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  1. Induction Based Training leads to Highly Significant Improvements of Objective and Subjective Suturing Ability in Junior Doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Garry

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Simulation based training has shown to be of benefit in the education of medical students. However, the impact of induction based clinical simulation on surgical ability of qualified doctors remains unclear.The aim of this study was to establish if a 60 minute teaching session integrated into an Emergency Medicine speciality induction program produces statistically significant improvements in objective and subjective suturing abilities of junior doctors commencing an Emergency Medicine rotation.Methods: The objective suturing abilities of 16 Foundation Year Two doctors were analysed using a validated OSATs scale prior to a novel teaching intervention. The doctors then undertook an intensive hour long workshop receiving one to one feedback before undergoing repeat OSATs assessment.Subjective ability was measured using a 5 point likert scale and self-assessed competency reporting interrupted suturing before and after the intervention. Photographs of wound closure before and after the intervention were recorded for further blinded assessment of impact of intervention. A survey regarding continued ability was repeated at four months following the intervention. The study took place on 7/12/16 during the Belfast Health and Social Care Trust Emergency Medicine induction in the Royal Victoria Hospital Belfast. The hospital is a regional level 1 trauma centre that has annual departmental attendances in excess of 200,000.All new junior doctors commencing the Emergency Medicine rotation were invited to partake in the study. All 16 agreed. The group consisted of a mixture of undergraduate and postgraduate medicaldoctors who all had 16 months experience working in a variety of medical or surgical jobs previously.Results: Following the teaching intervention objective and subjective abilities in interrupted suturing showed statistically significant improvement (P>0.005. Self-reporting of competency of independently suturingwounds improved from 50

  2. Carotid endarterectomy significantly improves postoperative laryngeal sensitivity.

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    Hammer, Georg Philipp; Tomazic, Peter Valentin; Vasicek, Sarah; Graupp, Matthias; Gugatschka, Markus; Baumann, Anneliese; Konstantiniuk, Peter; Koter, Stephan Herwig

    2016-11-01

    sensory threshold on the operated-on side (6.08 ± 2.02 mm Hg) decreased significantly at the 6-week follow-up, even in relation to the preoperative measure (P = .022). With the exception of one patient with permanent unilateral vocal fold immobility, no signs of nerve injury were detected. In accordance with previous reports, injuries to the recurrent laryngeal nerve during CEA seem to be rare. In most patients, postoperative symptoms (globus, dysphagia, dysphonia) and signs fade within a few weeks without any specific therapeutic intervention. This study shows an improved long-term postoperative superior laryngeal nerve function with regard to laryngopharyngeal sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Exercise program improved subjective dry eye symptoms for office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Kokoro; Kawashima, Motoko; Takechi, Sayuri; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the benefits of a cognitive behavior therapy-based exercise program to reduce the dry eye symptoms of office workers. We recruited 11 office workers with dry eye symptoms, aged 31-64 years, who voluntarily participated in group health guidance at a manufacturing company. Participants learned about the role of physical activity and exercise in enhancing wellness and performed an exercise program at home 3 days per week for 10 weeks. We estimated the indexes of body composition, dry eye symptoms, and psychological distress using the Dry Eye-Related Quality of Life Score and the World Health Organization's Subjective Well-Being Inventory questionnaires pre- and postintervention. The 10-week exercise program and the questionnaires were completed by 48.1% (39 of 81) of the participants. Body composition did not change pre- and postintervention. However, the average of the Dry Eye-Related Quality of Life Score scores in participants with subjective dry eye significantly improved after the intervention. Moreover, the World Health Organization's Subjective Well-Being Inventory positive well-being score tended to increase after the intervention. In this study, we showed that a 10-week exercise program improved subjective dry eye symptoms of healthy office workers. Our study suggests that a cognitive behavior therapy-based exercise program can play an important role in the treatment of patients with dry eye disease.

  4. Exercise program improved subjective dry eye symptoms for office workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sano K

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Kokoro Sano,1 Motoko Kawashima,1 Sayuri Takechi,2 Masaru Mimura,2 Kazuo Tsubota1 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Introduction: We investigated the benefits of a cognitive behavior therapy-based exercise program to reduce the dry eye symptoms of office workers. Materials and methods: We recruited 11 office workers with dry eye symptoms, aged 31–64 years, who voluntarily participated in group health guidance at a manufacturing company. Participants learned about the role of physical activity and exercise in enhancing wellness and performed an exercise program at home 3 days per week for 10 weeks. We estimated the indexes of body composition, dry eye symptoms, and psychological distress using the Dry Eye-Related Quality of Life Score and the World Health Organization’s Subjective Well-Being Inventory questionnaires pre- and postintervention. Results: The 10-week exercise program and the questionnaires were completed by 48.1% (39 of 81 of the participants. Body composition did not change pre- and postintervention. However, the average of the Dry Eye-Related Quality of Life Score scores in participants with subjective dry eye significantly improved after the intervention. Moreover, the World Health Organization’s Subjective Well-Being Inventory positive well-being score tended to increase after the intervention. Conclusion: In this study, we showed that a 10-week exercise program improved subjective dry eye symptoms of healthy office workers. Our study suggests that a cognitive behavior therapy-based exercise program can play an important role in the treatment of patients with dry eye disease. Keywords: dry eye, exercise, office workers, cognitive behavioral therapy

  5. Inhaler Reminders Significantly Improve Asthma Patients' Use of Controller Medications

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    ... controller medications Share | Inhaler reminders significantly improve asthma patients’ use of controller medications Published Online: July 22, ... the burden and risk of asthma, but many patients do not use them regularly. This poor adherence ...

  6. Significant improvement in the thermal annealing process of optical resonators

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    Salzenstein, Patrice; Zarubin, Mikhail

    2017-05-01

    Thermal annealing performed during process improves the quality of the roughness of optical resonators reducing stresses at the periphery of their surface thus allowing higher Q-factors. After a preliminary realization, the design of the oven and the electronic method were significantly improved thanks to nichrome resistant alloy wires and chopped basalt fibers for thermal isolation during the annealing process. Q-factors can then be improved.

  7. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: A Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account.

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    Imbir, Kamil K

    2016-01-01

    Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled) should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency, and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance.

  8. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: a Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account

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    Kamil Konrad Imbir

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop (EST and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance.

  9. Clinical significance of changes of serum osteocalcin (BGP) levels in subjects of different age-groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Lihua; Zhang Jin; Han Cuihua; Ouyang Qiaohong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum BGP levels in different age-groups. Methods: Serum BGP levels were determined with RIA in 306 subjects of different age-groups. Results: The serum BGP levels were highest in subjects of the pre-adolescent group (age5-15, n=60, vs other groups, all P 50, n=80, P<0.001). Levels in the middle age group were the lowest and were significantly lower than those in the old age group (P<0.001). No sex related differences were observed in the pre-adolescent and middle age groups, but in the youth group, serum BGP levels were significantly higher in the males than those in the females (P<0.05). However, in the old age group, the reverse was true i.e. values being significantly higher in the females (vs males, P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum BGP levels varied greatly among the different age groups. (authors)

  10. Significance of changes of serum osteocalcin levels in healthy subjects and patients with metabolic bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Liren; Dai Yaozong; Liang Minwen

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the significance of serum osteocalcin changes in healthy subjects and pathological conditions. Methods: The levels of S-BGP were measured with RIA in 270 normal subjects of different age groups (every 10 yrs as an age group), 60 patients with carebrovascular disease (CVD) and 85 patients with metabolic bone disease. Results: (1) The mean value of S-BGP in umbilical blood was 19.3 +- 16.8 μg/L (n = 89), in 3 day sold newborn infant was 7.4 +- 2.3 μg/L (n = 22), in healthy subjects (from 11 to 60 yrs, average age 39 yrs) was 5.2 +- 1.35 μg/L (n = 100), 5.3 +- 1.4 μg/L (n = 47) in males and 5.1 +- 1.34 μg/L (n = 53) in females. In old healthy subjects the mean value was 3.9 +- 1.48 μg/L (n = 30). The level of S-BGP was negatively correlated with the age significantly (r = -0.383, P < 0.001). (2) The mean levels of S-BGP in 85 patients with metabolic bone disease were: 21.7 +- 20.46 μg/L in patients with hyperthyroidism (n = 55, age from 21 to 60 yrs, average 37 yrs), being significantly higher than in healthy subjects (P < 0.01); 2.6 +- 0.99 μg/L in patients with NIDDM (n 30, from 60 to 79 yrs, average age 69 yrs), being significantly higher than in the old healthy subjects (P < 0.01). (3) In 60 patients with CVD (from 60 to 80 yrs, average age 66 yrs) the mean valve was 2.2 +- 1.1 μg/L in cerebral infarction (n = 30) and 2.5 +- 1.2 μg/L in cerebral hemorrhage (n = 30), both significantly higher than in old healthy subjects (P < 0.01). Conclusion: RIA of S-BGP is an important means for detecting changes of bone metabolism in normal and pathological condition

  11. Training directionally selective motion pathways can significantly improve reading efficiency

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    Lawton, Teri

    2004-06-01

    This study examined whether perceptual learning at early levels of visual processing would facilitate learning at higher levels of processing. This was examined by determining whether training the motion pathways by practicing leftright movement discrimination, as found previously, would improve the reading skills of inefficient readers significantly more than another computer game, a word discrimination game, or the reading program offered by the school. This controlled validation study found that practicing left-right movement discrimination 5-10 minutes twice a week (rapidly) for 15 weeks doubled reading fluency, and significantly improved all reading skills by more than one grade level, whereas inefficient readers in the control groups barely improved on these reading skills. In contrast to previous studies of perceptual learning, these experiments show that perceptual learning of direction discrimination significantly improved reading skills determined at higher levels of cognitive processing, thereby being generalized to a new task. The deficits in reading performance and attentional focus experienced by the person who struggles when reading are suggested to result from an information overload, resulting from timing deficits in the direction-selectivity network proposed by Russell De Valois et al. (2000), that following practice on direction discrimination goes away. This study found that practicing direction discrimination rapidly transitions the inefficient 7-year-old reader to an efficient reader.

  12. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects

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    Giordano Elena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have previously shown that krill oil (KO, more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats. We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO, which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects. The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  13. Significant Improvement of Catalytic Efficiencies in Ionic Liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Choong Eui; Yoon, Mi Young; Choi, Doo Seong

    2005-01-01

    The use of ionic liquids as reaction media can confer many advantages upon catalytic reactions over reactions in organic solvents. In ionic liquids, catalysts having polar or ionic character can easily be immobilized without additional structural modification and thus the ionic solutions containing the catalyst can easily be separated from the reagents and reaction products, and then, be reused. More interestingly, switching from an organic solvent to an ionic liquid often results in a significant improvement in catalytic performance (e.g., rate acceleration, (enantio)selectivity improvement and an increase in catalyst stability). In this review, some recent interesting results which can nicely demonstrate these positive 'ionic liquid effect' on catalysis are discussed

  14. Bedtime Blood Pressure Chronotherapy Significantly Improves Hypertension Management.

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    Hermida, Ramón C; Ayala, Diana E; Fernández, José R; Mojón, Artemio; Crespo, Juan J; Ríos, María T; Smolensky, Michael H

    2017-10-01

    Consistent evidence of numerous studies substantiates the asleep blood pressure (BP) mean derived from ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) is both an independent and a stronger predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk than are daytime clinic BP measurements or the ABPM-determined awake or 24-hour BP means. Hence, cost-effective adequate control of sleep-time BP is of marked clinical relevance. Ingestion time, according to circadian rhythms, of hypertension medications of 6 different classes and their combinations significantly improves BP control, particularly sleep-time BP, and reduces adverse effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Improvement of Phi bodies stain and its clinical significance].

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    Gong, Xu-Bo; Lu, Xing-Guo; Yan, Li-Juan; Xiao, Xi-Bin; Wu, Dong; Xu, Gen-Bo; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Zhao, Xiao-Ying

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the dyeing method of hydroperoxidase (HPO), to analyze the morphologic features of Phi bodies and to evaluate the clinical application of this method. 128 bone marrow or peripheral blood smears from patients with myeloid and lymphoid malignancies were stained by improved HPO staining. The Phi bodies were observed with detection rate of Phi bodies in different leukemias. 69 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) specimens were chosen randomly, the positive rate and the number of Phi bodies between the improved HPO and POX stain based on the same substrate of 3, 3'diaminobenzidine were compared. The results showed that the shape of bundle-like Phi bodies was variable, long or short. while the nubbly Phi bodies often presented oval and smooth. Club-like Phi bodies were found in M(3). The detection rates of bundle-like Phi bodies in AML M(1)-M(5) were 42.9% (6/14), 83.3% (15/18), 92.0% (23/25), 52.3% (11/21), 33.3% (5/15) respectively, and those of nubbly Phi bodies were 28.6% (4/14), 66.7% (12/18), 11.1% (3/25), 33.3% (7/21), 20.0% (3/15) respectively. The detection rate of bundle-like Phi bodies in M(3) was significantly higher than that in (M(1) + M(2)) or (M(4) + M(5)) groups. The detection rate of nubbly Phi bodies in (M(1) + M(2)) group was higher than that in M(3) group. In conclusion, after improvement of staining method, the HPO stain becomes simple, the detection rate of Phi bodies is higher than that by the previous method, the positive granules are more obvious, and the results become stable. This improved method plays an important role in differentiating AML from ALL, subtyping AML, and evaluating the therapeutic results.

  16. Low-dose vaporized cannabis significantly improves neuropathic pain.

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    Wilsey, Barth; Marcotte, Thomas; Deutsch, Reena; Gouaux, Ben; Sakai, Staci; Donaghe, Haylee

    2013-02-01

    We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study evaluating the analgesic efficacy of vaporized cannabis in subjects, the majority of whom were experiencing neuropathic pain despite traditional treatment. Thirty-nine patients with central and peripheral neuropathic pain underwent a standardized procedure for inhaling medium-dose (3.53%), low-dose (1.29%), or placebo cannabis with the primary outcome being visual analog scale pain intensity. Psychoactive side effects and neuropsychological performance were also evaluated. Mixed-effects regression models demonstrated an analgesic response to vaporized cannabis. There was no significant difference between the 2 active dose groups' results (P > .7). The number needed to treat (NNT) to achieve 30% pain reduction was 3.2 for placebo versus low-dose, 2.9 for placebo versus medium-dose, and 25 for medium- versus low-dose. As these NNTs are comparable to those of traditional neuropathic pain medications, cannabis has analgesic efficacy with the low dose being as effective a pain reliever as the medium dose. Psychoactive effects were minimal and well tolerated, and neuropsychological effects were of limited duration and readily reversible within 1 to 2 hours. Vaporized cannabis, even at low doses, may present an effective option for patients with treatment-resistant neuropathic pain. The analgesia obtained from a low dose of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (1.29%) in patients, most of whom were experiencing neuropathic pain despite conventional treatments, is a clinically significant outcome. In general, the effect sizes on cognitive testing were consistent with this minimal dose. As a result, one might not anticipate a significant impact on daily functioning. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Low Dose Vaporized Cannabis Significantly Improves Neuropathic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsey, Barth; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Deutsch, Reena; Gouaux, Ben; Sakai, Staci; Donaghe, Haylee

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study evaluating the analgesic efficacy of vaporized cannabis in subjects, the majority of whom were experiencing neuropathic pain despite traditional treatment. Thirty-nine patients with central and peripheral neuropathic pain underwent a standardized procedure for inhaling either medium dose (3.53%), low dose (1.29%), or placebo cannabis with the primary outcome being VAS pain intensity. Psychoactive side-effects, and neuropsychological performance were also evaluated. Mixed effects regression models demonstrated an analgesic response to vaporized cannabis. There was no significant difference between the two active dose groups’ results (p>0.7). The number needed to treat (NNT) to achieve 30% pain reduction was 3.2 for placebo vs. low dose, 2.9 for placebo vs. medium dose, and 25 for medium vs. low dose. As these NNT are comparable to those of traditional neuropathic pain medications, cannabis has analgesic efficacy with the low dose being, for all intents and purposes, as effective a pain reliever as the medium dose. Psychoactive effects were minimal and well-tolerated, and neuropsychological effects were of limited duration and readily reversible within 1–2 hours. Vaporized cannabis, even at low doses, may present an effective option for patients with treatment-resistant neuropathic pain. PMID:23237736

  18. Activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex during self-related processing: positive subjective value or personal significance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungmi; Johnson, Marcia K

    2015-04-01

    Well-being and subjective experience of a coherent world depend on our sense of 'self' and relations between the self and the environment (e.g. people, objects and ideas). The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) is involved in self-related processing, and disrupted vMPFC activity is associated with disruptions of emotional/social functioning (e.g. depression and autism). Clarifying precise function(s) of vMPFC in self-related processing is an area of active investigation. In this study, we sought to more specifically characterize the function of vMPFC in self-related processing, focusing on two alternative accounts: (i) assignment of positive subjective value to self-related information and (ii) assignment of personal significance to self-related information. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants imagined owning objects associated with either their perceived ingroup or outgroup. We found that for ingroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with increased than decreased post-ownership preference. In contrast, for outgroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with decreased than increased post-ownership preference. Our findings support the idea that the function of vMPFC in self-related processing may not be to represent/evaluate the 'positivity' or absolute preference of self-related information but to assign personal significance to it based on its meaning/function for the self. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Ceramic Composite Intermediate Temperature Stress-Rupture Properties Improved Significantly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morscher, Gregory N.; Hurst, Janet B.

    2002-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) composites are considered to be potential materials for future aircraft engine parts such as combustor liners. It is envisioned that on the hot side (inner surface) of the combustor liner, composites will have to withstand temperatures in excess of 1200 C for thousands of hours in oxidizing environments. This is a severe condition; however, an equally severe, if not more detrimental, condition exists on the cold side (outer surface) of the combustor liner. Here, the temperatures are expected to be on the order of 800 to 1000 C under high tensile stress because of thermal gradients and attachment of the combustor liner to the engine frame (the hot side will be under compressive stress, a less severe stress-state for ceramics). Since these composites are not oxides, they oxidize. The worst form of oxidation for strength reduction occurs at these intermediate temperatures, where the boron nitride (BN) interphase oxidizes first, which causes the formation of a glass layer that strongly bonds the fibers to the matrix. When the fibers strongly bond to the matrix or to one another, the composite loses toughness and strength and becomes brittle. To increase the intermediate temperature stress-rupture properties, researchers must modify the BN interphase. With the support of the Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program, significant improvements were made as state-of-the-art SiC/SiC composites were developed during the Enabling Propulsion Materials (EPM) program. Three approaches were found to improve the intermediate-temperature stress-rupture properties: fiber-spreading, high-temperature silicon- (Si) doped boron nitride (BN), and outside-debonding BN.

  20. Methylphenidate significantly improves declarative memory functioning of adults with ADHD.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, J.C.; Bekker, E.M.; Kooij, J.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Verbaten, M.N.; Volkerts, E.R.; Olivier, B.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Declarative memory deficits are common in untreated adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but limited evidence exists to support improvement after treatment with methylphenidate. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of methylphenidate on memory

  1. UK Library and Information Science Research is Having a Significant Influence on Research in Other Subject Disciplines

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    Mathew Lee Stone

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To quantify the value of librarianship and information science (LIS exports knowledge to other subject disciplines. Design – Bibliometric study. Setting – LIS departments in U.K. universities. Subjects – 232 LIS research articles published between 2001 and 2007. Methods – Data from the 2008 U.K. Research Assessment Exercise were checked to identify 405 research articles submitted by 10 selected university departments (out of a total of 21, which submitted research in the LIS category. The Web of Science database was then searched to see how many of these articles had been cited in other articles (n=232. If the citing article was published in a non-LIS journal it was considered a knowledge export. Journals were defined as non-LIS if they had not been assigned the subject category of Information Science & Library Science by the Journal of Citation Reports. The journal Impact Factors (IFs of citing journals were then normalized to measure the value of individual knowledge exports to their respective subject disciplines. This was done by comparing a citing journal’s IF with the median journal IF within that subject category. If the citing journal’s IF was above this median it was considered to be a valuable knowledge export. Main Results – The sample of LIS research articles produced a total of 1,061 knowledge exports in 444 unique non-LIS journals. These non-LIS journals covered 146 unique subject categories of which those related to computer science and chemistry/pharmacology cited LIS research with the greatest frequency. Just over three-quarters (n=798 of these citations were considered to be valuable knowledge exports. A sub-analysis showed that LIS articles published in non-LIS journals were significantly more valuable than the knowledge exports published in LIS journals. Conclusion – The validity of bibliometric studies can be improved by adopting the two methodological innovations presented in this study. The

  2. Creating a Middle Grades Environment that Significantly Improves Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Esperance, Mark E.; Lenker, Ethan; Bullock, Ann; Lockamy, Becky; Mason, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    This article offers an overview of the framework that Sampson County Public Schools (North Carolina) used to critically reflect on the current state of their middle grades schools. The article also highlights the changes that resulted from the district-wide analysis and the ways in which these changes led to a significant increase in the academic…

  3. A tactile stimulus applied to the leg improves postural stability in young, old and neuropathic subjects.

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    Menz, Hylton B; Lord, Stephen R; Fitzpatrick, Richard C

    2006-10-02

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the application of passive tactile cues to the lower limb could improve postural stability in healthy young controls, older people and people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Antero-posterior sway was measured with eyes open and closed in 10 healthy young subjects (mean age 27 years, 5 male, 5 female), 10 older subjects without diabetic peripheral neuropathy (mean age 88 years, 2 male, 8 female) and 10 subjects with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (mean age 65 years, 6 male, 4 female) while a small piece of Velcro attached to a flexible mount was applied to three different sites on the leg (ankle, calf, and knee). Across all conditions, the mean sway of the neuropathic subjects was 93% greater than for the young subjects and 11% more than the older subjects. On average, subjects swayed 10% more with the eyes closed than with the eyes open. Each stimulus reduced sway, but the effect increased approximately in proportion to the height of the stimulus above the ankles (ankle 7.6%, calf 13.5%, knee 20.1% reduction compared to the no stimulus condition). This experiment demonstrates that a passive stimulus applied to the skin of the leg, which provides sensory information about body movement, significantly reduces body sway during standing. This applies to older subjects and subjects with peripheral neuropathy as well as healthy young subjects. These results have implications for novel approaches for improving stability in people with peripheral sensory loss.

  4. Do Social Networks Improve Chinese Adults' Subjective Well-being?

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    Lei, Xiaoyan; Shen, Yan; Smith, James P; Zhou, Guangsu

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies relationships between social networks, health and subjective well-being (SWB) using nationally representative data of the Chinese Population-the Chinese Family Panel Studies (CFPS). Our data contain SWB indicators in two widely used variants-happiness and life-satisfaction. Social network variables used include kinship relationships measured by marital status, family size, and having a genealogy; ties with friends/relatives/neighbors measured by holiday visitation, frequency of contacts, and whether and value gifts given and received; total number and time spent in social activities, and engagement in organizations including the communist party, religious groups, and other types. We find that giving and receiving gifts has a larger impact on SWB than either just giving or receiving them. Similarly the number of friends is more important than number of relatives, and marriage is associated with higher levels of SWB. Time spent in social activities and varieties of activities both matter for SWB but varieties matter more. Participation in organizations is associated with higher SWB across such diverse groups as being a member of the communist party or a religious organization. China represents an interesting test since it is simultaneously a traditional society with long-established norms about appropriate social networks and a rapidly changing society due to substantial economic and demographic changes. We find that it is better to both give and receive, to engage in more types of social activities, and that participation in groups all improve well-being of Chinese people.

  5. Fasting Ghrelin Levels Are Decreased in Obese Subjects and Are Significantly Related With Insulin Resistance and Body Mass Index

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    Dimitrios Papandreou

    2017-10-01

    CONCLUSION: Obese subjects have low fasting ghrelin levels that they are significantly related to insulin resistance and body mass index. More prospective studies are needed to establish the role of ghrelin in the pathogenesis of human obesity.

  6. A pilot weight reduction program over one year significantly reduced DNA strand breaks in obese subjects

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    Karl-Heinz Wagner

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: A sustainable lifestyle change under supervision including physical activity and diet quality over a period of one year was not only responsible to reduce body weight and BMI but also led to significant reduction in all parameters of the comet assay. These results underline the importance of body weight reduction and highlight the positive changes in DNA stability.

  7. On Structuring Subjective Judgements: Originality, Significance and Rigour in RAE2008

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    Johnston, Ron

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 United Kingdom Research Assessment Exercise will involve the evaluation of thousands of individual research outputs. The Funding Councils set three criteria for those evaluations--Originality, rigour and significance--and required each output to be placed into a fivefold categorisation of excellence, using absolute rather than relative…

  8. Subjectivity

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    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  9. Long-Term Quality of Life Improvement in Subjects with Healed Erosive Esophagitis: Treatment with Lansoprazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freston, James W.; Haber, Marian M.; Atkinson, Stuart; Hunt, Barbara; Peura, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic symptomatic condition and may be associated with erosive esophagitis (EE). Considerable data on the long-term maintenance of healing of EE are available, but data on long-term GERD symptom prevention and patient quality of life (QOL) are limited. Aims To investigate QOL in subjects with healed EE who received 12 months of double-blind maintenance treatment with lansoprazole or ranitidine, followed by long-term open-label lansoprazole therapy to prevent recurrence of EE. Methods Subjects with healed EE received 12 months of double-blind maintenance treatment with lansoprazole 15 mg once daily or ranitidine 150 mg twice daily, followed by dose-titrated, open-label lansoprazole therapy for up to 82 months. Results During double-blind treatment (n = 206), lansoprazole-treated patients showed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) greater improvements than ranitidine-treated patients in the frequency, severity, and ‘bothersomeness’ of heartburn, the symptom index, problems of activity limitation, eating and drinking problems, symptom problems, health distress, and social functioning. During dose-titrated, open-label treatment (n = 195), all disease-specific QOL scales except sleep improved significantly (P lansoprazole for 12 months in healed EE subjects produced significantly greater improvements in QOL indicators than ranitidine. These improvements were sustained during dose-titrated, open-label lansoprazole treatment. PMID:19582579

  10. Determination of significance in Ecological Impact Assessment: Past change, current practice and future improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, Sam; Hudson, Malcolm D., E-mail: mdh@soton.ac.uk

    2013-01-15

    Ecological Impact Assessment (EcIA) is an important tool for conservation and achieving sustainable development. 'Significant' impacts are those which disturb or alter the environment to a measurable degree. Significance is a crucial part of EcIA, our understanding of the concept in practice is vital if it is to be effective as a tool. This study employed three methods to assess how the determination of significance has changed through time, what current practice is, and what would lead to future improvements. Three data streams were collected: interviews with expert stakeholders, a review of 30 Environmental Statements and a broad-scale survey of the United Kingdom Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management (IEEM) members. The approach taken in the determination of significance has become more standardised and subjectivity has become constrained through a transparent framework. This has largely been driven by a set of guidelines produced by IEEM in 2006. The significance of impacts is now more clearly justified and the accuracy with which it is determined has improved. However, there are limitations to accuracy and effectiveness of the determination of significance. These are the quality of baseline survey data, our scientific understanding of ecological processes and the lack of monitoring and feedback of results. These in turn are restricted by the limited resources available in consultancies. The most notable recommendations for future practice are the implementation of monitoring and the publication of feedback, the creation of a central database for baseline survey data and the streamlining of guidance. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assessment of significance has changed markedly through time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The IEEM guidelines have driven a standardisation of practice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Currently limited by quality of baseline data and scientific understanding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monitoring

  11. Improved automated perimetry performance in elderly subjects after listening to Mozart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junia Cabral Marques

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the performance of automated perimetry of elderly subjects naïve to AP after listening to a Mozart sonata. INTRODUCTION: Automated perimetry (AP is a psychophysical test used to assess visual fields in patients with neurological disorders and glaucoma. In a previous study, Fiorelli et al. showed that young subjects who listened to a Mozart sonata prior to undergoing AP performed better in terms of reliability than those who did not listen to the sonata. METHODS: Fifty-two AP-naïve, normal subjects underwent Automated perimetry (SITA 24-2. The study group (25 subjects underwent AP after listening to Mozart's Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major, and the control group (27 subjects underwent Automated perimetry without prior exposure to the music. RESULTS: The study group had significantly lower false negative rates and a lower visual field reliability score than the controls (P=0.04 and P=0.04, respectively. The test time was shorter for the study group (P=0.03. DISCUSSION: This study shows that elderly subjects, when exposed to the Mozart sonata immediately before AP testing, have lower false negative rates and lower visual field reliability scores when compared with an age- and gender-matched control group. Our results differ from those of Fiorelli et al. who found lower false positive rates and less fixation loss in addition to lower false negative rates. CONCLUSION: Listening to a Mozart sonata seems to improve automated perimetry reliability in elderly subjects.

  12. Improved automated perimetry performance in elderly subjects after listening to Mozart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Junia Cabral; Vanessa, Adriana Chaves Oliveira; Fiorelli, Macedo Batista; Kasahara, Niro

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of automated perimetry of elderly subjects naïve to AP after listening to a Mozart sonata. Automated perimetry (AP) is a psychophysical test used to assess visual fields in patients with neurological disorders and glaucoma. In a previous study, Fiorelli et al. showed that young subjects who listened to a Mozart sonata prior to undergoing AP performed better in terms of reliability than those who did not listen to the sonata. Fifty-two AP-naïve, normal subjects underwent Automated perimetry (SITA 24-2). The study group (25 subjects) underwent AP after listening to Mozart's Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major, and the control group (27 subjects) underwent Automated perimetry without prior exposure to the music. The study group had significantly lower false negative rates and a lower visual field reliability score than the controls (P=0.04 and P=0.04, respectively). The test time was shorter for the study group (P=0.03). This study shows that elderly subjects, when exposed to the Mozart sonata immediately before AP testing, have lower false negative rates and lower visual field reliability scores when compared with an age- and gender-matched control group. Our results differ from those of Fiorelli et al. who found lower false positive rates and less fixation loss in addition to lower false negative rates. Listening to a Mozart sonata seems to improve automated perimetry reliability in elderly subjects.

  13. Transcranial direct current stimulation improves word retrieval in healthy and nonfluent aphasic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Valentina; Coccia, Michela; Marinelli, Chiara V; Vecchi, Veronica; Bonifazi, Silvia; Ceravolo, M Gabriella; Provinciali, Leandro; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Marangolo, Paola

    2011-09-01

    A number of studies have shown that modulating cortical activity by means of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) affects performances of both healthy and brain-damaged subjects. In this study, we investigated the potential of tDCS to enhance associative verbal learning in 10 healthy individuals and to improve word retrieval deficits in three patients with stroke-induced aphasia. In healthy individuals, tDCS (20 min, 1 mA) was applied over Wernicke's area (position CP5 of the International 10-20 EEG System) while they learned 20 new "words" (legal nonwords arbitrarily assigned to 20 different pictures). The healthy subjects participated in a randomized counterbalanced double-blind procedure in which they were subjected to one session of anodic tDCS over left Wernicke's area, one sham session over this location and one session of anodic tDCS stimulating the right occipito-parietal area. Each experimental session was performed during a different week (over three consecutive weeks) with 6 days of intersession interval. Over 2 weeks, three aphasic subjects participated in a randomized double-blind experiment involving intensive language training for their anomic difficulties in two tDCS conditions. Each subject participated in five consecutive daily sessions of anodic tDCS (20 min, 1 mA) and sham stimulation over Wernicke's area while they performed a picture-naming task. By the end of each week, anodic tDCS had significantly improved their accuracy on the picture-naming task. Both normal subjects and aphasic patients also had shorter naming latencies during anodic tDCS than during sham condition. At two follow-ups (1 and 3 weeks after the end of treatment), performed only in two aphasic subjects, response accuracy and reaction times were still significantly better in the anodic than in the sham condition, suggesting a long-term effect on recovery of their anomic disturbances.

  14. Survival prediction algorithms miss significant opportunities for improvement if used for case selection in trauma quality improvement programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Catherine; Cole, Elaine; West, Anita; Tai, Nigel; Brohi, Karim

    2016-09-01

    Quality improvement (QI) programs have shown to reduce preventable mortality in trauma care. Detailed review of all trauma deaths is a time and resource consuming process and calculated probability of survival (Ps) has been proposed as audit filter. Review is limited on deaths that were 'expected to survive'. However no Ps-based algorithm has been validated and no study has examined elements of preventability associated with deaths classified as 'expected'. The objective of this study was to examine whether trauma performance review can be streamlined using existing mortality prediction tools without missing important areas for improvement. We conducted a retrospective study of all trauma deaths reviewed by our trauma QI program. Deaths were classified into non-preventable, possibly preventable, probably preventable or preventable. Opportunities for improvement (OPIs) involve failure in the process of care and were classified into clinical and system deviations from standards of care. TRISS and PS were used for calculation of probability of survival. Peer-review charts were reviewed by a single investigator. Over 8 years, 626 patients were included. One third showed elements of preventability and 4% were preventable. Preventability occurred across the entire range of the calculated Ps band. Limiting review to unexpected deaths would have missed over 50% of all preventability issues and a third of preventable deaths. 37% of patients showed opportunities for improvement (OPIs). Neither TRISS nor PS allowed for reliable identification of OPIs and limiting peer-review to patients with unexpected deaths would have missed close to 60% of all issues in care. TRISS and PS fail to identify a significant proportion of avoidable deaths and miss important opportunities for process and system improvement. Based on this, all trauma deaths should be subjected to expert panel review in order to aim at a maximal output of performance improvement programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  15. Does fitness improve the cardiovascular risk profile in obese subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halland, H; Lønnebakken, M T; Saeed, S; Midtbø, H; Cramariuc, D; Gerdts, E

    2017-06-01

    Good cardiorespiratory fitness has been suggested to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in obesity. We explored the association of fitness with the prevalences of major cardiovascular risk factor like hypertension (HT), diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in overweight and obese subjects. Clinical data from 491 participants in the FAT associated CardiOvasculaR dysfunction (FATCOR) study were analyzed. Physical fitness was assessed by ergospirometry, and subjects with at least good level of performance for age and sex were classified as fit. HT subtypes were identified from clinic and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure in combination. Diabetes was diagnosed by oral glucose tolerance test. MetS was defined by the American Heart Association and National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute criteria. The participants were on average 48 years old (60% women), and mean body mass index (BMI) was 32 kg/m 2 . 28% of study participants were classified as fit. Fitness was not associated with lower prevalences of HT or HT subtypes, diabetes, MetS or individual MetS components (all p > 0.05). In multivariable regression analysis, being fit was characterized by lower waist circumference, BMI risk factors like HT, diabetes or MetS. Given the strong association of cardiovascular risk factor burden with risk of clinical cardiovascular disease, these findings challenge the notion that fitness alone is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease in obesity. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. L-theanine and caffeine improve task switching but not intersensory attention or subjective alertness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einöther, Suzanne J L; Martens, Vanessa E G; Rycroft, Jane A; De Bruin, Eveline A

    2010-04-01

    Tea ingredients L-theanine and caffeine have repeatedly been shown to deliver unique cognitive benefits when consumed in combination. The current randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over study compared a combination of L-theanine (97 mg) and caffeine (40 mg) to a placebo on two attention tasks and a self-report questionnaire before, and 10 and 60 min after consumption. The combination of L-theanine and caffeine significantly improved attention on a switch task as compared to the placebo, while subjective alertness and intersensory attention were not improved significantly. The results support previous evidence that L-theanine and caffeine in combination can improve attention. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermosensitive Hydrogel Mask Significantly Improves Skin Moisture and Skin Tone; Bilateral Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Quattrone

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A temperature-sensitive state-changing hydrogel mask was used in this study. Once it comes into contact with the skin and reaches the body temperature, it uniformly and quickly releases the active compounds, which possess moisturizing, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and regenerative properties. Methods: An open label clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of the test product on skin hydration, skin tone and skin ageing. Subjects applied the product to one side of their face and underwent Corneometer® and Chromameter measurements, Visual assessment of facial skin ageing and facial photography. All assessments and Self-Perception Questionnaires (SPQ were performed at baseline, after the first application of the test product and after four applications. Results: After a single treatment we observed an increase in skin moisturisation, an improvement of skin tone/luminosity and a reduction in signs of ageing, all statistically significant. After four applications a further improvement in all measured parameters was recorded. These results were confirmed by the subjects’ own perceptions, as reported in the SPQ both after one and four applications. Conclusion: The hydrogel mask tested in this study is very effective in improving skin hydration, skin radiance and luminosity, in encouraging an even skin tone and in reducing skin pigmentation.

  18. Significant association of serum creatinine with HbA1C in impaired glucose tolerant Pakistani subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farasat, Tasnim; Sharif, Saima; Naz, Shagufta; Fazal, Sabiha

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the serum concentration of creatinine and determine its relationship with potential risk factors of diabetes in Impaired Glucose tolerance subjects. This cross sectional study was conducted on 100 IGT patients who attended Amin Hayat diabetic center in Lahore from January 2011- June 2011. Patients with age group 34-67 years, (both sexes) were included in the study. Different demographic parameters as age, BMI, WHR, B.P, personal history and socioeconomic status were recorded. Oral Glucose Tolerance Test was performed. The biochemical parameters including HbA1c, lipid profile, urea, uric acid, creatinine and bilirubin level were measured by chemistry analyzer. A strong correlation between creatinine and HbA1c was observed. The level of creatinine was also significantly associated with age in IGT subjects. Creatinine is non-significantly correlated with Cholesterol, LDL-Chol and TG while negatively significantly associated with BMI, fasting blood glucose and HDL-Chol. The present study concluded significant association of serum creatinine with HbA1c, BMI and HDL cholesterol.

  19. Improved clinical tolerance to chronic lactose ingestion in subjects with lactose intolerance: a placebo effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briet, F; Pochart, P; Marteau, P; Flourie, B; Arrigoni, E; Rambaud, J

    1997-01-01

    Background—Uncontrolled studies of lactose intolerant subjects have shown that symptom severity decreases after chronic lactose consumption. Adaptation of the colonic flora might explain this improvement. 
Aims—To compare the effects of regular administration of either lactose or sucrose on clinical tolerance and bacterial adaptation to lactose. 
Methods—Forty six lactose intolerant subjects underwent two 50 g lactose challenges on days 1 and 15. Between these days they were given 34 g of lactose or sucrose per day, in a double blind protocol. Stool samples were obtained on days 0 and 14, to measure faecal β-galactosidase and pH. Symptoms, breath H2 excretion, faecal weight and electrolytes, and orofaecal transit time were assessed. 
Results—Except for faecal weight, symptoms were significantly milder during the second challenge in both groups, and covariance analysis showed no statistical difference between them. In the lactose group, but not in the sucrose group, faecal β-galactosidase activity increased, pH dropped, and breath H2 excretion decreased. 
Conclusion—Bacterial adaptation occurred when lactose intolerant subjects ingested lactose for 13 days, and all symptoms except diarrhoea regressed. Clinical improvement was also observed in the control group which displayed no signs of metabolic adaptation. This suggests that improved clinical tolerance may be just a placebo effect. 

 Keywords: lactose; lactose intolerance; colonic adaptation; lactase deficiency PMID:9414969

  20. An On-Chip RBC Deformability Checker Significantly Improves Velocity-Deformation Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Dylan Tsai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An on-chip deformability checker is proposed to improve the velocity–deformation correlation for red blood cell (RBC evaluation. RBC deformability has been found related to human diseases, and can be evaluated based on RBC velocity through a microfluidic constriction as in conventional approaches. The correlation between transit velocity and amount of deformation provides statistical information of RBC deformability. However, such correlations are usually only moderate, or even weak, in practical evaluations due to limited range of RBC deformation. To solve this issue, we implemented three constrictions of different width in the proposed checker, so that three different deformation regions can be applied to RBCs. By considering cell responses from the three regions as a whole, we practically extend the range of cell deformation in the evaluation, and could resolve the issue about the limited range of RBC deformation. RBCs from five volunteer subjects were tested using the proposed checker. The results show that the correlation between cell deformation and transit velocity is significantly improved by the proposed deformability checker. The absolute values of the correlation coefficients are increased from an average of 0.54 to 0.92. The effects of cell size, shape and orientation to the evaluation are discussed according to the experimental results. The proposed checker is expected to be useful for RBC evaluation in medical practices.

  1. Significant decrease of saturation index in erythrocytes membrane from subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, Maria; Caruso, Maria Gabriella; Tutino, Valeria; Bonfiglio, Caterina; Cozzolongo, Raffaele; Giannuzzi, Vito; De Nunzio, Valentina; De Leonardis, Giampiero; Abbrescia, Daniela I; Franco, Isabella; Intini, Vincenza; Mirizzi, Antonella; Osella, Alberto R

    2017-08-23

    The lipidomic profiling of erythrocyte membranes is expected to provide a peculiar scenario at molecular level of metabolic and nutritional pathways which may influence the lipid balance and the adaptation and homeostasis of the organism. Considering that lipid accumulation in the cell is important in promoting tissue inflammation, the purpose of this study is to analyze the fatty acid profile in red blood cell membranes of patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), in order to identify and validate membrane profiles possibly associated with the degree of hepatic damage. This work presents data obtained at baseline from 101 subjects that participated to a nutritional trial (registration number: NCT02347696) enrolling consecutive subjects with NAFLD. Diagnosis of liver steatosis was performed by using vibration-controlled elastography implemented on FibroScan. Fatty acids, extracted from phospholipids of erythrocyte membranes, were quantified by gas chromatography method. The subjects with severe NAFLD showed a significant decrease of the ratio of stearic acid to oleic acid (saturation index, SI) compared to controls, 1.281 ± 0.31 vs 1.5 ± 0.29, respectively. Low levels of SI in red blood cell membranes, inversely associated with degree of liver damage, suggest that an impairment of circulating cell membrane structure can reflect modifications that take place in the liver. Subjects with severe NAFLDalso showed higher levels of elongase 5 enzymatic activity, evaluated as vaccenic acid to palmitoleic acid ratio. Starting from these evidences, our findings show the importance of lipidomic approach in the diagnosis and the staging of NAFLD.

  2. Walking with a four wheeled walker (rollator) significantly reduces EMG lower-limb muscle activity in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suica, Zorica; Romkes, Jacqueline; Tal, Amir; Maguire, Clare

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the immediate effect of four-wheeled- walker(rollator)walking on lower-limb muscle activity and trunk-sway in healthy subjects. In this cross-sectional design electromyographic (EMG) data was collected in six lower-limb muscle groups and trunk-sway was measured as peak-to-peak angular displacement of the centre-of-mass (level L2/3) in the sagittal and frontal-planes using the SwayStar balance system. 19 subjects walked at self-selected speed firstly without a rollator then in randomised order 1. with rollator 2. with rollator with increased weight-bearing. Rollator-walking caused statistically significant reductions in EMG activity in lower-limb muscle groups and effect-sizes were medium to large. Increased weight-bearing increased the effect. Trunk-sway in the sagittal and frontal-planes showed no statistically significant difference between conditions. Rollator-walking reduces lower-limb muscle activity but trunk-sway remains unchanged as stability is likely gained through forces generated by the upper-limbs. Short-term stability is gained but the long-term effect is unclear and requires investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Improving subject recruitment, retention, and participation in research through Peplau's theory of interpersonal relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penckofer, Sue; Byrn, Mary; Mumby, Patricia; Ferrans, Carol Estwing

    2011-04-01

    Recruitment and retention of persons participating in research is one of the most significant challenges faced by investigators. Although incentives are often used to improve recruitment and retention, evidence suggests that the relationship of the patient to study personnel may be the single, most important factor in subject accrual and continued participation. Peplau's theory of interpersonal relations provides a framework to study the nurse-patient relationship during the research process. In this paper the authors provide a brief summary of research strategies that have been used for the recruitment and retention of subjects and an overview of Peplau's theory of interpersonal relations including its use in research studies. In addition, a discussion of how this theory was used for the successful recruitment and retention of women with type 2 diabetes who participated in a clinical trial using a nurse-delivered psychoeducational intervention for depression is addressed.

  4. Significant improvement in one-dimensional cursor control using Laplacian electroencephalography over electroencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudria, Yacine; Feltane, Amal; Besio, Walter

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on electroencephalography (EEG) have been shown to accurately detect mental activities, but the acquisition of high levels of control require extensive user training. Furthermore, EEG has low signal-to-noise ratio and low spatial resolution. The objective of the present study was to compare the accuracy between two types of BCIs during the first recording session. EEG and tripolar concentric ring electrode (TCRE) EEG (tEEG) brain signals were recorded and used to control one-dimensional cursor movements. Approach. Eight human subjects were asked to imagine either ‘left’ or ‘right’ hand movement during one recording session to control the computer cursor using TCRE and disc electrodes. Main results. The obtained results show a significant improvement in accuracies using TCREs (44%-100%) compared to disc electrodes (30%-86%). Significance. This study developed the first tEEG-based BCI system for real-time one-dimensional cursor movements and showed high accuracies with little training.

  5. Performance of the Sellick maneuver significantly improves when residents and trained nurses use a visually interactive guidance device in simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, Christopher W; Saffary, Roya; Feliz, Eddy

    2013-01-01

    We examined the proper performance of the Sellick maneuver, a maneuver used to reduce the risk of aspiration of stomach contents during induction of general anesthesia, using a novel device that measures and visualizes the force applied to the cricoid cartilage using thin-film force sensitive resistors in a form suitable for in vivo use. Performance was tested in three stages with twenty anaesthesiology residents and twenty trained operating room nurses. Firstly, subjects applied force to the cricoid cartilage as was customary to them. Secondly, subjects used the device to guide the application of that force. Thirdly, subjects were again asked to perform the manoeuvre without visual guidance. Each test lasted 1 min and the amount of force applied was measured throughout. Overall, the Sellick maneuver was often not applied properly, with large variance between individual subjects. Performance and inter-subject consistency improved to a very highly significant degree when subjects were able to use the device as a visual guide (p < 0.001). Subsequent significant improvements in performances during the last, unguided test demonstrated that the device initiated learning. (paper)

  6. Performance of the Sellick maneuver significantly improves when residents and trained nurses use a visually interactive guidance device in simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, Christopher W; Saffary, Roya; Feliz, Eddy [Department of Anesthesiology Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2013-12-15

    We examined the proper performance of the Sellick maneuver, a maneuver used to reduce the risk of aspiration of stomach contents during induction of general anesthesia, using a novel device that measures and visualizes the force applied to the cricoid cartilage using thin-film force sensitive resistors in a form suitable for in vivo use. Performance was tested in three stages with twenty anaesthesiology residents and twenty trained operating room nurses. Firstly, subjects applied force to the cricoid cartilage as was customary to them. Secondly, subjects used the device to guide the application of that force. Thirdly, subjects were again asked to perform the manoeuvre without visual guidance. Each test lasted 1 min and the amount of force applied was measured throughout. Overall, the Sellick maneuver was often not applied properly, with large variance between individual subjects. Performance and inter-subject consistency improved to a very highly significant degree when subjects were able to use the device as a visual guide (p < 0.001). Subsequent significant improvements in performances during the last, unguided test demonstrated that the device initiated learning. (paper)

  7. National Emergency Preparedness and Response: Improving for Incidents of National Significance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clayton, Christopher M

    2006-01-01

    The national emergency management system has need of significant improvement in its contingency planning and early consolidation of effort and coordination between federal, state, and local agencies...

  8. Breakfast high in whey protein or carbohydrates improves coping with workload in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihvola, Nora; Korpela, Riitta; Henelius, Andreas; Holm, Anu; Huotilainen, Minna; Müller, Kiti; Poussa, Tuija; Pettersson, Kati; Turpeinen, Anu; Peuhkuri, Katri

    2013-11-14

    Dietary components may affect brain function and influence behaviour by inducing the synthesis of neurotransmitters. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of consumption of a whey protein-containing breakfast drink v. a carbohydrate drink v. control on subjective and physiological responses to mental workload in simulated work. In a randomised cross-over design, ten healthy subjects (seven women, median age 26 years, median BMI 23 kg/m(2)) participated in a single-blinded, placebo-controlled study. The subjects performed demanding work-like tasks after having a breakfast drink high in protein (HP) or high in carbohydrate (HC) or a control drink on separate sessions. Subjective states were assessed using the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX), the Karolinska sleepiness scale (KSS) and the modified Profile of Mood States. Heart rate was recorded during task performance. The ratio of plasma tryptophan (Trp) to the sum of the other large neutral amino acids (LNAA) and salivary cortisol were also analysed. The plasma Trp:LNAA ratio was 30 % higher after the test drinks HP (median 0·13 (μmol/l)/(μmol/l)) and HC (median 0·13 (μmol/l)/(μmol/l)) than after the control drink (median 0·10 (μmol/l)/(μmol/l)). The increase in heart rate was smaller after the HP (median 2·7 beats/min) and HC (median 1·9 beats/min) drinks when compared with the control drink (median 7·2 beats/min) during task performance. Subjective sleepiness was reduced more after the HC drink (median KSS - 1·5) than after the control drink (median KSS - 0·5). There were no significant differences between the breakfast types in the NASA-TLX index, cortisol levels or task performance. We conclude that a breakfast drink high in whey protein or carbohydrates may improve coping with mental tasks in healthy subjects.

  9. Music Improves Subjective Feelings Leading to Cardiac Autonomic Nervous Modulation: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Satoshi; Nishimura, Yukako; Mizuno, Kei; Sakimoto, Nae; Hori, Hiroshi; Tamura, Yasuhisa; Yamato, Masanori; Mitsuhashi, Rika; Akiba, Keigo; Koizumi, Jun-Ichi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Kataoka, Yosky

    2017-01-01

    It is widely accepted that listening to music improves subjective feelings and reduces fatigue sensations, and different kinds of music lead to different activations of these feelings. Recently, cardiac autonomic nervous modulation has been proposed as a useful objective indicator of fatigue. However, scientific considerations of the relation between feelings of fatigue and cardiac autonomic nervous modulation while listening to music are still lacking. In this study, we examined which subjective feelings of fatigue are related to participants' cardiac autonomic nervous function while they listen to music. We used an album of comfortable and relaxing environmental music, with blended sounds from a piano and violin as well as natural sound sources. We performed a crossover trial of environmental music and silent sessions for 20 healthy subjects, 12 females, and 8 males, after their daily work shift. We measured changes in eight types of subjective feelings, including healing, fatigue, sleepiness, relaxation, and refreshment, using the KOKORO scale, a subjective mood measurement system for self-reported feelings. Further, we obtained measures of cardiac autonomic nervous function on the basis of heart rate variability before and after the sessions. During the music session, subjective feelings significantly shifted toward healing and a secure/relaxed feeling and these changes were greater than those in the silent session. Heart rates (ΔHR) in the music session significantly decreased compared with those in the silent session. Other cardiac autonomic parameters such as high-frequency (HF) component and the ratio of low-frequency (LF) and HF components (LF/HF) were similar in the two sessions. In the linear regression analysis of the feelings with ΔHR and changes in LF/HF (ΔLF/HF), increases and decreases in ΔHR were correlated to the feeling axes of Fatigue-Healing and Anxiety/Tension-Security/Relaxation, whereas those in ΔLF/HF were related to the feeling axes

  10. Frameworks for improvement: clinical audit, the plan-do-study-act cycle and significant event audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillam, Steve; Siriwardena, A Niroshan

    2013-01-01

    This is the first in a series of articles about quality improvement tools and techniques. We explore common frameworks for improvement, including the model for improvement and its application to clinical audit, plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles and significant event analysis (SEA), examining the similarities and differences between these and providing examples of each.

  11. Mixed-method tutoring support improves learning outcomes of veterinary students in basic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Iglesias, María J; Pérez-Martínez, Claudia; Gutiérrez-Martín, César B; Díez-Laiz, Raquel; Sahagún-Prieto, Ana M

    2018-02-01

    Tutoring is a useful tool in the university teaching-learning binomial, although its development is impaired in large classes. Recent improvements in information and communication technologies have made tutoring possible via the Internet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mixed-method academic tutoring in two basic subjects in Veterinary Science studies at the University of León (Spain) to optimize the usefulness of tutoring support in the college environment. This quasi-experimental study was firstly carried out as a pilot study in a small group of tutored students of "Cytology and Histology" (CH) (47/186; 25.3%) and "Veterinary Pharmacology" (VP) (33/141; 23.4%) subjects, and was implemented in a large class of CH the next academic year (150 students) while comparing the results with those obtained in a previous tutorless course (162 students). Tutored students were given access to online questionnaires with electronic feedback on each subject. In addition to traditional tutoring carried out in both tutored and tutorless students, the pilot study included three sessions of face-to-face tutoring in order to monitor the progress of students. Its efficacy was assessed by monitoring students' examination scores and attendance as well as a satisfaction survey. Although the examination attendance rate in the pilot study was not significantly different between tutored and tutorless groups in both subjects, an increase for numerical scores in tutored groups was observed, with a significant higher final score in VP (p = 0.001) and in the CH practice exams (first term, p = 0.009; final, p = 0.023). Good and merit scores were also better in tutored students with significant differences in VP (p = 0.005). Students felt comfortable with the tutoring service (100% in CH; 91.7% in VP). Implementation of this additional support in CH also resulted in a significant increase of attendance at the final exam in tutored courses (87.3% versus 77

  12. Does creatine supplementation improve the plasma lipid profile in healthy male subjects undergoing aerobic training?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scagliusi Fernanda B

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We aimed to investigate the effects of creatine (Cr supplementation on the plasma lipid profile in sedentary male subjects undergoing aerobic training. Methods Subjects (n = 22 were randomly divided into two groups and were allocated to receive treatment with either creatine monohydrate (CR (~20 g·day-1 for one week followed by ~10 g·day-1 for a further eleven weeks or placebo (PL (dextrose in a double blind fashion. All subjects undertook moderate intensity aerobic training during three 40-minute sessions per week, over 3 months. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TAG, fasting insulin and fasting glycemia were analyzed in plasma. Thereafter, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA was calculated. Tests were performed at baseline (Pre and after four (Post 4, eight (Post 8 and twelve (Post 12 weeks. Results We observed main time effects in both groups for HDL (Post 4 versus Post 8; P = 0.01, TAG and VLDL (Pre versus Post 4 and Post 8; P = 0.02 and P = 0.01, respectively. However, no between group differences were noted in HDL, LDL, CT, VLDL and TAG. Additionally, fasting insulin, fasting glycemia and HOMA did not change significantly. Conclusion These findings suggest that Cr supplementation does not exert any additional effect on the improvement in the plasma lipid profile than aerobic training alone.

  13. Seaweed Fucoxanthin Supplementation Improves Obesity Parameters in Mild Obese Japanese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoketsu Hitoe

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fucoxanthin is a seaweed xanthophyll that has demonstrated an anti-obesity effect in rodents. However,clinical investigations of its influence on mildly obese subjects has not been performed. We conducted a clinical trial of fucoxanthin supplementation in Japanese obese subjects.Methods: We examined the effect of fucoxanthin (1 or 3 mg daily in a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Capsules containing fucoxanthin or placebo capsules were administered for 4 weeks to male and female Japanese adults with a body mass index (BMI of more than 25 kg/m2. Before and after treatment, the body weight, body composition, abdominal fat area, and the circumferences of the neck, arm,and thigh were evaluated.Results: There was significant reduction of the relative (ratio versus before treatment body weight,BMI, and visceral fat area in the 3 mg/day fucoxanthin group compared to the placebo group. Relative values of total fat mass, subcutaneous fat area, waist circumference, and right thigh circumference were also significantly lower in the 1 mg/day fucoxanthin group than the placebo group. A significant decrease of the absoluteright thigh circumference was noted in the 1 mg/day fucoxanthin group compared to the placebo group. In the subjects ingesting fucoxanthin, there were no abnormalities of the blood pressure, pulse rate, blood parameters, and urinalysis parameters, which thereby suggests adverse effects.Conclusions: Fucoxanthin reduced body weight, BMI, and abdominal fat by acting on both visceraland subcutaneous fat. Consequently, Fucoxanthin may be able to improve a moderate overweight state in both men and women.

  14. [Tattooing and its significance in Switzerland. A representative study of 2177 20-year-old Swiss subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefeli, W E

    1990-03-03

    To investigate the incidence, significance and symbolism of tattooing in Switzerland, a representative group of 2177 young males (all liable for military service, age 19-21 years) were examined in 1988. All tattoos were sketched, the location was recorded and the individual meaning was discussed with the bearer. 135 subjects (6.2%) had 1-9 tattoos per person, showing 155 different marks. Only 13% of all tattoos were professional, moderate to large in size and most often located in the area of the upper arm and the shoulder. 87% of tattoos were self-inflicted or placed by a friend and the left side was therefore preferred (66%). In general, these were small to moderate in size, simple in design, and usually located on the forearm and the hand. The dominant significance of all tattoos was related to mental attitude (29%) and love affairs (14%). 13% were pictorial. Some were related to drug abuse, criminality of gangs, or contained magic symbolism or personal data such as zodiac signs and initials (about 4% each). Only 20% had no conventional or private meaning or involved concealed symbolism. For further understanding of the individuals' social history, it should be noted that some tattoos were characterized by minor differences of meaning, such as the "man-in-4-walls" mark (= prison), the "fuck-the-police" mark, the leaf of cannabis sativa or different cross motifs. Even greater consistency related to tattoos located in the web space between the thumb and the forefinger or on the back of the fingers. The location in itself may therefore provide additional personal information on individual circumstances at the time of tattooing.

  15. EFFECTIVENESS OF TRUNK TRAINING EXERCISES VERSUS SWISS BALL EXERCISES FOR IMPROVING SITTING BALANCE AND GAIT PARAMETERS IN ACUTE STROKE SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothalanka Viswaja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises in acute stroke subjects. Trunk is often neglected part in the stroke rehabilitation, trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises result in better recruitment of trunk muscles thus improving sitting balance and gait parameters in acute stroke subjects. However literature evidences for trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises in improving sitting balance and gait are scarce in acute stroke population. Methods: A total of 60 subjects who met the inclusion criteria were recruited from department of physiotherapy, G.S.L general hospital and were randomly allocated into 2 groups with 30 subjects in each group. Initially all of them were screened for balance and gait using trunk impairment scale and by assessing gait parameters, after that they were given a 30min of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises for 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Both the groups received conventional physiotherapy for 4 weeks. Results: Post intervention there was no significant difference between the two groups. There was improvement post treatment in trunk training group (P0.5. Conclusion: The results had shown that both groups noted significant difference. But when comparing between these two groups there is no statistical significance noted. So this study concluded that there is no significant difference between trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises on sitting balance and gait parameters in subjects with stroke.

  16. Optimized distributed systems achieve significant performance improvement on sorted merging of massive VCF files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaobo; Gao, Jingjing; Jin, Peng; Eng, Celeste; Burchard, Esteban G; Beaty, Terri H; Ruczinski, Ingo; Mathias, Rasika A; Barnes, Kathleen; Wang, Fusheng; Qin, Zhaohui S

    2018-06-01

    Sorted merging of genomic data is a common data operation necessary in many sequencing-based studies. It involves sorting and merging genomic data from different subjects by their genomic locations. In particular, merging a large number of variant call format (VCF) files is frequently required in large-scale whole-genome sequencing or whole-exome sequencing projects. Traditional single-machine based methods become increasingly inefficient when processing large numbers of files due to the excessive computation time and Input/Output bottleneck. Distributed systems and more recent cloud-based systems offer an attractive solution. However, carefully designed and optimized workflow patterns and execution plans (schemas) are required to take full advantage of the increased computing power while overcoming bottlenecks to achieve high performance. In this study, we custom-design optimized schemas for three Apache big data platforms, Hadoop (MapReduce), HBase, and Spark, to perform sorted merging of a large number of VCF files. These schemas all adopt the divide-and-conquer strategy to split the merging job into sequential phases/stages consisting of subtasks that are conquered in an ordered, parallel, and bottleneck-free way. In two illustrating examples, we test the performance of our schemas on merging multiple VCF files into either a single TPED or a single VCF file, which are benchmarked with the traditional single/parallel multiway-merge methods, message passing interface (MPI)-based high-performance computing (HPC) implementation, and the popular VCFTools. Our experiments suggest all three schemas either deliver a significant improvement in efficiency or render much better strong and weak scalabilities over traditional methods. Our findings provide generalized scalable schemas for performing sorted merging on genetics and genomics data using these Apache distributed systems.

  17. Valsartan Improves β-Cell Function and Insulin Sensitivity in Subjects With Impaired Glucose Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zijl, Nynke J.; Moors, Chantalle C.M.; Goossens, Gijs H.; Hermans, Marc M.H.; Blaak, Ellen E.; Diamant, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Recently, the Nateglinide and Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research Trial demonstrated that treatment with the angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) valsartan for 5 years resulted in a relative reduction of 14% in the incidence of type 2 diabetes in subjects with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM). We investigated whether improvements in β-cell function and/or insulin sensitivity underlie these preventive effects of the ARB valsartan in the onset of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this randomized controlled, double-blind, two-center study, the effects of 26 weeks of valsartan (320 mg daily; n = 40) or placebo (n = 39) on β-cell function and insulin sensitivity were assessed in subjects with impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance, using a combined hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic and hyperglycemic clamp with subsequent arginine stimulation and a 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Treatment effects were analyzed using ANCOVA, adjusting for center, glucometabolic status, and sex. RESULTS Valsartan increased first-phase (P = 0.028) and second-phase (P = 0.002) glucose-stimulated insulin secretion compared with placebo, whereas the enhanced arginine-stimulated insulin secretion was comparable between groups (P = 0.25). In addition, valsartan increased the OGTT-derived insulinogenic index (representing first-phase insulin secretion after an oral glucose load; P = 0.027). Clamp-derived insulin sensitivity was significantly increased with valsartan compared with placebo (P = 0.049). Valsartan treatment significantly decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared with placebo (P valsartan treatment increased glucose-stimulated insulin release and insulin sensitivity in normotensive subjects with IGM. These findings may partly explain the beneficial effects of valsartan in the reduced incidence of type 2 diabetes. PMID:21330640

  18. The H3 antagonist ABT-288 is tolerated at significantly higher exposures in subjects with schizophrenia than in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ahmed A; Haig, George; Florian, Hana; Locke, Charles; Gertsik, Lev; Dutta, Sandeep

    2014-06-01

    ABT-288 is a potent and selective H3 receptor antagonist with procognitive effects in several preclinical models. In previous studies, 3 mg once daily was the maximal tolerated dose in healthy volunteers. This study characterized the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of ABT-288 in stable subjects with schizophrenia. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating study of ABT-288 (10 dose levels, from 1 to 60 mg once daily for 14 days) in stable subjects with schizophrenia treated with an atypical antipsychotic. In each dose group, five to seven and two to three participants were assigned to ABT-288 and placebo, respectively. Of the 67 participants enrolled, nine participants (on ABT-288) were prematurely discontinued, in seven of these due to adverse events. ABT-288 was generally safe and tolerated at doses up to 45 mg once daily. The most common adverse events, in decreasing frequency (from 31 to 5%), were abnormal dreams, headache, insomnia, dizziness, somnolence, dysgeusia, dry mouth, psychotic disorder, parosmia and tachycardia. Adverse events causing early termination were psychotic events (four) and increased creatine phosphokinase, pyrexia and insomnia (one each). The half-life of ABT-288 ranged from 28 to 51 h, and steady state was achieved by day 12 of dosing. At comparable multiple doses, ABT-288 exposure in subjects with schizophrenia was 45% lower than that previously observed in healthy subjects. At trough, ABT-288 cerebrospinal fluid concentrations were 40% of the total plasma concentrations. ABT-288 was tolerated at a 15-fold higher dose and 12-fold higher exposures in subjects with schizophrenia than previously observed in healthy volunteers. The greater ABT-288 tolerability was not due to limited brain uptake. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  19. Improving information retrieval using Medical Subject Headings Concepts: a test case on rare and chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmoni, Stéfan J; Soualmia, Lina F; Letord, Catherine; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; Griffon, Nicolas; Thirion, Benoît; Névéol, Aurélie

    2012-07-01

    As more scientific work is published, it is important to improve access to the biomedical literature. Since 2000, when Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Concepts were introduced, the MeSH Thesaurus has been concept based. Nevertheless, information retrieval is still performed at the MeSH Descriptor or Supplementary Concept level. The study assesses the benefit of using MeSH Concepts for indexing and information retrieval. Three sets of queries were built for thirty-two rare diseases and twenty-two chronic diseases: (1) using PubMed Automatic Term Mapping (ATM), (2) using Catalog and Index of French-language Health Internet (CISMeF) ATM, and (3) extrapolating the MEDLINE citations that should be indexed with a MeSH Concept. Type 3 queries retrieve significantly fewer results than type 1 or type 2 queries (about 18,000 citations versus 200,000 for rare diseases; about 300,000 citations versus 2,000,000 for chronic diseases). CISMeF ATM also provides better precision than PubMed ATM for both disease categories. Using MeSH Concept indexing instead of ATM is theoretically possible to improve retrieval performance with the current indexing policy. However, using MeSH Concept information retrieval and indexing rules would be a fundamentally better approach. These modifications have already been implemented in the CISMeF search engine.

  20. Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Improving Rapport between Track/Cross Country Coaches and Significant Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, David Jay

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the background information and the components of N.L.P., being eye movements, use of predicates, and posturing, as they apply to improving rapport and empathy between track/cross country coaches and their significant others in the arena of competition to help alleviate the inherent stressors.

  1. Teacher leadership in mathematics and science: Subject content knowledge and the improvement of instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manno, Christopher M.

    This study explores the role of teacher leader subject content knowledge in the promotion of professional development and instructional reform. Consistent with a distributed leadership perspective, many have asserted that the promotion of school effectiveness can be enhanced through the application of teacher leadership (Frost & Durrant, 2003; Harris, 2002a; Sherrill, 1999; Silva, Gimbert, & Nolan, 2000; York-Barr & Duke, 2004). There has been much discussion in the research about the significance of teachers' subject content knowledge in teaching and learning which has generally asserted a positive relationship with instructional practice and student achievement (Darling-Hammond, 2000; Newton & Newton, 2001; Parker & Heywood, 2000). The role of content knowledge in teacher leader work has been less researched. This study focused on deepening understanding of perceptions regarding teacher leaders' roles in improving instructional practice. Based on a framework of common teacher leader tasks, qualitative methods were used to investigate the relationship between teacher leader subject content knowledge and perceptions of effectiveness in promoting professional development and instructional reform. The study indicates that content experts behave differently than their non-expert counterparts. Content experts recognize deficiencies in colleagues' content knowledge as a primary problem in the implementation of math or science reform. Content experts view their work as advocacy for improved curriculum and instruction for all children, and work within a small set of task categories to promote discussions about teaching, learning, and content. Content experts develop trust and rapport with colleagues by demonstrating expertise, and are respected for their deep knowledge and efforts to help teachers learn the content. They also differ from non-content experts in the professional growth experiences in which they engage. The consideration of content expertise as an influence

  2. Parameter definition using vibration prediction software leads to significant drilling performance improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Dalmo; Hanley, Chris Hanley; Fonseca, Isaac; Santos, Juliana [National Oilwell Varco, Houston TX (United States); Leite, Daltro J.; Borella, Augusto; Gozzi, Danilo [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The understanding and mitigation of downhole vibration has been a heavily researched subject in the oil industry as it results in more expensive drilling operations, as vibrations significantly diminish the amount of effective drilling energy available to the bit and generate forces that can push the bit or the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) off its concentric axis of rotation, producing high magnitude impacts with the borehole wall. In order to drill ahead, a sufficient amount of energy must be supplied by the rig to overcome the resistance of the drilling system, including the reactive torque of the system, drag forces, fluid pressure losses and energy dissipated by downhole vibrations, then providing the bit with the energy required to fail the rock. If the drill string enters resonant modes of vibration, not only does it decreases the amount of available energy to drill, but increases the potential for catastrophic downhole equipment and drilling bit failures. In this sense, the mitigation of downhole vibrations will result in faster, smoother, and cheaper drilling operations. A software tool using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been developed to provide better understanding of downhole vibration phenomena in drilling environments. The software tool calculates the response of the drilling system at various input conditions, based on the design of the wellbore along with the geometry of the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) and the drill string. It identifies where undesired levels of resonant vibration will be driven by certain combinations of specific drilling parameters, and also which combinations of drilling parameters will result in lower levels of vibration, so the least shocks, the highest penetration rate and the lowest cost per foot can be achieved. With the growing performance of personal computers, complex software systems modeling the drilling vibrations using FEA has been accessible to a wider audience of field users, further complimenting with real time

  3. Rehearsal significantly improves immediate and delayed recall on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessen, Erik

    2011-10-01

    A repeated observation during memory assessment with the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is that patients who spontaneously employ a memory rehearsal strategy by repeating the word list more than once achieve better scores than patients who only repeat the word list once. This observation led to concern about the ability of the standard test procedure of RAVLT and similar tests in eliciting the best possible recall scores. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that a rehearsal recall strategy of repeating the word list more than once would result in improved scores of recall on the RAVLT. We report on differences in outcome after standard administration and after experimental administration on Immediate and Delayed Recall measures from the RAVLT of 50 patients. The experimental administration resulted in significantly improved scores for all the variables employed. Additionally, it was found that patients who failed effort screening showed significantly poorer improvement on Delayed Recall compared with those who passed the effort screening. The general clear improvement both in raw scores and T-scores demonstrates that recall performance can be significantly influenced by the strategy of the patient or by small variations in instructions by the examiner.

  4. Costello Syndrome with Severe Nodulocystic Acne: Unexpected Significant Improvement of Acanthosis Nigricans after Oral Isotretinoin Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leelawadee Sriboonnark

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of 17-year-old female diagnosed with Costello syndrome. Genetic testing provided a proof with G12S mutation in the HRAS gene since 3 years of age with a presentation of severe nodulocystic acne on her face. After 2 months of oral isotretinoin treatment, improvement in her acne was observed. Interestingly, an unexpected significant improvement of acanthosis nigricans on her neck and dorsum of her hands was found as well. We present this case as a successful treatment option by using oral isotretinoin for the treatment of acanthosis nigricans in Costello syndrome patients.

  5. Histone deacetylase inhibitor significantly improved the cloning efficiency of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongye; Tang, Xiaochun; Xie, Wanhua; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dong; Yao, Chaogang; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Jianguo; Lai, Liangxue; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Pang, Daxin

    2011-12-01

    Valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inbibitor, has been shown to generate inducible pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse and human fibroblasts with a significant higher efficiency. Because successful cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) undergoes a full reprogramming process in which the epigenetic state of a differentiated donor nuclear is converted into an embryonic totipotent state, we speculated that VPA would be useful in promoting cloning efficiency. Therefore, in the present study, we examined whether VPA can promote the developmental competence of SCNT embryos by improving the reprogramming state of donor nucleus. Here we report that 1 mM VPA for 14 to 16 h following activation significantly increased the rate of blastocyst formation of porcine SCNT embryos constructed from Landrace fetal fibroblast cells compared to the control (31.8 vs. 11.4%). However, we found that the acetylation level of Histone H3 lysine 14 and Histone H4 lysine 5 and expression level of Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4 was not significantly changed between VPA-treated and -untreated groups at the blastocyst stage. The SCNT embryos were transferred to 38 surrogates, and the cloning efficiency in the treated group was significantly improved compared with the control group. Taken together, we have demonstrated that VPA can improve both in vitro and in vivo development competence of porcine SCNT embryos.

  6. Transcriptome analysis and identification of significantly differentially expressed genes in Holstein calves subjected to severe thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Krishnamoorthy; Lee, Eunjin; Kwan, Anam; Lim, Youngjo; Lee, Junyep; Jang, Gulwon; Chung, Hoyoung

    2017-11-01

    RNA-Seq analysis was used to characterize transcriptome response of Holstein calves to thermal stress. A total of eight animals aged between 2 and 3 months were randomly selected and subjected to thermal stress corresponding to a temperature humidity index of 95 in an environmentally controlled house for 12 h consecutively for 3 days. A set of 15,787 unigenes were found to be expressed and after a threshold of threefold change, and a Q value physiological and metabolic processes to survive. Many of the genes identified in this study have not been previously reported to be involved in thermal stress response. The results of this study extend our understanding of the animal's response to thermal stress and some of the identified genes may prove useful in the efforts to breed Holstein cattle with superior thermotolerance, which might help in minimizing production loss due to thermal stress.

  7. Ethics in action: Approving and improving medical research with human subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, Jean Philippe de Jong presents a new understanding of ethical oversight on medical research with human subjects and proposes that two philosophies for ethical oversight exist: '(dis)approving' and 'improving'. Systems for ethical oversight on medical research have been in place for

  8. Communication: Proper treatment of classically forbidden electronic transitions significantly improves detailed balance in surface hopping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifain, Andrew E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0485 (United States); Wang, Linjun [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Prezhdo, Oleg V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0485 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-1062 (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Surface hopping is the most popular method for nonadiabatic molecular dynamics. Many have reported that it does not rigorously attain detailed balance at thermal equilibrium, but does so approximately. We show that convergence to the Boltzmann populations is significantly improved when the nuclear velocity is reversed after a classically forbidden hop. The proposed prescription significantly reduces the total number of classically forbidden hops encountered along a trajectory, suggesting that some randomization in nuclear velocity is needed when classically forbidden hops constitute a large fraction of attempted hops. Our results are verified computationally using two- and three-level quantum subsystems, coupled to a classical bath undergoing Langevin dynamics.

  9. Decontamination reduces radiation anxiety and improves subjective well-being after the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Michio; Harada, Shigeki; Oki, Taikan

    2017-01-01

    Since the 2011 Fukushima accident, rebuilding society to protect against anxiety and improve feelings of well-being has grown in importance. A questionnaire was carried out among residents of Marumori Town, Igu County, Miyagi Prefecture, to evaluate the effects of radiation-related countermeasures implemented by the town to reduce residents' anxiety and improve their subjective well-being (response rate: 31%; valid responses: n = 174). Further, to propose effective countermeasures regarding town planning for the improvement in subjective well-being, we analyzed associations between residents' sense of attachment to the town and subjective well-being, and then identified primary factors behind their sense of attachment. Marumori Town, located about 50 km to the northwest of the Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, is a good site for evaluating the effects of countermeasures taken by the town itself to fight anxiety, because there have been limited surveys and professional medical support, and mitigation efforts were primarily initiated by the town. The results suggested that decontamination evaluations were associated with a reduction in anxiety after the accident, which contributed to an increase in residents' subjective well-being. On the other hand, the evaluation of items related to human interactions in the community and the natural environment was found as a primary factor of sense of attachment toward the town, which contributed to an increase of residents' subjective well-being. This is the first study to quantitatively measure the effects of radiation-related countermeasures on reducing anxiety and to propose an effective policy approach for improving subjective well-being. (author)

  10. Sterol 27-Hydroxylase Polymorphism Significantly Associates With Shorter Telomere, Higher Cardiovascular and Type-2 Diabetes Risk in Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Pavanello

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectivesThe pathologic relationship linking obesity and lipid dismetabolism with earlier onset of aging-related disorders, including cardiovascular disease (CVD and type-2 diabetes (T2D, is not fully elucidate. Chronic inflammatory state, in obese individuals, may accelerate cellular aging. However, leukocyte telomere length (LTL, the cellular biological aging indicator, is elusively linked with obesity. Recent studies indicate that sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1 is an emerging antiatherogenic enzyme, that, by converting extrahepatic cholesterol to 27-hydroxycholesterol, facilitates cholesterol removal via high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C. We tested the hypothesis that obese subjects who carry at least three copies of CYP27A1 low-hydroxylation (LH activity genome-wide-validated alleles (rs4674345A, rs1554622A, and rs4674338G present premature aging, as reflected in shorter LTL and higher levels of CVD/T2D risk factors, including reduced HDL-C.Subjects/methodsObese subjects from SPHERE project {n = 1,457; overweight [body mass index (BMI 25–30 kg/m2] 65.8% and severe-obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2 34.2%} were characterized for the presence from 0 to 6 LH-CYP27A1 allele copy number. Univariate and multivariable sex–age–smoking-adjusted linear-regression models were performed to compare CVD/T2D risk factors and biological aging (LTL in relation to the combined BMI-LH groups: overweight-LH: 0–2, overweight-LH: 3–6, severe-obese-LH: 0–2, and severe-obese-LH: 3–6.ResultsHigher LTL attrition was found in severe-obese than overweight individuals (p < 0.001. Multivariable model reveals that among severe-obese patients those with LH: 3–6 present higher LTL attrition than LH: 0–2 (p < 0.05. Univariate and multivariable models remarkably show that insulin resistance is higher both in overweight-LH: 3–6 vs overweight-LH: 0–2 (p < 0.001 and in severe-obese-LH: 3–6 vs severe-obese-LH: 0–2 (p

  11. The challenges of ESRD care in developing economies: sub-Saharan African opportunities for significant improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamgboye, Ebun Ladipo

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. This, along with other noncommunicable diseases like hypertension, diabetes, and heart diseases, poses a double burden on a region that is still struggling to cope with the scourge of communicable diseases like malaria, tuberculosis, HIV, and more recently Ebola. Causes of CKD in the region are predominantly glomerulonephritis and hypertension, although type 2 diabetes is also becoming a significant cause as is the retroviral disease. Patients are generally younger than in the developed world, and there is a significant male preponderance. Most patients are managed by hemodialysis, with peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplantation being available in only few countries in the region. Government funding and support for dialysis is often unavailable, and when available, often with restrictions. There is a dearth of trained manpower to treat the disease, and many countries have a limited number of units, which are often ill-equipped to deal adequately with the number of patients who require end-stage renal disease (ESRD) care in the region. Although there has been a significant improvement when compared with the situation, even as recently as 10 years ago, there is also the potential for further improvement, which would significantly improve the outcomes in patients with ESRD in the region. The information in this review was obtained from a combination of renal registry reports (published and unpublished), published articles, responses to a questionnaire sent to nephrologists prior to the World Congress of Nephrology (WCN) in Cape Town, and from nephrologists attending the WCN in Cape Town (March 13 - 17, 2015).

  12. Two Aspects of Activation: Arousal and Subjective Significance – Behavioral and Event-Related Potential Correlates Investigated by Means of a Modified Emotional Stroop Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Imbir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The arousal level of words presented in a Stroop task was found to affect their interference on the required naming of the words’ color. Based on a dual-processes approach, we propose that there are two aspects to activation: arousal and subjective significance. Arousal is crucial for automatic processing. Subjective significance is specific to controlled processing. Based on this conceptual model, we predicted that arousal would enhance interference in a Stroop task, as attention would be allocated to the meaning of the inhibited word. High subjective significance should have the opposite effect, i.e., it should enhance the controlled and explicit part of Stroop task processing, which is color naming. We found that response latencies were modulated by the interaction between the arousal and subjective significance levels of words. The longest reaction times were observed for highly arousing words of medium subjective significance level. Arousal shaped event related potentials in the 150–290 ms time range, while effects of subjective significance were found for 50–150, 150–290, and 290–530 ms time ranges.

  13. Levothyroxine Improves Subjective Sleepiness in a Euthyroid Patient with Narcolepsy without Cataplexy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Danielle L.; Spector, Andrew R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We discuss the use of levothyroxine for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and prolonged nocturnal sleep time in a euthyroid patient with narcolepsy. Methods: After failure of first-line narcolepsy treatments, a 48-year-old female began levothyroxine (25 mcg/day). After 12 weeks of treatment, the patient was evaluated for improvement in total sleep time and subjective daytime sleepiness assessed by Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Results: At baseline, ESS score was 16 and total sleep time averaged 16 h/day. After 12 weeks, ESS was 13 and reported total sleep time was 13 h/day. Conclusions: Levothyroxine improved EDS and total sleep time in a euthyroid patient with narcolepsy without cataplexy after 12 weeks without side effects. Citation: Sobol DL, Spector AR. Levothyroxine improves subjective sleepiness in a euthyroid patient with narcolepsy without cataplexy. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(11):1231-1232. PMID:25325591

  14. Visiting Richard Serra’s Promenade sculpture improves postural control and judgment of subjective visual vertical.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoï eKapoula

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Body sway while maintaining an upright quiet stance reflects an active process of balance based on the integration of visual, vestibular, somatosensory and proprioceptive inputs. Richard Serra’s Promenade sculpture featured in the 2008 Monumenta exhibition at the Grand Palais in Paris, France is herein hypothesised to have stimulated the body’s vertical and longitudinal axes as it showcased 5 monumental rectangular solids pitched at a 1.69° angle.Using computerised dynamic posturography we measured the body sway of 23 visitors when fixating a cross, or when observing the artwork (fixating it or actively exploring it with eye movements before and after walking around and alongside the sculpture (i.e., before and after a promenade. A first fixation at the sculpture increased medio-lateral stability (in terms of spectral power of body sway. Eye movement exploration in the depth of the sculpture increased antero-posterior stability (in terms of spectral power and cancelling time of body sway at the expense of medio-lateral stability (in terms of cancelling time. Moreover, a medio-lateral instability associated with eye movement exploration before the promenade (in terms of body sway sensu stricto was cancelled after the promenade. Finally, the overall medio-lateral stability (in terms of spectral power increased after the promenade.Fourteen additional visitors were asked to sit in a dark room and adjust a luminous line to what they considered to be the earth-vertical axis. The promenade executed within the sculpted environment afforded by Serra’s monumental statuary works resulted in significantly improved performances on the subjective visual vertical test.We attribute these effects to the sculpted environment provided by the exhibition which may have acted as a kind of physiologic training ground thereby improving the visitors’ overall sense of visual perspective, equilibrium and gravity.

  15. PXD101 significantly improves nuclear reprogramming and the in vitro developmental competence of porcine SCNT embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Jun-Xue; Kang, Jin-Dan; Li, Suo; Jin, Long; Zhu, Hai-Ying; Guo, Qing; Gao, Qing-Shan; Yan, Chang-Guo; Yin, Xi-Jun, E-mail: yinxj33@msn.com

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • First explored that the effects of PXD101 on the development of SCNT embryos in vitro. • 0.5 μM PXD101 treated for 24 h improved the development of porcine SCNT embryos. • Level of AcH3K9 was significantly higher than control group at early stages. - Abstract: In this study, we investigated the effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor PXD101 (belinostat) on the preimplantation development of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos and their expression of the epigenetic markers histone H3 acetylated at lysine 9 (AcH3K9). We compared the in vitro developmental competence of SCNT embryos treated with various concentrations of PXD101 for 24 h. Treatment with 0.5 μM PXD101 significantly increased the proportion of SCNT embryos that reached the blastocyst stage, in comparison to the control group (23.3% vs. 11.5%, P < 0.05). We tested the in vitro developmental competence of SCNT embryos treated with 0.5 μM PXD101 for various amounts of times following activation. Treatment for 24 h significantly improved the development of porcine SCNT embryos, with a significantly higher proportion of embryos reaching the blastocyst stage in comparison to the control group (25.7% vs. 10.6%, P < 0.05). PXD101-treated SCNT embryos were transferred into two surrogate sows, one of whom became pregnant and four fetuses developed. PXD101 treatment significantly increased the fluorescence intensity of immunostaining for AcH3K9 in embryos at the pseudo-pronuclear and 2-cell stages. At these stages, the fluorescence intensities of immunostaining for AcH3K9 were significantly higher in PXD101-treated embryos than in control untreated embryos. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that PXD101 can significantly improve the in vitro and in vivo developmental competence of porcine SCNT embryos and can enhance their nuclear reprogramming.

  16. Unified Health Gamification can significantly improve well-being in corporate environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrestani, Arash; Van Gorp, Pieter; Le Blanc, Pascale; Greidanus, Fabrizio; de Groot, Kristel; Leermakers, Jelle

    2017-07-01

    There is a multitude of mHealth applications that aim to solve societal health problems by stimulating specific types of physical activities via gamification. However, physical health activities cover just one of the three World Health Organization (WHO) dimensions of health. This paper introduces the novel notion of Unified Health Gamification (UHG), which covers besides physical health also social and cognitive health and well-being. Instead of rewarding activities in the three WHO dimensions using different mHealth competitions, UHG combines the scores for such activities on unified leaderboards and lets people interact in social circles beyond personal interests. This approach is promising in corporate environments since UHG can connect the employees with intrinsic motivation for physical health with those who have quite different interests. In order to evaluate this approach, we realized an app prototype and we evaluated it in two corporate pilot studies. In total, eighteen pilot users participated voluntarily for six weeks. Half of the participants were recruited from an occupational health setting and the other half from a treatment setting. Our results suggest that the UHG principles are worth more investigation: various positive health effects were found based on a validated survey. The mean mental health improved significantly at one pilot location and at the level of individual pilot participants, multiple other effects were found to be significant: among others, significant mental health improvements were found for 28% of the participants. Most participants intended to use the app beyond the pilot, especially if it would be further developed.

  17. EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERVAL EXERCISE VERSUS CONTINUOUS EXERCISE TO IMPROVE EXERCISE TOLERANCE IN CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Swathi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: COPD is characterized by chronic airflow limitation and a range of pathological changes in the lung. Chronic inflammation causes structural changes and narrowing of the small airways and destruction of lung parenchyma, leads to the loss of alveolar attachments to the small airways and decreases lung elastic recoil; in turn these changes diminish the expiration and the work of breathing is increased. Scarcity of evidence on continuous and interval exercises is forcing researchers conduct studies on effectiveness of interval exercise with continuous exercise on exercise tolerance in subjects with COPD. Methods: 60 subjects were selected by lottery method. All the subjects were explained about the condition and mode of assessment and written informed consent were obtained from them and divided into 2 groups interval training group and continuous exercise training group and subjects were scheduled to attend exercise session 5 days a week for 4 weeks with exercise duration 20 min’s with cycle ergometer. Outcome measure: six minute walk test and heart rate. Results: On observing the means of post test parameters of experimental group A and experimental group B Independent t-test was done and the P- value is >0.05 .It shows a no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: The results had shown that both interval exercise group and continuous exercise group who received four weeks of therapy has improved significantly on pre and post test values within the groups but when compared between these groups there is no statistical significance noted. So this study concluded that there is no significant difference between interval exercise group and continuous exercise group in improving exercise tolerance among COPD subjects.

  18. E2F5 status significantly improves malignancy diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Kothandaraman, Narasimhan

    2010-02-24

    Background: Ovarian epithelial cancer (OEC) usually presents in the later stages of the disease. Factors, especially those associated with cell-cycle genes, affecting the genesis and tumour progression for ovarian cancer are largely unknown. We hypothesized that over-expressed transcription factors (TFs), as well as those that are driving the expression of the OEC over-expressed genes, could be the key for OEC genesis and potentially useful tissue and serum markers for malignancy associated with OEC.Methods: Using a combination of computational (selection of candidate TF markers and malignancy prediction) and experimental approaches (tissue microarray and western blotting on patient samples) we identified and evaluated E2F5 transcription factor involved in cell proliferation, as a promising candidate regulatory target in early stage disease. Our hypothesis was supported by our tissue array experiments that showed E2F5 expression only in OEC samples but not in normal and benign tissues, and by significantly positively biased expression in serum samples done using western blotting studies.Results: Analysis of clinical cases shows that of the E2F5 status is characteristic for a different population group than one covered by CA125, a conventional OEC biomarker. E2F5 used in different combinations with CA125 for distinguishing malignant cyst from benign cyst shows that the presence of CA125 or E2F5 increases sensitivity of OEC detection to 97.9% (an increase from 87.5% if only CA125 is used) and, more importantly, the presence of both CA125 and E2F5 increases specificity of OEC to 72.5% (an increase from 55% if only CA125 is used). This significantly improved accuracy suggests possibility of an improved diagnostics of OEC. Furthermore, detection of malignancy status in 86 cases (38 benign, 48 early and late OEC) shows that the use of E2F5 status in combination with other clinical characteristics allows for an improved detection of malignant cases with sensitivity

  19. Significance of MPEG-7 textural features for improved mass detection in mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltonsy, Nevine H; Tourassi, Georgia D; Fadeev, Aleksey; Elmaghraby, Adel S

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the significance of MPEG-7 textural features for improving the detection of masses in screening mammograms. The detection scheme was originally based on morphological directional neighborhood features extracted from mammographic regions of interest (ROIs). Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) was performed to evaluate the performance of each set of features independently and merged into a back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) using the leave-one-out sampling scheme (LOOSS). The study was based on a database of 668 mammographic ROIs (340 depicting cancer regions and 328 depicting normal parenchyma). Overall, the ROC area index of the BPANN using the directional morphological features was Az=0.85+/-0.01. The MPEG-7 edge histogram descriptor-based BPNN showed an ROC area index of Az=0.71+/-0.01 while homogeneous textural descriptors using 30 and 120 channels helped the BPNN achieve similar ROC area indexes of Az=0.882+/-0.02 and Az=0.877+/-0.01 respectively. After merging the MPEG-7 homogeneous textural features with the directional neighborhood features the performance of the BPANN increased providing an ROC area index of Az=0.91+/-0.01. MPEG-7 homogeneous textural descriptor significantly improved the morphology-based detection scheme.

  20. Experiential Learning Model on Entrepreneurship Subject to Improve Students’ Soft Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Rifda Naufalin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to improve students’ soft skills on entrepreneurship subject by using experiential learning model. It was expected that the learning model could upgrade students’ soft skills which were indicated by the higher confidence, result and job oriented, being courageous to take risks, leadership, originality, and future-oriented. It was a class action research using Kemmis and Mc Tagart’s design model. The research was conducted for two cycles. The subject of the study was economics education students in the year of 2015/2016.  Findings show that the experiential learning model could improve students’ soft skills. The research showed that there is increased at the dimension of confidence by 52.1%, result-oriented by 22.9%, being courageous to take risks by 10.4%, leadership by 12.5%, originality by 10.4%, and future-oriented by 18.8%. It could be concluded that the experiential learning model is effective model to improve students’ soft skills on entrepreneurship subject. Dimension of confidence has the highest rise. Students’ soft skills are shaped through the continuous stimulus when they get involved at the implementation.

  1. Carfilzomib significantly improves the progression-free survival of high-risk patients in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avet-Loiseau, Hervé; Fonseca, Rafael; Siegel, David; Dimopoulos, Meletios A; Špička, Ivan; Masszi, Tamás; Hájek, Roman; Rosiñol, Laura; Goranova-Marinova, Vesselina; Mihaylov, Georgi; Maisnar, Vladimír; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Wang, Michael; Niesvizky, Ruben; Oriol, Albert; Jakubowiak, Andrzej; Minarik, Jiri; Palumbo, Antonio; Bensinger, William; Kukreti, Vishal; Ben-Yehuda, Dina; Stewart, A Keith; Obreja, Mihaela; Moreau, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    The presence of certain high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities, such as translocations (4;14) and (14;16) and deletion (17p), are known to have a negative impact on survival in multiple myeloma (MM). The phase 3 study ASPIRE (N = 792) demonstrated that progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly improved with carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (KRd), compared with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (Rd) in relapsed MM. This preplanned subgroup analysis of ASPIRE was conducted to evaluate KRd vs Rd by baseline cytogenetics according to fluorescence in situ hybridization. Of 417 patients with known cytogenetic risk status, 100 patients (24%) were categorized with high-risk cytogenetics (KRd, n = 48; Rd, n = 52) and 317 (76%) were categorized with standard-risk cytogenetics (KRd, n = 147; Rd, n = 170). For patients with high-risk cytogenetics, treatment with KRd resulted in a median PFS of 23.1 months, a 9-month improvement relative to treatment with Rd. For patients with standard-risk cytogenetics, treatment with KRd led to a 10-month improvement in median PFS vs Rd. The overall response rates for KRd vs Rd were 79.2% vs 59.6% (high-risk cytogenetics) and 91.2% vs 73.5% (standard-risk cytogenetics); approximately fivefold as many patients with high- or standard-risk cytogenetics achieved a complete response or better with KRd vs Rd (29.2% vs 5.8% and 38.1% vs 6.5%, respectively). KRd improved but did not abrogate the poor prognosis associated with high-risk cytogenetics. This regimen had a favorable benefit-risk profile in patients with relapsed MM, irrespective of cytogenetic risk status, and should be considered a standard of care in these patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01080391. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  2. Bone Mass and Strength are Significantly Improved in Mice Overexpressing Human WNT16 in Osteocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Imranul; Reilly, Austin M; Alkhouli, Mohammed; Gerard-O'Riley, Rita L; Kasipathi, Charishma; Oakes, Dana K; Wright, Weston B; Acton, Dena; McQueen, Amie K; Patel, Bhavmik; Lim, Kyung-Eun; Robling, Alexander G; Econs, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that osteoblast-specific overexpression of human WNT16 increased both cortical and trabecular bone mass and structure in mice. To further identify the cell-specific role of Wnt16 in bone homeostasis, we created transgenic (TG) mice overexpressing human WNT16 in osteocytes using Dmp1 promoter (Dmp1-hWNT16 TG) on C57BL/6 (B6) background. We analyzed bone phenotypes and serum bone biomarkers, performed gene expression analysis and measured dynamic bone histomorphometry in Dmp1-hWNT16 TG and wild-type (WT) mice. Compared to WT mice, Dmp1-hWNT16 TG mice exhibited significantly higher whole-body, spine and femoral aBMD, BMC and trabecular (BV/TV, Tb.N, and Tb.Th) and cortical (bone area and thickness) parameters in both male and female at 12 weeks of age. Femur stiffness and ultimate force were also significantly improved in the Dmp1-hWNT16 TG female mice, compared to sex-matched WT littermates. In addition, female Dmp1-hWNT16 TG mice displayed significantly higher MS/BS, MAR and BFR/BS compared to the WT mice. Gene expression analysis demonstrated significantly higher mRNA level of Alp in both male and female Dmp1-hWNT16 TG mice and significantly higher levels of Osteocalcin, Opg and Rankl in the male Dmp1-hWNT16 TG mice in bone tissue compared to sex-matched WT mice. These results indicate that WNT16 plays a critical role for acquisition of both cortical and trabecular bone mass and strength. Strategies designed to use WNT16 as a target for therapeutic interventions will be valuable to treat osteoporosis and other low bone mass conditions.

  3. Radiotherapy is associated with significant improvement in local and regional control in Merkel cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Susan H; Haydu, Lauren E; Goh, Robin Yeong Hong; Fogarty, Gerald B

    2012-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare tumour of skin. This study is a retrospective audit of patients with MCC from St Vincent’s and Mater Hospital, Sydney, Australia. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of radiotherapy (RT) on the local and regional control of MCC lesions and survival of patients with MCC. The data bases in anatomical pathology, RT and surgery. We searched for patients having a diagnosis of MCC between 1996 and 2007. Patient, tumour and treatment characteristics were collected and analysed. Univariate survival analysis of categorical variables was conducted with the Kaplan-Meier method together with the Log-Rank test for statistical significance. Continuous variables were assessed using the Cox regression method. Multivariate analysis was performed for significant univariate results. Sixty seven patients were found. Sixty two who were stage I-III and were treated with radical intent were analysed. 68% were male. The median age was 74 years. Forty-two cases (68%) were stage I or II, and 20 cases (32%) were stage III. For the subset of 42 stage I and II patients, those that had RT to their primary site had a 2-year local recurrence free survival of 89% compared with 36% for patients not receiving RT (p<0.001). The cumulative 2-year regional recurrence free survival for patients having adjuvant regional RT was 84% compared with 43% for patients not receiving this treatment (p<0.001). Immune status at initial surgery was a significant predictor for OS and MCCSS. In a multivariate analysis combining macroscopic size (mm) and immune status at initial surgery, only immune status remained a significant predictor of overall survival (HR=2.096, 95% CI: 1.002-4.385, p=0.049). RT is associated with significant improvement in local and regional control in Merkel cell carcinoma. Immunosuppression is an important factor in overall survival

  4. Integration of biomimicry and nanotechnology for significantly improved detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Ja Hye; Park, Sin-Jung; Wang, Andrew Z; Hong, Seungpyo

    2017-12-13

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have received a great deal of scientific and clinical attention as a biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of many types of cancer. Given their potential significance in clinics, a variety of detection methods, utilizing the recent advances in nanotechnology and microfluidics, have been introduced in an effort of achieving clinically significant detection of CTCs. However, effective detection and isolation of CTCs still remain a tremendous challenge due to their extreme rarity and phenotypic heterogeneity. Among many approaches that are currently under development, this review paper focuses on a unique, promising approach that takes advantages of naturally occurring processes achievable through application of nanotechnology to realize significant improvement in sensitivity and specificity of CTC capture. We provide an overview of successful outcome of this biomimetic CTC capture system in detection of tumor cells from in vitro, in vivo, and clinical pilot studies. We also emphasize the clinical impact of CTCs as biomarkers in cancer diagnosis and predictive prognosis, which provides a cost-effective, minimally invasive method that potentially replaces or supplements existing methods such as imaging technologies and solid tissue biopsy. In addition, their potential prognostic values as treatment guidelines and that ultimately help to realize personalized therapy are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. When does quality improvement count as research? Human subject protection and theories of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, J

    2004-02-01

    The publication of insights from a quality improvement project recently precipitated a ruling by the lead federal regulatory agency that regulations providing protection for human subjects of research should apply. The required research review process did not match the rapid changes, small samples, limited documentation, clinician management, and type of information commonly used in quality improvement. Yet quality improvement can risk harm to patients, so some review might be in order. The boundaries and processes are not clear. Efforts have been made to determine what constitutes "research", but this has proved difficult and often yields irrational guidance with regard to protection of patients. Society needs a workable way to separate activities that will improve care, on the one hand, and those that constitute research, on the other. Practitioners who lead both quality improvement and research projects claim that those which rapidly give feedback to the care system that generated the data, aiming to change practices within that system, are "quality improvement" no matter whether the findings are published, whether the project is grant funded, and whether contemporaneous controls do not have the intervention. This criterion has not previously been proposed as a possible demarcation. The quandaries of which projects to put through research review and how to ensure ethical implementation of quality improvement need to be resolved.

  6. Significant Improvement of Organic Thin-Film Transistor Mobility Utilizing an Organic Heterojunction Buffer Layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Feng; Qian Xian-Rui; Huang Li-Zhen; Wang Hai-Bo; Yan Dong-Hang

    2011-01-01

    High-mobility vanadyl phthalocyanine (VOPc)/5,5‴-bis(4-fluorophenyl)-2,2':5',2″:5″,2‴-quaterthiophene (F2-P4T) thin-film transistors are demonstrated by employing a copper hexadecafluorophthalocyanine (F 16 CuPc)/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) heterojunction unit, which are fabricated at different substrate temperatures, as a buffer layer. The highest mobility of 4.08cm 2 /Vs is achieved using a F 16 CuPc/CuPc organic heterojunction buffer layer fabricated at high substrate temperature. Compared with the random small grain-like morphology of the room-temperature buffer layer, the high-temperature organic heterojunction presents a large-sized fiber-like film morphology, resulting in an enhanced conductivity. Thus the contact resistance of the transistor is significantly reduced and an obvious improvement in device mobility is obtained. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  7. Significant improvement of optical traps by tuning standard water immersion objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reihani, S Nader S; Mir, Shahid A; Richardson, Andrew C; Oddershede, Lene B

    2011-01-01

    Focused infrared lasers are widely used for micromanipulation and visualization of biological specimens. An inherent practical problem is that off-the-shelf commercial microscope objectives are designed for use with visible and not infrared wavelengths. Less aberration is introduced by water immersion objectives than by oil immersion ones, however, even water immersion objectives induce significant aberration. We present a simple method to reduce the spherical aberration induced by water immersion objectives, namely by tuning the correction collar of the objective to a value that is ∼ 10% lower than the physical thickness of the coverslip. This results in marked improvements in optical trapping strengths of up to 100% laterally and 600% axially from a standard microscope objective designed for use in the visible range. The results are generally valid for any water immersion objective with any numerical aperture

  8. Significant improvement in the electrical characteristics of Schottky barrier diodes on molecularly modified Gallium Nitride surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Manjari; Naik, Tejas R.; Pathak, C. S.; Nagarajan, S.; Rao, V. Ramgopal; Singh, R.

    2018-04-01

    III-Nitride semiconductors face the issue of localized surface states, which causes fermi level pinning and large leakage current at the metal semiconductor interface, thereby degrading the device performance. In this work, we have demonstrated the use of a Self-Assembled Monolayer (SAM) of organic molecules to improve the electrical characteristics of Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) on n-type Gallium Nitride (n-GaN) epitaxial films. The electrical characteristics of diodes were improved by adsorption of SAM of hydroxyl-phenyl metallated porphyrin organic molecules (Zn-TPPOH) onto the surface of n-GaN. SAM-semiconductor bonding via native oxide on the n-GaN surface was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Surface morphology and surface electronic properties were characterized using atomic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy. Current-voltage characteristics of different metal (Cu, Ni) SBDs on bare n-GaN were compared with those of Cu/Zn-TPPOH/n-GaN and Ni/Zn-TPPOH/n-GaN SBDs. It was found that due to the molecular monolayer, the surface potential of n-GaN was decreased by ˜350 mV. This caused an increase in the Schottky barrier height of Cu and Ni SBDs from 1.13 eV to 1.38 eV and 1.07 eV to 1.22 eV, respectively. In addition to this, the reverse bias leakage current was reduced by 3-4 orders of magnitude for both Cu and Ni SBDs. Such a significant improvement in the electrical performance of the diodes can be very useful for better device functioning.

  9. pEPito: a significantly improved non-viral episomal expression vector for mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogris Manfred

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The episomal replication of the prototype vector pEPI-1 depends on a transcription unit starting from the constitutively expressed Cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter (CMV-IEP and directed into a 2000 bp long matrix attachment region sequence (MARS derived from the human β-interferon gene. The original pEPI-1 vector contains two mammalian transcription units and a total of 305 CpG islands, which are located predominantly within the vector elements necessary for bacterial propagation and known to be counterproductive for persistent long-term transgene expression. Results Here, we report the development of a novel vector pEPito, which is derived from the pEPI-1 plasmid replicon but has considerably improved efficacy both in vitro and in vivo. The pEPito vector is significantly reduced in size, contains only one transcription unit and 60% less CpG motives in comparison to pEPI-1. It exhibits major advantages compared to the original pEPI-1 plasmid, including higher transgene expression levels and increased colony-forming efficiencies in vitro, as well as more persistent transgene expression profiles in vivo. The performance of pEPito-based vectors was further improved by replacing the CMV-IEP with the human CMV enhancer/human elongation factor 1 alpha promoter (hCMV/EF1P element that is known to be less affected by epigenetic silencing events. Conclusions The novel vector pEPito can be considered suitable as an improved vector for biotechnological applications in vitro and for non-viral gene delivery in vivo.

  10. Electronic monitoring in combination with direct observation as a means to significantly improve hand hygiene compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, John M

    2017-05-01

    Monitoring hand hygiene compliance among health care personnel (HCP) is an essential element of hand hygiene promotion programs. Observation by trained auditors is considered the gold standard method for establishing hand hygiene compliance rates. Advantages of observational surveys include the unique ability to establish compliance with all of the World Health Organization "My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene" initiative Moments and to provide just-in-time coaching. Disadvantages include the resources required for observational surveys, insufficient sample sizes, and nonstandardized methods of conducting observations. Electronic and camera-based systems can monitor hand hygiene performance on all work shifts without a Hawthorne effect and provide significantly more data regarding hand hygiene performance. Disadvantages include the cost of installation, variable accuracy in estimating compliance rates, issues related to acceptance by HCP, insufficient data regarding their cost-effectiveness and influence on health care-related infection rates, and the ability of most systems to monitor only surrogates for Moments 1, 4, and 5. Increasing evidence suggests that monitoring only Moments 1, 4, and 5 provides reasonable estimates of compliance with all 5 Moments. With continued improvement of electronic monitoring systems, combining electronic monitoring with observational methods may provide the best information as part of a multimodal strategy to improve and sustain hand hygiene compliance rates among HCP. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The SGLT2 Inhibitor Dapagliflozin Significantly Improves the Peripheral Microvascular Endothelial Function in Patients with Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Seigo; Jinnouchi, Hideaki; Kurinami, Noboru; Hieshima, Kunio; Yoshida, Akira; Jinnouchi, Katsunori; Nishimura, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Tomoko; Miyamoto, Fumio; Kajiwara, Keizo; Jinnouchi, Tomio

    2018-03-30

    Objective Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce cardiovascular events and decrease the body fat mass in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We examined whether or not the SGLT2-inhibitor dapagliflozin can improve the endothelial function associated with a reduction in abdominal fat mass. Methods We prospectively recruited patients with uncontrolled (hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] >7.0%) T2DM who were not being treated by SGLT2 inhibitors. Patients were treated with add-on dapagliflozin (5 mg/day) or non-SGLT2 inhibitor medicines for 6 months to improve their HbA1c. We measured the peripheral microvascular endothelial function as assessed by reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT) and calculated the natural logarithmic transformed value of the RH-PAT index (LnRHI). We then investigated changes in the LnRHI and abdominal fat area using computed tomography (CT). Results The subjects were 54 patients with uncontrolled T2DM (72.2% men) with a mean HbA1c of 8.1%. The HbA1c was significantly decreased in both groups, with no significant difference between the groups. Dapagliflozin treatment, but not non-SGLT2 inhibitor treatment, significantly increased the LnRHI. The changes in the LnRHI were significantly greater in the dapagliflozin group than in the non-SGLT2 inhibitor group. Dapagliflozin treatment, but not non-SGLT2 inhibitor treatment, significantly decreased the abdominal visceral fat area, subcutaneous fat area (SFA), and total fat area (TFA) as assessed by CT and significantly increased the plasma adiponectin levels. The percentage changes in the LnRHI were significantly correlated with changes in the SFA, TFA, systolic blood pressure, and adiponectin. Conclusion Add-on treatment with dapagliflozin significantly improves the glycemic control and endothelial function associated with a reduction in the abdominal fat mass in patients with uncontrolled T2DM.

  12. Fabrication of CoZn alloy nanowire arrays: Significant improvement in magnetic properties by annealing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koohbor, M.; Soltanian, S.; Najafi, M.; Servati, P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Increasing the Zn concentration changes the structure of NWs from hcp to amorphous. ► Increasing the Zn concentration significantly reduces the Hc value of NWs. ► Magnetic properties of CoZn NWs can be significantly enhanced by appropriate annealing. ► The pH of electrolyte has no significant effect on the properties of the NW arrays. ► Deposition frequency has considerable effects on the magnetic properties of NWs. - Abstract: Highly ordered arrays of Co 1−x Zn x (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.74) nanowires (NWs) with diameters of ∼35 nm and high length-to-diameter ratios (up to 150) were fabricated by co-electrodeposition of Co and Zn into pores of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. The Co and Zn contents of the NWs were adjusted by varying the ratio of Zn and Co ion concentrations in the electrolyte. The effect of the Zn content, electrodeposition conditions (frequency and pH) and annealing on the structural and magnetic properties (e.g., coercivity (Hc) and squareness (Sq)) of NW arrays were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and alternating gradient force magnetometer (AGFM). XRD patterns reveal that an increase in the concentration of Zn ions of the electrolyte forces the hcp crystal structure of Co NWs to change into an amorphous phase, resulting in a significant reduction in Hc. It was found that the magnetic properties of NWs can be significantly improved by appropriate annealing process. The highest values for Hc (2050 Oe) and Sq (0.98) were obtained for NWs electrodeposited using 0.95/0.05 Co:Zn concentrations at 200 Hz and annealed at 575 °C. While the pH of electrolyte is found to have no significant effect on the structural and magnetic properties of the NW arrays, the electrodeposition frequency has considerable effects on the magnetic properties of the NW arrays. The changes in magnetic property of NWs are rooted in a competition between shape anisotropy and

  13. Fabrication of CoZn alloy nanowire arrays: Significant improvement in magnetic properties by annealing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koohbor, M. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soltanian, S., E-mail: s.soltanian@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Najafi, M. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Hamadan University of Technology, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Servati, P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    2012-01-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing the Zn concentration changes the structure of NWs from hcp to amorphous. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing the Zn concentration significantly reduces the Hc value of NWs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic properties of CoZn NWs can be significantly enhanced by appropriate annealing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The pH of electrolyte has no significant effect on the properties of the NW arrays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deposition frequency has considerable effects on the magnetic properties of NWs. - Abstract: Highly ordered arrays of Co{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x} (0 {<=} x {<=} 0.74) nanowires (NWs) with diameters of {approx}35 nm and high length-to-diameter ratios (up to 150) were fabricated by co-electrodeposition of Co and Zn into pores of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. The Co and Zn contents of the NWs were adjusted by varying the ratio of Zn and Co ion concentrations in the electrolyte. The effect of the Zn content, electrodeposition conditions (frequency and pH) and annealing on the structural and magnetic properties (e.g., coercivity (Hc) and squareness (Sq)) of NW arrays were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and alternating gradient force magnetometer (AGFM). XRD patterns reveal that an increase in the concentration of Zn ions of the electrolyte forces the hcp crystal structure of Co NWs to change into an amorphous phase, resulting in a significant reduction in Hc. It was found that the magnetic properties of NWs can be significantly improved by appropriate annealing process. The highest values for Hc (2050 Oe) and Sq (0.98) were obtained for NWs electrodeposited using 0.95/0.05 Co:Zn concentrations at 200 Hz and annealed at 575 Degree-Sign C. While the pH of electrolyte is found to have no significant effect on the structural and magnetic properties of the NW arrays, the electrodeposition frequency has considerable effects on

  14. Do Electrochemiluminescence Assays Improve Prediction of Time to Type 1 Diabetes in Autoantibody-Positive TrialNet Subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouts, Alexandra; Pyle, Laura; Yu, Liping; Miao, Dongmei; Michels, Aaron; Krischer, Jeffrey; Sosenko, Jay; Gottlieb, Peter; Steck, Andrea K

    2016-10-01

    To explore whether electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assays can help improve prediction of time to type 1 diabetes in the TrialNet autoantibody-positive population. TrialNet subjects who were positive for one or more autoantibodies (microinsulin autoantibody, GAD65 autoantibody [GADA], IA-2A, and ZnT8A) with available ECL-insulin autoantibody (IAA) and ECL-GADA data at their initial visit were analyzed; after a median follow-up of 24 months, 177 of these 1,287 subjects developed diabetes. Univariate analyses showed that autoantibodies by radioimmunoassays (RIAs), ECL-IAA, ECL-GADA, age, sex, number of positive autoantibodies, presence of HLA DR3/4-DQ8 genotype, HbA1c, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) measurements were all significantly associated with progression to diabetes. Subjects who were ECL positive had a risk of progression to diabetes within 6 years of 58% compared with 5% for the ECL-negative subjects (P < 0.0001). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were compared, with the base model including age, sex, OGTT measurements, and number of positive autoantibodies by RIAs. The model with positivity for ECL-GADA and/or ECL-IAA was the best, and factors that remained significantly associated with time to diabetes were area under the curve (AUC) C-peptide, fasting C-peptide, AUC glucose, number of positive autoantibodies by RIAs, and ECL positivity. Adding ECL to the Diabetes Prevention Trial risk score (DPTRS) improved the receiver operating characteristic curves with AUC of 0.83 (P < 0.0001). ECL assays improved the ability to predict time to diabetes in these autoantibody-positive relatives at risk for developing diabetes. These findings might be helpful in the design and eligibility criteria for prevention trials in the future. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  15. Compression stockings significantly improve hemodynamic performance in post-thrombotic syndrome irrespective of class or length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattimer, Christopher R; Azzam, Mustapha; Kalodiki, Evi; Makris, Gregory C; Geroulakos, George

    2013-07-01

    Graduated elastic compression (GEC) stockings have been demonstrated to reduce the morbidity associated with post-thrombotic syndrome. The ideal length or compression strength required to achieve this is speculative and related to physician preference and patient compliance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamic performance of four different stockings and determine the patient's preference. Thirty-four consecutive patients (40 legs, 34 male) with post-thrombotic syndrome were tested with four different stockings (Mediven plus open toe, Bayreuth, Germany) of their size in random order: class 1 (18-21 mm Hg) and class II (23-32 mm Hg), below-knee (BK) and above-knee thigh-length (AK). The median age, Venous Clinical Severity Score, Venous Segmental Disease Score, and Villalta scale were 62 years (range, 31-81 years), 8 (range, 1-21), 5 (range, 2-10), and 10 (range, 2-22), respectively. The C of C0-6EsAs,d,pPr,o was C0 = 2, C2 = 1, C3 = 3, C4a = 12, C4b = 7, C5 = 12, C6 = 3. Obstruction and reflux was observed on duplex in 47.5% legs, with deep venous reflux alone in 45%. Air plethysmography was used to measure the venous filling index (VFI), venous volume, and time to fill 90% of the venous volume. Direct pressure measurements were obtained while lying and standing using the PicoPress device (Microlab Elettronica, Nicolò, Italy). The pressure sensor was placed underneath the test stocking 5 cm above and 2 cm posterior to the medial malleolus. At the end of the study session, patients stated their preferred stocking based on comfort. The VFI, venous volume, and time to fill 90% of the venous volume improved significantly with all types of stocking versus no compression. In class I, the VFI (mL/s) improved from a median of 4.9 (range, 1.7-16.3) without compression to 3.7 (range, 0-14) BK (24.5%) and 3.6 (range, 0.6-14.5) AK (26.5%). With class II, the corresponding improvement was to 4.0 (range, 0.3-16.2) BK (18.8%) and 3.7 (range, 0.5-14.2) AK (24

  16. Significant improvement of intestinal microbiota of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) after traditional Chinese medicine feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z B; Gatesoupe, F-J; Li, T T; Wang, X H; Zhang, Q Q; Feng, D Y; Feng, Y Q; Chen, H; Li, A H

    2018-03-01

    Increasing attention has been attracted to intestinal microbiota, due to interactions with nutrition, metabolism and immune defence of the host. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) feed additives have been applied in aquaculture to improve fish health, but the interaction with fish gut microbiota is still poorly understood. This study aimed to explore the effect of adding TCM in feed on the intestinal microbiota of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). Bacterial communities of 16 fish intestinal contents and one water sample were characterized by high-throughput sequencing and analysis of the V4-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The results showed that the composition and structure of the bacterial community were significantly altered by the TCM feeding. Some phyla increased markedly (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, etc.), while Fusobacteria were significantly reduced. Concurrently, the richness and diversity of the taxonomic units increased, and the microbiota composition of TCM-treated fish was more homogeneous among individuals. At the genus level, the addition of TCM tended to reduce the incidence of potential pathogens (Aeromonas, Acinetobacter and Shewanella), while stimulating the emergence of some potential probiotics (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Bacillus and Pseudomonas). These data suggested that the feed additive could regulate the fish intestinal microbiota by reinforcing the microbial balance. This study may provide useful information for further application of TCM for diseases prevention and stress management in aquaculture. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Induction-heating MOCVD reactor with significantly improved heating efficiency and reduced harmful magnetic coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Kuang-Hui; Alotaibi, Hamad S.; Sun, Haiding; Lin, Ronghui; Guo, Wenzhe; Torres-Castanedo, Carlos G.; Liu, Kaikai; Galan, Sergio V.; Li, Xiaohang

    2018-01-01

    In a conventional induction-heating III-nitride metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor, the induction coil is outside the chamber. Therefore, the magnetic field does not couple with the susceptor well, leading to compromised heating efficiency and harmful coupling with the gas inlet and thus possible overheating. Hence, the gas inlet has to be at a minimum distance away from the susceptor. Because of the elongated flow path, premature reactions can be more severe, particularly between Al- and B-containing precursors and NH3. Here, we propose a structure that can significantly improve the heating efficiency and allow the gas inlet to be closer to the susceptor. Specifically, the induction coil is designed to surround the vertical cylinder of a T-shaped susceptor comprising the cylinder and a top horizontal plate holding the wafer substrate within the reactor. Therefore, the cylinder coupled most magnetic field to serve as the thermal source for the plate. Furthermore, the plate can block and thus significantly reduce the uncoupled magnetic field above the susceptor, thereby allowing the gas inlet to be closer. The results show approximately 140% and 2.6 times increase in the heating and susceptor coupling efficiencies, respectively, as well as a 90% reduction in the harmful magnetic flux on the gas inlet.

  18. Induction-heating MOCVD reactor with significantly improved heating efficiency and reduced harmful magnetic coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Kuang-Hui

    2018-02-23

    In a conventional induction-heating III-nitride metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor, the induction coil is outside the chamber. Therefore, the magnetic field does not couple with the susceptor well, leading to compromised heating efficiency and harmful coupling with the gas inlet and thus possible overheating. Hence, the gas inlet has to be at a minimum distance away from the susceptor. Because of the elongated flow path, premature reactions can be more severe, particularly between Al- and B-containing precursors and NH3. Here, we propose a structure that can significantly improve the heating efficiency and allow the gas inlet to be closer to the susceptor. Specifically, the induction coil is designed to surround the vertical cylinder of a T-shaped susceptor comprising the cylinder and a top horizontal plate holding the wafer substrate within the reactor. Therefore, the cylinder coupled most magnetic field to serve as the thermal source for the plate. Furthermore, the plate can block and thus significantly reduce the uncoupled magnetic field above the susceptor, thereby allowing the gas inlet to be closer. The results show approximately 140% and 2.6 times increase in the heating and susceptor coupling efficiencies, respectively, as well as a 90% reduction in the harmful magnetic flux on the gas inlet.

  19. Remote ischemic conditioning improves coronary microcirculation in healthy subjects and patients with heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kono Y

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Yasushi Kono,1 Shota Fukuda,1 Akihisa Hanatani,2 Koki Nakanishi,2 Kenichiro Otsuka,2 Haruyuki Taguchi,1 Kenei Shimada2 1Department of Medicine, Osaka Ekisaikai Hospital, Osaka, Japan; 2Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiology, Osaka City University School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan Background: Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC is a treatment modality that suppresses inflammation and improves endothelial function, which are factors involved in the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Coronary flow reserve (CFR is a physiological index of coronary microcirculation and is noninvasively measured by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTDE. This study aimed to investigate the effects of RIC on CFR in healthy subjects and patients with HF, through the assessment by TTDE. Methods: Ten patients with HF with left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 40%, and ten healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. RIC treatment was performed twice a day for 1 week. Our custom-made RIC device was programmed to automatically conduct 4 cycles of 5 minutes inflation and 5 minutes deflation of a blood pressure cuff to create intermittent arm ischemia. CFR measurements and laboratory tests were examined before, and after 1 week of RIC treatment. Results: One week of RIC treatment was well tolerated in both groups. RIC treatment increased CFR from 4.0±0.9 to 4.6±1.3 (mean ± standard deviation in healthy subjects (P=0.02, and from 1.9±0.4 to 2.3±0.7 in patients with HF (P=0.03, respectively. Systolic blood pressure in healthy subjects, and heart rate in HF patients decreased after RIC treatment (both P<0.01. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that a 1 week course of RIC treatment improved coronary microcirculation in healthy subjects and patients with HF associated with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Keyword: echocardiography, coronary flow reserve, heart failure, preconditioning

  20. Vagal Blocking Improves Glycemic Control and Elevated Blood Pressure in Obese Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shikora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. An active device that downregulates abdominal vagal signalling has resulted in significant weight loss in feasibility studies. Objective. To prospectively evaluate the effect of intermittent vagal blocking (VBLOC on weight loss, glycemic control, and blood pressure (BP in obese subjects with DM2. Methods. Twenty-eight subjects were implanted with a VBLOC device (Maestro Rechargeable System at 5 centers in an open-label study. Effects on weight loss, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, and BP were evaluated at 1 week to 12 months. Results. 26 subjects (17 females/9 males, 51±2 years, BMI 37±1 kg/m2, mean ± SEM completed 12 months followup. One serious adverse event (pain at implant site was easily resolved. At 1 week and 12 months, mean excess weight loss percentages (% EWL were 9±1% and 25±4% (P<0.0001, and HbA1c declined by 0.3±0.1% and 1.0±0.2% (P=0.02, baseline 7.8±0.2%. In DM2 subjects with elevated BP (n=15, mean arterial pressure reduced by 7±3 mmHg and 8±3 mmHg (P=0.04, baseline 100 ± 2 mmHg at 1 week and 12 months. All subjects MAP decreased by 3 ± 2 mmHg (baseline 95 ± 2 mmHg at 12 months. Conclusions. VBLOC was safe in obese DM2 subjects and associated with meaningful weight loss, early and sustained improvements in HbA1c, and reductions in BP in hypertensive DM2 subjects. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00555958.

  1. Subject-specific knee joint geometry improves predictions of medial tibiofemoral contact forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerus, Pauline; Sartori, Massimo; Besier, Thor F.; Fregly, Benjamin J.; Delp, Scott L.; Banks, Scott A.; Pandy, Marcus G.; D’Lima, Darryl D.; Lloyd, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Estimating tibiofemoral joint contact forces is important for understanding the initiation and progression of knee osteoarthritis. However, tibiofemoral contact force predictions are influenced by many factors including muscle forces and anatomical representations of the knee joint. This study aimed to investigate the influence of subject-specific geometry and knee joint kinematics on the prediction of tibiofemoral contact forces using a calibrated EMG-driven neuromusculoskeletal model of the knee. One participant fitted with an instrumented total knee replacement walked at a self-selected speed while medial and lateral tibiofemoral contact forces, ground reaction forces, whole-body kinematics, and lower-limb muscle activity were simultaneously measured. The combination of generic and subject-specific knee joint geometry and kinematics resulted in four different OpenSim models used to estimate muscle-tendon lengths and moment arms. The subject-specific geometric model was created from CT scans and the subject-specific knee joint kinematics representing the translation of the tibia relative to the femur was obtained from fluoroscopy. The EMG-driven model was calibrated using one walking trial, but with three different cost functions that tracked the knee flexion/extension moments with and without constraint over the estimated joint contact forces. The calibrated models then predicted the medial and lateral tibiofemoral contact forces for five other different walking trials. The use of subject-specific models with minimization of the peak tibiofemoral contact forces improved the accuracy of medial contact forces by 47% and lateral contact forces by 7%, respectively compared with the use of generic musculoskeletal model. PMID:24074941

  2. Nicotine Significantly Improves Chronic Stress-Induced Impairments of Cognition and Synaptic Plasticity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xueliang; Shang, Yingchun; Fu, Jingxuan; Zhang, Tao

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if nicotine was able to improve cognition deficits in a mouse model of chronic mild stress. Twenty-four male C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups: control, stress, and stress with nicotine treatment. The animal model was established by combining chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and isolated feeding. Mice were exposed to CUMS continued for 28 days, while nicotine (0.2 mg/kg) was also administrated for 28 days. Weight and sucrose consumption were measured during model establishing period. The anxiety and behavioral despair were analyzed using the forced swim test (FST) and open-field test (OFT). Spatial cognition was evaluated using Morris water maze (MWM) test. Following behavioral assessment, both long-term potentiation (LTP) and depotentiation (DEP) were recorded in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region. Both synaptic and Notch1 proteins were measured by Western. Nicotine increased stressed mouse's sucrose consumption. The MWM test showed that spatial learning and reversal learning in stressed animals were remarkably affected relative to controls, whereas nicotine partially rescued cognitive functions. Additionally, nicotine considerably alleviated the level of anxiety and the degree of behavioral despair in stressed mice. It effectively mitigated the depression-induced impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, in which both the LTP and DEP were significantly inhibited in stressed mice. Moreover, nicotine enhanced the expression of synaptic and Notch1 proteins in stressed animals. The results suggest that nicotine ameliorates the depression-like symptoms and improves the hippocampal synaptic plasticity closely associated with activating transmembrane ion channel receptors and Notch signaling components. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  3. Significant improvements in stability and reproducibility of atomic-scale atomic force microscopy in liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akrami, S M R; Nakayachi, H; Fukuma, T; Watanabe-Nakayama, T; Asakawa, H

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancement of dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) for liquid-environment applications enabled atomic-scale studies on various interfacial phenomena. However, instabilities and poor reproducibility of the measurements often prevent systematic studies. To solve this problem, we have investigated the effect of various tip treatment methods for atomic-scale imaging and force measurements in liquid. The tested methods include Si coating, Ar plasma, Ar sputtering and UV/O 3 cleaning. We found that all the methods provide significant improvements in both the imaging and force measurements in spite of the tip transfer through the air. Among the methods, we found that the Si coating provides the best stability and reproducibility in the measurements. To understand the origin of the fouling resistance of the cleaned tip surface and the difference between the cleaning methods, we have investigated the tip surface properties by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. The results show that the contaminations adsorbed on the tip during the tip transfer through the air should desorb from the surface when it is immersed in aqueous solution due to the enhanced hydrophilicity by the tip treatments. The tip surface prepared by the Si coating is oxidized when it is immersed in aqueous solution. This creates local spots where stable hydration structures are formed. For the other methods, there is no active mechanism to create such local hydration sites. Thus, the hydration structure formed under the tip apex is not necessarily stable. These results reveal the desirable tip properties for atomic-scale AFM measurements in liquid, which should serve as a guideline for further improvements of the tip treatment methods. (paper)

  4. Significant improvement of accuracy and precision in the determination of trace rare earths by fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, L.; Hersh, H.N.

    1976-01-01

    Most of the rare earths in yttrium, gadolinium and lanthanum oxides emit characteristic fluorescent line spectra under irradiation with photons, electrons and x rays. The sensitivity and selectivity of the rare earth fluorescences are high enough to determine the trace amounts (0.01 to 100 ppM) of rare earths. The absolute fluorescent intensities of solids, however, are markedly affected by the synthesis procedure, level of contamination and crystal perfection, resulting in poor accuracy and low precision for the method (larger than 50 percent error). Special care in preparation of the samples is required to obtain good accuracy and precision. It is found that the accuracy and precision for the determination of trace (less than 10 ppM) rare earths by fluorescence analysis improved significantly, while still maintaining the sensitivity, when the determination is made by comparing the ratio of the fluorescent intensities of the trace rare earths to that of a deliberately added rare earth as reference. The variation in the absolute fluorescent intensity remains, but is compensated for by measuring the fluorescent line intensity ratio. Consequently, the determination of trace rare earths (with less than 3 percent error) is easily made by a photoluminescence technique in which the rare earths are excited directly by photons. Accuracy is still maintained when the absolute fluorescent intensity is reduced by 50 percent through contamination by Ni, Fe, Mn or Pb (about 100 ppM). Determination accuracy is also improved for fluorescence analysis by electron excitation and x-ray excitation. For some rare earths, however, accuracy by these techniques is reduced because indirect excitation mechanisms are involved. The excitation mechanisms and the interferences between rare earths are also reported

  5. Does des-acyl ghrelin improve glycemic control in obese diabetic subjects by decreasing acylated ghrelin levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Behiye; Neggers, Sebastian J C M M; Miller, Anne Reifel; Yang, Hsiu-Chiung; Lucaites, Virginia; Abribat, Thierry; Allas, Soraya; Huisman, Martin; Visser, Jenny A; Themmen, Axel P N; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Delhanty, Patric J D; van der Lely, Aart Jan

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of a continuous overnight infusion of des-acyl ghrelin (DAG) on acylated ghrelin (AG) levels and glucose and insulin responses to a standard breakfast meal (SBM) in eight overweight patients with type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, in the same patients and two additional subjects, the effects of DAG infusion on AG concentrations and insulin sensitivity during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (HEC) were assessed. A double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study design was implemented, using overnight continuous infusions of 3 and 10  μg DAG/kg per h and placebo to study the effects on a SBM. During a HEC, we studied the insulin sensitivity. We observed that, compared with placebo, overnight DAG administration significantly decreased postprandial glucose levels, both during continuous glucose monitoring and at peak serum glucose levels. The degree of improvement in glycemia was correlated with baseline plasma AG concentrations. Concurrently, DAG infusion significantly decreased fasting and postprandial AG levels. During the HEC, 2.5  h of DAG infusion markedly decreased AG levels, and the M-index, a measure of insulin sensitivity, was significantly improved in the six subjects in whom we were able to attain steady-state euglycemia. DAG administration was not accompanied by many side effects when compared with placebo. DAG administration improves glycemic control in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes through the suppression of AG levels. DAG is a good candidate for the development of compounds in the treatment of metabolic disorders or other conditions with a disturbed AG:DAG ratio, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus or Prader-Willi syndrome. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  6. Flavonol-rich dark cocoa significantly decreases plasma endothelin-1 and improves cognition in urban children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Cross, Janet V; Engle, Randall; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Jewells, Valerie; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Solorio, Edelmira; Chao, Chih-Kai; Zhu, Hongtu; Mukherjee, Partha S; Ferreira-Azevedo, Lara; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution exposures are linked to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. In particular, most Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) children exhibit subtle cognitive deficits, and neuropathology studies show 40% of them exhibiting frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and 51% amyloid-β diffuse plaques (compared to 0% in low pollution control children). We assessed whether a short cocoa intervention can be effective in decreasing plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1) and/or inflammatory mediators in MCMA children. Thirty gram of dark cocoa with 680 mg of total flavonols were given daily for 10.11 ± 3.4 days (range 9-24 days) to 18 children (10.55 years, SD = 1.45; 11F/7M). Key metabolite ratios in frontal white matter and in hippocampus pre and during cocoa intervention were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ET-1 significantly decreased after cocoa treatment (p = 0.0002). Fifteen children (83%) showed a marginally significant individual improvement in one or both of the applied simple short memory tasks. Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of exposure to particulate matter (PM) and decreased endothelin-1 bioavailability is likely useful for brain function in the context of air pollution. Our findings suggest that cocoa interventions may be critical for early implementation of neuroprotection of highly exposed urban children. Multi-domain nutraceutical interventions could limit the risk for endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, structural volumetric detrimental brain effects, and the early development of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  7. Model training across multiple breeding cycles significantly improves genomic prediction accuracy in rye (Secale cereale L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auinger, Hans-Jürgen; Schönleben, Manfred; Lehermeier, Christina; Schmidt, Malthe; Korzun, Viktor; Geiger, Hartwig H; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Gordillo, Andres; Wilde, Peer; Bauer, Eva; Schön, Chris-Carolin

    2016-11-01

    Genomic prediction accuracy can be significantly increased by model calibration across multiple breeding cycles as long as selection cycles are connected by common ancestors. In hybrid rye breeding, application of genome-based prediction is expected to increase selection gain because of long selection cycles in population improvement and development of hybrid components. Essentially two prediction scenarios arise: (1) prediction of the genetic value of lines from the same breeding cycle in which model training is performed and (2) prediction of lines from subsequent cycles. It is the latter from which a reduction in cycle length and consequently the strongest impact on selection gain is expected. We empirically investigated genome-based prediction of grain yield, plant height and thousand kernel weight within and across four selection cycles of a hybrid rye breeding program. Prediction performance was assessed using genomic and pedigree-based best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP and PBLUP). A total of 1040 S 2 lines were genotyped with 16 k SNPs and each year testcrosses of 260 S 2 lines were phenotyped in seven or eight locations. The performance gap between GBLUP and PBLUP increased significantly for all traits when model calibration was performed on aggregated data from several cycles. Prediction accuracies obtained from cross-validation were in the order of 0.70 for all traits when data from all cycles (N CS  = 832) were used for model training and exceeded within-cycle accuracies in all cases. As long as selection cycles are connected by a sufficient number of common ancestors and prediction accuracy has not reached a plateau when increasing sample size, aggregating data from several preceding cycles is recommended for predicting genetic values in subsequent cycles despite decreasing relatedness over time.

  8. Significantly improving trace thallium removal from surface waters during coagulation enhanced by nanosized manganese dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huangfu, Xiaoliu; Ma, Chengxue; Ma, Jun; He, Qiang; Yang, Chun; Jiang, Jin; Wang, Yaan; Wu, Zhengsong

    2017-02-01

    Thallium (Tl) is an element of high toxicity and significant accumulation in human body. There is an urgent need for the development of appropriate strategies for trace Tl removal in drinking water treatment plants. In this study, the efficiency and mechanism of trace Tl (0.5 μg/L) removal by conventional coagulation enhanced by nanosized manganese dioxide (nMnO 2 ) were explored in simulated water and two representative surface waters (a river water and a reservoir water obtained from Northeast China). Experimental results showed that nMnO 2 significantly improve Tl(I) removal from selected waters. The removal efficiency was dramatically higher in the simulated water, demonstrating by less than 0.1 μg/L Tl residual. The enhancement of trace Tl removal in the surface waters decreased to a certain extent. Both adjusting water pH to alkaline condition and preoxidation of Tl(I) to Tl(III) benefit trace Tl removal from surface waters. Data also indicated that competitive cation of Ca 2+ decreased the efficiency of trace Tl removal, resulting from the reduction of Tl adsorption on nMnO 2 . Humic acid could largely low Tl removal efficiency during nMnO 2 enhanced coagulation processes. Trace elemental Tl firstly adsorbed on nMnO 2 and then removed accompanying with nMnO 2 settling. The information obtained in the present study may provide a potential strategy for drinking water treatment plants threatened by trace Tl. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL LEARNING APPROACHES IN IMPROVING LEARNING OUTCOMES IN ACID-BASE SUBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmat Sahputra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Learning in the understanding of acid-base chemistry in schools needs to be improved so research to determine differences in learning outcomes between students taught using environmental approaches and methods lectures in class XI SMA on acid-base subject needs to be done. In this study, using a quasi-experimental method using a data collection tool achievement test essay form. The test statistic results of the post-test learning has been obtained Asymp value. Sig (2-tailed 0,026 that showed the differences between students' learning outcomes with a control experimental class with effect size of 0.63 or much influence difference with the percentage 23.57% which indicated that the learning environment approach can improve learning outcomes of high school students.

  10. Significant effect of Ca2+ on improving the heat resistance of lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Song; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2013-07-01

    The heat resistance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been extensively investigated due to its highly practical significance. Reconstituted skim milk (RSM) has been found to be one of the most effective protectant wall materials for microencapsulating microorganisms during convective drying, such as spray drying. In addition to proteins and carbohydrate, RSM is rich in calcium. It is not clear which component is critical in the RSM protection mechanism. This study investigated the independent effect of calcium. Ca(2+) was added to lactose solution to examine its influence on the heat resistance of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ZY, Lactobacillus casei Zhang, Lactobacillus plantarum P8 and Streptococcus thermophilus ND03. The results showed that certain Ca(2+) concentrations enhanced the heat resistance of the LAB strains to different extents, that is produced higher survival and shorter regrowth lag times of the bacterial cells. In some cases, the improvements were dramatic. More scientifically insightful and more intensive instrumental study of the Ca(2+) behavior around and in the cells should be carried out in the near future. In the meantime, this work may lead to the development of more cost-effective wall materials with Ca(2+) added as a prime factor. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Targeting Heparin to Collagen within Extracellular Matrix Significantly Reduces Thrombogenicity and Improves Endothelialization of Decellularized Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Suen, Rachel; Wertheim, Jason A; Ameer, Guillermo A

    2016-12-12

    Thrombosis within small-diameter vascular grafts limits the development of bioartificial, engineered vascular conduits, especially those derived from extracellular matrix (ECM). Here we describe an easy-to-implement strategy to chemically modify vascular ECM by covalently linking a collagen binding peptide (CBP) to heparin to form a heparin derivative (CBP-heparin) that selectively binds a subset of collagens. Modification of ECM with CBP-heparin leads to increased deposition of functional heparin (by ∼7.2-fold measured by glycosaminoglycan composition) and a corresponding reduction in platelet binding (>70%) and whole blood clotting (>80%) onto the ECM. Furthermore, addition of CBP-heparin to the ECM stabilizes long-term endothelial cell attachment to the lumen of ECM-derived vascular conduits, potentially through recruitment of heparin-binding growth factors that ultimately improve the durability of endothelialization in vitro. Overall, our findings provide a simple yet effective method to increase deposition of functional heparin on the surface of ECM-based vascular grafts and thereby minimize thrombogenicity of decellularized tissue, overcoming a significant challenge in tissue engineering of bioartificial vessels and vascularized organs.

  12. Significant Improvement in Chronic Persistent Headaches Caused by Small Rathke Cleft Cysts After Transsphenoidal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Issei; Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Kita, Daisuke; Sasagawa, Yasuo; Oishi, Masahiro; Tachibana, Osamu; Nakada, Mitsutoshi

    2017-03-01

    Rathke cleft cysts (RCC) usually are asymptomatic and can be observed via the use of conservative methods. Some patients with RCCs, however, have severe headaches even if they are small enough to be confined to the sella, and these small RCCs seldom have been discussed. This study presents an investigation into clinical characteristics of small RCCs associated with severe headaches, demonstrating efficacy and safety of endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (ETSS) to relieve headaches. In this study, 13 patients with small RCCs (maximum diameter HIT-6) score was calculated both pre- and postoperatively to evaluate headache severity. All patients complained of severe headaches, which disturbed their daily life. Most headaches were nonpulsating and localized in the frontal area. Characteristically, 6 patients (46%) experienced severe headaches with sudden onset that continued chronically. HIT-6 score was 64 on average, meaning headaches affected daily life severely. After surgical decompression of the cyst, headache in all of the patients improved dramatically and HIT-6 score decreased significantly to 37, suggesting that headaches were diminished. No newly developed deficiencies of the anterior pituitary lobe function were detected. Postoperative occurrence of diabetes insipidus was found in 2 patients, both of which were transient. No recurring cysts were found. Severe headaches can develop from small RCCs. In the present study, ETSS was performed on such patients effectively and safely to relieve their headaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lipid Replacement Therapy Drink Containing a Glycophospholipid Formulation Rapidly and Significantly Reduces Fatigue While Improving Energy and Mental Clarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Settineri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatigue is the most common complaint of patients seeking general medical care and is often treated with stimulants. It is also important in various physical activities of relatively healthy men and women, such as sports performance. Recent clinical trials using patients with chronic fatigue have shown the benefit of Lipid Replacement Therapy in restoring mitochondrial electron transport function and reducing moderate to severe chronic fatigue. Methods: Lipid Replacement Therapy was administered for the first time as an all-natural functional food drink (60 ml containing polyunsaturated glycophospholipids but devoid of stimulants or herbs to reduce fatigue. This preliminary study used the Piper Fatigue Survey instrument as well as a supplemental questionnaire to assess the effects of the glycophospholipid drink on fatigue and the acceptability of the test drink in adult men and women. A volunteer group of 29 subjects of mean age 56.2±4.5 years with various fatigue levels were randomly recruited in a clinical health fair setting to participate in an afternoon open label trial on the effects of the test drink. Results: Using the Piper Fatigue instrument overall fatigue among participants was reduced within the 3-hour seminar by a mean of 39.6% (p<0.0001. All of the subcategories of fatigue showed significant reductions. Some subjects responded within 15 minutes, and the majority responded within one hour with increased energy and activity and perceived improvements in cognitive function, mental clarity and focus. The test drink was determined to be quite acceptable in terms of taste and appearance. There were no adverse events from the energy drink during the study.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 8:245-254Conclusions: The Lipid Replacement Therapy functional food drink appeared to be a safe, acceptable and potentially useful new method to reduce fatigue, sustain energy and improve perceptions of mental function.

  14. Successful percutaneous coronary intervention significantly improves coronary sinus blood flow as assessed by transthoracic echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubarova, Radmila; Boden, William E; Fein, Steven A; Schulman-Marcus, Joshua; Torosoff, Mikhail

    2018-06-01

    Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) has been used to assess coronary sinus blood flow (CSBF), which reflects total coronary arterial blood flow. Successful angioplasty is expected to improve coronary arterial blood flow. Changes in CSBF after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), as assessed by TTE, have not been systematically evaluated. TTE can be utilized to reflect increased CSBF after a successful, clinically indicated PCI. The study cohort included 31 patients (18 females, 62 ± 11 years old) referred for diagnostic cardiac catheterization for suspected coronary artery disease and possible PCI, when clinically indicated. All performed PCIs were successful, with good angiographic outcome. CSBF per cardiac cycle (mL/beat) was measured using transthoracic two-dimensional and Doppler flow imaging as the product of coronary sinus (CS) area and CS flow time-velocity integral. CSBF per minute (mL/min) was calculated as the product of heart rate and CSBF per cardiac cycle. In each patient, CSBF was assessed prospectively, before and after cardiac catheterization with and without clinically indicated PCI. Within- and between-group differences in CSBF before and after PCI were assessed using repeated measures analysis of variance. Technically adequate CSBF measurements were obtained in 24 patients (77%). In patients who did not undergo PCI, there was no significant change in CSBF (278.1 ± 344.1 versus 342.7 ± 248.5, p = 0.36). By contrast, among patients who underwent PCI, CSBF increased significantly (254.3 ± 194.7 versus 618.3 ± 358.5 mL/min, p < 0.01, p-interaction = 0.03). Other hemodynamic and echocardiographic parameters did not change significantly before and after cardiac catheterization in either treatment group. Transthoracic echocardiographic assessment can be employed to document CSBF changes after angioplasty. Future studies are needed to explore the clinical utility of this noninvasive metric.

  15. Metabolic and Electrophysiological Changes Associated to Clinical Improvement in Two Severely Traumatized Subjects Treated With EMDR—A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pagani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging represents a powerful tool to investigate the neurobiological correlates of Eye Movements Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR. The impact of EMDR on cortical and sub-cortical brain regions has been proven by several investigations demonstrating a clear association between symptoms disappearance and changes in cortical structure and functionality. The aim of this study was to assess by electroencephalography (EEG and for the first time by positron emission tomography (PET the changes occurring after EMDR therapy in two cases of psychological trauma following brain concussion and comatose state due to traffic accident. A 28 and a 29 years old men underwent extensive neuropsychological examination, which investigated: (i categorical and phonological verbal fluency; (ii episodic verbal memory; (iii executive functions; (iv visuospatial abilities; (v attention and working memory as well as clinical assessment by means of psychopathological tests (CAPS, IES, BDI, SCL90R, and DES. They were then treated by eight sessions of EMDR. During the first session EEG monitoring was continuously performed and 18F-FDG PET scans, depicting brain metabolism, were acquired at rest within a week (T0. After the last session, in which the two clients were considered to be symptoms-free, neuropsychological, clinical, and PET assessment were repeated (T1. PET data were semi-quantitatively compared to a group of 18 normal controls, as for EEG the preferential cortical activations were disclosed by thresholding the individual z-score to a p < 0.05. There was a significant improvement in clinical condition for both clients associated with a significant decrease in CAPS scores. IES and BDI were found to be pathological at T0 and improved at T1 in only one subject. Visuo-constructive abilities and abstract reasoning improved after EMDR in both subjects. As for EEG, the most striking changes occurred in fronto-temporal-parietal cortex in subject 1 while subject

  16. Heat storage in forest biomass significantly improves energy balance closure particularly during stable conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, A.; Mölder, M.; Lagergren, F.

    2009-08-01

    Temperature measurements in trunks and branches in a mature ca. 100 years-old mixed pine and spruce forest in central Sweden were used to estimate the heat storage in the tree biomass. The estimated heat flux in the sample trees and data on biomass distributions were used to scale up to stand level biomass heat fluxes. The rate of change of sensible and latent heat storage in the air layer below the level of the flux measurements was estimated from air temperature and humidity profile measurements and soil heat flux was estimated from heat flux plates and soil temperature measurements. The fluxes of sensible and latent heat from the forest were measured with an eddy covariance system in a tower. The analysis was made for a two-month period in summer of 1995. The tree biomass heat flux was the largest of the estimated storage components and varied between 40 and -35 W m-2 on summer days with nice weather. Averaged over two months the diurnal maximum of total heat storage was 45 W m-2 and the minimum was -35 W m-2. The soil heat flux and the sensible heat storage in air were out of phase with the biomass flux and they reached maximum values that were about 75% of the maximum of the tree biomass heat storage. The energy balance closure improved significantly when the total heat storage was added to the turbulent fluxes. The slope of a regression line with sum of fluxes and storage as independent and net radiation as dependent variable, increased from 0.86 to 0.95 for half-hourly data and the scatter was also reduced. The most significant finding was, however, that during nights with strongly stable conditions when the sensible heat flux dropped to nearly zero, the total storage matched the net radiation nearly perfectly. Another interesting result was that the mean energy imbalance started to increase when the Richardson number became more negative than ca. -0.1. In fact, the largest energy deficit occurred at maximum instability. Our conclusion is that eddy

  17. Significant improvement of eczema with skin care and food elimination in small children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrman, Gunilla; Tomicić, Sara; Böttcher, Malin Fagerås; Oldaeus, Göran; Strömberg, Leif; Fälth-magnusson, Karin

    2005-10-01

    To evaluate common methods of investigation and treatment in children younger than 2 y of age with eczema, with or without sensitization to food allergens. One hundred and twenty-three children younger than 2 y of age with eczema and suspected food allergy were included in this prospective study. The children underwent skin-prick test with cow's milk, fresh hen's egg white and wheat. Specific IgE to milk and egg white was analysed. The eczema extent and severity was estimated with SCORAD before and after treatment. Children with a positive skin-prick test were instructed to exclude that food item from their diet. All children were treated with emollients and topical steroids when needed. Sixty-two of the children were skin-prick positive to at least one of the allergens; 62% had mild, 30% moderate and 8% severe eczema at their first visit. After treatment, 90% had mild, 10% moderate and 0% severe eczema. Forty-six per cent of the children had circulating IgE antibodies to milk or egg white. Ten per cent had specific IgE but negative skin-prick test to the same allergen. This subgroup improved their eczema significantly without elimination diet. The conventional treatments for children with eczema, i.e. skin care and food elimination, are effective. The beneficial effect of skin care as the first step should not be neglected, and it may not be necessary to eliminate food allergens to relieve skin symptoms in all food-sensitized children with eczema.

  18. Introduction of e-learning in dental radiology reveals significantly improved results in final examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckfessel, Sandra; Stühmer, Constantin; Bormann, Kai-Hendrik; Kupka, Thomas; Behrends, Marianne; Matthies, Herbert; Vaske, Bernhard; Stiesch, Meike; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Rücker, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Because a traditionally instructed dental radiology lecture course is very time-consuming and labour-intensive, online courseware, including an interactive-learning module, was implemented to support the lectures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of students who have worked with web-based courseware as well as the effect on their results in final examinations. Users (n(3+4)=138) had access to the e-program from any networked computer at any time. Two groups (n(3)=71, n(4)=67) had to pass a final exam after using the e-course. Results were compared with two groups (n(1)=42, n(2)=48) who had studied the same content by attending traditional lectures. In addition a survey of the students was statistically evaluated. Most of the respondents reported a positive attitude towards e-learning and would have appreciated more access to computer-assisted instruction. Two years after initiating the e-course the failure rate in the final examination dropped significantly, from 40% to less than 2%. The very positive response to the e-program and improved test scores demonstrated the effectiveness of our e-course as a learning aid. Interactive modules in step with clinical practice provided learning that is not achieved by traditional teaching methods alone. To what extent staff savings are possible is part of a further study. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mapping Soil Properties of Africa at 250 m Resolution: Random Forests Significantly Improve Current Predictions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Hengl

    Full Text Available 80% of arable land in Africa has low soil fertility and suffers from physical soil problems. Additionally, significant amounts of nutrients are lost every year due to unsustainable soil management practices. This is partially the result of insufficient use of soil management knowledge. To help bridge the soil information gap in Africa, the Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS project was established in 2008. Over the period 2008-2014, the AfSIS project compiled two point data sets: the Africa Soil Profiles (legacy database and the AfSIS Sentinel Site database. These data sets contain over 28 thousand sampling locations and represent the most comprehensive soil sample data sets of the African continent to date. Utilizing these point data sets in combination with a large number of covariates, we have generated a series of spatial predictions of soil properties relevant to the agricultural management--organic carbon, pH, sand, silt and clay fractions, bulk density, cation-exchange capacity, total nitrogen, exchangeable acidity, Al content and exchangeable bases (Ca, K, Mg, Na. We specifically investigate differences between two predictive approaches: random forests and linear regression. Results of 5-fold cross-validation demonstrate that the random forests algorithm consistently outperforms the linear regression algorithm, with average decreases of 15-75% in Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE across soil properties and depths. Fitting and running random forests models takes an order of magnitude more time and the modelling success is sensitive to artifacts in the input data, but as long as quality-controlled point data are provided, an increase in soil mapping accuracy can be expected. Results also indicate that globally predicted soil classes (USDA Soil Taxonomy, especially Alfisols and Mollisols help improve continental scale soil property mapping, and are among the most important predictors. This indicates a promising potential for transferring

  20. Cyclosporin A significantly improves preeclampsia signs and suppresses inflammation in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bihui; Yang, Jinying; Huang, Qian; Bao, Junjie; Brennecke, Shaun Patrick; Liu, Huishu

    2016-05-01

    Preeclampsia is associated with an increased inflammatory response. Immune suppression might be an effective treatment. The aim of this study was to examine whether Cyclosporin A (CsA), an immunosuppressant, improves clinical characteristics of preeclampsia and suppresses inflammation in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced preeclampsia rat model. Pregnant rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: group 1 (PE) rats each received LPS via tail vein on gestational day (GD) 14; group 2 (PE+CsA5) rats were pretreated with LPS (1.0 μg/kg) on GD 14 and were then treated with CsA (5mg/kg, ip) on GDs 16, 17 and 18; group 3 (PE+CsA10) rats were pretreated with LPS (1.0 μg/kg) on GD 14 and were then treated with CsA (10mg/kg, ip) on GDs 16, 17 and 18; group 4 (pregnant control, PC) rats were treated with the vehicle (saline) used for groups 1, 2 and 3. Systolic blood pressure, urinary albumin, biometric parameters and the levels of serum cytokines were measured on day 20. CsA treatment significantly reduced LPS-induced systolic blood pressure and the mean 24-h urinary albumin excretion. Pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-17, IFN-γ and TNF-α were increased in the LPS treatment group but were reduced in (LPS+CsA) group (Ppreeclampsia signs and attenuated inflammatory responses in the LPS induced preeclampsia rat model which suggests that immunosuppressant might be an alternative management option for preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Very low calorie diet without aspartame in obese subjects: improved metabolic control after 4 weeks treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norén, Erik; Forssell, Henrik

    2014-07-28

    Very low calorie diet (VLCD) is routinely used in programs for treatment of obesity and before bariatric surgery in order to reduce risk of postoperative complications. Aspartame, an artificial sweetener, is commonly used in VLCD and is well approved as a food additive without any adverse effects. The development of a new fructose containing VLCD formula without aspartame raises questions as to effects on glucose and lipid control. As part of an ongoing study of a novel bariatric surgery procedure, twenty-five obese subjects with mean body mass index (BMI) 39.8 kg/m2 and mean age of 48.8 years enrolled in a single center observational study. Seven subjects presented with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The subjects underwent four weeks dietary treatment with VLCD Slanka (Slanka). Blood samples including fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, cholesterol and triglycerides were performed at start and after four weeks of diet. Blood pressure and weight were noted. All subjects completed the diet without any adverse events. Mean weight reduction was 8.2 kg with 95% confidence interval 7.1-9.2 kg (p = 0.001). Excess weight (i.e. proportion of weight exceeding BMI 25) loss decreased by median 19.5% (inter quartile range (IQR) 16,8-24,2). Median fasting plasma glucose was at inclusion 5,6 mmol/l (IQR 5,3-6,8) and after diet 4.8 mmol/l (IQR 4,6-5,2) (p = 0.001). Median HbA1c changed from 39 mmol/mol (IQR 37-44) to 37 mmol/mol (IQR 35-43) (p = 0.001). There was also significant reduction in cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as in systolic blood pressure. Changes in other monitored blood chemistry values were without clinical importance. Four weeks treatment with fructose containing VLCD of obese subjects preparing for bariatric surgery gave a substantial weight reduction without any significant negative metabolic effects.

  2. Waste Minimization Improvements Achieved Through Six Sigma Analysis Result In Significant Cost Savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousseau, Jeffrey D.; Jansen, John R.; Janke, David H.; Plowman, Catherine M.

    2003-01-01

    Improved waste minimization practices at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are leading to a 15% reduction in the generation of hazardous and radioactive waste. Bechtel, BWXT Idaho, LLC (BBWI), the prime management and operations contractor at the INEEL, applied the Six Sigma improvement process to the INEEL Waste Minimization Program to review existing processes and define opportunities for improvement. Our Six Sigma analysis team: composed of an executive champion, process owner, a black belt and yellow belt, and technical and business team members used this statistical based process approach to analyze work processes and produced ten recommendations for improvement. Recommendations ranged from waste generator financial accountability for newly generated waste to enhanced employee recognition programs for waste minimization efforts. These improvements have now been implemented to reduce waste generation rates and are producing positive results

  3. Experiential learning model on entrepreneurship subject for improving students’ soft skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Rifda Naufalin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to improve students’ soft skills on entrepreneurship subject by using experiential learning model. It was expected that the learning model could upgrade students’ soft skills which were indicated by the higher confidence, result and job oriented, being courageous to take risks, leadership, originality, and future-oriented. It was a class action research using Kemmis and Mc Tagart’s design model. The research was conducted for two cycles. The subject of the study was economics education students in 2015/2016.  The result of the research showed that the experiential learning model could improve students’ soft skills. The research showed that there were increases at the dimension of confidence, (52.1%, result-oriented (22.9%, being courageous to take risks (10.4%, leadership (12.5%, originality (10.4%, and future-oriented (18.8%. It could be concluded that the experiential learning model was effective to improve students’ soft skills on entrepreneurship subject. It also showed that the dimension of confidence had the highest rise. Students’ soft skills were shaped through the continuous stimulus when they got involved at the implementation.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan soft skills mahasiswa dalam mata kuliah kewirausahaan dengan menggunakan model experietial learning. Diharapkan dengan model pembelajaran ini terjadi peningkatan soft skills mahasiswa yang ditandai dengan peningkatan rasa percaya diri, berorientasi tugas dan hasil, berani mengambil resiko, kepemimpinan, keorisinilan, dan berorientasi masa depan. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian tindakan kelas dengan menggunakan model desain menurut Kemmis dan Mc Tagart. Penelitian ini dilakukan dalam dua siklus, yaitu siklus I dan siklus II. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di kelas pendidikan ekonomi angkatan 2015/2016. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan model experiential learning dapat meningkatkan soft skills

  4. Contemporary Management of Acute Aortic Occlusion Has Evolved but Outcomes Have Not Significantly Improved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, William P; Patel, Rupal K; Columbo, Jesse A; Flahive, Julie; Aiello, Francesco A; Baril, Donald T; Schanzer, Andres; Messina, Louis M

    2016-07-01

    hospitalization. AAO is now more commonly caused by in situ thrombosis rather than embolism. A high index of suspicion for AAO is required for prompt diagnosis and treatment, particularly when patients present with profound lower extremity neurologic deficit. In comparison with previous reports, the contemporary management of AAO includes increased use of axillobifemoral bypass and now involves endovascular revascularization, although a variety of open surgical procedures are utilized. However, the in-hospital mortality and morbidity of AAO has not decreased significantly over the last 2 decades and mid-term survival remains limited. Further study is required to identify strategies that improve outcomes after AAO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficiency improvement of nuclear power plant operation: the significant role of advanced nuclear fuel technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Velde, AA. de; Burtak, F.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper authors deals with nuclear fuel cycle and their economic aspects. At Siemens, the developments focusing on the reduction of fuel cycle costs are currently directed on .further batch average burnup increase, .improvement of fuel reliability, .enlargement of fuel operation margins, .improvement of methods for fuel design and core analysis. These items will be presented in detail in the full paper and illustrated by the global operating experience of Siemens fuel for both PWRs and BWRs. (authors)

  6. Discovery learning with hierarchy concept to improve analysis ability and study achievement hydrolysis subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leny Yuliatun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to applied Discovery Learning (DL by the support of hierarchy concept to improve analysis ability and chemistry study achievement in the Hydrolysis subject at eleventh-grade students of Science 1 of SMA N Karangpandan at the academic year of 2016/2017. This research is using Classroom Action Research which using two cycles. In each cycle has four steps of action, they are planning, implementing, observing, and reflecting. The research subject is the eleventh-grade students of science one which consists of 40 students. The data source is using teacher and students and the data were taken by interviewing, observing, documenting, testing, and using questionnaire. Data analysis technique is using descriptive qualitative analysis. Based on the research shows that the achievement of analysis cycle I am from 52,5% increase into 65% in the cycle II. Meanwhile, the rise in students’ achievement in cognitive aspect increase from 57,5% in cycle I to 75% in cycle II. Achievement in an affective aspect in cycle I am 90% become 92,5% in cycle II. Therefore, there is the increase meant of students number in this aspect although in cycle I all of the indicator has been reached.

  7. Subcutaneously administered Menopur(R, a new highly purified human menopausal gonadotropin, causes significantly fewer injection site reactions than Repronex(R in subjects undergoing in vitro fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somkuti Stephen

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The safety and tolerability of a new highly purified, urine-derived human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG preparation [Menopur(R] was compared with a currently available hMG [Repronex (R] in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF. Methods This was a randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multicenter study conducted in subjects undergoing IVF. Women (N = 125, 18–39 years of age, underwent pituitary down-regulation with leuprolide acetate beginning 7 days prior to onset of menses and continuing up to the day before hCG administration. Subjects were randomized to receive subcutaneous (SC Menopur (R (n = 61 or Repronex (R SC (n = 64 for a maximum of 12 days. All adverse events (AEs were recorded and subject self-assessments of injection site reactions were recorded in a daily diary. Results Significantly fewer subjects in the Menopur (R group reported injection site reactions (P Conclusion Menopur (R SC offers a greater safety and tolerability profile compared to Repronex (R SC.

  8. Prostate health index (phi) and prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) significantly improve diagnostic accuracy in patients undergoing prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdonà, Sisto; Bruzzese, Dario; Ferro, Matteo; Autorino, Riccardo; Marino, Ada; Mazzarella, Claudia; Perruolo, Giuseppe; Longo, Michele; Spinelli, Rosa; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Oliva, Andrea; De Sio, Marco; Damiano, Rocco; Altieri, Vincenzo; Terracciano, Daniela

    2013-02-15

    Prostate health index (phi) and prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) have been recently proposed as novel biomarkers for prostate cancer (PCa). We assessed the diagnostic performance of these biomarkers, alone or in combination, in men undergoing first prostate biopsy for suspicion of PCa. One hundred sixty male subjects were enrolled in this prospective observational study. PSA molecular forms, phi index (Beckman coulter immunoassay), PCA3 score (Progensa PCA3 assay), and other established biomarkers (tPSA, fPSA, and %fPSA) were assessed before patients underwent a 18-core first prostate biopsy. The discriminating ability between PCa-negative and PCa-positive biopsies of Beckman coulter phi and PCA3 score and other used biomarkers were determined. One hundred sixty patients met inclusion criteria. %p2PSA (p2PSA/fPSA × 100), phi and PCA3 were significantly higher in patients with PCa compared to PCa-negative group (median values: 1.92 vs. 1.55, 49.97 vs. 36.84, and 50 vs. 32, respectively, P ≤ 0.001). ROC curve analysis showed that %p2PSA, phi, and PCA3 are good indicator of malignancy (AUCs = 0.68, 0.71, and 0.66, respectively). A multivariable logistic regression model consisting of both the phi index and PCA3 score allowed to reach an overall diagnostic accuracy of 0.77. Decision curve analysis revealed that this "combined" marker achieved the highest net benefit over the examined range of the threshold probability. phi and PCA3 showed no significant difference in the ability to predict PCa diagnosis in men undergoing first prostate biopsy. However, diagnostic performance is significantly improved by combining phi and PCA3. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Millisecond photo-thermal process on significant improvement of supercapacitor’s performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Kui; Wang, Jixiao; Wu, Ying; Zhao, Song; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Shichang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A high way for charge transfer is created by a millisecond photo-thermal process which could decrease contact resistance among nanomaterials and improve the electrochemical performances. - Highlights: • Improve conductivity among nanomaterials with a millisecond photo-thermal process. • The specific capacitance can increase about 25% with an photo-thermal process. • The circle stability and rate capability can be improved above 10% with photo-thermal process. • Provide a new way that create electron path to improve electrochemical performance. - Abstract: Supercapacitors fabricated with nanomaterials usually have high specific capacitance and excellent performance. However, the small size of nanomaterials renders a considerable limitation of the contact area among nanomaterials, which is harmful to charge carrier transfer. This fact may hinder the development and application of nanomaterials in electrochemical storage systems. Here, a millisecond photo-thermal process was introduced to create a charge carries transfer path to decrease the contact resistance among nanomaterials, and enhance the electrochemical performance of supercapacitors. Polyaniline (PANI) nanowire, as a model nanomaterial, was used to modify electrodes under different photo-thermal process conditions. The modified electrodes were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the results were analysed by equivalent circuit simulation. These results demonstrate that the photo-thermal process can alter the morphology of PANI nanowires, lower the charge transfer resistances and thus improve the performance of electrodes. The specific capacitance increase of the modified electrodes is about 25%. The improvement of the circle stability and rate capability are above 10%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt on research the effect of photo-thermal process on the conductivity

  10. A Review of New and Developing Technology to Significantly Improve Mars Sample-Return Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, F.; Brophy, J.; Gilmore, M.; Rodgers, D.; Wilcox, B.

    2000-07-01

    A JPL development activity was initiated in FY 1999 for the purpose of examining and evaluating technologies that could materially improve future (i.e., beyond the 2005 launch) Mars sample return missions. The scope of the technology review was comprehensive and end-to-end; the goal was to improve mass, cost, risk, and scientific return. A specific objective was to assess approaches to sample return with only one Earth launch. While the objective of the study was specifically for sample-return, in-situ missions can also benefit from using many of the technologies examined.

  11. Novel ventilation design of combining spacer and mesh structure in sports T-shirt significantly improves thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chao; Au, Joe Sau-chuen; Fan, Jintu; Zheng, Rong

    2015-05-01

    This paper reports on novel ventilation design in sports T-shirt, which combines spacer and mesh structure, and experimental evidence on the advantages of design in improving thermal comfort. Evaporative resistance (Re) and thermal insulation (Rc) of T-shirts were measured using a sweating thermal manikin under three different air velocities. Moisture permeability index (i(m)) was calculated to compare the different designed T-shirts. The T-shirts of new and conventional designs were also compared by wearer trials, which were comprised of 30 min treadmill running followed by 10 min rest. Skin temperature, skin relative humidity, heart rate, oxygen inhalation and energy expenditure were monitored, and subjective sensations were asked. Results demonstrated that novel T-shirt has 11.1% significant lower im than control sample under windy condition. The novel T-shirt contributes to reduce the variation of skin temperature and relative humidity up to 37% and 32%, as well as decrease 3.3% energy consumption during exercise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Subjective evaluation of two stereoscopic imaging systems exploiting visual attention to improve 3D quality of experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanhart, Philippe; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2014-03-01

    Crosstalk and vergence-accommodation rivalry negatively impact the quality of experience (QoE) provided by stereoscopic displays. However, exploiting visual attention and adapting the 3D rendering process on the fly can reduce these drawbacks. In this paper, we propose and evaluate two different approaches that exploit visual attention to improve 3D QoE on stereoscopic displays: an offline system, which uses a saliency map to predict gaze position, and an online system, which uses a remote eye tracking system to measure real time gaze positions. The gaze points were used in conjunction with the disparity map to extract the disparity of the object-of-interest. Horizontal image translation was performed to bring the fixated object on the screen plane. The user preference between standard 3D mode and the two proposed systems was evaluated through a subjective evaluation. Results show that exploiting visual attention significantly improves image quality and visual comfort, with a slight advantage for real time gaze determination. Depth quality is also improved, but the difference is not significant.

  13. Meditation and Music Improve Memory and Cognitive Function in Adults with Subjective Cognitive Decline: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Kim E; Selfe, Terry Kit; Khalsa, Dharma Singh; Kandati, Sahiti

    2017-01-01

    While effective therapies for preventing or slowing cognitive decline in at-risk populations remain elusive, evidence suggests mind-body interventions may hold promise. In this study, we assessed the effects of Kirtan Kriya meditation (KK) and music listening (ML) on cognitive outcomes in adults experiencing subjective cognitive decline (SCD), a strong predictor of Alzheimer's disease. Sixty participants with SCD were randomized to a KK or ML program and asked to practice 12 minutes/day for 3 months, then at their discretion for the ensuing 3 months. At baseline, 3 months, and 6 months we measured memory and cognitive functioning [Memory Functioning Questionnaire (MFQ), Trail-making Test (TMT-A/B), and Digit-Symbol Substitution Test (DSST)]. The 6-month study was completed by 53 participants (88%). Participants performed an average of 93% (91% KK, 94% ML) of sessions in the first 3 months, and 71% (68% KK, 74% ML) during the 3-month, practice-optional, follow-up period. Both groups showed marked and significant improvements at 3 months in memory and cognitive performance (MFQ, DSST, TMT-A/B; p's≤0.04). At 6 months, overall gains were maintained or improved (p's≤0.006), with effect sizes ranging from medium (DSST, ML group) to large (DSST, KK group; TMT-A/B, MFQ). Changes were unrelated to treatment expectancies and did not differ by age, gender, baseline cognition scores, or other factors. Findings of this preliminary randomized controlled trial suggest practice of meditation or ML can significantly enhance both subjective memory function and objective cognitive performance in adults with SCD, and may offer promise for improving outcomes in this population.

  14. Reducing dysfunctional beliefs about sleep does not significantly improve insomnia in cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Isa; Nakajima, Shun; Ochi, Moeko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the baseline and at the end of treatment. The results showed that although cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia greatly reduced individuals' scores on both scales, the decrease in dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep with treatment did not seem to mediate improvement in insomnia. The findings suggest that sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs endorsed by patients with chronic insomnia may be attenuated by cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, but changes in such beliefs are not likely to play a crucial role in reducing the severity of insomnia.

  15. Reducing Dysfunctional Beliefs about Sleep Does Not Significantly Improve Insomnia in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Okajima, Isa; Nakajima, Shun; Ochi, Moeko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the...

  16. Significant performance improvement obtained in a wireless mesh network using a beamswitching antenna

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, AA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available mesh network operated in a fixed 11 Mbps mode. The throughput improvement in multi-hop communication obtained in the presence of an interferer is tenfold, from 0.2 Mbps to 2 Mbps. Index Terms?antenna, smart antenna, wireless mesh network, WMN... efficiency in the communications, and active research and development of new methods and technologies enabling this at the physical layer, including multiple antenna techniques, such as multiple input multiple output (MIMO) and smart antennas...

  17. Exploring total cardiac variability in healthy and pathophysiological subjects using improved refined multiscale entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Puneeta; Sunkaria, Ramesh Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Multiscale entropy (MSE) and refined multiscale entropy (RMSE) techniques are being widely used to evaluate the complexity of a time series across multiple time scales 't'. Both these techniques, at certain time scales (sometimes for the entire time scales, in the case of RMSE), assign higher entropy to the HRV time series of certain pathologies than that of healthy subjects, and to their corresponding randomized surrogate time series. This incorrect assessment of signal complexity may be due to the fact that these techniques suffer from the following limitations: (1) threshold value 'r' is updated as a function of long-term standard deviation and hence unable to explore the short-term variability as well as substantial variability inherited in beat-to-beat fluctuations of long-term HRV time series. (2) In RMSE, entropy values assigned to different filtered scaled time series are the result of changes in variance, but do not completely reflect the real structural organization inherited in original time series. In the present work, we propose an improved RMSE (I-RMSE) technique by introducing a new procedure to set the threshold value by taking into account the period-to-period variability inherited in a signal and evaluated it on simulated and real HRV database. The proposed I-RMSE assigns higher entropy to the age-matched healthy subjects than that of patients suffering from atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, sudden cardiac death and diabetes mellitus, for the entire time scales. The results strongly support the reduction in complexity of HRV time series in female group, old-aged, patients suffering from severe cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular diseases, and in their corresponding surrogate time series.

  18. A legume-based hypocaloric diet reduces proinflammatory status and improves metabolic features in overweight/obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana M; Zulet, M Ángeles; Abete, Itziar; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2011-02-01

    The nutritional composition of the dietary intake could produce specific effects on metabolic variables and inflammatory marker concentrations. This study assessed the effects of two hypocaloric diets (legume-restricted- vs. legume-based diet) on metabolic and inflammatory changes, accompanying weight loss. Thirty obese subjects (17 M/13F; BMI: 32.5 ± 4.5 kg/m(2); 36 ± 8 years) were randomly assigned to one of the following hypocaloric treatments (8 weeks): Calorie-restricted legume-free diet (Control: C-diet) or calorie-restricted legume-based diet (L-diet), prescribing 4 weekly different cooked-servings (160-235 g) of lentils, chickpeas, peas or beans. Body composition, blood pressure (BP), blood biochemical and inflammatory marker concentrations as well as dietary intake were measured at baseline and after the nutritional intervention. The L-diet achieved a greater body weight loss, when compared to the C-diet (-7.8 ± 2.9% vs. -5.3 ± 2.7%; p = 0.024). Total and LDL cholesterol levels and systolic BP were improved only when consuming the L-diet (p diet also resulted in a significant higher reduction in C-reactive protein (CRP) and complement C3 (C3) concentrations (p diet values. Interestingly, the reduction in the concentrations of CRP and C3 remained significantly higher to L-diet group, after adjusting by weight loss (p diet group, independent from weight loss (p hypocaloric diet resulted in a specific reduction in proinflammatory markers, such as CRP and C3 and a clinically significant improvement of some metabolic features (lipid profile and BP) in overweight/ obese subjects, which were in some cases independent from weight loss.

  19. Improving Students' Transfer of Learning among Subject Areas through the Use of an Integrated Curriculum and Alternative Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boidy, Tish; Moran, Michelle

    An intervention program sought to improve third- and fifth- grade students' ability to transfer learning among subject areas and to apply their learning to everyday occurrences. Surveys and interviews revealed the lack of student transference of knowledge among subject areas; teacher surveys and an interview with the curriculum director provided…

  20. Intraoperative Sensorcaine significantly improves postoperative pain management in outpatient reduction mammaplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culliford, Alfred T; Spector, Jason A; Flores, Roberto L; Louie, Otway; Choi, Mihye; Karp, Nolan S

    2007-09-15

    Breast reduction is one of the most frequently performed plastic surgical procedures in the United States; more than 160,500 patients underwent the procedure in 2005. Many outpatient reduction mammaplasty patients report the greatest postoperative discomfort in the first 48 hours. The authors' investigated the effect of intraoperative topical application of the long-acting local anesthetic agent bupivacaine (Sensorcaine or Marcaine) on postoperative pain, time to postanesthesia care unit discharge, and postoperative use of narcotic medication. In a prospective, randomized, single-blind trial, intraoperative use of Sensorcaine versus placebo (normal saline) was compared. Postoperative pain was quantified using the visual analogue scale, and time to discharge from the postanesthesia care unit was recorded. Patients documented their outpatient pain medication usage. Of the 37 patients enrolled in the study, 20 were treated with intraoperative topical Sensorcaine and 17 received placebo. Patients treated with Sensorcaine were discharged home significantly faster (2.9 hours versus 3.8 hours, p = 0.002). The control arm consistently had higher pain scores in the postanesthesia care unit (although not statistically significant) than the Sensorcaine group using the visual analogue scale system. Furthermore, patients receiving Sensorcaine required significantly less narcotic medication while recovering at home (mean, 3.5 tablets of Vicodin) than the control group (mean, 6.4 tablets; p = 0.001). There were no complications resulting from Sensorcaine usage. This prospective, randomized, single-blind study demonstrates that a single dose of intraoperative Sensorcaine provides a safe, inexpensive, and efficacious way to significantly shorten the length of postanesthesia care unit stay and significantly decrease postoperative opioid analgesic use in patients undergoing ambulatory reduction mammaplasty.

  1. Significant Improvements in Pyranometer Nighttime Offsets Using High-Flow DC Ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutchenreiter, Mark; Michalski, J.J.; Long, C.N.; Habte, Aron

    2017-05-22

    Accurate solar radiation measurements using pyranometers are required to understand radiative impacts on the Earth's energy budget, solar energy production, and to validate radiative transfer models. Ventilators of pyranometers, which are used to keep the domes clean and dry, also affect instrument thermal offset accuracy. This poster presents a high-level overview of the ventilators for single-black-detector pyranometers and black-and-white pyranometers. For single-black-detector pyranometers with ventilators, high-flow-rate (50-CFM and higher), 12-V DC fans lower the offsets, lower the scatter, and improve the predictability of nighttime offsets compared to lower-flow-rate (35-CFM), 120-V AC fans operated in the same type of environmental setup. Black-and-white pyranometers, which are used to measure diffuse horizontal irradiance, sometimes show minor improvement with DC fan ventilation, but their offsets are always small, usually no more than 1 W/m2, whether AC- or DC-ventilated.

  2. Nitrite addition to acidified sludge significantly improves digestibility, toxic metal removal, dewaterability and pathogen reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fangzhou; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo; Batstone, Damien J.; Freguia, Stefano; Pikaar, Ilje

    2016-12-01

    Sludge management is a major issue for water utilities globally. Poor digestibility and dewaterability are the main factors determining the cost for sludge management, whereas pathogen and toxic metal concentrations limit beneficial reuse. In this study, the effects of low level nitrite addition to acidified sludge to simultaneously enhance digestibility, toxic metal removal, dewaterability and pathogen reduction were investigated. Waste activated sludge (WAS) from a full-scale waste water treatment plant was treated at pH 2 with 10 mg NO2--N/L for 5 h. Biochemical methane potential tests showed an increase in the methane production of 28%, corresponding to an improvement from 247 ± 8 L CH4/kg VS to 317 ± 1 L CH4/kg VS. The enhanced removal of toxic metals further increased the methane production by another 18% to 360 ± 6 L CH4/kg VS (a total increase of 46%). The solids content of dewatered sludge increased from 14.6 ± 1.4% in the control to 18.2 ± 0.8%. A 4-log reduction for both total coliforms and E. coli was achieved. Overall, this study highlights the potential of acidification with low level nitrite addition as an effective and simple method achieving multiple improvements in terms of sludge management.

  3. Efficiency improvement of nuclear power plant operation: the significant role of advanced nuclear fuel technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velde Van de, A.; Burtak, F.

    2001-01-01

    Due to the increased liberalisation of the power markets, nuclear power generation is being exposed to high cost reduction pressure. In this paper we highlight the role of advanced nuclear fuel technologies to reduce the fuel cycle costs and therefore increase the efficiency of nuclear power plant operation. The key factor is a more efficient utilisation of the fuel and present developments at Siemens are consequently directed at (i) further increase of batch average burnup, (ii) improvement of fuel reliability, (iii) enlargement of fuel operation margins and (iv) improvement of methods for fuel design and core analysis. As a result, the nuclear fuel cycle costs for a typical LWR have been reduced during the past decades by about US$ 35 million per year. The estimated impact of further burnup increases on the fuel cycle costs is expected to be an additional saving of US$10 - 15 million per year. Due to the fact that the fuel will operate closer to design limits, a careful approach is required when introducing advanced fuel features in reload quantities. Trust and co-operation between the fuel vendors and the utilities is a prerequisite for the common success. (authors)

  4. Significant improvement of mouse cloning technique by treatment with trichostatin A after somatic nuclear transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Mizutani, Eiji; Ohta, Hiroshi; Hikichi, Takafusa; Thuan, Nguyen Van; Wakayama, Sayaka; Bui, Hong-Thuy; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2006-01-01

    The low success rate of animal cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is believed to be associated with epigenetic errors including abnormal DNA hypermethylation. Recently, we elucidated by using round spermatids that, after nuclear transfer, treatment of zygotes with trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, can remarkably reduce abnormal DNA hypermethylation depending on the origins of transferred nuclei and their genomic regions [S. Kishigami, N. Van Thuan, T. Hikichi, H. Ohta, S. Wakayama. E. Mizutani, T. Wakayama, Epigenetic abnormalities of the mouse paternal zygotic genome associated with microinsemination of round spermatids, Dev. Biol. (2005) in press]. Here, we found that 5-50 nM TSA-treatment for 10 h following oocyte activation resulted in more efficient in vitro development of somatic cloned embryos to the blastocyst stage from 2- to 5-fold depending on the donor cells including tail tip cells, spleen cells, neural stem cells, and cumulus cells. This TSA-treatment also led to more than 5-fold increase in success rate of mouse cloning from cumulus cells without obvious abnormality but failed to improve ES cloning success. Further, we succeeded in establishment of nuclear transfer-embryonic stem (NT-ES) cells from TSA-treated cloned blastocyst at a rate three times higher than those from untreated cloned blastocysts. Thus, our data indicate that TSA-treatment after SCNT in mice can dramatically improve the practical application of current cloning techniques

  5. High frequency repetitive sensory stimulation improves temporal discrimination in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erro, Roberto; Rocchi, Lorenzo; Antelmi, Elena; Palladino, Raffaele; Tinazzi, Michele; Rothwell, John; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2016-01-01

    High frequency electrical stimulation of an area of skin on a finger improves two-point spatial discrimination in the stimulated area, likely depending on plastic changes in the somatosensory cortex. However, it is unknown whether improvement also applies to temporal discrimination. Twelve young and ten elderly volunteers underwent the stimulation protocol onto the palmar skin of the right index finger. Somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT) was evaluated before and immediately after stimulation as well as 2.5h and 24h later. There was a significant reduction in somatosensory temporal threshold only on the stimulated finger. The effect was reversible, with STDT returning to the baseline values within 24h, and was smaller in the elderly than in the young participants. High frequency stimulation of the skin focally improves temporal discrimination in the area of stimulation. Given previous suggestions that the perceptual effects rely on plastic changes in the somatosensory cortex, our results are consistent with the idea that the timing of sensory stimuli is, at least partially, encoded in the primary somatosensory cortex. Such a protocol could potentially be used as a therapeutic intervention to ameliorate physiological decline in the elderly or in other disorders of sensorimotor integration. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Improvement of Screening the Significant Factors of Oil Blends as Bio lubricant Base Stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Hajarul Ashikin Shamsuddin; Rozaini Abdullah; Zainab Hamzah; Siti Jamilah Hanim Mohd Yusof

    2015-01-01

    A new formulation bio lubricant base stock was developed by blending of waste cooking oil (WCO) with Jatropha curcas oil (JCO). The objective of this research is to evaluate significant factors contributing to the production of oil blends for bio lubricant application. The significant factors used in this study were oil ratio (WCO:JCO), agitation times (min) and agitation speed (rpm). The blended oil bio based lubricant was used to determine the saponification, acid, peroxide and iodine values. The experimental design used in this study was the 2 level-factorial design. In this experiment, it was found that the effect of oil ratio and interaction of oil ratio and agitation speed gave the most significant effect in oil blends as bio lubricant base stock. The highest ratio of oil blend 80 %:20 % WCO:JCO, with low agitation speed of 300 rpm and low agitation time of 30 minutes gave the optimum results. The acid, saponification, peroxide and iodine values obtained were 0.517±0.08 mg KOH/ g, 126.23±1.62 mg/ g, 7.5±2.0 m eq/ kg and 50.42±2.85 mg/ g respectively. A higher ratio of waste cooking oil blends was found to be favourable as bio lubricant base stock. (author)

  7. Proprietary tomato extract improves metabolic response to high-fat meal in healthy normal weight subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Deplanque

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Lycopene and tomato-based products have been described as potent inhibitors of LDL oxidation. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of a 2-week supplementation with a carotenoid-rich tomato extract (CRTE standardized for a 1:1 ratio of lycopene and phytosterols, on post-prandial LDL oxidation after a high-fat meal. Design: In a randomized, double-blind, parallel-groups, placebo-controlled study, 146 healthy normal weight individuals were randomly assigned to a daily dose of CRTE standardized for tomato phytonutrients or placebo during 2 weeks. Oxidized LDL (OxLDL, glucose, insulin, and triglyceride (TG responses were measured for 8 h after ingestion of a high-fat meal before and at the end of intervention. Results: Plasma lycopene, phytofluene, and phytoene were increased throughout the study period in the CRTE group compared to placebo. CRTE ingestion significantly improved changes in OxLDL response to high-fat meal compared to placebo after 2 weeks (p<0.0001. Changes observed in glucose, insulin, and TG responses were not statistically significant after 2 weeks of supplementation, although together they may suggest a trend of favorable effect on metabolic outcomes after a high-fat meal. Conclusions: Two-week supplementation with CRTE increased carotenoids levels in plasma and improved oxidized LDL response to a high-fat meal in healthy normal weight individuals.

  8. Can Constraint Induced Movement Therapy Improve In-Hand Manipulation Skills: A Single Subject Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Kavousipor

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study describes a single subject design (ABA that shows the effective use of constraint induced movement therapy in improvement of quality and performance of in-hand manipulation skills for a 10 year old boy and a 9 years old girl with hemiplegic cerebral palsy, as Dickerson (2007 showed it in arm movement and function. Methods: To determine the effectiveness of CIMT by the use of C-statistic analysis and visual analysis. Approach: The first step was to design a child friendly group activity and home based intervention program through occupation. The possible effectiveness of CIMT was evaluated by daily measurements and video recording of 6 sub skills of in-hand manipulation according to Pont category (2009 in defined activity. Results: For making the treatment more cost effective, families can produce a simple clinical setting at home and participate in their child treatment plan actively. Discussion: A client center intervention will facilitate the use and quality of fingers and hand motion. Also a group activity can motivate participants to participate more and better.

  9. EASE-Grid 2.0: Incremental but Significant Improvements for Earth-Gridded Data Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H. Savoie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Defined in the early 1990s for use with gridded satellite passive microwave data, the Equal-Area Scalable Earth Grid (EASE-Grid was quickly adopted and used for distribution of a variety of satellite and in situ data sets. Conceptually easy to understand, EASE-Grid suffers from limitations that make it impossible to format in the widely popular GeoTIFF convention without reprojection. Importing EASE-Grid data into standard mapping software packages is nontrivial and error-prone. This article defines a standard for an improved EASE-Grid 2.0 definition, addressing how the changes rectify issues with the original grid definition. Data distributed using the EASE-Grid 2.0 standard will be easier for users to import into standard software packages and will minimize common reprojection errors that users had encountered with the original EASE-Grid definition.

  10. Aripiprazole Improves Depressive Symptoms and Immunological Response to Antiretroviral Therapy in an HIV-Infected Subject with Resistant Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Cecchelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aripiprazole is the first medication approved by the FDA as an add-on treatment for MDD. The impact of aripiprazole on the response to HIV is unknown. The patient we report on was diagnosed HIV-positive in 1997 and has been treated with antiretroviral therapy since then. In 2008, we diagnosed resistant major depression, hypochondria, and panic disorder. On that occasion, blood tests showed a significantly reduced CD4 count and a positive viral load. We treated this patient with aripiprazole and citalopram. Mood, somatic symptoms, and occupational functioning progressively improved. The last blood examination showed an increase in the CD4 count and a negative viral load. On the basis of the present case study and the review of the literature concerning the effects of psychotropic agents on viral replication, we suggest that the use of aripiprazole in HIV-infected subjects warrants further research.

  11. A patient/family-centered strategic plan can drive significant improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilli, Richard J; Crandall, Wallace V; Berry, Janet C; Stoverock, Linda; Rosen, Kerry; Budin, Lee; Kelleher, Kelly J; Gleeson, Sean P; Davis, J Terrance

    2014-08-01

    The use of a PFCSP, as a road map to operationalize the hospital's vision, has been a compelling paradigm to achieve significant QI results. The framework is simple yet directly aligns with the IOM domains of quality. It has inspired and helped actively engage hospital personnel in the work required to achieve the goals and vision of the hospital system. Five years after initiating this type of plan, activity is flourishing in each of the domains and midterm results are substantial. We think that the nature of this strategic plan has been an important aspect of our success to date.

  12. Zeaxanthin-based dietary supplement and topical serum improve hydration and reduce wrinkle count in female subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Steve; Frank, Emily; Gierhart, Dennis; Simpson, Paula; Frumento, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Dietary modification, through supplementation and elimination diets, has become an area of interest to help slow skin aging, reduce symptom severity or prevent reoccurrence of certain dermatologic conditions [Clinical Dermatology vol. 31 (2013) 677-700]. Free radical components (reactive oxygen species or ROS) or lipid peroxide (LPO) is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of accelerated skin aging when prolonged oxidative stress occurs. The use of antioxidant-related therapies such as nutraceuticals is of particular interest in restoring skin homeostasis. Antioxidant carotenoid zeaxanthin is concentrated in the eye and skin tissue and believed to decrease the formation of ROS associated with UV light exposure. With zeaxanthin, phytoceramides, and botanical extracts an oral and topical test product (with zeaxanthin, algae extracts, peptides, hyaluronate) have been developed to improve the appearance and condition of skin when used as directed. Subjects were divided into three groups: two tests (skin formula 1 - oral product alone (ZO-1), skin formula 2- oral product with topical product (ZO-2 + ZT)), and one placebo control. The study consisted of a washout visit, baseline (randomization), week two (2), week four (4), week six (6), week eight (8), and week twelve (12). Key parameters measured were as follows: fine lines, deep lines, total wrinkles, wrinkle severity, radiance/skin color (L, a*, b*), discolorations, and skin pigment homogeneity. Thirty-one subjects completed the twelve-week study; no adverse events were recorded during the study. Statistically significant improvements from baseline mean hydration score were observed in active groups at weeks 2, 6, and 8. A statistically significant difference was observed between mean differences from baseline scores for total wrinkle count at week 4 for the combination active groups compared to placebo. A statistically significant difference from baseline scores for fine lines count was also observed at

  13. An integrated PRA module for fast determination of risk significance and improvement effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Chun-Chang; Lin, Jyh-Der

    2004-01-01

    With the widely use of PRA technology in risk-informed applications, to predict the changes of CDF and LERF becomes a standard process for risk-informed applications. This paper describes an integrated PRA module prepared for risk-informed applications. The module contains a super risk engine, a super fault tree engine, an advanced PRA model and a tool for data base maintenance. The individual element of the module also works well for purpose other than risk-informed applications. The module has been verified and validated through a series of scrupulous benchmark tests with similar software. The results of the benchmark tests showed that the module has remarkable accuracy and speed even for an extremely large-size top-logic fault tree as well as for the case in which large amount of MCSs may be generated. The risk monitor for nuclear power plants in Taiwan is the first application to adopt the module. The results predicted by the risk monitor are now accepted by the regulatory agency. A tool to determine the risk significance according to the inspection findings will be the next application to adopt the module in the near future. This tool classified the risk significance into four different color codes according to the level of increase on CDF. Experience of application showed that the flexibility, the accuracy and speed of the module make it useful in any risk-informed applications when risk indexes must be determined by resolving a PRA model. (author)

  14. Inulin significantly improves serum magnesium levels in proton pump inhibitor-induced hypomagnesaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, M W; de Baaij, J H F; Broekman, M; Bisseling, T M; Haarhuis, B; Tan, A; Te Morsche, R; Hoenderop, J G J; Bindels, R J M; Drenth, J P H

    2016-06-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are among the most widely prescribed drugs to treat gastric acid-related disorders. PPI-induced hypomagnesaemia, a defect in intestinal absorption of Mg(2+) , can be a severe side effect of chronic PPI use. To restore serum Mg(2+) concentrations in PPI-induced hypomagnesaemia patients by dietary supplementation with inulin fibres. Eleven patients with PPI-induced hypomagnesaemia and 10 controls were treated with inulin (20 g/day). Each trial consisted of two cycles of 14-day inulin treatment followed by a washout period of 14 days. Patients continued to use their PPI. Serum Mg(2+) levels served as the primary endpoint. Inulin significantly enhanced serum Mg(2+) levels from 0.60 to 0.68 mmol/L in PPI-induced hypomagnesaemia patients, and from 0.84 to 0.93 mmol/L in controls. As a consequence 24 h urinary Mg(2+) excretion was significantly increased in patients with PPI-induced hypomagnesaemia (0.3-2.2 mmol/day). Symptoms related to hypomagnesaemia, including muscle cramps and paraesthesia, were reduced during intervention with inulin. Inulin increases serum Mg(2+) concentrations under PPI maintenance in patients with PPI-induced hypomagnesaemia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Improve Outcomes Study subjects Chemistry Teaching and Learning Strategies through independent study with the help of computer-based media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiharti, Gulmah

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to see the improvement of student learning outcomes by independent learning using computer-based learning media in the course of STBM (Teaching and Learning Strategy) Chemistry. Population in this research all student of class of 2014 which take subject STBM Chemistry as many as 4 class. While the sample is taken by purposive as many as 2 classes, each 32 students, as control class and expriment class. The instrument used is the test of learning outcomes in the form of multiple choice with the number of questions as many as 20 questions that have been declared valid, and reliable. Data analysis techniques used one-sided t test and improved learning outcomes using a normalized gain test. Based on the learning result data, the average of normalized gain values for the experimental class is 0,530 and for the control class is 0,224. The result of the experimental student learning result is 53% and the control class is 22,4%. Hypothesis testing results obtained t count> ttable is 9.02> 1.6723 at the level of significance α = 0.05 and db = 58. This means that the acceptance of Ha is the use of computer-based learning media (CAI Computer) can improve student learning outcomes in the course Learning Teaching Strategy (STBM) Chemistry academic year 2017/2018.

  16. Progressive degradation of alloy 690 and the development of a significant improvement in alloy 800CR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staehle, Roger W.; Arioka, Koji; Tapping, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The present most widely used alloys for tubing in steam generators and structural materials in water cooled reactors are Alloy 690 and Alloy 800. However, both alloys, while improved over Alloy 600 may not meet the needs of longer range applications in the range of 80-100 years. Alloy 690 sustains damage resulting from the formation of cavities at grain boundaries which eventually cover about 50% of the area of the grain boundaries with the remainder covering being covered with carbides. The cavities seem to nucleate on the carbides leaving the grain boundaries a structure of cavities and carbides. Such a structure will lead the Alloy 690 to fail completely. Normal Alloy 800 does not produce such cavities and probably retains a large amount of its corrosion resistance but does sustain progressive SCC at low rate. A new alloy, 800CR, has been developed in a collaboration among Arioka, Tapping, and Staehle. This alloy is based on a Cr composition of 23.5-27% with the remainder retaining the previous Alloy 800 composition. 800CR sustains a crack velocity about 100 times less than Alloy 690 and a negligible rate of initiation. The 800CR, alloy is now seeking a patent. (authors)

  17. Significant improvements of electrical discharge machining performance by step-by-step updated adaptive control laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Wu, Jianyang; Xu, Xiaoyi; Mu, Xin; Dou, Yunping

    2018-02-01

    In order to obtain improved electrical discharge machining (EDM) performance, we have dedicated more than a decade to correcting one essential EDM defect, the weak stability of the machining, by developing adaptive control systems. The instabilities of machining are mainly caused by complicated disturbances in discharging. To counteract the effects from the disturbances on machining, we theoretically developed three control laws from minimum variance (MV) control law to minimum variance and pole placements coupled (MVPPC) control law and then to a two-step-ahead prediction (TP) control law. Based on real-time estimation of EDM process model parameters and measured ratio of arcing pulses which is also called gap state, electrode discharging cycle was directly and adaptively tuned so that a stable machining could be achieved. To this end, we not only theoretically provide three proved control laws for a developed EDM adaptive control system, but also practically proved the TP control law to be the best in dealing with machining instability and machining efficiency though the MVPPC control law provided much better EDM performance than the MV control law. It was also shown that the TP control law also provided a burn free machining.

  18. Very Early Administration of Progesterone Does Not Improve Neuropsychological Outcomes in Subjects with Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caveney, Angela F.; Hertzberg, Vicki S; Silbergleit, Robert; Yeatts, Sharon D.; Palesch, Yuko Y.; Levin, Harvey S.; Wright, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A Phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (ProTECT III) found that administration of progesterone did not reduce mortality or improve functional outcome as measured by the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) in subjects with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. We conducted a secondary analysis of neuropsychological outcomes to evaluate whether progesterone is associated with improved recovery of cognitive and motor functioning. ProTECT III was conducted at 49 level I trauma centers in the United States. Adults with moderate to severe TBI were randomized to receive intravenous progesterone or placebo within 4 h of injury for a total of 4 days. At 6 months, subjects underwent evaluation of memory, attention, executive functioning, language, and fine motor coordination/dexterity. Chi-square analysis revealed no significant difference in the proportion of subjects (263/280 progesterone, 283/295 placebo) with Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test scores ≥75. Analyses of covariance did not reveal significant treatment effects for memory (Buschke immediate recall, p = 0.53; delayed recall, p = 0.94), attention (Trails A speed, p = 0.81 and errors, p = 0.22; Digit Span Forward length, p = 0.66), executive functioning (Trails B speed, p = 0.97 and errors, p = 0.93; Digit Span Backward length, p = 0.60), language (timed phonemic fluency, p = 0.05), and fine motor coordination/dexterity (Grooved Pegboard dominant hand time, p = 0.75 and peg drops, p = 0.59; nondominant hand time, p = 0.74 and peg drops, p = 0.61). Pearson Product Moment Correlations demonstrated significant (p GOSE scores. Similar to the ProTECT III trial's results of the primary outcome, the secondary outcomes do not provide evidence of a neuroprotective effect of progesterone. PMID:26973025

  19. Therapeutic riding followed by rhythmic auditory stimulation to improve balance and gait in a subject with orthopedic pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungermann, Cathryn M; Gras, Laura Z

    2011-12-01

    The study objectives were to investigate the effect of therapeutic riding with a subject who had an orthopedic diagnosis. This is a single-subject case report. The study was conducted at an equestrian facility with an indoor riding arena. The subject was a 59-year-old woman with grade I spondylolisthesis at L4/L5 and multilevel lumbar spinal stenosis in central and foraminal canals. The subject had an anterior cervical fusion of C3-C7. The subject has been ambulating with a straight cane due to her history of frequent falls. Gait, agility, strength, range of motion, and balance testing were performed. The subject had impairments of bilateral lower extremities with an ataxic gait pattern and was at risk for continued falls according to the balance measures. The intervention comprised therapeutic riding sessions 3 times a week for 20 minutes for 4 weeks. Each riding session was immediately followed by a 10-minute independent walking program with a metronome for rhythmic auditory stimulation. The outcome measures were as follows: Manual muscle testing and range of motion of the lower extremities, Gait Speed Test, Dynamic Gait Index, Four-Square Step Test, Chair Stand Test, Single Leg Stance. Improvements were seen in lower extremity strength and range of motion and balance. The subject improved on balance scores, placing her out of the risk for falls category. Therapeutic riding followed by rhythmic auditory stimulation improved lower extremity range of motion, strength, and balance with this subject.

  20. Significant improvement of pig cloning efficiency by treatment with LBH589 after somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun-Xue; Li, Suo; Gao, Qing-Shan; Hong, Yu; Jin, Long; Zhu, Hai-Ying; Yan, Chang-Guo; Kang, Jin-Dan; Yin, Xi-Jun

    2013-10-01

    The low success rate of animal cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) associates with epigenetic aberrancy, including the abnormal acetylation of histones. Altering the epigenetic status by histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) enhances the developmental potential of SCNT embryos. In the current study, we examined the effects of LBH589 (panobinostat), a novel broad-spectrum HDACi, on the nuclear reprogramming and development of pig SCNT embryos in vitro. In experiment 1, we compared the in vitro developmental competence of nuclear transfer embryos treated with different concentrations of LBH589. Embryos treated with 50 nM LBH589 for 24 hours showed a significant increase in the rate of blastocyst formation compared with the control or embryos treated with 5 or 500 nM LBH589 (32.4% vs. 11.8%, 12.1%, and 10.0%, respectively, P < 0.05). In experiment 2, we examined the in vitro developmental competence of nuclear transfer embryos treated with 50 nM LBH589 for various intervals after activation and 6-dimethylaminopurine. Embryos treated for 24 hours had higher rates of blastocyst formation than the other groups. In experiment 3, when the acetylation of H4K12 was examined in SCNT embryos treated for 6 hours with 50 nM LBH589 by immunohistochemistry, the staining intensities of these proteins in LBH589-treated SCNT embryos were significantly higher than in the control. In experiment 4, LBH589-treated nuclear transfer and control embryos were transferred into surrogate mothers, resulting in three (100%) and two (66.7%) pregnancies, respectively. In conclusion, LBH589 enhances the nuclear reprogramming and developmental potential of SCNT embryos by altering the epigenetic status and expression, and increasing blastocyst quality. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Silver chlorobromide nanocubes with significantly improved uniformity: synthesis and assembly into photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zheng; Okasinski, John S.; Gosztola, David J.; Ren, Yang; Sun, Yugang

    2015-01-01

    Silver chlorobromide (AgClxBr1-x, 0 < x < 1) nanocubes with a highly uniform size, morphology, and crystallinity have been successfully synthesized through a co-precipitation of Ag+ ions with both Cl- and Br- ions in ethylene glycol containing polyvinyl pyrrolidone at mild temperatures. Compositions of the synthesized nanocubes can be easily tuned by controlling the molar ratio of Cl- to Br- ions in the reaction solutions. The size of the nanocubes is determined by varying a number of parameters including the molar ratio of Cl- to Br- ions, injection rate of Ag+ ions, and reaction temperature. The real-time formation of colloidal AgClxBr1-x nanocubes has been monitored, for the first time, by in situ highenergy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The time-resolved results reveal that a fast injection rate of Ag+ ions is critical for the formation of AgClxBr1-x nanocubes with a highly pure face-centered cubic crystalline phase. The improved uniformity of the AgClxBr1-x nanocubes is beneficial for assembling them into order superlattices (e.g., photonic crystals) even by simply applying centrifugation forces. The stop band of the resulting photonic crystals can be easily tuned from the ultraviolet to the infrared region by using AgClxBr1-x nanocubes with different sizes. The variation of the dielectric constant of AgClxBr1-x associated with the change of the relative concentration of halide ions provides an additional knob to tune the optical properties of photonic crystals.

  2. The Strasbourg Large Refractor and Dome: Significant Improvements and Failed Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Founded by the German Empire in the late 19th century, Strasbourg Astronomical Observatory featured several novelties from the start. According to Mueller (1978), the separation of observing buildings from the study area and from the astronomers' residence was a revolution in observatory construction. The instruments were, as much as possible, isolated from the vibrations of the buildings themselves. "Gas flames" and water were used to reduce temperature effects. Thus the Large Dome (ca 11m diameter), housing the Large Refractor (ca 49cm, then the largest in Germany) and covered by zinc over wood, could be cooled down by water running from the top. Reports (including by the French who took over the observatory after World War I) are however somehow nonexistent on the effective usage and actual efficiency of such a system (which must have generated locally a significant amount of humidity). The paper will detail these technical attempts as well as the specificities of the instruments installed in that new observatory intended as a showcase of German astronomy.

  3. The combination of L-theanine and caffeine improves cognitive performance and increases subjective alertness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, T; Rycroft, J A; Rowson, M J; De Bruin, E A

    2010-12-01

    The non-proteinic amino acid L-theanine and caffeine, a methylxanthine derivative, are naturally occurring ingredients in tea. The present study investigated the effect of a combination of 97 mg L-theanine and 40 mg caffeine as compared to placebo treatment on cognitive performance, alertness, blood pressure, and heart rate in a sample of young adults (n = 44). Cognitive performance, self-reported mood, blood pressure, and heart rate were measured before L-theanine and caffeine administration (i.e. at baseline) and 20 min and 70 min thereafter. The combination of moderate levels of L-theanine and caffeine significantly improved accuracy during task switching and self-reported alertness (both P effects on other cognitive tasks, such as visual search, choice reaction times, or mental rotation. The present results suggest that 97 mg of L-theanine in combination with 40 mg of caffeine helps to focus attention during a demanding cognitive task.

  4. Short term (14 days) consumption of insoluble wheat bran fibre-containing breakfast cereals improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function in a dose dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Clare L; Walton, Jenny; Hoyland, Alexa; Howarth, Elaine; Allan, Peter; Chesters, David; Dye, Louise

    2013-04-22

    This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran) fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline) monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention) period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran) for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation) and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort). Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches). In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran) per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption.

  5. Short Term (14 Days Consumption of Insoluble Wheat Bran Fibre-Containing Breakfast Cereals Improves Subjective Digestive Feelings, General Wellbeing and Bowel Function in a Dose Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Dye

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (<15 g/day AOAC 985.29 completed a daily symptom diary for 14 days after which they consumed one bowl of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort. Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches. In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption.

  6. Short Term (14 Days) Consumption of Insoluble Wheat Bran Fibre-Containing Breakfast Cereals Improves Subjective Digestive Feelings, General Wellbeing and Bowel Function in a Dose Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Clare L.; Walton, Jenny; Hoyland, Alexa; Howarth, Elaine; Allan, Peter; Chesters, David; Dye, Louise

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran) fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline) monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention) period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (<15 g/day AOAC 985.29) completed a daily symptom diary for 14 days after which they consumed one bowl of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran) for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation) and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort). Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches). In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran) per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption. PMID:23609776

  7. Single-atom catalysts for CO2 electroreduction with significant activity and selectivity improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Seoin; Lim, Juhyung; Kim, Na-Young; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Jung, Yousung

    2017-02-01

    A single-atom catalyst (SAC) has an electronic structure that is very different from its bulk counterparts, and has shown an unexpectedly high specific activity with a significant reduction in noble metal usage for CO oxidation, fuel cell and hydrogen evolution applications, although physical origins of such performance enhancements are still poorly understood. Herein, by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we for the first time investigate the great potential of single atom catalysts for CO 2 electroreduction applications. In particular, we study a single transition metal atom anchored on defective graphene with single or double vacancies, denoted M@sv-Gr or M@dv-Gr, where M = Ag, Au, Co, Cu, Fe, Ir, Ni, Os, Pd, Pt, Rh or Ru, as a CO 2 reduction catalyst. Many SACs are indeed shown to be highly selective for the CO 2 reduction reaction over a competitive H 2 evolution reaction due to favorable adsorption of carboxyl (*COOH) or formate (*OCHO) over hydrogen (*H) on the catalysts. On the basis of free energy profiles, we identified several promising candidate materials for different products; Ni@dv-Gr (limiting potential U L = -0.41 V) and Pt@dv-Gr (-0.27 V) for CH 3 OH production, and Os@dv-Gr (-0.52 V) and Ru@dv-Gr (-0.52 V) for CH 4 production. In particular, the Pt@dv-Gr catalyst shows remarkable reduction in the limiting potential for CH 3 OH production compared to any existing catalysts, synthesized or predicted. To understand the origin of the activity enhancement of SACs, we find that the lack of an atomic ensemble for adsorbate binding and the unique electronic structure of the single atom catalysts as well as orbital interaction play an important role, contributing to binding energies of SACs that deviate considerably from the conventional scaling relation of bulk transition metals.

  8. Factors Related to Significant Improvement of Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rates in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients Receiving Telbivudine Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Fu Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. The improvement of estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs in chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients receiving telbivudine therapy is well known. The aim of this study was to clarify the kinetics of eGFRs and to identify the significant factors related to the improvement of eGFRs in telbivudine-treated CHB patients in a real-world setting. Methods. Serial eGFRs were calculated every 3 months using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI equation. The patients were classified as CKD-1, -2, or -3 according to a baseline eGFR of ≥90, 60–89, or <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. A significant improvement of eGFR was defined as a more than 10% increase from the baseline. Results. A total of 129 patients were enrolled, of whom 36% had significantly improved eGFRs. According to a multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus (DM (p=0.028 and CKD-3 (p=0.043 were both significantly related to such improvement. The rates of significant improvement of eGFR were about 73% and 77% in patients with DM and CKD-3, respectively. Conclusions. Telbivudine is an alternative drug of choice for the treatment of hepatitis B patients for whom renal safety is a concern, especially patients with DM and CKD-3.

  9. Low-dose hydrocortisone (HC) replacement therapy is associated with improved bone remodeling balance in hypopituitary subjects

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Behan, L A

    2011-06-01

    The effect of commonly used glucocorticoid replacement regimens on bone health in hypopituitary subjects is not well known. We aimed to assess the effect of 3 hydrocortisone (HC) replacement dose regimens on bone turnover in this group.10 hypopituitary men with severe ACTH deficiency were randomised in a crossover design to 3 HC dose regimens, Dose A (20mg mane, 10mg tarde), Dose B (10mg twice daily) and Dose C (10mg mane, 5mg tarde). Following 6 weeks of each regimen participants underwent fasting sampling of bone turnover markers.Data from matched controls were used to produce a Z score for subject bone formation and resorption markers and to calculate the bone remodeling balance (formation Z score-resorption Z score) and turnover index ((formation Z + resorption Z)\\/2). A positive bone remodeling balance with increased turnover is consistent with a favourable bone cycle. Data are expressed as median (range).The Pro Collagen Type 1 Peptide (PINP) bone formation Z-score was significantly increased in Dose C, (1.805 (-0.6-10.24)) compared to Dose A (0.035 (-1.0-8.1)) p<0.05 while there was no difference in the C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide (CTx) resorption Z score. The bone remodeling balance was significantly lower for dose A -0.02 (-1.05-4.12) compared to dose C 1.13 (0.13-6.4) (p<0.05). Although there was a trend to an increased bone turnover index with the lower dose regimen, this was not statistically significant.Low dose HC replacement (10mg mane\\/5 mg tarde) was associated with increased bone formation and improved bone remodeling balance which is associated with a more favourable bone cycle. This may have a long term beneficial effect on bone health.

  10. Omega-3 fatty acid therapy dose-dependently and significantly decreased triglycerides and improved flow-mediated dilation, however, did not significantly improve insulin sensitivity in patients with hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Pyung Chun; Koh, Kwang Kon; Sakuma, Ichiro; Lim, Soo; Lee, Yonghee; Lee, Seungik; Lee, Kyounghoon; Han, Seung Hwan; Shin, Eak Kyun

    2014-10-20

    Experimental studies demonstrate that higher intake of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) improves insulin sensitivity, however, we reported that n-3 FA 2g therapy, most commonly used dosage did not significantly improve insulin sensitivity despite reducing triglycerides by 21% in patients. Therefore, we investigated the effects of different dosages of n-3 FA in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. This was a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study. Age, sex, and body mass index were matched among groups. All patients were recommended to maintain a low fat diet. Forty-four patients (about 18 had metabolic syndrome/type 2 diabetes mellitus) in each group were given placebo, n-3 FA 1 (O1), 2 (O2), or 4 g (O4), respectively daily for 2 months. n-3 FA therapy dose-dependently and significantly decreased triglycerides and triglycerides/HDL cholesterol and improved flow-mediated dilation, compared with placebo (by ANOVA). However, each n-3 FA therapy did not significantly decrease high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and fibrinogen, compared with placebo. O1 significantly increased insulin levels and decreased insulin sensitivity (determined by QUICKI) and O2 significantly decreased plasma adiponectin levels relative to baseline measurements. Of note, when compared with placebo, each n-3 FA therapy did not significantly change insulin, glucose, adiponectin, glycated hemoglobin levels and insulin sensitivity (by ANOVA). We observed similar results in a subgroup of patients with the metabolic syndrome. n-3 FA therapy dose-dependently and significantly decreased triglycerides and improved flow-mediated dilation. Nonetheless, n-3 FA therapy did not significantly improve acute-phase reactants and insulin sensitivity in patients with hypertriglyceridemia, regardless of dosages. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. 256-MDCT for evaluation of urolithiasis: iterative reconstruction allows for a significant reduction of the applied radiation dose while maintaining high subjective and objective image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhoen, Simon; Laqmani, Azien; Derlin, Thorsten; Karul, Murat; Hammerle, Diego; Adam, Gerhard; Regier, Marc; Buhk, Jan-Hendrick; Sehner, Susanne; Nagel, Hans D.; Chun, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Multidetector CT (MDCT) is the established imaging modality in diagnostics of urolithiasis. The aim of iterative reconstruction (IR) is to allow for a radiation dose reduction while maintaining high image quality. This study evaluates its performance in MDCT for assessment of urolithiasis. Fifty-two patients underwent non-contrast abdominal MDCT. Twenty-six patients were referred to MDCT under suspicion of urolithiasis, and examined using a dose-reduced scan protocol (RDCT). Twenty-six patients, who had undergone standard-dose MDCT, served as reference for radiation dose comparison. RDCT images were reconstructed using an IR system (iDose4™, Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH, USA). Objective image noise (OIN) was recorded and five radiologists rated the subjective image quality independently. Radiation parameters were derived from the scan protocols. The CTDIvol could be reduced by 50% to 5.8 mGy (P < 0.0001). The same reduction was achieved for DLP and effective dose to 253 ± 27 mGy*cm (P < 0.0001) and 3.9 ± 0.4 mSv (P < 0.0001). IR led to a reduction of the OIN of up to 61% compared with classic filtered back projection (FBP) (P < 0.0001). The OIN declined with increasing IR levels. RDCT with FBP showed the lowest scores of subjective image quality (2.32 ± 0.04). Mean scores improved with increasing IR levels. iDose6 was rated with the best mean score (3.66 ± 0.04). The evaluated IR-tool and protocol may be applied to achieve a considerable radiation dose reduction in MDCT for diagnostics of urolithiasis while maintaining a confident image quality. Best image quality, suitable for evaluation of the entire abdomen concerning differential diagnoses, was achieved with iDose6.

  12. Predictive Factors for Subjective Improvement in Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Patients with Nonsurgical Treatment: A 3-Year Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko Matsudaira

    Full Text Available To assess the predictive factors for subjective improvement with nonsurgical treatment in consecutive patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS.Patients with LSS were enrolled from 17 medical centres in Japan. We followed up 274 patients (151 men; mean age, 71 ± 7.4 years for 3 years. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess the predictive factors for subjective symptom improvement with nonsurgical treatment.In 30% of patients, conservative treatment led to a subjective improvement in the symptoms; in 70% of patients, the symptoms remained unchanged, worsened, or required surgical treatment. The multivariable analysis of predictive factors for subjective improvement with nonsurgical treatment showed that the absence of cauda equina symptoms (only radicular symptoms had an odds ratio (OR of 3.31 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.50-7.31; absence of degenerative spondylolisthesis/scoliosis had an OR of 2.53 (95% CI: 1.13-5.65; <1-year duration of illness had an OR of 3.81 (95% CI: 1.46-9.98; and hypertension had an OR of 2.09 (95% CI: 0.92-4.78.The predictive factors for subjective symptom improvement with nonsurgical treatment in LSS patients were the presence of only radicular symptoms, absence of degenerative spondylolisthesis/scoliosis, and an illness duration of <1 year.

  13. A diet based on multiple functional concepts improves cardiometabolic risk parameters in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar Juscelino

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different foods can modulate cardiometabolic risk factors in persons already affected by metabolic alterations. The objective of this study was to assess, in healthy overweight individuals, the impact of a diet combining multiple functional concepts on risk markers associated with cardiometabolic diseases (CMD. Methods Fourty-four healthy women and men (50-73 y.o, BMI 25-33, fasting glycemia ≤ 6.1 mmol/L participated in a randomized crossover intervention comparing a multifunctional (active diet (AD with a control diet (CD devoid of the "active" components. Each diet was consumed during 4 wk with a 4 wk washout period. AD included the following functional concepts: low glycemic impact meals, antioxidant-rich foods, oily fish as source of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, viscous dietary fibers, soybean and whole barley kernel products, almonds, stanols and a probiotic strain (Lactobacillus plantarum Heal19/DSM15313. Results Although the aim was to improve metabolic markers without promoting body weight loss, minor weight reductions were observed with both diets (0.9-1.8 ± 0.2%; P P P P = 0.0056, LDL/HDL (-27 ± 2%; P P 1c (-2 ± 0.4%; P = 0.0013, hs-CRP (-29 ± 9%; P = 0.0497 and systolic blood pressure (-8 ± 1%¸ P = 0.0123. The differences remained significant after adjustment for weight change. After AD, the Framingham cardiovascular risk estimate was 30 ± 4% (P P Conclusion The improved biomarker levels recorded in healthy individuals following the multifunctional regime suggest preventive potential of this dietary approach against CMD.

  14. Significance of measuring oxidative stress in lifestyle-related diseases from the viewpoint of correlation between d-ROMs and BAP in Japanese subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Toshiki; Yamauchi, Kazuhiro; Maruyama, Mie; Yasuda, Tadashi; Abe, Youichi; Kohno, Masakazu

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, oxidative stress has been postulated to be an important factor in the pathogenesis and development of lifestyle-related diseases. In this study, we investigated the association between the derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs), as an index of products of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and biological antioxidant potential (BAP), as an index of antioxidant potential. We also investigated the associations between d-ROMs or BAP and the risk factors for lifestyle-related diseases or metabolic syndrome-associated factors to evaluate their usefulness in preventive medicine. There were 442 subjects who underwent health checkup examination in our facilities. In addition to standard medical checkup items, we analyzed d-ROMs, BAP, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level and visceral fat area (VFA) visualized on a computed tomography scan. The mean d-ROM value in females was significantly higher than that in males. There was a positive correlation between the d-ROM and VFA levels. On correlation analysis, there was a negative correlation between the d-ROM and creatinine levels. As factors that influence d-ROMs, the level of VFA was selected, suggesting the significance of oxidative stress measurement with d-ROMs. In addition, there was a positive correlation between d-ROMs and BAP values. Further research is required to resolve whether increased production of ROS or the antioxidant potential that can compensate for such an increase of ROS is more important in vivo. (author)

  15. Acupuncture attenuates hyperglycaemia and improves ovarian function in female rats subjected to continuous light exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xuezhi; Jia, Lina; Li, Yaming; Zhang, Xu

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to unnatural light cycles is increasingly associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on glucose metabolism and ovarian function in female rats subjected to long-term continuous light exposure. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=24) were divided into three experimental groups: an LD group that was maintained under a normal light-dark cycle (healthy control); an LL group that was exposed to continuous light for 21 weeks but remained untreated; and an LL+EA group that received EA at ST36 and SP6 during weeks 17 to 21 of continuous light exposure. Oestrous cycles of female rats kept in a continuously lit environment for 21 weeks were disordered and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)-like changes occurred, accompanied by increased fasting blood glucose (6.23±0.33 vs 5.27±0.40 mmol/L in week 17, p=0.015) and reduced fasting levels of serum testosterone (0.07±0.018 vs 0.12±0.058 ng/L, p=0.043) and insulin (0.89±0.20 vs 1.43±0.46 ng/L, p=0.006). After 5 weeks of EA treatment at ST36 and SP6, ovarian cycle disruption was mitigated and blood glucose levels showed a gradual decline (5.18±0.37 vs 5.80±0.55 mmol/L, p=0.017; and 5.73±0.31 vs 6.62±0.13 mmol/L, p=0.004; in the fourth and fifth weeks of EA treatment, respectively). EA also attenuated the reductions otherwise seen in serum insulin and testosterone levels. Prolonged exposure to light can lead to a decline in ovarian and pancreatic function. EA at ST36 and SP6 may reduce abnormally elevated blood glucose levels and improve ovarian and pancreatic hormone levels. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Dietary Vitamin C, E and β-Carotene Intake Does Not Significantly Affect Plasma or Salivary Antioxidant Indices and Salivary C-Reactive Protein in Older Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron-Skarbek, Anna; Guligowska, Agnieszka; Prymont-Przymińska, Anna; Godala, Małgorzata; Kolmaga, Agnieszka; Nowak, Dariusz; Szatko, Franciszek; Kostka, Tomasz

    2017-07-09

    It is not clear whether habitual dietary intake influences the antioxidant or inflammatory status. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of antioxidative vitamins C, E, and β-carotene obtained from daily food rations on plasma and salivary Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), uric acid and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP). The study involved 80 older subjects (66.9 ± 4.3 years), divided into two groups: group 1 ( n = 43) with lower and group 2 ( n = 37) with higher combined vitamins C, E and β-carotene intake. A 24-h dietary recall was obtained from each individual. TAC was assessed simultaneously with two methods in plasma (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma-FRAP, 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-DPPH) and in saliva (FRAS and DPPHS test). Lower vitamin C intake corresponded to higher FRAS. There were no other correlations between vitamins C, E or β-carotene intake and antioxidant indices. Salivary CRP was not related to any antioxidant indices. FRAS was decreased in group 2 ( p < 0.01) but no other group differences for salivary or for plasma antioxidant parameters and salivary CRP were found. Habitual, not extra supplemented dietary intake does not significantly affect plasma or salivary TAC and salivary CRP.

  17. Clinical progress of human papillomavirus genotypes and their persistent infection in subjects with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance cytology: Statistical and latent Dirichlet allocation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yee Suk; Lee, Sungin; Zong, Nansu; Kahng, Jimin

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate differences in prognosis based on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, persistent infection and genotype variations for patients exhibiting atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) in their initial Papanicolaou (PAP) test results. A latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA)-based tool was developed that may offer a facilitated means of communication to be employed during patient-doctor consultations. The present study assessed 491 patients (139 HPV-positive and 352 HPV-negative cases) with a PAP test result of ASCUS with a follow-up period ≥2 years. Patients underwent PAP and HPV DNA chip tests between January 2006 and January 2009. The HPV-positive subjects were followed up with at least 2 instances of PAP and HPV DNA chip tests. The most common genotypes observed were HPV-16 (25.9%, 36/139), HPV-52 (14.4%, 20/139), HPV-58 (13.7%, 19/139), HPV-56 (11.5%, 16/139), HPV-51 (9.4%, 13/139) and HPV-18 (8.6%, 12/139). A total of 33.3% (12/36) patients positive for HPV-16 had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)2 or a worse result, which was significantly higher than the prevalence of CIN2 of 1.8% (8/455) in patients negative for HPV-16 (Paged ≥51 years (38.7%) than in those aged ≤50 years (20.4%; P=0.036). Progression from persistent infection to CIN2 or worse (19/34, 55.9%) was higher than clearance (0/105, 0.0%; Page and long infection period with a clinical progression of CIN2 or worse. Therefore, LDA results may be presented as explanatory evidence during time-constrained patient-doctor consultations in order to deliver information regarding the patient's status. PMID:28587376

  18. Sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout extract improves hepatic abnormalities in male subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Ushida, Yusuke; Shiozawa, Hirokazu; Umeda, Rumiko; Tsuruya, Kota; Aoki, Yudai; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Nishizaki, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate effects of dietary supplementation of sulforaphane (SF)-rich broccoli sprout (BS) extract on hepatic abnormalities in Japanese male participants. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind trial, male participants with fatty liver received either BS capsules containing glucoraphanin [GR; a precursor of SF (n = 24)] or placebo (n = 28) for 2 mo. Liver function markers, serum levels of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT, respectively) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP) and an oxidative stress marker, urinary levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), were measured and compared in participants before and after the trial period. In an animal model, chronic liver failure was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by successive intraperitoneal injection with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) for 4 wk. Concomitantly, rats received AIN-76 diets supplemented with or without BS extract. Thereafter, rats were sacrificed, and their sera and livers were collected to measure serum liver function markers and hepatic levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels and hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, a prototypical phase 2 antioxidant enzyme. RESULTS: Dietary supplementation with BS extract containing SF precursor GR for 2 mo significantly decreased serum levels of liver function markers, ALT [median (interquartile range), before: 54.0 (34.5-79.0) vs after supplementation: 48.5 (33.3-65.3) IU/L, P NDMA-induced chronic liver failure in rats, which was attributable to the suppression of the increase in TBARS through induction of hepatic phase 2 antioxidant enzymes including hepatic GST (86.6 ± 95.2 vs 107.8 ± 7.7 IU/g, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Dietary supplementation with BS extract containing the SF precursor GR is likely to be highly effective in improving liver function through reduction of oxidative stress. PMID:26604653

  19. Is the implementation of quality improvement methods in hospitals subject to the neighbourhood effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tsung-Hsien; Chung, Kuo-Piao

    2014-06-01

    Quality improvement (QI) methods have been fashionable in hospitals for decades. Previous studies have discussed the relationships between the implementation of QI methods and various external and internal factors, but there has been no examination to date of whether the neighbourhood effect influences such implementation. The aim of this study was to use a multilevel model to investigate whether and how the neighbourhood effect influences the implementation of QI methods in the hospital setting in Taiwan. This is a retrospective questionnaire-based survey. All medical centres, regional hospitals and district teaching hospitals in Taiwan. Directors or persons in charge of implementing QI methods in hospitals. None. The breadth and depth of QI method implementation. Seventy-two of the 139 hospitals contacted returned the questionnaire, yielding a 52% response rate. The breadth and depth of QI method implementation increased over the 10-year study period, particularly between 2004 and 2006. The breadth and depth of the QI methods implemented in the participating hospitals were significantly associated with the average breadth and depth of those implemented by their competitors in the same medical area during the previous period. In addition, time was positively associated with the breadth and depth of QI method implementation. In summary, the findings of this study show that hospitals' QI implementation status is influenced by that of their neighbours. Hence, the neighbourhood effect is an important factor in understanding hospital behaviour. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  20. Subject-chosen activities in occupational therapy for the improvement of psychiatric symptoms of inpatients with chronic schizophrenia: a controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshii, Junko; Yotsumoto, Kayano; Tatsumi, Eri; Tanaka, Chito; Mori, Takashi; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2013-07-01

    To compare the therapeutic effects of subject-chosen and therapist-chosen activities in occupational therapy for inpatients with chronic schizophrenia. Prospective comparative study. A psychiatric hospital in Japan. Fifty-nine patients with chronic schizophrenia who had been hospitalized for many years. The subjects received six-months occupational therapy, participating in either activities of their choice (subject-chosen activity group, n = 30) or activities chosen by occupational therapists based on treatment recommendations and patient consent (therapist-chosen activity group, n = 29). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale were used to evaluate psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial function, respectively. After six-months occupational therapy, suspiciousness and hostility scores of the positive scale and preoccupation scores of the general psychopathology scale significantly improved in the subject-chosen activity group compared with the therapist-chosen activity group, with 2(2) (median (interquartile range)) and 3(1.25), 2(1) and 2.5(1), and 2(1) and 3(1), respectively. There were no significant differences in psychosocial functions between the two groups. In within-group comparisons before and after occupational therapy, suspiciousness scores of the positive scale, preoccupation scores of the general psychopathology scale, and psychosocial function significantly improved only in the subject-chosen activity group, with 3(1) to 2(2), 3(1) to 2(1), and 40(9) to 40(16) respectively, but not in the therapist-chosen activity group. The results suggested that the subject-chosen activities in occupational therapy could improve the psychiatric symptoms, suspiciousness, and preoccupation of the inpatients with chronic schizophrenia.

  1. Compensatory viewing training improves practical fitness to drive of subjects with impaired vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, Aart C.; Brouwer, Wiebo H.; Coeckelbergh, Tanja R.M.; Tant, Mark L.M.; Cornelissen, Frans W.; Bredewoud, Ruud A.; Melis-Dankers, Bart J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In many countries strict legal requirements for obtaining a driver’s license are in effect for visual acuity and visual field.We studied the relationship between these characteristics and driving safety and driving proficiency in an on-the-road test of practical fitness to drive in subjects with

  2. Subspecialty Exposure in a Psychiatry Clerkship Does Not Improve Student Performance in the Subject Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamero, Carolina; Ramchandani, Dilip

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The authors compared the NBME subject examination scores and subspecialty profiles of 3rd-year medical students who were assigned to psychiatry subspecialties during their clerkship with those who were not. Method: The authors collated and analyzed the shelf examination scores, the clinical grades, and the child psychiatry and emergency…

  3. Natalizumab Significantly Improves Cognitive Impairment over Three Years in MS: Pattern of Disability Progression and Preliminary MRI Findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Mattioli

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported that Multiple Sclerosis (MS patients treated with natalizumab for one or two years exhibit a significant reduction in relapse rate and in cognitive impairment, but the long term effects on cognitive performance are unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of natalizumab on cognitive impairment in a cohort of 24 consecutive patients with relapsing remitting MS treated for 3 years. The neuropsychological tests, as well as relapse number and EDSS, were assessed at baseline and yearly for three years. The impact on cortical atrophy was also considered in a subgroup of them, and are thus to be considered as preliminary. Results showed a significant reduction in the number of impaired neuropsychological tests after three years, a significant decrease in annualized relapse rate at each time points compared to baseline and a stable EDSS. In the neuropsychological assessment, a significant improvement in memory, attention and executive function test scores was detected. Preliminary MRI data show that, while GM volume did not change at 3 years, a significantly greater parahippocampal and prefrontal gray matter density was noticed, the former correlating with neuropsychological improvement in a memory test. This study showed that therapy with Natalizumab is helpful in improving cognitive performance, and is likely to have a protective role on grey matter, over a three years follow-up.

  4. How to Apply Feedback to Improve Subjective Wellbeing of Government Servants Engaged in Environmental Protection in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinmeng; Zhang, Na; Li, Miaomiao

    2018-01-01

    Background In order to improve subjective wellbeing of government servants engaged in environmental protection who work in high power distance in China, it is important to understand the impact mechanism of feedback. This study aims to analyze how feedback environment influences subjective wellbeing through basic psychological needs satisfaction and analyzing the moderating role of power distance. Method The study was designed as a cross-sectional study of 492 government servants engaged in environment protection in Shandong, China. Government servants who agreed to participate answered self-report questionnaires concerning demographic conditions, supervisor feedback environment, basic psychological need satisfaction, and power distance as well as subjective wellbeing. Results Employees in higher levels of supervisor feedback environment were more likely to experience subjective wellbeing. Full mediating effects were found for basic psychological needs satisfaction. Specifically, supervisor feedback environment firstly led to increased basic psychological needs satisfaction, which in turn resulted in increased subjective wellbeing. Additional analysis showed that the mediating effect of basic psychological needs satisfaction was stronger for employees who work in high power distance than in low power distance. Conclusion The results from the study indicate that supervisor feedback environment plays a vital role in improving subjective wellbeing of government servants engaged in environmental protection through basic psychological needs satisfaction, especially in high power distance. PMID:29662901

  5. On the ways of improving mechanical properties of boiler steels subject to hydrogen effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachev, V.I.; Litvin, A.K.; Zvezdin, Yu.I.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of oxygen on the strength properties of boiler steels Kh15M2 and 48TS subjected to heat treatment and preliminary plastic deformation has been studied. It is shown that changes in the strength properties of the steel are determined by the heterogeneity of its structure. Treatment which contributes to homogenization of the metal structure increases the resistance of the steel to detrimental effect of hydrogen. Absorption of hydrogen during cathode polarization at various current densities is shown

  6. Supplemental Stimulation Improves Swing Phase Kinematics During Exoskeleton Assisted Gait of SCI Subjects With Severe Muscle Spasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekelem, Andrew; Goldfarb, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Spasticity is a common comorbidity associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). Robotic exoskeletons have recently emerged to facilitate legged mobility in people with motor complete SCI. Involuntary muscle activity attributed to spasticity, however, can prevent such individuals from using an exoskeleton. Specifically, although most exoskeleton technologies can accommodate low to moderate spasticity, the presence of moderate to severe spasticity can significantly impair gait kinematics when using an exoskeleton. In an effort to potentially enable individuals with moderate to severe spasticity to use exoskeletons more effectively, this study investigates the use of common peroneal stimulation in conjunction with exoskeleton gait assistance. The electrical stimulation is timed with the exoskeleton swing phase, and is intended to acutely suppress extensor spasticity through recruitment of the flexion withdrawal reflex (i.e., while the stimulation is activated) to enable improved exoskeletal walking. In order to examine the potential efficacy of this approach, two SCI subjects with severe extensor spasticity (i.e., modified Ashworth ratings of three to four) walked in an exoskeleton with and without supplemental stimulation while knee and hip motion was measured during swing phase. Stimulation was alternated on and off every ten steps to eliminate transient therapeutic effects, enabling the acute effects of stimulation to be isolated. These experiments indicated that common peroneal stimulation on average increased peak hip flexion during the swing phase of walking by 21.1° (236%) and peak knee flexion by 14.4° (56%). Additionally, use of the stimulation decreased the swing phase RMS motor current by 228 mA (15%) at the hip motors and 734 mA (38%) at the knee motors, indicating improved kinematics were achieved with reduced effort from the exoskeleton. Walking with the exoskeleton did not have a significant effect on modified Ashworth scores, indicating the common

  7. Supplemental Stimulation Improves Swing Phase Kinematics During Exoskeleton Assisted Gait of SCI Subjects With Severe Muscle Spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekelem, Andrew; Goldfarb, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Spasticity is a common comorbidity associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). Robotic exoskeletons have recently emerged to facilitate legged mobility in people with motor complete SCI. Involuntary muscle activity attributed to spasticity, however, can prevent such individuals from using an exoskeleton. Specifically, although most exoskeleton technologies can accommodate low to moderate spasticity, the presence of moderate to severe spasticity can significantly impair gait kinematics when using an exoskeleton. In an effort to potentially enable individuals with moderate to severe spasticity to use exoskeletons more effectively, this study investigates the use of common peroneal stimulation in conjunction with exoskeleton gait assistance. The electrical stimulation is timed with the exoskeleton swing phase, and is intended to acutely suppress extensor spasticity through recruitment of the flexion withdrawal reflex (i.e., while the stimulation is activated) to enable improved exoskeletal walking. In order to examine the potential efficacy of this approach, two SCI subjects with severe extensor spasticity (i.e., modified Ashworth ratings of three to four) walked in an exoskeleton with and without supplemental stimulation while knee and hip motion was measured during swing phase. Stimulation was alternated on and off every ten steps to eliminate transient therapeutic effects, enabling the acute effects of stimulation to be isolated. These experiments indicated that common peroneal stimulation on average increased peak hip flexion during the swing phase of walking by 21.1° (236%) and peak knee flexion by 14.4° (56%). Additionally, use of the stimulation decreased the swing phase RMS motor current by 228 mA (15%) at the hip motors and 734 mA (38%) at the knee motors, indicating improved kinematics were achieved with reduced effort from the exoskeleton. Walking with the exoskeleton did not have a significant effect on modified Ashworth scores, indicating the common

  8. Supplemental Stimulation Improves Swing Phase Kinematics During Exoskeleton Assisted Gait of SCI Subjects With Severe Muscle Spasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ekelem

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Spasticity is a common comorbidity associated with spinal cord injury (SCI. Robotic exoskeletons have recently emerged to facilitate legged mobility in people with motor complete SCI. Involuntary muscle activity attributed to spasticity, however, can prevent such individuals from using an exoskeleton. Specifically, although most exoskeleton technologies can accommodate low to moderate spasticity, the presence of moderate to severe spasticity can significantly impair gait kinematics when using an exoskeleton. In an effort to potentially enable individuals with moderate to severe spasticity to use exoskeletons more effectively, this study investigates the use of common peroneal stimulation in conjunction with exoskeleton gait assistance. The electrical stimulation is timed with the exoskeleton swing phase, and is intended to acutely suppress extensor spasticity through recruitment of the flexion withdrawal reflex (i.e., while the stimulation is activated to enable improved exoskeletal walking. In order to examine the potential efficacy of this approach, two SCI subjects with severe extensor spasticity (i.e., modified Ashworth ratings of three to four walked in an exoskeleton with and without supplemental stimulation while knee and hip motion was measured during swing phase. Stimulation was alternated on and off every ten steps to eliminate transient therapeutic effects, enabling the acute effects of stimulation to be isolated. These experiments indicated that common peroneal stimulation on average increased peak hip flexion during the swing phase of walking by 21.1° (236% and peak knee flexion by 14.4° (56%. Additionally, use of the stimulation decreased the swing phase RMS motor current by 228 mA (15% at the hip motors and 734 mA (38% at the knee motors, indicating improved kinematics were achieved with reduced effort from the exoskeleton. Walking with the exoskeleton did not have a significant effect on modified Ashworth scores, indicating the

  9. A short-term, comprehensive, yoga-based lifestyle intervention is efficacious in reducing anxiety, improving subjective well-being and personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the efficacy of a short-term comprehensive yoga-based lifestyle intervention in reducing anxiety, improving subjective well-being and personality. Materials and Methods: The study is a part of an ongoing larger study at a tertiary care hospital. Participants (n=90 included patients with chronic diseases attending a 10-day, yoga-based lifestyle intervention program for prevention and management of chronic diseases, and healthy controls (n=45 not attending any such intervention. Primary Outcome Measures: Change in state and trait anxiety questionnaire (STAI-Y; 40 items, subjective well-being inventory (SUBI; 40 items, and neuroticism extraversion openness to experience five factor personality inventory revised (NEO-FF PI-R; 60 items at the end of intervention. Results: Following intervention, the STAI-Y scores reduced significantly (P0.01 at Day 10 versus Day 1. Similarly NEO-FF PI-R scores improved significantly (P<0.001 at Day 10 versus Day 1. Control group showed an increase in STAI-Y while SUBI and NEO-FF PI-R scores remained comparable at Day 10 versus Day 1. Conclusions: The observations suggest that a short-term, yoga-based lifestyle intervention may significantly reduce anxiety and improve subjective well-being and personality in patients with chronic diseases.

  10. Exercises focusing on rotator cuff and scapular muscles do not improve shoulder joint position sense in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yin-Liang; Karduna, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Proprioception is essential for shoulder neuromuscular control and shoulder stability. Exercise of the rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscles is an important part of shoulder rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscle exercises on shoulder joint position sense. Thirty-six healthy subjects were recruited and randomly assigned into either a control or training group. The subjects in the training group received closed-chain and open-chain exercises focusing on rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscles for four weeks. Shoulder joint position sense errors in elevation, including the humerothoracic, glenohumeral and scapulothoracic joints, was measured. After four weeks of exercise training, strength increased overall in the training group, which demonstrated the effect of exercise on the muscular system. However, the changes in shoulder joint position sense errors in any individual joint of the subjects in the training group were not different from those of the control subjects. Therefore, exercises specifically targeting individual muscles with low intensity may not be sufficient to improve shoulder joint position sense in healthy subjects. Future work is needed to further investigate which types of exercise are more effective in improving joint position sense, and the mechanisms associated with those changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Principles of brain plasticity in improving sensorimotor function of the knee and leg in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ageberg, Eva; Bjorkman, Anders; Rosen, Birgitta

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Principles of brain plasticity are used in the treatment of patients with functional limitations to improve sensorimotor function. Training is included in the treatment of knee injury to improve both patient-reported function and sensorimotor function. However, impairment...... in sensorimotor function often persists despite training. Therefore, it was suggested that training programs need to be more effective to improve sensorimotor function after knee injury. The aim of the current study was to investigate if principles of brain plasticity that have been successfully used on the hand...... age 26 years, range 19-34, 50% women) were randomized to temporary local cutaneous application of anesthetic (EMLA) (n=14) or placebo cream (n=14). Fifty grams of EMLA, or placebo, was applied on the leg 10 cm above and 10 cm below the center of patella, leaving the area around the knee without cream...

  12. Significant clinical improvement in radiation-induced lumbosacral poly-radiculopathy by a treatment combining pentoxifylline, tocopherol, and clodronate (Pentoclo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delanian, S. [Hop St Louis, Serv Oncol Radiotherapie, APHP, F-75010 Paris, (France); Lefaix, J.L. [CEA-LARIA, CIRIL-GANIL, Caen, (France); Maisonobe, T. [Hop La Pitie Salpetriere, Federat Neurophysiol Clin, APHP, Paris, (France)

    2008-07-01

    Radiation-induced (RI) peripheral neuropathy is a rare and severe delayed complication of radiotherapy that is spontaneously irreversible, with no standard of treatment. We previously developed a successful antioxidant treatment in RI fibrosis and necrosis. Two patients with progressive worsening RI lumbosacral poly-radiculopathy experienced over several years a significant clinical improvement in their neurological sensorimotor symptoms with long-term pentoxifylline-tocopherol-clodronate treatment, and good safety. (authors)

  13. The cumulative effect of small dietary changes may significantly improve nutritional intakes in free-living children and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Bornet , Francis; Paineau , Damien; Beaufils , François; Boulier , Alain; Cassuto , Dominique-Adèle; Chwalow , Judith; Combris , Pierre; Couet , Charles; Jouret , Béatrice; Lafay , Lionel; Laville , Martine; Mahé , Sylvain; Ricour , Claude; Romon , Monique; Simon , Chantal

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background/Objectives: The ELPAS study was an 8-month randomized controlled dietary modification trial designed to test the hypothesis that family dietary coaching would improve nutritional intakes and weight control in 2026 free-living children and parents (Paineau et al., 2008). It resulted in significant nutritional changes, with beneficial effects on body mass index in adults. In these ancillary analyses, we investigated dietary changes throughout the intervention. ...

  14. Multi-subject hierarchical inverse covariance modelling improves estimation of functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colclough, Giles L; Woolrich, Mark W; Harrison, Samuel J; Rojas López, Pedro A; Valdes-Sosa, Pedro A; Smith, Stephen M

    2018-05-07

    A Bayesian model for sparse, hierarchical inverse covariance estimation is presented, and applied to multi-subject functional connectivity estimation in the human brain. It enables simultaneous inference of the strength of connectivity between brain regions at both subject and population level, and is applicable to fmri, meg and eeg data. Two versions of the model can encourage sparse connectivity, either using continuous priors to suppress irrelevant connections, or using an explicit description of the network structure to estimate the connection probability between each pair of regions. A large evaluation of this model, and thirteen methods that represent the state of the art of inverse covariance modelling, is conducted using both simulated and resting-state functional imaging datasets. Our novel Bayesian approach has similar performance to the best extant alternative, Ng et al.'s Sparse Group Gaussian Graphical Model algorithm, which also is based on a hierarchical structure. Using data from the Human Connectome Project, we show that these hierarchical models are able to reduce the measurement error in meg beta-band functional networks by 10%, producing concomitant increases in estimates of the genetic influence on functional connectivity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Acid or erythromycin stress significantly improves transformation efficiency through regulating expression of DNA binding proteins in Lactococcus lactis F44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Binbin; Zhang, Huawei; Liang, Dongmei; Hao, Panlong; Li, Yanni; Qiao, Jianjun

    2017-12-01

    Lactococcus lactis is a gram-positive bacterium used extensively in the dairy industry and food fermentation, and its biological characteristics are usually improved through genetic manipulation. However, poor transformation efficiency was the main restriction factor for the construction of engineered strains. In this study, the transformation efficiency of L. lactis F44 showed a 56.1-fold increase in acid condition (pH 5.0); meanwhile, erythromycin stress (0.04 μg/mL) promoted the transformation efficiency more significantly (76.9-fold). Notably, the transformation efficiency of F44e (L. lactis F44 harboring empty pLEB124) increased up to 149.1-fold under the synergistic stresses of acid and erythromycin. In addition, the gene expression of some DNA binding proteins (DprA, RadA, RadC, RecA, RecQ, and SsbA) changed correspondingly. Especially for radA, 25.1-fold improvement was detected when F44e was exposed to pH 5.0. Overexpression of some DNA binding proteins could improve the transformation efficiency. The results suggested that acid or erythromycin stress could improve the transformation efficiency of L. lactis through regulating gene expression of DNA binding proteins. We have proposed a simple but promising strategy for improving the transformation efficiency of L. lactis and other hard-transformed microorganisms. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Significant weight loss following clozapine use, how is it possible? A case report and review of published cases and literature relevant to the subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tungaraza, Tongeji E

    2016-10-01

    It has been repeatedly shown that clozapine is more efficacious than other antipsychotics in the management of treatment-resistant schizophrenia. However, clozapine is associated with a number of side effects including weight gain. Antipsychotic-induced weight gain has been linked with a number of untoward events including psychological factors such as stigma and low self-esteem, and physical factors such as metabolic syndromes and untimely death. The mechanism underlying antipsychotic (including clozapine)-induced weight gain is not clearly understood, although it is said to involve several brain areas, several neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and genetic factors. To some individuals however, clozapine use is associated with significant weight loss (13.5-50% of body weight). The observed weight loss in these groups of patients has not been attributed to any underlying diagnosable physical disorders. There have been a handful cases published with this phenomenon, which seems to be contrary to what is expected when clozapine is prescribed. From the currently published cases three groups emerge - those who lost weight simply by taking clozapine, those who lost weight due to improved mental state, engaging in diet and increased exercise, and those for whom weight loss was a sign of a poor response to clozapine. A case of JX who has a diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder is presented. JX lost over 26% of her body weight when she was prescribed clozapine. A detailed review of other published cases is undertaken. The underlying mechanisms involving weight loss are discussed and the implications to clinicians are highlighted. Coordinated studies to examine these groups of patients may provide some insight, not only in the mechanism of clozapine-induced weight loss, but also in the better management of patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia involving clozapine use.

  17. An initiative to improve the management of clinically significant test results in a large health care network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Christopher L; Rothschild, Jeffrey M; Dighe, Anand S; Schiff, Gordon D; Graydon-Baker, Erin; Lenoci-Edwards, Jennifer; Dwyer, Cheryl; Khorasani, Ramin; Gandhi, Tejal K

    2013-11-01

    The failure of providers to communicate and follow up clinically significant test results (CSTR) is an important threat to patient safety. The Massachusetts Coalition for the Prevention of Medical Errors has endorsed the creation of systems to ensure that results can be received and acknowledged. In 2008 a task force was convened that represented clinicians, laboratories, radiology, patient safety, risk management, and information systems in a large health care network with the goals of providing recommendations and a road map for improvement in the management of CSTR and of implementing this improvement plan during the sub-force sequent five years. In drafting its charter, the task broadened the scope from "critical" results to "clinically significant" ones; clinically significant was defined as any result that requires further clinical action to avoid morbidity or mortality, regardless of the urgency of that action. The task force recommended four key areas for improvement--(1) standardization of policies and definitions, (2) robust identification of the patient's care team, (3) enhanced results management/tracking systems, and (4) centralized quality reporting and metrics. The task force faced many challenges in implementing these recommendations, including disagreements on definitions of CSTR and on who should have responsibility for CSTR, changes to established work flows, limitations of resources and of existing information systems, and definition of metrics. This large-scale effort to improve the communication and follow-up of CSTR in a health care network continues with ongoing work to address implementation challenges, refine policies, prepare for a new clinical information system platform, and identify new ways to measure the extent of this important safety problem.

  18. Sulfonylurea therapy improves glucose disposal without changing skeletal muscle GLUT4 levels in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, H; Weinreb, J E; Rosen, A S

    1995-01-01

    alteration in GLUT4 levels expressed either per microgram membrane protein or per DNA. In summary, the improvement in glycemic control and glucose disposal in NIDDM subjects receiving gliclazide therapy cannot be explained by increased expression of GLUT4 in muscle. Thus, therapeutic effects on insulin......A major pathological feature of noninsulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM) is defective insulin-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle. When NIDDM subjects are assessed as a group, GLUT4 gene expression in skeletal muscle varies widely and is not different from that in controls. Thus......, longitudinal studies are needed to assess whether changes in GLUT4 expression in muscle of NIDDM subjects could be responsible for changes in glucose disposal. The question is timely because recent studies in transgenic mice show that increasing GLUT4 expression can increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake...

  19. Die Bedeutung Subjektiver Elternschaftskonzepte fur Erziehungsverhalten und elterliche Partnerschaft. Ein Uberblick uber neuere Forschungsergebnisse (The Significance of Subjective Concepts of Parenthood for Educational Behavior and Parental Partnership).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalicki, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    Outlines the subjective concept of parenthood as the personal interpretation of parental responsibility, distinguishing it from related theoretical concepts. Discusses, against the background of theoretical models and empirical findings, the relationship of the parenthood concept with the parents' actual educational behavior. Suggests ways to…

  20. Spontaneous Resolution of Long-Standing Macular Detachment due to Optic Disc Pit with Significant Visual Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikakis, Efstratios A; Chatziralli, Irini P; Peponis, Vasileios G; Karagiannis, Dimitrios; Stratos, Aimilianos; Tsiotra, Vasileia A; Mitropoulos, Panagiotis G

    2014-01-01

    To report a case of spontaneous resolution of a long-standing serous macular detachment associated with an optic disc pit, leading to significant visual improvement. A 63-year-old female presented with a 6-month history of blurred vision and micropsia in her left eye. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 6/24 in the left eye, and fundoscopy revealed serous macular detachment associated with optic disc pit, which was confirmed by optical coherence tomography (OCT). The patient was offered vitrectomy as a treatment alternative, but she preferred to be reviewed conservatively. Three years after initial presentation, neither macular detachment nor subretinal fluid was evident in OCT, while the inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junction line was intact. Her visual acuity was improved from 6/24 to 6/12 in her left eye, remaining stable at the 6-month follow-up after resolution. We present a case of spontaneous resolution of a long-standing macular detachment associated with an optic disc pit with significant visual improvement, postulating that the integrity of the IS/OS junction line may be a prognostic factor for final visual acuity and suggesting OCT as an indicator of visual prognosis and the probable necessity of a surgical management.

  1. Spontaneous Resolution ofLong-Standing Macular Detachment due to Optic Disc Pit with Significant Visual Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstratios A. Parikakis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of spontaneous resolution of a long-standing serous macular detachment associated with an optic disc pit, leading to significant visual improvement. Case Presentation: A 63-year-old female presented with a 6-month history of blurred vision and micropsia in her left eye. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 6/24 in the left eye, and fundoscopy revealed serous macular detachment associated with optic disc pit, which was confirmed by optical coherence tomography (OCT. The patient was offered vitrectomy as a treatment alternative, but she preferred to be reviewed conservatively. Three years after initial presentation, neither macular detachment nor subretinal fluid was evident in OCT, while the inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS junction line was intact. Her visual acuity was improved from 6/24 to 6/12 in her left eye, remaining stable at the 6-month follow-up after resolution. Conclusion: We present a case of spontaneous resolution of a long-standing macular detachment associated with an optic disc pit with significant visual improvement, postulating that the integrity of the IS/OS junction line may be a prognostic factor for final visual acuity and suggesting OCT as an indicator of visual prognosis and the probable necessity of a surgical management.

  2. INCENTIVE SPIROMETRY AND BREATHING EXERCISES WERE NOT ABLE TO IMPROVE RESTRICTIVE PULMONARY CHARACTERISTICS INDUCED BY WATER IMMERSION IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Aline A. Vepo,; Caroline S. Martinez; Giulia A. Wiggers; Franck M. Peçanha

    2016-01-01

    pulmonary volumes and capacities which could be at least in part similar to that happen in healthy individuals during water immersion. Objectives: To investigate if respiratory effects of water immersion are partially due to enhanced return venous from legs and arms and if physiotherapeutic techniques incentive spirometry (IS) and breathing exercises (BE) are able to improve pulmonary volumes and capacities in healthy subjects during water immersion. Design: Randomised, within-partici...

  3. Exogenous melatonin improves corn (Zea mays L.) embryo proteome in seeds subjected to chilling stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziejczyk, Izabela; Dzitko, Katarzyna; Szewczyk, Rafał; Posmyk, Małgorzata M

    2016-04-01

    Melatonin (MEL; N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) plays an important role in plant stress defense. Various plant species rich in this indoleamine have shown a higher capacity for stress tolerance. Moreover, it has great potential for plant biostimulation, is biodegradable and non-toxic for the environment. All this indicates that our concept of seed enrichment with exogenous MEL is justified. This work concerns the effects of corn (Zea mays L.) seed pre-sowing treatments supplemented with MEL. Non-treated seeds (nt), and those hydroprimed with water (H) or with MEL solutions 50 and 500 μM (HMel50, HMel500) were compared. Positive effects of seed priming are particularly apparent during germination under suboptimal conditions. The impact of MEL applied by priming on seed protein profiles during imbibition/germination at low temperature has not been investigated to date. In order to identify changes in the corn seed proteome after applying hydropriming techniques, purified protein extracts of chilling stressed seed embryos (14 days, 5°C) were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Then proteome maps were graphically and statistically compared and selected protein spots were qualitatively analyzed using mass spectrometry techniques and identified. This study aimed to analyze the priming-induced changes in maize embryo proteome and at identifying priming-associated and MEL-associated proteins in maize seeds subjected to chilling. We attempt to explain how MEL expands plant capacity for stress tolerance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Team-based learning on a third-year pediatric clerkship improves NBME subject exam blood disorder scores

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    Kris Saudek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: At our institution, speculation amongst medical students and faculty exists as to whether team-based learning (TBL can improve scores on high-stakes examinations over traditional didactic lectures. Faculty with experience using TBL developed and piloted a required TBL blood disorders (BD module for third-year medical students on their pediatric clerkship. The purpose of this study is to analyze the BD scores from the NBME subject exams before and after the introduction of the module. Methods: We analyzed institutional and national item difficulties for BD items from the NBME pediatrics content area item analysis reports from 2011 to 2014 before (pre and after (post the pilot (October 2012. Total scores of 590 NBME subject examination students from examinee performance profiles were analyzed pre/post. t-Tests and Cohen's d effect sizes were used to analyze item difficulties for institutional versus national scores and pre/post comparisons of item difficulties and total scores. Results: BD scores for our institution were 0.65 (±0.19 compared to 0.62 (±0.15 nationally (P=0.346; Cohen's d=0.15. The average of post-consecutive BD scores for our students was 0.70(±0.21 compared to examinees nationally [0.64 (±0.15] with a significant mean difference (P=0.031; Cohen's d=0.43. The difference in our institutions pre [0.65 (±0.19] and post [0.70 (±0.21] BD scores trended higher (P=0.391; Cohen's d=0.27. Institutional BD scores were higher than national BD scores for both pre and post, with an effect size that tripled from pre to post scores. Institutional BD scores increased after the use of the TBL module, while overall exam scores remained steadily above national norms. Conclusions: Institutional BD scores were higher than national BD scores for both pre and post, with an effect size that tripled from pre to post scores. Institutional BD scores increased after the use of the TBL module, while overall exam scores remained steadily above

  5. Aerobic exercise improves quality of life, psychological well-being and systemic inflammation in subjects with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Kader, Shehab M; Al-Jiffri, Osama H

    2016-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease has a destructive drawbacks on the patient and his/her entire family as this disease badly af fects the behavior, cognition and abilities to do activities of daily living (ADL). The physical and mental benefits of exercise are widely known but seldom available to persons suffering from Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study was to measure quality of life, systemic inflammation and psychological well-being response to aerobic exercises in Alzheimer's. Forty Alzheimer elderly subjects were enrolled in two groups; the first group received treadmill aerobic exercise, while the second group was considered as a control group and received no training intervention for two months. Assessment of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES),Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Profile of Mood States(POMS) and SF-36 health quality of life (SF-36 HRQL) were taken before and at the end of the study. There was a 25.2%, 19.4%, 23.5%, 21.3%, 17.7% , 11.7%, 12.5% and 10.1 % reduction in mean values of TNF-α, IL-6, BDI, POMS, health transition SF-36 subscale, bodily pain SF-36 subscale, role functioning: emotional SF-36 subscale and mental health SF-36 subscale respectively in addition to 15.7%, 13.1%, 12.6%, 11.1%, 13.2% and 11.2 % increase in mean values of RSES, physical functioning SF-36 subscale, role functioning:physical SF-36 subscale, general health SF-36 subscale, Vitality SF-36 subscale and Social functioning SF-36 subscale respectively in group (A) received aerobic exercise training, so that there was a significant reduction in the mean values of TNF-α, IL-6, BDI & POMS and increase in the mean values of SF-36 HRQL subscale scores, RSES in group (A) as a result of aerobic exercise training, while the results of group (B) who received no training intervention were not significant. Also, there were significant differences between mean levels of the investigated parameters in group (A) and group (B) at

  6. Single Low Dose Primaquine (0.25 mg/kg Does Not Cause Clinically Significant Haemolysis in G6PD Deficient Subjects.

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    Germana Bancone

    Full Text Available Primaquine is the only drug consistently effective against mature gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum. The transmission blocking dose of primaquine previously recommended was 0.75 mg/kg (adult dose 45 mg but its deployment was limited because of concerns over haemolytic effects in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency. G6PD deficiency is an inherited X-linked enzymatic defect that affects an estimated 400 million people around the world with high frequencies (15-20% in populations living in malarious areas. To reduce transmission in low transmission settings and facilitate elimination of P. falciparum, the World Health Organization now recommends adding a single dose of 0.25 mg/kg (adult dose 15 mg to Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies (ACTs without G6PD testing. Direct evidence of the safety of this low dose is lacking. Adverse events and haemoglobin variations after this treatment were assessed in both G6PD normal and deficient subjects in the context of targeted malaria elimination in a malaria endemic area on the North-Western Myanmar-Thailand border where prevalence of G6PD deficiency (Mahidol variant approximates 15%.The tolerability and safety of primaquine (single dose 0.25 mg base/kg combined with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ given three times at monthly intervals was assessed in 819 subjects. Haemoglobin concentrations were estimated over the six months preceding the ACT + primaquine rounds of mass drug administration. G6PD deficiency was assessed with a phenotypic test and genotyping was performed in male subjects with deficient phenotypes and in all females. Fractional haemoglobin changes in relation to G6PD phenotype and genotype and primaquine round were assessed using linear mixed-effects models. No adverse events related to primaquine were reported during the trial. Mean fractional haemoglobin changes after each primaquine treatment in G6PD deficient subjects (-5.0%, -4.2% and -4

  7. Therapeutic mild hypothermia improves early outcomes in rats subjected to severe sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wu; Shen, Yuehong; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Shouyin; Shen, Huahao

    2018-04-15

    Therapeutic hypothermia has shown beneficial effects in sepsis. This study focused on its mechanism. Sixteen male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent cecal ligation and perforation and subsequently were treated with either hypothermia (HT; body temperature cooled and maintained at 34 °C by ice pad for 10 h; n = 8) or normothermia (NT; n = 8). Three additional rats underwent sham surgery. The body temperatures of the sham-operated and NT groups were maintained at 38 °C with a thermal pad. After the hypothermia treatment, the HT rats were rewarmed for 2 h. The groups were compared for circulating cytokines (IL-6, IL-10), lactate, high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1), and lung and intestinal lesions. Animals were observed for 24 h. Compared with the sham-operated group, the 2 sepsis group rats had significantly higher circulating IL-6, HMGB1, and lactate levels, and tissue injury. In the HT rats, the levels of IL-6, HMGB1, and lactate, the lung wet-to-dry ratio, and lung and intestinal damage were significantly lower than that of the NT group. Circulating IL-10 levels increased significantly after 12 h in the sepsis groups compared with sham animals, while that of the NT and HT groups were comparable. The survival rates of the NT and HT rats were also comparable. Therapeutic hypothermia in a rat model of sepsis was associated with lower levels of circulating IL-6 and HMGB1, and less capillary leakage and tissue edema. These results suggest that mild hypothermia has potential as a therapy in sepsis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Does early change predict long-term (6 months) improvements in subjects who receive manual therapy for low back pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Chad; Petersen, Shannon; Donaldson, Megan; Wilhelm, Mark; Learman, Ken

    2017-09-01

    Early change is commonly assessed for manual therapy interventions and has been used to determine treatment appropriateness. However, current studies have only explored the relationship of between or within-session changes and short-/medium-term outcomes. The goal of this study was to determine whether pain changes after two weeks of pragmatic manual therapy could predict those participants with chronic low back pain who demonstrate continued improvements at 6-month follow-up. This study was a retrospective observational design. Univariate logistic regression analyses were performed using a 33% and a 50% pain change to predict improvement. Those who experienced a ≥33% pain reduction by 2 weeks had 6.98 (95% CI = 1.29, 37.53) times higher odds of 50% improvement on the GRoC and 4.74 (95% CI = 1.31, 17.17) times higher odds of 50% improvement on the ODI (at 6 months). Subjects who reported a ≥50% pain reduction at 2 weeks had 5.98 (95% CI = 1.56, 22.88) times higher odds of a 50% improvement in the GRoC and 3.99 (95% CI = 1.23, 12.88) times higher odds of a 50% improvement in the ODI (at 6 months). Future studies may investigate whether a change in plan of care is beneficial for patients who are not showing early improvement predictive of a good long-term outcome.

  9. Smoking cessation improves cardiometabolic risk in overweight and obese subjects treated with varenicline and dietary counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggen, E; Svendsen, M; Tonstad, S

    2017-04-01

    Weight gain after stopping smoking potentially counteracts improvements in cardiometabolic risks. We investigated changes in metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and homeostasis assessment model insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in smokers given dietary counseling during their quit attempt. Smokers (≥10 cigarettes/day) with BMI 25-40 kg/m 2 were randomized to a low-carbohydrate or low-fat diet and treated with a standard course of varenicline for 12 weeks. Quitters were assessed according to the Russell standard (≤5 cigarettes after the quit date) validated with expired breath carbon monoxide (CO) vs 0.3 ± 3.1 kg; p = 0.7) and change in waist circumference (-2.0 ± 3.8 cm vs -0.9 ± 3.9 cm; p = 0.2). Changes in triglyceride concentrations (-0.16 ± 0.52 mmol/l vs 0.21 ± 0.95 mmol/l; p = 0.015) and diastolic blood pressure (-0.9 ± 6 mmHg vs 1.9 ± 8 mmHg; p = 0.039) were more favorable in quitters. Changes in other cardiometabolic risks and HOMA-IR did not differ between quitters and continuous smokers, nor did energy intake or resting metabolic rate. Dyslipidemia and blood pressure improved and no early weight gain was seen in quitters, suggesting that dietary intervention can mitigate some of the effects of stopping smoking on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese smokers. NCT01069458. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Combination of blood tests for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis improves the assessment of liver-prognosis in chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boursier, J; Brochard, C; Bertrais, S; Michalak, S; Gallois, Y; Fouchard-Hubert, I; Oberti, F; Rousselet, M-C; Calès, P

    2014-07-01

    Recent longitudinal studies have emphasised the prognostic value of noninvasive tests of liver fibrosis and cross-sectional studies have shown their combination significantly improves diagnostic accuracy. To compare the prognostic accuracy of six blood fibrosis tests and liver biopsy, and evaluate if test combination improves the liver-prognosis assessment in chronic hepatitis C (CHC). A total of 373 patients with compensated CHC, liver biopsy (Metavir F) and blood tests targeting fibrosis (APRI, FIB4, Fibrotest, Hepascore, FibroMeter) or cirrhosis (CirrhoMeter) were included. Significant liver-related events (SLRE) and liver-related deaths were recorded during follow-up (started the day of biopsy). During the median follow-up of 9.5 years (3508 person-years), 47 patients had a SLRE and 23 patients died from liver-related causes. For the prediction of first SLRE, most blood tests allowed higher prognostication than Metavir F [Harrell C-index: 0.811 (95% CI: 0.751-0.868)] with a significant increase for FIB4: 0.879 [0.832-0.919] (P = 0.002), FibroMeter: 0.870 [0.812-0.922] (P = 0.005) and APRI: 0.861 [0.813-0.902] (P = 0.039). Multivariate analysis identified FibroMeter, CirrhoMeter and sustained viral response as independent predictors of first SLRE. CirrhoMeter was the only independent predictor of liver-related death. The combination of FibroMeter and CirrhoMeter classifications into a new FM/CM classification improved the liver-prognosis assessment compared to Metavir F staging or single tests by identifying five subgroups of patients with significantly different prognoses. Some blood fibrosis tests are more accurate than liver biopsy for determining liver prognosis in CHC. A new combination of two complementary blood tests, one targeted for fibrosis and the other for cirrhosis, optimises assessment of liver-prognosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Paliperidone palmitate once-monthly maintains improvement in functioning domains of the Personal and Social Performance scale compared with placebo in subjects with schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dong-Jing; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Walling, David; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Schooler, Nina R; Alphs, Larry

    2018-02-01

    Evaluate the effect of paliperidone palmitate once-monthly (PP1M) injectable on the specific functioning domains of the Personal and Social Performance (PSP) scale in patients with schizoaffective disorder (SCA) participating in a long-term study. This study (NCT01193153) included both in- and outpatient subjects with SCA experiencing an acute exacerbation of psychotic and mood symptoms. Subjects were treated with PP1M either as monotherapy or in combination with antidepressants or mood stabilizers during a 25-week open-label (OL) phase. Stabilized subjects were randomly assigned 1:1 (PP1M or placebo) into a 15-month double-blind (DB) relapse-prevention period. Functioning of the randomized subjects during OL and DB phases was evaluated using the PSP scale (four domains: socially useful activities, personal/social relationships, self-care, and disturbing/aggressive behaviors). Three statistical approaches were utilized to analyze PSP scores to assess robustness and consistency of findings. No adjustments were made for multiplicity. 334 of 667 enrolled subjects were stabilized with PP1M, randomly assigned to PP1M (n=164) or placebo (n=170) in the DB phase, and included in this analysis. Improvements in all PSP domain scores were observed during the OL phase and were maintained during the DB phase with PP1M, but decreased with placebo. Differences compared to placebo were significant in all four PSP domains during the DB phase (P≤0.008). The analysis in this study showed that PP1M improves functioning, as measured by the four PSP domain scores, in symptomatic subjects with SCA. Functioning was maintained compared with placebo. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Theobromine consumption does not improve fasting and postprandial vascular function in overweight and obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, Lotte; Mensink, Ronald P; van den Driessche, Jose J; Joris, Peter J; Plat, Jogchum

    2018-01-12

    Theobromine, a component of cocoa, may favorably affect conventional lipid-related cardiovascular risk markers, but effects on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and other vascular function markers are not known. To evaluate the effects of 4-week theobromine consumption (500 mg/day) on fasting and postprandial vascular function markers. In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, 44 apparently healthy overweight (N = 30) and obese (N = 14) men and women with low HDL-C concentrations, consumed daily 500 mg theobromine or placebo for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks, FMD, peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), augmentation index (AIx), pulse wave velocity (PWV), blood pressure (BP) and retinal microvasculature measurements were performed. These measurements were carried out under fasting conditions and 2.5 h after a high-fat mixed meal challenge. 4-week theobromine consumption did not change fasting vascular function markers, except for a decrease in central AIx (cAIx, - 1.7 pp, P = 0.037) and a trend towards smaller venular calibers (- 2 µm, P = 0.074). Consuming a high-fat mixed meal decreased FMD (0.89 pp, P = 0.002), reactive hyperemia index (RHI, - 0.30, P Theobromine did not modify these postprandial effects, but increased postprandially the brachial artery diameter (0.03 cm, P = 0.015), and decreased the cAIx corrected for a HR of 75 (cAIx75, - 5.0 pp, P = 0.004) and peripheral AIx (pAIx, - 6.3 pp, P = 0.017). Theobromine consumption did not improve fasting and postprandial endothelial function, but increased postprandial peripheral arterial diameters and decreased the AIx. These findings do not suggest that theobromine alone contributes to the proposed cardioprotective effects of cocoa. This trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov under study number NCT02209025.

  13. Concept mapping improves academic performance in problem solving questions in biochemistry subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mukhtiar; Tariq, Saba; Rehman, Rehana; Ali, Sobia; Gazzaz, Zohair J

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of concept mapping (CM) on the academic performance of medical students' in problem-solving as well as in declarative knowledge questions and their perception regarding CM. The present analytical and questionnaire-based study was carried out at Bahria University Medical and Dental College (BUMDC), Karachi, Pakistan. In this analytical study, students were assessed with problem-solving questions (A-type MCQs), and declarative knowledge questions (short essay questions), and 50% of the questions were from the topics learned by CM. Students also filled a 10-item, 3-point Likert scale questionnaire about their perception regarding the effectiveness of the CM approach, and two open-ended questions were also asked. There was a significant difference in the marks obtained in those problem-solving questions, which were learned by CM as compared to those topics which were taught by the traditional lectures (pacademic performance in problem solving but not in declarative knowledge questions. Students' perception about the effectiveness of CM was overwhelmingly positive.

  14. Significant improvement of olfactory performance in sleep apnea patients after three months of nasal CPAP therapy - Observational study and randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Boerner

    Full Text Available The olfactory function highly impacts quality of life (QoL. Continuous positive airway pressure is an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and is often applied by nasal masks (nCPAP. The influence of nCPAP on the olfactory performance of OSA patients is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the sense of smell before initiation of nCPAP and after three months treatment, in moderate and severe OSA patients.The sense of smell was assessed in 35 patients suffering from daytime sleepiness and moderate to severe OSA (apnea/hypopnea index ≥ 15/h, with the aid of a validated test battery (Sniffin' Sticks before initiation of nCPAP therapy and after three months of treatment. Additionally, adherent subjects were included in a double-blind randomized three weeks CPAP-withdrawal trial (sub-therapeutic CPAP pressure.Twenty five of the 35 patients used the nCPAP therapy for more than four hours per night, and for more than 70% of nights (adherent group. The olfactory performance of these patients improved significantly (p = 0.007 after three months of nCPAP therapy. When considering the entire group of patients, olfaction also improved significantly (p = 0.001. In the randomized phase the sense of smell of six patients deteriorated under sub-therapeutic CPAP pressure (p = 0.046 whereas five patients in the maintenance CPAP group showed no significant difference (p = 0.501.Olfactory performance improved significantly after three months of nCPAP therapy in patients suffering from moderate and severe OSA. It seems that this effect of nCPAP is reversible under sub-therapeutic CPAP pressure.ISRCTN11128866.

  15. The European Academy laparoscopic “Suturing Training and Testing’’ (SUTT) significantly improves surgeons’ performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleiman, Z.; Tanos, V.; Van Belle, Y.; Carvalho, J.L.; Campo, R.

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of suturing training and testing (SUTT) model by laparoscopy was evaluated, measuring the suturingskill acquisition of trainee gynecologists at the beginning and at the end of a teaching course. During a workshop organized by the European Academy of Gynecological Surgery (EAGS), 25 participants with three different experience levels in laparoscopy (minor, intermediate and major) performed the 4 exercises of the SUTT model (Ex 1: both hands stitching and continuous suturing, Ex 2: right hand stitching and intracorporeal knotting, Ex 3: left hand stitching and intracorporeal knotting, Ex 4: dominant hand stitching, tissue approximation and intracorporeal knotting). The time needed to perform the exercises is recorded for each trainee and group and statistical analysis used to note the differences. Overall, all trainees achieved significant improvement in suturing time (p psychomotor skills, surgery, teaching, training suturing model. PMID:26977264

  16. High-intensity interval training (swimming) significantly improves the adverse metabolism and comorbidities in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Victor F; Aguila, Marcia B; Mandarim-DE-Lacerda, Carlos A

    2016-05-01

    Controlling obesity and other comorbidities in the population is a challenge in modern society. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) combines short periods of high-intensity exercise with long recovery periods or a low-intensity exercise. The aim was to assess the impact of HIIT in the context of diet-induced obesity in the animal model. C57BL/6 mice were fed one of the two diets: standard chow (lean group [LE]) or a high-fat diet (obese group [OB]). After twelve weeks, the animals were divided into non-trained groups (LE-NT and OB-NT) and trained groups (LE-T and OB-T), and began an exercise protocol. For biochemical analysis of inflammatory and lipid profile, we used a colorimetric enzymatic method and an automatic spectrophotometer. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis of the experimental groups with Holm-Sidak post-hoc Test. Two-way ANOVA analyzed the interactions between diet and HIIT protocol. HIIT leads to significant reductions in body mass, blood glucose, glucose tolerance and hepatic lipid profile in T-groups compared to NT-groups. HIIT was able to reduce plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, HIIT improves the insulin immunodensity in the islets, reduces the adiposity and the hepatic steatosis in the T-groups. HIIT improves beta-oxidation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha and reduces lipogenesis and PPAR-gamma levels in the liver. In skeletal muscle, HIIT improves PPAR-alpha and glucose transporter-4 and reduces PPAR-gamma levels. HIIT leads to attenuate the adverse effects caused by a chronic ingestion of a high-fat diet.

  17. Codon Optimization Significantly Improves the Expression Level of α-Amylase Gene from Bacillus licheniformis in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Rong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Amylase as an important industrial enzyme has been widely used in starch processing, detergent, and paper industries. To improve expression efficiency of recombinant α-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis, the α-amylase gene from B. licheniformis was optimized according to the codon usage of Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris and expressed in P. pastoris. Totally, the codons encoding 305 amino acids were optimized in which a total of 328 nucleotides were changed and the G+C content was increased from 47.6 to 49.2%. The recombinants were cultured in 96-deep-well microplates and screened by a new plate assay method. Compared with the wild-type gene, the optimized gene is expressed at a significantly higher level in P. pastoris after methanol induction for 168 h in 5- and 50-L bioreactor with the maximum activity of 8100 and 11000 U/mL, which was 2.31- and 2.62-fold higher than that by wild-type gene. The improved expression level makes the enzyme a good candidate for α-amylase production in industrial use.

  18. Improving subjective pattern recognition in chemical senses through reduction of nonlinear effects in evaluation of sparse data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadi, Amir H.; Rasouli, Firooz; Wrenn, Susan E.; Subbiah, M.

    2002-11-01

    Artificial neural network models are typically useful in pattern recognition and extraction of important features in large data sets. These models are implemented in a wide variety of contexts and with diverse type of input-output data. The underlying mathematics of supervised training of neural networks is ultimately tied to the ability to approximate the nonlinearities that are inherent in network"s generalization ability. The quality and availability of sufficient data points for training and validation play a key role in the generalization ability of the network. A potential domain of applications of neural networks is in analysis of subjective data, such as in consumer science, affective neuroscience and perception of chemical senses. In applications of ANN to subjective data, it is common to rely on knowledge of the science and context for data acquisition, for instance as a priori probabilities in the Bayesian framework. In this paper, we discuss the circumstances that create challenges for success of neural network models for subjective data analysis, such as sparseness of data and cost of acquisition of additional samples. In particular, in the case of affect and perception of chemical senses, we suggest that inherent ambiguity of subjective responses could be offset by a combination of human-machine expert. We propose a method of pre- and post-processing for blind analysis of data that that relies on heuristics from human performance in interpretation of data. In particular, we offer an information-theoretic smoothing (ITS) algorithm that optimizes that geometric visualization of multi-dimensional data and improves human interpretation of the input-output view of neural network implementations. The pre- and post-processing algorithms and ITS are unsupervised. Finally, we discuss the details of an example of blind data analysis from actual taste-smell subjective data, and demonstrate the usefulness of PCA in reduction of dimensionality, as well as ITS.

  19. Neuron-specific caveolin-1 overexpression improves motor function and preserves memory in mice subjected to brain trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Junji; Schilling, Jan M; Cui, Weihua; Posadas, Edmund; Sawada, Atsushi; Alas, Basheer; Zemljic-Harpf, Alice E; Fannon-Pavlich, McKenzie J; Mandyam, Chitra D; Roth, David M; Patel, Hemal H; Patel, Piyush M; Head, Brian P

    2017-08-01

    Studies in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that membrane/lipid rafts and caveolin (Cav) organize progrowth receptors, and, when overexpressed specifically in neurons, Cav-1 augments neuronal signaling and growth and improves cognitive function in adult and aged mice; however, whether neuronal Cav-1 overexpression can preserve motor and cognitive function in the brain trauma setting is unknown. Here, we generated a neuron-targeted Cav-1-overexpressing transgenic (Tg) mouse [synapsin-driven Cav-1 (SynCav1 Tg)] and subjected it to a controlled cortical impact model of brain trauma and measured biochemical, anatomic, and behavioral changes. SynCav1 Tg mice exhibited increased hippocampal expression of Cav-1 and membrane/lipid raft localization of postsynaptic density protein 95, NMDA receptor, and tropomyosin receptor kinase B. When subjected to a controlled cortical impact, SynCav1 Tg mice demonstrated preserved hippocampus-dependent fear learning and memory, improved motor function recovery, and decreased brain lesion volume compared with wild-type controls. Neuron-targeted overexpression of Cav-1 in the adult brain prevents hippocampus-dependent learning and memory deficits, restores motor function after brain trauma, and decreases brain lesion size induced by trauma. Our findings demonstrate that neuron-targeted Cav-1 can be used as a novel therapeutic strategy to restore brain function and prevent trauma-associated maladaptive plasticity.-Egawa, J., Schilling, J. M., Cui, W., Posadas, E., Sawada, A., Alas, B., Zemljic-Harpf, A. E., Fannon-Pavlich, M. J., Mandyam, C. D., Roth, D. M., Patel, H. H., Patel, P. M., Head, B. P. Neuron-specific caveolin-1 overexpression improves motor function and preserves memory in mice subjected to brain trauma. © FASEB.

  20. Do Electrochemiluminescence Assays Improve Prediction of Time to Type 1 Diabetes in Autoantibody-Positive TrialNet Subjects?

    OpenAIRE

    Fouts, Alexandra; Pyle, Laura; Yu, Liping; Miao, Dongmei; Michels, Aaron; Krischer, Jeffrey; Sosenko, Jay; Gottlieb, Peter; Steck, Andrea K.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore whether electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assays can help improve prediction of time to type 1 diabetes in the TrialNet autoantibody-positive population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS TrialNet subjects who were positive for one or more autoantibodies (microinsulin autoantibody, GAD65 autoantibody [GADA], IA-2A, and ZnT8A) with available ECL-insulin autoantibody (IAA) and ECL-GADA data at their initial visit were analyzed; after a median follow-up of 24 months, 177 of these 1,2...

  1. Complete Au@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles with enhanced plasmonic absorption enabling significantly improved photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yiqiang; Sun, Yugang; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Guozhu; Zhang, Fengshou; Liu, Dilong; Cai, Weiping; Li, Yue; Yang, Xianfeng; Li, Cuncheng

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructured ZnO exhibits high chemical stability and unique optical properties, representing a promising candidate among photocatalysts in the field of environmental remediation and solar energy conversion. However, ZnO only absorbs the UV light, which accounts for less than 5% of total solar irradiation, significantly limiting its applications. In this article, we report a facile and efficient approach to overcome the poor wettability between ZnO and Au by carefully modulating the surface charge density on Au nanoparticles (NPs), enabling rapid synthesis of Au@ZnO core-shell NPs at room temperature. The resulting Au@ZnO core-shell NPs exhibit a significantly enhanced plasmonic absorption in the visible range due to the Au NP cores. They also show a significantly improved photocatalytic performance in comparison with their single-component counterparts, i.e., the Au NPs and ZnO NPs. Moreover, the high catalytic activity of the as-synthesized Au@ZnO core-shell NPs can be maintained even after many cycles of photocatalytic reaction. Our results shed light on the fact that the Au@ZnO core-shell NPs represent a promising class of candidates for applications in plasmonics, surface-enhanced spectroscopy, light harvest devices, solar energy conversion, and degradation of organic pollutants.Nanostructured ZnO exhibits high chemical stability and unique optical properties, representing a promising candidate among photocatalysts in the field of environmental remediation and solar energy conversion. However, ZnO only absorbs the UV light, which accounts for less than 5% of total solar irradiation, significantly limiting its applications. In this article, we report a facile and efficient approach to overcome the poor wettability between ZnO and Au by carefully modulating the surface charge density on Au nanoparticles (NPs), enabling rapid synthesis of Au@ZnO core-shell NPs at room temperature. The resulting Au@ZnO core-shell NPs exhibit a significantly enhanced plasmonic

  2. Combat-related intradural gunshot wound to the thoracic spine: significant improvement and neurologic recovery following bullet removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwes, Thijs M; Ward, William H; Lee, Kendall H; Freedman, Brett A

    2015-02-01

    The vast majority of combat-related penetrating spinal injuries from gunshot wounds result in severe or complete neurological deficit. Treatment is based on neurological status, the presence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas, and local effects of any retained fragment(s). We present a case of a 46-year-old male who sustained a spinal gunshot injury from a 7.62-mm AK-47 round that became lodged within the subarachnoid space at T9-T10. He immediately suffered complete motor and sensory loss. By 24-48 hours post-injury, he had recovered lower extremity motor function fully but continued to have severe sensory loss (posterior cord syndrome). On post-injury day 2, he was evacuated from the combat theater and underwent a T9 laminectomy, extraction of the bullet, and dural laceration repair. At surgery, the traumatic durotomy was widened and the bullet, which was laying on the dorsal surface of the spinal cord, was removed. The dura was closed in a water-tight fashion and fibrin glue was applied. Postoperatively, the patient made a significant but incomplete neurological recovery. His stocking-pattern numbness and sub-umbilical searing dysthesia improved. The spinal canal was clear of the foreign body and he had no persistent CSF leak. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed contusion of the spinal cord at the T9 level. Early removal of an intra-canicular bullet in the setting of an incomplete spinal cord injury can lead to significant neurological recovery following even high-velocity and/or high-caliber gunshot wounds. However, this case does not speak to, and prior experience does not demonstrate, significant neurological benefit in the setting of a complete injury.

  3. Does Mindfulness Improve After Heart Coherence Training in Patients With Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain and Healthy Subjects? A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soer, Remko; de Jong, Annemieke B; Hofstra, Bert L; Preuper, Henrica R Schiphorst; Reneman, Michiel F

    2015-07-01

    Mindfulness and heart coherence training (HCT) training are applied increasingly in the treatment of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP). Questionnaires have been developed to assess changes in mindfulness but no gold standard is available. Explore the relationship between changes in mindfulness scores and changes in heart coherence after 3 sessions of HCT in patients with CMP and in healthy subjects. Ten patients with CMP and 15 healthy subjects were trained in self-regulation with the use of HCT following a standardized stress relief program developed by the HeartMath Institute. A heart coherence-score (HC-score) was constructed with scores ranging from 0-100 with higher scores reflecting more heart rate variability (HRV) coherency. Change scores, Spearman correlation coefficients, and Wilcoxon Signed Rank test were calculated to test relationships and differences between HC-score, the Mindfulness Attention and Awareness Scale (MAAS) and Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ). A new questionnaire was constructed to explore on which mindfulness-related domains patients with CMP report changes after HCT. Increases were present on HC-score in healthy subjects (Ppilot study, mindfulness as assessed by the MAAS and FFMQ does not appear to improve after HCT. HRV coherency, MAAS, and FFMQ measure different constructs and are weakly related. It is of great importance to choose and develop valid measures that reflect patients' states of mindfulness. Content and face validity of measures of mindfulness may be considered in the light of performance-based measures.

  4. Glucosamine-containing supplement improves locomotor functions in subjects with knee pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Ono, Yoshiko; Shibata, Hiroshi; Moritani, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of a glucosamine-containing supplement to improve locomotor functions in subjects with knee pain. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group comparative study was conducted for 16 weeks in 100 Japanese subjects (age, 51.8±0.8 years) with knee pain. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the two supplements containing 1) 1,200 mg of glucosamine hydrochloride, 60 mg of chondroitin sulfate, 45 mg of type II collagen peptides, 90 mg of quercetin glycosides, 10 mg of imidazole peptides, and 5 μg of vitamin D per day (GCQID group, n=50) or 2) a placebo (placebo group, n=50). Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure, visual analog scale score, normal walking speed, and knee-extensor strength were measured to evaluate the effects of the supplement on knee-joint functions and locomotor functions. In subjects eligible for efficacy assessment, there was no significant group × time interaction, and there were improvements in knee-joint functions and locomotor functions in both groups, but there was no significant difference between the groups. In subjects with mild-to-severe knee pain at baseline, knee-extensor strength at week 8 (104.6±5.0% body weight vs 92.3±5.5% body weight, P=0.030) and the change in normal walking speed at week 16 (0.11±0.03 m/s vs 0.05±0.02 m/s, P=0.038) were significantly greater in the GCQID group than in the placebo group. Further subgroup analysis based on Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grade showed that normal walking speed at week 16 (1.36±0.05 m/s vs 1.21±0.02 m/s, Pknee pain, GCQID supplementation was effective for relieving knee pain and improving locomotor functions.

  5. A matter of timing: identifying significant multi-dose radiotherapy improvements by numerical simulation and genetic algorithm search.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D Angus

    -effecitive means of significantly improving clinical efficacy.

  6. A matter of timing: identifying significant multi-dose radiotherapy improvements by numerical simulation and genetic algorithm search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Simon D; Piotrowska, Monika Joanna

    2014-01-01

    of significantly improving clinical efficacy.

  7. Treatment with the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin improves fasting islet-cell function in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessio, David A; Denney, Amanda M; Hermiller, Linda M; Prigeon, Ronald L; Martin, Julie M; Tharp, William G; Saylan, Monica Liqueros; He, Yanling; Dunning, Beth E; Foley, James E; Pratley, Richard E

    2009-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are proposed to lower blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by prolonging the activity of the circulating incretins, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). Consistent with this mechanism of action, DPP-4 inhibitors improve glucose tolerance after meals by increasing insulin and reducing glucagon levels in the plasma. However, DPP-4 inhibitors also reduce fasting blood glucose, an unexpected effect because circulating levels of active GIP and GLP-1 are low in the postabsorptive state. The objective of the study was to examine the effects of DPP-4 inhibition on fasting islet function. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The study was performed in General Clinical Research Centers at two University Hospitals. Forty-one subjects with T2DM were treated with metformin or diet, having good glycemic control with glycosylated hemoglobin values of 6.2-7.5%. Subjects were treated with vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) or placebo for 3 months, followed by a 2-wk washout. Major Outcome Measure: We measured insulin secretion in response to iv glucose and arginine before and after treatment and after drug washout. There were small and comparable reductions in glycosylated hemoglobin in both groups over 3 months. Vildagliptin increased fasting GLP-1 levels in subjects taking metformin, but not those managed with diet, and raised active GIP levels slightly. DPP-4 inhibitor treatment improved the acute insulin and C-peptide responses to glucose (50 and 100% respectively; P fasting conditions. This suggests that DPP-4 inhibition has metabolic benefits in addition to enhancing meal-induced GLP-1 and GIP activity.

  8. Wii Fit® training vs. Adapted Physical Activities: which one is the most appropriate to improve the balance of independent senior subjects? A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulotte, Claire; Toursel, Cindy; Olivier, Nicolas

    2012-09-01

    To compare the effectiveness of three protocols (Adapted Physical Activities, Wii Fit(®), Adapted Physical Activities + Wii Fit(®)) on the balance of independent senior subjects. Case comparison study. Healthy elderly subjects living in independent community dwellings. Thirty-six subjects, average age 75.09 ± 10.26 years, took part in this study, and were randomly assigned to one of the four experimental groups: G1 followed an Adapted Physical Activities training programme, while the second group (G2) participated in Wii Fit(®) training and the third one (G3) combined both methods. There was no training for the fourth group (G4). All subjects trained once a week (1 hour) for 20 weeks and were assessed before and after treatment. The Tinetti test, unipedal tests and the Wii Fit(®) tests. After training, the scores in the Tinetti test decreased significantly (P Wii Fit(®)) and G3 (Adapted Physical Activities and Wii Fit(®)) improved their balance. In addition, G1 and G3 increased their dynamic balance. The findings suggest that Adapted Physical Activities training limits the decline in sensorial functions in the elderly.

  9. Natto and viscous vegetables in a Japanese-style breakfast improved insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in overweight subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi-Fukatsu, Akiko; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Naniwa-Kuroki, Yuko; Nishida, Yuka; Yamamoto, Hironori; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji

    2012-04-01

    We previously suggested that the consumption of natto and viscous vegetables as part of a Japanese-style meal based on white rice (WR) reduced postprandial glucose and insulin levels in healthy subjects. The aim of the present study was to assess whether a single breakfast of natto and viscous vegetables or the same breakfast consumed for 2 weeks could improve glucose control, insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in overweight subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A total of eleven free-living subjects with IGT followed a randomised, crossover breakfast intervention for 2 weeks. The test meal included boiled WR with natto (viscous fermented soyabeans), Japanese yam and okra. The control meal included WR with non-viscous boiled soyabeans, potatoes and broccoli. Both meals contained comparable amounts of carbohydrate, fat, protein and fibre. The test meal reduced acute glucose and insulin responses compared to the control meal in the study participants. Insulin sensitivity was assessed using the composite insulin sensitivity index (CISI) after both the test and control meal periods. The test meal resulted in improvements in CISI compared to the baseline, whereas no significant changes were observed after the control meal period. Serum levels of both total and LDL-cholesterol were assessed before and after the test meal period and found to decrease significantly. There was also a tendency towards reduced serum malondialdehyde-modified LDL and N(ɛ)-carboxymethyllysine. No differences were observed in the measures of chronic glycaemic control. Thus, we conclude that a breakfast of natto and viscous vegetables consumed for 2 weeks improves insulin sensitivity, serum lipid and oxidative stress.

  10. Flavonol-rich dark cocoa significantly decreases plasma endothelin-1 and improves cognitive responses in urban children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian eCalderon-Garciduenas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution exposures are linked to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. In particular, most Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA children exhibit subtle cognitive deficits, and neuropathology studies show 40% of them exhibiting frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and 51% amyloid-β diffuse plaques (compared to 0% in low pollution control children. We assessed whether a short cocoa intervention can be effective in decreasing plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1 and/or inflammatory mediators in MCMA children. Thirty g of dark cocoa with 680 mg of total flavonols were given daily for 10.11± 3.4 days (range 9 to 24 days to 18 children (10.55yrs, SD =1.45; 11F/7M. Key metabolite ratios in frontal white matter and in hippocampus pre and during cocoa intervention were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ET-1 significantly decreased after cocoa treatment (p=0.0002. Fifteen children (83% showed a marginally significant individual improvement in one or both of the applied simple short memory tasks. Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of exposure to particulate matter and decreased endothelin-1 bioavailability is likely useful for brain function in the context of air pollution. Our findings suggest that cocoa interventions may be critical for early implementation of neuroprotection of highly exposed urban children. Multi-domain nutraceutical interventions could limit the risk for endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, structural volumetric detrimental brain effects, and the early development of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.

  11. Flexible deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes for significant improvement of quantum efficiencies by external bending

    KAUST Repository

    Shervin, Shahab; Oh, Seung Kyu; Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Keon Hwa; Asadirad, Mojtaba; Kim, Seung Hwan; Kim, Jeomoh; Pouladi, Sara; Lee, Sung-Nam; Li, Xiaohang; Kwak, Joon-Seop; Ryou, Jae-Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Deep ultraviolet (DUV) light at the wavelength range of 250‒280 nm (UVC spectrum) is essential for numerous applications such as sterilization, purification, sensing, and communication. III-nitride-based DUV light-emitting diodes (DUV LEDs), like other solid-state lighting sources, offer a great potential to replace the conventional gas-discharged lamps with short lifetimes and toxic-element-bearing nature. However, unlike visible LEDs, the DUV LEDs are still suffering from low quantum efficiencies (QEs) and low optical output powers. In this work, reported is a new route to improve QEs of AlGaN-based DUV LEDs using mechanical flexibility of recently developed bendable thin-film structures. Numerical studies show that electronic band structures of AlGaN heterostructures and resulting optical and electrical characteristics of the devices can be significantly modified by external bending through active control of piezoelectric polarization. Internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is enhanced higher than three times, when the DUV LEDs are moderately bent to induce in-plane compressive strain in the heterostructure. Furthermore, efficiency droop at high injection currents is mitigated and turn-on voltage of diodes decreases with the same bending condition. The concept of bendable DUV LEDs with a controlled external strain can provide a new path for high-output-power and high-efficiency devices.

  12. Flexible deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes for significant improvement of quantum efficiencies by external bending

    KAUST Repository

    Shervin, Shahab

    2018-01-26

    Deep ultraviolet (DUV) light at the wavelength range of 250‒280 nm (UVC spectrum) is essential for numerous applications such as sterilization, purification, sensing, and communication. III-nitride-based DUV light-emitting diodes (DUV LEDs), like other solid-state lighting sources, offer a great potential to replace the conventional gas-discharged lamps with short lifetimes and toxic-element-bearing nature. However, unlike visible LEDs, the DUV LEDs are still suffering from low quantum efficiencies (QEs) and low optical output powers. In this work, reported is a new route to improve QEs of AlGaN-based DUV LEDs using mechanical flexibility of recently developed bendable thin-film structures. Numerical studies show that electronic band structures of AlGaN heterostructures and resulting optical and electrical characteristics of the devices can be significantly modified by external bending through active control of piezoelectric polarization. Internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is enhanced higher than three times, when the DUV LEDs are moderately bent to induce in-plane compressive strain in the heterostructure. Furthermore, efficiency droop at high injection currents is mitigated and turn-on voltage of diodes decreases with the same bending condition. The concept of bendable DUV LEDs with a controlled external strain can provide a new path for high-output-power and high-efficiency devices.

  13. Significant improvement of thermal stability of glucose 1-dehydrogenase by introducing disulfide bonds at the tetramer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Haitao; Gao, Fen; Liu, Danfeng; Li, Zeli; Xu, Xiaohong; Wu, Min; Zhao, Yuhua

    2013-12-10

    Rational design was applied to glucose 1-dehydrogenase (LsGDH) from Lysinibacillus sphaericus G10 to improve its thermal stability by introduction of disulfide bridges between subunits. One out of the eleven mutants, designated as DS255, displayed significantly enhanced thermal stability with considerable soluble expression and high specific activity. It was extremely stable at pH ranging from 4.5 to 10.5, as it retained nearly 100% activity after incubating at different buffers for 1h. Mutant DS255 also exhibited high thermostability, having a half-life of 9900min at 50°C, which was 1868-fold as that of its wild type. Moreover, both of the increased free energy of denaturation and decreased entropy of denaturation of DS255 suggested that the enzyme structure was stabilized by the engineered disulfide bonds. On account of its robust stability, mutant DS255 would be a competitive candidate in practical applications of chiral chemicals synthesis, biofuel cells and glucose biosensors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Imparting improvements in electrochemical sensors: evaluation of different carbon blacks that give rise to significant improvement in the performance of electroanalytical sensing platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicentini, Fernando Campanhã; Ravanini, Amanda E.; Figueiredo-Filho, Luiz C.S.; Iniesta, Jesús; Banks, Craig E.; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2015-01-01

    Three different carbon black materials have been evaluated as a potential modifier, however, only one demonstrated an improvement in the electrochemical properties. The carbon black structures were characterised with SEM, XPS and Raman spectroscopy and found to be very similar to that of amorphous graphitic materials. The modifications utilised were constructed by three different strategies (using ultrapure water, chitosan and dihexadecylphosphate). The fabricated sensors are electrochemically characterised using N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-para-phenylenediamine and both inner-sphere and outer-sphere redox probes, namely potassium ferrocyanide(II) and hexaammineruthenium(III) chloride, in addition to the biologically relevant and electroactive analytes, dopamine (DA) and acetaminophen (AP). Comparisons are made with an edge-plane pyrolytic graphite and glassy-carbon electrode and the benefits of carbon black implemented as a modifier for sensors within electrochemistry are explored, as well as the characterisation of their electroanalytical performances. We reveal significant improvements in the electrochemical performance (excellent sensitivity, faster heterogeneous electron transfer rate (HET)) over that of a bare glassy-carbon and edge-plane pyrolytic graphite electrode and thus suggest that there are substantial advantages of using carbon black as modifier in the fabrication of electrochemical based sensors. Such work is highly important and informative for those working in the field of electroanalysis where electrochemistry can provide portable, rapid, reliable and accurate sensing protocols (bringing the laboratory into the field), with particular relevance to those searching for new electrode materials

  15. Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients in southern Ethiopia: significance of improved HIV-related care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimelis, Techalew; Tassachew, Yayehyirad; Lambiyo, Tariku

    2016-05-10

    Intestinal parasitic infections are known to cause gastroenteritis, leading to higher morbidity and mortality, particularly in people living with HIV/AIDS. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients receiving care at a hospital in Ethiopia where previous available baseline data helps assess if improved HIV-related care has reduced infection rates. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Hawassa University Hospital in southern Ethiopia from May, 2013 to March, 2014. A consecutive sample of 491 HIV- infected patients with diarrhea or a CD4 T cell count intestinal parasites. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University. Physicians managed participants found to be infected with any pathogenic intestinal parasite. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the study population was 35.8 %. The most prevalent parasites were Cryptosporidium (13.2 %), followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.2 %), and Giardia lamblia (7.9 %). The rate of single and multiple infections were 25.5 and 10.3 %, respectively. Patients with a CD4 T cell count intestinal parasitic infection or cryptosporidiosis compared to those with counts ≥ 200 cells/μl, but with some type of diarrhea. The study shows high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the study population. However, the results in the current report are significantly lower compared to previous findings in the same hospital. The observed lower infection rate is encouraging and supports the need to strengthen and sustain the existing intervention measures in order to further reduce intestinal parasitic infections in people living with HIV/AIDS.

  16. Extended-release niacin/laropiprant significantly improves lipid levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus irrespective of baseline glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bays HE

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Harold E Bays,1 Eliot A Brinton,2 Joseph Triscari,3 Erluo Chen,3 Darbie Maccubbin,3 Alexandra A MacLean,3 Kendra L Gibson,3 Rae Ann Ruck,3 Amy O Johnson-Levonas,3 Edward A O’Neill,3 Yale B Mitchel3 1Louisville Metabolic & Atherosclerosis Research Center (L-MARC, Louisville, KY, USA; 2Utah Foundation for Biomedical Research, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 3Merck & Co, Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA Background: The degree of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM may alter lipid levels and may alter the efficacy of lipid-modifying agents. Objective: Evaluate the lipid-modifying efficacy of extended-release niacin/laropiprant (ERN/LRPT in subgroups of patients with T2DM with better or poorer glycemic control. Methods: Post hoc analysis of clinical trial data from patients with T2DM who were randomized 4:3 to double-blind ERN/LRPT or placebo (n=796, examining the lipid-modifying effects of ERN/LRPT in patients with glycosylated hemoglobin or fasting plasma glucose levels above and below median baseline levels. Results: At Week 12 of treatment, ERN/LRPT significantly improved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoprotein (a, compared with placebo, with equal efficacy in patients above or below median baseline glycemic control. Compared with placebo, over 36 weeks of treatment more patients treated with ERN/LRPT had worsening of their diabetes and required intensification of antihyperglycemic medication, irrespective of baseline glycemic control. Incidences of other adverse experiences were generally low in all treatment groups. Conclusion: The lipid-modifying effects of ERN/LRPT are independent of the degree of baseline glycemic control in patients with T2DM (NCT00485758. Keywords: lipid-modifying agents, hyperglycemia, LDL, HDL, triglycerides

  17. Exercise training improves in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early endothelial progenitor cells in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenschein, Kristina; Horváth, Tibor; Mueller, Maja; Markowski, Andrea; Siegmund, Tina; Jacob, Christian; Drexler, Helmut; Landmesser, Ulf

    2011-06-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and injury are considered to contribute considerably to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. It has been suggested that intense exercise training can increase the number and angiogenic properties of early endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). However, whether exercise training stimulates the capacity of early EPCs to promote repair of endothelial damage and potential underlying mechanisms remain to be determined. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of moderate exercise training on in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs, and their nitric oxide and superoxide production as characterized by electron spin resonance spectroscopy analysis in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Twenty-four subjects with metabolic syndrome were randomized to an 8 weeks exercise training or a control group. Superoxide production and nitric oxide (NO) availability of early EPCs were characterized by using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy analysis. In vivo endothelial repair capacity of EPCs was examined by transplantation into nude mice with defined carotid endothelial injury. Endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated vasodilation was analysed using high-resolution ultrasound. Importantly, exercise training resulted in a substantially improved in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs (24.0 vs 12.7%; p exercise training, but not in the control group. Moreover, exercise training reduced superoxide production of EPCs, which was not observed in the control group. The present study suggests for the first time that moderate exercise training increases nitric oxide production of early endothelial progenitor cells and reduces their superoxide production. Importantly, this is associated with a marked beneficial effect on the in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

  18. Interventions that effectively target Anopheles funestus mosquitoes could significantly improve control of persistent malaria transmission in south-eastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaindoa, Emmanuel W; Matowo, Nancy S; Ngowo, Halfan S; Mkandawile, Gustav; Mmbando, Arnold; Finda, Marcelina; Okumu, Fredros O

    2017-01-01

    An. arabiensis (44.1%). Though An. arabiensis is still the most abundant vector species here, the remaining malaria transmission is predominantly mediated by An. funestus, possibly due to high insecticide resistance and high survival probabilities. Interventions that effectively target An. funestus mosquitoes could therefore significantly improve control of persistent malaria transmission in south-eastern Tanzania.

  19. Interventions that effectively target Anopheles funestus mosquitoes could significantly improve control of persistent malaria transmission in south–eastern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matowo, Nancy S.; Ngowo, Halfan S.; Mkandawile, Gustav; Mmbando, Arnold; Finda, Marcelina; Okumu, Fredros O.

    2017-01-01

    An. arabiensis (44.1%). Though An. arabiensis is still the most abundant vector species here, the remaining malaria transmission is predominantly mediated by An. funestus, possibly due to high insecticide resistance and high survival probabilities. Interventions that effectively target An. funestus mosquitoes could therefore significantly improve control of persistent malaria transmission in south–eastern Tanzania. PMID:28542335

  20. Significant survival improvement of patients with recurrent breast cancer in the periods 2001-2008 vs. 1992-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishimura Sumiko

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear whether individualized treatments based on biological factors have improved the prognosis of recurrent breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the survival improvement of patients with recurrent breast cancer after the introduction of third generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs and trastuzumab. Methods A total of 407 patients who received first diagnosis of recurrent breast cancer and treatment at National Kyushu Cancer Center between 1992 and 2008 were retrospectively evaluated. As AIs and trastuzumab were approved for clinical use in Japan in 2001, the patients were divided into two time cohorts depending on whether the cancer recurred before or after 2001. Cohort A: 170 patients who were diagnosed between 1992 and 2000. Cohort B: 237 patients who were diagnosed between 2001 and 2008. Tumor characteristics, treatments, and outcome were compared. Results Fourteen percent of cohort A and 76% of cohort B received AIs and/or trastuzumab (P Conclusions The prognosis of patients with recurrent breast cancer was improved over time following the introduction of AIs and trastuzumab and the survival improvement was apparent in HR- and/or HER-2-positive tumors.

  1. Significant Improvement in Sleep in People with Intellectual Disabilities Living in Residential Settings by Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylkema, T.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although about 15 to 50 percent of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) living in residential settings suffer from sleep problems, scant attention is paid to these problems. Most available studies focus on pharmaceutical solutions. In this study we focus on improving sleep in people with intellectual disabilities living in…

  2. Brief Communication: Upper Air Relaxation in RACMO2 Significantly Improves Modelled Interannual Surface Mass Balance Variability in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Berg, W. J.; Medley, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Regional Atmospheric Climate Model (RACMO2) has been a powerful tool for improving surface mass balance (SMB) estimates from GCMs or reanalyses. However, new yearly SMB observations for West Antarctica show that the modelled interannual variability in SMB is poorly simulated by RACMO2, in contrast to ERA-Interim, which resolves this variability well. In an attempt to remedy RACMO2 performance, we included additional upper-air relaxation (UAR) in RACMO2. With UAR, the correlation to observations is similar for RACMO2 and ERA-Interim. The spatial SMB patterns and ice-sheet-integrated SMB modelled using UAR remain very similar to the estimates of RACMO2 without UAR. We only observe an upstream smoothing of precipitation in regions with very steep topography like the Antarctic Peninsula. We conclude that UAR is a useful improvement for regional climate model simulations, although results in regions with steep topography should be treated with care.

  3. Improving winter leaf area index estimation in evergreen coniferous forests and its significance in carbon and water fluxes modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Chen, J. M.; Luo, X.

    2016-12-01

    Modeling of carbon and water fluxes at the continental and global scales requires remotely sensed LAI as inputs. For evergreen coniferous forests (ENF), severely underestimated winter LAI has been one of the issues for mostly available remote sensing products, which could cause negative bias in the modeling of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET). Unlike deciduous trees which shed all the leaves in winter, conifers retains part of their needles and the proportion of the retained needles depends on the needle longevity. In this work, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) was used to model GPP and ET at eight FLUXNET Canada ENF sites. Two sets of LAI were used as the model inputs: the 250m 10-day University of Toronto (U of T) LAI product Version 2 and the corrected LAI based on the U of T LAI product and the needle longevity of the corresponding tree species at individual sites. Validating model daily GPP (gC/m2) against site measurements, the mean RMSE over eight sites decreases from 1.85 to 1.15, and the bias changes from -0.99 to -0.19. For daily ET (mm), mean RMSE decreases from 0.63 to 0.33, and the bias changes from -0.31 to -0.16. Most of the improvements occur in the beginning and at the end of the growing season when there is large correction of LAI and meanwhile temperature is still suitable for photosynthesis and transpiration. For the dormant season, the improvement in ET simulation mostly comes from the increased interception of precipitation brought by the elevated LAI during that time. The results indicate that model performance can be improved by the application the corrected LAI. Improving the winter RS LAI can make a large impact on land surface carbon and energy budget.

  4. An Evidence-Based Education Program For Adults About Child Sexual Abuse (“Prevent It!” Significantly Improves Behaviours As Well As Attitudes And Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K Martin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe the development of an evidence-based education program for adults about childhood sexual abuse (CSA, called Prevent It! Uniquely, the primary goal of this program was to change the behaviour of participants, as well as to increase knowledge about CSA and positive attitudes towards it. A comprehensive review shows no previous similar approach. The program includes a detailed manual to allow standardized administration by trained facilitators, as well as multiple video segments from CSA survivors and professionals. A total of 23 program workshops were run, with 366 adults participating. Of these, 312 (85% agreed to take part in the study. All completed baseline ratings prior to the program and 195 (63% of study sample completed follow-up assessments at 3-months. There were no significant differences between the demographic make-up of the baseline group and the follow-up group. Assessments included demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and several measures of behaviour (our primary outcome variable. Behavioural questions asked individuals to select behaviours used in the previous 3-months from a list of options. Questions also included asking how many times in the previous 3-months have you talked about healthy sexual development or child sexual abuse with a child you know; suspected a child was sexually abused; taken steps to protect a child; or reported suspected sexual abuse to police or child welfare? The majority of attendees were women, with the commonest age group being between 30 – 39 years old. Approximately 33% had experienced CSA themselves. At 3-month follow-up there were highly statistically significant improvements in several aspects of behaviour and knowledge, and attitudes regarding CSA. For example, the number of subjects actively looking for evidence of CSA increased from 46% at baseline to 81% at follow-up, while the number of subjects who actively took steps to protect children increased from 25% at baseline

  5. 12-Mo Intervention of Physical Exercise Improved Work Ability, Especially in Subjects with Low Baseline Work Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oili Kettunen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study’s objective was to assess the effects of a 12-month physical exercise intervention on work ability (WAI and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF in healthy working adults. Methods: The study group had 371 participants, of which 338 (212 women and 126 men were allocated in the exercise group and 33 (17 women and 16 men in the control group. The exercise group underwent a 12-month exercise program followed by a 12-month follow-up. WAI and CRF were evaluated at baseline, and at 4, 8, 12, and 24 study months, in both exercise and control groups. The exercise group was divided into subgroups according to baseline WAI classifications (poor/moderate, good, excellent. Results: During the 12-month exercise intervention, the exercise group increased their leisure-time physical activity by 71% (p = 0.016 and improved the mean WAI by 3% and CRF by 7% (p < 0.0001, in both, while WAI and CRF decreased in the control group (ANCOVA using age, sex and BMI as covariates, for WAI, p = 0.013 and for CRF, p = 0.008. The changes in WAI and CRF between the exercise group and control group were significantly different during the intervention (baseline vs. 12-months, p = 0.028 and p = 0.007 and after the follow-up (p = 0.001 and p = 0.040, respectively. A light positive correlation between the changes in WAI and in CRF (r = 0.19, p < 0.01 existed. WAI improvement was the highest (13%, p < 0.0001 in the subgroup having poor/moderate WAI at baseline (ANCOVA, p < 0.001. Conclusions: The improvement of WAI associated with CRF. These results suggest that a physical exercise intervention may improve work ability.

  6. Regular consumption of vitamin D-fortified yogurt drink (Doogh improved endothelial biomarkers in subjects with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shab-Bidar Sakineh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial dysfunction has been proposed as the underlying cause of diabetic angiopathy that eventually leads to cardiovascular disease, the major cause of death in diabetes. We recently demonstrated the ameliorating effect of regular vitamin D intake on the glycemic status of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D. In this study, the effects of improvement of vitamin D status on glycemic status, lipid profile and endothelial biomarkers in T2D subjects were investigated. Methods Subjects with T2D were randomly allocated to one of the two groups to receive either plain yogurt drink (PYD; containing 170 mg calcium and no vitamin D/250 mL, n1 = 50 or vitamin D3-fortified yogurt drink (FYD; containing 170 mg calcium and 500 IU/250 mL, n2 = 50 twice a day for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measures, glycemic status, lipid profile, body fat mass (FM and endothelial biomarkers including serum endothelin-1, E-selectin and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9 were evaluated at the beginning and after the 12-week intervention period. Results The intervention resulted in a significant improvement in fasting glucose, the Quantitative Insulin Check Index (QUICKI, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, triacylglycerols, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, endothelin-1, E-selectin and MMP-9 in FYD compared to PYD (P P = 0.028; -3.8 ± 7.3 versus 0.95 ± 8.3, P = 0.003 and -2.3 ± 3.7 versus 0.44 ± 7.1 ng/mL, respectively, P P = 0.009 and P = 0.005, respectively but disappeared for E-selectin (P = 0.092. On the contrary, after controlling for serum 25(OHD, the differences disappeared for endothelin-1(P = 0.066 and MMP-9 (P = 0.277 but still remained significant for E-selectin (P = 0.011. Conclusions Ameliorated vitamin D status was accompanied by improved glycemic status, lipid profile and endothelial biomarkers in T2D subjects. Our findings suggest both direct and indirect ameliorating effects of vitamin D on the endothelial biomarkers. Trial registration

  7. Ferulic Acid Supplementation Improves Lipid Profiles, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammatory Status in Hyperlipidemic Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akkarach Bumrungpert

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ferulic acid is the most abundant phenolic compound found in vegetables and cereal grains. In vitro and animal studies have shown ferulic acid has anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-oxidative, and anti-inflammatory effects. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of ferulic acid supplementation on lipid profiles, oxidative stress, and inflammatory status in hyperlipidemia. The study design is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjects with hyperlipidemia were randomly divided into two groups. The treatment group (n = 24 was given ferulic acid (1000 mg daily and the control group (n = 24 was provided with a placebo for six weeks. Lipid profiles, biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation were assessed before and after the intervention. Ferulic acid supplementation demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in total cholesterol (8.1%; p = 0.001, LDL-C (9.3%; p < 0.001, triglyceride (12.1%; p = 0.049, and increased HDL-C (4.3%; p = 0.045 compared with the placebo. Ferulic acid also significantly decreased the oxidative stress biomarker, MDA (24.5%; p < 0.001. Moreover, oxidized LDL-C was significantly decreased in the ferulic acid group (7.1%; p = 0.002 compared with the placebo group. In addition, ferulic acid supplementation demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in the inflammatory markers hs-CRP (32.66%; p < 0.001 and TNF-α (13.06%; p < 0.001. These data indicate ferulic acid supplementation can improve lipid profiles and oxidative stress, oxidized LDL-C, and inflammation in hyperlipidemic subjects. Therefore, ferulic acid has the potential to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors.

  8. SUBJECTIVE AND OBJECTIVE ESTIMATION OF THE LEVEL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SERVICE OF CONSERVING HEALTH STATUS IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Krivokapić

    2014-06-01

    . One of the most important publications in which this connection is emphasized is the report of the American Ministry of Health, called Physical activity and health (1996, which gives a number of useful effects on health status of people who participated in some form of physical activity. Exact minimal volume and intensity of physical activity enough to cause positive effects on health status is still unknown, so the estimation of elements of physical form related to health became important for many institutions occupied with health of people. Discussion: For each of the above mentioned elements of physical form related to health, there were different subjective and objective procedures established that can be used for their estimation. Carpensen CJ. Powell KE, Cristenson GM Besides (1985, it is very important to take into account a clear aim for which a certain estimation is done, because it enables implementation of the most appropriate protocol for estimation of each element of physical form. In that sense, subjective and objective estimation of the level of physical activity of an individual is essential for preservation and improvement of their health status. References: American College for Sports Medicine, Guildelines for exericise testing and Prescription.8th ed. Philadelphia: 2009 Lippincott Williams&Wilkins, 248-52. Carpensen CJ, Powell KE, Cristenson GM (1985. Physical activity , ehercise, and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for healt-related research. Public Health Rep., 100(2, 126-31. U.S. Department of Healt and Human Services and Centers for DiseaseControl and Prevention. Physical Activity and health: A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta (GA: 1996 National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 89-90.

  9. CoP/WS2 nanoflake heterostructures as efficient electrocatalysts for significant improvement in hydrogen evolution activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yajie; Kang, Chuanhong; Wang, Ruihong; Ren, Zhiyu; Fu, Huiying; Xiao, Yuting; Tian, Guohui

    2018-06-01

    The CoP/WS2 nanoflake composites were synthesized via the sulfuration and subsequent phosphidation using the pre-prepared WO2.72 nanowires as precursors. Originally, WO2.72 nanowires were prepared and followed by sulfuration to obtain WS2 nanoflakes. The as-prepared WS2 nanoflakes were used as substrates, on which the Co3O4 nanoparticles were uniformly anchored to construct the Co3O4/WS2 nanoflakes. Finally, the Co3O4/WS2 composites were subjected to phosphidation and in-situ converted into CoP/WS2 nanoflakes. Because of the dual functionalities of both CoP and WS2, the abundant interfaces as well as their synergy, the CoP/WS2 nanoflakes exhibited much higher electrocatalytic activity, smaller overpotential (-81 mV), lower Tafel slope (62 mV decade-1), and higher stability toward hydrogen-evolution reaction than those for the single CoP and WS2.

  10. Combined use of serum MCP-1/IL-10 ratio and uterine artery Doppler index significantly improves the prediction of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shihong; Gao, Yanan; Zhang, Linlin; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Lindong; Liu, Pingping; Liu, Ling; Chen, Juan

    2017-10-01

    Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, or CCL2) is a member of the chemokine subfamily involved in recruitment of monocytes in inflammatory tissues. IL-10 is a key regulator for maintaining the balance of anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory milieu at the feto-maternal interface. Doppler examination has been routinely performed for the monitoring and management of preeclampsia patients. This study evaluates the efficiency of these factors alone, or in combination, for the predication of preeclampsia. The serum levels of MCP-1 and IL-10 in 78 preeclampsia patients and 143 age-matched normal controls were measured. The Doppler ultrasonography was performed and Artery Pulsatility Index (PI) and Resistance Index (RI) were calculated for the same subjects. It was found that while the second-trimester serum MCP-1, IL-10, MCP-1/IL-10 ratio, PI, and RI showed some power in predicting preeclampsia, the combination of MCP-1/IL-10 and PI and RI accomplishes the highest efficiency, achieving an AUC of 0.973 (95% CI, 0.000-1.000, Ppreeclampsia. Future studies using a larger sample can be conducted to construct an algorithm capable of quantitative assessment on the risk of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Migration ability and Toll-like receptor expression of human mesenchymal stem cells improves significantly after three-dimensional culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Panpan; Liu, Zilin; Li, Xue; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Lan, Jing; Shi, Qing; Li, Dong; Ju, Xiuli

    2017-09-16

    While the conventional two-dimensional (2D) culture protocol is well accepted for the culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), this method fails to recapitulate the in vivo native three-dimensional (3D) cellular microenvironment, and may result in phenotypic changes, and homing and migration capacity impairments. MSC preparation in 3D culture systems has been considered an attractive preparatory and delivery method recently. We seeded human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (hUCMSCs) in a 3D culture system with porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM), and investigated the phenotypic changes, the expression changes of some important receptors, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) when hUCMSCs were transferred from 2D to 3D systems, as well as the alterations in in vivo homing and migration potential. It was found that the percentage of CD105-positive cells decreased significantly, whereas that of CD34- and CD271-positive cells increased significantly in 3D culture, compared to that in 2D culture. The mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR6, and CXCR4 in hUCMSCs were increased significantly upon culturing with PADM for 3 days, compared to the levels in 2D culture. The numbers of migratory 3D hUCMSCs in the heart, liver, spleen, and bone marrow were significantly greater than the numbers of 2D hUCMSCs, and the worst migration occurred in 3D + AMD3100 (CXCR4 antagonist) hUCMSCs. These results suggested that 3D culture of hUCMSCs with PADM could alter the phenotypic characteristics of hUCMSCs, increase their TLR and CXCR4 expression levels, and promote their migratory and homing capacity in which CXCR4 plays an important role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The patient's safety - For a dynamics of improvement. Nr 3. How to analyze your significant radiation protection events?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this publication is to present event analysis methods which are the most frequently used by radiotherapy departments. After an indication of key figures concerning radiotherapy patients, sessions and events, the document indicates the objectives and steps of an event analysis. It presents various analysis methods: Ishikawa diagram (or 5M method or causes-effects diagram), the cause tree, the ALARM method (association of litigation and risk management), the ORION method. It proposes a comparison between these five methods, their possibilities, their limits. Good practices are outlined in terms of data acquisition, method choice, event analysis, and improvement actions. The use of the cause tree analysis is commented by members of the Limoges hospital radiotherapy department, and that of the Ishikawa method by a member of the Beauvais hospital

  13. Different surgical strategies for chronic pancreatitis significantly improve long-term outcome: a comparative single center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildebrand P

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective In general, chronic pancreatitis (CP primarily requires conservative treatment. The chronic pain syndrome and complications make patients seek surgical advice, frequently after years of progression. In the past, surgical procedures involving drainage as well as resection have been employed successfully. The present study compared the different surgical strategies. Patients and Methods From March 2000 until April 2005, a total of 51 patients underwent surgical treatment for CP at the Department of surgery, University of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Lübeck. Out of those 51 patients, 39 (76.5% were operated according to the Frey procedure, and in 12 cases (23.5% the Whipple procedure was performed. Patient data were documented prospectively throughout the duration of the hospital stay. The evaluation of the postoperative pain score was carried out retrospectively with a validated questionnaire. Results Average operating time was 240 minutes for the Frey group and 411 minutes for the Whipple group. The medium number of blood transfusions was 1 in the Frey group and 4.5 in the Whipple group. Overall morbidity was 21% in the Frey group and 42% in the Whipple group. 30-day mortality was zero for all patients. During the median follow-up period of 50 months, an improvement in pain score was observed in 93% of the patients of the Frey group and 67% of the patients treated according to the Whipple procedure. Conclusion The results show that both the Frey procedure as well as partial pancreaticoduodenectomy are capable of improving chronic pain symptoms in CP. As far as later endocrine and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is concerned, however, the extended drainage operation according to Frey proves to be advantageous compared to the traditional resection procedure by Whipple. Accordingly, the Frey procedure provides us with an organ-preserving surgical procedure which treats the complications of CP sufficiently, thus being an

  14. Significant improvement of bone mineral density by denosumab treatment in Japanese osteoporotic patients following breast cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Y

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Yukio Nakamura,1,2 Mikio Kamimura,3 Akio Morikawa,4 Akira Taguchi,5 Takako Suzuki,1 Hiroyuki Kato1 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Showa-Inan General Hospital, Komagane, 3Center for Osteoporosis and Spinal Disorders, Kamimura Orthopaedic Clinic, Matsumoto, 4Department of Surgery, Showa-Inan General Hospital, Komagane, 5Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Matsumoto Dental University, Shiojiri, Japan Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of denosumab in patients with osteoporosis (OP and non-metastatic breast cancer following treatment of 1 surgery, 2 surgery and aromatase inhibitors, and 3 surgery, aromatase inhibitors, and anti-cancer agents, compared with those in primary OP patients. Patients and methods: In this retrospective 24-month study, patients were divided into the primary OP group (34 cases or OP receiving breast cancer treatment group (breast cancer group; 17 cases. We measured serum calcium, whole parathyroid hormone (PTH, 1,25OH2D3, bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b (TRACP-5b, and bone mineral density (BMD of the lumbar 1–4 vertebrae (L-BMD and bilateral total hips (H-BMD for 24 months. Results: The percent changes of serum calcium in the breast cancer group were significantly lower than those in the primary OP group at 1 week, 1 and 12 months. The percent changes of whole PTH in the primary OP group were significantly lower than those in the breast cancer group at 2 and 4 months. Significant differences were found between the groups at 18 months (-34.5% in the primary OP group and -52.6% in the breast cancer group, respectively for the percent changes of BAP. Significant differences were found between the groups at 12, 18, and 24 months (-39.7% in the primary OP group and -64.0% in the breast cancer group at 24 months, respectively for the percent

  15. Improving the Comprehension of Students with Significant Developmental Disabilities: Systematic Instruction on the Steps for Completing and Using a Graphic Organizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Alexander P.

    2015-01-01

    A single-subject, multiple-baseline across participants design was used to examine the functional relation between systematic instruction and the ability to complete a graphic organizer and recall facts about informational texts by students with significant development disabilities. Four high school students enrolled in an adapted academic program…

  16. Significant Improvement Selected Mediators of Inflammation in Phenotypes of Women with PCOS after Reduction and Low GI Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Szczuko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers suggest an increased risk of atherosclerosis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. In the available literature, there are no studies on the mediators of inflammation in women with PCOS, especially after dietary intervention. Eicosanoids (HETE and HODE were compared between the biochemical phenotypes of women with PCOS (normal and high androgens and after the 3-month reduction diet. Eicosanoid profiles (9(S-HODE, 13(S-HODE, 5(S-HETE, 12(S-HETE, 15(S-HETE, 5(S-oxoETE, 16(R-HETE, 16(S-HETE and 5(S, 6(R-lipoxin A4, 5(S, 6(R, 15(R-lipoxin A4 were extracted from 0.5 ml of plasma using solid-phase extraction RP-18 SPE columns. The HPLC separations were performed on a 1260 liquid chromatograph. No significant differences were found in the concentration of analysed eicosanoids in phenotypes of women with PCOS. These women, however, have significantly lower concentration of inflammatory mediators than potentially healthy women from the control group. Dietary intervention leads to a significant (p<0.01 increase in the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators, reaching similar levels as in the control group. The development of inflammatory reaction in both phenotypes of women with PCOS is similar. The pathways for synthesis of proinflammatory mediators in women with PCOS are dormant, but can be stimulated through a reduction diet. Three-month period of lifestyle change may be too short to stimulate the pathways inhibiting inflammatory process.

  17. Whey protein improves HDL/non-HDL ratio and body weight gain in rats subjected to the resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kely Raspante Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance exercise, such as weight-lifting (WL on the biochemical parameters of lipid metabolism and cardiovascular disease risk in the rats fed casein (control or whey protein (WP diets. Thirty-two male Fisher rats were randomly assigned to sedentary or exercise-trained groups and were fed control or WP diets. The WL program consisted of inducing the animals to perform the sets of jumps with weights attached to the chest. After seven weeks, arteriovenous blood samples were collected for analysis. The WL or WP ingestion were able to improve the lipid profile, reducing the TC and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations, but only WP treatment significantly increased the serum HDL concentrations, thereby also affecting the TC/HDL and HDL/non-HDL ratios. However, WL plus WP was more effective in improving the HDL/non-HDL ratio than the exercise or WP ingestion alone and the body weight gain than exercise without WP ingestion.

  18. Housing First improves subjective quality of life among homeless adults with mental illness: 12-month findings from a randomized controlled trial in Vancouver, British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michelle; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Palepu, Anita; Zabkiewicz, Denise; Frankish, Charles J; Krausz, Michael; Somers, Julian M

    2013-08-01

    This study used an experimental design to examine longitudinal changes in subjective quality of life (QoL) among homeless adults with mental illness after assignment to different types of supported housing or to treatment as usual (TAU, no housing or supports through the study). We hypothesized that subjective QoL would improve over time among participants assigned to supported housing as compared to TAU, regardless of the type of supported housing received or participants' level of need. Participants (n = 497) were stratified by level of need ("high" or "moderate") and randomly assigned to Housing First (HF) in scattered-site apartments, HF in a congregate setting (high needs only), or TAU. Linear mixed-effects regression was used to model the association between study arm and self-reported QoL at baseline and at 6 and 12 months post-baseline by need level. Based on the adjusted overall score on the QoL measure, participants randomized to HF reported significantly greater overall QoL as compared to TAU, regardless of need level or type of supported housing at both 6 and 12 months post-baseline. Scores on the safety and living situation subscales were significantly greater for both high and moderate need participants assigned to supported housing regardless of type at both 6 and 12 months post-baseline as compared to TAU. Despite multiple health and social challenges faced by homeless individuals with mental illness, HF in both scattered-site and congregate models results in significantly greater perceived QoL as compared to individuals who do not receive HF even after a relatively short period of time.

  19. A study to determine whether targeted education significantly improves the perception of human torture in medical students in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Munawwar; Ghaffar, Usama B; Usmani, Jawed Ahmad; Rivzi, Shameem Jahan

    2010-08-01

    This study was undertaken to find out the knowledge of torture in MBBS students. A fair comparison was done by selecting two groups of medical students; one, to whom torture was not taught ie, pretaught group (PrTG, n = 125), and second, to whom torture was taught in classroom ie, post-taught group (PoTG, n = 110) in more than one sessions. The topic on torture was taught under many headings maximising the effort to cover as much as possible; namely, definition, geographical distribution, types of torture (physical, psychological and sexual), post-torture sequelae, sociopolitical environment prevailing in the country, doctors' involvement in torture, rehabilitation of torture victims and the UNO's role in containment of torture. In all a questionnaire was designed having MCQ types on these aspects. It was found that significant level of difference in perception and knowledge about torture existed amongst the groups, and this was further accentuated in medical and non-medical intratopics. 'P' value of each question was computed separately. It was found that the study was statistically significant and reestablished the need of fortifying the gossameric firmament of education specific to torture.

  20. Drilling for improvement : Statoil and Halliburton report significant cost savings and more accurate well placement at the Leismer demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, D.

    2010-07-15

    This article discussed new improvements in steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) made by Statoil and Halliburton at the Leismer demonstration project. The Leismer project is Statoil's inaugural project in oil sands development, and will have a capacity to produce 10,000 barrels per day through 4 separate well pads with 23 well pairs. Challenges to the project included the long lateral sections required for the well pairs to remain parallel to each other while remaining within the target formation. An azimuthal deep resistivity (ADR) tool was used to detect the proximity of the wellbore to shale and water zones. Use of the tool allowed operators to modify the planned well trajectory in order to optimize placements within the reservoir. A rotary steerable system (RSS) was used increase injection times. The project was completed 6 to 8 weeks ahead of schedule. Applications have now been filed for a further 10 phases that will produce 240,000 barrels per day. 1 fig.

  1. Icariin combined with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells significantly improve the impaired kidney function in chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Wang, Li; Chu, Xiaoqian; Cui, Huantian; Bian, Yuhong

    2017-04-01

    At present, the main therapy for chronic renal failure (CRF) is dialysis and renal transplantation, but neither obtains satisfactory results. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (huMSCs) are isolated from the fetal umbilical cord which has a high self-renewal and multi-directional differentiation potential. Icariin (ICA), a kidney-tonifying Chinese Medicine can enhance the multipotency of huMSCs. Therefore, this work seeks to employ the use of ICA-treated huMSCs for the treatment of chronic renal failure. Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine (Cr) analyses showed amelioration of functional parameters in ICA-treated huMSCs for the treatment of CRF rats at 3, 7, and 14 days after transplantation. ICA-treated huMSCs can obviously increase the number of cells in injured renal tissues at 3, 7, and 14 days after transplantation by optical molecular imaging system. Hematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated that ICA-treated huMSCs reduced the levels of fibrosis in CRF rats at 14 days after transplantation. Superoxide dismutase and Malondialdehyde analyses showed that ICA-treated huMSCs reduced the oxidative damage in CRF rats. Moreover, transplantation with ICA-treated huMSCs decreased inflammatory responses, promoted the expression of growth factors, and protected injured renal tissues. Taken together, our findings suggest that ICA-treated huMSCs could improve the kidney function in CRF rats.

  2. Improvement of Fabry Disease-Related Gastrointestinal Symptoms in a Significant Proportion of Female Patients Treated with Agalsidase Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcox, William R; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Martins, Ana Maria

    2018-01-01

    of organ involvement. Although variable, gastrointestinal symptoms are among the most common and significant early clinical manifestations; they tend to persist into adulthood if left untreated. To further understand the effects of sustained enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with agalsidase beta......Fabry disease, an X-linked inherited lysosomal storage disorder, is caused by mutations in the gene encoding α-galactosidase, GLA. In patients with Fabry disease, glycosphingolipids accumulate in various cell types, triggering a range of cellular and tissue responses that result in a wide spectrum...... on gastrointestinal symptoms in heterozygotes, a data analysis of female patients enrolled in the Fabry Registry was conducted. To be included, females of any age must have received agalsidase beta (average dose 1.0 mg/kg every 2 weeks) for at least 2.5 years. Measured outcomes were self-reported gastrointestinal...

  3. Towards an improved prediction of the free radical scavenging potency of flavonoids: the significance of double PCET mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amić, Ana; Marković, Zoran; Dimitrić Marković, Jasmina M; Stepanić, Višnja; Lučić, Bono; Amić, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    The 1H(+)/1e(-) and 2H(+)/2e(-) proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) processes of free radical scavenging by flavonoids were theoretically studied for aqueous and lipid environments using the PM6 and PM7 methods. The results reported here indicate that the significant contribution of the second PCET mechanism, resulting in the formation of a quinone/quinone methide, effectively discriminates the active from inactive flavonoids. The predictive potency of descriptors related to the energetics of second PCET mechanisms (the second O-H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE2) related to hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanism, and the second electron transfer enthalpy (ETE2) related to sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) mechanism) are superior to the currently used indices, which are related to the first 1H(+)/1e(-) processes, and could serve as primary descriptors in development of the QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationships) of flavonoids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of Physical Therapy with Energy Healing for Improving Range of Motion in Subjects with Restricted Shoulder Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Linda Baldwin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two forms of energy healing, Reconnective Healing (RH and Reiki, which involve light or no touch, were tested for efficacy against physical therapy (PT for increasing limited range of motion (ROM of arm elevation in the scapular plane. Participants were assigned to one of 5 groups: PT, Reiki, RH, Sham Healing, or no treatment. Except for no treatment, participants were blinded as to grouping. Range of Motion, self-reported pain, and heart rate variability (HRV were assessed before and after a 10-minute session. On average, for PT, Reiki, RH, Sham Healing, and no treatment, respectively, ROM increased by 12°, 20°, 26°, 0.6°, and 3° and pain score decreased by 11.5%, 10.1%, 23.9%, 15.4%, and 0%. Physical therapy, Reiki, and RH were more effective than Sham Healing for increasing ROM (PT: , ; Reiki: , ; RH: , . It is possible that this improvement was not mediated by myofascial release because the subjects’ HRV did not change, suggesting no significant increase in vagal activity. Sham treatment significantly reduced pain compared to no treatment (, and was just as effective as PT, Reiki, and RH. It is the authors’ opinion that the accompanying pain relief is a placebo effect.

  5. Pt-decorated GaN nanowires with significant improvement in H2 gas-sensing performance at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Q N; Yam, F K; Hassan, Z; Bououdina, M

    2015-12-15

    Superior sensitivity towards H2 gas was successfully achieved with Pt-decorated GaN nanowires (NWs) gas sensor. GaN NWs were fabricated via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) route. Morphology (field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy) and crystal structure (high resolution X-ray diffraction) characterizations of the as-synthesized nanostructures demonstrated the formation of GaN NWs having a wurtzite structure, zigzaged shape and an average diameter of 30-166nm. The Pt-decorated GaN NWs sensor shows a high response of 250-2650% upon exposure to H2 gas concentration from 7 to 1000ppm respectively at room temperature (RT), and then increases to about 650-4100% when increasing the operating temperature up to 75°C. The gas-sensing measurements indicated that the Pt-decorated GaN NWs based sensor exhibited efficient detection of H2 at low concentration with excellent sensitivity, repeatability, and free hysteresis phenomena over a period of time of 100min. The large surface-to-volume ratio of GaN NWs and the catalytic activity of Pt metal are the most influential factors leading to the enhancement of H2 gas-sensing performances through the improvement of the interaction between the target molecules (H2) and the sensing NWs surface. The attractive low-cost, low power consumption and high-performance of the resultant decorated GaN NWs gas sensor assure their uppermost potential for H2 gas sensor working at low operating temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A multifunctional diet improves cardiometabolic-related biomarkers independently of weight changes: an 8-week randomized controlled intervention in healthy overweight and obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Juscelino; Johansson, Maria; Björck, Inger

    2016-10-01

    A multifunctional diet (MFD) was previously shown to reduce blood lipids, CRP and blood pressure in a 4-week intervention under weight-maintenance conditions. Here, MFD effects were evaluated in an 8-week intervention with no restriction for weight changes. Healthy subjects consumed MFD (23 subjects) or a control diet (CD) devoid of the functional components (24 subjects) in a "free-living" randomized controlled experiment. MFD included several functional concepts: low-glycemic-impact meals, antioxidant-rich foods, oily fish, viscous dietary fibers, soybean and whole barley kernel products, almonds and plant stanols. Measured outcomes were fasting blood values of lipids, glucose, insulin, GGT, CRP, HbA1c, PAI-1, GLP-1, GLP-2, body weight, blood pressure and breath hydrogen. At baseline, participants were 51-72 years old, with BMI between 25 and 34 and fasting glycemia  ≤ 6.1 mmol/L. Consumption of both diets resulted in similar weight loss after 8 weeks (-4 %; P  diets, which remained significant after adjustment for body weight. Reduced systolic blood pressure, circulating GGT, HbA1c and insulin concentrations were observed with both MFD and CD with no difference between diets. The Reynolds cardiovascular risk score was decreased by 36 % (P  <  0.0001) with MFD. MFD increased breath hydrogen levels (120 %; P  <  0.05). Consumption of MFD decreased blood lipids and improved several other aspects of the cardiometabolic risk profile. This effect was not dependent on weight loss.

  7. Amphoteric Ion-Exchange Membranes with Significantly Improved Vanadium Barrier Properties for All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibel, Olga; Rojek, Tomasz; Schmidt, Thomas J; Gubler, Lorenz

    2017-07-10

    All-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRBs) have attracted considerable interest as promising energy-storage devices that can allow the efficient utilization of renewable energy sources. The membrane, which separates the porous electrodes in a redox flow cell, is one of the key components in VRBs. High rates of crossover of vanadium ions and water through the membrane impair the efficiency and capacity of a VRB. Thus, membranes with low permeation rate of vanadium species and water are required, also characterized by low resistance and stability in the VRB environment. Here, we present a new design concept for amphoteric ion-exchange membranes, based on radiation-induced grafting of vinylpyridine into an ethylene tetrafluoroethylene base film and a two-step functionalization to introduce cationic and anionic exchange sites, respectively. During long-term cycling, redox flow cells containing these membranes showed higher efficiency, less pronounced electrolyte imbalance, and significantly reduced capacity decay compared to the cells with the benchmark material Nafion 117. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. How balance task-specific training contributes to improving physical function in older subjects undergoing rehabilitation following hip fracture: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticone, Marco; Ambrosini, Emilia; Brunati, Roberto; Capone, Antonio; Pagliari, Giulia; Secci, Claudio; Zatti, Giovanni; Ferrante, Simona

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a rehabilitation programme including balance task-specific training in improving physical function, pain, activities of daily living (ADL), balance and quality of life in subjects after a hip fracture. Randomized controlled trial. A total of 52 older subjects selected for internal fixation due to extra-capsular hip fracture were randomized to be included in an experimental ( n = 26) and control group ( n = 26). The experimental group underwent a rehabilitation programme based on balance task-specific training. The control group underwent general physiotherapy, including open kinetic chain exercises and walking training. Both groups individually followed programmes of 90-minute sessions five times/week for three weeks. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), a Pain Numerical Rating Scale, the Berg Balance Scale, the Functional Independence Measure and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey. The participants were evaluated before and after training, and after 12 months. Significant effects of time, group and time × group were found for all outcome measures in favour of the experimental group. A clinically important between-group difference of 25 points was achieved after training and at follow-up in terms of the primary outcome (WOMAC function before treatment, after treatment and at follow-up was 84.8 (3.7), 39.8 (4.9) and 35.7 (6.2) for the experimental group and 80.9 (5.7), 65.2 (7.1) and 61.0 (11.1) for the control group). An inpatient rehabilitation programme based on balance task-specific training is useful in improving physical function, pain, ADL and quality of life in older patients after hip fracture.

  9. Post-exposure Treatment with Anti-rabies VHH and Vaccine Significantly Improves Protection of Mice from Lethal Rabies Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terryn, Sanne; Francart, Aurélie; Rommelaere, Heidi; Stortelers, Catelijne; Van Gucht, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) against rabies infection consists of a combination of passive immunisation with plasma-derived human or equine immune globulins and active immunisation with vaccine delivered shortly after exposure. Since anti-rabies immune globulins are expensive and scarce, there is a need for cheaper alternatives that can be produced more consistently. Previously, we generated potent virus-neutralising VHH, also called Nanobodies, against the rabies glycoprotein that are effectively preventing lethal disease in an in vivo mouse model. The VHH domain is the smallest antigen-binding functional fragment of camelid heavy chain-only antibodies that can be manufactured in microbial expression systems. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of half-life extended anti-rabies VHH in combination with vaccine for PEP in an intranasal rabies infection model in mice. The PEP combination therapy of systemic anti-rabies VHH and intramuscular vaccine significantly delayed the onset of disease compared to treatment with anti-rabies VHH alone, prolonged median survival time (35 versus 14 days) and decreased mortality (60% versus 19% survival rate), when treated 24 hours after rabies virus challenge. Vaccine alone was unable to rescue mice from lethal disease. As reported also for immune globulins, some interference of anti-rabies VHH with the antigenicity of the vaccine was observed, but this did not impede the synergistic effect. Post exposure treatment with vaccine and human anti-rabies immune globulins was unable to protect mice from lethal challenge. Anti-rabies VHH and vaccine act synergistically to protect mice after rabies virus exposure, which further validates the possible use of anti-rabies VHH for rabies PEP. PMID:27483431

  10. Post-exposure Treatment with Anti-rabies VHH and Vaccine Significantly Improves Protection of Mice from Lethal Rabies Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Terryn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP against rabies infection consists of a combination of passive immunisation with plasma-derived human or equine immune globulins and active immunisation with vaccine delivered shortly after exposure. Since anti-rabies immune globulins are expensive and scarce, there is a need for cheaper alternatives that can be produced more consistently. Previously, we generated potent virus-neutralising VHH, also called Nanobodies, against the rabies glycoprotein that are effectively preventing lethal disease in an in vivo mouse model. The VHH domain is the smallest antigen-binding functional fragment of camelid heavy chain-only antibodies that can be manufactured in microbial expression systems. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of half-life extended anti-rabies VHH in combination with vaccine for PEP in an intranasal rabies infection model in mice. The PEP combination therapy of systemic anti-rabies VHH and intramuscular vaccine significantly delayed the onset of disease compared to treatment with anti-rabies VHH alone, prolonged median survival time (35 versus 14 days and decreased mortality (60% versus 19% survival rate, when treated 24 hours after rabies virus challenge. Vaccine alone was unable to rescue mice from lethal disease. As reported also for immune globulins, some interference of anti-rabies VHH with the antigenicity of the vaccine was observed, but this did not impede the synergistic effect. Post exposure treatment with vaccine and human anti-rabies immune globulins was unable to protect mice from lethal challenge. Anti-rabies VHH and vaccine act synergistically to protect mice after rabies virus exposure, which further validates the possible use of anti-rabies VHH for rabies PEP.

  11. Constitutive overexpression of the TaNF-YB4 gene in transgenic wheat significantly improves grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Dinesh; Shavrukov, Yuri; Bazanova, Natalia; Chirkova, Larissa; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Ismagul, Ainur; Parent, Boris; Langridge, Peter; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

    2015-11-01

    Heterotrimeric nuclear factors Y (NF-Ys) are involved in regulation of various vital functions in all eukaryotic organisms. Although a number of NF-Y subunits have been characterized in model plants, only a few have been functionally evaluated in crops. In this work, a number of genes encoding NF-YB and NF-YC subunits were isolated from drought-tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. RAC875), and the impact of the overexpression of TaNF-YB4 in the Australian wheat cultivar Gladius was investigated. TaNF-YB4 was isolated as a result of two consecutive yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screens, where ZmNF-YB2a was used as a starting bait. A new NF-YC subunit, designated TaNF-YC15, was isolated in the first Y2H screen and used as bait in a second screen, which identified two wheat NF-YB subunits, TaNF-YB2 and TaNF-YB4. Three-dimensional modelling of a TaNF-YB2/TaNF-YC15 dimer revealed structural determinants that may underlie interaction selectivity. The TaNF-YB4 gene was placed under the control of the strong constitutive polyubiquitin promoter from maize and introduced into wheat by biolistic bombardment. The growth and yield components of several independent transgenic lines with up-regulated levels of TaNF-YB4 were evaluated under well-watered conditions (T1-T3 generations) and under mild drought (T2 generation). Analysis of T2 plants was performed in large deep containers in conditions close to field trials. Under optimal watering conditions, transgenic wheat plants produced significantly more spikes but other yield components did not change. This resulted in a 20-30% increased grain yield compared with untransformed control plants. Under water-limited conditions transgenic lines maintained parity in yield performance. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Marrying Step Feed with Secondary Clarifier Improvements to Significantly Increase Peak Wet Weather Treatment Capacity: An Integrated Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigger, Glen T; Siczka, John S; Smith, Thomas F; Frank, David A; McCorquodale, J A

    2017-08-01

      The need to increase the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of the City of Akron, Ohio, Water Reclamation Facility (WRF) provided the opportunity to test an integrated methodology for maximizing the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of activated sludge systems. An initial investigation, consisting of process modeling of the secondary treatment system and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the existing relatively shallow secondary clarifiers (3.3 and 3.7 m sidewater depth in 30.5 m diameter units), indicated that a significant increase in capacity from 416 000 to 684 000 m3/d or more was possible by adding step feed capabilities to the existing bioreactors and upgrading the existing secondary clarifiers. One of the six treatment units at the WRF was modified, and an extensive 2-year testing program was conducted to determine the total peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity achievable. The results demonstrated that a peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity approaching 974 000 m3/d is possible as long as secondary clarifier solids and hydraulic loadings could be separately controlled using the step feed capability provided. Excellent sludge settling characteristics are routinely experienced at the City of Akron WRF, raising concerns that the identified peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity could not be maintained should sludge settling characteristics deteriorate for some reason. Computational fluid dynamics analysis indicated that the impact of the deterioration of sludge settling characteristics could be mitigated and the identified peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity maintained by further use of the step feed capability provided to further reduce secondary clarifier solids loading rates at the identified high surface overflow rates. The results also demonstrated that effluent limits not only for total suspended solids (TSS) and five-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (cBOD5) could be

  13. Improved estimation of subject-level functional connectivity using full and partial correlation with empirical Bayes shrinkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Amanda F; Nebel, Mary Beth; Barber, Anita D; Choe, Ann S; Pekar, James J; Caffo, Brian S; Lindquist, Martin A

    2018-05-15

    Reliability of subject-level resting-state functional connectivity (FC) is determined in part by the statistical techniques employed in its estimation. Methods that pool information across subjects to inform estimation of subject-level effects (e.g., Bayesian approaches) have been shown to enhance reliability of subject-level FC. However, fully Bayesian approaches are computationally demanding, while empirical Bayesian approaches typically rely on using repeated measures to estimate the variance components in the model. Here, we avoid the need for repeated measures by proposing a novel measurement error model for FC describing the different sources of variance and error, which we use to perform empirical Bayes shrinkage of subject-level FC towards the group average. In addition, since the traditional intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) is inappropriate for biased estimates, we propose a new reliability measure denoted the mean squared error intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC MSE ) to properly assess the reliability of the resulting (biased) estimates. We apply the proposed techniques to test-retest resting-state fMRI data on 461 subjects from the Human Connectome Project to estimate connectivity between 100 regions identified through independent components analysis (ICA). We consider both correlation and partial correlation as the measure of FC and assess the benefit of shrinkage for each measure, as well as the effects of scan duration. We find that shrinkage estimates of subject-level FC exhibit substantially greater reliability than traditional estimates across various scan durations, even for the most reliable connections and regardless of connectivity measure. Additionally, we find partial correlation reliability to be highly sensitive to the choice of penalty term, and to be generally worse than that of full correlations except for certain connections and a narrow range of penalty values. This suggests that the penalty needs to be chosen carefully

  14. Digital Libraries that Demonstrate High Levels of Mutual Complementarity in Collection-level Metadata Give a Richer Representation of their Content and Improve Subject Access for Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife Lawton

    2014-12-01

    -way complementarity in the metadata of all three digital libraries. This was mostly demonstrated by free-text data in the Description element complemented by data in the controlled vocabulary elements of Subject, Geographic Coverage, Temporal Coverage, and Object Type. Only one library demonstrated a significant proportion (19% of redundancy between free-text and controlled vocabulary metadata. An example of redundancy found included a repetition of geographic information in both a Description and Geographic Coverage metadata elements. Conclusion – The author reports high levels of mutual complementarity in the three cultural heritage digital libraries studied. The findings demonstrate that collection-level metadata which includes both free-text and controlled vocabulary is more representative of the intellectual content of the collections and improves subject access for users. The author maintains that there is no standard for collection-level metadata descriptions, and that this research may contribute to best practice guidelines in this area. It is unclear whether the digital libraries studied had written policies in place on how to describe collections and if those policies were adhered to in practice. The author expresses a need for further research to be conducted on collection-level metadata in other domains, such as science and interdisciplinary digital libraries, and on other scales (e.g., regional or state collections and geographic regions beyond Europe and the United States.

  15. The Half-Life of Happiness: Hedonic Adaptation in the Subjective Well-Being of Poor Slum Dwellers to a Large Improvement in Housing

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Galiani; Paul J. Gertler; Raimundo Undurraga

    2015-01-01

    Subjective well-being may not improve in step with increases in material well-being due to hedonic adaptation, a psychological process that attenuates the long-term emotional impact of a favorable or unfavorable change in circumstances, such that people’s happiness eventually returns to a stable reference level. We use a multi-country field experiment to examine the impact of the provision of improved housing to extremely poor populations on subjective measures of well-being to test whether p...

  16. Analysis of the Importance of Subjects to Improve the Educational Curriculum in the Radiological Science: Focused on Radiological Technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Ko, Seong Jin; Kang, Se Sik; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Chang Soo

    2012-01-01

    In this study a group of experts and clinical radiological technologists were surveyed to evaluate the clinical importance of current subjects in the radiological sciences. For the data collection and analysis, an open-ended questionnaire was distributed to the group of experts, and a multiple choice questionnaire was distributed to radiological technologists. Subjects were classified into 9 groups for analysis of the importance of subjects, and in regard to the questionnaire design for measurement of variables, departments and type of hospital were set up as independent variables, and the 9 groups of subjects were set up as dependent variables. As a result, clinical radiological technologists perceived Diagnostic Imaging Technology and practical courses, including general radiography, CT and MRI, as the most clinically necessary subjects, and the group of experts placed most weight on basic courses for the major. The result of this study suggests that the curriculum should be revised in a way that combines theory and practice in order to foster radiological technologists capable of adapting to the rapidly changing healthcare environment.

  17. Weight loss and waist reduction is associated with improvement in gastroesophageal disease reflux symptoms: A longitudinal study of 15 295 subjects undergoing health checkups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S-K; Lee, T; Yang, H-J; Park, J H; Sohn, C I; Ryu, S; Park, D I

    2017-05-01

    General obesity and abdominal obesity is an established risk factor of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, the influence of weight or waist change on improvement of GERD is unclear. Our aim was to investigate if weight loss or waist reduction improves GERD symptoms and esophagitis. A retrospective longitudinal study of 15 295 subjects who underwent gastroscopy for a health checkup and reported GERD symptoms between 2011 and 2013, and repeated a checkup until 2014 was conducted. The improvement of GERD symptoms and esophagitis according to weight loss (≥-2, -0.5 to -2 kg/m 2 in body mass index [BMI]), waist reduction (≥-5, -0.1 to -0.5 cm) and baseline BMI/waist circumference (WC) categories was assessed using logistic regression. Weight loss or waist reduction was associated with improvement in GERD symptoms only in subjects with general or abdominal obesity. Among subjects with general obesity (BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 ) and decreased ≥2 kg/m 2 in BMI, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of improvement in GERD symptoms was 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70-2.83). Among subjects with abdominal obesity (WC ≥90 cm) and decreased ≥5 cm in WC, the corresponding OR was 2.16 (95% CI 1.56-2.90). There was no association between weight loss or waist reduction and improvement in esophagitis. Weight loss or waist reduction was associated with improvement in GERD symptoms only in subjects with general or abdominal obesity. Weight loss or waist reduction will be an important treatment option in obese patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Improving subjective perception of personal cancer risk: systematic review and meta-analysis of educational interventions for people with cancer or at high risk of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Mbathio; Watts, Caroline G; Kasparian, Nadine A; Morton, Rachael L; Mann, Graham J; Cust, Anne E

    2014-06-01

    Newly diagnosed patients with cancer require education about the disease, the available treatments and potential consequences of treatment. Greater understanding of cancer risk has been found to be associated with greater health-related quality of life, improved psychological adjustment and greater health-related behaviours. The aim of this sytematic review was to assess the effectiveness of educational interventions in improving subjective cancer risk perception and to appraise the quality of the studies. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective observational studies. Eligible studies were identified via Medline, PsycINFO, AMED, CINAHL and Embase databases. After screening titles and abstracts, two reviewers independently assessed the eligibility of 206 full-text articles. Forty papers were included in the review; the majority of studies were conducted among breast cancer patients (n = 29) and evaluated the effect of genetic counselling on personal perceived risk (n = 25). Pooled results from RCTs (n = 12) showed that, both in the short and long term, educational interventions did not significantly influence risk perception level (standardised mean difference 0.05, 95% CI -0.24-0.34; p = 0.74) or accuracy (odds ratio = 1.96, 95% CI: 0.61-6.25; p = 0.26). Only one RCT reported a short-term difference in risk ratings (p = 0.01). Of prospective observational studies (n = 28), many did demonstrate changes in the level of perceived risk and improved risk accuracy and risk ratings in both the short and long term. However, only one (of three) observational studies reported a short-term difference in risk ratings (p < = 0.003). Further development and investigation of educational interventions using good quality, RCTs are warranted. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor vildagliptin improves beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity in subjects with impaired fasting glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utzschneider, Kristina M; Tong, Jenny; Montgomery, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of treatment with the dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitor vildagliptin on insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 22 subjects with IFG (11 female and 11 male, mean +/- SD...... age 59.6 +/- 11.5 years) were treated orally with 100 mg vildagliptin once daily in a single-blind study. Subjects received placebo for 2 weeks (run-in) followed by vildagliptin for 6 weeks (treatment) and then placebo for 2 weeks (washout). A frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test....... RESULTS: Fasting plasma glucose did not change after 6 weeks of vildagliptin treatment. With treatment, mean +/- SEM AIR(g) increased from 224 +/- 44 to 286 +/- 52 pmol/l (P

  20. Improved children's motor learning of the basketball free shooting pattern by associating subjective error estimation and extrinsic feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leandro de Carvalho da; Pereira-Monfredini, Carla Ferro; Teixeira, Luis Augusto

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed at assessing the interaction between subjective error estimation and frequency of extrinsic feedback in the learning of the basketball free shooting pattern by children. 10- to 12-year olds were assigned to 1 of 4 groups combining subjective error estimation and relative frequency of extrinsic feedback (33% × 100%). Analysis of performance was based on quality of movement pattern. Analysis showed superior learning of the group combining error estimation and 100% feedback frequency, both groups receiving feedback on 33% of trials achieved intermediate results, and the group combining no requirement of error estimation and 100% feedback frequency had the poorest learning. Our results show the benefit of subjective error estimation in association with high frequency of extrinsic feedback in children's motor learning of a sport motor pattern.

  1. Valsartan improves beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity in subjects with impaired glucose metabolism a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zijl, N.J.; Moors, C.C.M.; Goossens, G.H.; Hermans, M.M.H.; Blaak, E.E; Diamant, M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - Recently, the Nateglinide and Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research Trial demonstrated that treatment with the angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) valsartan for 5 years resulted in a relative reduction of 14% in the incidence of type 2 diabetes in subjects with

  2. Improved glucose tolerance after intensive life style intervention occurs without changes in muscle ceramide or triacylglycerol in morbidly obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, J. W.; Stallknecht, B.; Drachmann, Tue

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated the effect of a 15-week life style intervention (hypocaloric diet and regular exercise) on glucose tolerance, skeletal muscle lipids and muscle metabolic adaptations in 14 female and 9 male morbidly obese subjects (age: 32.5 +/- 2.3 years, BMI: 46.1 +/- 1.9 kg m(-2...

  3. Intake of St John's wort improves the glucose tolerance in healthy subjects who ingest metformin compared with metformin alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Pedersen, Rasmus Steen; Damkier, Per

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Our objective was to investigate the steady-state pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction between the antidepressive herbal medicine St John's wort and the antidiabetic drug metformin. METHODS: We performed an open cross-over study in 20 healthy male subjects, who received 1 g...

  4. Dutch Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA): training improves scores for comprehensibility and difficulty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danique Haven; Martine J. Sealy; Jan Roodenburg; Dr. C.P. van der Schans; Dr. Harriët Jager-Wittenaar; Anne van der Braak; Faith Ottery

    2015-01-01

    The Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) is a validated instrument to assess and monitor malnutrition. The PG-SGA consists of both patient-reported and professional-reported items. A professional should be able to correctly interpret all items. Untrained professionals may

  5. The GLP-1 analogue liraglutide improves first-phase insulin secretion and maximal beta-cell secretory capacity over 14 weeks of therapy in subjects with Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsbad, Sten; Vilsbøll, Tina; Brock, Birgitte

    Aims: We investigated the clinical effect of liraglutide, a long- acting GLP-1 analogue, on insulin secretion in Type 2 diabetes. Methods: Thirty-nine subjects (28 completed) from a randomised trial received a hyperglycaemic clamp (20 mM) with intravenous arginine stimulation, and an insulin...... group. Conclusion: In subjects with Type 2 diabetes, 14 weeks’ once-daily liraglutide (1.25 and 1.9 mg/day) markedly improves beta-cell function, significantly increases first-phase insulin secretion and maximal beta-cell secretory capacity....

  6. The Significance of Emotions and Professional Relations for Accommodating a Web-Based Ulcer Record and Improving Home-Based Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne G. Ekeland

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of technological performance, medical improvements and economic effectiveness is generally considered sufficient for judging advances in healthcare. In this paper, I aim to add knowledge about the ways human emotions and professional relations play roles in the processes of accommodating new technologies for quality improvements. A newly-implemented, web-based ulcer record service for patients with chronic skin ulcers constitutes the case. After one year, only a few home care nurses were using the service, interacting with a specialist team. The result was disappointing, but the few users were enthusiastic. An explorative, qualitative study was initiated to understand the users, the processes that accounted for use and how improvements were enacted. In the paper, I expose the emotional aspects of the record accommodation by analyzing the ways emotions were translated in the process and how they influenced the improvements. I contend that use came about through a heterogeneous assemblage of ethical engagement and compassionate emotions stemming from frustration, combined with technological affordances and relations between different professionals. Certain aspects of the improvements are exposed. These are discussed as: (1 reconciliations between the medical facts and rational judgments, on one side, and the emotional and subjective values for judging quality, on the other; and (2 mediation between standardized and personalized care. The healing of ulcers was combined with a sense of purpose and wellbeing to validate improvements. Emotions were strongly involved, and the power of evaluative emotions and professional relations should be further explored to add to the understanding of innovation processes and to validate quality improvements.

  7. The Significance of Emotions and Professional Relations for Accommodating a Web-Based Ulcer Record and Improving Home-Based Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeland, Anne G

    2015-01-22

    Evidence of technological performance, medical improvements and economic effectiveness is generally considered sufficient for judging advances in healthcare. In this paper, I aim to add knowledge about the ways human emotions and professional relations play roles in the processes of accommodating new technologies for quality improvements. A newly-implemented, web-based ulcer record service for patients with chronic skin ulcers constitutes the case. After one year, only a few home care nurses were using the service, interacting with a specialist team. The result was disappointing, but the few users were enthusiastic. An explorative, qualitative study was initiated to understand the users, the processes that accounted for use and how improvements were enacted. In the paper, I expose the emotional aspects of the record accommodation by analyzing the ways emotions were translated in the process and how they influenced the improvements. I contend that use came about through a heterogeneous assemblage of ethical engagement and compassionate emotions stemming from frustration, combined with technological affordances and relations between different professionals. Certain aspects of the improvements are exposed. These are discussed as: (1) reconciliations between the medical facts and rational judgments, on one side, and the emotional and subjective values for judging quality, on the other; and (2) mediation between standardized and personalized care. The healing of ulcers was combined with a sense of purpose and wellbeing to validate improvements. Emotions were strongly involved, and the power of evaluative emotions and professional relations should be further explored to add to the understanding of innovation processes and to validate quality improvements.

  8. The psychological portrait as a tool to improve the subjective well-being of the client in the context of personal sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiseleva Elena S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The definition of the concept of relationship marketing is discussed. The notion of personal sale, which emphasizes the importance of knowing the psychology of customers, the ability to demonstrate significant competence and knowledge of modern techniques in sales by the seller is represented. The theory of marketing introduced by the concept of a "personal agent", most accurately reflects the activity of the seller in the context of relationship marketing. The necessity of the application of psychology in marketing is proved. This brief description of the four basic psychological concepts, which are the basis of the marketing strategy, is clarified by leading marketers. The three areas of application of differential psychology in marketing are suggested. The basis of the psychological techniques is represented by the typical characteristics of a person. The first point of the customer portrait is showed by the theory of spirits. The second point of psychological portrait is based on the theory of Socionics. The third point of the customer portrait refers to the theory of the types of perception of the world. Three stages of the process of building a psychological portrait of the client are proposed and described. Recommendations for dealing with clients of different psychological types are discussed. A technique of creation a psychological portrait of the client allows improving subjective well-being of customers and promotes the growth of the main indicators characterizing the effectiveness of personal sales.

  9. Five-year results from a prospective multicentre study of percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation demonstrate sustained removal of significant pulmonary regurgitation, improved right ventricular outflow tract obstruction and improved quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hager, Alfred; Schubert, Stephan; Ewert, Peter

    2017-01-01

    . The EQ-5D quality of life utility index and visual analogue scale scores were both significantly improved six months post PPVI and remained so at five years. CONCLUSIONS: Five-year results following PPVI demonstrate resolved moderate or severe pulmonary regurgitation, improved right ventricular outflow...

  10. An improved estimator for the hydration of fat-free mass from in vivo measurements subject to additive technical errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnamon, Daniel D; Ludwig, David A; Lipshultz, Steven E; Miller, Tracie L; Lipsitz, Stuart R

    2010-01-01

    The hydration of fat-free mass, or hydration fraction (HF), is often defined as a constant body composition parameter in a two-compartment model and then estimated from in vivo measurements. We showed that the widely used estimator for the HF parameter in this model, the mean of the ratios of measured total body water (TBW) to fat-free mass (FFM) in individual subjects, can be inaccurate in the presence of additive technical errors. We then proposed a new instrumental variables estimator that accurately estimates the HF parameter in the presence of such errors. In Monte Carlo simulations, the mean of the ratios of TBW to FFM was an inaccurate estimator of the HF parameter, and inferences based on it had actual type I error rates more than 13 times the nominal 0.05 level under certain conditions. The instrumental variables estimator was accurate and maintained an actual type I error rate close to the nominal level in all simulations. When estimating and performing inference on the HF parameter, the proposed instrumental variables estimator should yield accurate estimates and correct inferences in the presence of additive technical errors, but the mean of the ratios of TBW to FFM in individual subjects may not

  11. The artificial somato-autonomic reflex arch does not improve bowel function in subjects with spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius; Krogh, Klaus; Clemmensen, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    Study design: Prospective cohort study. Objective: Although introduced for neurogenic bladder dysfunction, it has been suggested that the artificial somato-autonomic reflex arch alleviates neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD). We aimed at evaluating the effects of the reflex arch on NBD. Setting......: Denmark. Methods: Ten subjects with supraconal spinal cord injury (SCI) (nine males, median age 46 years) had an anastomosis created between the ventral part of the fifth lumbar or first sacral nerve root and the ventral part of the second sacral nerve root. Standardized assessment of segmental colorectal...... sphincter pressures and rectal capacity did not change, and no change was seen in NBD score (median 13.5 (baseline) vs 12.5 (follow-up), P=0.51), St Marks fecal incontinence score (4.5 vs 5.0, P=0.36) and Cleveland constipation score (6.0 vs 8.0, P=0.75). Conclusions: The artificial somato-autonomic reflex...

  12. Perception and environmental education about mangrove ecosystem improving sciences and biology subjects in public school at Recife, PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Lopes Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was developed with the aim to identify the perceptions of the students from a school about the mangrove ecosystem, using didactic and natural elements available to do an environmental education action. The previous perception of the students on the ecosystem was evaluated by means of a questionnaire, followed of a theoretical exposition, complemented with a visit to a conserved mangrove (Paripe River, Itamaracá and another impacted (Jiquiá River, Recife, near to the school, being applied new questionnaires to evaluate their conceptions and the academic strategies. The students demonstrated a relative previous knowledge on the mangrove and the educative action showed effectiveness in the transference of the ecological concepts about the ecosystem, using the method of incorporate their daily knowledge to stimulate them to know the scientific side of the subject, ending with the development of ecologic conscience.

  13. Improving of the teaching methods of chemical subjects by using of teaching tests in high educational institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzahira Turebekova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the information technologies may cause great pedagogical effect: using of computer opens the opportunity for organization of problem teaching developing the creative thinking, forming research, practical skills of students, creation of the steady positive motivation of the students. Technical facilities of the computer technology allow solving the teaching and research tasks in the chemistry come as original catalyst of creation of different types of information technology systems and projection on their basis the novel ways and methods of their application. Use of computer technology in education helps to support necessary educational level of students and pay attention to their independent work. The article represents that the computer testing can be widely used for control of knowledge and for teaching. Teaching testing arouses interest in subject and develops ability of self-preparation and self – education, provides in-door and out- door work.

  14. Integrated system of Supervision of Centrals (SISC): results, anticipated self-evaluation and improvements, cross-sectional subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarzuela, J.

    2008-01-01

    The integrated System for Plan Oversight was already implemented in 2007 in full scope i.e., including public information of its results. At the moment, the first self-assessment if the system is being implemented and, consequently, it is expected to trigger changes for improvement. Specifically, the management of cross cutting issues will be reviewed in depth, so that the causes of inspection findings will be analysed deeper and closer attention devoted to their correction. (Author)

  15. Addition of 2-(ethylamino)acetonitrile group to nitroxoline results in significantly improved anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, Ana; Sosič, Izidor; Kos, Špela; Tratar, Urša Lampreht; Breznik, Barbara; Kranjc, Simona; Mirković, Bojana; Gobec, Stanislav; Lah, Tamara; Serša, Gregor; Kos, Janko

    2017-08-29

    Lysosomal cysteine peptidase cathepsin B, involved in multiple processes associated with tumor progression, is validated as a target for anti-cancer therapy. Nitroxoline, a known antimicrobial agent, is a potent and selective inhibitor of cathepsin B, hence reducing tumor progression in vitro and in vivo . In order to further improve its anti-cancer properties we developed a number of derivatives using structure-based chemical synthesis. Of these, the 7-aminomethylated derivative (compound 17 ) exhibited significantly improved kinetic properties over nitroxoline, inhibiting cathepsin B endopeptidase activity selectively. In the present study, we have evaluated its anti-cancer properties. It was more effective than nitroxoline in reducing tumor cell invasion and migration, as determined in vitro on two-dimensional cell models and tumor spheroids, under either endpoint or real time conditions. Moreover, it exhibited improved action over nitroxoline in impairing tumor growth in vivo in LPB mouse fibrosarcoma tumors in C57Bl/6 mice. Taken together, the addition of a 2-(ethylamino)acetonitrile group to nitroxoline at position 7 significantly improves its pharmacological characteristics and its potential for use as an anti-cancer drug.

  16. Prolonged-release fampridine treatment improved subject-reported impact of multiple sclerosis: Item-level analysis of the MSIS-29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperini, Claudio; Hupperts, Raymond; Lycke, Jan; Short, Christine; McNeill, Manjit; Zhong, John; Mehta, Lahar R

    2016-11-15

    Prolonged-release (PR) fampridine is approved to treat walking impairment in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS); however, treatment benefits may extend beyond walking. MOBILE was a phase 2, 24-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory study to assess the impact of 10mg PR-fampridine twice daily versus placebo on several subject-assessed measures. This analysis evaluated the physical and psychological health outcomes of subjects with progressing or relapsing MS from individual items of the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29). PR-fampridine treatment (n=68) resulted in greater improvements from baseline in the MSIS-29 physical (PHYS) and psychological (PSYCH) impact subscales, with differences of 89% and 148% in mean score reduction from baseline (n=64) at week 24 versus placebo, respectively. MSIS-29 item analysis showed that a higher percentage of PR-fampridine subjects had mean improvements in 16/20 PHYS and 6/9 PSYCH items versus placebo after 24weeks. Post hoc analysis of the 12-item Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (MSWS-12) improver population (≥8-point mean improvement) demonstrated differences in mean reductions from baseline of 97% and 111% in PR-fampridine MSIS-29 PHYS and PSYCH subscales versus the overall placebo group over 24weeks. A higher percentage of MSWS-12 improvers treated with PR-fampridine showed mean improvements in 20/20 PHYS and 8/9 PSYCH items versus placebo at 24weeks. In conclusion, PR-fampridine resulted in physical and psychological benefits versus placebo, sustained over 24weeks. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Co-overexpressing a Plasma Membrane and a Vacuolar Membrane Sodium/Proton Antiporter Significantly Improves Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan, Necla; Sun, Li; Jarrett, Philip; Yang, Xiaojie; Mishra, Neelam; Chen, Lin; Kadioglu, Asim; Shen, Guoxin; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis gene AtNHX1 encodes a vacuolar membrane-bound sodium/proton (Na+/H+) antiporter that transports Na+ into the vacuole and exports H+ into the cytoplasm. The Arabidopsis gene SOS1 encodes a plasma membrane-bound Na+/H+ antiporter that exports Na+ to the extracellular space and imports H+ into the plant cell. Plants rely on these enzymes either to keep Na+ out of the cell or to sequester Na+ into vacuoles to avoid the toxic level of Na+ in the cytoplasm. Overexpression of AtNHX1 or SOS1 could improve salt tolerance in transgenic plants, but the improved salt tolerance is limited. NaCl at concentration >200 mM would kill AtNHX1-overexpressing or SOS1-overexpressing plants. Here it is shown that co-overexpressing AtNHX1 and SOS1 could further improve salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, making transgenic Arabidopsis able to tolerate up to 250 mM NaCl treatment. Furthermore, co-overexpression of AtNHX1 and SOS1 could significantly reduce yield loss caused by the combined stresses of heat and salt, confirming the hypothesis that stacked overexpression of two genes could substantially improve tolerance against multiple stresses. This research serves as a proof of concept for improving salt tolerance in other plants including crops. PMID:26985021

  18. Co-overexpressing a Plasma Membrane and a Vacuolar Membrane Sodium/Proton Antiporter Significantly Improves Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan, Necla; Sun, Li; Jarrett, Philip; Yang, Xiaojie; Mishra, Neelam; Chen, Lin; Kadioglu, Asim; Shen, Guoxin; Zhang, Hong

    2016-05-01

    The Arabidopsis gene AtNHX1 encodes a vacuolar membrane-bound sodium/proton (Na(+)/H(+)) antiporter that transports Na(+) into the vacuole and exports H(+) into the cytoplasm. The Arabidopsis gene SOS1 encodes a plasma membrane-bound Na(+)/H(+) antiporter that exports Na(+) to the extracellular space and imports H(+) into the plant cell. Plants rely on these enzymes either to keep Na(+) out of the cell or to sequester Na(+) into vacuoles to avoid the toxic level of Na(+) in the cytoplasm. Overexpression of AtNHX1 or SOS1 could improve salt tolerance in transgenic plants, but the improved salt tolerance is limited. NaCl at concentration >200 mM would kill AtNHX1-overexpressing or SOS1-overexpressing plants. Here it is shown that co-overexpressing AtNHX1 and SOS1 could further improve salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, making transgenic Arabidopsis able to tolerate up to 250 mM NaCl treatment. Furthermore, co-overexpression of AtNHX1 and SOS1 could significantly reduce yield loss caused by the combined stresses of heat and salt, confirming the hypothesis that stacked overexpression of two genes could substantially improve tolerance against multiple stresses. This research serves as a proof of concept for improving salt tolerance in other plants including crops. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  19. Improvement in cognitive and affective theory of mind with observation and imitation treatment in subjects with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Pino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the main objective of this study is to consider Theory of Mind (ToM, i.e. the ability to perceive other people in terms of thinking, believing and emotions, as a target for effective rehabilitative intervention, using Emotion and ToM Imitation Training (ETIT, aimed at improving social cognition and social functioning in schizophrenia. ToM impairment is a key feature of schizophrenia. According to recent literature, ToM is a multidimensional process requiring at least two components: cognitive and affective. Cognitive ToM seems to be a prerequisite for affective ToM, which requires intact empathic ability. Method: seven patients with schizophrenia completed ETIT treatment and were compared to 7 patients who participated in Problem Solving Training (PST. The participants were assessed at pre and post treatment regarding measures of cognitive (Advanced Theory of Mind Task and Social Situation Test and affective (Emotion Attribution Task and Eyes Task ToM and also empathy (Empathy Quotient. Results: our results showed that when compared to the control group, ETIT participants improved in three social cognition components evaluated (cognitive and affective ToM and empathy. Improvement in cognitive and affective ToM was found within the ETIT group pre and post treatment. Conclusions: Action observation and imitation could be important goals for future “low cost” rehabilitation treatment in several disorders in which the deficit of social cognition is considered as “core” to the disease. This represents a new perspective in the rehabilitation field.

  20. Roux-en Y gastric bypass surgery reduces hedonic hunger and improves dietary habits in severely obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Jennifer; Ernst, Barbara; Wilms, Britta; Thurnheer, Martin; Schultes, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Many obese subjects suffer from an increased hedonic drive to consume palatable foods, i.e., hedonic hunger, and often show unfavorable dietary habits. Here, we investigated changes in the hedonic hunger and dietary habits after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Forty-four severely obese patients were examined before and on average 15.9 ± 0.9 months after RYGB surgery with the Power of Food Scale (PFS), a questionnaire that reliably measures an individual's motivation to consume highly palatable foods but not actual consumptive behavior. Dietary habits were assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. After the RYGB procedure, patients showed markedly lower aggregated PFS scores and sub-domain scores related to generally available, physically present, as well as tasted foods than before the surgery (all P habits after the surgery were characterized by a more frequent consumption of poultry, fish, eggs, and cooked vegetables (P habits characterized by an increased intake of protein-rich foods and vegetables and a reduced consumption of sugar-containing snacks and beverages after RYGB surgery. Based on these findings, it can be speculated that the reduction of the hedonic drive to consume palatable foods induced by RYGB surgery helps severely obese patients to establish healthier dietary habits.

  1. Improved bolt models for use in global analyses of storage and transportation casks subject to extra-regulatory loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalan, R.J.; Ammerman, D.J.; Gwinn, K.W.

    2004-01-01

    Transportation and storage casks subjected to extra-regulatory loadings may experience large stresses and strains in key structural components. One of the areas susceptible to these large stresses and strains is the bolted joint retaining any closure lid on an overpack or a canister. Modeling this joint accurately is necessary in evaluating the performance of the cask under extreme loading conditions. However, developing detailed models of a bolt in a large cask finite element model can dramatically increase the computational time, making the analysis prohibitive. Sandia National Laboratories used a series of calibrated, detailed, bolt finite element sub-models to develop a modified-beam bolt-model in order to examine the response of a storage cask and closure to severe accident loadings. The initial sub-models were calibrated for tension and shear loading using test data for large diameter bolts. Next, using the calibrated test model, sub-models of the actual joints were developed to obtain force-displacement curves and failure points for the bolted joint. These functions were used to develop a modified beam element representation of the bolted joint, which could be incorporated into the larger cask finite element model. This paper will address the modeling and assumptions used for the development of the initial calibration models, the joint sub-models and the modified beam model

  2. Improving data availability for brain image biobanking in healthy subjects: Practice-based suggestions from an international multidisciplinary working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkin, Susan D; Pernet, Cyril; Nichols, Thomas E; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Matthews, Paul M; van der Lugt, Aad; Mackay, Clare; Lanyon, Linda; Mazoyer, Bernard; Boardman, James P; Thompson, Paul M; Fox, Nick; Marcus, Daniel S; Sheikh, Aziz; Cox, Simon R; Anblagan, Devasuda; Job, Dominic E; Dickie, David Alexander; Rodriguez, David; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2017-06-01

    Brain imaging is now ubiquitous in clinical practice and research. The case for bringing together large amounts of image data from well-characterised healthy subjects and those with a range of common brain diseases across the life course is now compelling. This report follows a meeting of international experts from multiple disciplines, all interested in brain image biobanking. The meeting included neuroimaging experts (clinical and non-clinical), computer scientists, epidemiologists, clinicians, ethicists, and lawyers involved in creating brain image banks. The meeting followed a structured format to discuss current and emerging brain image banks; applications such as atlases; conceptual and statistical problems (e.g. defining 'normality'); legal, ethical and technological issues (e.g. consents, potential for data linkage, data security, harmonisation, data storage and enabling of research data sharing). We summarise the lessons learned from the experiences of a wide range of individual image banks, and provide practical recommendations to enhance creation, use and reuse of neuroimaging data. Our aim is to maximise the benefit of the image data, provided voluntarily by research participants and funded by many organisations, for human health. Our ultimate vision is of a federated network of brain image biobanks accessible for large studies of brain structure and function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Can Air Seat Cushions and Ball Chairs Improved Classroom Behaviors of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Single Subject Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Matin Sadr

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Classroom behaviorsare disturbed in autistic students because of their repetitive, restlessness, and disruptive behaviors. This study aimed to examine the impacts of sitting on a ball, cushion, and/or common chair on classroom behavior of four students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. Methods: Four children with Autism participated in this single-subject study. Students’ behaviors were video recorded in three phases: Sitting on their common chairs during phase A, air-sit cushioned in phase B, and ball chairs in phase C. Sitting times and on-task/off-task behaviors were quantified by momentary time sampling (every 10 seconds and compared during different phases for important changes. Social validity was taken by the teacher at the end of the research as well. Results: The findings demonstrated increases in on-task and in-seat behaviors in four students when seated on air sit cushioned chairs. Despite rises of ontask behaviors for all students, only two of the students showed enhanced inseat behaviors when seated on therapy balls. Social validity findings indicated that the teacher preferred the use of the balls and air-cushioned chairs for her students. Conclusion: Therapy balls/cushioned chairs for students with ASD may facilitate in-seat and on-task behavior.

  4. Evaluation of a Direct-Instruction Intervention to Improve Movement and Preliteracy Skills among Young Children: A Within-Subject Repeated-Measures Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, Chloe; Bremer, Emily; Campbell, Wenonah; Cairney, John

    2017-01-01

    School readiness involves the development of foundational skills such as emergent literacy and fundamental movement skills as well as the capacity to attentively engage in instructional situations. Children do not develop these skills naturally; therefore, they need the opportunity to develop these skills in their early years prior to entering school. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of a direct-instruction movement and preliteracy intervention in children aged 3-4 years. A within-subject repeated-measures design, embedded within a wait-list control study, was used to evaluate the intervention. The intervention was run across 10 weeks with 1 h weekly sessions. Each weekly session consisted of 30-min of movement skill instruction (e.g., through single-step acquisition strategies), 15-min of free play during which time children had access to a variety of equipment (e.g., balls, hula hoops, etc.) or toys (e.g., puzzles, building blocks), and a 15-min interactive reading circle during which children read a storybook and were taught 1-2 preliteracy skills (e.g., alphabet knowledge, narrative knowledge, etc.). A convenience sample of 11 children (mean age = 45.6 months, SD = 7.3) was recruited. All children were assessed four times: baseline (Time 1), pre-intervention (Time 2), post-intervention (Time 3), and 5-week follow-up (Time 4). Gross motor skills and preliteracy skills were assessed at each time point. There was a statistically significant effect of time on the change in gross motor skills (Wilks' lambda = 0.09, p  = .002), print-concept skills (Wilks' lambda = 0.09, p  = .001), and alphabet knowledge (Wilks' lambda = 0.29, p  = .046). Post hoc analyses reveal non-significant changes between time 1 and 2 for motor and print-concept skills and significant changes in all three outcomes between time 2 and time 3. Participation in a direct-instruction movement and preliteracy

  5. Evaluation of a Direct-Instruction Intervention to Improve Movement and Preliteracy Skills among Young Children: A Within-Subject Repeated-Measures Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Bedard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveSchool readiness involves the development of foundational skills such as emergent literacy and fundamental movement skills as well as the capacity to attentively engage in instructional situations. Children do not develop these skills naturally; therefore, they need the opportunity to develop these skills in their early years prior to entering school. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of a direct-instruction movement and preliteracy intervention in children aged 3–4 years.MethodsA within-subject repeated-measures design, embedded within a wait-list control study, was used to evaluate the intervention. The intervention was run across 10 weeks with 1 h weekly sessions. Each weekly session consisted of 30-min of movement skill instruction (e.g., through single-step acquisition strategies, 15-min of free play during which time children had access to a variety of equipment (e.g., balls, hula hoops, etc. or toys (e.g., puzzles, building blocks, and a 15-min interactive reading circle during which children read a storybook and were taught 1–2 preliteracy skills (e.g., alphabet knowledge, narrative knowledge, etc.. A convenience sample of 11 children (mean age = 45.6 months, SD = 7.3 was recruited. All children were assessed four times: baseline (Time 1, pre-intervention (Time 2, post-intervention (Time 3, and 5-week follow-up (Time 4. Gross motor skills and preliteracy skills were assessed at each time point.ResultsThere was a statistically significant effect of time on the change in gross motor skills (Wilks’ lambda = 0.09, p = .002, print-concept skills (Wilks’ lambda = 0.09, p = .001, and alphabet knowledge (Wilks’ lambda = 0.29, p = .046. Post hoc analyses reveal non-significant changes between time 1 and 2 for motor and print-concept skills and significant changes in all three outcomes between time 2 and time 3.ConclusionParticipation in a

  6. Comprehensively Measuring Health-Related Subjective Well-Being: Dimensionality Analysis for Improved Outcome Assessment in Health Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Marieke; Emons, Wilco H M; Plantinga, Arnoud; Pietersma, Suzanne; van den Hout, Wilbert B; Stiggelbout, Anne M; van den Akker-van Marle, M Elske

    2016-01-01

    Allocation of inevitably limited financial resources for health care requires assessment of an intervention's effectiveness. Interventions likely affect quality of life (QOL) more broadly than is measurable with commonly used health-related QOL utility scales. In line with the World Health Organization's definition of health, a recent Delphi procedure showed that assessment needs to put more emphasis on mental and social dimensions. To identify the core dimensions of health-related subjective well-being (HR-SWB) for a new, more comprehensive outcome measure. We formulated items for each domain of an initial Delphi-based set of 21 domains of HR-SWB. We tested these items in a large sample (N = 1143) and used dimensionality analyses to find a smaller number of latent factors. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a five-factor model, which explained 65% of the total variance. Factors related to physical independence, positive affect, negative affect, autonomy, and personal growth. Correlations between the factors ranged from 0.19 to 0.59. A closer inspection of the factors revealed an overlap between the newly identified core dimensions of HR-SWB and the validation scales, but the dimensions of HR-SWB also seemed to reflect additional aspects. This shows that the dimensions of HR-SWB we identified go beyond the existing health-related QOL instruments. We identified a set of five key dimensions to be included in a new, comprehensive measure of HR-SWB that reliably captures these dimensions and fills in the gaps of the existent measures used in economic evaluations. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Relating Nanoscale Accessibility within Plant Cell Walls to Improved Enzyme Hydrolysis Yields in Corn Stover Subjected to Diverse Pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Jacob D; Zarger, Rachael A; Hodge, David B

    2017-10-04

    Simultaneous chemical modification and physical reorganization of plant cell walls via alkaline hydrogen peroxide or liquid hot water pretreatment can alter cell wall structural properties impacting nanoscale porosity. Nanoscale porosity was characterized using solute exclusion to assess accessible pore volumes, water retention value as a proxy for accessible water-cell walls surface area, and solute-induced cell wall swelling to measure cell wall rigidity. Key findings concluded that delignification by alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreatment decreased cell wall rigidity and that the subsequent cell wall swelling resulted increased nanoscale porosity and improved enzyme binding and hydrolysis compared to limited swelling and increased accessible surface areas observed in liquid hot water pretreated biomass. The volume accessible to a 90 Å dextran probe within the cell wall was found to be correlated to both enzyme binding and glucose hydrolysis yields, indicating cell wall porosity is a key contributor to effective hydrolysis yields.

  8. Vitamin D and Calcium Addition during Denosumab Therapy over a Period of Four Years Significantly Improves Lumbar Bone Mineral Density in Japanese Osteoporosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Suzuki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether or not vitamin D and calcium supplementation affected bone metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD over a period of four years of denosumab therapy in patients with primary osteoporosis. Patients were divided into a denosumab monotherapy group (22 cases or a denosumab plus vitamin D and calcium supplementation group (combination group, 21 cases. We measured serum bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP-5b, urinary N-terminal telopeptide of type-I collagen (NTX, and BMD of the lumbar 1–4 vertebrae (L-BMD and bilateral hips (H-BMD at baseline and at 12, 24, 36, and 48 months of treatment. There were no significant differences in patient background. Serum BAP, TRACP-5b, and urinary NTX were significantly and comparably inhibited in both groups from 12 to 48 months versus baseline values. L-BMD was significantly increased at every time point in both groups, while H-BMD was significantly increased at every time point in the combination group only. There were significant differences between the groups for L-BMD at 24, 36, and 48 months (P < 0.05 and for H-BMD at 12 months (P < 0.05. Compared with denosumab monotherapy, combination therapy of denosumab plus vitamin D and calcium significantly increased H-BMD at 12 months and L-BMD from 24 to 48 months. These findings indicate that continuous vitamin D and calcium supplementation is important, especially for 12 months to improve H-BMD and from 24 to 48 months to improve L-BMD.

  9. Funcionamiento Efectivo y Dimensión Subjetiva del Vínculo Significativo con los Demás / Effective Functioning and Subjective Dimension of the Significant Link with Others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Maureira Sepúlveda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando la base de datos de la Encuesta de Desarrollo Humano del Programa de Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD-EDH aplicada en Chile durante el año 2011 a un total de 2.535 personas mayores de 18 años, esta investigación analiza el “Vínculo Significativo con los Demás” (VSD en su componente Funcionamiento Efectivo (VSD-FE y en su dimensión Subjetiva (VSD-S. En general las personas desarrollan adecuados vínculos con sus otros significativos, no obstante distinguirse una mayor prevalencia en la dimensión subjetiva del índice VSD. Reconocen ser objeto de estima y declaran percibir la valoración y preocupación de los demás, a pesar de desarrollar con menor frecuencia actividades de afiliación con familiares y amigos. Elevan el índice VSD un mayor nivel socioeconómico (NSE, vivir acompañado, tener pareja, la ausencia de hijos, pertenecer a un menor tramo etario y vivir en zonas urbanas o urbes de concentración poblacional. Abstract Using the Human Development Survey database of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP-EDH applied in Chile in 2011 to a total of 2,535 people over the age of 18, this research analyzes the “Significant Link with the Other” (SLO in its Effective Function (SLO-EF and Subjective Dimension (SLO-S. In general, people develop adequate links with their significant others; however, a higher prevalence is distinguished in the subjective dimension of the SLO index. They recognize that they are esteemed and declare to perceive the esteem and concern of others, even though they are less likely to develop affiliation activities with family and friends. A higher socioeconomic level (NSE, living with others, having a partner, the absence of children, belonging to a smaller age group and living in urban areas or cities with population concentration, raises the SLO index.

  10. Effects of a community scorecard on improving the local health system in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: qualitative evidence using the most significant change technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lara S; Labrecque, Guillaume; Batonon, Isatou; Salsi, Viviana; Ratnayake, Ruwan

    2015-01-01

    More than a decade of conflict has weakened the health system in the Democratic Republic of Congo and decreased its ability to respond to the needs of the population. Community scorecards have been conceived as a way to increase accountability and responsiveness of service providers, but there is limited evidence of their effects, particularly in fragile and conflict-affected contexts. This paper describes the implementation of community scorecards within a community-driven reconstruction project in two provinces of eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Between June 2012 and November 2013, 45 stories of change in the health system were collected from village development committee, health committee, community members (20 men and 18 women) and healthcare providers (n = 7) in 25 sites using the Most Significant Change technique. Stories were analyzed qualitatively for content related to the types and mechanisms of change observed. The most salient changes were related to increased transparency and community participation in health facility management, and improved quality of care. Quality of care included increased access to services, improved patient-provider relationships, improved performance of service providers, and improved maintenance of physical infrastructure. Changes occurred through many different mechanisms including provider actions in response to information, pressure from community representatives, or supervisors; and joint action and improved collaboration by health facility committees and providers. Although it is often assumed that confrontation is a primary mechanism for citizens to change state-provided services, this study demonstrates that healthcare providers may also be motivated to change through other means. Positive experiences of community scorecards can provide a structured space for interface between community members and the health system, allowing users to voice their opinions and preferences and bridge information gaps for both

  11. Improving Learning Outcomes in Office Automation Subjects Through Development of Video-Based Media Learning Operating Microsoft Publisher 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Mastumasari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to produce instructional media video-based operate Microsoft Publisher 2010 which is validated by experts for student at class X of Office Administration in SMKN 1 Malang through experimental class and control class. This study uses Research and Development research design (R & D through 8 steps, namely: (1 research and information gathering early, (2 planning, (3 product development, (4 validation expert, (5 product revision, (6 the trial court (small groups, (7 the revision of the product, and (8 field trials (large group. Results of validation by material experts, media experts and 12 students, the media is expressed very valid and can be used. Based on t test, it is known that a significant difference between the average student learning outcomes experimental class and control class, so that learning media can be said to be effective for use in the learning process.

  12. Generation of subject-specific, dynamic, multisegment ankle and foot models to improve orthotic design: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oosterwaal Michiel

    2011-11-01

    to develop linked inverse dynamic and forward dynamic biomechanical foot models. These models may be beneficial in predicting the effect of and thus improving the efficacy of orthotic devices for the foot and ankle.

  13. Improvement of physiological parameters of rats subjected to hypercaloric diet, with the use of Pereskia grandifolia (Cactaceae) leaf flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Martha Elisa Ferreira; Simão, Anderson Assaid; Corrêa, Angelita Duarte; de Barros Fernandes, Regiane Victória

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Pereskia grandifolia leaf flour on rats fed a hypercaloric diet. After a hypercaloric diet for 10 weeks, 21 animals were divided into the following groups and were fed the following diets for 4 weeks: control (CH), hypercaloric diet with P. grandifolia flour (PGF) 5%, and hypercaloric diet with PGF 10%. Several measurements were performed including body weight, food consumption, body mass index, Lee index, liver weight, liver and body moisture content, and body and hepatic lipid level. Data were analyzed by Tukey's test at 5% probability. Rats fed PGF diet had decreased food consumption and body weight and showed lower body mass and Lee indices compared to control group. At week 2, weight of the PGF 10% group was statistically lower than the control group (CH). At week 4, the PGF 10% group demonstrated the highest body weight loss compared to the other two groups. There were no significant difference in total lipids and moisture level between the groups; however, rats fed PGF diet had lower hepatic lipids levels than control group and reduced liver weight. This suggests that PGF induced weight loss and decreased hepatic lipid level and may be effective in treating obesity and related metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Does Duloxetine Improve Cognitive Function Independently of Its Antidepressant Effect in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder and Subjective Reports of Cognitive Dysfunction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L. Greer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cognitive deficits are commonly reported by patients with major depressive disorder (MDD. Duloxetine, a dual serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, may improve cognitive deficits in MDD. It is unclear if cognitive improvements occur independently of antidepressant effects with standard antidepressant medications. Methods. Thirty participants with MDD who endorsed cognitive deficits at screening received 12-week duloxetine treatment. Twenty-one participants completed treatment and baseline and posttreatment cognitive testing. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery was used to assess the following cognitive domains: attention, visual memory, executive function/set shifting and working memory, executive function/spatial planning, decision making and response control, and verbal learning and memory. Results. Completers showed significant cognitive improvements across several domains on tasks assessing psychomotor function and mental processing speed, with additional improvements in visual and verbal learning and memory, and affective decision making and response control. Overall significance tests for executive function tasks were also significant, although individual tasks were not, perhaps due to the small sample size. Most notably, cognitive improvements were observed independently of symptom reduction on all domains except verbal learning and memory. Conclusions. Patients reporting baseline cognitive deficits achieved cognitive improvements with duloxetine treatment, most of which were independent of symptomatic improvement. This trial is registered with NCT00933439.

  15. A facile template method to synthesize significantly improved LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 using corn stalk as a bio-template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guiyang; Kong, Xin; Sun, Hongyan; Wang, Baosen; Yi, Zhongzhou; Wang, Quanbiao

    2014-01-01

    In order to simplify the template method for the synthesis of cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, a facile template method using plant stalks as bio-templates has been introduced. Based on this method, LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 spinel with a significantly improved electrochemical performance has been synthesized using corn stalk as a template. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared pectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) have been used to investigate the phase composition and micro-morphologies of the products. Charge-discharge measurements in lithium cells, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) have been used to study the electrochemical performance of the products. The results indicate that the templated product exhibits higher crystallinity than that of non-templated product. Both of the templated product and the non-templated product are combination of the ordered space group P4 3 32 and the disordered Fd-3 m. The specific BET surface area of the templated product is about twice larger than that of the non-templated product. Moreover, the electrochemical performances of the templated product including specific capacity, cycling stability and rate capability are significantly improved as compared with the non-templated product, due to its higher crystallinity, larger Li + diffusion coefficient and lower charge transfer resistance

  16. Arthroscopic Debridement for Primary Degenerative Osteoarthritis of the Elbow Leads to Significant Improvement in Range of Motion and Clinical Outcomes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochacki, Kyle R; Jack, Robert A; Hirase, Takashi; McCulloch, Patrick C; Lintner, David M; Liberman, Shari R; Harris, Joshua D

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether arthroscopic debridement of primary elbow osteoarthritis results in statistically significant and clinically relevant improvement in (1) elbow range of motion and (2) clinical outcomes with (3) low complication and reoperation rates. A systematic review was registered with PROSPERO and performed using PRISMA guidelines. Databases were searched for studies that investigated the outcomes of arthroscopic debridement for the treatment of primary osteoarthritis of the elbow in adult human patients. Study methodological quality was analyzed. Studies that included post-traumatic arthritis were excluded. Elbow motion and all elbow-specific patient-reported outcome scores were eligible for analysis. Comparisons between preoperative and postoperative values from each study were made using 2-sample Z-tests (http://in-silico.net/tools/statistics/ztest) using a P value osteoarthritis results in statistically significant and clinically relevant improvement in elbow range of motion and clinical outcomes with low complication and reoperation rates. Systematic review of level IV studies. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Transplantation of N-Acetyl Aspartyl-Glutamate Synthetase-Activated Neural Stem Cells after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury Significantly Improves Neurological Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfeng Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Neural stem cells (NSCs hold considerable potential as a therapeutic tool for repair of the damaged nervous system. In the current study, we examined whether transplanted N-acetyl aspartyl-glutamate synthetase (NAAGS-activated NSCs (NAAGS/NSCs further improve neurological recovery following traumatic brain injury (TBI in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: Animals received TBI and stereotactic injection of NSCs, NAAGS/NSCs or phosphate buffered saline without cells (control into the injured cortex. NAAGS protein expression was detected through western blot analysis. Dialysate NAAG levels were analyzed with radioimmunoassay. Cell apoptosis was detected via TUNEL staining. The expression levels of specific pro-inflammatory cytokines were detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Groups with transplanted NSCs and NAAGS/NSCs displayed significant recovery of the motor behavior, compared to the control group. At 14 and 21 days post-transplantation, the motor behavior in NAAGS/NSC group was significantly improved than that in NSC group (pConclusion: Our results collectively demonstrate that NAAGS/NSCs provide a more powerful autoplastic therapy for the injured nervous system.

  18. Short-Term Exercise Training Improves Insulin Sensitivity but Does Not Inhibit Inflammatory Pathways in Immune Cells from Insulin-Resistant Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Reyna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Exercise has an anti-inflammatory effect against, and immune cells play critical roles in the development, of insulin resistance and atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine whether exercise improves insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant subjects by downregulating proinflammatory signaling in immune cells. Methods. Seventeen lean, 8 obese nondiabetic, and 11 obese type 2 diabetic individuals underwent an aerobic exercise program for 15 days and an insulin clamp before and after exercise. Peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNC were obtained for determination of Toll-like receptor (TLR 2 and 4 protein content and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. Results. Compared with that in lean individuals, TLR4 protein content was increased by 4.2-fold in diabetic subjects. This increase in TLR4 content was accompanied by a 3.0-fold increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation. Exercise improved insulin sensitivity in the lean, obese, and type 2 diabetes groups. However, exercise did not affect TLR content or ERK phosphorylation. Conclusions. TLR4 content and ERK phosphorylation are increased in PMNC of type 2 diabetic individuals. While exercise improves insulin sensitivity, this effect is not related to changes in TLR2/TLR4 content or ERK phosphorylation in PMNC of type 2 diabetic individuals.

  19. Short-term exercise training improves insulin sensitivity but does not inhibit inflammatory pathways in immune cells from insulin-resistant subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Sara M; Tantiwong, Puntip; Cersosimo, Eugenio; Defronzo, Ralph A; Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee; Musi, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Background. Exercise has an anti-inflammatory effect against, and immune cells play critical roles in the development, of insulin resistance and atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD). Thus, the goal of this study was to determine whether exercise improves insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant subjects by downregulating proinflammatory signaling in immune cells. Methods. Seventeen lean, 8 obese nondiabetic, and 11 obese type 2 diabetic individuals underwent an aerobic exercise program for 15 days and an insulin clamp before and after exercise. Peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNC) were obtained for determination of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4 protein content and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. Results. Compared with that in lean individuals, TLR4 protein content was increased by 4.2-fold in diabetic subjects. This increase in TLR4 content was accompanied by a 3.0-fold increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Exercise improved insulin sensitivity in the lean, obese, and type 2 diabetes groups. However, exercise did not affect TLR content or ERK phosphorylation. Conclusions. TLR4 content and ERK phosphorylation are increased in PMNC of type 2 diabetic individuals. While exercise improves insulin sensitivity, this effect is not related to changes in TLR2/TLR4 content or ERK phosphorylation in PMNC of type 2 diabetic individuals.

  20. Evaluation of mode equivalence of the MSKCC Bowel Function Instrument, LASA Quality of Life, and Subjective Significance Questionnaire items administered by Web, interactive voice response system (IVRS), and paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Antonia V; Keenoy, Kathleen; Shouery, Marwan; Basch, Ethan; Temple, Larissa K

    2016-05-01

    To assess the equivalence of patient-reported outcome (PRO) survey responses across Web, interactive voice response system (IVRS), and paper modes of administration. Postoperative colorectal cancer patients with home Web/e-mail and phone were randomly assigned to one of the eight study groups: Groups 1-6 completed the survey via Web, IVRS, and paper, in one of the six possible orders; Groups 7-8 completed the survey twice, either by Web or by IVRS. The 20-item survey, including the MSKCC Bowel Function Instrument (BFI), the LASA Quality of Life (QOL) scale, and the Subjective Significance Questionnaire (SSQ) adapted to bowel function, was completed from home on consecutive days. Mode equivalence was assessed by comparison of mean scores across modes and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and was compared to the test-retest reliability of Web and IVRS. Of 170 patients, 157 completed at least one survey and were included in analysis. Patients had mean age 56 (SD = 11), 53% were male, 81% white, 53% colon, and 47% rectal cancer; 78% completed all assigned surveys. Mean scores for BFI total score, BFI subscale scores, LASA QOL, and adapted SSQ varied by mode by less than one-third of a score point. ICCs across mode were: BFI total score (Web-paper = 0.96, Web-IVRS = 0.97, paper-IVRS = 0.97); BFI subscales (range = 0.88-0.98); LASA QOL (Web-paper = 0.98, Web-IVRS = 0.78, paper-IVRS = 0.80); and SSQ (Web-paper = 0.92, Web-IVRS = 0.86, paper-IVRS = 0.79). Mode equivalence was demonstrated for the BFI total score, BFI subscales, LASA QOL, and adapted SSQ, supporting the use of multiple modes of PRO data capture in clinical trials.

  1. Influence of body mass index on short-term subjective improvement and risk of reoperation after mid-urethral sling surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weltz, Vibeke; Guldberg, Rikke; Larsen, Michael D.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis: The objective was to evaluate the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the subjective improvement and risk of reoperation after first-time mid-urethral sling surgery. Methods: Data were retrieved from the national Danish Urogynaecological Database, including women...... was defined as any new surgical procedure for stress urinary incontinence performed within the study period. Results: During the study period, 6,414 mid-urethral sling procedures were performed; 80.0% of these women filled out both pre- and post-surgical International Consultation on Incontinence...

  2. How Good Is Good: Improved Tracking and Managing of Safety Goals, Performance Indicators, Production Targets and Significant Events Using Learning Curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, Rommey B.; Saull, John W.

    2002-01-01

    We show a new way to track and measure safety and performance using learning curves derived on a mathematical basis. When unusual or abnormal events occur in plants and equipment, the regulator and good management practice requires they be reported, investigated, understood and rectified. In addition to reporting so-called 'significant events', both management and the regulator often set targets for individual and collective performance, which are used for both reward and criticism. For almost completely safe systems, like nuclear power plants, commercial aircraft and chemical facilities, many parameters are tracked and measured. Continuous improvement has to be demonstrated, as well as meeting reduced occurrence rates, which are set as management goals or targets. This process usually takes the form of statistics for availability of plant and equipment, forced or unplanned maintenance outage, loss of safety function, safety or procedural violations, etc. These are often rolled up into a set of so-called 'Performance Indicators' as measures of how well safety and operation is being managed at a given facility. The overall operating standards of an industry are also measured. A whole discipline is formed of tracking, measuring, reporting, managing and understanding the plethora of indicators and data. Decreasing occurrence rates and meeting or exceeding goals are seen and rewarded as virtues. Managers and operators need to know how good is their safety management system that has been adopted and used (and paid for), and whether it can itself be improved. We show the importance of accumulated experience in correctly measuring and tracking the decreasing event and error rates speculating a finite minimum rate. We show that the rate of improvement constitutes a measurable 'learning curve', and the attainment of the goals and targets can be affected by the adopted measures. We examine some of the available data on significant events, reportable occurrences, and loss of

  3. Mobile physician reporting of clinically significant events-a novel way to improve handoff communication and supervision of resident on call activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Christopher; Peterson, Stephen J; Aronow, Wilbert S; Sule, Sachin; Mumtaz, Arif; Shah, Tushar; Eskridge, Etta; Wold, Eric; Stallings, Gary W; Burak, Kathleen Kelly; Goldberg, Randy; Guo, Gary; Sekhri, Arunabh; Mathew, George; Khera, Sahil; Montoya, Jessica; Sharma, Mala; Paudel, Rajiv; Frishman, William H

    2014-12-01

    Reporting of clinically significant events represents an important mechanism by which patient safety problems may be identified and corrected. However, time pressure and cumbersome report entry procedures have discouraged the full participation of physicians. To improve the process, our internal medicine training program developed an easy-to-use mobile platform that combines the reporting process with patient sign-out. Between August 25, 2011, and January 25, 2012, our trainees entered clinically significant events into i-touch/i-phone/i-pad based devices functioning in wireless-synchrony with our desktop application. Events were collected into daily reports that were sent from the handoff system to program leaders and attending physicians to plan for rounds and to correct safety problems. Using the mobile module, residents entered 31 reportable events per month versus the 12 events per month that were reported via desktop during a previous 6-month study period. Advances in information technology now permit clinically significant events that take place during "off hours" to be identified and reported (via handoff) to next providers and to supervisors via collated reports. This information permits hospital leaders to correct safety issues quickly and effectively, while attending physicians are able to use information gleaned from the reports to optimize rounding plans and to provide additional oversight of trainee on call patient management decisions.

  4. Spirulina Supplements Improved the Nutritional Status of Undernourished Children Quickly and Significantly: Experience from Kisantu, the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Féfé Khuabi Matondo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Despite high levels of malnutrition, there is still very little information on the nutritional benefits of Spirulina, a natural alga that provides essential amino acids, rare essential lipids, and numerous minerals and vitamins, to undernourished children in the world. Methods. We carried out a prospective study of 50 children aged between six and 60 months. The intervention group consisted of 16 children who received 10 g of Spirulina daily, as well as the local diet administered by the nutritional centre, and the control group of 34 children who just received the local diet. Both groups of children were assessed on day zero, day 15, and day 30. Results. After treatment, the weight-for-age Z scores and weight-for-height Z scores increased significantly in the intervention group. At day 15, there was a statistically significant difference between the mean corpuscular volume, total proteins, and albumin (p<0.05 in both groups, in favour of the intervention group, and at day 30, this difference extended to all of the studied parameters (p<0.05. Conclusion. This study found that the nutritional status of undernourished children who received Spirulina supplements as well as the local diet administered by the nutritional centre improved quickly and significantly.

  5. Mechanism of Cerebralcare Granule® for Improving Cognitive Function in Resting-State Brain Functional Networks of Sub-healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cerebralcare Granule® (CG, a Chinese herbal medicine, has been used to ameliorate cognitive impairment induced by ischemia or mental disorders. The ability of CG to improve health status and cognitive function has drawn researchers' attention, but the relevant brain circuits that underlie the ameliorative effects of CG remain unclear. The present study aimed to explore the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of CG in ameliorating cognitive function in sub-healthy subjects using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Thirty sub-healthy participants were instructed to take one 2.5-g package of CG three times a day for 3 months. Clinical cognitive functions were assessed with the Chinese Revised Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-RC and Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS, and fMRI scans were performed at baseline and the end of intervention. Functional brain network data were analyzed by conventional network metrics (CNM and frequent subgraph mining (FSM. Then 21 other sub-healthy participants were enrolled as a blank control group of cognitive functional. We found that administrating CG can improve the full scale of intelligence quotient (FIQ and Memory Quotient (MQ scores. At the same time, following CG treatment, in CG group, the topological properties of functional brain networks were altered in various frontal, temporal, occipital cortex regions, and several subcortical brain regions, including essential components of the executive attention network, the salience network, and the sensory-motor network. The nodes involved in the FSM results were largely consistent with the CNM findings, and the changes in nodal metrics correlated with improved cognitive function. These findings indicate that CG can improve sub-healthy subjects' cognitive function through altering brain functional networks. These results provide a foundation for future studies of the potential physiological mechanism of CG.

  6. Scissor-type knife significantly improves self-completion rate of colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection: Single-center prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashina, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Yoji; Nagai, Kengo; Matsuura, Noriko; Ito, Takashi; Fujii, Mototsugu; Hanaoka, Noboru; Higashino, Koji; Uedo, Noriya; Ishihara, Ryu; Iishi, Hiroyasu

    2017-05-01

    Colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (C-ESD) is recognized as a difficult procedure. Recently, scissors-type knives were launched to reduce the difficulty of C-ESD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the combined use of a scissors-type knife and a needle-type knife with a water-jet function (WJ needle-knife) for C-ESD compared with using the WJ needle-knife alone. This was a prospective randomized controlled trial in a referral center. Eighty-five patients with superficial colorectal neoplasms were enrolled and randomly assigned to undergo C-ESD using a WJ needle-knife alone (Flush group) or a scissor-type knife-supported WJ needle-knife (SB Jr group). Procedures were conducted by two supervised residents. Primary endpoint was self-completion rate by the residents. Self-completion rate was 67% in the SB Jr group, which was significantly higher than that in the Flush group (39%, P = 0.01). Even after exclusion of four patients in the SB Jr group in whom C-ESD was completed using the WJ needle-knife alone, the self-completion rate was significantly higher (63% vs 39%; P = 0.03). Median procedure time among the self-completion cases did not differ significantly between the two groups (59 vs 51 min; P = 0.14). No fatal adverse events were observed in either group. In this single-center phase II trial, scissor-type knife significantly improved residents' self-completion rate for C-ESD, with no increase in procedure time or adverse events. A multicenter trial would be warranted to confirm the validity of the present study. © 2016 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  7. Call-to-balloon time dashboard in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction results in significant improvement in the logistic chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Maaike P J; Velders, Matthijs A; Smeekes, Martin; Drexhage, Olivier S; Hautvast, Raymond W M; Ytsma, Timon; Schalij, Martin J; Umans, Victor A W M

    2017-08-04

    Timely reperfusion with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients is associated with superior clinical outcomes. Aiming to reduce ischaemic time, an innovative system for home-to-hospital (H2H) time monitoring was implemented, which enabled real-time evaluation of ischaemic time intervals, regular feedback and improvements in the logistic chain. The objective of this study was to assess the results after implementation of the H2H dashboard for monitoring and evaluation of ischaemic time in STEMI patients. Ischaemic time in STEMI patients transported by emergency medical services (EMS) and treated with pPCI in the Noordwest Ziekenhuis, Alkmaar before (2008-2009; n=495) and after the implementation of the H2H dashboard (2011-2014; n=441) was compared. Median time intervals were significantly shorter in the H2H group (door-to-balloon time 32 [IQR 25-43] vs. 40 [IQR 28-55] minutes, p-value dashboard was independently associated with shorter time delays. Real-time monitoring and feedback on time delay with the H2H dashboard improves the logistic chain in STEMI patients, resulting in shorter ischaemic time intervals.

  8. Improving significantly the failure strain and work hardening response of LPSO-strengthened Mg-Y-Zn-Al alloy via hot extrusion speed control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xinghe; Chee, Winston; Chan, Jimmy; Kwok, Richard; Gupta, Manoj

    2017-07-01

    The effect of hot extrusion speed on the microstructure and mechanical properties of MgY1.06Zn0.76Al0.42 (at%) alloy strengthened by the novel long-period stacking ordered (LPSO) phase was systematically investigated. Increase in the speed of extrusion accelerated dynamic recrystallization of α-Mg via particle-stimulated nucleation and grain growth in the alloy. The intensive recrystallization and grain growth events weakened the conventional basal texture and Hall-Petch strengthening in the alloy which led to significant improvement in its failure strain from 4.9% to 19.6%. The critical strengthening contribution from LPSO phase known for attributing high strength to the alloy was observed to be greatly undermined by the parallel competition from texture weakening and the adverse Hall-Petch effect when the alloy was extruded at higher speed. Absence of work hardening interestingly observed in the alloy extruded at lower speed was discussed in terms of its ultra-fine grained microstructure which promoted the condition of steady-state defect density in the alloy; where dislocation annihilation balances out the generation of new dislocations during plastic deformation. One approach to improve work hardening response of the alloy to prevent unstable deformation and abrupt failure in service is to increase the grain diameter in the alloy by judiciously increasing the extrusion speed.

  9. Whole-body vibration improves the anti-inflammatory status in elderly subjects through toll-like receptor 2 and 4 signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Miguelez, Paula; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Collado, Pilar S; Almar, Mar; Martinez-Florez, Susana; de Paz, José A; González-Gallego, Javier; Cuevas, María J

    2015-09-01

    Regular physical exercise has anti-inflammatory effects in elderly subjects. Yet, the inflammatory responses after whole body vibration (WBV) training, a popular exercise paradigm for the elderly, remain to be elucidated. This study assessed the effects of WBV training on the inflammatory response associated with toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling pathways. Twenty-eight subjects were randomized to a training group (TG) or a control group (CG). TG followed an 8-week WBV training program. Blood samples were obtained before and after the training period in both groups. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated, and mRNA and protein levels of makers involved in the TLR2/TLR4 myeloid differentiation primary response gen 88 (MyD88) and TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon (TRIF)-dependent pathways were analyzed. Plasma TNFα and C-reactive protein levels were also assessed. The WBV program reduced protein expression of TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, p65, TRIF and heat shock protein (HSP) 60, while HSP70 content increased. IL-10 mRNA level and protein concentration were upregulated, and TNFα protein content decreased, after WBV training. Plasma concentration of C-reactive protein and TNFα decreased in the TG. The current data suggest WBV may improve the anti-inflammatory status of elderly subjects through an attenuation of MyD88- and TRIF-dependent TLRs signaling pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Kinking and Torsion Can Significantly Improve the Efficiency of Valveless Pumping in Periodically Compressed Tubular Conduits. Implications for Understanding of the Form-Function Relationship of Embryonic Heart Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Hiermeier

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Valveless pumping phenomena (peristalsis, Liebau-effect can generate unidirectional fluid flow in periodically compressed tubular conduits. Early embryonic hearts are tubular conduits acting as valveless pumps. It is unclear whether such hearts work as peristaltic or Liebau-effect pumps. During the initial phase of its pumping activity, the originally straight embryonic heart is subjected to deforming forces that produce bending, twisting, kinking, and coiling. This deformation process is called cardiac looping. Its function is traditionally seen as generating a configuration needed for establishment of correct alignments of pulmonary and systemic flow pathways in the mature heart of lung-breathing vertebrates. This idea conflicts with the fact that cardiac looping occurs in all vertebrates, including gill-breathing fishes. We speculate that looping morphogenesis may improve the efficiency of valveless pumping. To test the physical plausibility of this hypothesis, we analyzed the pumping performance of a Liebau-effect pump in straight and looped (kinked configurations. Compared to the straight configuration, the looped configuration significantly improved the pumping performance of our pump. This shows that looping can improve the efficiency of valveless pumping driven by the Liebau-effect. Further studies are needed to clarify whether this finding may have implications for understanding of the form-function relationship of embryonic hearts.

  11. Assessing and improving health in the workplace: an integration of subjective and objective measures with the STress Assessment and Research Toolkit (St.A.R.T. method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panari Chiara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this work was to introduce a new combined method of subjective and objective measures to assess psychosocial risk factors at work and improve workers’ health and well-being. In the literature most of the research on work-related stress focuses on self-report measures and this work represents the first methodology capable of integrating different sources of data. Method An integrated method entitled St.A.R.T. (STress Assessment and Research Toolkit was used in order to assess psychosocial risk factors and two health outcomes. In particular, a self-report questionnaire combined with an observational structured checklist was administered to 113 workers from an Italian retail company. Results The data showed a correlation between subjective data and the rating data of the observational checklist for the psychosocial risk factors related to work contexts such as customer relationship management and customer queue. Conversely, the factors related to work content (workload and boredom measured with different methods (subjective vs. objective showed a discrepancy. Furthermore, subjective measures of psychosocial risk factors were more predictive of workers’ psychological health and exhaustion than rating data. The different objective measures played different roles, however, in terms of their influence on the two health outcomes considered. Conclusions It is important to integrate self-related assessment of stressors with objective measures for a better understanding of workers’ conditions in the workplace. The method presented could be considered a useful methodology for combining the two measures and differentiating the impact of different psychological risk factors related to work content and context on workers’ health.

  12. Assessing and improving health in the workplace: an integration of subjective and objective measures with the STress Assessment and Research Toolkit (St.A.R.T.) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panari, Chiara; Guglielmi, Dina; Ricci, Aurora; Tabanelli, Maria Carla; Violante, Francesco Saverio

    2012-09-20

    The aim of this work was to introduce a new combined method of subjective and objective measures to assess psychosocial risk factors at work and improve workers' health and well-being. In the literature most of the research on work-related stress focuses on self-report measures and this work represents the first methodology capable of integrating different sources of data. An integrated method entitled St.A.R.T. (STress Assessment and Research Toolkit) was used in order to assess psychosocial risk factors and two health outcomes. In particular, a self-report questionnaire combined with an observational structured checklist was administered to 113 workers from an Italian retail company. The data showed a correlation between subjective data and the rating data of the observational checklist for the psychosocial risk factors related to work contexts such as customer relationship management and customer queue. Conversely, the factors related to work content (workload and boredom) measured with different methods (subjective vs. objective) showed a discrepancy. Furthermore, subjective measures of psychosocial risk factors were more predictive of workers' psychological health and exhaustion than rating data. The different objective measures played different roles, however, in terms of their influence on the two health outcomes considered. It is important to integrate self-related assessment of stressors with objective measures for a better understanding of workers' conditions in the workplace. The method presented could be considered a useful methodology for combining the two measures and differentiating the impact of different psychological risk factors related to work content and context on workers' health.

  13. Daily consumption of banana marginally improves blood glucose and lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic subjects and increases serum adiponectin in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressey, Ratchada; Kumsaiyai, Warunee; Mangklabruks, Ampika

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we explored the effects of consumption of banana in thirty hypercholesterolemic and fifteen type 2 diabetic subjects. They were given a daily dose of 250 or 500 grams of banana for breakfast for 12 weeks. Fasting serum lipid, glucose and insulin levels were measured initially as well as every 4 weeks. Daily consumption of banana significantly lowered fasting blood glucose (from 99 ± 7.7 to 92 ± 6.9 and 102 ± 7.3 to 92 ± 5.7 mg x dL(-1) (p profile in diabetic patients were not statistically significant, but for plasma levels of adiponectin, there were significantly increased (from 37.5 ± 9.36 to 48.8 ± 7.38 ngnml1, p consumption of banana (@ 250 g/day) is harmless both in diabetic and hypercholesterolemic volunteers and marginally beneficial to the later.

  14. MO-FG-204-03: Using Edge-Preserving Algorithm for Significantly Improved Image-Domain Material Decomposition in Dual Energy CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, W; Niu, T; Xing, L; Xiong, G; Elmore, K; Min, J; Zhu, J; Wang, L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To significantly improve dual energy CT (DECT) imaging by establishing a new theoretical framework of image-domain material decomposition with incorporation of edge-preserving techniques. Methods: The proposed algorithm, HYPR-NLM, combines the edge-preserving non-local mean filter (NLM) with the HYPR-LR (Local HighlY constrained backPRojection Reconstruction) framework. Image denoising using HYPR-LR framework depends on the noise level of the composite image which is the average of the different energy images. For DECT, the composite image is the average of high- and low-energy images. To further reduce noise, one may want to increase the window size of the filter of the HYPR-LR, leading resolution degradation. By incorporating the NLM filtering and the HYPR-LR framework, HYPR-NLM reduces the boost material decomposition noise using energy information redundancies as well as the non-local mean. We demonstrate the noise reduction and resolution preservation of the algorithm with both iodine concentration numerical phantom and clinical patient data by comparing the HYPR-NLM algorithm to the direct matrix inversion, HYPR-LR and iterative image-domain material decomposition (Iter-DECT). Results: The results show iterative material decomposition method reduces noise to the lowest level and provides improved DECT images. HYPR-NLM significantly reduces noise while preserving the accuracy of quantitative measurement and resolution. For the iodine concentration numerical phantom, the averaged noise levels are about 2.0, 0.7, 0.2 and 0.4 for direct inversion, HYPR-LR, Iter- DECT and HYPR-NLM, respectively. For the patient data, the noise levels of the water images are about 0.36, 0.16, 0.12 and 0.13 for direct inversion, HYPR-LR, Iter-DECT and HYPR-NLM, respectively. Difference images of both HYPR-LR and Iter-DECT show edge effect, while no significant edge effect is shown for HYPR-NLM, suggesting spatial resolution is well preserved for HYPR-NLM. Conclusion: HYPR

  15. YH12852, a potent and highly selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist, significantly improves both upper and lower gastrointestinal motility in a guinea pig model of postoperative ileus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Z; Lee, Y J; Yang, H; Jeong, E J; Sim, J Y; Park, H

    2017-10-01

    Postoperative ileus (POI) is a transient gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility that commonly develops after abdominal surgery. YH12852, a novel, potent and highly selective 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 (5-HT 4 ) receptor agonist, has been shown to improve both upper and lower GI motility in various animal studies and may have applications for the treatment of POI. Here, we investigated the effects and mechanism of action of YH12852 in a guinea pig model of POI to explore its therapeutic potential. The guinea pig model of POI was created by laparotomy, evisceration, and gentle manipulation of the cecum for 60 seconds, followed by closure with sutures under anesthesia. Group 1 received an oral administration of vehicle or YH12852 (1, 3, 10 or 30 mg/kg) only, while POI Group 2 was intraperitoneally pretreated with vehicle or 5-HT 4 receptor antagonist GR113808 (10 mg/kg) prior to oral dosing of vehicle or YH12852 (3 or 10 mg/kg). Upper GI transit was evaluated by assessing the migration of a charcoal mixture in the small intestine, while lower GI transit was assessed via measurement of fecal pellet output (FPO). YH12852 significantly accelerated upper and lower GI transit at the doses of 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg and reached its maximal effect at 10 mg/kg. These effects were significantly blocked by pretreatment of GR113808 10 mg/kg. Oral administration of YH12852 significantly accelerates and restores delayed upper and lower GI transit in a guinea pig model of POI. This drug may serve as a useful candidate for the treatment of postoperative ileus. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool......-Saxon and continental traditions, this special issue provides examples of the use of researcher subjectivity, informed by psychoanalytic thinking, in expanding research understanding....

  17. In vivo topical application of acetyl aspartic acid increases fibrillin-1 and collagen IV deposition leading to a significant improvement of skin firmness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillbro, J M; Merinville, E; Cattley, K; Al-Bader, T; Hagforsen, E; Nilsson, M; Mavon, A

    2015-10-01

    Acetyl aspartic acid (A-A-A) was discovered through gene array analysis with corresponding Cmap analysis. We found that A-A-A increased keratinocyte regeneration, inhibited dermal matrix metalloprotease (MMP) expression and relieved fibroblast stiffness through reduction of the fibroblast stiffness marker F-actin. Dermal absorption studies showed successful delivery to both the epidermal and dermal regions, and in-use trial demonstrated that 1% A-A-A was well tolerated. In this study, the aim was to investigate whether A-A-A could stimulate the synthesis of extracellular matrix supporting proteins in vivo and thereby improving the viscoelastic properties of human skin by conducting a dual histological and biophysical clinical study. Two separate double-blind vehicle-controlled in vivo studies were conducted using a 1% A-A-A containing oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. In the histological study, 16 female volunteers (>55 years of age) exhibiting photodamaged skin on their forearm were included, investigating the effect of a 12-day treatment of A-A-A on collagen IV (COLIV) and fibrillin-1. In a subsequent pilot study, 0.1% retinol was used for comparison to A-A-A (1%). The biomechanical properties of the skin were assessed in a panel of 16 women (>45 years of age) using the standard Cutometer MPA580 after topical application of the test products for 28 days. The use of multiple suction enabled the assessment of F4, an area parameter specifically representing skin firmness. Twelve-day topical application of 1% A-A-A significantly increased COLIV and fibrillin with 13% and 6%, respectively, compared to vehicle. 1% A-A-A and 0.1% retinol were found to significantly reduce F4 after 28 days of treatment by 15.8% and 14.7%, respectively, in the pilot Cutometer study. No significant difference was found between retinol and A-A-A. However, only A-A-A exhibited a significant effect vs. vehicle on skin firmness which indicated the incremental benefit of A-A-A as a skin

  18. Low- and high-volume of intensive endurance training significantly improves maximal oxygen uptake after 10-weeks of training in healthy men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnt Erik Tjønna

    Full Text Available Regular exercise training improves maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, but the optimal intensity and volume necessary to obtain maximal benefit remains to be defined. A growing body of evidence suggests that exercise training with low-volume but high-intensity may be a time-efficient means to achieve health benefits. In the present study, we measured changes in VO2max and traditional cardiovascular risk factors after a 10 wk. training protocol that involved three weekly high-intensity interval sessions. One group followed a protocol which consisted of 4×4 min at 90% of maximal heart rate (HRmax interspersed with 3 min active recovery at 70% HRmax (4-AIT, the other group performed a single bout protocol that consisted of 1×4 min at 90% HRmax (1-AIT. Twenty-six inactive but otherwise healthy overweight men (BMI: 25-30, age: 35-45 y were randomized to either 1-AIT (n = 11 or 4-AIT (n = 13. After training, VO2max increased by 10% (∼5.0 mL⋅kg(-1⋅min(-1 and 13% (∼6.5 mL⋅kg(-1⋅min(-1 after 1-AIT and 4-AIT, respectively (group difference, p = 0.08. Oxygen cost during running at a sub-maximal workload was reduced by 14% and 13% after 1-AIT and 4-AIT, respectively. Systolic blood pressure decreased by 7.1 and 2.6 mmHg after 1-AIT and 4-AIT respectively, while diastolic pressure decreased by 7.7 and 6.1 mmHg (group difference, p = 0.84. Both groups had a similar ∼5% decrease in fasting glucose. Body fat, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and ox-LDL cholesterol only were significantly reduced after 4-AIT. Our data suggest that a single bout of AIT performed three times per week may be a time-efficient strategy to improve VO2max and reduce blood pressure and fasting glucose in previously inactive but otherwise healthy middle-aged individuals. The 1-AIT type of exercise training may be readily implemented as part of activities of daily living and could easily be translated into programs designed to improve public health

  19. Significant Improvement of Puncture Accuracy and Fluoroscopy Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy With Novel Lumbar Location System: Preliminary Report of Prospective Hello Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guoxin; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhang, Hailong; Wu, Xinbo; Gu, Xin; Gu, Guangfei; Fan, Yunshan; He, Shisheng

    2015-12-01

    Prospective nonrandomized control study.The study aimed to investigate the implication of the HE's Lumbar LOcation (HELLO) system in improving the puncture accuracy and reducing fluoroscopy in percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED).Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy is one of the most popular minimally invasive spine surgeries that heavily depend on repeated fluoroscopy. Increased fluoroscopy will induce higher radiation exposure to surgeons and patients. Accurate puncture in PTED can be achieved by accurate preoperative location and definite trajectory.The HELLO system mainly consists of self-made surface locator and puncture-assisted device. The surface locator was used to identify the exact puncture target and the puncture-assisted device was used to optimize the puncture trajectory. Patients who had single L4/5 or L5/S1 lumbar intervertebral disc herniation and underwent PTED were included the study. Patients receiving the HELLO system were assigned in Group A, and those taking conventional method were assigned in Group B. Study primary endpoint was puncture times and fluoroscopic times, and the secondary endpoint was location time and operation time.A total of 62 patients who received PTED were included in this study. The average age was 45.35 ± 8.70 years in Group A and 46.61 ± 7.84 years in Group B (P = 0.552). There were no significant differences in gender, body mass index, conservative time, and surgical segment between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). The puncture times were 1.19 ± 0.48 in Group A and 6.03 ± 1.87 in Group B (P HELLO system is accurate preoperative location and definite trajectory. This preliminary report indicated that the HELLO system significantly improves the puncture accuracy of PTED and reduces the fluoroscopic times, preoperative location time, as well as operation time. (ChiCTR-ICR-15006730).

  20. Prospective trial of angiography and embolization for all grade III to V blunt splenic injuries: nonoperative management success rate is significantly improved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Preston R; Chang, Michael C; Hoth, J Jason; Mowery, Nathan T; Hildreth, Amy N; Martin, R Shayn; Holmes, James H; Meredith, J Wayne; Requarth, Jay A

    2014-04-01

    Nonoperative management (NOM) of blunt splenic injury is well accepted. Substantial failure rates in higher injury grades remain common, with one large study reporting rates of 19.6%, 33.3%, and 75% for grades III, IV, and V, respectively. Retrospective data show angiography and embolization can increase salvage rates in these severe injuries. We developed a protocol requiring referral of all blunt splenic injuries, grades III to V, without indication for immediate operation for angiography and embolization. We hypothesized that angiography and embolization of high-grade blunt splenic injury would reduce NOM failure rates in this population. This was a prospective study at our Level I trauma center as part of a performance-improvement project. Demographics, injury characteristics, and outcomes were compared with historic controls. The protocol required all stable patients with grade III to V splenic injuries be referred for angiography and embolization. In historic controls, referral was based on surgeon preference. From January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2012, there were 168 patients with grades III to V spleen injuries admitted; NOM was undertaken in 113 (67%) patients. The protocol was followed in 97 patients, with a failure rate of 5%. Failure rate in the 16 protocol deviations was 25% (p = 0.02). Historic controls from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2009 were compared with the protocol group. One hundred and fifty-three patients with grade III to V injuries were admitted during this period, 80 (52%) patients underwent attempted NOM. Failure rate was significantly higher than for the protocol group (15%, p = 0.04). Use of a protocol requiring angiography and embolization for all high-grade spleen injuries slated for NOM leads to a significantly decreased failure rate. We recommend angiography and embolization as an adjunct to NOM for all grade III to V splenic injuries. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Significantly improving the yield of recombinant proteins in Bacillus subtilis by a novel powerful mutagenesis tool (ARTP): Alkaline α-amylase as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingfang; Yang, Haiquan; Chen, Xianzhong; Sun, Bo; Du, Guocheng; Zhou, Zhemin; Song, Jiangning; Fan, You; Shen, Wei

    2015-10-01

    In this study, atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP), a promising mutation breeding technique, was successfully applied to generate Bacillus subtilis mutants that yielded large quantities of recombinant protein. The high throughput screening platform was implemented to select those mutants with the highest yield of recombinant alkaline α-amylase (AMY), including the preferred mutant B. subtilis WB600 mut-12#. The yield and productivity of recombinant AMY in B. subtilis WB600 mut-12# increased 35.0% and 8.8%, respectively, the extracellular protein concentration of which increased 37.9%. B. subtilis WB600 mut-12# exhibited good genetic stability. Cells from B. subtilis WB600 mut-12# became shorter and wider than those from the wild-type. This study is the first to report a novel powerful mutagenesis tool (ARTP) that significantly improves the yield of recombinant proteins in B. subtilis and may therefore play an important role in the high expression level of proteins in recombinant microbial hosts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cross accumulative roll bonding—A novel mechanical technique for significant improvement of stir-cast Al/Al2O3 nanocomposite properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardakani, Mohammad Reza Kamali; Amirkhanlou, Sajjad; Khorsand, Shohreh

    2014-01-01

    Lightweight metal-matrix nanocomposites (MMNCs—metal matrix with nanosized ceramic particles) can be of significance for automobile, aerospace, and numerous other applications. There are some problems in obtaining suitable mechanical properties of MMNCs, including weak bonding between reinforcement and matrix, non-uniformity of reinforcement nanoparticles and high porosity content. In this study, aluminum/alumina nanocomposite was fabricated by stircasting method. Subsequently, cross accumulative roll bonding (CARB) process was used as an effective method for refinement of microstructure and improvement of mechanical properties. The microstructural evolution and the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites during various CARB cycles were examined by the Archimedes method, X-ray defractometer, scanning electron microscopy and tensile testing. The results showed that the microstructure of the nanocomposite after eight cycles of CARB had an excellent distribution of alumina nanoparticles in aluminum matrix without any remarkable porosity. The X-ray diffraction results showed that the crystallite size of the nanocomposite was 71 nm by employing eight cycles of CARB technique. Mechanical experiment also indicated that the ultimate tensile strength and the elongation of the nanocomposite increased as the number of CARB cycles increased. After eight CARB cycles, ultimate tensile strength and the elongation values reached 344 MPa and 6.4%, which were 3.13 and 3.05 times greater than those of as-cast nanocomposites, respectively

  3. Physiologically-based, predictive analytics using the heart-rate-to-Systolic-Ratio significantly improves the timeliness and accuracy of sepsis prediction compared to SIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Omar K; Hendren, Sandra; Santiago, Ethel; Nye, Brittany; Abraham, Prasad

    2017-04-01

    Enhancing the efficiency of diagnosis and treatment of severe sepsis by using physiologically-based, predictive analytical strategies has not been fully explored. We hypothesize assessment of heart-rate-to-systolic-ratio significantly increases the timeliness and accuracy of sepsis prediction after emergency department (ED) presentation. We evaluated the records of 53,313 ED patients from a large, urban teaching hospital between January and June 2015. The HR-to-systolic ratio was compared to SIRS criteria for sepsis prediction. There were 884 patients with discharge diagnoses of sepsis, severe sepsis, and/or septic shock. Variations in three presenting variables, heart rate, systolic BP and temperature were determined to be primary early predictors of sepsis with a 74% (654/884) accuracy compared to 34% (304/884) using SIRS criteria (p < 0.0001)in confirmed septic patients. Physiologically-based predictive analytics improved the accuracy and expediency of sepsis identification via detection of variations in HR-to-systolic ratio. This approach may lead to earlier sepsis workup and life-saving interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Polyethylene imine/graphene oxide layer-by-layer surface functionalization for significantly improved limit of detection and binding kinetics of immunoassays on acrylate surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Celina M; Mishra, Rohit; Kinahan, David J; Ferreira, Marystela; Ducrée, Jens

    2017-10-01

    Antibody immobilization on polymeric substrates is a key manufacturing step for microfluidic devices that implement sample-to-answer automation of immunoassays. In this work, a simple and versatile method to bio-functionalize poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), a common material of such "Lab-on-a-Chip" systems, is proposed; using the Layer-by-Layer (LbL) technique, we assemble nanostructured thin films of poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) and graphene oxide (GO). The wettability of PMMA surfaces was significantly augmented by the surface treatment with (PEI/GO) 5 film, with an 81% reduction of the contact angle, while the surface roughness increased by 600%, thus clearly enhancing wettability and antibody binding capacity. When applied to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), the limit of detection of PMMA surface was notably improved from 340pgmL -1 on commercial grade polystyrene (PS) and 230pgmL -1 on plain PMMA surfaces to 130pgmL -1 on (PEI/GO) 5 treated PMMA. Furthermore, the accelerated antibody adsorption kinetics on the LbL films of GO allowed to substantially shorten incubation times, e.g. for anti-rat IgG adsorption from 2h down to 15min on conventional and treated surfaces, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products as a potential biomarker to predict weight loss and improvement of insulin sensitivity by a very low calorie diet of obese human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Imke; Schulte, Dominik M; Müller, Nike; Martinsen, Jessica; Türk, Kathrin; Hedderich, Jürgen; Schreiber, Stefan; Laudes, Matthias

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is associated with low-grade systemic inflammation which is thought to trigger the development of comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes. The soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) belongs to the innate immune system and has been linked to obesity, recently. The aim of the present study was to examine whether serum sRAGE concentrations are related to the grade of weight loss and improvement of insulin resistance due to a very low calorie diet (VLCD). 22 severe obese subjects (Median Body Mass Index (BMI): 44.5kg/m(2)) were included in a dietary intervention study of 6month, consisting of a very low calorie formula diet phase (VLCD: 800kcal/d) for 12 weeks and a following 12 week weight maintenance phase. Fasting glucose, fasting insulin, adiponectin, leptin and sRAGE were determined from sera. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index and leptin-to-adiponectin-ratio (LAR). Mean body weight reduction by VLCD accounted to 21.7kg with a significant improvement of insulin resistance. At baseline, sRAGE serum levels were significantly inversely related to BMI (rS=-0.642, p=0.001) and HOMA (rS=-0.419, p=0.041). Of interest, sRAGE serum levels at baseline were significantly lower in study subjects with greater reduction of BMI (p=0.017). In addition, a significantly greater HOMA reduction was observed in subjects with lower sRAGE serum levels at baseline (p=0.006). Finally, correlation analysis revealed, that changes of sRAGE serum levels were significantly correlated to changes of BMI (rS=-0.650, p=0.022) during intervention. Anti-inflammatory sRAGE might be a potential future biomarker to predict weight loss and improvement of insulin resistance by a VLCD whereby lower baseline sRAGE serum levels indicate a better outcome of the dietary intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Value of a Well-Being Improvement Strategy: Longitudinal Success across Subjective and Objective Measures Observed in a Firm Adopting a Consumer-Driven Health Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaobo; Coberley, Carter; Pope, James E; Wells, Aaron

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate effectiveness of a firm's 5-year strategy toward improving well-being while lowering health care costs amidst adoption of a Consumer-Driven Health Plan. Repeated measures statistical models were employed to test and quantify association between key demographic factors, employment type, year, individual well-being, and outcomes of health care costs, obesity, smoking, absence, and performance. Average individual well-being trended upward by 13.5% over 5 years, monthly allowed amount health care costs declined 5.2% on average per person per year, and obesity and smoking rates declined by 4.8 and 9.7%, respectively, on average each year. The results show that individual well-being was significantly associated with each outcome and in the expected direction. The firm's strategy was successful in driving statistically significant, longitudinal well-being, biometric and productivity improvements, and health care cost reduction.

  7. Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, A.C.; Ostman, E.M.; Holst, Jens Juul

    2008-01-01

    Low-glycemic index (GI) foods and foods rich in whole grain are associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We studied the effect of cereal-based bread evening meals (50 g available starch), varying in GI and content of indigestible carbohydrates, on glucose...... tolerance and related variables after a subsequent standardized breakfast in healthy subjects (n = 15). At breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h for analysis of blood glucose, serum insulin, serum FFA, serum triacylglycerides, plasma glucagon, plasma gastric-inhibitory peptide, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1...... based bread (ordinary, high-amylose- or beta-glucan-rich genotypes) or an evening meal with white wheat flour bread (WWB) enriched with a mixture of barley fiber and resistant starch improved glucose tolerance at the subsequent breakfast compared with unsupplemented WWB (P

  8. Kinetics of improved 1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucohydrolase biosynthesis from a newly isolated Aspergillus oryzae IIB-6 and parameter significance analysis by 2-factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Bilqees; Ali, Sikander

    2012-01-01

    Sixteen different mould cultures viz. Aspergillus, Alternaria, Arthroderma, Trichoderma, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Chochliobolus were isolated from the soil samples of Qatar by serial dilution method. The preliminary screening of isolates was done by selecting initial colonies showing relatively bigger zones of starch hydrolysis on nutrient agar plates. The isolates were then subjected to secondary screening by submerged fermentation (SmF). The 1,4-α-D-glucan glucohydrolase (GGH) activity ranged from 1.906-12.675 U/ml/min. The product yield was analysed in dependence of mycelial morphology, biomass level and protein content. The isolate Aspergillus oryzae llB-6 which gave maximum enzyme production was incubated in M3 medium containing 20 g/l starch, 10 g/l lactose, 8.5 g/l yeast extract, 6 g/l corn steep liquor (CSL), 1.2 g/l MgSO4.7H2O, 1.3 g/l NH4Cl, 0.6 g/l CaCl2.2H2O, pH 5 at 30±2°C and 200 rpm. On the basis of kinetic variables, notably Qp (0.058±0.01(a) U/g/h), Yp/s (0.308±0.03(ab) U/g) and qp (0.210±0.032(abc) U/g fungal biomass/h), A. oryzae IIB-6 was found to be a hyper producer of GGH (LSD 0.0345) compared to A. kawachii IIB-2. A noticeable enhancement in enzyme activity of over 30% was observed (13.917±1.01 U/ml/min) when the process parameters viz. cultural conditions (pH 5, incubation period 72 h) and nutritional requirements (6 g/l CSL, 9.5 g/l yeast extract, 10 g/l starch, 20 g/l lactose) were further optimized using a 2-factorial Plackett-Burman design. The model terms were found to be highly significant (HS, p≤0.05), indicating the potential utility of the culture (dof~3).

  9. Longitudinal growth changes in subjects with deepbite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; McNamara, James A

    2011-08-01

    This study was a cephalometric evaluation of the growth changes in untreated subjects with deepbite at 4 time points during their developmental ages (from the early mixed dentition to the permanent dentition, and from the prepubertal phase to young adulthood). A sample of 29 subjects with deepbite (overbite >4.5 mm) was followed longitudinally from about 9 through about 18 years of age. Dentofacial changes at 4 times, defined by the cervical vertebral maturation method, were analyzed on lateral cephalograms. Nonparametric statistical analysis was used for comparisons. Overbite improved on average by 1.3 mm between the first and last measurements; it worsened significantly during the prepubertal period, but it improved significantly at the pubertal growth spurt. From the prepubertal ages through young adulthood, overbite improved in 83% of the subjects and self-corrected in 62% of the subjects. Improvements in overbite were related to the initial amount of maxillary incisor proclination. The significant improvement in overbite during the adolescent growth spurt depended on the amount of vertical growth of the mandibular ramus and the eruption of the mandibular molars. Subjects with deepbite showed worsened occlusal conditions during the prepubertal and mixed dentition phases, but had significant improvements thereafter. Improvements in overbite cannot be predicted on the basis of skeletal vertical relationships. These results provide useful indications for appropriate orthodontic treatment timing for an increased overbite. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Using Serum Advanced Glycation End Products-Peptides to Improve the Efficacy of World Health Organization Fasting Plasma Glucose Criterion in Screening for Diabetes in High-Risk Chinese Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilin Sun

    Full Text Available The efficacy of using fasting plasma glucose (FPG alone as a preferred screening test for diabetes has been questioned. This study was aimed to evaluate whether the use of serum advanced glycation end products-peptides (sAGEP would help to improve the efficacy of FPG in diabetes screening among high-risk Chinese subjects with FPG <7.0 mmol/L. FPG, 2-h plasma glucose (2h-PG, serum glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, and sAGEP were measured in 857 Chinese subjects with risk factors for diabetes. The areas under receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves generated by logistic regression models were assessed and compared to find the best model for diabetes screening in subjects with FPG <7.0 mmol/L. The optimal critical line was determined by maximizing the sum of sensitivity and specificity. Among the enrolled subjects, 730 of them had FPG <7.0 mmol/L, and only 41.7% new diabetes cases were identified using the 1999 World Health Organization FPG criterion (FPG ≥7.0 mmol/L. The area under ROC curves generated by the model on FPG-sAGEP was the largest compared with that on FPG-HbA1c, sAGEP, HbA1c or FPG in subjects with FPG <7.0 mmol/L. By maximizing the sum of sensitivity and specificity, the optimal critical line was determined as 0.69×FPG + 0.14×sAGEP = 7.03, giving a critical sensitivity of 91.2% in detecting 2h-PG ≥11.1 mmol/L, which was significantly higher than that of FPG-HbA1c or HbA1c. The model on FPG-sAGEP improves the efficacy of using FPG alone in detecting diabetes among high-risk Chinese subjects with FPG <7.0 mmol/L, and is worth being promoted for future diabetes screening.

  11. Significant improvement of biocompatibility of polypropylene mesh for incisional hernia repair by using poly-epsilon-caprolactone nanofibers functionalized with thrombocyte-rich solution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plencner, Martin; Prosecká, Eva; Rampichová, Michala; East, B.; Buzgo, Matej; Vysloužilová, L.; Hoch, J.; Amler, Evžen

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2015 (2015), s. 2635-2646 E-ISSN 1178-2013 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : nanofibers * growth factors * polypropylene mesh * hernia regeneration * in vitro Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines Impact factor: 4.320, year: 2015

  12. Cocoa flavanol consumption improves cognitive function, blood pressure control, and metabolic profile in elderly subjects: the Cocoa, Cognition, and Aging (CoCoA) Study--a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroiacovo, Daniela; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Grassi, Davide; Necozione, Stefano; Raffaele, Angelo; Pistacchio, Luana; Righetti, Roberta; Bocale, Raffaella; Lechiara, Maria Carmela; Marini, Carmine; Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovambattista

    2015-03-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that flavanol consumption may have many health benefits in humans, including improved cognitive activities. The aim was to evaluate the effect of flavanol consumption on cognitive performance in cognitively intact elderly subjects. This was a double-blind, controlled, parallel-arm study conducted in 90 elderly individuals without clinical evidence of cognitive dysfunction who were randomly assigned to consume daily for 8 wk a drink containing 993 mg [high flavanol (HF)], 520 mg [intermediate flavanol (IF)], or 48 mg [low flavanol (LF)] cocoa flavanols (CFs). Cognitive function was assessed at baseline and after 8 wk by using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Trail Making Test (TMT) A and B, and the Verbal Fluency Test (VFT). The changes in MMSE score in response to the 3 different treatments were not different. In contrast, there was a positive impact of the intervention on specific aspects of cognitive function. Mean changes (±SEs) in the time required to complete the TMT A and B after consumption of the HF (-8.6 ± 0.4 and -16.5 ± 0.8 s, respectively) and IF (-6.7 ± 0.5 and -14.2 ± 0.5 s, respectively) drinks significantly (P consumption of the LF drinks (-0.8 ± 1.6 and -1.1 ± 0.7 s, respectively). Similarly, VFT scores significantly improved among all treatment groups, but the magnitude of improvement in the VFT score was significantly (P consumption can reduce some measures of age-related cognitive dysfunction, possibly through an improvement in insulin sensitivity. These data suggest that the habitual intake of flavanols can support healthy cognitive function with age. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Improvement of the calculation of the stress intensity factors for underclad and through-clad defects in a reactor pressure vessel subjected to a pressurised thermal shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, S.; Chapuliot, S.

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of the stability of a defect in a cladded reactor pressure vessel (RPV) of a nuclear pressure water reactor (PWR) subjected to pressurised thermal shock (PTS) is one main elements of the general safety demonstration. Recently, CEA proposed several improved analytical tools for the analysis of the PTS. First, an analytical solution for the vessel through-thickness temperature variation has been developed to deal with any fluid temperature, taking into account the possible presence of a cladding, in the case of an internal PTS. The associated thermal stress expression has been simplified and a complete linearised solution is given for the thermal loading and also for internal pressure, depending on the main vessel material and on the cladding properties. Finally, a complete compendium is also given for the elastic stresses intensity factor calculation. This paper proposes several improvements of the proposed analytical method to deal with a PTS in a PWR cladded vessel. A variable heat transfer coefficient is now taken into account based on an equivalent fluid temperature variation determination, associated with a constant heat transfer coefficient, to keep the same thermal exchange between the fluid and the inner skin of the vessel obtained with the initial data. A more accurate expression for the linearised stresses due to the internal pressure is given, and a possible effect of residual stresses due to the difference between the operating temperature and the stress-free temperature is also taken into account. Finally, an extension of the domain of definition of the influence functions for the elastic stress intensity factor calculation is given

  14. Prostate Health Index (Phi) and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3) significantly improve prostate cancer detection at initial biopsy in a total PSA range of 2-10 ng/ml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Matteo; Bruzzese, Dario; Perdonà, Sisto; Marino, Ada; Mazzarella, Claudia; Perruolo, Giuseppe; D'Esposito, Vittoria; Cosimato, Vincenzo; Buonerba, Carlo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Musi, Gennaro; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Chun, Felix K; Terracciano, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Many efforts to reduce prostate specific antigen (PSA) overdiagnosis and overtreatment have been made. To this aim, Prostate Health Index (Phi) and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3) have been proposed as new more specific biomarkers. We evaluated the ability of phi and PCA3 to identify prostate cancer (PCa) at initial prostate biopsy in men with total PSA range of 2-10 ng/ml. The performance of phi and PCA3 were evaluated in 300 patients undergoing first prostate biopsy. ROC curve analyses tested the accuracy (AUC) of phi and PCA3 in predicting PCa. Decision curve analyses (DCA) were used to compare the clinical benefit of the two biomarkers. We found that the AUC value of phi (0.77) was comparable to those of %p2PSA (0.76) and PCA3 (0.73) with no significant differences in pairwise comparison (%p2PSA vs phi p = 0.673, %p2PSA vs. PCA3 p = 0.417 and phi vs. PCA3 p = 0.247). These three biomarkers significantly outperformed fPSA (AUC = 0.60), % fPSA (AUC = 0.62) and p2PSA (AUC = 0.63). At DCA, phi and PCA3 exhibited a very close net benefit profile until the threshold probability of 25%, then phi index showed higher net benefit than PCA3. Multivariable analysis showed that the addition of phi and PCA3 to the base multivariable model (age, PSA, %fPSA, DRE, prostate volume) increased predictive accuracy, whereas no model improved single biomarker performance. Finally we showed that subjects with active surveillance (AS) compatible cancer had significantly lower phi and PCA3 values (pphi and PCA3 comparably increase the accuracy in predicting the presence of PCa in total PSA range 2-10 ng/ml at initial biopsy, outperforming currently used %fPSA.

  15. Kefir drink causes a significant yet similar improvement in serum lipid profile, compared with low-fat milk, in a dairy-rich diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Yasamin; Ghodrati, Naeimeh; Zibaeenezhad, Mohammad-Javad; Faghih, Shiva

    Controversy exists as to whether the lipid-lowering properties of kefir drink (a fermented probiotic dairy product) in animal models could be replicated in humans. To assess and compare the potential lipid-lowering effects of kefir drink with low-fat milk in a dairy-rich diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. In this 8-week, single-center, multiarm, parallel-group, outpatient, randomized controlled trial, 75 eligible Iranian women aged 25 to 45 years were randomly allocated to kefir, milk, or control groups. Women in the control group received a weight-maintenance diet containing 2 servings/d of low-fat dairy products, whereas subjects in the milk and kefir groups received a similar diet containing 2 additional servings/d (a total of 4 servings/d) of dairy products from low-fat milk or kefir drink, respectively. At baseline and study end point, serum levels/ratios of total cholesterol (TC), low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC and HDLC), triglyceride, Non-HDLC, TC/HDLC, LDLC/HDLC, and triglyceride/LDLC were measured as outcome measures. After 8 weeks, subjects in the kefir group had significantly lower serum levels/ratios of lipoproteins than those in the control group (mean between-group differences were -10.4 mg/dL, -9.7 mg/dL, -11.5 mg/dL, -0.4, and -0.3 for TC, LDLC, non-HDLC, TC/HDLC, and LDLC/HDLC, respectively; all P < .05). Similar results were observed in the milk group. However, no such significant differences were found between the kefir and milk groups. Kefir drink causes a significant yet similar improvement in serum lipid profile, compared with low-fat milk, in a dairy-rich diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Gadolinium-enhanced cardiac MR exams of human subjects are associated with significant increases in the DNA repair marker 53BP1, but not the damage marker γH2AX.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S McDonald

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging is considered low risk, yet recent studies have raised a concern of potential damage to DNA in peripheral blood leukocytes. This prospective Institutional Review Board-approved study examined potential double-strand DNA damage by analyzing changes in the DNA damage and repair markers γH2AX and 53BP1 in patients who underwent a 1.5 T gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (MR exam. Sixty patients were enrolled (median age 55 years, 39 males. Patients with history of malignancy or who were receiving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or steroids were excluded. MR sequence data were recorded and blood samples obtained immediately before and after MR exposure. An automated immunofluorescence assay quantified γH2AX or 53BP1 foci number in isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Changes in foci number were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Clinical and MR procedural characteristics were compared between patients who had a >10% increase in γH2AX or 53BP1 foci numbers and patients who did not. The number of γH2AX foci did not significantly change following cardiac MR (median foci per cell pre-MR = 0.11, post-MR = 0.11, p = .90, but the number of 53BP1 foci significantly increased following MR (median foci per cell pre-MR = 0.46, post-MR = 0.54, p = .0140. Clinical and MR characteristics did not differ significantly between patients who had at least a 10% increase in foci per cell and those who did not. We conclude that MR exposure leads to a small (median 25% increase in 53BP1 foci, however the clinical relevance of this increase is unknown and may be attributable to normal variation instead of MR exposure.

  17. Rescreening for abnormal vaginal flora in pregnancy and re-treating with clindamycin vaginal cream significantly increases cure and improvement rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamont, R F; Taylor-Robinson, D; Bassett, P

    2012-01-01

    We investigated 199 pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) who received clindamycin vaginal cream (CVC) for three days and compared with 205 women treated with placebo. The vaginal flora was assessed at each visit. At the second visit, 71% in the CVC group were cured/improved, compared...

  18. Addendum to the article: Misuse of null hypothesis significance testing: Would estimation of positive and negative predictive values improve certainty of chemical risk assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Newman, Michael C; Zubrod, Jochen P; Seitz, Frank; Rosenfeldt, Ricki R; Schulz, Ralf

    2015-03-01

    We argued recently that the positive predictive value (PPV) and the negative predictive value (NPV) are valuable metrics to include during null hypothesis significance testing: They inform the researcher about the probability of statistically significant and non-significant test outcomes actually being true. Although commonly misunderstood, a reported p value estimates only the probability of obtaining the results or more extreme results if the null hypothesis of no effect was true. Calculations of the more informative PPV and NPV require a priori estimate of the probability (R). The present document discusses challenges of estimating R.

  19. Concurrent Improvement in Both Binge Eating and Depressive Symptoms with Naltrexone/Bupropion Therapy in Overweight or Obese Subjects with Major Depressive Disorder in an Open-Label, Uncontrolled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerdjikova, Anna I; Walsh, Brandon; Shan, Kevin; Halseth, Amy E; Dunayevich, Eduardo; McElroy, Susan L

    2017-10-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is associated with obesity and major depressive disorder (MDD). Naltrexone extended-release (ER)/bupropion ER (NB) is approved as an adjunct to diet and physical activity for chronic weight management. In a prospectively designed 24-week open-label, single-arm, single-site trial of 25 women with MDD and overweight/obesity, NB reduced weight and depressive symptoms. This post hoc analysis investigated the relationship between change in self-reported binge eating behavior (evaluated with the Binge Eating Scale [BES]) and changes in weight, control of eating, and depressive symptoms. At baseline, 91% of subjects had moderate or severe BES scores, suggesting BED. BES scores were significantly improved from week 4, and by week 24, 83% reported "little or no problem." Improvement in BES scores correlated with improvement in depressive symptoms and control of eating. NB may be effective in reducing binge eating symptoms associated with MDD and overweight/obesity. Evaluation of NB in BED appears warranted. Orexigen Therapeutics, Inc.

  20. Significant mobility improvement of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors annealed in a low temperature wet ambient environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallorina, Michael Paul A.; Bermundo, Juan Paolo S.; Fujii, Mami N.; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Uraoka, Yukiharu

    2018-05-01

    Transparent amorphous oxide semiconducting materials such as amorphous InGaZnO used in thin film transistors (TFTs) are typically annealed at temperatures higher than 250 °C to remove any defects present and improve the electrical characteristics of the device. Previous research has shown that low cost and low temperature methods improve the electrical characteristics of the TFT. With the aid of surface and bulk characterization techniques in comparison to the device characteristics, this work aims to elucidate further on the improvement mechanisms of wet and dry annealing ambients that affect the electrical characteristics of the device. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry results show that despite outward diffusion of -H and -OH species, humid annealing ambients counteract outward diffusion of these species, leading to defect sites which can be passivated by the wet ambient. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy results show that for devices annealed for only 30 min in a wet annealing environment, the concentration of metal-oxide bonds increased by as much as 21.8% and defects such as oxygen vacancies were reduced by as much as 18.2% compared to an unannealed device. Our work shows that due to the oxidizing power of water vapor, defects are reduced, and overall electrical characteristics are improved as evidenced with the 150 °C wet O2, 30 min annealed sample which exhibited the highest mobility of 5.00 cm2/V s, compared to 2.36 cm2/V s for a sample that was annealed at 150 °C in a dry ambient atmospheric environment for 2 h.

  1. Incidentally detected enhancing lesions found in breast MRI: analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient and T2 signal intensity significantly improves specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arponen, Otso; Masarwah, Amro; Taina, Mikko [Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio University Hospital, Diagnostic Imaging Centre, Department of Clinical Radiology, PO Box 1777, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio University Hospital, University of Eastern Finland, Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Radiology, PO Box 1777, Kuopio (Finland); Sutela, Anna; Koenoenen, Mervi; Hakumaeki, Juhana; Sudah, Mazen [Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio University Hospital, Diagnostic Imaging Centre, Department of Clinical Radiology, PO Box 1777, Kuopio (Finland); Sironen, Reijo [Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Pathology, PO Box 1777, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio University Hospital, University of Eastern Finland, Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, Clinical Pathology and Forensic Medicine, PO Box 1777, Kuopio (Finland); University of Eastern Finland, Cancer Center of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland); Vanninen, Ritva [Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio University Hospital, Diagnostic Imaging Centre, Department of Clinical Radiology, PO Box 1777, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio University Hospital, University of Eastern Finland, Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Radiology, PO Box 1777, Kuopio (Finland); University of Eastern Finland, Cancer Center of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland)

    2016-12-15

    To evaluate the value of adding T2- and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to the BI-RADS registered classification in MRI-detected lesions. This retrospective study included 112 consecutive patients who underwent 3.0T structural breast MRI with T2- and DWI on the basis of EUSOMA recommendations. Morphological and kinetic features, T2 signal intensity (T2 SI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) findings were assessed. Thirty-three (29.5 %) patients (mean age 57.0 ± 12.7 years) had 36 primarily MRI-detected incidental lesions of which 16 (44.4 %) proved to be malignant. No single morphological or kinetic feature was associated with malignancy. Both low T2 SI (P = 0.009) and low ADC values (≤0.87 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}s{sup -1}, P < 0.001) yielded high specificity (80.0 %/80.0 %). The BI-RADS classification supplemented with information from DWI and T2-WI improved the diagnostic performance of the BI-RADS classification as sensitivity remained 100 % and specificity improved from 30 % to 65.0 %. The numbers of false positive lesions declined from 39 % (N = 14) to 19 % (N = 7). MRI-detected incidental lesions may be challenging to characterize as they have few specific malignancy indicating features. The specificity of MRI can be improved by incorporating T2 SI and ADC values into the BI-RADS assessment. (orig.)

  2. Efforts in Improving Teachers’ Competencies Through Collaboration between Teacher Forum on Subject Matter (MGMP and Pre-Service Teacher Training Institution (LPTK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Purwoko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to improve high school chemistry teacher’s competency in terms of classroom instruction. This goal is achieved through the workshop and continuous assistance activities that enable teachers to improve their knowledge and skills in developing learning scenarios that reflect scientific methods (brain-based learning in the classroom instruction. The effect of teachers’ competence improvement was measured by a survey of student’s perception on the classroom teaching-learning process, using Likert-scale questionnaire. The first poll was conducted before the program was started, and the second one was after the program completion. The first observation shows that only 18% of students perceive that the chemistry learning process in the classroom are “good,” while the rest (82% say that it is “fair”. However, the second poll shows that there are 45% of students who perceive that the learning process is “good”; interestingly, there are 35%, and 20% of respondents say “excellent” and “fair,” respectively. Furthermore, data analyses using chi-square test conclude that the continuous teacher assistance activity significantly improves teachers’ competencies. This article describes detailed of collaboration program and the results of improvement of chemistry teachers’ competence in north Lombok regency. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New

  3. Free acid gel form of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) improves HMB clearance from plasma in human subjects compared with the calcium HMB salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, John C; Sharp, Rick L; Angus, Hector F; Baier, Shawn M; Rathmacher, John A

    2011-02-01

    The leucine metabolite, β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), is a nutritional supplement that increases lean muscle and strength with exercise and in disease states. HMB is presently available as the Ca salt (CaHMB). The present study was designed to examine whether HMB in free acid gel form will improve HMB availability to tissues. Two studies were conducted and in each study four males and four females were given three treatments in a randomised, cross-over design. Treatments were CaHMB (gelatin capsule, 1 g), equivalent HMB free acid gel swallowed (FASW) and free acid gel held sublingual for 15 s then swallowed (FASL). Plasma HMB was measured for 3 h following treatment in study 1 and 24 h with urine collection in study 2. In both the studies, the times to peak plasma HMB were 128 (sem 11), 38 (sem 4) and 38 (sem 1) min (P HMB excretion was not significantly increased resulting in more HMB retained (P HMB from plasma. In conclusion, HMB free acid gel could improve HMB availability and efficacy to tissues in health and disease.

  4. Jelly-type carbohydrate supplement in healthy subjects suppresses the catabolism of adipose tissue and muscle protein and improves their satisfactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuro Oyama

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background & aims: Many studies have reported the effects of preoperative clear fluid carbohydrate supplements; however, few studies have reported the effects of preoperative jelly-type carbohydrate supplements. This study aimed to assess the effect of a jelly-type oral nutritional supplement (ONS on metabolism, redox balance by using various surrogate markers and to evaluate its excretion from the stomach. Methods: This study was conducted according to a crossover design. Participants underwent a control experiment whereby they fasted after dinner and only ingested water until the experiment. The remaining participants underwent an ONS experiment whereby they ingested 400 g of ONS before bed and another 400 g at 7:00 am. Blood samples were collected at 9:00 am. After a break of at least 24 h, participants underwent the alternate experiment. Results: Thirty minutes after intake of jelly, the gastric antrum appeared flat (the same result as that at baseline on ultrasonography. The ONS group showed significantly lower serum free fatty acid levels (100 μEq/L, p = 0.027, vs. 327 μEq/L, n = 6, total ketone bodies levels, 3-MH/creatinine levels, and oxidative stress surrogate markers. Serum insulin levels were significantly higher and participant's satisfaction was improved in the ONS group. Conclusions: We have the limitations of our methodologies as surrogate markers, compared with direct measurement of lipolysis, proteolysis and redox balance regulation. But Jelly-type ONS suppresses the catabolism of adipose tissue and muscle protein, decreases oxidative stress and improves patient satisfaction in healthy participants, without any increased risk of aspiration. Keywords: Crossover design, Jelly-type oral nutritional supplement, Metabolism, Antioxidation, ERAS

  5. Group-based multimodal exercises integrated with cognitive-behavioural therapy improve disability, pain and quality of life of subjects with chronic neck pain: a randomized controlled trial with one-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticone, Marco; Ambrosini, Emilia; Rocca, Barbara; Cazzaniga, Daniele; Liquori, Valentina; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Vernon, Howard

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of a group-based multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme on disability, pain and quality of life in subjects with chronic neck pain. Randomized controlled trial. Specialized rehabilitation centre. A total of 170 patients (mean age of 53 years (13); 121 females). The multidisciplinary group underwent a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme combining multimodal exercises with psychologist-lead cognitive-behavioural therapy sessions. The general exercise group underwent general physiotherapy. Both groups followed group-based programmes once a week for ten weeks. Additionally, the multidisciplinary group met with the psychologist once a week for a 60-minute session. The Neck Disability Index (primary outcome), the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, a pain numerical rating scale and the Short-Form Health Survey. The participants were evaluated before, after training and after 12 months. A linear mixed model for repeated measures was used for each outcome measure. Significant effects ( p-value rehabilitation programme including cognitive-behavioural therapy was superior to group-based general physiotherapy in improving disability, pain and quality of life of subjects with chronic neck pain. The effects lasted for at least one year.

  6. Significantly improved photovoltaic performance in polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells with graphene oxide /PEDOT:PSS double decked hole transport layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Saqib; Abdullah, Shahino Mah; Shahid, Muhammad Mehmood; Ansari, Mohammad Omaish; Sulaiman, Khaulah

    2017-01-13

    This work demonstrates the high performance graphene oxide (GO)/PEDOT:PSS doubled decked hole transport layer (HTL) in the PCDTBT:PC 71 BM based bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic device. The devices were tested on merits of their power conversion efficiency (PCE), reproducibility, stability and further compared with the devices with individual GO or PEDOT:PSS HTLs. Solar cells employing GO/PEDOT:PSS HTL yielded a PCE of 4.28% as compared to either of individual GO or PEDOT:PSS HTLs where they demonstrated PCEs of 2.77 and 3.57%, respectively. In case of single GO HTL, an inhomogeneous coating of ITO caused the poor performance whereas PEDOT:PSS is known to be hygroscopic and acidic which upon direct contact with ITO reduced the device performance. The improvement in the photovoltaic performance is mainly ascribed to the increased charge carriers mobility, short circuit current, open circuit voltage, fill factor, and decreased series resistance. The well matched work function of GO and PEDOT:PSS is likely to facilitate the charge transportation and an overall reduction in the series resistance. Moreover, GO could effectively block the electrons due to its large band-gap of ~3.6 eV, leading to an increased shunt resistance. In addition, we also observed the improvement in the reproducibility and stability.

  7. Significantly improved photovoltaic performance in polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells with graphene oxide /PEDOT:PSS double decked hole transport layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Saqib; Abdullah, Shahino Mah; Shahid, Muhammad Mehmood; Ansari, Mohammad Omaish; Sulaiman, Khaulah

    2017-01-01

    This work demonstrates the high performance graphene oxide (GO)/PEDOT:PSS doubled decked hole transport layer (HTL) in the PCDTBT:PC71BM based bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic device. The devices were tested on merits of their power conversion efficiency (PCE), reproducibility, stability and further compared with the devices with individual GO or PEDOT:PSS HTLs. Solar cells employing GO/PEDOT:PSS HTL yielded a PCE of 4.28% as compared to either of individual GO or PEDOT:PSS HTLs where they demonstrated PCEs of 2.77 and 3.57%, respectively. In case of single GO HTL, an inhomogeneous coating of ITO caused the poor performance whereas PEDOT:PSS is known to be hygroscopic and acidic which upon direct contact with ITO reduced the device performance. The improvement in the photovoltaic performance is mainly ascribed to the increased charge carriers mobility, short circuit current, open circuit voltage, fill factor, and decreased series resistance. The well matched work function of GO and PEDOT:PSS is likely to facilitate the charge transportation and an overall reduction in the series resistance. Moreover, GO could effectively block the electrons due to its large band-gap of ~3.6 eV, leading to an increased shunt resistance. In addition, we also observed the improvement in the reproducibility and stability.

  8. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 1. Recommendations for technology developments with potential to significantly improve low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, B.R.; Jolley, R.L.

    1986-02-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 1 provides an executive summary and a general introduction to the four-volume set, in addition to recommendations for research and development (R and D) for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) treatment. Generic, long-range, and/or high-risk programs identified and prioritized as needed R and D in the LLRW field include: (1) systems analysis to develop decision methodology; (2) alternative processes for dismantling, decontaminating, and decommissioning; (3) ion exchange; (4) incinerator technology; (5) disposal technology; (6) demonstration of advanced technologies; (7) technical assistance; (8) below regulatory concern materials; (9) mechanical treatment techniques; (10) monitoring and analysis procedures; (11) radical process improvements; (12) physical, chemical, thermal, and biological processes; (13) fundamental chemistry; (14) interim storage; (15) modeling; and (16) information transfer. The several areas are discussed in detail

  9. Tumor-selective replication herpes simplex virus-based technology significantly improves clinical detection and prognostication of viable circulating tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wen; Bao, Li; Yang, Shaoxing

    2016-01-01

    Detection of circulating tumor cells remains a significant challenge due to their vast physical and biological heterogeneity. We developed a cell-surface-marker-independent technology based on telomerase-specific, replication-selective oncolytic herpes-simplex-virus-1 that targets telomerase......-reverse-transcriptase-positive cancer cells and expresses green-fluorescent-protein that identifies viable CTCs from a broad spectrum of malignancies. Our method recovered 75.5-87.2% of tumor cells spiked into healthy donor blood, as validated by different methods, including single cell sequencing. CTCs were detected in 59-100% of 326...

  10. Combined use of hyperbaric and hypobaric ropivacaine significantly improves hemodynamic characteristics in spinal anesthesia for caesarean section: a prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZheFeng Quan

    Full Text Available To observe the hemodynamic changes of parturients in the combined use of hyperbaric (4 mg and hypobaric (6 mg ropivacaine during spinal anesthesia for caesarean section in this randomized double-blind study.Parturients (n = 136 undergoing elective cesarean delivery were randomly and equally allocated to receive either combined hyperbaric and hypobaric ropivacaine (Group A or hyperbaric ropivacaine (Group B. Outcome measures were: hemodynamic characteristics, maximum height of sensory block, time to achieve T8 sensory blockade level, incidence of complications, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min, and neonatal blood gas analysis.Group A had a lower level of sensory blockade (T6 [T6-T7] and longer time to achieve T8 sensory blockade level (8 ± 1.3 min than did patients in Group B (T3 [T2-T4] and 5 ± 1.0 min, respectively; P < 0.001, both. The incidence rates for hypotension, nausea, and vomiting were significantly lower in Group A (13%, 10%, and 3%, respectively than Group B (66%, 31%, and 13%; P < 0.001, P = 0.003, P = 0.028.Combined use of hyperbaric (4 mg and hypobaric (6 mg ropivacaine significantly decreased the incidences of hypotension and complications in spinal anesthesia for caesarean section by extending induction time and decreasing the level of sensory blockade.Chinese Clinical Trial Register ChiCTR-TRC-13004622.

  11. One-pill once-a-day HAART: a simplification strategy that improves adherence and quality of life of HIV-infected subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Airoldi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Monica Airoldi1,6, Mauro Zaccarelli2, Luca Bisi3, Teresa Bini4, Andrea Antinori2, Cristina Mussini3, Francesca Bai4, Giancarlo Orofino5, Laura Sighinolfi7, Andrea Gori6, Fredy Suter1, Franco Maggiolo11Division of Infectious Diseases, Ospedali Riuniti, Bergamo; 2Clinical Department, INMI L Spallanzani, Roma; 3Division of Infectious Diseases, Università, Modena; 4Division of Infectious Diseases, Ospedale San Paolo, Milano; 5Division of Infectious Diseases, Ospedale Amedeo di Savoia, Torino; 6Division of Infectious Diseases, Ospedale San Gerardo, Monza; 7Division of Infectious Diseases, Ospedale Sant’Anna, Ferrara, ItalyObjective: The aim of the ADONE (ADherence to ONE pill study was to verify the effect of a reduced number of pills on adherence and quality of life (QoL in HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART.Design: Prospective, multicenter, study.Methods: Patients chronically treated with emtricitabine (FTC + tenofovir (TDF + efavirenz (EFV or lamivudine (3TC + TDF + EFV and with a HIV-RNA < 50 copies/mL were switched to the single-pill fixed-dose regimen (FDR of FTC + TDF + EFV. Data were collected with SF-36 using visual analog scales. Results of the final (6 months primary as-treated analysis are reported.Results: 212 patients (77.4% males of mean age 45.8 years were enrolled; 202 completed the study. One month post switch to FDR the adherence rate increased significantly to 96.1% from a baseline value of 93.8% (P < 0.01. The increase was steadily maintained throughout the study (96.2% at 6 months. QoL improved over time from 68.8% to 72.7% (P = 0.042 as well, and was significantly associated with the perception of health status, presence of adverse events (AEs and number of reported AEs (P < 0.0001. QoL significantly influenced adherence (P < 0.0001. During FDR use the mean CD4 count increased from 556 to 605 cells/μL (P < 0.0001. At the end of follow-up 98% of patients maintained HIV-RNA level < 50 copies

  12. Disruption of the 5S RNP-Mdm2 interaction significantly improves the erythroid defect in a mouse model for Diamond-Blackfan anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaako, P; Debnath, S; Olsson, K; Zhang, Y; Flygare, J; Lindström, M S; Bryder, D; Karlsson, S

    2015-11-01

    Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a congenital erythroid hypoplasia caused by haploinsufficiency of genes encoding ribosomal proteins (RPs). Perturbed ribosome biogenesis in DBA has been shown to induce a p53-mediated ribosomal stress response. However, the mechanisms of p53 activation and its relevance for the erythroid defect remain elusive. Previous studies have indicated that activation of p53 is caused by the inhibition of mouse double minute 2 (Mdm2), the main negative regulator of p53, by the 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP). Meanwhile, it is not clear whether this mechanism solely mediates the p53-dependent component found in DBA. To approach this question, we crossed our mouse model for RPS19-deficient DBA with Mdm2(C305F) knock-in mice that have a disrupted 5S RNP-Mdm2 interaction. Upon induction of the Rps19 deficiency, Mdm2(C305F) reversed the p53 response and improved expansion of hematopoietic progenitors in vitro, and ameliorated the anemia in vivo. Unexpectedly, disruption of the 5S RNP-Mdm2 interaction also led to selective defect in erythropoiesis. Our findings highlight the sensitivity of erythroid progenitor cells to aberrations in p53 homeostasis mediated by the 5S RNP-Mdm2 interaction. Finally, we provide evidence indicating that physiological activation of the 5S RNP-Mdm2-p53 pathway may contribute to functional decline of the hematopoietic system in a cell-autonomous manner over time.

  13. Cognitive cooperation groups mediated by computers and internet present significant improvement of cognitive status in older adults with memory complaints: a controlled prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Rosso Krug

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To estimate the effect of participating in cognitive cooperation groups, mediated by computers and the internet, on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE percent variation of outpatients with memory complaints attending two memory clinics. Methods A prospective controlled intervention study carried out from 2006 to 2013 with 293 elders. The intervention group (n = 160 attended a cognitive cooperation group (20 sessions of 1.5 hours each. The control group (n = 133 received routine medical care. Outcome was the percent variation in the MMSE. Control variables included gender, age, marital status, schooling, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypothyroidism, depression, vascular diseases, polymedication, use of benzodiazepines, exposure to tobacco, sedentary lifestyle, obesity and functional capacity. The final model was obtained by multivariate linear regression. Results The intervention group obtained an independent positive variation of 24.39% (CI 95% = 14.86/33.91 in the MMSE compared to the control group. Conclusion The results suggested that cognitive cooperation groups, mediated by computers and the internet, are associated with cognitive status improvement of older adults in memory clinics.

  14. Significantly improved surface morphology of N-polar GaN film grown on SiC substrate by the optimization of V/III ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gaoqiang; Zhang, Yuantao; Yu, Ye; Yan, Long; Li, Pengchong; Han, Xu; Chen, Liang; Zhao, Degang; Du, Guotong

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, N-polar GaN films with different V/III ratios were grown on vicinal C-face SiC substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. During the growth of N-polar GaN film, the V/III ratio was controlled by adjusting the molar flow rate of ammonia while keeping the trimethylgallium flow rate unchanged. The influence of the V/III ratio on the surface morphology of N-polar GaN film has been studied. We find that the surface root mean square roughness of N-polar GaN film over an area of 20 × 20 μm2 can be reduced from 8.13 to 2.78 nm by optimization of the V/III ratio. Then, using the same growth conditions, N-polar InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were grown on the rough and the smooth N-polar GaN templates, respectively. Compared with the LED grown on the rough N-polar GaN template, dramatically improved interface sharpness and luminescence uniformity of the InGaN/GaN MQWs are achieved for the LED grown on the smooth N-polar GaN template.

  15. A clinically based prognostic index for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with a cut-off at 70 years of age significantly improves prognostic stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Anne O.; Pedersen, Michael; d'Amore, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of rituximab and generally improved health among elderly patients have increased the survival of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The International Prognostic Index (IPI) from 1992 is based on pre-rituximab data from clinical trials including several lymphoma ...... dehydrogenase (LDH), stage and albumin level, and (2) a separate age-adjusted DLBCL-PI for patients 1 extranodal lesion, however excluding stage....... subtypes. We applied IPI factors to a population-based rituximab-treated cohort of 1990 patients diagnosed 2000-2010 and explored new factors and the optimal prognostic age cut-off for DLBCL. Multivariate-analyses (MVA) confirmed the prognostic value of all IPI factors except the presence of > 1 extranodal...... lesion. The optimal age cut-off was 70 years. In a MVA of albumin, lymphocyte count, sex, immunoglobulin G, bulky disease, hemoglobin and B-symptoms, only albumin was prognostic. We propose: (1) a modified DLBCL prognostic index (DLBCL-PI) including: age (70 years), performance status (PS), lactate...

  16. PolySearch2: a significantly improved text-mining system for discovering associations between human diseases, genes, drugs, metabolites, toxins and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifeng; Liang, Yongjie; Wishart, David

    2015-07-01

    PolySearch2 (http://polysearch.ca) is an online text-mining system for identifying relationships between biomedical entities such as human diseases, genes, SNPs, proteins, drugs, metabolites, toxins, metabolic pathways, organs, tissues, subcellular organelles, positive health effects, negative health effects, drug actions, Gene Ontology terms, MeSH terms, ICD-10 medical codes, biological taxonomies and chemical taxonomies. PolySearch2 supports a generalized 'Given X, find all associated Ys' query, where X and Y can be selected from the aforementioned biomedical entities. An example query might be: 'Find all diseases associated with Bisphenol A'. To find its answers, PolySearch2 searches for associations against comprehensive collections of free-text collections, including local versions of MEDLINE abstracts, PubMed Central full-text articles, Wikipedia full-text articles and US Patent application abstracts. PolySearch2 also searches 14 widely used, text-rich biological databases such as UniProt, DrugBank and Human Metabolome Database to improve its accuracy and coverage. PolySearch2 maintains an extensive thesaurus of biological terms and exploits the latest search engine technology to rapidly retrieve relevant articles and databases records. PolySearch2 also generates, ranks and annotates associative candidates and present results with relevancy statistics and highlighted key sentences to facilitate user interpretation. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin (GO Inclusion to Induction Chemotherapy Eliminates Leukemic Initiating Cells and Significantly Improves Survival in Mouse Models of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy C Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO is an anti-CD33 antibody-drug conjugate for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Although GO shows a narrow therapeutic window in early clinical studies, recent reports detailing a modified dosing regimen of GO can be safely combined with induction chemotherapy, and the combination provides significant survival benefits in AML patients. Here we tested whether the survival benefits seen with the combination arise from the enhanced reduction of chemoresidual disease and leukemic initiating cells (LICs. Herein, we use cell line and patient-derived xenograft (PDX AML models to evaluate the combination of GO with daunorubicin and cytarabine (DA induction chemotherapy on AML blast growth and animal survival. DA chemotherapy and GO as separate treatments reduced AML burden but left significant chemoresidual disease in multiple AML models. The combination of GO and DA chemotherapy eliminated nearly all AML burden and extended overall survival. In two small subsets of AML models, chemoresidual disease following DA chemotherapy displayed hallmark markers of leukemic LICs (CLL1 and CD34. In vivo, the two chemoresistant subpopulations (CLL1+/CD117− and CD34+/CD38+ showed higher ability to self-renewal than their counterpart subpopulations, respectively. CD33 was coexpressed in these functional LIC subpopulations. We demonstrate that the GO and DA induction chemotherapy combination more effectively eliminates LICs in AML PDX models than either single agent alone. These data suggest that the survival benefit seen by the combination of GO and induction chemotherapy, nonclinically and clinically, may be attributed to the enhanced reduction of LICs.

  18. Insulin-Like growth factor-II (IGF-II) prevents proinflammatory cytokine-induced apoptosis and significantly improves islet survival after transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Amy; Mohanasundaram, Daisy; Kireta, Svjetlana; Jessup, Claire F; Drogemuller, Chris J; Coates, P Toby H

    2013-03-15

    The early loss of functional islet mass (50-70%) due to apoptosis after clinical transplantation contributes to islet allograft failure. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II is an antiapoptotic protein that is highly expressed in β-cells during development but rapidly decreases in postnatal life. We used an adenoviral (Ad) vector to overexpress IGF-II in isolated rat islets and investigated its antiapoptotic action against exogenous cytokines interleukin-1β- and interferon-γ-induced islet cell death in vitro. Using an immunocompromised marginal mass islet transplant model, the ability of Ad-IGF-II-transduced rat islets to restore euglycemia in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient diabetic recipients was assessed. Ad-IGF-II transduction did not affect islet viability or function. Ad-IGF-II cytokine-treated islets exhibited decreased cell death (40% ± 2.8%) versus Ad-GFP and untransduced control islets (63.2% ± 2.5% and 53.6% ± 2.3%, respectively). Ad-IGF-II overexpression during cytokine treatment resulted in a marked reduction in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive apoptotic cells (8.3% ± 1.4%) versus Ad-GFP control (41% ± 4.2%) and untransduced control islets (46.5% ± 6.2%). Western blot analysis confirmed that IGF-II inhibits apoptosis via activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. Transplantation of IGF-II overexpressing islets under the kidney capsule of diabetic mice restored euglycemia in 77.8% of recipients compared with 18.2% and 47.5% of Ad-GFP and untransduced control islet recipients, respectively (Pislet transplant outcomes in vivo. Antiapoptotic gene transfer is a potentially powerful tool to improve islet survival after transplantation.

  19. Significant reduction of radiation exposure to operator and staff during cardiac interventions by analysis of radiation leakage and improved lead shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuon, Eberhard; Schmitt, Moritz; Dahm, Johannes B

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to disclose and to reduce occupational radiation leakage in invasive cardiology. Prospectively, we analyzed various dose parameters for 330 coronary procedures. We used a Rando phantom to measure scatter entrance skin air kerma to the operator (S-ESAK-O) during fluoroscopy for all standard tube angulations, and to plot isodose lines for 0 degrees /0 degrees -posterior anterior angulation. The patient's measured dose area product due to diagnostic catheterization and elective percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty was 6.2 and 10.4 Gycm(2), which represents 11% and 13% of currently typical values, respectively. With use of 0.5- and 1.0-mm overcouch and undercouch shielding, it was possible to reduce the mean of 4,686 nSv/Gycm(2) to 677 and 277 nSv/Gycm(2), respectively. Closure of radiation leakage up to 897 microSv/hour at the operator's gonadal height (80 to 105 cm), not heretofore described, was achieved by an additional 1.0-mm, lead-equivalent undercouch-top and overcouch-flap adjacent to the table, down to a S-ESAK-O/dose area product level of 47.5 nSv/Gycm(2). With use of a 0.5-mm lead apron, collar, glasses, foot-switch shield and 1.0-mm lead cover around the patient's thighs, the operator received a mean S-ESAK-O of 8.5, while his forehead, eyes, thyroid, chest, gonads, and hands were exposed to 68.2, 1.2, 1.2, 1.2, 0.8, and 58.2 nSv/Gycm(2), respectively. In conclusion, radiation-attenuating intervention techniques and improved lead protection can effectively contribute to a new state of the art in invasive cardiology, with reduction of operator radiation exposure to 0.8% of typical S-ESAK-O levels in advanced catheterization laboratories.

  20. A new optical method improves fluorescence guided diagnosis of bladder tumor in the outpatient department and reveals significant photo bleaching problems in established inpatients PDD techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindvold, Lars R.; Hermann, Gregers G.

    2013-03-01

    Photo dynamic diagnosis (PDD) is a convenient and well-documented procedure for diagnosis of bladder cancer and tumours using endoscopic techniques. At present, this procedure is available only for routine use in an operating room (OR) and often with substantial photobleaching effects of the photosensitizer. We present a novel optical design of the endoscopic PDD procedure that allows the procedure to be performed in the outpatient department (OPD) and not only in the OR. Thereby, inpatient procedures lasting 1-2 days may be replaced by a few hours lasting procedure in the OPD. Urine blurs the fluorescence during PDD used in the OPD. Urine contains fluorescent metabolites that are excited by blue light giving an opaque green fluorescence confounding the desired red fluorescence (PDD) from the tumour tissue. Measurements from the clinical situation has shown that some systems for PPD based on blue light illumination (PDD mode) and white light illumination used for bladder tumour diagnosis and surgery suffers some inherent disadvantages, i.e., photo bleaching in white light that impairs the possibility for PDD as white light usually is used before the blue light for PDD. Based on spectroscopic observations of urine and the photoactive dye Protoporphyrin IX used in PDD a novel optical system for use with the cystoscope has been devised that solves the problem of green fluorescence from urine. This and the knowledge of photo-bleaching pitfalls in established systems make it possible to perform PDD of bladder tumours in the OPD and to improve PDD in the OR.

  1. Digital Libraries that Demonstrate High Levels of Mutual Complementarity in Collection-level Metadata Give a Richer Representation of their Content and Improve Subject Access for Users

    OpenAIRE

    Aoife Lawton

    2014-01-01

    A Review of: Zavalina, O. L. (2013). Complementarity in subject metadata in large-scale digital libraries: A comparative analysis. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 52(1), 77-89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01639374.2013.848316 Abstract Objective – To determine how well digital library content is represented through free-text and subject headings. Specifically to examine whether a combination of free-text description data and controlled vocabulary is more comprehensive than free...

  2. Prostate Health Index (Phi) and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3) Significantly Improve Prostate Cancer Detection at Initial Biopsy in a Total PSA Range of 2–10 ng/ml

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdonà, Sisto; Marino, Ada; Mazzarella, Claudia; Perruolo, Giuseppe; D’Esposito, Vittoria; Cosimato, Vincenzo; Buonerba, Carlo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Musi, Gennaro; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Chun, Felix K.; Terracciano, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Many efforts to reduce prostate specific antigen (PSA) overdiagnosis and overtreatment have been made. To this aim, Prostate Health Index (Phi) and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3) have been proposed as new more specific biomarkers. We evaluated the ability of phi and PCA3 to identify prostate cancer (PCa) at initial prostate biopsy in men with total PSA range of 2–10 ng/ml. The performance of phi and PCA3 were evaluated in 300 patients undergoing first prostate biopsy. ROC curve analyses tested the accuracy (AUC) of phi and PCA3 in predicting PCa. Decision curve analyses (DCA) were used to compare the clinical benefit of the two biomarkers. We found that the AUC value of phi (0.77) was comparable to those of %p2PSA (0.76) and PCA3 (0.73) with no significant differences in pairwise comparison (%p2PSA vs phi p = 0.673, %p2PSA vs. PCA3 p = 0.417 and phi vs. PCA3 p = 0.247). These three biomarkers significantly outperformed fPSA (AUC = 0.60), % fPSA (AUC = 0.62) and p2PSA (AUC = 0.63). At DCA, phi and PCA3 exhibited a very close net benefit profile until the threshold probability of 25%, then phi index showed higher net benefit than PCA3. Multivariable analysis showed that the addition of phi and PCA3 to the base multivariable model (age, PSA, %fPSA, DRE, prostate volume) increased predictive accuracy, whereas no model improved single biomarker performance. Finally we showed that subjects with active surveillance (AS) compatible cancer had significantly lower phi and PCA3 values (p<0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, both phi and PCA3 comparably increase the accuracy in predicting the presence of PCa in total PSA range 2–10 ng/ml at initial biopsy, outperforming currently used %fPSA. PMID:23861782

  3. Prostate Health Index (Phi and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3 significantly improve prostate cancer detection at initial biopsy in a total PSA range of 2-10 ng/ml.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ferro

    Full Text Available Many efforts to reduce prostate specific antigen (PSA overdiagnosis and overtreatment have been made. To this aim, Prostate Health Index (Phi and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3 have been proposed as new more specific biomarkers. We evaluated the ability of phi and PCA3 to identify prostate cancer (PCa at initial prostate biopsy in men with total PSA range of 2-10 ng/ml. The performance of phi and PCA3 were evaluated in 300 patients undergoing first prostate biopsy. ROC curve analyses tested the accuracy (AUC of phi and PCA3 in predicting PCa. Decision curve analyses (DCA were used to compare the clinical benefit of the two biomarkers. We found that the AUC value of phi (0.77 was comparable to those of %p2PSA (0.76 and PCA3 (0.73 with no significant differences in pairwise comparison (%p2PSA vs phi p = 0.673, %p2PSA vs. PCA3 p = 0.417 and phi vs. PCA3 p = 0.247. These three biomarkers significantly outperformed fPSA (AUC = 0.60, % fPSA (AUC = 0.62 and p2PSA (AUC = 0.63. At DCA, phi and PCA3 exhibited a very close net benefit profile until the threshold probability of 25%, then phi index showed higher net benefit than PCA3. Multivariable analysis showed that the addition of phi and PCA3 to the base multivariable model (age, PSA, %fPSA, DRE, prostate volume increased predictive accuracy, whereas no model improved single biomarker performance. Finally we showed that subjects with active surveillance (AS compatible cancer had significantly lower phi and PCA3 values (p<0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively. In conclusion, both phi and PCA3 comparably increase the accuracy in predicting the presence of PCa in total PSA range 2-10 ng/ml at initial biopsy, outperforming currently used %fPSA.

  4. IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the West African plant Irvingia gabonensis, significantly reduces body weight and improves metabolic parameters in overweight humans in a randomized double-blind placebo controlled investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbofung Carl MF

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent in vitro study indicates that IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the traditional West African food plant Irvingia gabonensis, favorably impacts adipogenesis through a variety of critical metabolic pathways including PPAR gamma, leptin, adiponectin, and glycerol-3 phosphate dehydrogenase. This study was therefore aimed at evaluating the effects of IGOB131, an extract of Irvingia gabonensis, on body weight and associated metabolic parameters in overweight human volunteers. Methods The study participants comprised of 102 healthy, overweight and/or obese volunteers (defined as BMI > 25 kg/m2 randomly divided into two groups. The groups received on a daily basis, either 150 mg of IGOB131 or matching placebo in a double blinded fashion, 30–60 minutes before lunch and dinner. At baseline, 4, 8 and 10 weeks of the study, subjects were evaluated for changes in anthropometrics and metabolic parameters to include fasting lipids, blood glucose, C-reactive protein, adiponectin, and leptin. Results Significant improvements in body weight, body fat, and waist circumference as well as plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, blood glucose, C-reactive protein, adiponectin and leptin levels were observed in the IGOB131 group compared with the placebo group. Conclusion Irvingia gabonensis administered 150 mg twice daily before meals to overweight and/or obese human volunteers favorably impacts body weight and a variety of parameters characteristic of the metabolic syndrome. This is the first double blind randomized placebo controlled clinical trial regarding the anti-obesity and lipid profile modulating effects of an Irvingia gabonensis extract. The positive clinical results, together with our previously published mechanisms of gene expression modulation related to key metabolic pathways in lipid metabolism, provide impetus for much larger clinical studies. Irvingia gabonensis extract may prove to be a useful tool in dealing with the

  5. Improving lifetime trajectories for vulnerable young children and families living with significant stress and social disadvantage: the early years education program randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Brigid; Tseng, Yi-Ping; Coombs, Nichola; Kennedy, Anne; Borland, Jeff

    2014-09-17

    Children who experience neglect and abuse are likely to have impaired brain development and entrenched learning deficiencies. Early years interventions such as intensive education and care for these children are known to have the potential to increase their human capital. The Early Years Education Program (EYEP) is a new program offered by the Children's Protection Society (CPS) in Melbourne, Australia. EYEP is targeted at the needs of children who have been or are at risk of being abused or neglected. It has the dual focus of seeking to address the consequences of abuse and neglect on children's brain development and redressing their learning deficiencies. Our objective is to determine whether EYEP can improve school readiness by conducting a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of its impacts. The RCT is being conducted with 90 participants (45 intervention and 45 control). Eligible children must be aged under three years and assessed as having two or more risk factors as defined in the Department of Human Services Best Interest Case Practice Model. The intervention group participate for three years (or until school entry) in EYEP. The trial does not provide any early years education or care to the control group. Data are being collected on outcome measures for participants in EYEP and the control group at the baseline, at yearly intervals for three years, and six months after commencing the first year of school. Outcome measures encompass children's health and development, academic ability and emotional and behavioural regulation; and quality of parenting practices. The study will evaluate the impact of EYEP on these outcomes, and undertake a benefit-cost analysis of the program. Findings from the study have the potential to influence the quality of care and education for the large population of children in Australia who are at risk of abuse and neglect, as well as for children in mainstream childcare. The study will provide up-to-date evidence on the impact of an

  6. Physicochemical state of the nanotopographic surface of commercially pure titanium following anodization-hydrothermal treatment reveals significantly improved hydrophilicity and surface energy profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebe, Jun; Ito, Shigeki; Miura, Shingo; Miyata, Kyohei; Ishibashi, Kanji

    2012-01-01

    A method of coating commercially pure titanium (cpTi) implants with a highly crystalline, thin hydroxyapatite (HA) layer using discharge anodic oxidation followed by hydrothermal treatment (Spark discharged Anodic oxidation treatment ; SA-treated cpTi) has been reported for use in clinical dentistry. We hypothesized that a thin HA layer with high crystallinity and nanostructured anodic titanium oxide film on such SA-treated cpTi implant surfaces might be a crucial function of their surface-specific potential energy. To test this, we analyzed anodic oxide (AO) cpTi and SA-treated cpTi disks by SEM and AFM. Contact angles and surface free energy of each disk surface was measured using FAMAS software. High-magnification SEM and AFM revealed the nanotopographic structure of the anodic titanium oxide film on SA-treated cpTi; however, this was not observed on the AO cpTi surface. The contact angle and surface free energy measurements were also significantly different between AO cpTi and SA-treated cpTi surfaces (Tukey's, P<0.05). These data indicated that the change of physicochemical properties of an anodic titanium oxide film with HA crystals on an SA-treated cpTi surface may play a key role in the phenomenon of osteoconduction during the process of osseointegration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Combined use of hyperbaric and hypobaric ropivacaine significantly improves hemodynamic characteristics in spinal anesthesia for caesarean section: a prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, ZheFeng; Tian, Ming; Chi, Ping; Li, Xin; He, HaiLi; Luo, Chao

    2015-01-01

    To observe the hemodynamic changes of parturients in the combined use of hyperbaric (4 mg) and hypobaric (6 mg) ropivacaine during spinal anesthesia for caesarean section in this randomized double-blind study. Parturients (n = 136) undergoing elective cesarean delivery were randomly and equally allocated to receive either combined hyperbaric and hypobaric ropivacaine (Group A) or hyperbaric ropivacaine (Group B). Outcome measures were: hemodynamic characteristics, maximum height of sensory block, time to achieve T8 sensory blockade level, incidence of complications, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min, and neonatal blood gas analysis. Group A had a lower level of sensory blockade (T6 [T6-T7]) and longer time to achieve T8 sensory blockade level (8 ± 1.3 min) than did patients in Group B (T3 [T2-T4] and 5 ± 1.0 min, respectively; P hyperbaric (4 mg) and hypobaric (6 mg) ropivacaine significantly decreased the incidences of hypotension and complications in spinal anesthesia for caesarean section by extending induction time and decreasing the level of sensory blockade. Chinese Clinical Trial Register ChiCTR-TRC-13004622.

  8. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ages: Lower Narmada basin, western India. 413. Advective heat transfer. Advective heat transfer and fabric development in a shallow crustal intrusive granite – the case of Pro- terozoic Vellaturu granite, south India. 433. Andaman Islands. Improved bathymetric datasets for the shallow water regions in the Indian Ocean. 261.

  9. Multimeric recombinant M2e protein-based ELISA: a significant improvement in differentiating avian influenza infected chickens from vaccinated ones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Hadifar

    Full Text Available Killed avian influenza virus (AIV vaccines have been used to control H5N1 infections in countries where the virus is endemic. Distinguishing vaccinated from naturally infected birds (DIVA in such situations however, has become a major challenge. Recently, we introduced the recombinant ectodomain of the M2 protein (M2e of H5N1 subtype as a novel tool for an ELISA based DIVA test. Despite being antigenic in natural infection the monomer form of the M2e used in ELISA had limited antigenicity and consequently poor diagnostic capability. To address this shortcoming, we evaluated the use of four tandem copies of M2e (tM2e for increased efficiency of M2e antibody detection. The tM2e gene of H5N1 strain from Indonesia (A/Indonesia/CDC540/2006 was cloned into a pMAL- p4x expression vector and expressed in E.coli as a recombinant tM2e-MBP or M2e-MBP proteins. Both of these, M2e and tM2e antigens reacted with sera obtained from chickens following live H5N1 infection but not with sera from vaccinated birds. A significantly stronger M2e antibody reaction was observed with the tM2e compared to M2e antigen. Western blotting also supported the superiority of tM2e over M2e in detection of specific M2e antibodies against live H5N1 infection. Results from this study demonstrate that M2e tetramer is a better antigen than single M2e and could be more suitable for an ELISA based DIVA test.

  10. Nutrient-rich dairy proteins improve appendicular skeletal muscle mass and physical performance, and attenuate the loss of muscle strength in older men and women subjects: a single-blind randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemán-Mateo H

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Heliodoro Alemán-Mateo,1 Virginia Ramírez Carreón,1 Liliana Macías,1 Humberto Astiazaran-García,1 Ana Cristina Gallegos-Aguilar,1 José Rogelio Ramos Enríquez2 1Coordinación de Nutrición, Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, A.C., 2Laboratorio de Análisis Clínicos e Investigación, Departamento de Ciencias Químico Biológicas, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Mexico Background: At present, it is unknown whether the use of nutrient-rich dairy proteins improves the markers of sarcopenia syndrome. Therefore, our proposal was to investigate whether ­adding 210 g of ricotta cheese daily would improve skeletal muscle mass, handgrip strength, and ­physical performance in non-sarcopenic older subjects.Subjects and methods: This was a single-blind randomized clinical trial that included two homogeneous, randomized groups of men and women over 60 years of age. Participants in the intervention group were asked to consume their habitual diet but add 210 g of ricotta cheese (IG/HD + RCH, while the control group was instructed to consume only their habitual diet (CG/HD. Basal and 12-week follow-up measurements included appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASMM by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, handgrip strength by a handheld dynamometer, and physical performance using the short physical performance battery (SPPB and the stair-climb power test (SCPT. The main outcomes were relative changes in ASMM, strength, SPPB, and SCPT.Results: ASMM increased in the IG/HD + RCH (0.6±3.5 kg, but decreased in the CG/HD (–1.0±2.6. The relative change between groups was statistically significant (P=0.009. The relative change in strength in both groups was negative, but the loss of muscle strength was more pronounced in CG/HD, though in this regard statistical analysis found only a tendency (P=0.07. The relative change in the balance-test scores was positive for the IG/HD + RCH, while in the CG/HD it was negative, as those individuals had

  11. Improving sensitivity of linear regression-based cell type-specific differential expression deconvolution with per-gene vs. global significance threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Edmund R; Dozmorov, Mikhail G

    2016-10-06

    The goal of many human disease-oriented studies is to detect molecular mechanisms different between healthy controls and patients. Yet, commonly used gene expression measurements from blood samples suffer from variability of cell composition. This variability hinders the detection of differentially expressed genes and is often ignored. Combined with cell counts, heterogeneous gene expression may provide deeper insights into the gene expression differences on the cell type-specific level. Published computational methods use linear regression to estimate cell type-specific differential expression, and a global cutoff to judge significance, such as False Discovery Rate (FDR). Yet, they do not consider many artifacts hidden in high-dimensional gene expression data that may negatively affect linear regression. In this paper we quantify the parameter space affecting the performance of linear regression (sensitivity of cell type-specific differential expression detection) on a per-gene basis. We evaluated the effect of sample sizes, cell type-specific proportion variability, and mean squared error on sensitivity of cell type-specific differential expression detection using linear regression. Each parameter affected variability of cell type-specific expression estimates and, subsequently, the sensitivity of differential expression detection. We provide the R package, LRCDE, which performs linear regression-based cell type-specific differential expression (deconvolution) detection on a gene-by-gene basis. Accounting for variability around cell type-specific gene expression estimates, it computes per-gene t-statistics of differential detection, p-values, t-statistic-based sensitivity, group-specific mean squared error, and several gene-specific diagnostic metrics. The sensitivity of linear regression-based cell type-specific differential expression detection differed for each gene as a function of mean squared error, per group sample sizes, and variability of the proportions

  12. The Beginning Lecture and the Improvement of “Experiments in Innovative Chemistry” as an Entry Subjects at the Department of Biochemistry and Applied Chemistry in National College of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Yusuke; Nakashima, Hiroyuki; Tsuji, Yutaka; Watanabe, Katsuhiro; Ooka, Hisako

    The beginning lecture and the improvement of “Experiments in Innovative Chemistry” as an entry subjects in the Department of Biochemistry and Applied Chemistry at Kurume National College of Technology has been performed for recent three years. Every experiment was selected to sustain the young student's interest. The questionnaires were performed after first two year's programs were finished, and some of projects were improved. This subject has a good reputation for students and teachers, and seems to be very effective for the first year students of national college of technology.

  13. Extending the duration of treatment with progesterone and equine chorionic gonadotropin improves fertility in suckled beef cows with low body condition score subjected to timed artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao, M G; Massara, N; Ramos, S; Zapata, L O; Farcey, M F; Pesoa, J; Turic, E; Vázquez, M I; Bartolome, J A

    2016-07-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an extended progesterone treatment on follicular development and fertility in postpartum, suckled beef cows subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI). In experiment 1, cows (n = 24) with body condition score (BCS) ≥4.5 received either a 2-g progesterone intravaginal device on Day -23 or a 0.558-g progesterone intravaginal device on Day -9. Then, all cows received 2 mg of estradiol benzoate on Day -9; removal of the device, 1-mg estradiol cypionate, and PGF2α on Day -2; and TAI on Day 0. Metabolic status was assessed between Days -9 and -2. Ovarian structures and plasma progesterone were determined weekly from Day -23 to -9, daily from Day -9 to 0, and weekly until Day 28. In experiment 2, cows (n = 302) with BCS ≥4.5 received identical treatment to cows in experiment 1, but on Day -2, cows received 400 IU of two different commercial preparations of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG). Ovarian structures were determined on Days -23 and -9 on a subset of cows (n = 40). Pregnancy was determined 39 days after TAI. In experiment 3, multiparous cows (n = 244) with BCS cows in experiment 1 initiated on Day -18, and on Day -2, cows received 400 IU of eCG or no treatment. Ovarian structures were determined in a subset of cows (n = 31) on Days -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, and on Day 10. Pregnancy was determined 39 days after TAI. The results indicated that in experiment 1, plasma progesterone was higher in treated than nontreated (control cows) during the first 14 days (P = 0.0001). The extended progesterone treatment increased the size of the largest follicle between Days -23 and Day -5 (Group by Day, P = 0.04) and tended to increase the size of the dominant follicle from Day -5 to Day -1 (Group by Day, P = 0.06). There was no effect of metabolic status or interaction between metabolic status and day on follicular growth. In experiment 2, extended progesterone treatment tended to increase the

  14. Significant improvement of electrochemical performance of Cu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LiVPO4F cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. YU ZHANGa,∗, XIAOLAN BAIb ... and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). ... Analysis of electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) ... studied with a SEM (JSM-7500F, Japan) equipped with.

  15. Reference to the Safety Engineering Undergraduate Courses to Improve the Subjects and Contents of the Certified Safety Engineer Qualification and Examination System of China

    OpenAIRE

    Haibin Qiu; Shanghong Shi; Tingdi Zhao; Yiwei Qiao; Jiangshi Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to recommend that the subjects and contents of certified safety engineers use safety engineering undergraduate curriculum system for reference. Human resources play an important role in accident prevention and loss control. Education on safety engineering develops quickly in China. Moreover, the State Administration of Work Safety and the National Human Resources and Social Security Ministry have implemented a certified safety engineer qualification and examination sy...

  16. A comparison of the effects of visual deprivation and regular body weight support treadmill training on improving over-ground walking of stroke patients: a multiple baseline single subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kang, Sun-Young; Jeon, Hye-Seon

    2015-01-01

    The body-weight-support treadmill (BWST) is commonly used for gait rehabilitation, but other forms of BWST are in development, such as visual-deprivation BWST (VDBWST). In this study, we compare the effect of VDBWST training and conventional BWST training on spatiotemporal gait parameters for three individuals who had hemiparetic strokes. We used a single-subject experimental design, alternating multiple baselines across the individuals. We recruited three individuals with hemiparesis from stroke; two on the left side and one on the right. For the main outcome measures we assessed spatiotemporal gait parameters using GAITRite, including: gait velocity; cadence; step time of the affected side (STA); step time of the non-affected side (STN); step length of the affected side (SLA); step length of the non-affected side (SLN); step-time asymmetry (ST-asymmetry); and step-length asymmetry (SL-asymmetry). Gait velocity, cadence, SLA, and SLN increased from baseline after both interventions, but STA, ST-asymmetry, and SL-asymmetry decreased from the baseline after the interventions. The VDBWST was significantly more effective than the BWST for increasing gait velocity and cadence and for decreasing ST-asymmetry. VDBWST is more effective than BWST for improving gait performance during the rehabilitation for ground walking.

  17. Korean Red Ginseng Improves Glucose Control in Subjects with Impaired Fasting Glucose, Impaired Glucose Tolerance, or Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Hyangju; Kwak, Jung Hyun; Ahn, Hyeon Yeong; Shin, Dong Yeob; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Korean red ginseng (KRG) supplementation on glucose control in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The study was a 12-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled (5 g of KRG [n=21] or placebo [n=20] in tablet form) trial. Glucose-related biomarkers, including serum and whole blood levels of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide, were measured by 2...

  18. Improving the Students' Activity and Learning Outcomes on Social Sciences Subject Using Round Table and Rally Coach of Cooperative Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningsih; Soetjipto, Budi Eko; Sumarmi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: (1) to analyze increasing students' learning activity and learning outcomes. Student activities which were observed include the visual, verbal, listening, writing and mental visual activity; (2) to analyze the improvement of student learning outcomes using "Round Table" and "Rally Coach" Model of…

  19. An improved method for sacro-iliac joint imaging: a study of normal subjects, patients with sacro-iliitis and patients with low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, J.; Hilson, A.J.W.; Maisey, M.N.; Laurent, R.; Panayi, G.S.; Saunders, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    A new method is described for quantitative measurement of the uptake of sup(99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) by the sacro-iliac joints. The method uses 'regions of interest' providing advantages over the previously described 'slice' method; the two methods are compared in normal subjects, patients with known sacro-iliitis and patients with low back pain. Sacro-iliac activity, as calculated by the sacro-iliac index (SII) in normal patients, was shown to decrease with age in females but not in males. The SII was compared with radiographs of the sacro-iliac joints in the patients with known sacro-iliac joint disease and in those with low back pain. The method is useful for the exclusion of sacro-iliitis as a specific cause of back pain. (author)

  20. Predictors of improvement in subjective sleep quality reported by older adults following group-based cognitive behavior therapy for sleep maintenance and early morning awakening insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Nicole; Lack, Leon; Wright, Helen; Kennaway, David J

    2013-09-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy is an effective nonpharmacologic treatment for insomnia. However, individualized administration is costly and often results in substantial variability in treatment response across individual patients, particularly so for older adults. Group-based administration has demonstrated impressive potential for a brief and inexpensive answer to the effective treatment of insomnia in the older population. It is important to identify potential predictors of response to such a treatment format to guide clinicians when selecting the most suitable treatment for their patients. The aim of our study was to identify factors that predict subjective sleep quality of older adults following group-based administration of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). Eighty-six adults (41 men; mean age, 64.10 y; standard deviation [SD], 6.80) with sleep maintenance or early morning awakening insomnia were selected from a community-based sample to participate in a 4-week group-based treatment program of CBT-I. Participants were required to complete 7-day sleep diaries and a comprehensive battery of questionnaires related to sleep quality and daytime functioning. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to identify factors predicting subjective sleep quality immediately following treatment and at 3-month follow-up. Sleep diaries reported average nightly sleep efficiency (SE), which was used as the outcome measure of sleep quality. Participants with the greatest SE following treatment while controlling for pretreatment SE were relatively younger and had more confidence in their ability to sleep at pretreatment. These characteristics may be useful to guide clinicians when considering the use of a group-based CBT-I for sleep maintenance or early morning awakening insomnia in older adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Discovery and validation of a colorectal cancer classifier in a new blood test with improved performance for high-risk subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Croner, Lisa J; Dillon, Roslyn; Kao, Athit

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to improve upon an existing blood-based colorectal cancer (CRC) test directed to high-risk symptomatic patients, by developing a new CRC classifier to be used with a new test embodiment. The new test uses a robust assay format-electrochemiluminescence immunoassays......, the indeterminate rate of the new panel was 23.2%, sensitivity/specificity was 0.80/0.83, PPV was 36.5%, and NPV was 97.1%. CONCLUSIONS: The validated classifier serves as the basis of a new blood-based CRC test for symptomatic patients. The improved performance, resulting from robust concentration measures across......-to quantify protein concentrations. The aim was achieved by building and validating a CRC classifier using concentration measures from a large sample set representing a true intent-to-test (ITT) symptomatic population. METHODS: 4435 patient samples were drawn from the Endoscopy II sample set. Samples were...

  2. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  3. Effect of Improving Dietary Quality on Arterial Stiffness in Subjects with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: A 12 Months Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina S. Petersen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available People with diabetes have accelerated arterial stiffening. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of increasing fruit, vegetable and dairy intake for 12 months on carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV, augmentation index (AIx, and central blood pressure (cBP, compared to a usual diet control, in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In a 12 months randomised controlled trial, cfPWV, AIx and cBP were measured every 3 months. The intervention group received dietary counselling to increase consumption of fruit (+1 serving/day; 150 g/day, vegetables (+2 servings/day; 150 g/day and dairy (+1 serving/day; 200–250 g/day at baseline, 1, 3, 6 and 9 months. The control group continued on their usual diet. One hundred and nine participants were randomised and 92 (intervention n = 45; control n = 47 completed. At 3 months, fruit (184 g/day; p = 0.001 and dairy (83 g/day; p = 0.037 intake increased in the intervention group compared with the control group but this increase was not maintained at 12 months. After adjustment for baseline measurements there was no time by treatment effect for central systolic or diastolic BP, AIx or cfPWV. A time effect existed for AIx which modestly increased over time. Peripheral diastolic BP and central pulse pressure were improved in the intervention group compared with the control group at 12 months. In the cohort with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, improving dietary quality by increasing consumption of fruit, vegetables and dairy did not improve cBP, AIx or cfPWV, compared with a control group continuing on their usual diet, after 12 months.

  4. Survey of subjects on the geothermal technology development aiming at marked improvement of economical efficiency; Keizaisei no hiyakuteki kojo to mezashita chinetsu gijutsu kaihatsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing the geothermal development cost and increasing the amount of developable resource, the paper reviewed the geothermal developmental technology. Approximately 30 MW as a scale per unit is economical. The development cost is lowered by 2% if the period for development is shortened by two years, by 11% if the utilization rate is increased by 10%, and by 3% if the success rate is increased by 10%. The cost is reduced by 10% if the steam amount per 1 pit is increased to 1.5 times, and by 4% if the reduction amount is increased to 1.5 times. Improvement of survey/exploration/evaluation technology and improvement of power generation/management technology contribute largely to making the above possible. The drilling depth also corresponds with increases in the amount of steam obtained and the cost. The construction cost including the drilling cost is also an important factor, indicating a cost reduction of 15% if the unit price is reduced by 20%. If a 30% reduction of the power generation cost at a 30MW plant can be made, a 10 yen/kWh is realized, which shows that a geothermal power plant can be competitive with a thermal power plant. When thinking of it without subsidies, the geothermal power generation is most economical of all the renewable energy. In the light of the environment, the CO2 issue, etc., the geothermal power generation is much more advantageous than the thermal power generation. 7 refs., 28 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Consistent and significant improvement of nighttime voiding frequency (nocturia) with silodosin in men with LUTS suggestive of BPH: pooled analysis of three randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase III studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Andreas; Schneider, Tim; Cruz, Francisco; Oelke, Matthias

    2014-10-01

    Nocturia is prevalent and bothersome in men with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of BPH (LUTS/BPH). α-Adrenoceptor antagonists without subtype selectivity have inconsistently shown significant effects on nocturia in these patients. We explored the effects of the α1A-adrenoceptor subtype-selective antagonist silodosin on nocturia by analyzing three placebo-controlled registration studies. Responses to question 7 of the IPSS questionnaire were analyzed for the entire study population and patients with ≥ 2 voids/night at baseline. Improvement/worsening rates for nocturia were calculated for once-daily silodosin 8 mg and placebo. Silodosin effects on the mean number of nocturnal voids were compared with placebo, and the number of patients in whom nocturia was reduced to silodosin or placebo; 1,266 men (85 %) had ≥ 2 voids/night at baseline. Compared to placebo, more men treated with silodosin reported about nocturia improvement (53.4 vs. 42.8 %, p Silodosin significantly reduced nocturia within each study and pooled cohort compared to placebo (p silodosin and placebo had reductions of ≥ 1 voids/night, respectively (p = 0.0003), and significantly more patients with silodosin had nocturia episodes at study end compared to placebo (29.3 vs. 19.0 %; p = 0.0002). Although a weak impact on nocturia is already known from α-adrenoceptor antagonists without subtype selectivity, the individual placebo-controlled studies and the pooled data analysis showed that the α1A-adrenoceptor subtype-selective antagonist silodosin consistently and significantly improves nocturia in men with LUTS/BPH.

  6. Multimodos e múltiplas Representações, aprendizagem significativa e subjetividade: três referenciais conciliáveis da educação científica Multimodal and multiple representation, significant learning and subjectivity: three reconcilable scientific education frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Laburú

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A linha de pesquisa em multimodos e múltiplas representações vem atualmente sendo inspiradora de ações instrucionais na educação científica. Partindo dos fundamentos que justificam um encaminhamento didático à luz dessas referências, este trabalho procura mostrar que há compatibilidade dos seus fundamentos com a teoria da aprendizagem significativa de Ausubel e com as questões levantadas pelas pesquisas que indicam a necessidade de se considerar a subjetividade dos alunos presentes numa sala de aula. Essencialmente, procuramos argumentar que a promoção de um ensino por meio de multimodos e múltiplas representações é consistente com o ambiente plural das subjetividades existentes numa sala de aula e com uma aprendizagem significativa.The research line in multi-modal and multiple representations is being currently inspiring instruction of actions in the scientific education. Starting by the foundations that justify a didactic direction in the light of theses references, this work tries to show that there is compatibility of their foundations with the theory of the significant learning of Ausubel, and with the lifted up subjects for the researches that indicate the need to consider the students' subjective diversity present in a classroom. Essentially, we tried to argue that the promotion of a teaching through multiple and multi-modal representation is consistent with the plural atmosphere of the existent subjectivities in a classroom and with a significant learning.

  7. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  8. Interventions to significantly improve service uptake and retention of HIV-positive pregnant women and HIV-exposed infants along the prevention of mother-to-child transmission continuum of care: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrazo, Alexandra C; Firth, Jacqueline; Amzel, Anouk; Sedillo, Rebecca; Ryan, Julia; Phelps, B Ryan

    2018-02-01

    Despite the success of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programmes, low uptake of services and poor retention pose a formidable challenge to achieving the elimination of vertical HIV transmission in low- and middle-income countries. This systematic review summarises interventions that demonstrate statistically significant improvements in service uptake and retention of HIV-positive pregnant and breastfeeding women and their infants along the PMTCT cascade. Databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed studies. Outcomes of interest included uptake of services, such as antiretroviral therapy (ART) such as initiation, early infant diagnostic testing, and retention of HIV-positive pregnant and breastfeeding women and their infants. Interventions that led to statistically significant outcomes were included and mapped to the PMTCT cascade. An eight-item assessment tool assessed study rigour. CRD42017063816. Of 686 citations reviewed, 11 articles met inclusion criteria. Ten studies detailed maternal outcomes and seven studies detailed infant outcomes in PMTCT programmes. Interventions to increase access to antenatal care (ANC) and ART services (n = 4) and those using lay cadres (n = 3) were most common. Other interventions included quality improvement (n = 2), mHealth (n = 1), and counselling (n = 1). One study described interventions in an Option B+ programme. Limitations included lack of HIV testing and counselling and viral load monitoring outcomes, small sample size, geographical location, and non-randomized assignment and selection of participants. Interventions including ANC/ART integration, family-centred approaches, and the use of lay healthcare providers are demonstrably effective in increasing service uptake and retention of HIV-positive mothers and their infants in PMTCT programmes. Future studies should include control groups and assess whether interventions developed in the context of earlier 'Options' are

  9. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  10. Improving the performance of reflex Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) testing in triaging women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS): A restrospective study in a tertiary hospital in United Arab Emirates (UAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhreldin, Marwa; Elmasry, Karim

    2016-02-03

    Cervical cancer is the second commonest cancer in women worldwide. Infection with oncogenic types of human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most important risk factor for developing cervical cancer. Reflex High risk HPV (HR-HPV) testing is of significant value in the assessment of Papanicolaou (Pap) smear results where ASCUS are identified. To improve the performance of reflex HR-HPV testing in triage of ASCUS and analyze the factors impacting it. In this study, we generated a database of 9641 women who had cervical smears collected during the study period from the cytopathology record in a large tertiary hospital in UAE. These included 297 smears with ASCUS diagnosis. All cases were retrospectively followed up with a mean duration of 2.44 years. We analyzed data according to the outcome based on several follow-up Pap smear analysis as the reference assessment. We detected HR-HPV infection in 17.9% of cases. 9.1% ASCUS cases can be more accurate in premenopausal women upon adding age group and presenting complaint as a triage item. This improves the performance of reflex HPV testing and the subsequent selection of high risk patients for colposcopy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevention measures for avoiding unexpected drifting of marine component in recovery equipment of significant metals from sea water. Positioning and monitoring system for marine component and improvement of its positioning accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamada, Masao; Kasai, Noboru; Seko, Noriaki; Hasegawa, Shin; Takeda, Hayato; Katakai, Akio; Sugo, Takanobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Kawabata, Yukiya [Ebara Reseach Co., Ltd., Fujisawa, Kanagawa (Japan); Onuma, Kenji [Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-11-01

    Positioning and monitoring system for marine component in recovery equipment of significant metals from seawater with adsorbent was designed and assembled to avoid unexpected drifting accident. This system which was set on float part of the marine component obtains the positioning data from GPS satellites and sends them to Takasaki and Mutsu establishments through satellite communication. In both establishments, the position data were shown in computer displays. As characteristic test for 20 days in the real sea, 262 data were obtained every 2 hours. The twice of the distance root mean square (2DRMS) was 223.7 m. To improve this performance, three new functions were added to the present firmware. There are to raise positioning resolutions in longitude and latitude from 0.001 to 0.00001 degree, to remove the reflection of GPS signal from sea surface, and to average remaining three positioning data after maximum and minimum data were omitted from continuous five positioning data. The improved system shows the 2DRMS positioning of 15.5 m. This performance is enough to prevent marine component from its drifting accident. (author)

  12. Improvement in insulin resistance and favourable changes in plasma inflammatory adipokines after weight loss associated with two months' consumption of a combination of bioactive food ingredients in overweight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Opizzi, Annalisa; Perna, Simone; Faliva, Milena; Solerte, Sebastiano Bruno; Fioravanti, Marisa; Klersy, Catherine; Cava, Edda; Edda, Cava; Paolini, Maddalena; Maddalena, Paolini; Scavone, Luciano; Luciano, Scavone; Ceccarelli, Paola; Paola, Ceccarelli; Castellaneta, Emanuela; Emanuela, Castellaneta; Savina, Claudia; Claudia, Savina; Donini, Lorenzo Maria

    2013-10-01

    This randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, 8 week trial assessed the efficacy on metabolic changes produced by a consumption of a combination of bioactive food ingredients (epigallocatechin gallate, capsaicins, piperine and L-carnitine) versus a placebo, as part of a therapeutic 'lifestyle change' diet, in 86 overweight subjects. Forty-one patients (2/14 F/M; age 43.7 ± 8.5; BMI 30.3 ± 3.5 kg/m(2)) were randomized to the supplemented group and 45 (29/16; age 40.7 ± 10.2; BMI 30.0 ± 2.7) to the control group. We observed that consumption of the dietary supplement was associated with a significantly greater decrease in insulin resistance, assessed by homostasis model assessment (p < 0.001), leptin/adiponectin ratio (p < 0.04), respiratory quotient (p < 0.008). LDL-cholesterol levels (p < 0.01). Moreover, statistically significant differences were recorded between the two groups in relation to urinary norepinephrine levels (p < 0.001). Leptin, ghrelin, C-reactive protein decreased and resting energy expenditure increased significantly in the supplemented group (p < 0.05, 0.03, 0.02 and 0,02 respectively), but not in the placebo group; adiponectin decreased significantly in the placebo group (0.001) but not in the supplemented group, although no statistical significance between the groups was elicited. BMI, fat mass (assessed by DXA) and vascular endothelial growth factor significantly decreased, whilst the resting energy expenditure/free fat mass significantly increased in both groups. In general, a greater change was recorded in the supplemented group compared to the placebo, although no statistically significant difference between the two groups was recorded. These results suggest that the combination of bioactive food ingredients studied might be useful for the treatment of obesity-related inflammatory metabolic dysfunctions.

  13. OnabotulinumtoxinA 100U provides significant improvements in overactive bladder symptoms in patients with urinary incontinence regardless of the number of anticholinergic therapies used or reason for inadequate management of overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, K-D; Chapple, C; Herschorn, S; Joshi, M; Zhou, J; Nardo, C; Nitti, V W

    2014-10-01

    A prespecified pooled analysis of two placebo-controlled, phase 3 trials evaluated whether the number of prior anticholinergics used or reason for their discontinuation affected the treatment response to onabotulinumtoxinA 100U in overactive bladder (OAB) patients with urinary incontinence (UI). Patients with symptoms of OAB received intradetrusor injections of onabotulinumtoxinA 100U or placebo, sparing the trigone. Change from baseline at week 12 in UI episodes/day, proportion of patients reporting a positive response ('greatly improved' or 'improved') on the treatment benefit scale (TBS), micturition and urgency were evaluated by number of prior anticholinergics (1, 2 or ≥ 3) and reason for their discontinuation (insufficient efficacy or side effects). Adverse events (AE) were assessed. Patients had taken an average of 2.4 anticholinergics before study enrolment. OnabotulinumtoxinA reduced UI episodes/day from baseline vs. placebo, regardless of the number of prior anticholinergics (-2.82 vs. -1.52 for one prior anticholinergic; -2.58 vs. -0.58 for two prior anticholinergics; and -2.92 vs. -0.73 for three or more prior anticholinergics; all p reason for discontinuation. OnabotulinumtoxinA reduced the episodes of urgency and frequency of micturition vs. placebo in all groups. AEs were well tolerated, with a comparable incidence in all groups. In patients with symptoms of OAB who were inadequately managed by one or more anticholinergics, onabotulinumtoxinA 100U provided significant and similar treatment benefit and safety profile regardless of the number of prior anticholinergics used or reason for inadequate management of OAB. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00910845, NCT00910520. © 2014 The Authors. International Journal of Clinical Practice published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  15. Significant accomplishments, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    BTS data is vital to improve transportation decision making, as well as evaluations of performance and what works in the nations transportation systems. As BTS continues its course of producing relevant, accurate, and timely transportation d...

  16. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  17. Multi-subject atlas-based auto-segmentation reduces interobserver variation and improves dosimetric parameter consistency for organs at risk in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A multi-institution clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Chang-Juan; Yi, Jun-Lin; Chen, Nian-Yong; Ren, Wei; Cheng, Jason; Tung, Stewart; Kong, Lin; Lin, Shao-Jun; Pan, Jian-Ji; Zhang, Guang-Shun; Hu, Jiang; Qi, Zhen-Yu; Ma, Jun; Lu, Jia-De; Yan, Di; Sun, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: To assess whether consensus guideline-based atlas-based auto-segmentation (ABAS) reduces interobserver variation and improves dosimetric parameter consistency for organs at risk (OARs) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Materials and methods: Eight radiation oncologists from 8 institutes contoured 20 OARs on planning CT images of 16 patients via manual contouring and manually-edited ABAS contouring. Interobserver variation [volume coefficient of variation (CV), Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), three-dimensional isocenter difference (3D-ICD)] and dosimetric parameters were compared between the two methods of contouring for each OAR. Results: Interobserver variation was significant for all OARs in manual contouring, resulting in significant dosimetric parameter variation (P < 0.05). Edited ABAS significantly improved multiple metrics and reduced dosimetric parameter variation for most OARs; brainstem, spinal cord, cochleae, temporomandibular joint (TMJ), larynx and pharyngeal constrictor muscle (PCM) obtained most benefit (range of mean DSC, volume CV and main ICD values was 0.36–0.83, 12.1–84.3%, 2.2–5.0 mm for manual contouring and 0.42–0.86, 7.2–70.6%, 1.2–3.5 mm for edited ABAS contouring, respectively; range of dose CV reduction: 1.0–3.0%). Conclusion: Substantial objective interobserver differences occur during manual contouring, resulting in significant dosimetric parameter variation. Edited ABAS reduced interobserver variation and improved dosimetric parameter consistency, particularly for brainstem, spinal cord, cochleae, TMJ, larynx and PCM

  18. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  19. Signifikante Verbesserungen eines klinischen Untersuchungskurses nach einfachen strukturierten Veränderungen des Lehrinhalts und der Lehrmethoden [Significant improvement of a clinical training course in physical examination after basic structural changes in the teaching content and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bott-Flügel, Lorenz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Regular student evaluations at the Technical University Munich indicate the necessity for improvement of the clinical examination course. The aim of this study was to examine if targeted measures to restructure and improve a clinical examination course session lead to a higher level of student satisfaction as well as better self-assessment of the acquired techniques of clinical examination.Methods: At three medical departments of the Technical University Munich during the 2010 summer semester, the quantitative results of 49 student evaluations (ratings 1-6, German scholastic grading system of the clinical examination course were compared for a course before and a course after structured measures for improvement. These measures included structured teaching instructions, handouts and additional material from the Internet.Results: 47 evaluations were completed before and 34 evaluations after the measures for improvement. The measures named above led to a significant improvement of the evaluative ratings in the following areas: short introduction to the topic of each clinical examination course (from 2.4±1.2 to1.7±1.0; p=0.0020 and to basic measures of hygiene (from 3.8±1.9 to 2.5±1.8; p=0.004, structured demonstration of each clinical examination step (from 2.9±1.5 to 1.8±1.0; p=0.001, sufficient practice of each clinical examination step (from 3.1±1.8 to 2.2±1.4; p=0.030 structured feedback on each clinical examination step (from 3.0±1.4 to 2.3±1.0; p=0.0070, use of handouts (from 5.2±1.4 to 1.8±1.4; p[german] Hintergrund: Die regelmäßigen Evaluationen der Studierenden der Technischen Universität München deuten auf einen Verbesserungsbedarf des klinischen Untersuchungskurses hin. Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war es, zu prüfen, ob gezielte Maßnahmen zur Umstrukturierung und Verbesserung eines Untersuchungskurstages zu einer höheren Zufriedenheit der Studierenden und zu einer besseren Selbsteinschätzung der

  20. Subjective evaluation of HEVC in mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ray; Kalva, Hari

    2013-03-01

    Mobile compute environments provide a unique set of user needs and expectations that designers must consider. With increased multimedia use in mobile environments, video encoding methods within the smart phone market segment are key factors that contribute to positive user experience. Currently available display resolutions and expected cellular bandwidth are major factors the designer must consider when determining which encoding methods should be supported. The desired goal is to maximize the consumer experience, reduce cost, and reduce time to market. This paper presents a comparative evaluation of the quality of user experience when HEVC and AVC/H.264 video coding standards were used. The goal of the study was to evaluate any improvements in user experience when using HEVC. Subjective comparisons were made between H.264/AVC and HEVC encoding standards in accordance with Doublestimulus impairment scale (DSIS) as defined by ITU-R BT.500-13. Test environments are based on smart phone LCD resolutions and expected cellular bit rates, such as 200kbps and 400kbps. Subjective feedback shows both encoding methods are adequate at 400kbps constant bit rate. However, a noticeable consumer experience gap was observed for 200 kbps. Significantly less H.264 subjective quality is noticed with video sequences that have multiple objects moving and no single point of visual attraction. Video sequences with single points of visual attraction or few moving objects tended to have higher H.264 subjective quality.

  1. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  2. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July - September 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Creating Significant Learning Experiences across Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Laura E.; Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Nicoll-Senft, Joan M.; Tessier, Jack T.; Watson, Cheryl L.; Wood, Rebecca M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning to redesign courses and assess student learning. Significant improvements were found across the semester for students in the six courses, but there were differences in which taxa showed improvement in each course. The meta-analysis showed significant, positive…

  6. Testing Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  7. Safety significance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, B.S.; Yee, D.; Brewer, W.K.; Quattro, P.J.; Kirby, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E), in cooperation with ABZ, Incorporated and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), investigated the use of artificial intelligence-based programming techniques to assist utility personnel in regulatory compliance problems. The result of this investigation is that artificial intelligence-based programming techniques can successfully be applied to this problem. To demonstrate this, a general methodology was developed and several prototype systems based on this methodology were developed. The prototypes address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) event reportability requirements, technical specification compliance based on plant equipment status, and quality assurance assistance. This collection of prototype modules is named the safety significance evaluation system

  8. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  9. Pursuing the Emancipatory Purport of Subjectivity from Frankfurt to Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mesbahian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to investigating the philosophical place of Subjectivity in the contemporary thought. My justification for engaging in further study on this much-discussed concept is that three significant questions concerning subjectivity have remained insufficiently examined: What is the problem of philosophical foundation of modernity from Cartesian Cogito to the Kantian autonomous will and to the Hegelian subjectivity? Is there any possibility to overcome the proposed problem from an internal point of view and from the perspective of Jürgen Habermas? Whether the radical criticism of the Enlightenment idea of an autonomous subject by thinkers like Foucault and Derrida leads to loss of freedom or to the robust notion of freedom being deeply improved? This paper, accordingly, will examine the three above mentioned questions regarding subjectivity across three sections. I have argued, in the first section that the Enlightenment’s her¬itage is contradictory. On the one hand, the notion of subjectivity has generated a kind of emancipation. On the other hand, the subjectivity has enthroned a conception of reason and of method that can be interpreted as a new form of domination. In the second section, I have argued that Habermas’s answer to the philosophical dilemma of subjectivity is to accept the criticism of subject-centered reason but to find a basis for reason in communicative action. Habermas’s conception of subjectivity has been criticized by the help of some contemporary thinkers, in the third section of this paper, and it has been argued that based on his notions of modernity and subjectivity the marginalized populations of the World- namely the Other- can no longer expect intellectual and ethical support for their plight from Frankfurt and should immigrate to Paris in order to purse the emancipatory aspect of subjectivity.

  10. Significance evaluation in factor graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    2017-01-01

    in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical...... significance are presented. First a method using importance sampling. Second a saddlepoint approximation based method. We develop algorithms to efficiently compute the approximations and compare them to naive sampling and the normal approximation. The individual merits of the methods are analysed both from....... Conclusions The applicability of saddlepoint approximation and importance sampling is demonstrated on known models in the factor graph framework. Using the two methods we can substantially improve computational cost without compromising accuracy. This contribution allows analyses of large datasets...

  11. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  12. Uranium chemistry: significant advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews recent progress in uranium chemistry achieved in CEA laboratories. Like its neighbors in the Mendeleev chart uranium undergoes hydrolysis, oxidation and disproportionation reactions which make the chemistry of these species in water highly complex. The study of the chemistry of uranium in an anhydrous medium has led to correlate the structural and electronic differences observed in the interaction of uranium(III) and the lanthanides(III) with nitrogen or sulfur molecules and the effectiveness of these molecules in An(III)/Ln(III) separation via liquid-liquid extraction. Recent work on the redox reactivity of trivalent uranium U(III) in an organic medium with molecules such as water or an azide ion (N 3 - ) in stoichiometric quantities, led to extremely interesting uranium aggregates particular those involved in actinide migration in the environment or in aggregation problems in the fuel processing cycle. Another significant advance was the discovery of a compound containing the uranyl ion with a degree of oxidation (V) UO 2 + , obtained by oxidation of uranium(III). Recently chemists have succeeded in blocking the disproportionation reaction of uranyl(V) and in stabilizing polymetallic complexes of uranyl(V), opening the way to to a systematic study of the reactivity and the electronic and magnetic properties of uranyl(V) compounds. (A.C.)

  13. Manual for subject analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series and also constitutes a part of the ETDE Procedures Manual. It presents the rules, guidelines and procedures to be adopted by centers submitting input to the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) or the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE). It is a manual for the subject analysis part of input preparation, meaning the selection, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing of relevant publications, and is to be used in conjunction with the Thesauruses, Subject Categories documents and the documents providing guidelines for the preparation of abstracts. The concept and structure of the new manual are intended to describe in a logical and efficient sequence all the steps comprising the subject analysis of documents to be reported to INIS or ETDE. The manual includes new chapters on preparatory analysis, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing, as well as rules, guidelines, procedures, examples and a special chapter on guidelines and examples for subject analysis in particular subject fields. (g.t.; a.n.)

  14. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    either construct elicitation mechanisms that control for risk aversion, or construct elicitation mechanisms which undertake 'calibrating adjustments' to elicited reports. We illustrate how the joint estimation of risk attitudes and subjective probabilities can provide the calibration adjustments...... that theory calls for. We illustrate this approach using data from a controlled experiment with real monetary consequences to the subjects. This allows the observer to make inferences about the latent subjective probability, under virtually any well-specified model of choice under subjective risk, while still...

  15. Subjective sleep quality in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse-Henck, Andrea; Wirtz, Hubert; Hinz, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Poor sleep is common among patients with medical disorders. Sleep disturbances can be a cause of fatigue and poor quality of life for patients suffering from sarcoidosis. Studies on subjective sleep quality or prevalence of insomnia have not been reported so far. The aim of this study was to investigate the subjectively reported sleep quality and its relation to psychological and physical factors in sarcoidosis patients. 1197 patients from Germany diagnosed with sarcoidosis were examined using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI). 802 patients (67%) had PSQI global scores >5, indicating subjectively poor quality of sleep. The mean PSQI score was 7.79 ± 4.00. Women reported a significantly inferior individual quality of sleep than men. The subjective quality of sleep was lowered significantly with increasing dyspnea for men and women. 294 patients (25%) had PSQI global scores >10 usually found in patients with clinically relevant insomnia. In this group 86% had high values for fatigue, 69% for anxiety, and 59% for depression. The prevalence of known sleep apnea was 8.7% and 15.7% for restless legs. Poor subjective sleep quality in sarcoidosis patients is about twice as common as in the general population and is associated with fatigue, anxiety, depression and dyspnea. Questions about sleep complaints should therefore be included in the management of sarcoidosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  17. Effects of a visuotemporal cue on walking ability of independent ambulatory subjects with spinal cord injury as compared with healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramodhyakul, N; Amatachaya, P; Sooknuan, T; Arayawichanon, P; Amatachaya, S

    2014-03-01

    An experimental, cross-sectional study. To investigate effects of using a visuotemporal cue on the walking ability of independent ambulatory subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) as compared with healthy subjects. A tertiary rehabilitation center, Thailand. Forty independent ambulatory subjects with SCI and healthy subjects participated in the study (20 subjects per group). All of them were assessed for their walking speed, stride length, cadence and percents of step symmetry under two conditions, including walking at their fastest speed with and without a visuotemporal cue along a 10 m walkway. When walking with a visuotemporal cue, walking speed, stride length and cadence of the subjects were significantly increased from the uncued condition (Pwalking speed and cadence, whereas, subjects with SCI demonstrated significantly higher improvement in stride length as compared with the other group (Pbenefits of using a visuotemporal cue to improve variables relating to walking ability in subjects with intact integrative capability of the brain but with different levels of sensorimotor deterioration. The findings suggest the use of a visuotemporal cue to improve the effectiveness of programs in sport and exercise sciences, and rehabilitation treatments.

  18. Significant improvement in performances of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 through surface modification with high ordered Al-doped ZnO electro-conductive layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hongdan; Xia, Bingbo; Liu, Weiwei; Fang, Guoqing; Wu, Jingjing; Wang, Haibo; Zhang, Ruixue; Kaneko, Shingo; Zheng, Junwei; Wang, Hongyu; Li, Decheng

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Al-doped ZnO (AZO)-coated LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 (LNMO) was prepared by sol–gel method. AZO-coated LNMO electrode shows excellent rate capability and a remarkable improvement in the cyclic performance at a high rate at elevated temperature. - Highlights: • Al-doped ZnO (AZO)-coated LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 (LNMO) was prepared by a traditional sol–gel method. • Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layer grown on the surface of LNMO is high ordered. • At a high rate of 10 C, the discharge capacity of the AZO-coated LNMO electrode can reach 114 mAh g −1 . • Al-doped ZnO (AZO) modification improved cyclic performance of LNMO at high temperatures. - Abstract: Al-doped ZnO (AZO)-coated LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 (LNMO) was prepared by sol–gel method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis indicates that AZO layer grown on the surface of LNMO is high ordered. The results of electrochemical performance measurements reveal that the AZO-coated LNMO electrode displays the best rate capability compared with the bare LNMO and ZnO-coated LNMO, even at a high rate of 10 C. The discharge capacity of the AZO-coated LNMO electrode can still reach 114.3 mAh g −1 , about 89% of its discharge capacity at 0.1 C. Moreover, AZO-coated LNMO electrode shows a remarkable improvement in the cyclic performance at a high rate at elevated temperature due to the protective effect of AZO coating layer. The electrode delivers a capacity of 120.3 mAh g −1 with the capacity retention of 95% at 5 C in 50 cycles at 50 °C. The analysis of electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) indicates that AZO-coated LNMO possesses the lowest charge transfer resistance compared to the bare LNMO and ZnO-coated LNMO, which may be responsible for improved rate capability

  19. Significant improvement in performances of LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} through surface modification with high ordered Al-doped ZnO electro-conductive layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hongdan; Xia, Bingbo [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Key Laboratory of Lithium Ion Battery Materials of Jiangsu Province, Institute of Chemical Power Sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Liu, Weiwei [Changzhou Institute of Energy Storage Materials & Devices, Changzhou 213000 (China); Fang, Guoqing; Wu, Jingjing; Wang, Haibo; Zhang, Ruixue [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Key Laboratory of Lithium Ion Battery Materials of Jiangsu Province, Institute of Chemical Power Sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Kaneko, Shingo [Key Laboratory of Lithium Ion Battery Materials of Jiangsu Province, Institute of Chemical Power Sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Zheng, Junwei [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Key Laboratory of Lithium Ion Battery Materials of Jiangsu Province, Institute of Chemical Power Sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Wang, Hongyu [Changzhou Institute of Energy Storage Materials & Devices, Changzhou 213000 (China); Li, Decheng, E-mail: lidecheng@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Key Laboratory of Lithium Ion Battery Materials of Jiangsu Province, Institute of Chemical Power Sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Al-doped ZnO (AZO)-coated LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} (LNMO) was prepared by sol–gel method. AZO-coated LNMO electrode shows excellent rate capability and a remarkable improvement in the cyclic performance at a high rate at elevated temperature. - Highlights: • Al-doped ZnO (AZO)-coated LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} (LNMO) was prepared by a traditional sol–gel method. • Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layer grown on the surface of LNMO is high ordered. • At a high rate of 10 C, the discharge capacity of the AZO-coated LNMO electrode can reach 114 mAh g{sup −1}. • Al-doped ZnO (AZO) modification improved cyclic performance of LNMO at high temperatures. - Abstract: Al-doped ZnO (AZO)-coated LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} (LNMO) was prepared by sol–gel method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis indicates that AZO layer grown on the surface of LNMO is high ordered. The results of electrochemical performance measurements reveal that the AZO-coated LNMO electrode displays the best rate capability compared with the bare LNMO and ZnO-coated LNMO, even at a high rate of 10 C. The discharge capacity of the AZO-coated LNMO electrode can still reach 114.3 mAh g{sup −1}, about 89% of its discharge capacity at 0.1 C. Moreover, AZO-coated LNMO electrode shows a remarkable improvement in the cyclic performance at a high rate at elevated temperature due to the protective effect of AZO coating layer. The electrode delivers a capacity of 120.3 mAh g{sup −1} with the capacity retention of 95% at 5 C in 50 cycles at 50 °C. The analysis of electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) indicates that AZO-coated LNMO possesses the lowest charge transfer resistance compared to the bare LNMO and ZnO-coated LNMO, which may be responsible for improved rate capability.

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  13. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  14. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  17. Radiological significance of thorium processing in manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    The study of thorium processing in manufacturing comprised monitoring programs at a plant where thorium dioxide was in use and another where the use of thorium nitrate had been discontinued. The measurements of the solubility in simulated lung fluid proved that both materials belonged in the Y Class with dissolution half-times greater than 500 days. Bioassay measurements of 20 subjects from both facilities proved that in vitro monitoring methods, urine, feces, hair and nails analysis were not sufficient indicators of thorium uptake. In vivo monitoring by phoswich and large sodium iodide detectors were proven to be good methods of determining thorium lung burdens. The thoron in breath technique was shown to have a lower limit of sensitivity than lung counting, however, due to lack of information regarding the thoron escape rate from the thorium particles in the lungs the method is not as accurate as lung counting. Two subjects at the thorium dioxide facility had lung burdens of 21+- 16 Bq and 29+- 24 Bq Th 232 and one at the thorium nitrate facility had a lung burden of 37+- 13 Bq. Improvements in the procedures and use of a glove box were among the recommendations to reduce the inhalation of thorium by workers at the thorium dioxide facility. Decontamination of several rooms at the thorium nitrate facility and sealing of the walls and floors were recommended in order to reduce the escape of thoron gas into the room air. The risk to non Atomic Radiation Workers was primarily due to thoron daughters in air while gamma radiation and thorium in air were less important. Conversely, at the thorium dioxide facility the inhalation of thorium in air was the most significant exposure pathway

  18. First-line endoscopic treatment with over-the-scope clips significantly improves the primary failure and rebleeding rates in high-risk gastrointestinal bleeding: A single-center experience with 100 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter-Sch