutaneous tumor in the postauricular area was excised, the postoperative histopathological diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma with lymph node metastasis. It was considered that the squamous cell carcinoma was derived from irradiated keratosis. Four months later, right neck lymph node dissection was performed. Both the meningioma and squamous cell carcinoma satisfied Cahan's criteria for radiation-induced tumors. So we diagnosed these as radiation-induced cerebral meningioma and squamous cell carcinoma. We haven't detected any recurrence of the squamous cell carcinoma for two years. We learned from this case that chronic radiation disturbances cause an irreversible reaction and various radiolesions, including malignancies, can occur after a long period of latency. It is important to never underestimate a small lesion in the irradiated area, to plan early preventive surgical treatment to remove skin that may have been over-subjected to irradiation, and to continue long-term follow-up for patients with chronic radiodermatitis. (author)

  17. A case of radiation-induced skin ulcer, cerebral meningioma and skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Yuki; Yano, Kenji [Kure National Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    We report a case of radiation-induced skin ulcer, cerebral meningioma, and skin cancer in a 69-year-old woman who had undergone local irradiation and application of radium directly to the skin for actinomycosis of the face at the age of twenty. Some forty to fifty years later, a skin ulcer in the preauricular area in the center of the radiodermatitis, cerebral meningioma in the right sphenoid ridge, and a keratotic skin tumor in the right auricle all developed within the previously irradiated region. The cerebral meningioma was extirpated. The skin ulcer was excised and covered with a forearm flap. After the skin tumor was excised and the subcutaneous tumor in the postauricular area was excised, the postoperative histopathological diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma with lymph node metastasis. It was considered that the squamous cell carcinoma was derived from irradiated keratosis. Four months later, right neck lymph node dissection was performed. Both the meningioma and squamous cell carcinoma satisfied Cahan's criteria for radiation-induced tumors. So we diagnosed these as radiation-induced cerebral meningioma and squamous cell carcinoma. We haven't detected any recurrence of the squamous cell carcinoma for two years. We learned from this case that chronic radiation disturbances cause an irreversible reaction and various radiolesions, including malignancies, can occur after a long period of latency. It is important to never underestimate a small lesion in the irradiated area, to plan early preventive surgical treatment to remove skin that may have been over-subjected to irradiation, and to continue long-term follow-up for patients with chronic radiodermatitis. (author)

  18. Occupational skin cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawkrodger, D.J. [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Dermatology

    2004-10-01

    Skin cancer due to occupation is more common than is generally recognized, although it is difficult to obtain an accurate estimate of its prevalence. Over the past two centuries, occupational skin cancers have particularly been due to industrial exposure of men (it seems more so than women) to chemical carcinogens such as polycyclic hydrocarbons (e.g. from coal tar products) or to arsenic. Industrial processes have improved in most Western countries to limit this type of exposure, but those with outdoor occupations are still exposed to solar ultraviolet irradiation without this being widely recognized as an industrial hazard. Ionizing radiation such as X-rays can also cause skin cancer. Occupational skin cancers often resemble skin tumours found in non-occupational subjects, e.g. basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, but some pre-malignant lesions can be more specific and point to an occupational origin, e.g. tar keratoses or arsenical keratoses. An uncommon but well-recognized cause of occupational skin cancer is that which results from scar formation following an industrial burn. In the future it will be necessary to focus on preventative measures, e.g. for outdoor workers, the need to cover up in the sun and use sun protective creams and a campaign for earlier recognition of skin cancers, which are usually curable if treated in their early stages.

  19. Skin bank development and critical incident response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kellie T; Herson, Marisa R

    2011-05-01

    The Donor Tissue Bank of Victoria (DTBV), situated in Melbourne, Australia developed a skin banking program in 1994. It remains Australia's only operational skin bank, processing cryopreserved human cadaveric skin for the treatment of burns. The demand for allograft skin in Australia has steadily increased since the development of the program. The bank has been involved in the provision of skin for a number of critical incidences or disasters both in Australia and overseas. Demand always exceeds supply, and in the absence of other local skin banks, the DTBV has needed to develop strategies to enable increased provision of allograft skin nationally.

  20. Preparation of Artificial Skin that Mimics Human Skin Surface and Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Rana; Nonomura, Yoshimune

    2018-01-01

    We have developed an artificial skin that mimics the morphological and mechanical properties of human skin. The artificial skin comprises a polyurethane block possessing a microscopically rough surface. We evaluated the tactile sensations when skin-care cream was applied to the artificial skin. Many subjects perceived smooth, moist, and soft feels during the application process. Cluster analysis showed that these characteristic tactile feels are similar to those when skin-care cream is applied to real human skin. Contact angle analysis showed that an oil droplet spread smoothly on the artificial skin surface, which occurred because there were many grooves several hundred micrometers in width on the skin surface. In addition, when the skin-care cream was applied, the change in frictional force during the dynamic friction process increased. These wetting and frictional properties are important factors controlling the similarity of artificial skin to real human skin.

  1. Evaluation of sex-related changes in skin topography and structure using innovative skin testing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, M; Mielcarek, A; Nowak, I

    2018-04-29

    Evaluation of skin condition on the basis of parametrization and objective measurements of the parameters has become obligatory. The aim of this study was to assess sex-related changes in skin topography and structure using the skin testing equipment. The study was carried out on the group of 40 volunteers (20 females and 20 males) of the mean age 24 ± 3 years. The skin parameters were measured using 3 devices: Visioscan ®  VC 98 (skin topography), Visioline ® VL 650 (skin macro relief) and Ultrascan UC22 (ultrasound imaging of the skin). All measurements were performed on the inner part of the left forearm. The skin parameters measured revealed significant differences in skin surface and structure between females and males. The skin of all women subjects was more homogenous in its structure with the presence of more abundant superficial skin lines and wrinkles in comparison to male skin. The higher number of skin furrows in the skin of women is in agreement with literature reports claiming that men's skin has lower number of wrinkles which are deeper and more pronounced. Ultrasound imaging of the skin indicated greater thickness and lower density of the dermis of men subjects compared to those of females. Non-invasive methods of skin testing using new and advanced equipment have provided a possibility of objective parametrization and evaluation of sex-related changes in skin topography and structure. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Dual specific oral tolerance induction using interferon gamma for IgE-mediated anaphylactic food allergy and the dissociation of local skin allergy and systemic oral allergy: tolerance or desensitization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, G; Jang, E H

    2014-01-01

    Specific oral tolerance induction (SOTI) for IgE-mediated food allergy (IFA) can be successfully achieved using interfero gamma (classic SOTI). In this study, a tolerable dose was introduced during tolerance induction with interferon gamma (dual SOTI), and its effectiveness was evaluated. The study population comprised 25 IFA patients. Blood samples were taken for analysis, including complete blood count with differential counts of eosinophils, serum total IgE levels, and specific IgE for allergenic foods. Skin prick tests were conducted with the allergens. Oral food challenges were performed to diagnose IFA. Ten patients received dual SOTI, 5 received classic SOTI, 5 received SOTI without interferon gamma (original SOTI), and 5 were not treated (controls). Patients treated with dual SOTI and classic SOTI using interferon gamma became tolerant to the allergenic food. The tolerable dose was introduced successfully in dual SOTI. It was difficult to proceed with the same dosing protocol used for classic SOTI in cases treated with original SOTI. Following dual SOTI, the systemic reaction to oral intake subsided, but the local skin reaction to contact with the allergenic food persisted. Dual SOTI is an improved protocol for SOTI using interferon gamma for IFA.The local skin reaction and systemic reaction to oral intake were dissociated following dual SOTI. In cases of food allergy, tolerance appears to result from desensitization to allergens.

  3. Dry Skin Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on a budget Skin care products Skin care secrets Skin lighteners Skin of color Summer skin problems ... condition, such as eczema. Additional related information Dermatologists' top tips for relieving dry skin FIND A DERMATOLOGIST ...

  4. Comparison of the Effects of Local Cryotherapy and Passive Cross-Body Stretch on Extensibility in Subjects with Posterior Shoulder Tightness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyue-nam Park

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to compare the immediate effects of local cryotherapy (LC and passive cross-body stretch on the extensibility of the posterior shoulder muscle in individuals with posterior shoulder tightness. Eighty-seven healthy subjects with a between-shoulder difference in internal rotation (IR range of motion (ROM greater than 10° were randomly divided into three groups: LC group, stretching group, and control group (n = 29 in each group. Subjects in the LC group received LC on infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles and subjects in the stretching group performed passive cross-body stretch. Stretch sensation was measured at the end range of passive IR and horizontal adduction (HA using numerical rating scale, and the pressure pain threshold (PPT at the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles was measured using pressure algometry. Passive and active ROM of IR and HA of the glenohumeral joint were measured using an inclinometer. All measurements were performed at pre-intervention, post- intervention, and 10-min follow-up. Stretch sensation was significantly decreased and PPT was significantly increased in the LC and stretching groups at post-intervention, and these effects were maintained at 10-min follow-up, compared to the control group. Both the LC group and stretching group had a significantly greater increase in passive and active ROM of IR and HA, compared to the control group at post-intervention and 10-min follow-up. However, there were no significant differences in stretch sensation, PPT, or ROM of IR and HA between the LC group and stretching group. LC can be used to decrease the stretch sensation and increase PPT and ROM of IR and HA as much as a stretching exercise. LC could be an alternative method for increasing the restricted ROM of glenohumeral IR and HA for individuals with posterior shoulder tightness, especially for patients and sports players who have severe stretching discomfort.

  5. Comparison of daily megavoltage electronic portal imaging or kilovoltage imaging with marker seeds to ultrasound imaging or skin marks for prostate localization and treatment positioning in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serago, Christopher F.; Buskirk, Steven J.; Igel, Todd C.; Gale, Ashley A.; Serago, Nicole E.; Earle, John D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the accuracy of imaging modalities, immobilization, localization, and positioning techniques in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Thirty-five patients with prostate cancer had gold marker seeds implanted transrectally and were treated with fractionated radiotherapy. Twenty of the 35 patients had limited immobilization; the remaining had a vacuum-based immobilization. Patient positioning consisted of alignment with lasers to skin marks, ultrasound or kilovoltage X-ray imaging, optical guidance using infrared reflectors, and megavoltage electronic portal imaging (EPI). The variance of each positioning technique was compared to the patient position determined from the pretreatment EPI. Results: With limited immobilization, the average difference between the skin marks' laser position and EPI pretreatment position is 9.1 ± 5.3 mm, the average difference between the skin marks' infrared position and EPI pretreatment position is 11.8 ± 7.2 mm, the average difference between the ultrasound position and EPI pretreatment position is 7.0 ± 4.6 mm, the average difference between kV imaging and EPI pretreatment position is 3.5 ± 3.1 mm, and the average intrafraction movement during treatment is 3.4 ± 2.7 mm. For the patients with the vacuum-style immobilization, the average difference between the skin marks' laser position and EPI pretreatment position is 10.7 ± 4.6 mm, the average difference between kV imaging and EPI pretreatment position is 1.9 ± 1.5 mm, and the average intrafraction movement during treatment is 2.1 ± 1.5 mm. Conclusions: Compared with use of skin marks, ultrasound imaging for positioning provides an increased degree of agreement to EPI-based positioning, though not as favorable as kV imaging fiducial seeds. Intrafraction movement during treatment decreases with improved immobilization

  6. Localization of dexamethasone within dendritic core-multishell (CMS) nanoparticles and skin penetration properties studied by multi-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidpour, S; Lohan, S B; Anske, M; Unbehauen, M; Fleige, E; Haag, R; Meinke, M C; Bittl, R; Teutloff, C

    2017-07-01

    The skin and especially the stratum corneum (SC) act as a barrier and protect epidermal cells and thus the whole body against xenobiotica of the external environment. Topical skin treatment requires an efficient drug delivery system (DDS). Polymer-based nanocarriers represent novel transport vehicles for dermal application of drugs. In this study dendritic core-multishell (CMS) nanoparticles were investigated as promising candidates. CMS nanoparticles were loaded with a drug (analogue) and were applied to penetration studies of skin. We determined by dual-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) how dexamethasone (Dx) labelled with 3-carboxy-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1-pyrrolidinyloxy (PCA) is associated with the CMS. The micro-environment of the drug loaded to CMS nanoparticles was investigated by pulsed high-field EPR at cryogenic temperature, making use of the fact that magnetic parameters (g-, A-matrices, and spin-lattice relaxation time) represent specific probes for the micro-environment. Additionally, the rotational correlation time of spin-labelled Dx was probed by continuous wave EPR at ambient temperature, which provides independent information on the drug environment. Furthermore, the penetration depth of Dx into the stratum corneum of porcine skin after different topical applications was investigated. The location of Dx in the CMS nanoparticles is revealed and the function of CMS as penetration enhancers for topical application is shown. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Michiko

    1992-01-01

    This chapter reviews the development of skin cancer associated with radiation, focusing on the knowledge of A-bomb radiation-induced skin cancer. Since the discovery of X radiation in 1895, acute and chronic radiation dermatitis has been the first matter of concern. Then, in 1902, skin cancer found among radiological personnel has posed a social problem. In earlier study determining the relationship between skin cancer and A-bomb radiation, there is no increase in the incidence of either skin cancer or precancerous condition during the first 20 years after A-bombing. More recent studies have showed that there is a significant correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and distance from the hypocenter; and the incidence of skin cancer is found to be remarkably increased since 1975 in the group exposed at ≤2,000 m. Excess relative risk is 2.2 at one Gy dose. The incidence of skin cancer is also found to be extremely increased with aging. Relative risk is high in younger A-bomb survivors at the time of exposure. Histologically, basal cell carcinoma is more senstitive to ionizing radiation than squamous cell carcinoma. (N.K.)

  8. Co-encapsulation of paclitaxel and C6 ceramide in tributyrin-containing nanocarriers improve co-localization in the skin and potentiate cytotoxic effects in 2D and 3D models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Vanessa F M; Migotto, Amanda; Giacone, Daniela V; de Lemos, Débora P; Zanoni, Thalita B; Maria-Engler, Silvya S; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia V; Lopes, Luciana B

    2017-11-15

    Considering that tumor development is generally multifactorial, therapy with a combination of agents capable of potentiating cytotoxic effects is promising. In this study, we co-encapsulated C6 ceramide (0.35%) and paclitaxel (0.50%) in micro and nanoemulsions containing tributyrin (a butyric acid pro-drug included for potentiation of cytotoxicity), and compared their ability to co-localize the drugs in viable skin layers. The nanoemulsion delivered 2- and 2.4-fold more paclitaxel into viable skin layers of porcine skin in vitro at 4 and 8h post-application than the microemulsion, and 1.9-fold more C6 ceramide at 8h. The drugs were co-localized mainly in the epidermis, suggesting the nanoemulsion ability for a targeted delivery. Based on this result, the nanoemulsion was selected for evaluation of the nanocarrier-mediated cytotoxicity against cells in culture (2D model) and histological changes in a 3D melanoma model. Encapsulation of the drugs individually decreased the concentration necessary to reduce melanoma cells viability to 50% (EC 50 ) by approximately 4- (paclitaxel) and 13-fold (ceramide), demonstrating an improved nanoemulsion-mediated drug delivery. Co-encapsulation of paclitaxel and ceramide further decreased EC 50 by 2.5-4.5-fold, and calculation of the combination index indicated a synergistic effect. Nanoemulsion topical administration on 3D bioengineered melanoma models for 48h promoted marked epidermis destruction, with only few cells remaining in this layer. This result demonstrates the efficacy of the nanoemulsion, but also suggests non-selective cytotoxic effects, which highlights the importance of localizing the drugs within cutaneous layers where the lesions develop to avoid adverse effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. In vitro human skin permeation of endoxifen: potential for local transdermal therapy for primary prevention and carcinoma in situ of the breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee O

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Oukseub Lee1, David Ivancic1, Robert T Chatterton Jr2, Alfred W Rademaker3, Seema A Khan11Department of Surgery, 2Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology, 3Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAPurpose: Oral tamoxifen, a triphenylethylene (TPE, is useful for breast cancer prevention, but its adverse effects limit acceptance by women. Tamoxifen efficacy is related to its major metabolites 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT and N-desmethyl-4-hydroxytamoxifen (endoxifen [ENX]. Transdermal delivery of these to the breast may avert the toxicity of oral tamoxifen while maintaining efficacy. We evaluated the relative efficiency of skin permeation of 4-OHT and ENX in vitro, and tested oleic acid (OA as a permeation-enhancer.Methods: 4-OHT, ENX, and estradiol (E2 (0.2 mg/mL of 0.5 µCi 3H/mg were dissolved in 60% ethanol-phosphate buffer, ±OA (0.1%–5%. Permeation through EpiDermTM (Matek Corp, Ashland, MA and split-thickness human skin was calculated based on the amount of the agents recovered from the receiver fluid and skin using liquid scintillation counting over 24 hours.Results: In the EpiDerm model, the absorption of 4-OHT and ENX was 10%–11%; total penetration (TP was 26%–29% at 24 hours and was decreased by OA. In normal human skin, the absorption of 4-OHT and ENX was 0.3%; TP was 2%–4% at 24 hours. The addition of 1% OA improved the permeation of ENX significantly more than that of 4-OHT (P < 0.004; further titration of OA at 0.25%–0.5% further improved the permeation of ENX to a level similar to that of estradiol.Conclusion: The addition of OA to ENX results in a favorable rapid delivery equivalent to that of estradiol, a widely used transdermal hormone. The transdermal delivery of ENX to the breast should be further developed in preclinical and clinical studies.Keywords: endoxifen, breast cancer prevention, human skin, transdermal, oleic acid

  10. Camphor induces cold and warm sensations with increases in skin and muscle blood flow in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaka, Tomohiko; Kimura, Shoji; Kashiwayanagi, Makoto; Iwamoto, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Application of camphor to the skin has been empirically thought to improve blood circulation. However, camphor's effects on blood circulation to the skin and on thermal sensation have not been well elucidated. In this study, we examined its effects on the quality of sensation as well as on skin and muscle blood flow in human. Nine adults (average age 37±9.4 years) participated in the study. Petroleum jelly containing 5%, 10%, 20% camphor, or 2% menthol was separately applied to the skin on the medial side of one forearm of each subject. Just after the application, camphor at each concentration induced a cold sensation in a dose-dependent manner. Within 10 min, each subject reported that the cold sensation had faded, after which it was replaced by a warm sensation. As reported previously, a cold sensation was induced by application of 2% menthol, but the subjects did not adapt to that sensation. In addition, menthol did not induce a warm sensation at all. Application of menthol has been shown to increase blood flow in the skin. Finally, we measured blood flow in skin and muscle after the application of camphor or menthol. Application of camphor or menthol separately induced increases in local blood flow in the skin and muscle. The present results indicate that camphor induces both cold and warm sensations and improves blood circulation.

  11. Skin Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients ...

  12. Hyperelastic skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is most often seen in people who have Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic skin. ... any member of your family been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome? What other symptoms are present? Genetic counseling may ...

  13. Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sunlamps. There are 2 types of UV rays: UVA rays (long-wave) – UVA rays penetrate clouds and glass. They penetrate the ... to cancer. But studies have shown that both UVA and UVB damage the skin and can cause ...

  14. Differentiation of irradiation and cetuximab induced skin reactions in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer undergoing radioimmunotherapy: the HICARE protocol (Head and neck cancer: ImmunoChemo and Radiotherapy with Erbitux) – a multicenter phase IV trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habl, G; Potthoff, K; Haefner, MF; Abdollahi, A; Hassel, JC; Boller, E; Indorf, M; Debus, J

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the clinical outcome of patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (LASCCHN) not being capable to receive platinum-based chemoradiation, radiotherapy can be intensified by addition of cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that blocks the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The radioimmunotherapy with cetuximab is a feasible treatment option showing a favourable toxicity profile. The most frequent side effect of radiotherapy is radiation dermatitis, the most common side effect of treatment with cetuximab is acneiform rash. Incidence and severity of these frequent, often overlapping and sometimes limiting skin reactions, however, are not well explored. A clinical and molecular differentiation between radiogenic skin reactions and skin reactions caused by cetuximab which may correlate with outcome, have never been described before. The HICARE study is a national, multicenter, prospective phase IV study exploring the different types of skin reactions that occur in patients with LASCCHN undergoing radioimmun(chemo)therapy with the EGFR inhibitor cetuximab. 500 patients with LASCCHN will be enrolled in 40 participating sites in Germany. Primary endpoint is the rate of radiation dermatitis NCI CTCAE grade 3 and 4 (v. 4.02). Radioimmunotherapy will be applied according to SmPC, i.e. cetuximab will be administered as loading dose and then weekly during the radiotherapy. Irradiation will be applied as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or 3D-dimensional radiation therapy. The HICARE trial is expected to be one of the largest trials ever conducted in head and neck cancer patients. The goal of the HICARE trial is to differentiate skin reactions caused by radiation from those caused by the monoclonal antibody cetuximab, to evaluate the incidence and severity of these skin reactions and to correlate them with outcome parameters. Besides, the translational research program will help to identify and confirm novel

  15. Numerical simulation of flows in a circular pipe transversely subjected to a localized impulsive body force with applications to blunt traumatic aortic rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbio, G Di; Keshavarz-Motamed, Z; Kadem, L, E-mail: lcfd@encs.concordia.ca [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, H3G 1M8 (Canada)

    2017-06-15

    Much debate surrounds the mechanisms responsible for the occurrence of blunt traumatic aortic rupture in car accidents, particularly on the role of the inertial body force experienced by the blood due to the abrupt deceleration. The isolated influence of such body forces acting on even simple fluid flows is a fundamental problem in fluid dynamics that has not been thoroughly investigated. This study numerically investigates the fundamental physical problem, where the pulsatile flow in a straight circular pipe is subjected to a transverse body force on a localized volume of fluid. The body force is applied as a brief rectangular impulse in three distinct cases, namely during the accelerating, peak, and decelerating phases of the pulsatile flow. A dimensionless number, termed the degree of influence of the body force (Ψ), is devised to quantify the relative strength of the body force over the flow inertia. The impact induces counter-rotating cross-stream vortices at the boundaries of the forced section accompanied by complex secondary flow structures. This secondary flow is found to develop slowest for an impact occurring during an accelerating flow and fastest during a decelerating flow. The peak skewness of the velocity field, however, occurred at successively later times for the three respective cases. After the impact, these secondary flows act to restore the unforced state and such dominant spatial structures are revealed by proper orthogonal decomposition of the velocity field. This work presents a new class of problems that requires further theoretical and experimental investigation. (paper)

  16. Numerical simulation of flows in a circular pipe transversely subjected to a localized impulsive body force with applications to blunt traumatic aortic rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Labbio, G.; Keshavarz-Motamed, Z.; Kadem, L.

    2017-06-01

    Much debate surrounds the mechanisms responsible for the occurrence of blunt traumatic aortic rupture in car accidents, particularly on the role of the inertial body force experienced by the blood due to the abrupt deceleration. The isolated influence of such body forces acting on even simple fluid flows is a fundamental problem in fluid dynamics that has not been thoroughly investigated. This study numerically investigates the fundamental physical problem, where the pulsatile flow in a straight circular pipe is subjected to a transverse body force on a localized volume of fluid. The body force is applied as a brief rectangular impulse in three distinct cases, namely during the accelerating, peak, and decelerating phases of the pulsatile flow. A dimensionless number, termed the degree of influence of the body force (Ψ), is devised to quantify the relative strength of the body force over the flow inertia. The impact induces counter-rotating cross-stream vortices at the boundaries of the forced section accompanied by complex secondary flow structures. This secondary flow is found to develop slowest for an impact occurring during an accelerating flow and fastest during a decelerating flow. The peak skewness of the velocity field, however, occurred at successively later times for the three respective cases. After the impact, these secondary flows act to restore the unforced state and such dominant spatial structures are revealed by proper orthogonal decomposition of the velocity field. This work presents a new class of problems that requires further theoretical and experimental investigation.

  17. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  18. Skin Colour Analysis of Iraqi Kurdish Population

    OpenAIRE

    Zardawi, Faraedon M; Xiao, Kaida; Yates, Julian M

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Skin colour measurement and analysis was performed for Iraqi Kurdish population in sulaimani city. The purpose of this study was to produce a dedicated skin shade guide for precise colour reproduction and colour matching of maxillofacial prostheses with the patient’s original skin colour. Methodology: A skin colour measurement was undertaken for 140 subjects (73 female and 67 male). A method of capturing their (L* a* b*) colour values from nine body parts was performed using a Mi...

  19. Skin decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehrle, G.

    1975-01-01

    A general survey of skin decontamination is given. The success of every decontamination treatments depends mainly on the speed, but also on the care, with which the action is taken. The best way to remove the skin contaminants is thorough washing under lukewarm running water with mild soap and a soft brush. This washing is to be repeated several times for a period of several minutes. If results are not satisfactory, light duty detergents and wetting agents available commercially may also be used. Some solutions which have proved useful are mentioned. The decontamination solutions are best used in the order given. When one has no satisfactory decontamination effect, the next one is to be used. If necessary, these agents must be used several times in the stated order as long as this does not involve too much strain for the skin. All the decontamination measures mentioned refer, of course, to intact healthy skin. After decontamination has been completed, the skin should be treated with a protective cream

  20. THE IMPACT OF ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIATION ON MORPHO-FUNCTIONAL STATE OF SKIN IN GUINEA PIGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myronchenko, S; Naumova, O; Zvyagintseva, T

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of ultraviolet irradiation (UV) on morphological and functional condition of the skin in guinea pigs. The study involved 30 albino guinea pigs weighing 400-500 g subjected to local exposure to UV irradiation. Control group consisted of intact guinea pigs. Histological studies of the skin were carried out at different stages of the trial (2 hours, 4 hours, 3 days, 8 days following the exposure). Microscopic examination showed morphological signs of acute inflammation in the skin of animals within the first three days following the exposure to UV irradiation. Within 2 hours following the exposure to UV irradiation these changes were minimal with signs of mild exudative changes. In 4 hours after the exposure histological changes increased. The specimens were also found to contain altered apoptotic keratinocytes (sunburn cells). Histopathological changes persisted and reached maximum severity by the 3rd day. Within post-erythema period (the 8th day) proliferative, hyperplastic, degenerative and dystrophic changes in the skin persisted. The prolonged nature of the changes in the skin is suggestive of the development of chronic inflammation in the skin of guinea pigs subjected to local exposure to UV irradiation.

  1. Declawing ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus) to minimize skin damage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anel

    Abstract. Preliminary genetic parameters for nodule traits of ostrich skins were estimated to examine whether genetic improvement of skin quality is feasible. Average nodule size and density per dm² were determined on five localities on each of 439 ostrich skins. An animal model with random animal and skin permanent.

  2. Skin barrier composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osburn, F.G.

    1985-01-01

    A skin barrier composition comprises a mixture of a copolymer resin of ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA), and a water-insoluble dry tack-providing elastomer such as polyisobutylene. The composition after mixing and molding, is subjected to ionizing irradiation to form cross-linked polymer networks of the EVA. The compositions have exceptional properties for use as barrier sheets, rings, or strips in ostomy, wound drainage, and incontinence devices. (author)

  3. Skin barrier composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osburn, F G

    1985-06-12

    A skin barrier composition comprises a mixture of a copolymer resin of ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA), and a water-insoluble dry tack-providing elastomer such as polyisobutylene. The composition after mixing and molding, is subjected to ionizing irradiation to form cross-linked polymer networks of the EVA. The compositions have exceptional properties for use as barrier sheets, rings, or strips in ostomy, wound drainage, and incontinence devices.

  4. The skin immune system (SIS): distribution and immunophenotype of lymphocyte subpopulations in normal human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J. D.; Zonneveld, I.; Das, P. K.; Krieg, S. R.; van der Loos, C. M.; Kapsenberg, M. L.

    1987-01-01

    The complexity of immune response-associated cells present in normal human skin was recently redefined as the skin immune system (SIS). In the present study, the exact immunophenotypes of lymphocyte subpopulations with their localizations in normal human skin were determined quantitatively. B cells

  5. Skin regeneration with conical and hair follicle structure of deep second-degree scalding injuries via combined expression of the EPO receptor and beta common receptor by local subcutaneous injection of nanosized rhEPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert S

    2012-03-01

    analyzed with respect to grade of re-epithelialization (wound closure and stage of epidermal maturation. This was investigated using different histological parameters of epithelial covering, such as depth of the epidermal layer, epidermal stratification, and presence of conical and hair follicle structures.Results: Expression of EPOR, βCR, and growth hormone receptor at the mRNA and protein levels was demonstrated with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. After rhEPO treatment, the rate of re-epithelialization of the scalding injury was increased and the time to final wound closure was reduced. In addition, the quality of regenerated skin was improved. In this investigation, for the first time, we demonstrated coexpression of EPOR and βCR at the RNA and protein levels in vivo using a deep second-degree scalding injury mouse model. These results highlight the potential role of rhEPO in the improved treatment of burns patients, which might be crucial for the development of innovative new therapy regimes.Conclusion: Local injection of nanosized rhEPO directly to the injury site rather than systemic administration for deep second-degree scalding injuries achieved complete skin regeneration with conical and hair follicle structure via combined expression of EPOR and βCR.Keywords: burns, nanosize, common β subunit, erythropoietin, receptor, local injection

  6. Skin hydration, microrelief and greasiness of normal skin in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsankov, N; Mateev, D; Darlenski, R

    2018-03-01

    The skin is the primary defence of the human body against external factors from physical, chemical, mechanical and biologic origin. Climatic factors together with low temperature and sun radiation affect the skin. The effect of climatic conditions in Antarctica on healthy skin has not been previously addressed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the skin hydration, greasiness and microrelief due to the extreme climatic environmental factors during the stay of the members of the Bulgarian Antarctic expedition. Fifty-nine Caucasian healthy subjects, 42 men and 17 women with mean age 50.9 years (27-68), were enrolled. The study was performed in five consecutive years from 2011 to 2016 at the Bulgarian Antarctic base camp at Livingston Island. The study protocol consisted of two parts: study A: duration of 15 days with measurement of skin physiology parameters on a daily basis, and study B: five measurements at baseline and at days 14, 30, 45 and 50 upon arrival in Antarctica. We measured three biophysical parameters related to skin physiology at cheek skin by an impedance measuring device. No statistically significant difference between parameters at the different measurement points. There is a variation in skin hydration reaching its lower point at day 11 and then returning to values similar to baseline. Initially, an increase in skin greasiness was witnessed with a sharp depression at day 11 and final values at day 15 resembling the ones at baseline. An increase, although not statistically significant, in skin roughness was observed in the first 15 days of the study. Study B showed no statistically significant variances between values of the three parameters. Our studies show the pioneer results of the effect of Antarctic climate on human skin physiology. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  7. Nutritional and antioxidant status by skin types among female adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyun Sook; Choi, Sung Im

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to analyze the relationship among sebum · hydration content of the skin and nutritional intake, serum antioxidant minerals and antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxide concentration in 50 female subjects in their 20s. The skin type was divided into Dry Skin, Mixed Skin, and Oily Skin, and the dry skin group was 14%, the mixed skin group was 56%, and the oily skin group was 30% of all subjects. The average age of the subjects was 20.54 ± 1.43 years and BMI was 20.66. The average sebum content in each group was in the order of T-zone>forehead>chin>cheek. In case of the T-zone, a significant difference between the dry skin group and the oily skin group was observed, suggesting that the area is most sensitive to sebum content by skin type. Significant differences were not observed in energy and nutrient intakes by skin type. Serum concentrations of antioxidant minerals such as copper, manganese, zinc and selenium were not significantly different among the groups, but the dry skin group tended to be higher than the oily skin group. Serum catalase was significantly higher in the oily skin group (P skin group (P skin health. PMID:20607067

  8. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  9. Biothermomechanical behavior of skin tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.Xu; T.J.Lu; K.A.Seffen

    2008-01-01

    Advances in laser,microwave and similar tech nologies have led to recent developments of thermal treatments involving skin tissue.The effectiveness of these treatments is governed by the coupled thermal,mechanical,biological and neural responses of the affected tissue:a favorable interaction results in a procedure with relatively little pain and no lasting side effects.Currently,even though each behavioral facet is to a certain extent established and understood,none exists to date in the interdisciplinarv area.A highly interdisciplinary approach is required for studying the biothermomechanical behavior of skin,involving bioheat transfer.biomechanics and physiology.A comprehensive literature review penrtinent to the subject is presented in this paper,covering four subject areas:(a)skin structure,(b)skin bioheat transfer and thermal damage,(c)skin biomechanics,and(d)skin biothermomechanics.The major problems,issues,and topics for further studies are also outlined.This review finds that significant advances in each of these aspects have been achieved in recent years.Although focus is placed upon the biothermomechanical behavior of skin tissue,the fundamental concepts and methodologies reviewed in this paper may also be applicable for studying other soft tissues.

  10. Sympathetic skin response evoked by laser skin stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, P.; Truini, A.; Serrao, M.; Iannetti, G. D.; Parisi, L.; Pozzessere, G.; Cruccu, G.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evoke sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) in healthy subjects using laser stimulation and to compare these responses with those induced by conventional electrical stimuli. Twenty healthy subjects were investigated. SSRs were obtained using electrical and laser stimuli delivered to the wrist controlateral to the recording site. The sympathetic sudomotor conduction velocity (SSFCV) was measured in 8 subjects by simultaneously recording the SSR from the hand and ...

  11. Mechanisms regulating skin immunity and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasparakis, Manolis; Haase, Ingo; Nestle, Frank O

    2014-05-01

    Immune responses in the skin are important for host defence against pathogenic microorganisms. However, dysregulated immune reactions can cause chronic inflammatory skin diseases. Extensive crosstalk between the different cellular and microbial components of the skin regulates local immune responses to ensure efficient host defence, to maintain and restore homeostasis, and to prevent chronic disease. In this Review, we discuss recent findings that highlight the complex regulatory networks that control skin immunity, and we provide new paradigms for the mechanisms that regulate skin immune responses in host defence and in chronic inflammation.

  12. Expression of apoptosis-related genes in the mouse skin during the first postnatal catagen stage, focused on localization of Bnip3L and caspase-12

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselá, Barbora; Matalová, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 4 (2015), s. 326-335 ISSN 0300-8207 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP502/12/1285 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : apoptosis * Bnip3L * caspase-12 Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.411, year: 2015

  13. Structure-skin permeability relationship of dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuganti, Venkata Vamsi; Sahdev, Preety; Hildreth, Michael; Guan, Xiangming; Perumal, Omathanu

    2011-09-01

    To investigate skin penetration of poly (amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers as a function of surface charge and molecular weight in presence and absence of iontophoresis. Dendrimers were labeled with fluoroisothiocynate (FITC); skin penetration of dendrimers was studied using excised porcine skin in-vitro. Skin penetration of FITC-labeled dendrimers was quantified using confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). G2-G6 NH(2), G3.5-COOH and G4-OH dendrimers were used. Cationic dendrimers showed higher skin penetration than neutral and anionic dendrimers. Skin penetration of cationic dendrimer increased linearly with increase in treatment time. Iontophoresis enhanced skin penetration of cationic and neutral dendrimers. Increase in current strength and current duration increased skin transport of dendrimers. Passive and iontophoretic skin penetration of cationic dendrimers was inversely related to their molecular weight. Dendrimer penetrated the skin through intercellular lipids and hair follicles. With iontophoresis, dendrimer was also found in localized skin regions. The study demonstrates that the physicochemical properties of dendrimers influence their skin transport. Findings can be used to design dendrimer-based nanocarriers for drug delivery to skin.

  14. Formulation and in vitro release evaluation of newly synthesized palm kernel oil esters-based nanoemulsion delivery system for 30% ethanolic dried extract derived from local Phyllanthus urinaria for skin antiaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi ES

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Elrashid Saleh Mahdi1, Azmin Mohd Noor1, Mohamed Hameem Sakeena1, Ghassan Z Abdullah1, Muthanna F Abdulkarim1, Munavvar Abdul Sattar2 1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, 2Department of Physiology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia Background: Recently there has been a remarkable surge of interest about natural products and their applications in the cosmetic industry. Topical delivery of antioxidants from natural sources is one of the approaches used to reverse signs of skin aging. The aim of this research was to develop a nanoemulsion cream for topical delivery of 30% ethanolic extract derived from local Phyllanthus urinaria (P. urinaria for skin antiaging. Methods: Palm kernel oil esters (PKOEs-based nanoemulsions were loaded with P. urinaria extract using a spontaneous method and characterized with respect to particle size, zeta potential, and rheological properties. The release profile of the extract was evaluated using in vitro Franz diffusion cells from an artificial membrane and the antioxidant activity of the extract released was evaluated using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method. Results: Formulation F12 consisted of wt/wt, 0.05% P. urinaria extract, 1% cetyl alcohol, 0.5% glyceryl monostearate, 12% PKOEs, and 27% Tween® 80/Span® 80 (9/1 with a hydrophilic lipophilic balance of 13.9, and a 59.5% phosphate buffer system at pH 7.4. Formulation F36 was comprised of 0.05% P. urinaria extract, 1% cetyl alcohol, 1% glyceryl monostearate, 14% PKOEs, 28% Tween® 80/Span® 80 (9/1 with a hydrophilic lipophilic balance of 13.9, and 56% phosphate buffer system at pH 7.4 with shear thinning and thixotropy. The droplet size of F12 and F36 was 30.74 nm and 35.71 nm, respectively, and their nanosizes were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy images. Thereafter, 51.30% and 51.02% of the loaded extract was released from F12 and F36 through an artificial cellulose membrane

  15. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  16. Skin Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the ... Handbook A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics Skin Cancer Treatment Glossary Information on medications and procedures ...

  17. Skin Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase ... is based on the type of nonmelanoma skin cancer or other skin condition diagnosed: Basal cell carcinoma Enlarge Basal cell ...

  18. Stages of Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase ... is based on the type of nonmelanoma skin cancer or other skin condition diagnosed: Basal cell carcinoma Enlarge Basal cell ...

  19. Characterization of oily mature skin by biophysical and skin imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, M O; Maia Campos, P M B G

    2018-02-13

    The skin is a complex biological system and may suffer change according to the environmental factors, as higher temperatures can increase sebum excretion, presenting oiliness and acne. These alterations can persist during the aging and provoke more changes in aged skin. In this study we evaluated the mature oily skin characteristics using biophysical and skin imaging techniques. Sixty healthy female subjects, aged between 39 and 55 years old were recruited and separated into 2 groups according to their skin type: normal/dry and oily skin. The skin was evaluated in terms of stratum corneum water content, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) sebum content, dermis thickness and echogenicity, skin microrelief, and pores content. The mature oily skin presented no significant differences when compared to the normal/dry skin on the stratum corneum water content and TEWL parameters. The sebum content was significantly higher on the oily skin group. The microrelief analysis showed an increase of skin roughness values in the oily skin and increase of scaliness in the normal/dry skin. The oily skin showed lower dermis echogenicity mainly in the frontal region and higher dermis thickness when compared to normal/dry skin. The mature oily skin showed different characteristics from normal/dry skin in terms of sebum content, microrelief parameters, and dermis thickness. This way, the characterization of mature oily skin in an objective way is very important to development of dermocosmetic products for more effective treatments focused specially on this type of skin. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Cutaneous skin tag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  1. Skin collagen glycation, glycoxidation, and crosslinking are lower in subjects with long-term intensive versus conventional therapy of type 1 diabetes - Relevance of glycated collagen products versus HbA(1c) as markers of diabetic complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monnier, VM; Bautista, O; Kenny, D; Sell, DR; Fogarty, J; Dahms, W; Cleary, PA; Lachin, J; Genuth, S

    The relationships between long-term intensive control of glycemia and indicators of skin collagen glycation (furosine), glycoxidation (pentosidine and N-epsilon-[carboxymethyl]-lysine [CML]), and crosslinking (acid and pepsin solubility) were examined in 216 patients with type 1 diabetes from the

  2. Evaluation of the single radiosensitivity in patients subjected to medical exposure that show severe skin reactions; Evaluacion de la radiosensibilidad individual en pacientes sometidos a exposiciones medicas que manifiestan reacciones cutaneas severas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Giorgio, M; Vallerga, M B [Laboratorio de Dosimetria Biologica, Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250 (C1429BNP), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Portas, M [Hospital de Quemados del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Perez, M R [Laboratorio de Radiopatologia, Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2006-07-01

    The Burnt Hospital of the Buenos Aires City Government (HQGCBA) it is a hospital of reference of the Net of Medical Responses in Radiological Emergencies of the Argentine Republic. In the mark of an agreement among the HQGCBA and the Authority Regulatory Nuclear (ARN), it is in execution a study protocol for the one boarding diagnoses and therapeutic of radioinduced cutaneous leisure. They exist individual variations that can condition the response to the ionizing radiations (IR), so much in accidental exposures as having programmed (radiotherapy, radiology interventionist). In this context, the individual radiosensitivity is evaluated in the patients signed up in this protocol that presented sharp or late cutaneous reactions, with grades of severity 3-4 (approaches EORTC/RTOG). The capacity of repair of the DNA was evaluated in outlying blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro (2 Gy, gamma of Co-60) by means of the micronucleus techniques and comet essay in alkaline conditions. In this work two cases in those that is applied this study protocol, the therapeutic answer and its correlate with the discoveries of the radiosensitivity tests is presented. Case 1: patient of feminine sex, subjected to external radiotherapy by a breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma; developed sharp cutaneous radiotoxicity grade 3 (confluent humid epithelitis) that motivate the interruption of the treatment. Case 2: patient of masculine sex, subjected to a coronary angioplasty (interventionist radiology); developed late cutaneous radiotoxicity grade 4 (ulceration in dorsal region). Both patients were treated with topical trolamine associated to systemic administration of pentoxiphiline and antioxidants. The therapeutic answer is evaluated by means of clinical pursuit, photographic serial register and complementary exams (thermography and ultrasonography of high frequency). In the case 1 the answer was very favorable, with precocious local improvement and complete remission of symptoms and

  3. Evaluation of the single radiosensitivity in patients subjected to medical exposure that show severe skin reactions; Evaluacion de la radiosensibilidad individual en pacientes sometidos a exposiciones medicas que manifiestan reacciones cutaneas severas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Vallerga, M.B. [Laboratorio de Dosimetria Biologica, Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250 (C1429BNP), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Portas, M. [Hospital de Quemados del Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Perez, M.R. [Laboratorio de Radiopatologia, Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail: mdigiorg@cae.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    The Burnt Hospital of the Buenos Aires City Government (HQGCBA) it is a hospital of reference of the Net of Medical Responses in Radiological Emergencies of the Argentine Republic. In the mark of an agreement among the HQGCBA and the Authority Regulatory Nuclear (ARN), it is in execution a study protocol for the one boarding diagnoses and therapeutic of radioinduced cutaneous leisure. They exist individual variations that can condition the response to the ionizing radiations (IR), so much in accidental exposures as having programmed (radiotherapy, radiology interventionist). In this context, the individual radiosensitivity is evaluated in the patients signed up in this protocol that presented sharp or late cutaneous reactions, with grades of severity 3-4 (approaches EORTC/RTOG). The capacity of repair of the DNA was evaluated in outlying blood lymphocytes irradiated in vitro (2 Gy, gamma of Co-60) by means of the micronucleus techniques and comet essay in alkaline conditions. In this work two cases in those that is applied this study protocol, the therapeutic answer and its correlate with the discoveries of the radiosensitivity tests is presented. Case 1: patient of feminine sex, subjected to external radiotherapy by a breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma; developed sharp cutaneous radiotoxicity grade 3 (confluent humid epithelitis) that motivate the interruption of the treatment. Case 2: patient of masculine sex, subjected to a coronary angioplasty (interventionist radiology); developed late cutaneous radiotoxicity grade 4 (ulceration in dorsal region). Both patients were treated with topical trolamine associated to systemic administration of pentoxiphiline and antioxidants. The therapeutic answer is evaluated by means of clinical pursuit, photographic serial register and complementary exams (thermography and ultrasonography of high frequency). In the case 1 the answer was very favorable, with precocious local improvement and complete remission of symptoms and

  4. Seismotectonics of thin- and thick-skinned deformation in the Andean foreland from local network data - Evidence for a seismogenic lower crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, Robert, Jr.; Isacks, Bryan L.

    1990-01-01

    Local network data from San Juan, Argentina, provides new information about crustal seismicity in the Andean foreland above a horizontal segment of the subducted Nazca Plate. Two areas of foreland seismicity are found, one associated with the Sierras Pampeanas basement uplifts, and the other beneath, but not within, the Precordillera foreland fold-thrust belt. The Precordillera seismicity provides direct evidence for basement deformation beneath the sediments of the thrust belt and supports the idea that its eastern part is significantly modified by underlying basement deformation. In both areas, events are concentrated between 15 and 35 km depth and have volumetric, rather than planar, faultlike distributions. The depth distribution is unusually deep for intraplate earthquakes and suggests a brittle-ductile transition near 30-35 km.

  5. Facial reconstruction for radiation-induced skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panje, W.R.; Dobleman, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation-induced skin cancers can be difficult to diagnose and treat. Typically, a patient who has received orthovoltage radiotherapy for disorders such as acne, eczema, tinea capitis, skin tuberculosis, and skin cancer can expect that aggressive skin cancers and chronic radiodermatitis may develop subsequently. Cryptic facial cancers can lead to metastases and death. Prophylactic widefield excision of previously irradiated facial skin that has been subject to multiple recurrent skin cancers is suggested as a method of deterring future cutaneous malignancy and metastases. The use of tissue expanders and full-thickness skin grafts offers an expedient and successful method of subsequent reconstruction

  6. Estimation of localization and dipole moment of alpha- and theta-rhythm sources by cluster analysis in healthy subjects and schizophrenics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkhlyutov, VM; Shchuchkin, YV; Ushakov, VL; Strelets, VB; Pirogov, YA

    2006-01-01

    In 12 healthy subjects and 9 schizophrenic patients in the background conditions (with eyes closed) EEG was recorded from 16 standard derivations (10-20 system) during 3 min. The record underwent the spectral analysis detecting alpha- and theta-frequency bands. After the preliminary narrow band

  7. [Skin-to-skin caesarean section: a hype or better patient care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korteweg, F J; de Boer, H D; van der Ploeg, J M; Buiter, H D; van der Ham, D P

    2017-01-01

    A caesarean section (CS) is one of the most common surgical procedures performed in the world, for which there are minimal variations in the surgical approach. During the last few years the "skin-to-skin" CS, also coined "natural" or "gentle" CS, is on the rise; parental participation, slow delivery and direct skin-to-skin contact are important aspects. Most Dutch hospitals offer some form of "skin-to-skin" CS but there are local differences in availability and performance of the procedure. Since 2011, the standard procedure in the Martini Hospital in Groningen is the "skin-to-skin" CS (for both elective and emergency CS, 24/7). We describe our method and share our retrospective data, and demonstrate that this procedure does not result in more complications for mother or baby.

  8. Image analysis of skin color heterogeneity focusing on skin chromophores and the age-related changes in facial skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Kumiko; Masuda, Yuji; Yamashita, Toyonobu; Kawai, Eriko; Hirao, Tetsuji

    2015-05-01

    Heterogeneity with respect to skin color tone is one of the key factors in visual perception of facial attractiveness and age. However, there have been few studies on quantitative analyses of the color heterogeneity of facial skin. The purpose of this study was to develop image evaluation methods for skin color heterogeneity focusing on skin chromophores and then characterize ethnic differences and age-related changes. A facial imaging system equipped with an illumination unit and a high-resolution digital camera was used to develop image evaluation methods for skin color heterogeneity. First, melanin and/or hemoglobin images were obtained using pigment-specific image-processing techniques, which involved conversion from Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage XYZ color values to melanin and/or hemoglobin indexes as measures of their contents. Second, a spatial frequency analysis with threshold settings was applied to the individual images. Cheek skin images of 194 healthy Asian and Caucasian female subjects were acquired using the imaging system. Applying this methodology, the skin color heterogeneity of Asian and Caucasian faces was characterized. The proposed pigment-specific image-processing techniques allowed visual discrimination of skin redness from skin pigmentation. In the heterogeneity analyses of cheek skin color, age-related changes in melanin were clearly detected in Asian and Caucasian skin. Furthermore, it was found that the heterogeneity indexes of hemoglobin were significantly higher in Caucasian skin than in Asian skin. We have developed evaluation methods for skin color heterogeneity by image analyses based on the major chromophores, melanin and hemoglobin, with special reference to their size. This methodology focusing on skin color heterogeneity should be useful for better understanding of aging and ethnic differences. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Preliminary experiments on quantification of skin condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Kenzo; Iyatomi, Hitoshi

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we investigated a preliminary assessment method for skin conditions such as a moisturizing property and its fineness of the skin with an image analysis only. We captured a facial images from volunteer subjects aged between 30s and 60s by Pocket Micro (R) device (Scalar Co., Japan). This device has two image capturing modes; the normal mode and the non-reflection mode with the aid of the equipped polarization filter. We captured skin images from a total of 68 spots from subjects' face using both modes (i.e. total of 136 skin images). The moisture-retaining property of the skin and subjective evaluation score of the skin fineness in 5-point scale for each case were also obtained in advance as a gold standard (their mean and SD were 35.15 +/- 3.22 (μS) and 3.45 +/- 1.17, respectively). We extracted a total of 107 image features from each image and built linear regression models for estimating abovementioned criteria with a stepwise feature selection. The developed model for estimating the skin moisture achieved the MSE of 1.92 (μS) with 6 selected parameters, while the model for skin fineness achieved that of 0.51 scales with 7 parameters under the leave-one-out cross validation. We confirmed the developed models predicted the moisture-retaining property and fineness of the skin appropriately with only captured image.

  10. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer Order the free Anyone Can ... rarely, younger children can develop skin cancer. How can people with dark skin get skin cancer? Although ...

  11. OCCIPITAL SOURCES OF RESTING STATE ALPHA RHYTHMS ARE RELATED TO LOCAL GRAY MATTER DENSITY IN SUBJECTS WITH AMNESIC MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT AND ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio, Babiloni; Claudio, Del Percio; Marina, Boccardi; Roberta, Lizio; Susanna, Lopez; Filippo, Carducci; Nicola, Marzano; Andrea, Soricelli; Raffaele, Ferri; Ivano, Triggiani Antonio; Annapaola, Prestia; Serenella, Salinari; Rasser Paul, E; Erol, Basar; Francesco, Famà; Flavio, Nobili; Görsev, Yener; Durusu, Emek-Savaş Derya; Gesualdo, Loreto; Ciro, Mundi; Thompson Paul, M; Rossini Paolo, M.; Frisoni Giovanni, B

    2014-01-01

    Occipital sources of resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha rhythms are abnormal, at the group level, in patients with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here we evaluated the hypothesis that amplitude of these occipital sources is related to neurodegeneration in occipital lobe as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Resting-state eyes-closed EEG rhythms were recorded in 45 healthy elderly (Nold), 100 MCI, and 90 AD subjects. Neurodegeneration of occipital lobe was indexed by weighted averages of gray matter density (GMD), estimated from structural MRIs. EEG rhythms of interest were alpha 1 (8–10.5 Hz) and alpha 2 (10.5–13 Hz). EEG cortical sources were estimated by low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Results showed a positive correlation between occipital GMD and amplitude of occipital alpha 1 sources in Nold, MCI and AD subjects as a whole group (r=0.3, p=0.000004, N=235). Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between amplitude of occipital alpha 1 sources and cognitive status as revealed by Mini Mental State Evaluation (MMSE) score across all subjects (r=0.38, p=0.000001, N=235). Finally, amplitude of occipital alpha 1 sources allowed a moderate classification of individual Nold and AD subjects (sensitivity: 87.8%; specificity: 66.7%; area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve: 0.81). These results suggest that the amplitude of occipital sources of resting state alpha rhythms is related to AD neurodegeneration in occipital lobe along pathological aging. PMID:25442118

  12. Epidemiology of "fragile skin": results from a survey of different skin types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haftek M

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Marek Haftek,1 Christine Coutanceau,2 Charles Taïeb3 1Université Lyon 1, Laboratoire de Recherche Dermatologique, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Lyon, 2Département Médical, Laboratoires Dermatologiques A-Derma, Lavaur, 3Public Health, Pierre Fabre SA, Paris, France Background: Epidemiologic information regarding the prevalence of "fragile skin" in different adult populations is currently limited. The objective of the current survey was to assess the occurrence of perceived "fragile skin" across different skin types in the general adult population. Methods: Individuals aged 15–65 years from five representative geographic regions (France, Spain, Sweden, Japan, and the US were interviewed and grouped into the following skin types: Caucasian North skin (n=1,218, Caucasian South skin (n=1,695, Asian skin (n=1,500, and Black skin (n=500. The main survey question was "In your opinion, do you have fragile skin?" Concepts relating to the nature and appearance of an individual's skin were also evaluated. Results: A total of 4,913 individuals were interviewed. Subjects in the Caucasian North, Caucasian South, Asian, and Black skin type groups responded positively to the question "In your opinion, do you have fragile skin?" in the following proportions: 24.44%, 29.71%, 52.67%, and 42.20%, respectively. With the exception of individuals in the Black skin group, "fragile skin" was prevalent in significantly more women than men (P<0.0001. Compared with other age categories, the prevalence of "fragile skin" was significantly higher in individuals aged 15–34 years (P<0.0001, regardless of skin type. In general, individuals reporting "fragile skin" were 2–3-fold more likely to respond positively to a series of questions relating to the nature and appearance of their skin. The prevalence of "fragile skin" was also higher in individuals who experienced dermatosis (skin lesions of any type in the previous 12 months. Conclusion: Whilst these

  13. Novel approach for classifying chemicals according to skin sensitizing potency by non-radioisotopic modification of the local lymph node assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeyoshi, Masahiro; Iida, Kenji; Shiraishi, Keiji; Hoshuyama, Satsuki

    2005-01-01

    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is currently recognized as a stand-alone sensitization test for determining the sensitizing potential of chemicals, and it has the advantage of yielding a quantitative endpoint that can be used to predict the sensitization potency of chemicals. The EC3 has been proposed as a parameter for classifying chemicals according to the sensitization potency. We previously developed a non-radioisotopic endpoint for the LLNA based on 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation (non-RI LLNA), and we are proposing a new procedure to predict the sensitization potency of chemicals based on comparisons with known human contact allergens. Nine chemicals (i.e. diphencyclopropenone, p-phenylenediamine, glutaraldehyde, cinnamicaldehyde, citral, eugenol, isopropyl myristate, propyleneglycol and hexane) categorized as human contact allergen classes 1-5 were tested by the non-RI LLNA with the following reference allergens: 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) as a class 1 human contact allergen, isoeugenol as a class 2 human contact allergen and alpha-hexylcinnamic aldehyde (HCA) as a class 3 human contact allergen. Consequently, nine test chemicals were almost assigned to their correct allergen class. The results suggested that the new procedure for non-RI LLNA can provide correct sensitization potency data. Sensitization potency data are useful for evaluating the sensitization risk to humans of exposure to new chemical products. Accordingly, this approach would be an effective modification of LLNA with regard to its experimental design. Moreover, this procedure can be applied also to the standard LLNA with radioisotopes and to other modifications of the LLNA. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Non-invasive high-intensity focused ultrasound for UV-induced hyperpigmentation in Fitzpatrick skin types III and IV: a prospective, randomized, controlled, evaluator-blinded trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachiramon, Vasanop; Jurairattanaporn, Natthachat; Harnchoowong, Sarawin; Chayavichitsilp, Pamela

    2018-02-01

    Skin hyperpigmentation is a frequently encountered problem, particularly in darker skin types. Unfortunately, standard treatments for this condition have shown disappointing results. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is commonly indicated for skin laxity, but recently was used to treat UV-induced hyperpigmentation in animal models. This study is aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of high-intensity focused ultrasound for UVB-induced hyperpigmentation in human subjects. A randomized, evaluator-blinded pilot study was conducted on 20 subjects. Each subject was induced three hyperpigmentary spots by local broadband UVB. After 2 weeks, each spot was randomly allocated to control, low-energy, and high-energy HIFU. Subjects were instructed to follow up weekly for a duration of 1 month. Lightness index measurements, mean improvement scores, subjects' satisfaction, pain scores, and side effects were evaluated. All 20 subjects completed the study. Fourteen subjects had Fitzpatrick (FPT) skin type III and six subjects had FPT skin type IV. Twelve subjects showed greater improvement at control sites while eight subjects showed greater improvement at HIFU-treated sites. In FPT skin type III, HIFU appeared to be inferior to control in both lightness index and mean improvement scores, but in FPT skin type IV, HIFU had greater lightness index improvement and higher improvement scores than control. Side effects were more frequent in high-energy-treated areas. Focused ultrasound may be offered in some patients with hyperpigmentary conditions. More research is needed to determine proper energy settings for optimal outcome.

  15. Segmented phantoms reconstruction for skin dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, Paula C.G.; Siqueira, Paulo T.D.; Yoriyaz, Helio; Fonseca, Gabriel P.; Furnari, Laura; Reis, Gabriela S.

    2009-01-01

    There are several radio-sensitive skin diseases. Skin dosimetry is a difficult task to be properly performed, not only due to skin extension and small thickness, but also because it is usually submitted to high dose gradients. High-resolution medical images along with methods that simulate the interaction of radiation with matter, as the Monte Carlo radiation transport codes, have been widely used in medical physics procedures. These images provide the construction of realistic computational anatomical models, which after being coupled to these codes, retrieve reliable dosimetric assessments. However, present day regular images are unsuitable to correctly perform skin dose distribution evaluations. This inability is due to improper skin discrimination in most of current medical images, once its thickness stands below image resolution, i.e. pixel characteristic sizes are larger than skin thickness. This paper proposes a methodology of voxelized phantom reconstruction and segmentation, by subdividing their basic elements - voxels. It is done in order to better discriminate the skin by assigning more adequate value for skin thickness and its actual localization. Aiming at a more realistic skin modeling one is expected to get more accurate skin dose evaluations. This task is an important issue in many radiotherapy procedures. A particular interest lays in Total Skin Electron Therapy (TSET), which highlights the treatment of the whole body irradiation, a radiotherapy procedure under implementation in the Hospital das Clinicas da Universidade de Sao Paulo (HC-USP). (author)

  16. The effect of local skin cooling before a sustained, submaximal isometric contraction on fatigue and isometric quadriceps femoris performance: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenauer, Erich; Cescon, Corrado; Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; Clijsen, Ron

    2017-04-01

    The central- and peripheral mechanisms by which heat strain limits physical performance are not fully elucidated. Nevertheless, pre-cooling is often used in an attempt to improve subsequent performance. This study compared the effects of pre-cooling vs. a pre-thermoneutral application on central- and peripheral fatigue during 60% of isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of the right quadriceps femoris muscle. Furthermore, the effects between a pre-cooling and a pre-thermoneutral application on isometric MVC of the right quadriceps femoris muscle and subjective ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were investigated. In this randomized controlled trial, 18 healthy adults voluntarily participated. The participants received either a cold (experimental) application (+8°C) or a thermoneutral (control) application (+32°C) for 20min on their right thigh (one cuff). After the application, central (fractal dimension - FD) and peripheral (muscle fiber conduction velocity - CV) fatigue was estimated using sEMG parameters during 60% of isometric MVC. Surface EMG signals were detected from the vastus medialis and lateralis using bidimensional arrays. Immediately after the submaximal contraction, isometric MVC and RPE were assessed. Participants receiving the cold application were able to maintain a 60% isometric MVC significantly longer when compared to the thermoneutral group (mean time: 78 vs. 46s; p=0.04). The thermoneutral application had no significant impact on central fatigue (p>0.05) compared to the cold application (p=0.03). However, signs of peripheral fatigue were significantly higher in the cold group compared to the thermoneutral group (p=0.008). Pre-cooling had no effect on isometric MVC of the right quadriceps muscle and ratings of perceived exertion. Pre-cooling attenuated central fatigue and led to significantly longer submaximal contraction times compared to the pre-thermoneutral application. These findings support the use of pre-cooling procedures

  17. Abnormally dark or light skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperpigmentation; Hypopigmentation; Skin - abnormally light or dark ... Normal skin contains cells called melanocytes. These cells produce melanin , the substance that gives skin its color. Skin with ...

  18. A preliminary investigation of the impact of oily skin on quality of life and concordance of self-perceived skin oiliness and skin surface lipids (sebum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Niu, Y; Zhong, S; Liu, H; Zhen, Y; Saint-Leger, D; Verschoore, M

    2013-10-01

    This preliminary study investigated both the impact of oily skin on quality of life (QoL) and the agreement between subjective oily skin self-assessment and objective skin surface sebum measurement in young to middle-aged Chinese women in Beijing. A 18-item Chinese version of the Oily Skin Self-Image Questionnaire (OSSIQ) was used to assess the impact of oily skin on QoL in 300 healthy female subjects (age groups: 20-25; 26-30; 31-35,). The subjects were divided equally into the oily skin group and the non-oily skin group based on their self-perception of skin oiliness. The level of skin surface lipids (SSL) was measured on the middle of the forehead, and both cheeks using the Sebumeter(®). In order to assess the agreement between self-perceived skin oiliness and measured SSL, we tentatively used the SSL median value as a dividing point to regroup all subjects. The results indicate that the Chinese version of the OSSIQ distinguished the oily skin group from the non-oily skin group. Subjects in the oily skin group had significant higher emotional status score and behavior score when compared with subjects in the non-oily skin group. Subjects in the oily skin group had higher SSL when compared with subjects in the non-oily skin group, especially in younger age groups. The agreement between self-perceived skin oiliness and measured SSL was moderately strong in younger age groups, and declined with age. These results strongly suggest that having oily skin can cause a significant negative impact on QoL among Chinese women. The Chinese version of the OSSIQ is a reliable and valid tool for assessing the impact of oily skin on QoL. The accuracy of oily skin self-assessment declines with age. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  19. Melatonin, mitochondria, and the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Andrzej T; Zmijewski, Michal A; Semak, Igor; Kim, Tae-Kang; Janjetovic, Zorica; Slominski, Radomir M; Zmijewski, Jaroslaw W

    2017-11-01

    The skin being a protective barrier between external and internal (body) environments has the sensory and adaptive capacity to maintain local and global body homeostasis in response to noxious factors. An important part of the skin response to stress is its ability for melatonin synthesis and subsequent metabolism through the indolic and kynuric pathways. Indeed, melatonin and its metabolites have emerged as indispensable for physiological skin functions and for effective protection of a cutaneous homeostasis from hostile environmental factors. Moreover, they attenuate the pathological processes including carcinogenesis and other hyperproliferative/inflammatory conditions. Interestingly, mitochondria appear to be a central hub of melatonin metabolism in the skin cells. Furthermore, substantial evidence has accumulated on the protective role of the melatonin against ultraviolet radiation and the attendant mitochondrial dysfunction. Melatonin and its metabolites appear to have a modulatory impact on mitochondrion redox and bioenergetic homeostasis, as well as the anti-apoptotic effects. Of note, some metabolites exhibit even greater impact than melatonin alone. Herein, we emphasize that melatonin-mitochondria axis would control integumental functions designed to protect local and perhaps global homeostasis. Given the phylogenetic origin and primordial actions of melatonin, we propose that the melatonin-related mitochondrial functions represent an evolutionary conserved mechanism involved in cellular adaptive response to skin injury and repair.

  20. Skin color - patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003224.htm Skin color - patchy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. ...

  1. Histoplasma skin test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histoplasmosis skin test ... health care provider cleans an area of your skin, usually the forearm. An allergen is injected just below the cleaned skin surface. An allergen is a substance that causes ...

  2. Skin Condition Finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SKIN CONDITIONS HEALTH TOPICS FOR PROFESSIONALS Rash and Skin Condition Finder 1 Select Age Group Infant Child ... Toe Toe Webspace Toe Nail CLOSE About the Skin Condition Finder Have a health question or concern? ...

  3. Skin Complications of IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Resources > Skin Complications of IBD Go Back Skin Complications of IBD Email Print + Share After arthritis, ... about 5% of people with inflammatory bowel disease. SKIN DISORDERS COMMONLY SEEN IN IBD ERHTHEMA NODOSUM The ...

  4. Skin Peeling Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rajeev

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Peeling of the skin is an uncommonly encountered disorder. Occurrence of vesicles and bullae in peeling skin syndrome is very rare. We report a case of idiopathic peeling skin syndrome with vesicular lesions.

  5. Occupational skin diseases and prevention among sanitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in body defense, and is predisposed to disease when subjected to ... sanitation workers in Wuhan (China) for better manage- ment and ... Symptoms of facial skin photo .... ronment, diet nutrition and working environment were also poor.

  6. Hypothermic general cold adaptation induced by local cold acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savourey, G; Barnavol, B; Caravel, J P; Feuerstein, C; Bittel, J H

    1996-01-01

    To study relationships between local cold adaptation of the lower limbs and general cold adaptation, eight subjects were submitted both to a cold foot test (CFT, 5 degrees C water immersion, 5 min) and to a whole-body standard cold air test (SCAT, 1 degree C, 2 h, nude at rest) before and after a local cold acclimation (LCA) of the lower limbs effected by repeated cold water immersions. The LCA induced a local cold adaptation confirmed by higher skin temperatures of the lower limbs during CFT and a hypothermic insulative general cold adaptation (decreased rectal temperature and mean skin temperature P adaptation was related to the habituation process confirmed by decreased plasma concentrations of noradrenaline (NA) during LCA (P general cold adaptation was unrelated either to local cold adaptation or to the habituation process, because an increased NA during SCAT after LCA (P syndrome" occurring during LCA.

  7. Risk factors and prediction of inflammatory complications and local secondary osteoporosis in the bone structure of jaws in dental intraosseous implantation in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashchenko I.S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As a result of complex clinical, immunologic and biochemical investigations of 48 patients peculiarities of development of inflammatory com¬plications, local osteoporosis and destruction of bone tissue after performed dental intraosseous implantantion were first revealed. It was shown that multiple surgical traumas of soft tissues of jaws and bone tissue of alveolar processes with putting 4 or more implants simultaneously may lead to reducing biocidity of mucosa of jaw tissues; this promotes lesion of oral cavity hygiene and development of inflammatory process in zone of periimplant. It is set that massive accumulation of soft coat and dental calculus in the area of implant, superconstruction and marked deficit of sIgA production of oral mucosa promote development of periimplant mucositis in remote post-operative period. A sharp production of secretory ІL -1β is a risk factor in formation of general-destructive process in a periimplant zone, development of dental periimplant.

  8. Chemical applicability domain of the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) for skin sensitisation potency. Part 3. Apparent discrepancies between LLNA and GPMT sensitisation potential: False positives or differences in sensitivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David W; Schultz, Terry W; Api, Anne Marie

    2016-10-01

    The Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) is the gold standard regulatory toxicology test for skin sensitisation along with the guinea pig maximisation test (GPMT). Compared with the GPMT, LLNA uses fewer animals, it is quantitative, and it gives a numerical prediction of potency. However several concerns have been raised with this assay, mainly related to false positives and false negatives. Over the years, many authors, including the developers of the assay, have presented cases where there have been discrepancies between the GMPT and LLNA results. Several theories have been put forward for these discrepancies, the main one being the "over-sensitivity" of the GPMT. This paper analyses the data from a systematic study, published in three papers from 2008 to 2011, covering several classes of chemicals, in particular unsaturated fatty acids, sugar surfactants and ethoxylated alcohols, with many cases of chemicals testing positive in the LLNA being negative in the GPMT. Based on consideration of reaction chemistry and structural alerts, it is concluded that these discrepancies are not LLNA false positives, but can be rationalised in terms of the different protocols of the assays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool......-Saxon and continental traditions, this special issue provides examples of the use of researcher subjectivity, informed by psychoanalytic thinking, in expanding research understanding....

  10. Breast skin calcifications: Mammographic recognition and confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkowitz, J.E.; Gatewood, O.M.B.; Gayler, B.W.

    1987-01-01

    The authors found microcalcifications in the skin of the breast to occur in 8% of patients undergoing mammography, a prevalence much higher than what has been previously reported. Usually in incidental finding, breast skin calcifications are readily recognized when they are multiple, bilateral, coarse, or polygonal with a central radiolucency; when they are located in a peripheral portion of the breast on at least one view, or when they are serendipitously imaged within the skin. One hundred patients with breast skin calcifications were studied. In 15 patients in whom clustered dermal calcifications simulated parenchymal microcalcifications, template-guided tangential views permitted precise skin localization. Three of those patients had been referred for needle localization before biopsy and four after failed biopsy for clustered microcalcifications. Dermal calcifications can pose a vexing problem in the management of microcalcifications of the breast. A high index of suspicion is warrented in order to forestall unnecessary or unsuccessful biopsies

  11. Analysis of human skin tissue by millimeter-wave reflectometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, P.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background/pupose: Millimeter-wave reflectometry is a potentially interesting technique to analyze the human skin in vivo in order to determine the water content locally in the skin. Purpose of this work is to investigate the possibility of skin-tissue differentiation. In addition, it addresses the

  12. Delayed grafting for banked skin graft in lymph node flap transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciudad, Pedro; Date, Shivprasad; Orfaniotis, Georgios; Dower, Rory; Nicoli, Fabio; Maruccia, Michele; Lin, Shu-Ping; Chuang, Chu-Yi; Chuang, Tsan-Yu; Wang, Gou-Jen; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2017-02-01

    Over the last decade, lymph node flap (LNF) transfer has turned out to be an effective method in the management of lymphoedema of extremities. Most of the time, the pockets created for LNF cannot be closed primarily and need to be resurfaced with split thickness skin grafts. Partial graft loss was frequently noted in these cases. The need to prevent graft loss on these iatrogenic wounds made us explore the possibility of attempting delayed skin grafting. We have herein reported our experience with delayed grafting with autologous banked split skin grafts in cases of LNF transfer for lymphoedema of the extremities. Ten patients with International Society of Lymphology stage II-III lymphoedema of upper or lower extremity were included in this study over an 8-month period. All patients were thoroughly evaluated and subjected to lymph node flap transfer. The split skin graft was harvested and banked at the donor site, avoiding immediate resurfacing over the flap. The same was carried out in an aseptic manner as a bedside procedure after confirming flap viability and allowing flap swelling to subside. Patients were followed up to evaluate long-term outcomes. Flap survival was 100%. Successful delayed skin grafting was done between the 4th and 6th post-operative day as a bedside procedure under local anaesthesia. The split thickness skin grafts (STSG) takes more than 97%. One patient needed additional medications during the bedside procedure. All patients had minimal post-operative pain and skin graft requirement. The patients were also reported to be satisfied with the final aesthetic results. There were no complications related to either the skin grafts or donor sites during the entire period of follow-up. Delayed split skin grafting is a reliable method of resurfacing lymph node flaps and has been shown to reduce the possibility of flap complications as well as the operative time and costs. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Technical background for shallow (skin) dose equivalent evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, J.C.; Turner, J.E.; Crawford, O.H.; Hamm, R.N.; Reaves, K.L.; McMahan, K.L.

    1991-01-01

    Department of Energy Order 5480.11 describes procedures for radiation protection for occupational workers. The revisions dealing with non-uniform exposure to the skin are the subject of this report. We describe measurements and analysis required to assess shallow (skin) dose equivalent from skin contamination. 6 refs., 4 tabs

  14. Minimal erythema dose and minimal melanogenesis dose relate better to objectively measured skin type than to Fitzpatricks skin type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf, Hans Christian; Philipsen, Peter A; Ravnbak, Mette H

    2010-01-01

    Fitzpatrick skin type (FST I-IV) is a subjective expression of ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity based on erythema and tanning reactivity after a single exposure. Pigment protection factor (PPF) is an objective measurement of skin sensitivity in all skin types after a single exposure....

  15. The Development of Cooperative Learning Model Based on Local Wisdom of Bali for Physical Education, Sport and Health Subject in Junior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, I. K.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a cooperative learning model based on local wisdom (PKBKL) of Bali (Tri Pramana’s concept), for physical education, sport, and health learning in VII grade of Junior High School in Singaraja-Buleleng Bali. This research is the development research of the development design chosen refers to the development proposed by Dick and Carey. The development of model and learning devices was conducted through four stages, namely: (1) identification and needs analysis stage (2) the development of design and draft of PKBKL and RPP models, (3) testing stage (expert review, try out, and implementation). Small group try out was conducted on VII-3 grade of Undiksha Laboratory Junior High School in the academic year 2013/2014, large group try out was conducted on VIIb of Santo Paulus Junior High School Singaraja in the academic year 2014/2015, and the implementation of the model was conducted on three (3) schools namely SMPN 2 Singaraja, SMPN 3 Singaraja, and Undiksha laboratory Junior High School in the academic year 2014/2015. Data were collected using documentation, testing, non-testing, questionnaire, and observation. The data were analyzed descriptively. The findings of this research indicate that: (1) PKBKL model has met the criteria of the operation of a learning model namely: syntax, social system, principles of reaction, support system, as well as instructional and nurturing effects, (2) PKBKL model is a valid, practical, and effective model, (3) the practicality of the learning devices (RPP), is at the high category. Based on the research results, there are two things recommended: (1) in order that learning stages (syntax) of PKBKL model can be performed well, then teachers need to have an understanding of the cooperative learning model of Student Team Achievement Division (STAD) type and the concepts of scientifically approach well, (2) PKBKL model can be performed well on physical education, sport and health learning, if the

  16. Psychiatric Morbidity among Subjects with Leprosy and Albinism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Skin, which is the largest organ in the body, carries immense psychological significance. Disfiguring skin disorders may impact negatively on the mental health of individuals. Aim: This study compared the psychiatric morbidity of subjects with leprosy and albinism. Subjects and Methods: One hundred subjects ...

  17. A novel model of inflammatory pain in human skin involving topical application of sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, L J; Lyngholm, A M; Arendt-Nielsen, L

    2010-09-01

    Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is a known irritant. It releases pro-inflammatory mediators considered pivotal in inflammatory pain. The sensory effects of SLS in the skin remain largely unexplored. In this study, SLS was evaluated for its effect on skin sensory functions. Eight healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Skin sites were randomized to topical SLS 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2% and vehicle for 24 h. Topical capsaicin 1% was applied for 30 min at 24 h after SLS application. Assessments included laser Doppler imaging of local vasodilation and flare reactions, rating of spontaneous pain, assessment of primary thermal and tactile hyperalgesia, and determination of secondary dynamic and static hyperalgesia. SLS induced significant and dose-dependent local inflammation and primary hyperalgesia to tactile and thermal stimulation at 24 h after application, with SLS 2% treatment eliciting results comparable to those observed following treatment with capsaicin 1%. SLS induced no spontaneous pain, small areas of flare, and minimal secondary hyperalgesia. The primary hyperalgesia vanished within 2-3 days, whereas the skin inflammation persisted and was only partly normalized by Day 6. SLS induces profound perturbations of skin sensory functions lasting 2-3 days. SLS-induced inflammation may be a useful model for studying the mechanisms of inflammatory pain.

  18. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Skin, Hair, and Nails KidsHealth / For Parents / Skin, Hair, and ... piel, el cabello y las uñas About Skin, Hair and Nails Skin is our largest organ. If ...

  19. Estrogens and aging skin

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, M. Julie

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency following menopause results in atrophic skin changes and acceleration of skin aging. Estrogens significantly modulate skin physiology, targeting keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, hair follicles and sebaceous glands, and improve angiogenesis, wound healing and immune responses. Estrogen insufficiency decreases defense against oxidative stress; skin becomes thinner with less collagen, decreased elasticity, increased wrinkling, increased dryness and reduced vascularity...

  20. Urostomy - stoma and skin care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it well before you attach the pouch. Avoid skin care products that contain alcohol. These can make your skin ... the pouch to your skin. Use fewer special skin care products. This will make problems with your skin less ...

  1. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors increase or decrease the risk of skin cancer. Skin cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about skin cancer: Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Genetics ...

  2. Development of an Active Topical Skin Protectant (aTSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    protectant as a follow-on product to Skin Exposure Reduction Paste Against Chemical Warfare Agents (SERPACWA). 15. SUBJECT TERMS decontamination , Skin...corresponding author), Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination from Skin, In J.A. Romano Jr., B.J. Lukey, and H. Salem, eds., 2nd Edition of Chemical Warfare ...CG, and Braue, EH Jr (corresponding author), “ Chemical warfare agent decontamination from skin,” In J.A. Romano Jr., B.J. Lukey, and H. Salem

  3. Skin Cancer and UV Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarbuk Anita

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of skin cancer is increasing by epidemic proportions. Basal cell cancer remains the most common skin neoplasm, and simple excision is generally curative. On the other hand, aggressive local growth and metastasis are common features of malignant melanoma, which accounts for 75% of all deaths associated with skin cancer. The primary cause of skin cancer is long exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-R crossed with the amount of skin pigmentation and family genetics. It is believed that in childhood and adolescence, 80% of UV-R gets absorbed while in the remaining, 20 % gets absorbed later in the lifetime. This suggests that proper and early photoprotection may reduce the risk of subsequent occurrence of skin cancer. Reducing the exposure time to sunlight, using sunscreens and protective textiles are the three ways of UV protection. Most people think that all the clothing will protect them, but it does not provide full sun screening properties. Literature sources claim that only 1/3 of the spring and summer collections tested give off proper UV protection. This is very important during the summer months, when UV index is the highest. Fabric UV protection ability highly depends on large number of factors such as type of fiber, fabric surface, construction, porosity, density, moisture content, type and concentration of dyestuff, fluorescent whitening agents, UV-B protective agents (UV absorbers, as well as nanoparticles, if applied. For all of these reasons, in the present paper, the results of UV protecting ability according to AS/NZS 4399:1996 will be discussed to show that standard clothing materials are not always adequate to prevent effect of UV-R to the human skin; and to suggest the possibilities for its improvement for this purpose enhancing light conversion and scattering. Additionally, the discrepancy in UV protection was investigated in distilled water as well as Adriatic Sea water.

  4. Diclofenac delays micropore closure following microneedle treatment in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogden, Nicole K; Milewski, Mikolaj; Ghosh, Priyanka; Hardi, Lucia; Crofford, Leslie J; Stinchcomb, Audra L

    2012-10-28

    Drugs absorbed poorly through the skin are commonly delivered via injection with a hypodermic needle, which is painful and increases the risk of transmitting infectious diseases. Microneedles (MNs) selectively and painlessly permeabilize the outermost skin layer, allowing otherwise skin-impermeable drugs to cross the skin through micron-sized pores and reach therapeutic concentrations. However, rapid healing of the micropores prevents further drug delivery, blunting the clinical utility of this unique transdermal technique. We present the first human study demonstrating that micropore lifetime can be extended following MN treatment. Subjects received one-time MN treatment and daily topical application of diclofenac sodium. Micropore closure was measured with impedance spectroscopy, and area under the admittance-time curve (AUC) was calculated. AUC was significantly higher at MN+diclofenac sodium sites vs. placebo, suggesting slower rates of micropore healing. Colorimetry measurements confirmed the absence of local erythema and irritation. This mechanistic human proof-of-concept study demonstrates that micropore lifetime can be prolonged with simple topical administration of a non-specific cyclooxygenase inhibitor, suggesting the involvement of subclinical inflammation in micropore healing. These results will allow for longer patch wear time with MN-enhanced delivery, thus increasing patient compliance and expanding the transdermal field to a wider variety of clinical conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Diclofenac delays micropore closure following microneedle treatment in human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogden, Nicole K.; Milewski, Mikolaj; Ghosh, Priyanka; Hardi, Lucia; Crofford, Leslie J.; Stinchcomb, Audra L.

    2013-01-01

    Drugs absorbed poorly through the skin are commonly delivered via injection with a hypodermic needle, which is painful and increases the risk of transmitting infectious diseases. Microneedles (MNs) selectively and painlessly permeabilize the outermost skin layer, allowing otherwise skin-impermeable drugs to cross the skin through micron-sized pores and reach therapeutic concentrations. However, rapid healing of the micropores prevents further drug delivery, blunting the clinical utility of this unique transdermal technique. We present the first human study demonstrating that micropore lifetime can be extended following MN treatment. Subjects received one-time MN treatment and daily topical application of diclofenac sodium. Micropore closure was measured with impedance spectroscopy, and area under the admittance–time curve (AUC) was calculated. AUC was significantly higher at MN + diclofenac sodium sites vs. placebo, suggesting slower rates of micropore healing. Colorimetry measurements confirmed the absence of local erythema and irritation. This mechanistic human proof-of-concept study demonstrates that micropore lifetime can be prolonged with simple topical administration of a non-specific cyclooxygenase inhibitor, suggesting the involvement of subclinical inflammation in micropore healing. These results will allow for longer patch wear time with MN-enhanced delivery, thus increasing patient compliance and expanding the transdermal field to a wider variety of clinical conditions. PMID:22929967

  6. Thermosensitive Hydrogel Mask Significantly Improves Skin Moisture and Skin Tone; Bilateral Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Quattrone

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A temperature-sensitive state-changing hydrogel mask was used in this study. Once it comes into contact with the skin and reaches the body temperature, it uniformly and quickly releases the active compounds, which possess moisturizing, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and regenerative properties. Methods: An open label clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of the test product on skin hydration, skin tone and skin ageing. Subjects applied the product to one side of their face and underwent Corneometer® and Chromameter measurements, Visual assessment of facial skin ageing and facial photography. All assessments and Self-Perception Questionnaires (SPQ were performed at baseline, after the first application of the test product and after four applications. Results: After a single treatment we observed an increase in skin moisturisation, an improvement of skin tone/luminosity and a reduction in signs of ageing, all statistically significant. After four applications a further improvement in all measured parameters was recorded. These results were confirmed by the subjects’ own perceptions, as reported in the SPQ both after one and four applications. Conclusion: The hydrogel mask tested in this study is very effective in improving skin hydration, skin radiance and luminosity, in encouraging an even skin tone and in reducing skin pigmentation.

  7. Lymphatic albumin clearance from psoriatic skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staberg, B.; Klemp, P.; Aasted, M.; Worm, A.M.; Lund, P.

    1983-01-01

    In nine patients with untreated psoriasis vulgaris, human serum albumin labelled with 125 I or 131 I was injected intradermally in symmetrically located involved and uninvolved skin. The activity of the depots was followed by external detection, and the arrival of labelled albumin in plasma was monitored. In involved psoriatic skin the local mean half-time (T1/2) for tracer disappearance was 20.8 +/- 8.2 (S.D.) hr and in clinically normal skin, 29.1 +/- 9.6 (S.D.) hr. The difference was significant (p less than 0.002). Accordingly, the tracer from involved skin reached higher plasma levels than the tracer from uninvolved skin. However, under slight lymphatic stasis the appearance rate of radiolabelled albumin in plasma from both tissues was minimal during 1 to 2 hours after the injection, indicating that a local direct transvascular drainage of plasma albumin from the interstitium of diseased and normal skin was negligible. We conclude that the previously demonstrated increased extravasation of plasma proteins in involved psoriatic skin is compensated by an increased lymphatic drainage of plasma proteins, and not by an increased local transvascular return

  8. The sensory channel of presentation alters subjective ratings and autonomic responses towards disgusting stimuli -Blood pressure, heart rate and skin conductance in response to visual, auditory, haptic and olfactory presented disgusting stimuli-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona eCroy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Disgust causes specific reaction patterns, observable in mimic responses and body reactions. Most research on disgust deals with visual stimuli. However, pictures may cause another disgust experience than sounds, odors or tactile stimuli. Therefore disgust experience evoked by four different sensory channels was compared.A total of 119 participants received 3 different disgusting and one control stimulus, each presented through the visual, auditory, tactile and olfactory channel. Ratings of evoked disgust as well as responses of the autonomic nervous system (heart rate, skin conductance level, systolic blood pressure were recorded and the effect of stimulus labeling and of repeated presentation was analyzed. Ratings suggested that disgust could be evoked through all senses; they were highest for visual stimuli. However, autonomic reaction towards disgusting stimuli differed according to the channel of presentation. In contrast to the other, olfactory disgust stimuli provoked a strong decrease of systolic blood pressure. Additionally, labeling enhanced disgust ratings and autonomic reaction for olfactory and tactile, but not for visual and auditory stimuli. Repeated presentation indicated that participant’s disgust rating diminishes to all but olfactory disgust stimuli. Taken together we argue that the sensory channel through which a disgust reaction is evoked matters.

  9. Evaluation of a Topical Anti-inflammatory/Antifungal Combination Cream in Mild-to-moderate Facial Seborrheic Dermatitis: An Intra-subject Controlled Trial Examining Treated vs. Untreated Skin Utilizing Clinical Features and Erythema-directed Digital Photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Oglio, Federica; Tedeschi, Aurora; Guardabasso, Vincenzo; Micali, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate if nonprescription topical agents may provide positive outcomes in the management of mild-to-moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis by reducing inflammation and scale production through clinical evaluation and erythema-directed digital photography. Open-label, prospective, not-blinded, intra-patient, controlled, clinical trial (target area). Twenty adult subjects affected by mild-to-moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis were enrolled and instructed to apply the study cream two times daily, initially on a selected target area only for seven days. If the subject developed visible improvement, it was advised to extend the application to all facial affected area for 21 additional days. Efficacy was evaluated by measuring the grade of erythema (by clinical examination and by erythema-directed digital photography), desquamation (by clinical examination), and pruritus (by subject-completed visual analog scale). Additionally, at the end of the protocol, a Physician Global Assessment was carried out. Eighteen subjects completed the study, whereas two subjects were lost to follow-up for nonadherence and personal reasons, respectively. Day 7 data from target areas showed a significant reduction in erythema. At the end of study, a significant improvement was recorded for erythema, desquamation, and pruritus compared to baseline. Physician Global Assessment showed improvement in 89 percent of patients, with a complete response in 56 percent of cases. These preliminary results indicate that the study cream may be a viable nonprescription therapeutic option for patients affected by facial seborrheic dermatitis able to determine early and significant improvement. This study also emphasizes the advantages of using an erythema-directed digital photography system for assisting in a simple, more accurate erythema severity grading and therapeutic monitoring in patients affected by seborrheic dermatitis.

  10. Decreased active vasodilator sensitivity in aged skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, W L; Morgan, A L; Farquhar, W B; Brooks, E M; Pierzga, J M; Derr, J A

    1997-04-01

    Older men and women respond to local and reflex-mediated heat stress with an attenuated increase in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). This study was performed to test the hypothesis that an augmented or sustained noradrenergic vasoconstriction (VC) may play a role in this age-related difference. Fifteen young (22 +/- 1 yr) and 15 older (66 +/- 1 yr) men exercised at 50% peak oxygen uptake in a 36 degrees C environment. Skin perfusion was monitored at two sites on the right forearm by laser-Doppler flowmetry: one site pretreated with bretylium tosylate (BT) to block the local release of norepinephrine and thus VC and an adjacent control site. Blockade of reflex VC was verified during whole body cooling using a water-perfused suit. CVC (perfusion divided by mean arterial pressure) at each site was reported as a percentage of the maximal CVC (%CVCmax) induced at the end of each experiment by prolonged local heating at 42 degrees C. Neither age nor BT affected the %CVCmax (75-86%) attained at high core temperatures. During the early rise phase of CVC, the %CVCmax-change in esophageal temperature (delta T(es)) curve was shifted to the right in the older men (effective delta T(es) associated with 50% CVC response for young, 0.22 +/- 0.04 and 0.39 +/- 0.04 degrees C and for older, 0.73 +/- 0.04 and 0.85 +/- 0.04 degrees C at control and BT sites, respectively). BT had no interactive effect on this age difference, suggesting a lack of involvement of the VC system in the attenuated CVC response of individuals over the age of 60 yr. Additionally, increases in skin vascular conductance were quantitatively compared by measuring increases in total forearm vascular conductance (FVC, restricted to the forearm skin under these conditions). After the initial approximately 0.2 degrees C increase in T(es), FVC was 40-50% lower in the older men (P < 0.01) for the remainder of the exercise. Decreased active vasodilator sensitivity to increasing core temperature, coupled with

  11. Digital dermoscopy to determine skin melanin index as an objective indicator of skin pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Majewski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Clinical assessment of skin photosensitivity is subjectively determined by erythema and tanning responses to sunlight recalled by the subject, alternatively known as Fitzpatrick Skin Phototype (SPT. Responses may be unreliable due to recall bias, subjective bias by clinicians and subjects, and lack of cultural sensitivity of the questions. Analysis of red-green-blue (RGB color spacing of digital images may provide an objective determination of SPT. This paper presents the studies to assess the melanin index (MI, as determined by RGB images obtained by both standard digital camera as well as by videodermoscope, and to correlate the MI with SPT based upon subjects’ verbal responses to standardized questions administered by a dermatologist.A sample of subjects representing all SPTs I–VI was selected. Both the digital camera and videodermoscope were calibrated at standard illumination, light source and white balance. Images of constitutive skin of the upper ventral arm were taken of each subject using both instruments.The studies showed that 58 subjects (20 M, 38 F were enrolled in the study (mean age: 47 years; range: 20–89, stratified to skin phototype I–VI. MI obtained by using both digital camera and videodermoscope increased significantly as the SPT increased p = 0.004 and p < 0.0001, respectively and positively correlated with dermatologist-assessed SPT (Spearman correlation, r = 0.48 and r = 0.84, respectively.Digital imaging can quantify melanin content in order to quantitatively approximate skin pigmentation in all skin phototypes including Type VI skin. This methodology holds promise as a simple, non-invasive, rapid and objective approach to reliably determine skin phototype and, with further investigation, may prove to be both practical and useful in the prediction of skin cancer risk.

  12. A flexible skin piloerection monitoring sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaemin; Seo, Dae Geon; Cho, Young-Ho

    2014-06-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested a capacitive-type flexible micro sensor for measurement of the human skin piloerection arisen from sudden emotional and environmental change. The present skin piloerection monitoring methods are limited in objective and quantitative measurement by physical disturbance stimulation to the skin due to bulky size and heavy weight of measuring devices. The proposed flexible skin piloerection monitoring sensor is composed of 3 × 3 spiral coplanar capacitor array using conductive polymer for having high capacitive density and thin enough thickness to be attached to human skin. The performance of the skin piloerection monitoring sensor is characterized using the artificial bump, representing human skin goosebump; thus, resulting in the sensitivity of -0.00252%/μm and the nonlinearity of 25.9% for the artificial goosebump deformation in the range of 0-326 μm. We also verified successive human skin piloerection having 3.5 s duration on the subject's dorsal forearms, thus resulting in the capacitance change of -6.2 fF and -9.2 fF for the piloerection intensity of 145 μm and 194 μm, respectively. It is demonstrated experimentally that the proposed sensor is capable to measure the human skin piloerection objectively and quantitatively, thereby suggesting the quantitative evaluation method of the qualitative human emotional status for cognitive human-machine interfaces applications.

  13. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    western India with reference to climate change: Fossil wood evidences. 1373 .... Influence of epicentral distance on local seismic response in Kolkata City, India. 321 .... ture distribution of the deep convective clouds. 1195. Analysis of ...

  14. Hydrogel-based ultra-moisturizing cream formulation for skin hydration and enhanced dermal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Gon; Kim, Sung Rae; Cho, Hye In; Kang, Mean Hyung; Yeom, Dong Woo; Lee, Seo Hyun; Lee, Sangkil; Choi, Young Wook

    2014-01-01

    To develop an external vehicle for skin hydration and enhanced dermal drug delivery, a hydrogel-based ultra-moisturizing cream (HUMC) was successfully formulated with carbopol 934P, urea, Tinocare GL, grape seed oil, and other excipients. The HUMC showed plastic flow behavior due to a gel structure with a cream base. Different types of drug-free vehicles such as a hydrogel, conventional cream (CC), and three HUMCs were prepared and subjected to an in vivo skin hydration test on a hairless mouse using a corneometer. Hydration effect (∆AU) was in the order of HUMC2>HUMC1 ≥ CC>HUMC3>hydrogel. Using nile red (NR) and 5-carboxyfluorescein (5-CF) as lipophilic and hydrophilic fluorescent probes, respectively, in vitro skin permeation and accumulation studies were conducted using Franz diffusion cells. The values of steady-state flux (Jss, ng/h/cm(2)) were obtained: 74.8 (CC), 145.6 (HUMC1), and 161.9 (HUMC2) for NR delivery; 6.8 (CC), 8.3 (HUMC1), and 10.9 (HUMC2) for 5-CF delivery. The amounts retained in the skin at 12 h (Qr, ng/cm(2)) were determined: 86.4 (CC) and 102.0 (HUMC2) for NR; and 70.1 (CC) and 195.6 (HUMC2) for 5-CF. Confocal microscopy was used to visualize the distribution of the fluorescent probes. NR tended to be localized into the deeper part of the skin with adipose tissue whereas 5-CF localized in the upper layer of the skin. Thus we propose that HUMC2 is an efficacious vehicle for skin hydration and enhances dermal delivery of lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs.

  15. Oily skin: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Thais H; Maibach, Howard I

    2012-01-01

    Oily skin (seborrhea) is a common cosmetic problem that occurs when oversized sebaceous glands produce excessive amounts of sebum giving the appearance of shiny and greasy skin. This paper overviews the main concepts of sebaceous gland anatomy and physiology, including the biosynthesis, storage and release of sebum, as well as its relationship to skin hydration and water barrier function. We also address how skin oiliness may vary according to diet, age, gender, ethnicity and hot humid climates. The deeper understanding of this skin type provides the opportunity to better guide patients regarding skin care and also assist in the development of sebosuppressive agents. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Musculoskeletal MRI findings of juvenile localized scleroderma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eutsler, Eric P. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE (United States); Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Horton, Daniel B. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Division of Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Wilmington, DE (United States); Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Department of Pediatrics, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Epelman, Monica [Nemours Children' s Health System/Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Orlando, FL (United States); Finkel, Terri [Nemours Children' s Health System/Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Orlando, FL (United States); Averill, Lauren W. [Nemours Children' s Health System/Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Juvenile localized scleroderma comprises a group of autoimmune conditions often characterized clinically by an area of skin hardening. In addition to superficial changes in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, juvenile localized scleroderma may involve the deep soft tissues, bones and joints, possibly resulting in functional impairment and pain in addition to cosmetic changes. There is literature documenting the spectrum of findings for deep involvement of localized scleroderma (fascia, muscles, tendons, bones and joints) in adults, but there is limited literature for the condition in children. We aimed to document the spectrum of musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of both superficial and deep juvenile localized scleroderma involvement in children and to evaluate the utility of various MRI sequences for detecting those findings. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated 20 MRI studies of the extremities in 14 children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Each imaging sequence was also given a subjective score of 0 (not useful), 1 (somewhat useful) or 2 (most useful for detecting the findings). Deep tissue involvement was detected in 65% of the imaged extremities. Fascial thickening and enhancement were seen in 50% of imaged extremities. Axial T1, axial T1 fat-suppressed (FS) contrast-enhanced and axial fluid-sensitive sequences were rated most useful. Fascial thickening and enhancement were the most commonly encountered deep tissue findings in extremity MRIs of children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Because abnormalities of the skin, subcutaneous tissues and fascia tend to run longitudinally in an affected limb, axial T1, axial fluid-sensitive and axial T1-FS contrast-enhanced sequences should be included in the imaging protocol. (orig.)

  17. Musculoskeletal MRI findings of juvenile localized scleroderma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eutsler, Eric P.; Horton, Daniel B.; Epelman, Monica; Finkel, Terri; Averill, Lauren W.

    2017-01-01

    Juvenile localized scleroderma comprises a group of autoimmune conditions often characterized clinically by an area of skin hardening. In addition to superficial changes in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, juvenile localized scleroderma may involve the deep soft tissues, bones and joints, possibly resulting in functional impairment and pain in addition to cosmetic changes. There is literature documenting the spectrum of findings for deep involvement of localized scleroderma (fascia, muscles, tendons, bones and joints) in adults, but there is limited literature for the condition in children. We aimed to document the spectrum of musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of both superficial and deep juvenile localized scleroderma involvement in children and to evaluate the utility of various MRI sequences for detecting those findings. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated 20 MRI studies of the extremities in 14 children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Each imaging sequence was also given a subjective score of 0 (not useful), 1 (somewhat useful) or 2 (most useful for detecting the findings). Deep tissue involvement was detected in 65% of the imaged extremities. Fascial thickening and enhancement were seen in 50% of imaged extremities. Axial T1, axial T1 fat-suppressed (FS) contrast-enhanced and axial fluid-sensitive sequences were rated most useful. Fascial thickening and enhancement were the most commonly encountered deep tissue findings in extremity MRIs of children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Because abnormalities of the skin, subcutaneous tissues and fascia tend to run longitudinally in an affected limb, axial T1, axial fluid-sensitive and axial T1-FS contrast-enhanced sequences should be included in the imaging protocol. (orig.)

  18. Musculoskeletal MRI findings of juvenile localized scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eutsler, Eric P; Horton, Daniel B; Epelman, Monica; Finkel, Terri; Averill, Lauren W

    2017-04-01

    Juvenile localized scleroderma comprises a group of autoimmune conditions often characterized clinically by an area of skin hardening. In addition to superficial changes in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, juvenile localized scleroderma may involve the deep soft tissues, bones and joints, possibly resulting in functional impairment and pain in addition to cosmetic changes. There is literature documenting the spectrum of findings for deep involvement of localized scleroderma (fascia, muscles, tendons, bones and joints) in adults, but there is limited literature for the condition in children. We aimed to document the spectrum of musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of both superficial and deep juvenile localized scleroderma involvement in children and to evaluate the utility of various MRI sequences for detecting those findings. Two radiologists retrospectively evaluated 20 MRI studies of the extremities in 14 children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Each imaging sequence was also given a subjective score of 0 (not useful), 1 (somewhat useful) or 2 (most useful for detecting the findings). Deep tissue involvement was detected in 65% of the imaged extremities. Fascial thickening and enhancement were seen in 50% of imaged extremities. Axial T1, axial T1 fat-suppressed (FS) contrast-enhanced and axial fluid-sensitive sequences were rated most useful. Fascial thickening and enhancement were the most commonly encountered deep tissue findings in extremity MRIs of children with juvenile localized scleroderma. Because abnormalities of the skin, subcutaneous tissues and fascia tend to run longitudinally in an affected limb, axial T1, axial fluid-sensitive and axial T1-FS contrast-enhanced sequences should be included in the imaging protocol.

  19. Skin Stem Cells in Skin Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollapour Sisakht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Preclinical and clinical research has shown that stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many diseases. This article describes skin stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications. Evidence Acquisition Compared with conventional methods, cell therapy reduces the surgical burden for patients because it is simple and less time-consuming. Skin cell therapy has been developed for variety of diseases. By isolation of the skin stem cell from the niche, in vitro expansion and transplantation of cells offers a surprising healing capacity profile. Results Stem cells located in skin cells have shown interesting properties such as plasticity, transdifferentiation, and specificity. Mesenchymal cells of the dermis, hypodermis, and other sources are currently being investigated to promote regeneration. Conclusions Because skin stem cells are highly accessible from autologous sources and their immunological profile is unique, they are ideal for therapeutic approaches. Optimization of administrative routes requires more investigation own to the lack of a standard protocol.

  20. Examine Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, ...

  1. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, ...

  2. Bleeding into the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003235.htm Bleeding into the skin To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bleeding into the skin can occur from broken blood ...

  3. Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Learn how to evaluate people for latent TB infection with the Mantoux tuberculin skin test. This podcast includes sections on administering and reading the Mantoux tuberculin skin test, the standard method for detecting latent TB infection since the 1930s.

  4. Skin graft - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100100.htm Skin graft - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... entire body, and acts as a protective barrier. Skin grafts may be recommended for: Extensive wounds Burns Specific ...

  5. Laser surgery - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bleeding Problem not going away Infection Pain Scarring Skin color changes Some laser surgery is done when you are asleep and ... TG, Elston DM, eds. Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical ... lasers, lights, and tissue interactions. In: Hruza GJ, Avram ...

  6. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ... Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding Your Pathology Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma ...

  7. Correlation between chloride flux via the mitochondria-rich cells and transepithelial water movement in isolated frog skin (Rana esculenta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Antidiuretic hormone; chloride transport; electroosmosis; Frog skin; Intercalated cells; Local osmosis; Mitochondria-rich cells.......Antidiuretic hormone; chloride transport; electroosmosis; Frog skin; Intercalated cells; Local osmosis; Mitochondria-rich cells....

  8. Monitoring of overalls and personnel skin contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkin, N.F.

    1980-01-01

    Organization of monitoring of overalls and personnel skin contamination wastes is considered. The devices used for this purpose are enumerated. In sanitary sluices through which the personnel leaving the repair zone it is recommended to particularly thoroughly control hand skin contamination and most contaminated parts of overalls (sleeves, breeches lower parts, pockets, stomack region). In sanitary check points during personnel leaving the operator zone monitoring of overalls and skin contamination is performed. The overalls and other individual protective clothing are subjected to control in a special loundry before and after washing (decontamination) [ru

  9. fMRI of pain studies using laser-induced heat on skin with and without the loved one near the subject – a pilot study on 'love hurts'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofina, T; Kamil, W A; Ahmad, A H

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study are to image and investigate the areas of brain response to laser-induced heat pain, to analyse for any difference in the brain response when a subject is alone and when her loved one is present next to the MRI gantry. Pain stimuli was delivered using Th-YAG laser to four female subjects. Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent (BOLD) fMRI experiment was performed using blocked design paradigm with five blocks of painful (P) stimuli and five blocks of non-painful (NP) stimuli arranged in pseudorandom order with an 18 seconds rest (R) between each stimulation phase. Brain images were obtained from 3T Philips Achieva MRI scanner using 32-channel SENSE head coil. A T1-weighted image (TR/TE/slice/FOV = 9ms/4ms/4mm slices/240×240mm) was obtained for verification of brain anatomical structures. An echo-planar-imaging sequence were used for the functional scans (TR/TE/slice/flip/FOV=2000ms/35ms/4mm slices/90°/220×220mm). fMRI data sets were analysed using SPM 8.0 involving preprocessing steps followed by t-contrast analysis for individuals and FFX analysis. In both with and without-loved-one conditions, neuronal responses were seen in the somatosensory gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, thalamus and insula regions, consistent with pain-related areas. FFX analysis showed that the presence of loved one produced more activation in the frontal and supramarginal gyrus during painful and non-painful stimulations compared to absence of a loved one. Brain response to pain is modulated by the presence of a loved one, causing more activation in the cognitive/emotional area i.e. 'love hurts'

  10. Differentiation of involved and uninvolved psoriatic skin from healthy skin using noninvasive visual, colorimeter and evaporimeter methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershing, L K; Bakhtian, S; Wright, E D; Rallis, T M

    1995-08-01

    Uninvolved skin of psoriasis may not be entirely normal. The object was to characterize healthy, uninvolved psoriatic skin and lesional skin by biophysical methods. Involved and uninvolved psoriatic and age-gender matched healthy skin was measured objectively with a colorimeter and evaporimeter and subjectively with visual assessment in 14 subjects. Visual assessment of erythema (E), scaling (S) and induration (I) as well as the target lesion score at the involved psoriatic skin sites were significantly elevated (puninvolved psoriatic skin >healthy skin (pcolorimeter L* and a* scale values at uninvolved psoriatic skin sites were lower and higher (pcolorimeter description (L*× b*)/a* significantly differentiated healthy skin from both involved and uninvolved psoriatic skin. These collective data highlight that even visually appearing uninvolved psoriatic skin is compromised compared with healthy skin. These objective, noninvasive but differential capabilities of the colorimeter and evaporimeter will aid in the mechanistic quantification of new psoriatic drug therapies and in conjuction with biochemical studies, add to understanding of the multifactorial pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  11. Skin self-exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... Checking your skin regularly can help you notice any unusual changes. Follow your health care provider's recommendations on how often to ...

  12. Skin Conditions during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during pregnancy. For most skin changes, however, health care providers are not sure of the exact cause. Why do dark spots and patches appear on the skin during pregnancy? Dark spots and patches are caused by an increase in the body’s melanin—a natural substance that gives color to the skin and ...

  13. Psychoneuroimmunology and the Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyman, Juan F

    2016-08-23

    The nervous, immune, endocrine and integumentary systems are closely related and interact in a number of normal and pathological conditions. Nervous system mediators may bring about direct changes to the skin or may induce the release of immunological or hormonal mediators that cause pathological changes to the skin. This article reviews the psychological mechanisms involved in the development of skin diseases.

  14. Skin layer mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerligs, M.

    2010-01-01

    The human skin is composed of several layers, each with an unique structure and function. Knowledge about the mechanical behavior of these skin layers is important for clinical and cosmetic research, such as the development of personal care products and the understanding of skin diseases. Until

  15. Efficiency of Carbon Dioxide Fractional Laser in Skin Resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Andrej

    2016-06-15

    The aim of the study was to confirm the efficiency and safety of the fractional CO2 laser in skin renewal and to check the possibility of having a synergistic effect in patients who besides carbon dioxide laser are treated with PRP (platelet-rich plasma) too. The first group (Examined Group 1 or EG1) included 107 patients treated with fractional CO2 laser (Lutronic eCO2) as mono-therapy. The second group (Control Group or CG) covered 100 patients treated with neither laser nor plasma in the same period but subjected to local therapy with drugs or other physio-procedures under the existing protocols for treatment of certain diseases. The third group (Examined Group 2 or EG2) treated 25 patients with combined therapy of CO2 laser and PRP in the treatment of facial rejuvenation or treatment of acne scars. Patient's satisfaction, in general, is significantly greater in both examined groups (EG1 and EG2) (p skin is significant (χ2 = 39.41; df = 4; p skin was significantly lower in examined group (treated with laser), p = 0.0002. Multifunctional fractional carbon dioxide laser used in treatment of patients with acne and pigmentation from acne, as well as in the treatment of scars from different backgrounds, is an effective and safe method that causes statistically significant better effect of the treatment, greater patients' satisfaction, minimal side effects and statistically better response to the therapy, according to assessments by the patient and the therapist.

  16. Occupational skin problems in construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kartik R; Tiwari, Rajnarayan R

    2010-10-01

    Construction workers handle cement which has constituents to produce both irritant contact dermatitis and corrosive effects (from alkaline ingredients, such as lime) and sensitization, leading to allergic contact dermatitis (from ingredients, such as chromium). The present study has been carried out among unorganized construction workers to find the prevalence of skin problems. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in 92 construction workers of Ahmedabad and Vadodara. All the workers were subjected to clinical examination after collection of information regarding demographic characteristics, occupational characteristics and clinical history on a predesigned proforma. Of them, 47.8% had morbid skin conditions. Frictional callosities in palm were observed in 18 (19.6%) subjects while 4 (4.3%) subjects had contact dermatitis. Other conditions included dry, fissured and scaly skin, infectious skin lesion, tinea cruris, lesion and ulcers on hands and/or soles. The skin conditions were common in the age group of 20-25 years, males, those having ≥1 year exposure and those working for longer hours. Half of the workers not using personal protective equipment had reported skin-related symptoms.

  17. Assessment of knowledge about skin care among Turkish people

    OpenAIRE

    Gonca Gökdemir; Seher Arı; Adem Köşlü

    2008-01-01

    Background and Design: Skin care is essential for maintenance of healty skin. But skin care behaviors vary in different societies. There are a few studies about this subject in Turkish population. The aim of this study was to determine behaviors of skin care products use and knowledge about skin care. MATERIAL-METHOD: A total of 870 patients were enrolled to the study between October 2006 and May 2007. The study group were composed of patients in dermatology out-patient clinic. A standart que...

  18. Taking Care of Your Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Taking Care of Your Skin KidsHealth / For Kids / Taking Care of Your Skin ... you're in. Why Be Nice to Your Skin? Like the heart, stomach, and brain, your skin ...

  19. State of hydration and electrical conductance of ichthyotic skin

    OpenAIRE

    A B Gupta; Manisha Bhattacharya; B Haldar

    1990-01-01

    Dry skin of twelve subjects suffering from ichthyosis vulgaris and the efficacy of a moisturiser-Cotaryl were quantitatively assessed by measuring the skin surface hydration and high frequency (3.5 MHz) electrical conductance of skin. The state of hydration and conductance of ichthyotic skin were 86.9 + 24.6 and 11.0 + 5.7 micro-mho respectively, being much less-compared to 132. 0 + 5.3 and 72.5 + 54.0 micro-mho ofnormal subjects. The moisturiser increased the state of hydration and also the ...

  20. Effects of local fatigue on myoelectrical activity of erector spine muscles and the center for pressure displacement of the feet during balance recovery following postural perturbation in kyphotic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rooholah Rezaee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: kyphosis deformity affects postural control. Muscular fatigue is one of the factors that can impair the mechanism of body balance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of local fatigue on the myoelectrical activity of erector spine muscles and the center for pressure displacement of the feet during balance recovery following postural perturbation in kyphotic subjects. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 12 male students with>40 degrees thoracic kyphosis and 12 controls were selected to participate in the study. A flexible ruler was used to measure thoracic kyphosis. For postural control assessment, each subject underwent unexpected, forward-backward perturbations while standing on a foot scan mounted on a movable plate triggered by a weight equivalent to 10% of the subjects’ body weight. Experimental procedure was measured before (3 trails and after (3 trials the fatigue protocol. The myoelectric activity of the erector spine and multi fidus was compared in the groups using repeated measures of ANOVA and independent t-test (P<0.05. Results: There was no significant difference in the foot center of pressure displacement in both groups after muscular fatigue. After fatigue, there was an increase in the activity of longissimus thoracis (P=0.001 and iliocostalis thoracis (P= 0.001 in control group, while no significant difference was reported for the muscular activity of multifidus (p=0.084. The activity of langisimus thoracis was significantly increased (P=0.028 in kyphtic group after fatigue. Conclusion: erector spine muscles fatigue could not significantly affect the postural control in both groups, but the electrical activity of erector spine muscles during balance recovery following postural perturbation in kyphotic subjects was different than the controls.

  1. SKIN CARE IN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Zakharova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human skin is a complex organ in its structure. Numerous functions of the skin may be impaired in its pathology. Anatomical and physiological characteristics of the skin in children predispose to common diseases of the skin. Diaper dermatitis is one of the most common skin diseases during infancy and childhood. Diapered skin is exposed to friction and excessive hydration, has a higher pH than nondiapered skin, and is repeatedly soiled with feces that contains enzymes with high irritation potential for the skin. Diaper dermatitis may vary in clinical severity and course. Therapeutically, frequent diaper changes and adequate skin care are most important. Appropriate skin care can help to prevent the occurrence of diaper dermatitis and to speed up the healing of affected skin. This includes frequent diaper changes and aeration, gentle cleansing, and the use of a barrier cream. For the treatment of diaper dermatitis agents selected depending on the presence and severity of complications. For prevention and treatment of uncomplicated diaper dermatitis effective means of containing dexpantenol.

  2. Facial skin pores: a multiethnic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, Frederic; Francois, Ghislain; Qiu, Huixia; Ye, Chengda; Hanaya, Tomoo; Batisse, Dominique; Cointereau-Chardon, Suzy; Seixas, Mirela Donato Gianeti; Dal Belo, Susi Elaine; Bazin, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Skin pores (SP), as they are called by laymen, are common and benign features mostly located on the face (nose, cheeks, etc) that generate many aesthetic concerns or complaints. Despite the prevalence of skin pores, related literature is scarce. With the aim of describing the prevalence of skin pores and anatomic features among ethnic groups, a dermatoscopic instrument, using polarized lighting, coupled to a digital camera recorded the major features of skin pores (size, density, coverage) on the cheeks of 2,585 women in different countries and continents. A detection threshold of 250 μm, correlated to clinical scorings by experts, was input into a specific software to further allow for automatic counting of the SP density (N/cm(2)) and determination of their respective sizes in mm(2). Integrating both criteria also led to establishing the relative part of the skin surface (as a percentage) that is actually covered by SP on cheeks. The results showed that the values of respective sizes, densities, and skin coverage: 1) were recorded in all studied subjects; 2) varied greatly with ethnicity; 3) plateaued with age in most cases; and 4) globally refected self-assessment by subjects, in particular those who self-declare having "enlarged pores" like Brazilian women. Inversely, Chinese women were clearly distinct from other ethnicities in having very low density and sizes. Analyzing the present results suggests that facial skin pore's morphology as perceived by human eye less result from functional criteria of associated appendages such as sebaceous glands. To what extent skin pores may be viewed as additional criteria of a photo-altered skin is an issue to be further addressed.

  3. Human age and skin physiology shape diversity and abundance of Archaea on skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Probst, Alexander J; Birarda, Giovanni; Auerbach, Anna; Koskinen, Kaisa; Wolf, Peter; Holman, Hoi-Ying N

    2017-06-22

    The human skin microbiome acts as an important barrier protecting our body from pathogens and other environmental influences. Recent investigations have provided evidence that Archaea are a constant but highly variable component of the human skin microbiome, yet factors that determine their abundance changes are unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the abundance of archaea on human skin is influenced by human age and skin physiology by quantitative PCR of 51 different skin samples taken from human subjects of various age. Our results reveal that archaea are more abundant in human subjects either older than 60 years or younger than 12 years as compared to middle-aged human subjects. These results, together with results obtained from spectroscopy analysis, allowed us gain first insights into a potential link of lower sebum levels and lipid content and thus reduced skin moisture with an increase in archaeal signatures. Amplicon sequencing of selected samples revealed the prevalence of specific eury- and mainly thaumarchaeal taxa, represented by a core archaeome of the human skin.

  4. Skin absorption through atopic dermatitis skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Overgaard, A-S; Kezic, S; Jakasa, I

    2017-01-01

    Patients with atopic dermatitis have skin barrier impairment in both lesional and non-lesional skin. They are typically exposed to emollients daily and topical anti-inflammatory medicaments intermittently, hereby increasing the risk of developing contact allergy and systemic exposed to chemicals...... ingredients found in these topical preparations. We systematically searched for studies that investigated skin absorption of various penetrants, including medicaments, in atopic dermatitis patients, but also animals with experimentally induced dermatitis. We identified 40 articles, i.e. 11 human studies...... examining model penetrants, 26 human studies examining atopic dermatitis drugs and 3 animal studies. We conclude that atopic dermatitis patients have nearly two-fold increased skin absorption when compared to healthy controls. There is a need for well-designed epidemiological and dermato...

  5. Assessing human skin with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and colorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, InSeok; Liu, Yang; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2012-02-01

    Colorimetry has been used as an objective measure of perceived skin color by human eye to document and score physiological responses of the skin from external insults. CIE color space values (L*, a* and b*) are the most commonly used parameters to correlate visually perceived color attributes such as L* for pigment, a* for erythema, and b* for sallowness of the skin. In this study, we investigated the relation of Lab color scale to the amount of major skin chromophores (oxy-, deoxyhemoglobin and melanin) calculated from diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Thirty two healthy human subjects with ages from 20 to 70 years old, skin types I-VI, were recruited for the study. DRS and colorimetry measurements were taken from the left and right cheeks, and on the right upper inner arm. The melanin content calculated from 630-700 nm range of DRS measurements was shown to correlate with the lightness of skin (L*) for most skin types. For subjects with medium-to-light complexion, melanin measured at the blue part spectrum and hemoglobin interfered on the relation of lightness of the skin color to the melanin content. The sallowness of the skin that is quantified by the melanin contribution at the blue part spectrum of DRS was found to be related to b* scale. This study demonstrates the importance of documenting skin color by assessing individual skin chromophores with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, in comparison to colorimetry assessment.

  6. Facial peeling skin syndrome: a case report and a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, Shahbaz Ahmad; Hussain, Ijaz; Khachemoune, Amor

    2007-03-01

    Peeling skin syndrome is an extremely rare genodermatosis of possible autosomal recessive inheritance, characterized by asymptomatic spontaneous exfoliation of the stratum corneum at a subcorneal or intracorneal level. It usually presents at birth or appears later in early childhood. The condition may be generalized or localized. Here we describe a case of localized continual skin peeling limited to the facial skin in a 6-month-old infant, with two other members of the family affected with the same condition. A few cases of localized skin peeling limited to the acral surfaces have been described in the literature, but a familial case of localized skin peeling limited to the facial skin has not been described before. We believe that our patient represents a new subtype of peeling skin syndrome, limited to the skin of the face.

  7. Biometrical characteristics and physiological responses to a local cold exposure of the extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savourey, G; Sendowski, I; Bittel, J

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was firstly to describe the physiological responses observed in 19 subjects during immersion of the arm up to the elbow in water at 5 degrees C (5 min) followed by a 10-min recovery and secondly, to correlate the observed physiological responses with biometrical characteristics of the subjects (maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max, percentage fat content of whole body, BF, and arm, forearm and hand skinfold thickness). The results showed that the time courses of changes in forearm and hand skin temperature were different compared to those of finger skin temperatures both during local cooling and during rewarming (P immersion, decreased hand skin temperature was correlated to VO2max (r = 0.45, P < or = 0.05) whereas decreased forearm skin temperature was correlated both to VO2max (r = 0.44, P < or = 0.05) and to skinfold thickness (r = -0.44, P < or = 0.05) but not to BF. During the beginning of the recovery period only, outside, inside forearm and hand skin temperatures were related to VO2max (r = 0.54, P < or = 0.05; r = 0.66, P < or = 0.01 and r = 0.45, P < or = 0.05, respectively) and all the skinfold thicknesses (r = -0.47 to -0.71, P < or = 0.05). It was concluded that the local skin temperature profiles differed according to the upper limb segment both during cooling and during early rewarming. Moreover, VO2max and upper limb skinfold thickness but not BF did influence the forearm and hand skin temperature changes during cooling and early rewarming but not the finger skin temperature changes and cardiovascular responses.

  8. The effect of compressed air massage on skin blood flow and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Maurice; Maharaj, Sunil S; Tufts, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Compressed air massage is a new treatment modality that uses air under pressure to massage skin and muscle. It is claimed to improve skin blood flow but this has not been verified. Several pilot studies were undertaken to determine the effects of compressed air massage on skin blood flow and temperature. Skin blood flow (SBF), measured using laser Doppler fluxmetry and skin temperature was recorded under several different situations: (i) treatment, at 1 Bar pressure using a single-hole (5-mm) applicator head, for 1 min at each of several sites on the right and left lower legs, with SBF measured on the dorsum of the left foot; (ii) at the same treatment pressure, SBF was measured over the left tibialis anterior when treatment was performed at different distances from the probe; (iii) SBF and skin temperature of the lower leg were measured with treatment at 0 or 1 Bar for 45 min, using two different applicator heads; (iv) SBF was measured on the dorsum of the foot of 10 subjects with treatment for 1 min at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 Bar using three different applicator heads. (i) SBF of the left foot was not altered by treatment of the right leg or chest, but was significantly increased during treatment of the left sole and first web, p Compressed air massage causes an immediate increase in SBF, and an immediate fall in SBF when treatment is stopped. The effect appears to be locally and not centrally mediated and is related to the pressure used. Treatment cools the skin for at least 15 min after a 45-min treatment.

  9. Age influences the skin reaction pattern to mechanical stress and its repair level through skin care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouboulis, Christos C; Elewa, Rana; Ottaviani, Monica; Fluhr, Joachim; Picardo, Mauro; Bernois, Armand; Heusèle, Catherine; Camera, Emanuela

    2018-03-01

    Skin aging is associated with alterations of surface texture, sebum composition and immune response. Mechanical stress induces repair mechanisms, which may be dependent on the age and quality of the skin. The response to mechanical stress in young and aged individuals, their subjective opinion and the objective effectiveness of skin care products were evaluated by biophysical skin quality parameters (stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, skin pH, pigmentation and erythema) at baseline, 1, 6, 24h and 7days at the forearms of 2 groups of healthy volunteers, younger than 35 years (n=11) and older than 60 years (n=13). In addition, casual surface lipid composition was studied under the same conditions at the baseline and day 7 after mechanical stress induction. Evaluations were also performed in stressed skin areas treated daily with skin care products and the subjective opinion of the volunteers was additionally documented. The tested groups exhibited age-associated baseline skin functions as well as casual surface lipid composition and different reaction patterns to mechanical stress. Skin care was more effective in normalizing skin reaction to stress in the young than in the aged group. The subjective volunteer opinion correlated with the objective measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Danish translation and validation of the International Skin Tear Advisory Panel Skin Tear Classification System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiveren, J; Bermark, S; LeBlanc, K

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to translate, validate and establish reliability of the International Skin Tear Classification System in Danish. METHOD: Phase 1 of the project involved the translation of the International Skin Tear Advisory Panel (ISTAP) Skin Tear Classification System......) and social and health-care assistants (non-RN) from both primary health care and a Danish university hospital in Copenhagen. Thirty photographs, with equal representation of the three types of skin tears, were selected to test validity. The photographs chosen were those originally used for internal...... and external validation by the ISTAP group. The subjects were approached in their place of work and invited to participate in the study and to attend an educational session related to skin tears. RESULTS: The Danish translation of the ISTAP classification system was tested on 270 non-wound specialists...

  11. Tribology of human skin and mechanical skin equivalents in contact with textiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derler, S.; Schrade, G.U.; Gerhardt, L.C.

    2007-01-01

    The friction of untreated human skin (finger) against a reference textile was investigated with 12 subjects using a force plate. In touch experiments, in which the subjects assessed the surface roughness of the textile at normal loads of 1.5 ± 0.7 N, the average friction coefficients ranged from

  12. Complications of surgery for radiotherapy skin damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, R.

    1982-01-01

    Complications of modern surgery for radiotherapy skin damage reviewed in 28 patients who had 42 operations. Thin split-thickness skin grafts for ulcer treatment had a 100 percent complication rate, defined as the need for further surgery. Local flaps, whether delayed or not, also had a high rate of complications. Myocutaneous flaps for ulcers had a 43 percent complication rate, with viable flaps lifting off radiated wound beds. Only myocutaneous flaps for breast reconstruction and omental flaps with skin grafts and Marlex mesh had no complications. The deeper tissue penetration of modern radiotherapy techniques may make skin grafts and flaps less useful. In reconstruction of radiation ulcers, omental flaps and myocutaneous flaps are especially useful, particularly if the radiation damage can be fully excised. The pull of gravity appears detrimental to myocutaneous flap healing and, if possible, should be avoided by flap design

  13. Skin physiology in men and women: in vivo evaluation of 300 people including TEWL, SC hydration, sebum content and skin surface pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebberding, S; Krueger, N; Kerscher, M

    2013-10-01

    Evidence is given that differences in skin physiological properties exist between men and women. However, despite an assessable number of available publications, the results are still inconsistent. Therefore, the aim of this clinical study is the first systematic assessment of gender-related differences in skin physiology in men and women, with a special focus on changes over lifetime. A total of 300 healthy male and female subjects (20-74 years) were selected following strict criteria including age, sun behaviour or smoking habits. TEWL, hydration level, sebum production and pH value were measured with worldwide-acknowledged biophysical measuring methods at forehead, cheek, neck, volar forearm and dorsum of hand. Until the age of 50 men's TEWL is significantly lower than the water loss of women of the same age, regardless of the location. With ageing gender-related differences in TEWL assimilate. Young men show higher SC hydration in comparison with women. But, whereas SC hydration is stable or even increasing in women over lifetime, the skin hydration in men is progressively decreasing, beginning at the age of 40. Sebum production in male skin is always higher and stays stable with increasing age, whereas sebum production in women progressively decreases over lifetime. Across all localizations and age groups, the pH value in men is below 5, the pH value of female subjects is, aside from limited expectations, higher than 5. Skin physiological distinctions between the sexes exist and are particularly remarkable with regard to sebum production and pH value. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  14. Periostin in Mature Stage Localized Scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Woo; Park, Jung Tae; Kim, Jung Ho; Koh, Seong-Joon; Yoon, Hyun-Sun; Cho, Soyun; Park, Hyun-Sun

    2017-06-01

    Periostin is a novel matricellular protein expressed in many tissues, including bone, periodontal ligament, and skin. Although its expression is prominent in various fibrotic conditions, studies of periostin in localized scleroderma are rare. To investigate the expression of periostin and other molecules in localized scleroderma. A retrospective study of 14 patients with confirmed mature stage localized scleroderma was undertaken. Fourteen age-matched and biopsy site-matched subjects with normal skin were included as controls. Collagen fiber deposition, periostin, procollagen, transforming growth factor-β, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression were assessed and compared between the two groups. Co-localization of α-smooth muscle actin and periostin was evaluated using confocal microscopy. Periostin was predominantly expressed along the dermo-epidermal junction in the controls. Conversely, patients with localized scleroderma demonstrated increased collagen fiber deposition and periostin expression that was more widely distributed along the entire dermis. MMP-1 staining showed increased expression in the epidermis and dermis of patients compared to scanty expression in the controls. A semi-quantitative evaluation showed a higher proportion of excessive collagen bundle deposition (57.1% vs. 7.1%, p =0.013), diffuse periostin positivity (42.9% vs. 0%, p =0.016), and moderate MMP-1 positivity (71.4% vs. 7.1%, p =0.001) in patients than in the controls. Compared to the controls, patients with localized scleroderma had enhanced periostin expression corresponding to increased collagen fiber deposition and unexpected overexpression of MMP-1. The results of this human in vivo study may implicate the pathogenesis of localized scleroderma.

  15. Fillers in the skin of color population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Candrice R; Taylor, Susan C

    2011-05-01

    The skin of color population in the United States is rapidly growing and the cosmetic industry is responding to the demand for skin of color targeted treatments. The aging face in skin of color patients has a unique pattern that can be successfully augmented by dermal fillers. Though many subjects with skin of color were not included in the pre-market dermal filler clinical trials, some post-market studies have examined the safety and risks of adverse events in this population. The safety data from a selection of these studies was examined. Though pigmentary changes occurred, there have been no reports of keloid development. Developing a patient-specific care plan and instituting close follow up is emphasized.

  16. Skin pigmentation kinetics after UVB exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbak, M.H.; Philipsen, P.A.; Wiegell, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    There have been few previous studies of the kinetics of pigmentation following ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure, and these have included only fair-skinned persons. The current study investigated pigmentation increase to steady state and fading in 12 Scandinavians and 12 Indians/Pakistanis. Over...... a period of 3 weeks the subjects were UV-irradiated 6 times on the right side of the back and 12 times on the left side using a Solar Simulator and narrowband UVB with equal sub-Minimal Melanogenesis Doses (individually predetermined). Pigmentation was measured from skin remittance at 555 urn and 660 nm...... (allowing correction for erythema). The absolute pigmentation increase was independent of pre-exposure pigmentation, therefore the percentage pigmentation increase was higher in fair-skinned volunteers. The UV dose to minimal pigmentation was higher in darker-skinned persons for single and multiple UV...

  17. Recommendations for skin decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Further to the reecommendations for determining the surface contamination of the skin and estimating the radiation exposure of the skin after contamination (SAAS-Mitt--89-16), measures for skin decontamination are recommended. They are necessary if (1) after simple decontamination by means of water, soap and brush without damaging the skin the surface contamination limits are exceeded and the radiation exposure to be expected for the undamaged healthy skin is estimated as to high, and if (2) a wound is contaminated. To remove skin contaminations, in general universally applicable, non-aggressive decontamination means and methods are sufficient. In special cases, nuclide-specific decontamination is required taking into account the properties of the radioactive substance

  18. Up-regulation of A1M/α1-microglobulin in skin by heme and reactive oxygen species gives protection from oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Magnus G; Allhorn, Maria; Larsson, Jörgen; Cederlund, Martin; Lundqvist, Katarina; Schmidtchen, Artur; Sørensen, Ole E; Mörgelin, Matthias; Akerström, Bo

    2011-01-01

    During bleeding the skin is subjected to oxidative insults from free heme and radicals, generated from extracellular hemoglobin. The lipocalin α(1)-microglobulin (A1M) was recently shown to have reductase properties, reducing heme-proteins and other substrates, and to scavenge heme and radicals. We investigated the expression and localization of A1M in skin and the possible role of A1M in the protection of skin tissue from damage induced by heme and reactive oxygen species. Skin explants, keratinocyte cultures and purified collagen I were exposed to heme, reactive oxygen species, and/or A1M and investigated by biochemical methods and electron microscopy. The results demonstrate that A1M is localized ubiquitously in the dermal and epidermal layers, and that the A1M-gene is expressed in keratinocytes and up-regulated after exposure to heme and reactive oxygen species. A1M inhibited the heme- and reactive oxygen species-induced ultrastructural damage, up-regulation of antioxidation and cell cycle regulatory genes, and protein carbonyl formation in skin and keratinocytes. Finally, A1M bound to purified collagen I (K(d) = 0.96×10(-6) M) and could inhibit and repair the destruction of collagen fibrils by heme and reactive oxygen species. The results suggest that A1M may have a physiological role in protection of skin cells and matrix against oxidative damage following bleeding.

  19. Ingestion of an Oral Hyaluronan Solution Improves Skin Hydration, Wrinkle Reduction, Elasticity, and Skin Roughness: Results of a Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göllner, Imke; Voss, Werner; von Hehn, Ulrike; Kammerer, Susanne

    2017-10-01

    Intake of oral supplements with the aim of a cutaneous antiaging effect are increasingly common. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a promising candidate, as it is the key factor for preserving tissue hydration. In our practice study, we evaluated the effect of an oral HA preparation diluted in a cascade-fermented organic whole food concentrate supplemented with biotin, vitamin C, copper, and zinc (Regulatpro Hyaluron) on skin moisture content, elasticity, skin roughness, and wrinkle depths. Twenty female subjects with healthy skin in the age group of 45 to 60 years took the product once daily for 40 days. Different skin parameters were objectively assessed before the first intake, after 20 and after 40 days. Intake of the HA solution led to a significant increase in skin elasticity, skin hydration, and to a significant decrease in skin roughness and wrinkle depths. The supplement was well tolerated; no side effects were noted throughout the study.

  20. Dysbiotic bacterial and fungal communities not restricted to clinically affected skin sites in dandruff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Cardoso Soares

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dandruff is a prevalent chronic inflammatory skin condition of the scalp that has been associated with Malassezia yeasts. However, the microbial role has not been elucidated yet, and the etiology of the disorder remains poorly understood. Using high-throughput 16S rDNA and ITS1 sequencing, we characterized cutaneous bacterial and fungal microbiotas from healthy and dandruff subjects, comparing scalp and forehead (lesional and non-lesional skin sites. Bacterial and fungal communities from dandruff analyzed at genus level differed in comparison with healthy ones, presenting higher diversity and greater intragroup variation. The microbial shift was observed also in non-lesional sites from dandruff subjects, suggesting that dandruff is related to a systemic process that is not restricted to the site exhibiting clinical symptoms. In contrast, Malassezia microbiota analyzed at species level did not differ according to health status. A 2-step OTU assignment using combined databases substantially increased fungal assigned sequences, and revealed the presence of highly prevalent uncharacterized Malassezia organisms (>37% of the reads. Although clinical symptoms of dandruff manifest locally, microbial dysbiosis beyond clinically affected skin sites suggests that subjects undergo systemic alterations, which could be considered for redefining therapeutic approaches.

  1. Real significance of skin contamination is

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudmann, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    For five decades, health physicists have discussed the thickness, area, significance of radioactive contamination and the exposures to various portions of the skin. Concern about instances of skin contamination extend beyond the resultant organ dose simply because it is a recognizable and quantifiable event. As such, there is a tendency for management and regulatory agencies to use it as a trend indicator. The final result is a score card similar to the list of OSHA reportable accidents. In fact, the skin contamination incidence rate has a somewhat different meaning to the health physicist, to the manager, and to the regulator. The question must then be asked, What is the true significance of skin contamination, Is it the resultant skin dose, Is it an indicator of loss of control, Is it both or neither. In order to answer these questions, Rockwell Hanford Operations began analysis of the previous five years records of skin contamination cases. Since by policy each incidence of skin contamination is documented, a large percentage of the 425 records analyzed were of low level activity (less than 100 dpm/cm 2 ) on the extremeties, primarily hands and fingers. Most of these cases were readily decontaminated with soap and water. Individual elements studied included: detection/monitoring methods and limits; impact of type of operation on the incidence rate; causes of and methods for reduction of the incidence rate; reporting and documentation; and dose assessment. Results of the study indicate that skin contamination rarely presents a beta dose problem because it is normally highly localized on the extremeties. Only in unusual cases does it represent a potential for internal deposition. Thus, the real importance of skin contamination incidence is as an indicator of deteriorating conditions and should be reviewed by health physicists, managers and regulators as such

  2. Ultraviolet A phototherapy for sclerotic skin diseases: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroft, Ilse; Berkhof, N.J.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Gerritsen, R.; Jong, E.M.G.J. de

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet (UV) A-1 phototherapy is now available for a variety of skin diseases. Increasingly since 1995, there have been investigations of the efficacy of UVA-1 (340-400 nm) therapy for sclerotic skin diseases. Most studies undertaken treated patients who had localized scleroderma,

  3. Improvement of sheep skin quality after treatment with diazinon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cockle, otherwise known as ekek locally, has been economically the most important skin defect among the tanneries in Ethiopia for the last three decades. The disease has been experimented on since 1996 when FAO sponsored the trials on sheep and goat skin improvement trial (TCP/ETH/4558&6712) and found that ...

  4. Human transient response under local thermal stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lijuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human body can operate physiological thermoregulation system when it is exposed to cold or hot environment. Whether it can do the same work when a local part of body is stimulated by different temperatures? The objective of this paper is to prove it. Twelve subjects are recruited to participate in this experiment. After stabilizing in a comfort environment, their palms are stimulated by a pouch of 39, 36, 33, 30, and 27°C. Subject’s skin temperature, heart rate, heat flux of skin, and thermal sensation are recorded. The results indicate that when local part is suffering from harsh temperature, the whole body is doing physiological thermoregulation. Besides, when the local part is stimulated by high temperature and its thermal sensation is warm, the thermal sensation of whole body can be neutral. What is more, human body is more sensitive to cool stimulation than to warm one. The conclusions are significant to reveal and make full use of physiological thermoregulation.

  5. Infrared imaging of skin lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Laura M.; Mansfield, James R.; Jackson, Michael; Crowson, A. Neil; Mantsch, Henry H.

    2002-02-01

    IR spectroscopy produces spectra in which detailed information concerning chemical structure is inherent. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the most useful IR methods for analysis of biological tissues are microscopic image-based techniques in which fine-scaled spatial and high-quality spectral information is integrated. Unlike traditional visible microscopic methods, the contrast in IR imaging is gained by differences in spectra and the spatial heterogeneity of biochemical components, not by the addition of stains. In order for IR imaging to be more broadly accepted, non-subjective data processing methods are being developed to extract the most out of the large spectral images that are acquired. This paper demonstrates data processing techniques that have been extremely useful in the analysis of normal and abnormal skin. Analysis of skin specimens is of particular clinical importance due to the difficulty in rendering a differential diagnosis. Unstained frozen skin sections were mapped using an IR microscope. Functional group mapping, clustering routines and linear discriminant analysis were used to process the data. Functional group mapping and clustering routines were useful in the initial interpretation of images and to research for trends in uncharacterized spectral images. LDA was useful for differentiating normal from abnormal tissue once a well- defined training spectral set was established. Representative spectroscopic images are shown that demonstrate the power of IR imaging.

  6. Natural history of skin prick test reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou Nielsen, Jesper; Meteran, Howraman; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2017-01-01

    population sample of children and adolescents in relation to symptoms of rhinitis. METHODS: A total of 983 individuals, aged 7 to 17 years, were randomly selected in 1986 and invited to 4 examinations during a 20-year period. During each examination, a skin prick test was performed using common local...

  7. Evaluation of subjectively assessed nodule traits of ostrich skins as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schalk Cloete

    leather quality (Sales, 1999). No formal ... Both traits are clearly age-dependent, with nodule size increasing and nodule density decreasing with an increase in .... E stim ated ag e (m o n th s). Producers. Graders. Marketers. Agents. Managers.

  8. Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is ...

  9. Comparative study in Japan and China concerning aspiration of Asian women towards quality of skin fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Miho; Matsumoto, Junko; Date, Akira; Li, Junfang

    2002-06-01

    Beauty is a world common aspiration, but perceptions of what make a woman beautiful vary across culture and countries. A series of Saito's studies indicated that unlike much of the Western world, in Asia, one common desire is fairer skin tone that epitomizes feminine beauty. Using 105 Japanese women and 105 Chinese women as subjects, a comparative study concerning aspiration of Asian Women toward skin fairness was conducted. In this study, four real skin photo images that have skin tone variations (fair/dark) and skin texture variations (rough/smooth) were used. The fifty-two words describe personality were shown to the subject. The subjects were required to match a suitable skin photo image to the descriptive words. The overall result between China and Japan were very consistent. Both in China and Japan, fairer skin tone with smoother skin texture was accepted very positively. Fairer skin tone with rougher texture tends to provide passive and conservative impression while smoother skin texture with darker skin tone tends to provide friendly and delight impression. The results suggested that in addition to skin tone, the skin texture plays an important role for the personal impressions and it works as a trigger to enhance 'ideal skin fairness' for Asian women.

  10. Skin tribology: Science friction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Emile; Zeng, Xiangqiong; Masen, Marc Arthur

    2013-01-01

    The application of tribological knowledge is not just restricted to optimizing mechanical and chemical engineering problems. In fact, effective solutions to friction and wear related questions can be found in our everyday life. An important part is related to skin tribology, as the human skin is

  11. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, PhD, Professor of Dermatology, Brown University, for permission to use this video. UPDATED: ... Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention ...

  12. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing--Multiple Analysis of Skin Surface Temperature Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 吴海燕; 张渭源

    2003-01-01

    A new researching method on clothing comfort perception is developed.By it the skin surface temperature changes and subjective psychological perception of human body sections stimulated by the same cold stimulation are studied.With the multiple comparison analysis method the changing laws of skin temperature of main human body sections is obtained.

  13. Bionanomaterials for skin regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Leonida, Mihaela D

    2016-01-01

    This book gives a concise overview of bionanomaterials with applications for skin regeneration. The advantages and challenges of nanoscale materials are covered in detail, giving a basic view of the skin structure and conditions that require transdermal or topical applications. Medical applications, such as wound healing, care for burns, skin disease, and cosmetic care, such as aging of the skin and photodamage, and how they benefit from bionanomaterials, are described in detail. A final chapter is devoted to the ethical and social issues related to the use of bionanomaterials for skin regeneration. This is an ideal book for researchers in materials science, medical scientists specialized in dermatology, and cosmetic chemists working in formulations. It can also serve as a reference for nanotechnologists, dermatologists, microbiologists, engineers, and polymer chemists, as well as students studying in these fields.

  14. Effects of repeated skin exposure to low nickel concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N H; Menné, T; Kristiansen, J

    1999-01-01

    and nickel allergy, either on normal or on SLS-treated forearm skin. The present study strongly suggests that the changes observed were specific to nickel exposure. Standardized methods to assess trace to moderate nickel exposure on the hands, and the associated effects in nickel-sensitized subjects......We studied the effects of repeated daily exposure to low nickel concentrations on the hands of patients with hand eczema and nickel allergy. The concentrations used were chosen to represent the range of trace to moderate occupational nickel exposure. The study was double-blinded and placebo...... controlled. Patients immersed a finger for 10 min daily into a 10-p.p.m. nickel concentration in water for the first week, and during the second week into a 100-p.p.m. nickel concentration. This regimen significantly increased (P = 0.05) local vesicle formation and blood flow (P = 0.03) as compared...

  15. The Relative Utility of Skin Resistance and Skin Conductance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barland, Gordon

    1990-01-01

    The effectiveness of two circuits (constant current = skin resistance; constant voltage = skin conductance) used for measuring electrodermal activity during a psychophysiological detection of deception...

  16. Nocebo-induced hyperalgesia during local anesthetic injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varelmann, Dirk; Pancaro, Carlo; Cappiello, Eric C; Camann, William R

    2010-03-01

    Common practice during local anesthetic injection is to warn the patient using words such as: "You will feel a big bee sting; this is the worst part." Our hypothesis was that using gentler words for administration of the local anesthetic improves pain perception and patient comfort. One hundred forty healthy women at term gestation requesting neuraxial analgesia were randomized to either a "placebo" ("We are going to give you a local anesthetic that will numb the area and you will be comfortable during the procedure") or "nocebo" ("You are going to feel a big bee sting; this is the worst part of the procedure") group. Pain was assessed immediately after the local anesthetic skin injection using verbal analog scale scores of 0 to 10. Median verbal analog scale pain scores were lower when reassuring words were used compared with the harsher nocebo words (3 [2-4] vs 5 [3-6]; P words improves the subjective experience during invasive procedures.

  17. Acral peeling skin syndrome: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Elena García; Carreño, Rosario Granados; Martínez González, Miguel A; Reyes, José Jiménez

    2005-01-01

    Peeling skin syndrome is a rare dermatosis characterized by spontaneous and painless peeling of the skin. The authors report two patients with history of spontaneous, asymptomatic, and noninflammatory peeling skin of the acral surfaces after soaking in water. On light microscopy, blisters were located in the mid layers of the stratum corneum, above the granular layer. Ultrastructural examination revealed increased intercellular lipids and abnormal, "moth-eaten," keratohyalin granules, but the authors were unable to determine whether the separation initiated within the horny cells or between adjacent cells. These patients represented a localized variant of peeling skin syndrome.

  18. Electroosmotic pore transport in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitto, Olivia D; White, Henry S

    2003-04-01

    To determine the pathways and origin of electroosmotic flow in human skin. Iontophoretic transport of acetaminophen in full thickness human cadaver skin was visualized and quantified by scanning electrochemical microscopy. Electroosmotic flow in the shunt pathways of full thickness skin was compared to flow in the pores of excised stratum corneum and a synthetic membrane pore. The penetration of rhodamine 6G into pore structures was investigated by laser scanning confocal microscopy. Electroosmotic transport is observed in shunt pathways in full thickness human skin (e.g., hair follicles and sweat glands), but not in pore openings of freestanding stratum corneum. Absolute values of the diffusive and iontophoretic pore fluxes of acetaminophen in full thickness human skin are also reported. Rhodamine 6G is observed to penetrate to significant depths (approximately 200 microm) along pore pathways. Iontophoresis in human cadaver skin induces localized electroosmotic flow along pore shunt paths. Electroosmotic forces arise from the passage of current through negatively charged mesoor nanoscale pores (e.g., gap functions) within cellular regions that define the pore structure beneath the stratum corneum.

  19. Dry skin - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pat skin dry then apply your moisturizer. Avoid skin care products and soaps that contain alcohol, fragrances, dyes, or other chemicals. Take short, warm baths or showers. Limit your ... gentle skin cleansers or soap with added moisturizers. Only use ...

  20. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer ...

  1. Cryogen therapy of skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikiryakhodjaev, D.Z.; Sanginov, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter authors studied the cure of skin cancer in particular cryogen therapy of skin cancer. They noted that cryogen therapy of skin cancer carried new possibilities and improved results of neoplasms treatment

  2. Intravenous glutathione for skin lightening: Inadequate safety data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protein thiol that protects mammalian cells from oxidative stress. Intravenous (IV) GSH for skin lightening is advertised by clinics in South Africa and internationally online, yet to date no published review on the subject exists. Methods.

  3. Effect of fluocinolone acetonide cream on human skin blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimoskey, J.E.; Holloway, A. Jr.; Flanagan, W.J.

    1975-01-01

    Blood flow rate was measured in the forearm skin of human subjects exposed to ultraviolet irradiation. Blood flow was determined by the 133 Xe disappearance technique 18 hr after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation with a Westinghouse RS sunlamp held 10 inches from the skin for 10 min. Ultraviolet irradiation caused skin blood flow to increase. Application of fluocinolone acetonide cream, 0.025 percent, 4 times in the 16 hr following UV irradiation had no effect on either control skin blood flow or the UV-induced hyperemia

  4. Instrument-related Skin Disorders in Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patruno, Cataldo; Napolitano, Maddalena; La Bella, Serena; Ayala, Fabio; Balato, Nicola; Cantelli, Mariateresa; Balato, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Among artists, musicians may suffer from occupational skin problems; notwithstanding, these conditions have been rarely reviewed. The characteristics of individual performer and the type of instrument will determine the kind of disease. Moreover, the hours that the musician spent to advance artistic skill may influence the severity. The frequency and risk factors of instrument-related skin disorders in musicians from southern Italy were analyzed. An observational study was conducted in 628 musicians. A questionnaire including questions related to age, sex, instrument played, musical activity, previous or current skin disorders, and impact of skin symptoms on music making was submitted. Of 628 musicians, 199 (31.7%) reported suffering from at least 1 skin disease. Cutaneous diseases likely directly correlated with the use of the musical instrument were found in 129 (20.5%) of the 628 subjects. In particular, different patterns of irritant contact dermatitis were found. Skin conditions may be a significant problem in professional instrumentalists. They are mainly related to musical activity. Preventive measures should be established.

  5. The organisation and role of the Euro skin bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Baare, J.

    1999-01-01

    In the treatment of burns, either superficial or deep, partial or full thickness, where sufficient autograft is lacking, wound covering by fresh or stored allogencic human skin is currently preferred over the use of (bio-) synthetic dressings by most physicians involved in burn care. Several methods to preserve, store and provide sufficient quantities of allograft (homo- or xeno-) at any given time have been developed over the last decades and have been extensively documented. Skin banks differ in their mode of operation (local, regional, national and international) and the techniques applied for preservation and storage of human skin. The Dutch National Skin Bank was established in 1976 as a subsidiary to the Dutch Bums Foundation with no other goal than providing human allograft skin for the treatment of bum victims to the Red Cross Hospital Bum Unit and later to other Dutch bum centres and general hospitals. The initial preservation technique the skin bank used was cryopreservation. In 1984 there was an important change in the preservation technique. Based on literature high concentrations of glycerol were introduced to preserve human skin for long-term storage. Meanwhile, a gradual increase in the yearly number of skin donors from 1984 onwards was observed, and by 1989 regular requests from bum centres in other countries for glycerol preserved donor skin were received. In 1992 the skin bank changed their name into Euro Skin Bank to express their international collaboration. The Euro Skin Bank operates on a non-profit basis and was until recently dependent on financial support of the Dutch Bums Foundation. Due to the large amount of requests for donor skin, the Euro Skin Bank started to set up satellite skin banks in various European countries. With this initiative it was not only possible to help the specific countries to supply their own bum centres with allograft skin, but also an amount of skin was send back to the Euro Skin Bank in order to distribute the

  6. Inhibition of bcl-2 and cox-2 Protein Expression after Local Application of a New Carmustine-Loaded Clinoptilolite-Based Delivery System in a Chemically Induced Skin Cancer Model in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mihaela Ghiciuc

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Our research has focused on in vitro and in vivo evaluations of a new Carmustine (BCNU-loaded clinoptilolite-based delivery system. Two clinoptilolite ionic forms—hydrogen form (HCLI and sodium form (NaCLI—were prepared, allowing a loading degree of about 5–6 mg BCNU/g of zeolite matrix due to the dual porous feature of clinoptilolite. Clinoptilolite-based delivery systems released 35.23% of the load in 12 h for the BCNU@HCLI system and only 10.82% for the BCNU@NaCLI system. The BCNU@HCLI system was chosen to develop gel and cream semisolid dosage forms. The cream (C_BCNU@HCLI released 29.6% of the loaded BCNU after 12 h in the Nylon synthetic membrane test and 31.6% in the collagen membrane test, higher by comparison to the gel. The new cream was evaluated in vivo in a chemically induced model of skin cancer in mice. Quantitative immunohistochemistry analysis showed stronger inhibition of B-cell lymphoma-2 (bcl-2 and cyclooxygenase 2 (cox-2 protein expression, known markers for cancer survival and aggressiveness, after the treatment with C_BCNU@HCLI by comparison to all the control treatment types, including an off-label magistral formula commercially available Carmustine cream as reference, bringing evidence that a clinoptilolite-based delivery systems could be used as a cancer drug carriers and controlled release systems (skin-targeted topical delivery systems.

  7. Skin and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljsak, Borut; Dahmane, Raja; Godic, Aleksandar

    2013-04-01

    It is estimated that total sun exposure occurs non-intentionally in three quarters of our lifetimes. Our skin is exposed to majority of UV radiation during outdoor activities, e.g. walking, practicing sports, running, hiking, etc. and not when we are intentionally exposed to the sun on the beach. We rarely use sunscreens during those activities, or at least not as much and as regular as we should and are commonly prone to acute and chronic sun damage of the skin. The only protection of our skin is endogenous (synthesis of melanin and enzymatic antioxidants) and exogenous (antioxidants, which we consume from the food, like vitamins A, C, E, etc.). UV-induced photoaging of the skin becomes clinically evident with age, when endogenous antioxidative mechanisms and repair processes are not effective any more and actinic damage to the skin prevails. At this point it would be reasonable to ingest additional antioxidants and/or to apply them on the skin in topical preparations. We review endogenous and exogenous skin protection with antioxidants.

  8. Skin Picking Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Cetinay Aydin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Skin picking disorder is not a dermatological disorder and it is a table characterized with picking skin excessively and repetitively, leading to damage in skin tissue. Unlike normal picking behaviour, psychogenic skin picking is repetitive and it can lead to severe damage in the skin and even complications which constitute vital danger. While some patients define frequent but short lasting picking attacks, others define rarer attacks which last a few hours. Skin picking disorder, which is not included in the classification systems up to DSM-5 as a separate diagnosis category, is included as an independent diagnosis in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Associated Disorders category in DSM-5. In case reports, open label studies and double blind studies selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are shown to be effective in the treatment of skin picking disorder. Mostly, cognitive-behaviourial techniques are used and have been proven to be useful in psychotherapy. Habit reversal is one of the behaviourial techniques which are frequently applied, give positive results in which well-being state can be maintained. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 401-428

  9. A study on the quantitative evaluation of skin barrier function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Tomomi; Kabetani, Yasuhiro; Kido, Michiko; Yamada, Kenji; Oikaze, Hirotoshi; Takechi, Yohei; Furuta, Tomotaka; Ishii, Shoichi; Katayama, Haruna; Jeong, Hieyong; Ohno, Yuko

    2015-03-01

    We propose a quantitative evaluation method of skin barrier function using Optical Coherence Microscopy system (OCM system) with coherency of near-infrared light. There are a lot of skin problems such as itching, irritation and so on. It has been recognized skin problems are caused by impairment of skin barrier function, which prevents damage from various external stimuli and loss of water. To evaluate skin barrier function, it is a common strategy that they observe skin surface and ask patients about their skin condition. The methods are subjective judgements and they are influenced by difference of experience of persons. Furthermore, microscopy has been used to observe inner structure of the skin in detail, and in vitro measurements like microscopy requires tissue sampling. On the other hand, it is necessary to assess objectively skin barrier function by quantitative evaluation method. In addition, non-invasive and nondestructive measuring method and examination changes over time are needed. Therefore, in vivo measurements are crucial for evaluating skin barrier function. In this study, we evaluate changes of stratum corneum structure which is important for evaluating skin barrier function by comparing water-penetrated skin with normal skin using a system with coherency of near-infrared light. Proposed method can obtain in vivo 3D images of inner structure of body tissue, which is non-invasive and non-destructive measuring method. We formulate changes of skin ultrastructure after water penetration. Finally, we evaluate the limit of performance of the OCM system in this work in order to discuss how to improve the OCM system.

  10. Study of mast cell count in skin tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher Hesham

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin tags or acrochordons are common tumors of middle-aged and elderly subjects. They consist of loose fibrous tissue and occur mainly on the neck and major flexures as small, soft, pedunculated protrusions. Objectives: The aim was to compare the mast cells count in skin tags to adjacent normal skin in diabetic and nondiabetic participants in an attempt to elucidate the possible role of mast cells in the pathogenesis of skin tags. Participants and Methods: Thirty participants with skin tags were divided into group I (15 nondiabetic participants and group II (15 diabetic participants. Three biopsies were obtained from each participant: a large skin tag, a small skin tag and adjacent normal skin. Mast cell count from all the obtained sections was carried out, and the mast cell density was expressed as the average mast cell count/high power field (HPF. Results: A statistically significant increase in mast cells count in skin tags in comparison to normal skin was detected in group I and group II. There was no statistically significant difference between mast cell counts in skin tags of both the groups. Conclusion: Both the mast cell mediators and hyperinsulinemia are capable of inducing fibroblast proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia that are the main pathologic abnormalities seen in all types of skin tags. However, the presence of mast cells in all examined skin tags regardless of diabetes and obesity may point to the possible crucial role of mast cells in the etiogenesis of skin tags through its interaction with fibroblasts and keratinocytes.

  11. Trending on Pinterest: an examination of pins about skin tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Smita C; Rodríguez, Vivian M; Greene, Kathryn; Hay, Jennifer L

    2018-04-10

    Rates of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers are on the rise in the USA with data revealing disproportionate increase in female young adults. The popularity of intentional skin tanning among U.S. adolescents is attributed to several factors, including prioritization of physical appearance, media images of tanned celebrities, ease of availability of artificial tanning facilities, and more recently, the prevalence and celebration of tanned skin on social media. Pinterest, as the third most popular social media platform, was searched for "pins" about skin tanning. The resultant "pins" were examined to understand the extent and characteristics of skin tanning portrayed on Pinterest. We analyzed pins on Pinterest about skin tanning (n = 501) through a quantitative content analysis. Overall, results indicated an overwhelmingly protanning characteristic of pins about skin tanning on Pinterest, with over 85% of pins promoting tanning behavior. The pins were generally characterized by the portrayal of a female subject (61%) and provided positive reinforcement for tanning (49%). Use of tanning for enhancing appearance was the main positive outcome expectancy portrayed in the pins (35%), and nudity or exposure of skin on arms (32%) and legs (31%) was evident in about a third of pins. With overwhelmingly positive pins promoting tanning, use of female subjects, exhibiting nudity, and appearance enhancement, there seems be to a consistent targeting of female users to accept tanning as a socially acceptable and popular behavior. The findings indicate a need for developing sun protection messages and the leveraging of social media for dissemination of skin cancer prevention and detection messages.

  12. Pathological skin picking: case presentation and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabela Sarbu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pathological skin picking is a condition in which patients induce skin lesions through repetitive, compulsive excoriations of normal skin or skin with minor surface irregularities and they admit their role in the production of the lesions, but are unable to stop their behavior. Psychiatric comorbidities most often associated with skin picking include obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, body dysmorphic disorders, trichotillomania and compulsive-buying disorder. We report the case of a 17 year old female patient who addressed the dermatology department of our hospital with an eruption consisting of erythematous papules and plaques. The local examination revealed several clues of paramount importance in drawing the final conclusion and the psychiatric examination helped establish the diagnosis of pathological skin picking in a patient with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  13. Skin Rejuvenation with Non-Invasive Pulsed Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golberg, Alexander; Khan, Saiqa; Belov, Vasily; Quinn, Kyle P.; Albadawi, Hassan; Felix Broelsch, G.; Watkins, Michael T.; Georgakoudi, Irene; Papisov, Mikhail; Mihm, Martin C., Jr.; Austen, William G., Jr.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2015-05-01

    Degenerative skin diseases affect one third of individuals over the age of sixty. Current therapies use various physical and chemical methods to rejuvenate skin; but since the therapies affect many tissue components including cells and extracellular matrix, they may also induce significant side effects, such as scarring. Here we report on a new, non-invasive, non-thermal technique to rejuvenate skin with pulsed electric fields. The fields destroy cells while simultaneously completely preserving the extracellular matrix architecture and releasing multiple growth factors locally that induce new cells and tissue growth. We have identified the specific pulsed electric field parameters in rats that lead to prominent proliferation of the epidermis, formation of microvasculature, and secretion of new collagen at treated areas without scarring. Our results suggest that pulsed electric fields can improve skin function and thus can potentially serve as a novel non-invasive skin therapy for multiple degenerative skin diseases.

  14. Skin Rejuvenation with Non-Invasive Pulsed Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golberg, Alexander; Khan, Saiqa; Belov, Vasily; Quinn, Kyle P.; Albadawi, Hassan; Felix Broelsch, G.; Watkins, Michael T.; Georgakoudi, Irene; Papisov, Mikhail; Mihm Jr., Martin C.; Austen Jr., William G.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative skin diseases affect one third of individuals over the age of sixty. Current therapies use various physical and chemical methods to rejuvenate skin; but since the therapies affect many tissue components including cells and extracellular matrix, they may also induce significant side effects, such as scarring. Here we report on a new, non-invasive, non-thermal technique to rejuvenate skin with pulsed electric fields. The fields destroy cells while simultaneously completely preserving the extracellular matrix architecture and releasing multiple growth factors locally that induce new cells and tissue growth. We have identified the specific pulsed electric field parameters in rats that lead to prominent proliferation of the epidermis, formation of microvasculature, and secretion of new collagen at treated areas without scarring. Our results suggest that pulsed electric fields can improve skin function and thus can potentially serve as a novel non-invasive skin therapy for multiple degenerative skin diseases. PMID:25965851

  15. Facial skin pores: a multiethnic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flament F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Frederic Flament,1 Ghislain Francois,1 Huixia Qiu,2 Chengda Ye,2 Tomoo Hanaya,3 Dominique Batisse,3 Suzy Cointereau-Chardon,1 Mirela Donato Gianeti Seixas,4 Susi Elaine Dal Belo,4 Roland Bazin5 1Department of Applied Research and Development, L’Oreal Research and Innovation, Paris, France; 2Department of Applied Research and Development, L’Oreal Research and Innovation, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Applied Research and Development, L’Oreal Research and Innovation, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Applied Research and Development, L’Oreal Research and Innovation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 5RB Consult, Bievres, France Abstract: Skin pores (SP, as they are called by laymen, are common and benign features mostly located on the face (nose, cheeks, etc that generate many aesthetic concerns or complaints. Despite the prevalence of skin pores, related literature is scarce. With the aim of describing the prevalence of skin pores and anatomic features among ethnic groups, a dermatoscopic instrument, using polarized lighting, coupled to a digital camera recorded the major features of skin pores (size, density, coverage on the cheeks of 2,585 women in different countries and continents. A detection threshold of 250 µm, correlated to clinical scorings by experts, was input into a specific software to further allow for automatic counting of the SP density (N/cm2 and determination of their respective sizes in mm2. Integrating both criteria also led to establishing the relative part of the skin surface (as a percentage that is actually covered by SP on cheeks. The results showed that the values of respective sizes, densities, and skin coverage: 1 were recorded in all studied subjects; 2 varied greatly with ethnicity; 3 plateaued with age in most cases; and 4 globally reflected self-assessment by subjects, in particular those who self-declare having “enlarged pores” like Brazilian women. Inversely, Chinese women were clearly

  16. Ultrasound skin tightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkis, Kira; Alam, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound skin tightening is a noninvasive, nonablative method that allows for energy deposition into the deep dermal and subcutaneous tissue while avoiding epidermal heating. Ultrasound coagulation is confined to arrays of 1-mm(3) zones that include the superficial musculoaponeurotic system and connective tissue. This technology gained approval from the Food and Drug Administration as the first energy-based skin "lifting" device, specifically for lifting lax tissue on the neck, submentum, and eyebrows. Ultrasound has the unique advantage of direct visualization of treated structures during treatment. Ultrasound is a safe and efficacious treatment for mild skin tightening and lifting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Laser radiation therapy of skin melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, R.I.; Kozlov, A.P.; Moskalik, K.G.

    1981-10-01

    Pulsed neodymium laser radiation was used for the treatment of 79 patients with cutaneous melanomas and 19 patients with melanoma metastases to the skin. The patients were followed up from 3 months up to 8 years. During this period local recurrences were detected in 2 cases. Out of 70 patients with cutaneous melanomas, who by the start of the treatment had no metastases in the regional lymph nodes or distant organs, metastases developed in 15 patients (21.4%). There are all reasons to consider pulsed laser radiation an effective means of treatment of some forms of skin melanoma.

  18. Advanced haptic sensor for measuring human skin conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchimi, Daisuke; Okuyama, Takeshi; Tanaka, Mami

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of a tactile sensor using PVDF (Polyvinylidene Fluoride) film as a sensory receptor of the sensor to evaluate softness, smoothness, and stickiness of human skin. Tactile sense is the most important sense in the sensation receptor of the human body along with eyesight, and we can examine skin condition quickly using these sense. But, its subjectivity and ambiguity make it difficult to quantify skin conditions. Therefore, development of measurement device which can evaluate skin conditions easily and objectively is demanded by dermatologists, cosmetic industries, and so on. In this paper, an advanced haptic sensor system that can measure multiple information of skin condition in various parts of human body is developed. The applications of the sensor system to evaluate softness, smoothness, and stickiness of skin are investigated through two experiments.

  19. Supraclavicular skin temperature and BAT activity in lean healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lans, Anouk A J J; Vosselman, Maarten J; Hanssen, Mark J W; Brans, Boudewijn; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2016-01-01

    The 'gold standard' for measuring brown adipose tissue (BAT) in humans is [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT-imaging. With this technique subjects are exposed to ionizing radiation and are therefore limited in the number of scans that can be performed. We investigated the relation between supraclavicular skin temperatures and BAT activity values using a strictly temperature-controlled air-cooling protocol. Data of 36 male subjects was analyzed. BAT activity was evaluated by [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT-imaging and skin temperature was measured by means of wireless temperature sensors. Supraclavicular skin temperature dropped less compared to skin temperatures at other sites (all P values BAT activity (R (2) 0.23), and the change in supraclavicular skin temperature and non-shivering thermogenesis (R (2) 0.18, both P values BAT activity and BAT thermogenesis.

  20. Thermal, cardiac and adrenergic responses to repeated local cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janský, L; Matousková, E; Vávra, V; Vybíral, S; Janský, P; Jandová, D; Knízková, I; Kunc, P

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain whether repeated local cooling induces the same or different adaptational responses as repeated whole body cooling. Repeated cooling of the legs (immersion into 12 degrees C water up to the knees for 30 min, 20 times during 4 weeks = local cold adaptation - LCA) attenuated the initial increase in heart rate and blood pressure currently observed in control subjects immersed in cold water up to the knees. After LCA the initial skin temperature decrease tended to be lower, indicating reduced vasoconstriction. Heart rate and systolic blood pressure appeared to be generally lower during rest and during the time course of cooling in LCA humans, when compared to controls. All these changes seem to indicate attenuation of the sympathetic tone. In contrast, the sustained skin temperature in different areas of the body (finger, palm, forearm, thigh, chest) appeared to be generally lower in LCA subjects than in controls (except for temperatures on the forehead). Plasma levels of catecholamines (measured 20 and 40 min after the onset of cooling) were also not influenced by local cold adaptation. Locally cold adapted subjects, when exposed to whole body cold water immersion test, showed no change in the threshold temperature for induction of cold thermogenesis. This indicates that the hypothermic type of cold adaptation, typically occurring after systemic cold adaptation, does not appear after local cold adaptation of the intensity used. It is concluded that in humans the cold adaptation due to repeated local cooling of legs induces different physiological changes than systemic cold adaptation.

  1. A regional programme to improve skin cancer management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeoch, Graham R; Sycamore, Mark J; Shand, Brett I; Simcock, Jeremy W

    2015-12-01

    In 2008, public specialist and general practice services in Canterbury were unable to manage demand for skin cancer treatment. Local clinicians decided the solution was to develop a see-and-treat skin excision clinic staffed by plastic surgeons and general practitioners (GPs), and the introduction of subsidised excisions in general practice. This paper describes the collaboration between clinicians, managers and funders and the results and quality management measures of these initiatives. There is an increasing incidence of skin cancer. GPs in Canterbury were unable to meet increasing demand for skin cancer treatment because some lacked confidence and competence in skin cancer management. There was no public funding for primary care management of skin cancer, driving patients to fully funded secondary care services. Secondary care services were at capacity, with no coordinated programme across primary and secondary care. The programme has resulted in a greater number of skin cancers being treated by the public health system, a reduction in waiting times for treatment, and fewer minor skin lesions being referred to secondary care. Quality measures have been achieved and are improving steadily. Development of the programme has improved working relationships between primary and secondary care clinicians. The strategy was to facilitate the working relationship between primary and secondary care and increase the capacity for skin lesion excisions in both sectors. Skin cancer management can be improved by a coordinated approach between primary and secondary care.

  2. Skin design studies for variable camber morphing airfoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandhi, Farhan; Anusonti-Inthra, Phuriwat

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies the desirable attributes of a flexible skin of a morphing wing. The study is conducted using airfoil camber morphing as an example. The ideal flex-skin would be highly anisotropic, having a low in-plane axial stiffness but a high out-of-plane flexural stiffness. Reduced skin axial stiffness allows morphing at low actuation cost. However, for some substructure and actuation designs, a lower limit on the skin's in-plane axial stiffness may be required to prevent unacceptable global camber deformation under aerodynamic loads. High flexural stiffness prevents local deformation of skin sections between supports due to aerodynamic pressure loads, and avoids buckling of skin sections under compression as the airfoil cambers under actuation force. For the camber morphing application the strain levels in the flex-skin are not expected to exceed around 2%. If the axial stiffness of the flex-skin is reduced significantly, it may be necessary to consider aerodynamic stiffness (negligible vis-à-vis structural stiffness for classical airfoils) to accurately calculate deformation under loading. The approach followed in the study can be used to identify specifications for the skin and then reverse engineer and design highly anisotropic composite skins that meet the specifications

  3. Skin interface pressure on the NATO litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Elizabeth J; Schmelz, Joseph O; Mazer, Stephen

    2003-04-01

    The NATO litter serves as a transport device and hospital bed during all types of operations. Little is known about the skin interface pressure on this litter. The purpose of this study was to determine whether various types of padding on the litter and body position affect the peak skin interface pressure and the total body area exposed to interface pressures above 30 mm Hg at different body areas. Thirty-two subjects participated. A repeated measures design was used. The surface effect was statistically significant for all peak pressure and surface area analyses (repeated-measures analysis of variance, p patients if feasible. Preventive measures (turning, elevating the heels) are still required.

  4. Evaluation of out-in skin transparency using a colorimeter and food dye in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, H; Tadaki, H; Takami, S; Muramatsu, R; Hagiwara, S; Mizuno, T; Arakawa, H

    2009-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a disease of skin barrier dysfunction and outside stimuli can cross the skin barrier. To examine a new method for evaluating the outside to inside skin transparency with a colorimeter and yellow dyes. In study 1, a total of 28 volunteer subjects (24 normal and four with atopic dermatitis) participated. After provocation with yellow dye, the skin colour of all the subjects was measured using a colorimeter. The skin transparency index was calculated by the changes of the skin colour to yellow. Other variables of skin function, including transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum hydration, were also measured. In study 2, the skin transparency index was evaluated for a cohort of 38 patients with atopic dermatitis, 27 subjects with dry skin and 29 healthy controls. In study 1, the measurement of skin colour (b*) using tartrazine showed good results. There was a significant relationship between the skin transparency index with tartrazine and the atopic dermatitis score (P = 0.014). No other measurements of skin function, including the TEWL, were correlated. In study 2, the skin transparency index score obtained with tartrazine in the patients with atopic dermatitis was significantly higher than that of the controls and those with dry skin (P colorimeter and food dye, is noninvasive, safe and reliable for the evaluation of out-in skin transparency and can demonstrate the characteristic dysfunction in the skin barrier in patients with atopic dermatitis.

  5. Pattern of use of skin care products in children with and without ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To compare the pattern of use of skin care products between children with eczematous skin lesions and those without. Design: Case control study. Setting: Two well baby clinics at the Kenyatta National Hospital and the Mbagathi District Hospital in Nairobi. Subjects: Eighty nine infants with eczematous skin ...

  6. Item reduction and psychometric validation of the Oily Skin Self Assessment Scale (OSSAS) and the Oily Skin Impact Scale (OSIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuckle, Robert; Clark, Marci; Harness, Jane; Bonner, Nicola; Scott, Jane; Draelos, Zoe; Rizer, Ronald; Yeh, Yating; Copley-Merriman, Kati

    2009-01-01

    Developed using focus groups, the Oily Skin Self Assessment Scale (OSSAS) and Oily Skin Impact Scale (OSIS) are patient-reported outcome measures of oily facial skin. The aim of this study was to finalize the item-scale structure of the instruments and perform psychometric validation in adults with self-reported oily facial skin. The OSSAS and OSIS were administered to 202 adult subjects with oily facial skin in the United States. A subgroup of 152 subjects returned, 4 to 10 days later, for test–retest reliability evaluation. Of the 202 participants, 72.8% were female; 64.4% had self-reported nonsevere acne. Item reduction resulted in a 14-item OSSAS with Sensation (five items), Tactile (four items) and Visual (four items) domains, a single blotting item, and an overall oiliness item. The OSIS was reduced to two three-item domains assessing Annoyance and Self-Image. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the construct validity of the final item-scale structures. The OSSAS and OSIS scales had acceptable item convergent validity (item-scale correlations >0.40) and floor and ceiling effects (skin severity (P skin (P skin), as assessments of self-reported oily facial skin severity and its emotional impact, respectively.

  7. Assessment of the respiratory metabolism in the skin from transcutaneous measurements of pO2 and pCO2: potential for non-invasive monitoring of response to tuberculin skin testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbot, N C; Spence, V A; Swanson-Beck, J; Carnochan, F M; Gibbs, J H; Lowe, J G

    1990-03-01

    A method is described for non-invasive transcutaneous (tc) measurement of tissue respiratory gas tensions in the skin on the forearm for study of delayed hypersensitivity reactions in man. Steady state values for tcpO2 and tcpCO2 were measured, and the skin respiratory rate (oxygen consumption) and the tissue pH were estimated from the changes in tcpO2 and tcpCO2 observed after interruption of the arterial circulation by cuff occlusion for 4 minutes. The extent of within-experiment and between subject variation in the steady-state measurements was not great (coefficient of variation 10%): tcpCO2.ss (steady state) was higher in men and tcpO2.ss was higher in women, but the extent of these sex differences was also small. Reference ranges have been established for tc measurements and calculated indices of tissue respiration in the undisturbed forearm skin of normal volunteers, against which the changes induced by tuberculin testing can be assessed. Severe changes, indicative of profound hypoxia and acidosis, are seen in intense delayed hypersensitivity reactions. Similar, but less severe changes were seen at the site of skin tests on BCG-vaccinated subjects who were 'negative' by conventional criteria of measurement of dermal induration and they became greatly exaggerated after successful re-vaccination. Intradermal injection of saline did not induce hypoxia or local acidosis. These new methods are very sensitive indicators of the tissue response in the DHS reaction.

  8. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenefelt PD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Philip D Shenefelt,1 Debrah A Shenefelt2 1Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, 2Congregation Or Ahavah, Lutz, FL, USA Abstract: Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. Keywords: skin, skin disorders, spiritual, religious

  9. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  10. Cure of skin cancer. Surgical cure of skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikiryakhodjaev, D.Z.; Sanginov, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter authors studied the cure of skin cancer in particular the surgical cure of skin cancer. They noted that surgical cure of skin cancer is remain one of the primary and most important methods in treatment of skin cancer

  11. Artificial skin and patient simulator comprising the artificial skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to an artificial skin (10, 12, 14), and relates to a patient simulator (100) comprising the artificial skin. The artificial skin is a layered structure comprising a translucent cover layer (20) configured for imitating human or animal skin, and comprising a light emitting layer

  12. Evaluating local and overall thermal comfort in buildings using thermal manikins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, E.

    2012-07-01

    Evaluation methods of human thermal comfort that are based on whole-body heat balance with its surroundings may not be adequate for evaluations in non-uniform thermal conditions. Under these conditions, the human body's segments may experience a wide range of room physical parameters and the evaluation of the local (segmental) thermal comfort becomes necessary. In this work, subjective measurements of skin temperature were carried out to investigate the human body's local responses due to a step change in the room temperature; and the variability in the body's local temperatures under different indoor conditions and exposures as well as the physiological steady state local temperatures. Then, a multi-segmental model of human thermoregulation was developed based on these findings to predict the local skin temperatures of individuals' body segments with a good accuracy. The model predictability of skin temperature was verified for steady state and dynamic conditions using measured data at uniform neutral, cold and warm as well as different asymmetric thermal conditions. The model showed very good predictability with average absolute deviation ranged from 0.3-0.8 K. The model was then implemented onto the control system of the thermal manikin 'THERMINATOR' to adjust the segmental skin temperature set-points based on the indoor conditions. This new control for the manikin was experimentally validated for the prediction of local and overall thermal comfort using the equivalent temperature measure. THERMINATOR with the new control mode was then employed in the evaluation of localized floor-heating system variants towards maximum energy efficiency. This aimed at illustrating a design strategy using the thermal manikin to find the optimum geometry and surface area of a floor-heater for a single seated person. Furthermore, a psychological comfort model that is based on local skin temperature was adapted for the use with the model of human

  13. Impaired Skin Barrier Due to Sebaceous Gland Atrophy in the Latent Stage of Radiation-Induced Skin Injury: Application of Non-Invasive Diagnostic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyosun Jang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced skin injury can take the form of serious cutaneous damage and have specific characteristics. Asymptomatic periods are classified as the latent stage. The skin barrier plays a critical role in the modulation of skin permeability and hydration and protects the body against a harsh external environment. However, an analysis on skin barrier dysfunction against radiation exposure in the latent stage has not been conducted. Thus, we investigated whether the skin barrier is impaired by irradiation in the latent stage and aimed to identify the molecules involved in skin barrier dysfunction. We analyzed skin barrier function and its components in SKH1 mice that received 20 and 40 Gy local irradiation. Increased transepidermal water loss and skin pH were observed in the latent stage of the irradiated skin. Skin barrier components, such as structural proteins and lipid synthesis enzymes in keratinocyte, increased in the irradiated group. Interestingly, we noted sebaceous gland atrophy and increased serine protease and inflammatory cytokines in the irradiated skin during the latent period. This finding indicates that the main factor of skin barrier dysfunction in the latent stage of radiation-induced skin injury is sebaceous gland deficiency, which could be an intervention target for skin barrier impairment.

  14. Allergy Skin Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and symptoms. Medications can interfere with results Before scheduling a skin test, bring your doctor a list ... of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Manage Cookies Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  15. Caring for Tattooed Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients ...

  16. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients ...

  17. Impairments in Skin Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphree, Rose W

    2017-09-01

    Altered skin integrity increases the chance of infection, impaired mobility, and decreased function and may result in the loss of limb or, sometimes, life. Skin is affected by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Intrinsic factors can include altered nutritional status, vascular disease issues, and diabetes. Extrinsic factors include falls, accidents, pressure, immobility, and surgical procedures. Ensuring skin integrity in the elderly requires a team approach and includes the individual, caregivers, and clinicians. The twenty-first century clinician has several online, evidence-based tools to assist with optimal treatment plans. Understanding best practices in addressing skin integrity issues can promote positive outcomes with the elderly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Allergy testing - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test; Allergic rhinitis - allergy testing; Asthma - allergy testing; Eczema - allergy testing; Hayfever - allergy testing; Dermatitis - allergy testing; Allergy testing; ...

  19. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ... Biopsy: The First Step Sentinel Node Biopsy Melanoma Treatment: Stages I & II Melanoma Treatment: Stage III Melanoma ...

  20. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... We Are Be On Our PAGE MIF Staff Programs & Services Scientific Advisory Board Advisory Board Patrons & Sponsors ... us for One-on-One Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video ...