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  1. Unpleasant subjective emotional experiencing of pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Vallath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of pain medicine that once began as a supportive and compassionate care, adding value to the management of acute and chronic ailments, has now transformed into a vital and essential specialty with structured training programs and service units with professionals dedicating their careers to it. The expansion of understanding of the direct relationship of pain relief to the quality of life, uncovering of neuronal pathways, and technological advances in imaging as well as in interventional techniques have all contributed to this phenomenal growth. However, there is a growing concern whether the training programs and the specialized practitioners are gradually limiting their skilled inputs primarily within the sensory realm of the pain experience with sophisticated interventional techniques and relegating its subjective and emotional dimensions to perfunctory realms within the schema of service provision. While the specialty is still young, if we can understand the inherent aspect of these dimensions within the pain experience and acknowledge the gaps in service provision, it may be possible to champion development of truly comprehensive pain relief programs that responds effectively and ethically to a patient′s felt needs. This article attempts to position the subjectivity of pain experience in context and surface the need to design complete systems of pain relief services inclusive of this dimension. It presents authors′ review of literature on perspectives of ′unpleasant subjective emotional experiencing of the pain" to elucidate possible clinical implications based on the evidences presented on neuro-biology and neuro-psychology of the pain experience; the aim being to inspire systems of care where this dimension is sufficiently evaluated and managed.

  2. Subjective expansion of extended time-spans in experienced meditators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eWittmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experienced meditators typically report that they experience time slowing down in meditation practise as well as in everyday life. Conceptually this phenomenon may be understood through functional states of mindfulness, i.e. by attention regulation, body awareness, emotion regulation, and enhanced memory. However, hardly any systematic empirical work exists regarding the experience of time in meditators. In the current cross-sectional study, we investigated whether 42 experienced mindfulness meditation practitioners (with on average 10 years of experience showed differences in the experience of time as compared to 42 controls without any meditation experience matched for age, sex and education. The perception of time was assessed with a battery of psychophysical tasks assessing the accuracy of prospective time judgments in duration discrimination, duration reproduction and time estimation in the milliseconds to minutes range as well with several psychometric instruments related to subjective time such as the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, the Barrett Impulsivity Scale and the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory. In addition, subjective time judgments on the current passage of time and retrospective time ranges were assessed. While subjective judgements of time were found to be significantly different between the two groups on several scales, no differences in duration estimates in the psychophysical tasks were detected. Regarding subjective time, mindfulness meditators experienced less time pressure, more time dilation, and a general slower passage of time. Moreover, they felt that the last week and the last month passed more slowly. Overall, although no intergroup differences in psychophysical tasks were detected, the reported findings demonstrate a close association between mindfulness meditation and the subjective feeling of the passage of time captured by psychometric instruments.

  3. Antigen-experienced T cells undergo a transient phase of unresponsiveness following optimal stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mattia, F; Chomez, S; Van Laethem, F; Moulin, V; Urbain, J; Moser, M; Leo, O; Andris, F

    1999-12-01

    Interaction of the Ag-specific receptor of T lymphocytes with its Ag/MHC ligand can lead either to cell activation or to a state of unresponsiveness often referred to as anergy. It has been generally assumed that anergy develops as a consequence of inadequate stimulation, such as in response to altered peptide ligands or to agonists presented by costimulatory-deficient accessory cells. The present study uncovers an alternative way of inducing an unresponsive state in T cells. Indeed, we demonstrate herein that Ag-stimulation of murine CD4+ Th clones induces cellular activation, characterized by cytokine production and cell proliferation, followed by a state of transient (lasting up to 6 days) unresponsiveness to further antigenic stimulation. This state of activation-induced unresponsiveness 1) is not a consequence of inadequate costimulation, as it occurs when cells are stimulated in the presence of dendritic cells or anti-CD28 Abs; 2) develops after an optimal response to Ag; 3) is not due to cell death/apoptosis or CTLA-4 engagement; 4) down-regulates the proliferation and cytokine production of both Th1- and Th2-like clones; and 5) does not affect the early steps of signal transduction. Finally, naive T cells are not sensitive to this novel form of unresponsiveness, but become gradually susceptible to activation-induced unresponsiveness upon Ag stimulation. Collectively, these data suggest that activation-induced T cell unresponsiveness may represent a regulatory mechanism limiting the clonal expansion and effector cell function of Ag-experienced T cells, thus contributing to the homeostasis of an immune response.

  4. Subjective experiences of transient ischaemic attack: a repertory grid approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Laura; James, Gill; Sackley, Cath

    2013-01-01

    Research on the psychosocial reactions to stroke has been used to inform rehabilitation programmes. Yet much less research has been conducted into experiences of, and reactions to, transient ischaemic attack (TIA), despite its link with secondary stroke. This study aimed to investigate the subjective psychological experiences of TIA. Repertory grid technique was used because of its capacity to make individual implicit experiences explicit. Using the standard repertory grid protocol, 12 post-TIA patients were asked to consider how five everyday activities had been affected by TIA. Each participant generated six constructs or personal perspectives, which were analysed using proprietary (RepGrid IV) software. Despite the individualised nature of the responses, six themes emerged from the constructs. These included deep-seated anxiety about future uncertainties/disruption to normality, loss of confidence, frustration, TIA as a wake-up call, a sense of loss and sadness, and embarrassment. Research has shown that the patient's subjective experience and perspective are important to the rehabilitation process post-stroke. Relatively little research has been conducted into the subjective experiences of TIA patients. This study has revealed a range of subjective reactions to TIA, which could be used to inform individualised post-TIA management, adaptation and rehabilitation.

  5. Experienced and Perceived Stress in Females With Schizophrenia and Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodadadi Mogadam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder characterized by chronic disturbances of thought and perception. Objectives The current study aimed to compare perceived stress in females with schizophrenia and that of healthy people. Patients and Methods The study sample included 50 patients with schizophrenia in Tuba rehabilitation center in Ardabil selected by available sampling method. Healthy group participants were selected through cloning by age, gender and marital status of the patient group. The data were collected by the questionnaire of Holmes-Rahe scale and Cohen et al. Data were analyzed by multivariate ANOVA (MANOVA using SPSS software. Results Compared with the normal subjects, patients with schizophrenia had a higher mean score in negative perceived and experienced stresses, but had a lower mean score in positive perceived stress as well as in total perceived stress. Conclusions Results showed the levels of perceived stress and negative stress play important role in the creation and maintenance of schizophrenia.

  6. Pressure transient analysis of a horizontal well subject to four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reservoir characterization is essential for effective reservoir and wellbore management. But when a horizontal well is subject to constant-pressure external boundaries, the extent of reservoir characterization that is possible depends on the flow regimes that are encountered in a given flow time. In this paper dimensionless ...

  7. Experiencing menopause in the context of cancer: Women's constructions of gendered subjectivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, Chloe; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette

    2017-09-01

    Many women experience premature menopause following cancer treatment, accompanied by psychological distress, and poor health-related quality of life. In this qualitative study, we examined how women construct their gendered subjectivities - their sense of self as a woman - in the context of premature menopause after cancer. We analysed data from open-ended survey items and semi-structured interviews with women who had experienced cancer. Six hundred and ninety-five women completed the online survey and 61 took part in a semi-structured interview. A thematic decomposition was conducted to identify the subject positions associated with menopause taken up by the women. Three overall themes were identified: 'The Incomplete Woman,' 'The Abject, Asexual Woman' and 'Out of Time and Social Isolation.' Menopause was predominantly constructed as a negative experience, similar to older post-menopausal women and dissimilar to peers, contributing to experiences of social isolation. Menopause also signified the presence of a medically diagnosed cancer condition, and uncertainty around cancer prognosis. It is important for cancer support group leaders and other service providers to be sensitive to women's negotiation of menopause following cancer, in the context of broader cultural constructions, in order to provide appropriate information and support.

  8. Macroscopic behavior of fast reactor fuel subjected to simulated thermal transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, G.R.; Emerson, J.E.; Savoie, F.E.

    1983-06-01

    High-speed cinematography has been used to characterize the macroscopic behavior of irradiated and unirradiated fuel subjected to thermal transients prototypical of fast reactor transients. The results demonstrate that as the cladding melts, the fuel can disperse via spallation if the fuel contains in excess of approx. 16 ..mu..moles/gm of fission gas. Once the cladding has melted, the macroscopic behavior (time to failure and dispersive nature) was strongly influenced by the presence of volatile fission products and the heating rate.

  9. The relationship between subjective experiences during first use of tobacco and cannabis and the effect of the substance experienced first.

    OpenAIRE

    Baggio, S. (Sebastián); Studer, J.; Deline, S.; Mohler-Kuo, M.; Daeppen, J.B.; Gmel, G.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We examined the positive and negative subjective feelings associated with initial tobacco and cannabis use as well as the role of these experiences in regular use. Additionally, we investigated the effect of the first substance experienced on initial subjective experiences and later regular use. METHODS: Baseline data from a representative sample of young Swiss men were obtained from an ongoing Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors, which includes 2,321 lifetime tobacco ...

  10. The Relationship Between Subjective Experiences During First Use of Tobacco and Cannabis and the Effect of the Substance Experienced First

    OpenAIRE

    Baggio S.; Studer J.; Deline S.; Mohler-Kuo M.; Daeppen J.-B.; Gmel G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In the present study we examined the positive and negative subjective feelings associated with initial tobacco and cannabis use as well as the role of these experiences in regular use. Additionally we investigated the effect of the first substance experienced on initial subjective experiences and later regular use.Methods: Baseline data from a representative sample of young Swiss men were obtained from an ongoing Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors which includes 2321 lif...

  11. Subjective sleep quality in women experiencing intimate partner violence: contributions of situational, psychological, and physiological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephanie J; Kozachik, Sharon L; Hall, Rosalie J

    2010-02-01

    This study, guided by an adaptation of the theory of unpleasant symptoms, examined the complex relationships of childhood maltreatment, intimate partner violence (IPV), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and physical health symptoms with global sleep quality and disruptive nighttime behaviors. Data were analyzed using covariance structure analysis. A convenience sample of 157 women currently experiencing IPV was recruited from crisis shelters and community agencies. Findings provide empirical support that women concurrently experiencing PTSD, depression, and stress-related physical health symptoms demonstrated poor global sleep quality and frequent disruptive nighttime behaviors. Posttraumatic stress disorder and stress health symptoms functioned as mediators of childhood maltreatment and IPV effects on both global sleep quality and disruptive nighttime behaviors, but depression did not.

  12. Switch to Dolutegravir plus Rilpivirine Dual Therapy in cART-Experienced Subjects: An Observational Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo F Capetti

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the efficacy and safety of the dual combination of ripivirine plus dolutegravir. This work aims at beginning to fill this gap.All HIV-1 infected subjects treated with ripivirine plus dolutegravir between October 2014 and September 2015 in eight Italian centres were included in an observational cohort. Data were collected at baseline and at weeks 4, 12, 24 and 48.One hundred and thirty-two subjects were followed for a median of 24 months, mean 33 months. One subject discontinued the study drug at week 24 for headache, one for drug interaction and one died after week 24 of illicit drug abuse. The mean age was 51.8, females 31.7% and non-caucasians 10%. Fifty-seven (43.2% had at least one failure in their treatment history. Reasons for switching were simplification (53.0%, toxicity (34.8%, drug interactions (n = 7, persistent low-level viremia (n = 4, non-adherence (n = 3 and viral failure (n = 2. Sixty patients (45.5% had reverse transcriptase (RT mutations and 69 (44,7% had protease (PR mutations. Sixteen had baseline viral replication, 27 had < 50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL and in 89 (67.4% no virus was detected (NVD, 0 copies/mL. At w4, 114 (86.4% had NVD, 15 had 1 to 49 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL and 3 had 50 to 57 copies/mL. At week 24 one subject had viral rebound without mutations due to missed drug refill, 19 had 1 to 49 copies/mL, and 112 had NVD. All 132 subjects were tested at weeks 4 and 24. Of the 50 subjects who had a 48-week follow-up, one had a treatment interruption, four had 1 to 49 copies/mL and 45 had NVD. Among the entire population, one subject had low-level, one intermediate and 4 high-level resistance to rilpivirine: none failed by week 48. Mean serum creatinine increased by +0.1 mg/dL. During the follow-up one patient reported headache and insomnia.Ripivirine plus dolutegravir proved safe and effective in this cohort of non-naïve HIV-1 infected subjects.

  13. How (in)variant are subjective representations of described and experienced risk and rewards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellen, David; Pachur, Thorsten; Hertwig, Ralph

    2016-12-01

    Decisions under risk have been shown to differ depending on whether information on outcomes and probabilities is gleaned from symbolic descriptions or gathered through experience. To some extent, this description-experience gap is due to sampling error in experience-based choice. Analyses with cumulative prospect theory (CPT), investigating to what extent the gap is also driven by differences in people's subjective representations of outcome and probability information (taking into account sampling error), have produced mixed results. We improve on previous analyses of description-based and experience-based choices by taking advantage of both a within-subjects design and a hierarchical Bayesian implementation of CPT. This approach allows us to capture both the differences and the within-person stability of individuals' subjective representations across the two modes of learning about choice options. Relative to decisions from description, decisions from experience showed reduced sensitivity to probabilities and increased sensitivity to outcomes. For some CPT parameters, individual differences were relatively stable across modes of learning. Our results suggest that outcome and probability information translate into systematically different subjective representations in description- versus experience-based choice. At the same time, both types of decisions seem to tap into the same individual-level regularities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Experiencing Extended Point-of-View Shots : A Film-Phenomenological Perspective on Extreme Character Subjectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanich, Julian; Reinerth, Maike Sarah; Thon, Jan-Noel

    2017-01-01

    The wish to accurately represent the subjective perceptual experience of a filmic character and to intimately connect these character perceptions with the viewer’s experience has a long history. However, this history of extreme first-person perspectives in film—from the inside out, so to speak—is a

  15. Real-time simulation of thermal stresses and creep in plates subjected to transient heat input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattel, Jesper Henri; Jacobsen, Torben Krogsdal; Hansen, P.N.

    1997-01-01

    -difference approach. It applies a general formulation which takes into account nonconstant material properties (e.g. temperature, material, or time dependency), heat-transfer coefficients, and creep. The temperature calculation applies a one-dimensional numerical model, whereas the stress analysis is semi......This paper presents a novel numerical technique for solving the temperature and stress fields in a plate subjected to arbitrarily varying transient boundary conditions (transient temperature and heat-flux variations) on a surface. The numerical method is based on the control-volume finite......-two-dimensional. Both plane stress and plane strain conditions are considered as extreme cases. It is shown that, by using the developed numerical technique, very fast real-time simulations can be performed. The method has proved its applicability in e.g. high-pressure die-casting, and applications to this industrial...

  16. Cultural, social and personal ways of experiencing love - an analysis of the perception of subjectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Claudia

    2011-11-01

    This article is based on analysis of 4 couple's personal and public documents, in order to integrate personal choices, values and ideas with cultural representations and social attitudes. Moreover, being based on Italian sources from the nineteenth century, the study offers an historical insight on the Italian nation-building process and its political and social foundations. This study is based on archival and printed primary sources from: Gianna Maffei and Ercole Trotti Mosti (Museo Centrale del Risorgimento - Roma - MCRR); Augusto Pierantoni and Grazia Mancini (Museo Centrale del Risorgimento - Roma); Luigi Majno and Ersilia Bronzini (Archivio Unione Femminile Nazionale - Milano); Angiolo Orvieto and Laura Cantoni (Archivio Contemporaneo Bonsanti del Gabinetto Vieuesseux - Firenze - ACGV). This study reflects on love as a political and moral issue, by linking the personal sphere of subjectivity to the public dimension of the political community. An extensive understanding of the role played by the perception and the expression of sentiments can be considered as the central issue of this analysis.

  17. Cultural, social and personal ways of experiencing love – an analysis of the perception of subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Summary This article is based on analysis of 4 couple’s personal and public documents, in order to integrate personal choices, values and ideas with cultural representations and social attitudes. Moreover, being based on Italian sources from the nineteenth century, the study offers an historical insight on the Italian nation-building process and its political and social foundations. This study is based on archival and printed primary sources from: Gianna Maffei and Ercole Trotti Mosti (Museo Centrale del Risorgimento – Roma – MCRR); Augusto Pierantoni and Grazia Mancini (Museo Centrale del Risorgimento – Roma); Luigi Majno and Ersilia Bronzini (Archivio Unione Femminile Nazionale – Milano); Angiolo Orvieto and Laura Cantoni (Archivio Contemporaneo Bonsanti del Gabinetto Vieuesseux – Firenze – ACGV). This study reflects on love as a political and moral issue, by linking the personal sphere of subjectivity to the public dimension of the political community. An extensive understanding of the role played by the perception and the expression of sentiments can be considered as the central issue of this analysis. PMID:22037756

  18. Predicting the Reliability of Brittle Material Structures Subjected to Transient Proof Test and Service Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Jadaan, Osama M.; Palfi, Tamas; Baker, Eric H.

    Brittle materials today are being used, or considered, for a wide variety of high tech applications that operate in harsh environments, including static and rotating turbine parts, thermal protection systems, dental prosthetics, fuel cells, oxygen transport membranes, radomes, and MEMS. Designing brittle material components to sustain repeated load without fracturing while using the minimum amount of material requires the use of a probabilistic design methodology. The NASA CARES/Life 1 (Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structure/Life) code provides a general-purpose analysis tool that predicts the probability of failure of a ceramic component as a function of its time in service. This capability includes predicting the time-dependent failure probability of ceramic components against catastrophic rupture when subjected to transient thermomechanical loads (including cyclic loads). The developed methodology allows for changes in material response that can occur with temperature or time (i.e. changing fatigue and Weibull parameters with temperature or time). For this article an overview of the transient reliability methodology and how this methodology is extended to account for proof testing is described. The CARES/Life code has been modified to have the ability to interface with commercially available finite element analysis (FEA) codes executed for transient load histories. Examples are provided to demonstrate the features of the methodology as implemented in the CARES/Life program.

  19. The relationship between subjective experiences during first use of tobacco and cannabis and the effect of the substance experienced first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, Stéphanie; Studer, Joseph; Deline, Stéphane; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    We examined the positive and negative subjective feelings associated with initial tobacco and cannabis use as well as the role of these experiences in regular use. Additionally, we investigated the effect of the first substance experienced on initial subjective experiences and later regular use. Baseline data from a representative sample of young Swiss men were obtained from an ongoing Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors, which includes 2,321 lifetime tobacco and cannabis users. We assessed the age of first tobacco and cannabis use along with the subjective experiences associated with initial use. Additionally, subjective experiences related to regular use of both substances were analyzed. The initial subjective experiences were divided into positive and negative for each substance, and we found that the feelings associated with first use of tobacco and cannabis were similar. Moreover, the participants who used cannabis before tobacco reported fewer negative experiences associated with first tobacco use, whereas the participants who initially used tobacco reported more negative experiences related to first cannabis use. Also, we identified that regular use was encouraged by positive experiences and that negative experiences were more adverse for regular use of cannabis compared with tobacco. Taken together, these results indicate that similar subjective experiences were associated with the first use of tobacco and cannabis. Also, the use of cannabis before tobacco, which occurred in only a minority of users, had the potential to enhance the effects of initial tobacco use.

  20. Broadband Sound Administration Improves Sleep Onset Latency in Healthy Subjects in a Model of Transient Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messineo, Ludovico; Taranto-Montemurro, Luigi; Sands, Scott A; Oliveira Marques, Melania D; Azabarzin, Ali; Wellman, David Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Insomnia is a major public health problem in western countries. Previous small pilot studies showed that the administration of constant white noise can improve sleep quality, increase acoustic arousal threshold, and reduce sleep onset latency. In this randomized controlled trial, we tested the effect of surrounding broadband sound administration on sleep onset latency, sleep architecture, and subjective sleep quality in healthy subjects. Eighteen healthy subjects were studied with two overnight sleep studies approximately one week apart. They were exposed in random order to normal environmental noise (40.1 [1.3] dB) or to broadband sound administration uniformly distributed in the room by two speakers (46.0 [0.9] dB). To model transient insomnia, subjects went to bed ("lights out") 90 min before usual bedtime. Broadband sound administration reduced sleep onset latency to stage 2 sleep (time from lights out to first epoch of non-rapid eye movement-sleep stage 2) (19 [16] vs. 13 [23] min, p = 0.011; median reduction 38% baseline). In a subgroup reporting trouble initiating sleep at home (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index section 2 score ≥ 1), sound administration improved subjective sleep quality (p = 0.037) and the frequency of arousals from sleep (p = 0.03). In an experimental model of transient insomnia in young healthy individuals, broadband sound administration significantly reduced sleep onset latency by 38% compared to normal environmental noise. These findings suggest that broadband sound administration might be helpful to minimize insomnia symptoms in selected individuals.

  1. Broadband Sound Administration Improves Sleep Onset Latency in Healthy Subjects in a Model of Transient Insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Messineo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundInsomnia is a major public health problem in western countries. Previous small pilot studies showed that the administration of constant white noise can improve sleep quality, increase acoustic arousal threshold, and reduce sleep onset latency. In this randomized controlled trial, we tested the effect of surrounding broadband sound administration on sleep onset latency, sleep architecture, and subjective sleep quality in healthy subjects.MethodsEighteen healthy subjects were studied with two overnight sleep studies approximately one week apart. They were exposed in random order to normal environmental noise (40.1 [1.3] dB or to broadband sound administration uniformly distributed in the room by two speakers (46.0 [0.9] dB. To model transient insomnia, subjects went to bed (“lights out” 90 min before usual bedtime.ResultsBroadband sound administration reduced sleep onset latency to stage 2 sleep (time from lights out to first epoch of non-rapid eye movement-sleep stage 2 (19 [16] vs. 13 [23] min, p = 0.011; median reduction 38% baseline. In a subgroup reporting trouble initiating sleep at home (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index section 2 score ≥ 1, sound administration improved subjective sleep quality (p = 0.037 and the frequency of arousals from sleep (p = 0.03.ConclusionIn an experimental model of transient insomnia in young healthy individuals, broadband sound administration significantly reduced sleep onset latency by 38% compared to normal environmental noise. These findings suggest that broadband sound administration might be helpful to minimize insomnia symptoms in selected individuals.

  2. Human circadian pacemaker is sensitive to light throughout subjective day without evidence of transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, M. E.; Rimmer, D. W.; Duffy, J. F.; Klerman, E. B.; Kronauer, R. E.; Czeisler, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    Fifty-six resetting trials were conducted across the subjective day in 43 young men using a three-cycle bright-light (approximately 10,000 lx). The phase-response curve (PRC) to these trials was assessed for the presence of a "dead zone" of photic insensitivity and was compared with another three-cycle PRC that had used a background of approximately 150 lx. To assess possible transients after the light stimulus, the trials were divided into 43 steady-state trials, which occurred after several baseline days, and 13 consecutive trials, which occurred immediately after a previous resetting trial. We found that 1) bright light induces phase shifts throughout subjective day with no apparent dead zone; 2) there is no evidence of transients in constant routine assessments of the fitted temperature minimum 1-2 days after completion of the resetting stimulus; and 3) the timing of background room light modulates the resetting response to bright light. These data indicate that the human circadian pacemaker is sensitive to light at virtually all circadian phases, implying that the entire 24-h pattern of light exposure contributes to entrainment.

  3. Transient increase in HDL-cholesterol during weight gain by hyperalimentation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Torbjörn; Kechagias, Stergios; Carlsson, Martin; Nystrom, Fredrik H

    2011-04-01

    Determination of lipid levels is fundamental in cardiovascular risk assessment. We studied the short-term effects of fast food-based hyperalimentation on lipid levels in healthy subjects. Twelve healthy men and six healthy women with a mean age of 26 ± 6.6 years and an aged-matched control group were recruited for this prospective interventional study. Subjects in the intervention group aimed for a body weight increase of 5-15% by doubling the baseline caloric intake by eating at least two fast food-based meals a day in combination with adoption of a sedentary lifestyle for 4 weeks. This protocol induced a weight gain from 67.6 ± 9.1 kg to 74.0 ± 11 kg (P cholesterol occurred in all subjects during the study and this was apparent already at the first week in 16/18 subjects (mean increase at week 1: +22.0 ± 16%, range from -7 to +50%), whereas the highest level of HDL during the study as compared with baseline values varied from +6% to +58% (mean +31.6 ± 15%). The intake of saturated fat in the early phase of the trial related positively with the HDL-cholesterol-increase in the second week (r = 0.53, P = 0.028). Although the levels of insulin doubled at week 2, the increase in low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol was only +12 ± 17%, and there was no statistically significant changes in fasting serum triglycerides. We conclude that hyperalimentation can induce a fast but transient increase in HDL-cholesterol that is of clinical interest when estimating cardiovascular risk based on serum lipid levels.

  4. Envelope statistics of self-motion signals experienced by human subjects during everyday activities: Implications for vestibular processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriot, Jérome; Jamali, Mohsen; Cullen, Kathleen E; Chacron, Maurice J

    2017-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that the brain's neural coding strategies are constrained by natural stimulus statistics. Here we investigated the statistics of the time varying envelope (i.e. a second-order stimulus attribute that is related to variance) of rotational and translational self-motion signals experienced by human subjects during everyday activities. We found that envelopes can reach large values across all six motion dimensions (~450 deg/s for rotations and ~4 G for translations). Unlike results obtained in other sensory modalities, the spectral power of envelope signals decreased slowly for low (2 Hz) temporal frequencies and thus was not well-fit by a power law. We next compared the spectral properties of envelope signals resulting from active and passive self-motion, as well as those resulting from signals obtained when the subject is absent (i.e. external stimuli). Our data suggest that different mechanisms underlie deviation from scale invariance in rotational and translational self-motion envelopes. Specifically, active self-motion and filtering by the human body cause deviation from scale invariance primarily for translational and rotational envelope signals, respectively. Finally, we used well-established models in order to predict the responses of peripheral vestibular afferents to natural envelope stimuli. We found that irregular afferents responded more strongly to envelopes than their regular counterparts. Our findings have important consequences for understanding the coding strategies used by the vestibular system to process natural second-order self-motion signals.

  5. Envelope statistics of self-motion signals experienced by human subjects during everyday activities: Implications for vestibular processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriot, Jérome; Jamali, Mohsen; Cullen, Kathleen E.

    2017-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that the brain’s neural coding strategies are constrained by natural stimulus statistics. Here we investigated the statistics of the time varying envelope (i.e. a second-order stimulus attribute that is related to variance) of rotational and translational self-motion signals experienced by human subjects during everyday activities. We found that envelopes can reach large values across all six motion dimensions (~450 deg/s for rotations and ~4 G for translations). Unlike results obtained in other sensory modalities, the spectral power of envelope signals decreased slowly for low (2 Hz) temporal frequencies and thus was not well-fit by a power law. We next compared the spectral properties of envelope signals resulting from active and passive self-motion, as well as those resulting from signals obtained when the subject is absent (i.e. external stimuli). Our data suggest that different mechanisms underlie deviation from scale invariance in rotational and translational self-motion envelopes. Specifically, active self-motion and filtering by the human body cause deviation from scale invariance primarily for translational and rotational envelope signals, respectively. Finally, we used well-established models in order to predict the responses of peripheral vestibular afferents to natural envelope stimuli. We found that irregular afferents responded more strongly to envelopes than their regular counterparts. Our findings have important consequences for understanding the coding strategies used by the vestibular system to process natural second-order self-motion signals. PMID:28575032

  6. An acceptance-based intervention for children and adolescents with cancer experiencing acute pain - a single-subject study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsell Cederberg, Jenny; Dahl, JoAnne; von Essen, Louise; Ljungman, Gustaf

    2017-01-01

    Children and adolescents with cancer report pain as one of their most recurrent and troublesome symptoms throughout the cancer trajectory. Pain evokes psychological distress, which in turn has an amplifying effect on the pain experience. Acceptance-based interventions for experimentally induced acute pain predict increased pain tolerance, decreased pain intensity and decreased discomfort of pain. The aim of this study was to preliminarily evaluate an acceptance-based intervention for children and adolescents with cancer experiencing acute pain, with regard to feasibility and effect on pain intensity and discomfort of pain. This is a single-subject study with an AB design with a nonconcurrent multiple baseline. Children and adolescents aged four to 18 years undergoing cancer treatment at the Children's University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden, reporting sustained acute pain were offered participation. Pain intensity and discomfort of pain were measured during baseline and at post-intervention. The intervention consisted of a pain exposure exercise lasting approximately 15 minutes. Five children participated in the study. All participants completed the intervention and reported that it had helped them to cope with the pain in the moment. All participants reported decreased discomfort of pain at post-measurement, three of whom also reported decreased pain intensity. The results suggest that an acceptance-based intervention may help children and adolescents with cancer to cope with the pain that is often associated with cancer treatment in spite of pharmacological pain management. The results are tentative but promising and warrant further investigation.

  7. Transient Dynamic Response of Delaminated Composite Rotating Shallow Shells Subjected to Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Karmakar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a transient dynamic finite element analysis is presented to study the response of delaminated composite pretwisted rotating shallow shells subjected to low velocity normal impact. Lagrange's equation of motion is used to derive the dynamic equilibrium equation and moderate rotational speeds are considered wherein the Coriolis effect is negligible. An eight noded isoparametric plate bending element is employed in the finite element formulation incorporating rotary inertia and effects of transverse shear deformation based on Mindlin's theory. To satisfy the compatibility of deformation and equilibrium of resultant forces and moments at the delamination crack front a multipoint constraint algorithm is incorporated which leads to unsymmetric stiffness matrices. The modified Hertzian contact law which accounts for permanent indentation is utilized to compute the contact force, and the time dependent equations are solved by Newmark's time integration algorithm. Parametric studies are performed in respect of location of delamination, angle of twist and rotational speed for centrally impacted graphite-epoxy composite cylindrical shells.

  8. Dynamic behaviour of mono bucket foundations subjected to combined transient loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Dam; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results from small scale testing, investigating the effect of transient combined loading of a bucketfoundation. The tests are performed inside a pressure tank at Aalborg University, Denmark. The bucket foundation was installed in dense water saturated sand and transient ...

  9. An acceptance-based intervention for children and adolescents with cancer experiencing acute pain – a single-subject study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsell Cederberg, Jenny; Dahl, JoAnne; von Essen, Louise; Ljungman, Gustaf

    2017-01-01

    Background Children and adolescents with cancer report pain as one of their most recurrent and troublesome symptoms throughout the cancer trajectory. Pain evokes psychological distress, which in turn has an amplifying effect on the pain experience. Acceptance-based interventions for experimentally induced acute pain predict increased pain tolerance, decreased pain intensity and decreased discomfort of pain. The aim of this study was to preliminarily evaluate an acceptance-based intervention for children and adolescents with cancer experiencing acute pain, with regard to feasibility and effect on pain intensity and discomfort of pain. Methods This is a single-subject study with an AB design with a nonconcurrent multiple baseline. Children and adolescents aged four to 18 years undergoing cancer treatment at the Children’s University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden, reporting sustained acute pain were offered participation. Pain intensity and discomfort of pain were measured during baseline and at post-intervention. The intervention consisted of a pain exposure exercise lasting approximately 15 minutes. Results Five children participated in the study. All participants completed the intervention and reported that it had helped them to cope with the pain in the moment. All participants reported decreased discomfort of pain at post-measurement, three of whom also reported decreased pain intensity. Conclusion The results suggest that an acceptance-based intervention may help children and adolescents with cancer to cope with the pain that is often associated with cancer treatment in spite of pharmacological pain management. The results are tentative but promising and warrant further investigation. PMID:28919815

  10. Mechanical behavior of fast reactor fuel pin cladding subjected to simulated overpower transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.D.; Hunter, C.W.

    1978-06-01

    Cladding mechanical property data for analysis and prediction of fuel pin transient behavior were obtained under experimental conditions in which the temperature ramps of reactor transients were simulated. All cladding specimens were 20% CW Type 316 stainless steel and were cut from EBR-II irradiated fuel pins. It was determined that irradiation degraded the cladding ductility and failure strength. Specimens that had been adjacent to the fuel exhibited the poorest properties. Correlations were developed to describe the effect of neutron fluence on the mechanical behavior of the cladding. Metallographic examinations were conducted to characterize the failure mode and to establish the nature of internal and external surface corrosion. Various mechanisms for the fuel adjacency effect were examined and results for helium concentration profiles were presented. Results from the simulated transient tests were compared with TREAT test results.

  11. Maintenance of subjective health during a merger : the role of experienced change and pre-merger social support at work in white- and blue-collar workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaananen, A; Pahkin, K; Kalimo, R; Buunk, BP; Väänänen, A.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    Prospective research on psychosocial effects on employees' health associated with organizational mergers has been scarce. The first aim of this study was to explore the subjective health effects (exhaustion and functional incapacity) of an organizational merger among employees who had experienced a

  12. HIV-1 Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Mutations in Treatment Naïve and Experienced Panamanian Subjects: Impact on National Use of EFV-Based Schemes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaxelis Mendoza

    Full Text Available The use of antiretroviral therapy in HIV infected subjects prevents AIDS-related illness and delayed occurrence of death. In Panama, rollout of ART started in 1999 and national coverage has reached 62.8% since then. The objective of this study was to determine the level and patterns of acquired drug resistance mutations of clinical relevance (ADR-CRM and surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRMs from 717 HIV-1 pol gene sequences obtained from 467 ARV drug-experienced and 250 ARV drug-naïve HIV-1 subtypes B infected subjects during 2007-2013, respectively. The overall prevalence of SDRM and of ADR-CRM during the study period was 9.2% and 87.6%, respectively. The majority of subjects with ADR-CRM had a pattern of mutations that confer resistance to at least two classes of ARV inhibitors. The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI mutations K103N and P225H were more prevalent in both ARV drug-naïve and ARV drug-experienced subjects. The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI mutation M184V was more frequent in ARV drug-experienced individuals, while T215YFrev and M41L were more frequent in ARV drug-naïve subjects. Prevalence of mutations associated to protease inhibitors (PI was lower than 4.1% in both types of subjects. Therefore, there is a high level of resistance (>73% to Efavirenz/Nevirapine, Lamivudine and Azidothymidine in ARV drug-experienced subjects, and an intermediate to high level of resistance (5-10% to Efavirenz/Nevirapine in ARV drug-naïve subjects. During the study period, we observed an increasing trend in the prevalence of ADR-CRM in subjects under first-line schemes, but not significant changes in the prevalence of SDRM. These results reinforce the paramount importance of a national surveillance system of ADR-CRM and SDRM for national management policies of subjects living with HIV.

  13. HIV-1 Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Mutations in Treatment Naïve and Experienced Panamanian Subjects: Impact on National Use of EFV-Based Schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Yaxelis; Castillo Mewa, Juan; Martínez, Alexander A; Zaldívar, Yamitzel; Sosa, Néstor; Arteaga, Griselda; Armién, Blas; Bautista, Christian T; García-Morales, Claudia; Tapia-Trejo, Daniela; Ávila-Ríos, Santiago; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo; Bello, Gonzalo; Pascale, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    The use of antiretroviral therapy in HIV infected subjects prevents AIDS-related illness and delayed occurrence of death. In Panama, rollout of ART started in 1999 and national coverage has reached 62.8% since then. The objective of this study was to determine the level and patterns of acquired drug resistance mutations of clinical relevance (ADR-CRM) and surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRMs) from 717 HIV-1 pol gene sequences obtained from 467 ARV drug-experienced and 250 ARV drug-naïve HIV-1 subtypes B infected subjects during 2007-2013, respectively. The overall prevalence of SDRM and of ADR-CRM during the study period was 9.2% and 87.6%, respectively. The majority of subjects with ADR-CRM had a pattern of mutations that confer resistance to at least two classes of ARV inhibitors. The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutations K103N and P225H were more prevalent in both ARV drug-naïve and ARV drug-experienced subjects. The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) mutation M184V was more frequent in ARV drug-experienced individuals, while T215YFrev and M41L were more frequent in ARV drug-naïve subjects. Prevalence of mutations associated to protease inhibitors (PI) was lower than 4.1% in both types of subjects. Therefore, there is a high level of resistance (>73%) to Efavirenz/Nevirapine, Lamivudine and Azidothymidine in ARV drug-experienced subjects, and an intermediate to high level of resistance (5-10%) to Efavirenz/Nevirapine in ARV drug-naïve subjects. During the study period, we observed an increasing trend in the prevalence of ADR-CRM in subjects under first-line schemes, but not significant changes in the prevalence of SDRM. These results reinforce the paramount importance of a national surveillance system of ADR-CRM and SDRM for national management policies of subjects living with HIV.

  14. HIV-1 Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Mutations in Treatment Naïve and Experienced Panamanian Subjects: Impact on National Use of EFV-Based Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Yaxelis; Castillo Mewa, Juan; Martínez, Alexander A.; Zaldívar, Yamitzel; Sosa, Néstor; Arteaga, Griselda; Armién, Blas; Bautista, Christian T.; García-Morales, Claudia; Tapia-Trejo, Daniela; Ávila-Ríos, Santiago; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo; Bello, Gonzalo; Pascale, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    The use of antiretroviral therapy in HIV infected subjects prevents AIDS-related illness and delayed occurrence of death. In Panama, rollout of ART started in 1999 and national coverage has reached 62.8% since then. The objective of this study was to determine the level and patterns of acquired drug resistance mutations of clinical relevance (ADR-CRM) and surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRMs) from 717 HIV-1 pol gene sequences obtained from 467 ARV drug-experienced and 250 ARV drug-naïve HIV-1 subtypes B infected subjects during 2007–2013, respectively. The overall prevalence of SDRM and of ADR-CRM during the study period was 9.2% and 87.6%, respectively. The majority of subjects with ADR-CRM had a pattern of mutations that confer resistance to at least two classes of ARV inhibitors. The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutations K103N and P225H were more prevalent in both ARV drug-naïve and ARV drug-experienced subjects. The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) mutation M184V was more frequent in ARV drug-experienced individuals, while T215YFrev and M41L were more frequent in ARV drug-naïve subjects. Prevalence of mutations associated to protease inhibitors (PI) was lower than 4.1% in both types of subjects. Therefore, there is a high level of resistance (>73%) to Efavirenz/Nevirapine, Lamivudine and Azidothymidine in ARV drug-experienced subjects, and an intermediate to high level of resistance (5–10%) to Efavirenz/Nevirapine in ARV drug-naïve subjects. During the study period, we observed an increasing trend in the prevalence of ADR-CRM in subjects under first-line schemes, but not significant changes in the prevalence of SDRM. These results reinforce the paramount importance of a national surveillance system of ADR-CRM and SDRM for national management policies of subjects living with HIV. PMID:27119150

  15. Broadband Sound Administration Improves Sleep Onset Latency in Healthy Subjects in a Model of Transient Insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Ludovico Messineo; Ludovico Messineo; Ludovico Messineo; Luigi Taranto-Montemurro; Scott A. Sands; Scott A. Sands; Melania D. Oliveira Marques; Melania D. Oliveira Marques; Ali Azabarzin; David Andrew Wellman

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundInsomnia is a major public health problem in western countries. Previous small pilot studies showed that the administration of constant white noise can improve sleep quality, increase acoustic arousal threshold, and reduce sleep onset latency. In this randomized controlled trial, we tested the effect of surrounding broadband sound administration on sleep onset latency, sleep architecture, and subjective sleep quality in healthy subjects.MethodsEighteen healthy subjects were studied ...

  16. Diagrams for fast transient conduction in sphere and long cylinder subject to sudden and violent thermal effects on its surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bairi, Abderrahmane; Laraqi, Najib [Universite Paris-10, GTE Lab. d' Energetique et d' Economie d' Energie, Ville d' Avray, 92 (France)

    2003-08-01

    Analytical solutions for fast transient conduction in spherical and cylindrical geometries subject to sudden and violent thermal effects on its surface are presented in this paper. The numerical solutions are presented in the form of simple diagrams that can be easily and readily used in some engineering applications such as aeronautics, electronics, fire dynamics, tribology, metallurgy or food and agricultural technologies. These data are useful for the optimization of numerical codes in fluid mechanics in association with heat transfer and inverse methods for the determination of thermal characteristics of the surface phenomena in various cases. These diagrams are for specific ranges of Fo and Bi numbers corresponding to the fast transient problems characterized by weak Fourier numbers, associated with a large combination of dimensions of the body and values of thermal surface conductance (large range of Bi). These diagrams constitute a special implementation (violent and sudden thermal effects) of the well known Heisler's charts and are very useful for understanding and teaching transient heat transfer. A numerical solution is proposed. It overcomes the problems due to a too slow convergence. The main difficulty is encountered when solving characteristic equations based on a combination of the parameters involved in the particular equations of temperature and energy. That may take asymptotic values for the specific phenomenon addressed in this study. The results are successfully compared to those based on a different calculation procedure. (Author)

  17. Diagrams for fast transient conduction in sphere and long cylinder subject to sudden and violent thermal effects on its surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baieri, Abderrahmane; Laraqi, Najib

    2003-08-01

    Analytical solutions for fast transient conduction in spherical and cylindrical geometries subject to sudden and violent thermal effects on its surface are presented in this paper. The numerical solutions are presented in the form of simple diagrams that can be easily and readily used in some engineering applications such as aeronautics, electronics, fire dynamics, tribology, metallurgy or food and agricultural technologies. These data are useful for the optimization of numerical codes in fluid mechanics in association with heat transfer and inverse methods for the determination of thermal characteristics of the surface phenomena in various cases. These diagrams are for specific ranges of Fo and Bi numbers corresponding to the fast transient problems characterized by weak Fourier numbers, associated with a large combination of dimensions of the body and values of thermal surface conductance (large range of Bi). These diagrams constitute a special implementation (violent and sudden thermal effects) of the well known Heisler's charts and are very useful for understanding and teaching transient heat transfer. A numerical solution is proposed. It overcomes the problems due to a too slow convergence. The main difficulty is encountered when solving characteristic equations based on a combination of the parameters involved in the particular equations of temperature and energy. That may take asymptotic values for the specific phenomenon addressed in this study. The results are successfully compared to those based on a different calculation procedure.

  18. Calculation of a Tunnel Cross Section Subjected to Fire – with a New Advanced Transient Concrete Model for Reinforced Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Schneider

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the structural application of a new thermal induced strain model for concrete – the TIS-Model. An advanced transient concrete model (ATCM is applied with the material model of the TIS-Model. The non-linear model comprises thermal strain, elastic strain, plastic strain and transient temperature strains, and load history modelling of restraint concrete structures subjected to fire.The calculations by finite element analysis (FEA were done using the SAFIR structural code. The FEA software was basically new with respect to the material modelling derived to use the new TIS-Model (as a transient model considers thermal induced strain. The equations of the ATCM consider a lot of capabilities, especially for considering irreversible effects of temperature on some material properties. By considering the load history during heating up, increasing load bearing capacity may be obtained due to higher stiffness of the concrete. With this model, it is possible to apply the thermal-physical behaviour of material laws for calculation of structures under extreme temperature conditions.A tunnel cross section designed and built by the cut and cover method is calculated with a tunnel fire curve. The results are compared with the results of a calculation with the model of the Eurocode 2 (EC2-Model. The effect of load history in highly loaded structures under fire load will be investigated.A comparison of this model with the ordinary calculation system of Eurocode 2 (EC2 shows that a better evaluation of the safety level was achieved with the new model. This opens a space for optimizing concrete structure design with transient temperature conditions up to 1000 °C. 

  19. Prevalence and Predictors of Significant Fibrosis Among Subjects with Transient Elastography-Defined Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Won; Kim, Beom Kyung; Kim, Seung Up; Park, Jun Yong; Kim, Do Young; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kwang Joon; Han, Kwang-Hyub

    2017-08-01

    Transient elastography (TE) can be used to assess the degree of liver fibrosis and steatosis. We investigated the prevalence and predictors of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with or without significant liver fibrosis in the general population. A total of 3033 subjects without alcoholic or chronic viral liver diseases who underwent a medical health check-up including TE were recruited from April 2013 to August 2014. TE-defined NAFLD was defined as a controlled attenuation parameter of ≥250 dB/m, and significant liver fibrosis was defined as a liver stiffness (LS) value of ≥8 kPa. Overall, 1178 (42.9%) subjects had NAFLD. Subjects with NAFLD had significantly higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and a higher prevalence of parameters related to metabolic syndrome, such as high blood pressure, a high body mass index (BMI), glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia than did subjects without NAFLD (all P liver fibrosis was identified in 60 (5.1%) subjects with NAFLD, and its independent predictors were age [odds ratio (OR) 1.054], ALT level (OR 1.019), BMI (OR 1.217), and diabetes (OR 1.987) (all P liver fibrosis. The risk factors found in this study can help identify which subjects with NAFLD are vulnerable to fibrosis progression.

  20. Motivation for choosing teaching as a career - the perspective of pre-service teachers, novices and experienced subject teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since motivation for choosing the teaching profession figures as one of the most important determinants of the successfulness of teachers and even their students, this paper is aimed at investigating the factors of choosing teaching as a career. For that purpose, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the students of “teacher training” faculties, novices and subject teachers with more than five years of work experience (N=76. Thematic analysis was used to identify nine categories of motivational factors: Working with young people (the desire to have a dynamic and creative job in the surroundings of young people, Influence on students (the motivation to exert influence on students’ socio-emotional development, values and education, Dealing with the subject (the motivation for dealing with the science that the person studied, Class teacher/Teacher/Parents as a role model (the motivation stemming from the influence of significant others, Lecturing (the desire to “transfer knowledge”, Lifelong learning (the desire for permanent learning in different fields, Working hours and holidays (the motivation due to working hours and holidays, Fit with the abilities (the desire to realise the “naturally given” abilities and Reputation (the desire to be appreciated in the society. In keeping with the results of other studies, it has been found that altruistic motivation for the choice of teaching as a career is dominant, while extrinsic motivation is least present. The findings are interpreted in the light of the current models of motivation for choosing teaching as a career and the characteristics of teachers’ education and status in Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018: Identifikacija, merenje i razvoj kognitivnih i emocionalnih kompetencija važnih društvu orijentisanom na evropske integracije

  1. Optimization Design of Structures Subjected to Transient Loads Using First and Second Derivatives of Dynamic Displacement and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qimao Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper developed an effective optimization method, i.e., gradient-Hessian matrix-based method or second order method, of frame structures subjected to the transient loads. An algorithm of first and second derivatives of dynamic displacement and stress with respect to design variables is formulated based on the Newmark method. The inequality time-dependent constraint problem is converted into a sequence of appropriately formed time-independent unconstrained problems using the integral interior point penalty function method. The gradient and Hessian matrixes of the integral interior point penalty functions are also computed. Then the Marquardt's method is employed to solve unconstrained problems. The numerical results show that the optimal design method proposed in this paper can obtain the local optimum design of frame structures and sometimes is more efficient than the augmented Lagrange multiplier method.

  2. Differences in self-reported importance of elements of health and subjectively experienced health among outpatients in community mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jormfeldt, Henrika; Hansson, Lars; Svensson, Bengt

    2011-10-01

    Positive dimensions of mental health are strong protective factors against physical and mental illness in general population. A cross-sectional study including a randomly selected sample of 141 outpatients was performed to explore differences in patients' self-reported importance of elements of health and subjective experiences of health related to sociodemographic background variables. The examination of differences in self-reported importance of elements of health showed differences regarding gender, and the analyses of subjectively experienced health showed differences regarding age and diagnosis. Clinical interventions aiming at strengthening positive dimensions of health are required in community mental health services to meet the patients' individual needs of enhanced health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Interaction of linear and angular vestibulo-ocular reflexes of human subjects in response to transient motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasopoulos, D; Gianna, C C; Bronstein, A M; Gresty, M A

    1996-08-01

    The possibility of synergistic interaction between the canal and otolith components of the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) was evaluated in human subjects by subtracting the response to pure angular rotation (AVOR) from the response to combined angular and translational motion (ALVOR) and comparing this difference with the VOR to isolated linear motion (LVOR). Assessments were made with target fixation at 60 cm and in darkness. Linear stimuli were acceleration steps attaining 0.25 g in less than 80 ms. To elicit responses to combined translational and angular head movements, the subjects were seated on a Barany chair with the head displaced forwards 40 cm from the axis of rotation. The chair was accelerated at approximately 300 deg/s2 to 127 deg/s peak angular velocity, the tangential acceleration of the head being comparable with that of isolated translation. Estimates of the contribution of smooth pursuit to responses in the light were made from comparisons of isolated pursuit of similar target trajectories. In the dark the slow phase eye movements evoked by combined canal-otolith stimuli were higher in magnitude by approximately a third than the sum of those produced by translation and rotation alone. In the light, the relative target displacement during isolated linear motion was similar to the difference in relative target displacements during eccentric and centred rotation. However, the gain of the translational component of compensatory eye movement during combined translational and angular motion was approximately unity, in contrast to the gain of the response to isolated linear motion, which was approximately a half. Pursuit performance was always poorer than target following during self-motion. The LVOR responses in the light were greater than the sum of the LVOR responses in the dark with pursuit eye movements. We conclude that, in response to transient motion, there is a synergistic enhancement of the translational VOR with concurrent canal

  4. Experiencing control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monaci, G.; Braspenning, R.A.C.; Meerbeek, B.W.; Bingley, P.; Rajagopalan, R.; Triki, M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the activities carried out in the first part of the Experiencing Control project (2008-324). The guiding idea of the project is to make control part of the experience, exploring new interaction solutions for complex, engaging interactions with Philips devices in the living

  5. Experiencing variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, Sofie; Berge, Maria; Grout, Brian William Wilson

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes towards a better understanding of learning dynamics in doctoral supervision by analysing how learning opportunities are created in the interaction between supervisors and PhD students, using the notion of experiencing variation as a key to learning. Empirically, we have bas...... were discussed, created more complex patterns of variation. Both PhD students and supervisors can learn from this. Understanding of this mechanism that creates learning opportunities can help supervisors develop their competences in supervisory pedagogy....

  6. Strain and thermally induced magnetic dynamics and spin current in magnetic insulators subject to transient optical grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi-Guang; Chotorlishvili, Levan; Berakdar, Jamal

    2017-07-01

    We analyze the magnetic dynamics and particularlythe spin current in an open-circuit ferromagnetic insulator irradiated by two intense, phase-locked laser pulses. The interference of the laser beams generates a transient optical grating and a transient spatio-temporal temperature distribution. Both effects lead to elastic and heat waves at the surface and into the bulk of the sample. The strain induced spin current as well as the thermally induced magnonic spin current are evaluated numerically on the basis of micromagnetic simulations using solutions of the heat equation. We observe that the thermo-elastically induced magnonic spin current propagates on a distance larger than the characteristic size of thermal profile, an effect useful for applications in remote detection of spin caloritronics phenomena. Our findings point out that exploiting strain adds a new twist to heat-assisted magnetic switching and spin-current generation for spintronic applications.

  7. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  8. High-Sequence Diversity and Rapid Virus Turnover Contribute to Higher Rates of Coreceptor Switching in Treatment-Experienced Subjects with HIV-1 Viremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedellec, Rebecca; Herbeck, Joshua T; Hunt, Peter W; Deeks, Steven G; Mullins, James I; Anton, Elizabeth D; Reeves, Jacqueline D; Mosier, Donald E

    2017-03-01

    Coreceptor switching from CCR5 to CXCR4 is common during chronic HIV-1 infection, but is even more common in individuals who have failed antiretroviral therapy (ART). Prior studies have suggested rapid mutation and/or recombination of HIV-1 envelope (env) genes during coreceptor switching. We compared the functional and genotypic changes in env of viruses from viremic subjects who had failed ART just before and after coreceptor switching and compared those to viruses from matched subjects without coreceptor switching. Analysis of multiple unique functional env clones from each subject revealed extensive diversity at both sample time points and rapid diversification of sequences during the 4-month interval in viruses from both 9 subjects with coreceptor switching and 15 control subjects. Only two subjects had envs with evidence of recombination. Three findings distinguished env clones from subjects with coreceptor switching from controls: (1) lower entry efficiency via CCR5; (2) longer V1/V2 regions; and (3), lower nadir CD4 T cell counts during prior years of infection. Most of these subjects harbored virus with lower replicative capacity associated with protease (PR) and/or reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutations, and the extensive diversification tended to lead either to improved entry efficiency via CCR5 or the gain of entry function via CXCR4. These results suggest that R5X4 or X4 variants emerge from a diverse, low-fitness landscape shaped by chronic infection, multiple ART resistance mutations, the availability of target cells, and reduced entry efficiency via CCR5.

  9. Secukinumab efficacy in anti-TNF-naive and anti-TNF-experienced subjects with active ankylosing spondylitis: results from the MEASURE 2 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieper, Joachim; Deodhar, Atul; Marzo-Ortega, Helena; Aelion, Jacob A; Blanco, Ricardo; Jui-Cheng, Tseng; Andersson, Mats; Porter, Brian; Richards, Hanno B

    2017-03-01

    There is significant unmet need in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) who have inadequate response or intolerance to anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) treatment. Secukinumab, an anti-interleukin-17A monoclonal antibody, significantly improved signs and symptoms of AS in the MEASURE 2 study (NCT01649375). Subjects with active AS (N=219) received secukinumab (150 or 75 mg) or placebo at baseline, weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4, and every 4 weeks thereafter. Randomisation was stratified by prior anti-TNF use: anti-TNF-naive or inadequate response/intolerance to one anti-TNF (anti-TNF-IR). The primary endpoint was Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society criteria (ASAS) 20 at week 16. At week 16, 68.2% of anti-TNF-naive subjects treated with secukinumab 150 mg achieved ASAS20 compared with 31.1% treated with placebo (pTNF-IR group, 50.0% of subjects treated with secukinumab 150 mg achieved an ASAS20 response compared with 24.1% treated with placebo (pTNF-naive and anti-TNF-IR subjects through 52 weeks of therapy. NCT01649375. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. [Socio-demographic characteristics, subjective well-being, and homophobia experienced by a sample of gay men from three cities in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos-Delgado, Jaime; Cárdenas-Castro, Manuel; Gómez-Ojeda, Fabiola

    2014-06-01

    This article describes the socio-demographic characteristics of a sample of gay men in three cities in Chile, as well as experience with homophobia and subjective well-being. Snowball sampling was used to interview 325 gay men. The main findings included high levels of perceived discrimination and victimization, but interviewees reported higher levels of social well-being compared to studies elsewhere in the country. Age was related to differences in levels of social well-being, but not other variables. Individuals with university education reported higher levels of victimization and greater impact of discrimination on their lives. Gay men in Santiago reported a higher relative impact from incidents of aggression, but better levels of social well-being and happiness compared to those in other regions of Chile.

  11. Subjective discomfort in children receiving 3 T MRI and experienced adults' perspective on children's tolerability of 7 T: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I-Jun; Tench, Christopher R; Gowland, Penny; Jaspan, Tim; Dineen, Rob A; Evangelou, Nikos; Abdel-Fahim, Rasha; Whitehouse, William P; Constantinescu, Cris S

    2014-10-15

    To explore the possible discomfort perceived by children participating in 7 T MRI research, and the age range in which children are most likely to tolerate it well. A cross-sectional survey using age-appropriate questionnaires containing six measures of subjective discomfort (general discomfort, dizziness, noisiness, claustrophobia and feeling of cold or warm). For children, 3 T clinical scanner in a tertiary referral teaching hospital; for adults, 3 and 7 T scanner in a university research building. Non-sedated children and young people under 18 years of age who underwent 3 T clinical MRI for brain or musculoskeletal scans and adult volunteers attending 7 T with or without 3 T for brain scans. 83% (89/107) of involved individuals returned questionnaires. The most common discomfort among 31 children receiving 3 T MRI was noisiness (39%), followed by cold (19%), general discomfort (16%), dizziness (13%) and claustrophobia (10%). The noise was reported more frequently in children younger than 12 years than those older (p=0.021). The most common discomfort for 58 adults receiving 7 T MRI was noisiness (43%). In adults, there was a higher frequency of general discomfort during 7 than 3 T scans (p=0.031). More than 85% of adult respondents thought children aged 12-17 years would tolerate 7 T scans well, but only 35% and 15% thought children aged 10-11 and 8-9 years, respectively, would. Noisiness was the most common discomfort across all ages in 3 and 7 T scanners. Although general discomfort was more common during 7 than 3 T scans in adults, most adults thought children aged 12 years or more would tolerate 7 T MRI well. Cautious enrolment of children in 7 T MRI study is warranted, but until there is more evidence of how well those aged 12 years or more tolerate 7 T MRI, we would caution against enrolling younger children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  12. Randomized placebo-controlled study of the safety, tolerability, antiviral activity, and pharmacokinetics of 10-day monotherapy with BMS-986001, a novel HIV NRTI, in treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotte, Laurent; Dellamonica, Pierre; Raffi, Francois; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Molina, Jean-Michel; Boué, François; Urata, Yasuo; Chan, H Phyllis; Zhu, Li; Chang, Ih; Bertz, Richard; Hanna, George J; Grasela, Dennis M; Hwang, Carey

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and antiviral activity of BMS-986001 (a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor) in treatment-experienced, HIV-1-infected subjects not exposed to antiretroviral treatment in the previous 3 months. Thirty-two HIV-1-infected subjects were randomized (3:1) to receive BMS-986001 or placebo once daily for 10 days in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating monotherapy phase IIa study. There were 4 treatment groups (100, 200, 300, and 600 mg, all once daily) of 8 subjects each (BMS-986001, n = 6/placebo n = 2). BMS-986001 was generally well tolerated, with no discontinuations due to adverse events and no deaths occurring. Adverse events were experienced by 22 of 24 BMS-986001-treated subjects and did not seem to be dose related. The majority were mild and considered unrelated or unlikely to be related to the study drug. The pharmacokinetics of BMS-986001 were dose proportional. Median decrease in plasma HIV-1 RNA from baseline to day 11 was 0.97, 1.15, 1.28, and 1.15 log10 copies/mL for BMS-986001 at 100, 200, 300, and 600 mg, respectively. Plasma area under the curve correlated with the antiviral activity of BMS-986001, indicating that area under the curves produced by 100-600 mg doses were on the upper end of the exposure-response curve. One subject with a single thymidine analog mutation at baseline responded well to BMS-986001. Administration of BMS-986001 for 10 days resulted in substantial decreases in plasma HIV-1 RNA levels for all dose groups and was generally well tolerated. These data support continued clinical development of BMS-986001 at a dose of 100 mg, once daily or greater. EUDRACT Number 2008-004810-29.

  13. Time-domain parameter identification of aeroelastic loads by forced-vibration method for response of flexible structures subject to transient wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bochao

    Slender structures representing civil, mechanical and aerospace systems such as long-span bridges, high-rise buildings, stay cables, power-line cables, high light mast poles, crane-booms and aircraft wings could experience vortex-induced and buffeting excitations below their design wind speeds and divergent self-excited oscillations (flutter) beyond a critical wind speed because these are flexible. Traditional linear aerodynamic theories that are routinely applied for their response prediction are not valid in the galloping, or near-flutter regime, where large-amplitude vibrations could occur and during non-stationary and transient wind excitations that occur, for example, during hurricanes, thunderstorms and gust fronts. The linear aerodynamic load formulation for lift, drag and moment are expressed in terms of aerodynamic functions in frequency domain that are valid for straight-line winds which are stationary or weakly-stationary. Application of the frequency domain formulation is restricted from use in the nonlinear and transient domain because these are valid for linear models and stationary wind. The time-domain aerodynamic force formulations are suitable for finite element modeling, feedback-dependent structural control mechanism, fatigue-life prediction, and above all modeling of transient structural behavior during non-stationary wind phenomena. This has motivated the developing of time-domain models of aerodynamic loads that are in parallel to the existing frequency-dependent models. Parameters defining these time-domain models can be now extracted from wind tunnel tests, for example, the Rational Function Coefficients defining the self-excited wind loads can be extracted using section model tests using the free vibration technique. However, the free vibration method has some limitations because it is difficult to apply at high wind speeds, in turbulent wind environment, or on unstable cross sections with negative aerodynamic damping. In the current

  14. Finite-element nonlinear transient response computer programs PLATE 1 and CIVM-PLATE 1 for the analysis of panels subjected to impulse or impact loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, R. L.; Witmer, E. A.; French, S. E.; Rodal, J. J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Two computer programs are described for predicting the transient large deflection elastic viscoplastic responses of thin single layer, initially flat unstiffened or integrally stiffened, Kirchhoff-Lov ductile metal panels. The PLATE 1 program pertains to structural responses produced by prescribed externally applied transient loading or prescribed initial velocity distributions. The collision imparted velocity method PLATE 1 program concerns structural responses produced by impact of an idealized nondeformable fragment. Finite elements are used to represent the structure in both programs. Strain hardening and strain rate effects of initially isotropic material are considered.

  15. Transient quasi-static thermal stresses in a bar subject to transverse 2D-Gaussian heating and to lateral cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Péraire, S

    1999-01-01

    Many of the CERN secondary-particle production targets are plate shaped, and intercept a centred 'slow' extracted (order of ms) primary beam, which heats the material. This heat distribution can be modelled as Gaussian profiles in both the horizontal and vertical transverse planes. Modern techniques such as finite element methods provide fast and reliable analyses of the transient thermal and mechanical response of such a 'slow' process (no dynamic effects). However, it is of interest to compare these results wih those obtained by simplified anlytical calculations which, moreover, allow an easier optimisation of the various geometrical and physical parameters.

  16. Comparison of the Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions (TEOAEs) and Distortion Products Otoacoustic Emissions (DPOAEs) in Normal Hearing Subjects With and Without Tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadi, Maryam; Rezaei, Mohammad; Najafi, Sirvan; Faramarzi, Ali; Farahani, Farhad

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of cochlear outer hair cell function with TEOAE and DPOAE tests in patients with normal hearing and tinnitus. 25 tinnitus patients with normal hearing sensitivity selected as study group. Control group consist of 50 normal hearing subjects without tinnitus. All subjects had thresholds below 25 dBHL at frequencies 250-8,000 Hz, tympanogram type A and normal acoustic reflex thresholds. TEOAE were recorded with click stimulus at 80 dB SPL at 1,000, 2,000, 3,000 and 4000 Hz. DPOAE were measured at frequencies 1,000-8,000 Hz and intensity of L1 55 dB SPL and L2 65 dB SPL. Amplitude of DPOAE and TEOAE were decreased in all frequencies in study group. There was significant difference regarding prevalence abnormal TEOAE and DPOAE between study group and control group. There was relationship between dysfunction of outer hair cells and tinnitus in subjects with normal hearing.

  17. Instructions for the use of the CIVM-Jet 4C finite-strain computer code to calculate the transient structural responses of partial and/or complete arbitrarily-curved rings subjected to fragment impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodal, J. J. A.; French, S. E.; Witmer, E. A.; Stagliano, T. R.

    1979-01-01

    The CIVM-JET 4C computer program for the 'finite strain' analysis of 2 d transient structural responses of complete or partial rings and beams subjected to fragment impact stored on tape as a series of individual files. Which subroutines are found in these files are described in detail. All references to the CIVM-JET 4C program are made assuming that the user has a copy of NASA CR-134907 (ASRL TR 154-9) which serves as a user's guide to (1) the CIVM-JET 4B computer code and (2) the CIVM-JET 4C computer code 'with the use of the modified input instructions' attached hereto.

  18. Are you experienced?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael Slavensky; Reichstein, Toke

    . We also find that spin-offs from parent companies that exit are less likely to survive than either spin-offs from surviving parents or other start-ups. These findings support the theoretical arguments that organizational heritage is important for the survival of new organizations. We found no similar...... ranked members of start-ups prior to their founding, and follow the fate of these firms. More specifically, we compare the survival of spin-offs from surviving parents, spin-offs from exiting parents, and other start-ups. Moreover, we investigate whether firms managed and founded by more experienced...... teams with higher levels of industry-specific experience are more likely to survive. Distinguishing between survivors and firms that have been acquired, we find that spin-offs from a surviving parent company combined with and industry-specific experience, positively affects the likelihood of survival...

  19. Soccer kick kinematic differences between experienced and non-experienced soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz López, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to examine kinematic differences of instep soccer kick between experienced and non-experienced soccer players. Subjects: 17 men between 17 and 21 years old. Methodology: a 3D film system with 4 cameras was used. Maximum power instep kicks were executed. It was analyzed feet velocity in the impact, maximum hip extension, maximum knee flexion and kick phases duration. Results: were found significant differences in feet velocity with non-dominant leg in the impact moment (m/s (Experienced: 14.5±.52, Non-experienced: 12.5±.5; p<.001 and maximum hip extension (degrees (Experienced: 39.2 ± 1.3, Non-experienced: 34.28±3.2; p<.001. Also were significant differences in the second phase duration in both legs (p<.05. Conclusions: Maximum instep soccer kick show significant differences between groups of different level only in non-dominant leg.

  20. Insulin degludec/insulin aspart versus biphasic insulin aspart 30 twice daily in insulin-experienced Japanese subjects with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes: Subgroup analysis of a Pan-Asian, treat-to-target Phase 3 Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneda, Shinji; Hyllested-Winge, Jacob; Gall, Mari-Anne; Kaneko, Shizuka; Hirao, Koichi

    2017-03-01

    The present study was a subgroup analysis of a Pan-Asian Phase 3 open-label randomized treat-to-target trial evaluating insulin degludec/insulin aspart (IDegAsp) and biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30) in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on insulin. Eligible subjects (n = 178) were randomized (2: 1) to twice-daily (b.i.d.) IDegAsp or BIAsp 30 with or without metformin for 26 weeks, titrated to a blood glucose target of between 3.9 and <5.0 mmol/L. Changes in HbA1c , the proportion of responders reaching the HbA1c target, and changes in fasting plasma glucose, nine-point self-monitored plasma glucose profiles, and body weight were assessed. At 26 weeks, the decrease in HbA1c was similar in both groups. Fasting plasma glucose was lower with IDegAsp than BIAsp 30 (estimated treatment difference -1.50 mmol/L; 95 % confidence interval [CI] -1.98, -1.01). Overall confirmed hypoglycemia rates were similar; the nocturnal confirmed hypoglycemia rate was lower with IDegAsp than BIAsp 30 (estimated rate ratio 0.44; 95 % CI 0.20, 0.99). No severe hypoglycemic episodes were reported. The results indicate that IDegAsp b.i.d. improves glycemic control and, compared with BIAsp 30, lowers the rate of nocturnal confirmed hypoglycemia. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes published John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd and Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine.

  1. Types of Stresses Experienced by Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzella, Bernadette M.; And Others

    This study was conducted to examine the types of stresses experienced by professionals. Subjects were 56 persons enrolled in graduate classes who completed the Tennessee Stress Scale-L, Work Related Stress Inventory for Professionals. Besides the Total stress score, the instrument produced three subscale scores: Stress Producers, Coping…

  2. Reactor transient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menegus, R.L.

    1956-05-31

    The authors are planning a calculation to be done on the Univac at the Louviers Building to estimate the effect of xenon transients, a high reactor power. This memorandum outlines the reasons why they prefer to do the work at Louviers rather than at another location, such as N.Y.U. They are to calculate the response of the reactor to a sudden change in position of the half rods. Qualitatively, the response will be a change in the rooftop ratio of the neutron flux. The rooftop ratio may oscillate with high damping, or, instead, it may oscillate for many cycles. It has not been possible for them to determine this response by hand calculation because of the complexity of the problem, and yet it is important for them to be certain that high power operation will not lead us to inherently unstable operation. Therefore they have resorted to machine computation. The system of differential equations that describes the response has seven dependent variables; therefore there are seven equations, each coupled with one or more of the others. The authors have discussed the problem with R.R. Haefner at the plant, and it is his opinion that the IBM 650 cannot adequately handle the system of seven equations because the characteristic time constants vary over a range of about 10{sup 8}. The Univac located at the Louviers Building is said to be satisfactory for this computation.

  3. Transient tachypnea - newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    TTN; Wet lungs - newborns; Retained fetal lung fluid; Transient RDS; Prolonged transition; Neonatal - transient tachypnea ... Newborns with transient tachypnea have breathing problems soon after birth, most often within 1 to 2 hours. ...

  4. Preparing Empirical Methodologies to Examine Enactive Subjects Experiencing Musical Emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Justin

    2016-01-01

    in listeners. Many of these theories search for universal emotional essences and cause-and-effect relationships that often result in erasing the body from these experiences. Still, after reducing these emotional responses to discrete categories or localized brain functions, these theories have not been very...

  5. Deprivation as un-experienced harm?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keerus, Külli; Gjerris, Mickey; Röcklinsberg, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Tom Regan encapsulated his principle of harm as a prima facie direct duty not to harm experiencing subjects of a life. However, his consideration of harm as deprivation, one example of which is loss of freedom, can easily be interpreted as a harm, which may not be experienced by its subject....... This creates a gap between Regan’s criterion for moral status and his account of what our duties are. However, in comparison with three basic paradigms of welfare known in nonhuman animal welfare science, Regan’s understanding coheres with a modified version of a feelings-based paradigm: not only the immediate...... feelings of satisfaction, but also future opportunities to have such feelings, must be taken into account. Such an interpretation is compatible with Regan’s understanding of harm as deprivation. The potential source of confusion, however, lies in Regan’s own possible argumentative mistakes....

  6. Women experiencing the intergenerationality of conjugal violence

    OpenAIRE

    Paixão,Gilvânia Patrícia do Nascimento; Gomes,Nadirlene Pereira; Diniz,Normélia Maria Freire; Lira,Margaret Ollinda de Souza Carvalho e; Carvalho,Milca Ramaiane da Silva; Silva,Rudval Souza da

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to analyze the family relationship, in childhood and adolescence, of women who experience conjugal violence. Method: qualitative study. Interviews were held with 19 women, who were experiencing conjugal violence, and who were resident in a community in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (N. 42/2011). Results: the data was organized using the Discourse of the Collective Subject, identifying the summary central ideas: they witnessed vio...

  7. Current interruption transients calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Peelo, David F

    2014-01-01

    Provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins, and the circuits involved, and how they can be calculated Current Interruption Transients Calculationis a comprehensive resource for the understanding, calculation and analysis of the transient recovery voltages (TRVs) and related re-ignition or re-striking transients associated with fault current interruption and the switching of inductive and capacitive load currents in circuits. This book provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins,

  8. Experiencing sexuality after intestinal stoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Boccara de Paula

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Identify the Social Representations (SR of ostomized people in terms of sexuality after the stoma. METHODS: An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study using the Social Representation Theory with 15 ostomized people (8 females, mean age of 57.9 years, between August and September 2005. Data obtained from transcribed interviews were submitted to content analysis, resulting in the thematic unit "Giving new meaning to sexuality" and subthemes. RESULTS: The study demonstrated that the intestinal stoma interferes in the sexuality experience, showing that the meanings attributed to this experience are based on individual life stories, quality of personal relationships established in practice and perception of sexuality, despite the stoma. CONCLUSIONS: The Social Representations, in terms of experiencing sexuality after the stoma, are based on meanings attributed to the body, associated with daily life and present in the social imaginary. It is influenced by other factors, such as physiological changes resulting from the surgery and the fact of having or not a partner. Care taken during sexual practices provide greater security and comfort in moments of intimacy, resembling the closest to what ostomized people experienced before the stoma. The self-irrigation technique associated or not with the use of artificial occluder, has been attested by its users as a positive element that makes a difference in sexual practice after the stoma. The support to ostomized people should be comprehensive, not limited to technical care and disease, which are important, but not sufficient. The interdisciplinary health team should consider all aspects of the person, seeking a real meeting between subjects.OBJETIVO: Identificar as Representações Sociais (RS da pessoa estomizada intestinal sobre vivência da sexualidade após confecção do estoma. MÉTODOS: Estudo exploratório, descritivo, qualitativo do ponto de vista do referencial da Representa

  9. Transient Global Amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sudden memory loss. Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic Causes The underlying cause of transient global amnesia is unknown. There appears to be a link between transient global amnesia and a history of migraines, though the underlying factors that contribute ...

  10. Transient drainage summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes the history of transient drainage issues on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. It defines and describes the UMTRA Project disposal cell transient drainage process and chronicles UMTRA Project treatment of the transient drainage phenomenon. Section 4.0 includes a conceptual cross section of each UMTRA Project disposal site and summarizes design and construction information, the ground water protection strategy, and the potential for transient drainage.

  11. PSH Transient Simulation Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-21

    PSH Transient Simulation Modeling presentation from the WPTO FY14 - FY16 Peer Review. Transient effects are an important consideration when designing a PSH system, yet numerical techniques for hydraulic transient analysis still need improvements for adjustable-speed (AS) reversible pump-turbine applications.

  12. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Transient Ischemic Attack TIA , or transient ischemic attack, is a "mini stroke" that occurs when a blood clot blocks an artery for a short time. The only ... TIA is that with TIA the blockage is transient (temporary). TIA symptoms occur rapidly and last a ...

  13. Experiencing Security in Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Niels Raabjerg; Bødker, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Security is experienced differently in different contexts. This paper argues that in everyday situations, users base their security decisions on a mix of prior experiences. When approaching security and interaction design from an experience approach, tools that help bring out such relevant...... experiences for design are needed. This paper reports on how Prompted exploration workshops and Acting out security were developed to target such experiences when iteratively designing a mobile digital signature solution in a participatory design process. We discuss how these tools helped the design process...... and illustrate how the tangibility of such tools matters. We further demonstrate how the approach grants access to non-trivial insights into people's security experience. We point out how the specific context is essential for exploring the space between experience and expectations, and we illustrate how people...

  14. The experienced temperature sensitivity and regulation survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Dekker, Kim; Te Lindert, Bart H. W.; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Moens, Sarah; Migliorati, Filippo; Aarts, Emmeke; van der Sluis, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Individuals differ in thermosensitivity, thermoregulation, and zones of thermoneutrality and thermal comfort. Whereas temperature sensing and -effectuating processes occur in part unconsciously and autonomic, awareness of temperature and thermal preferences can affect thermoregulatory behavior as well. Quantification of trait-like individual differences of thermal preferences and experienced temperature sensitivity and regulation is therefore relevant to obtain a complete understanding of human thermophysiology. Whereas several scales have been developed to assess instantaneous appreciation of heat and cold exposure, a comprehensive scale dedicated to assess subjectively experienced autonomic or behavioral thermoregulatory activity has been lacking so far. We constructed a survey that specifically approaches these domains from a trait-like perspective, sampled 240 volunteers across a wide age range, and analyzed the emergent component structure. Participants were asked to report their thermal experiences, captured in 102 questions, on a 7-point bi-directional Likert scale. In a second set of 32 questions, participants were asked to indicate the relative strength of experiences across different body locations. Principal component analyses extracted 21 meaningful dimensions, which were sensitive to sex-differences and age-related changes. The questions were also assessed in a matched sample of 240 people with probable insomnia to evaluate the sensitivity of these dimensions to detect group differences in a case-control design. The dimensions showed marked mean differences between cases and controls. The survey thus has discriminatory value. It can freely be used by anyone interested in studying individual or group differences in thermosensitivity and thermoregulation. PMID:27227080

  15. Transient Tsunamis in Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couston, L.; Mei, C.; Alam, M.

    2013-12-01

    A large number of lakes are surrounded by steep and unstable mountains with slopes prone to failure. As a result, landslides are likely to occur and impact water sitting in closed reservoirs. These rare geological phenomena pose serious threats to dam reservoirs and nearshore facilities because they can generate unexpectedly large tsunami waves. In fact, the tallest wave experienced by contemporary humans occurred because of a landslide in the narrow bay of Lituya in 1958, and five years later, a deadly landslide tsunami overtopped Lake Vajont's dam, flooding and damaging villages along the lakefront and in the Piave valley. If unstable slopes and potential slides are detected ahead of time, inundation maps can be drawn to help people know the risks, and mitigate the destructive power of the ensuing waves. These maps give the maximum wave runup height along the lake's vertical and sloping boundaries, and can be obtained by numerical simulations. Keeping track of the moving shorelines along beaches is challenging in classical Eulerian formulations because the horizontal extent of the fluid domain can change over time. As a result, assuming a solid slide and nonbreaking waves, here we develop a nonlinear shallow-water model equation in the Lagrangian framework to address the problem of transient landslide-tsunamis. In this manner, the shorelines' three-dimensional motion is part of the solution. The model equation is hyperbolic and can be solved numerically by finite differences. Here, a 4th order Runge-Kutta method and a compact finite-difference scheme are implemented to integrate in time and spatially discretize the forced shallow-water equation in Lagrangian coordinates. The formulation is applied to different lake and slide geometries to better understand the effects of the lake's finite lengths and slide's forcing mechanism on the generated wavefield. Specifically, for a slide moving down a plane beach, we show that edge-waves trapped by the shoreline and free

  16. Transient or permanent fisheye views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mikkel Rønne; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    programming environment. Fourteen participants performed varied tasks involving navigation and understanding of source code. Participants used the three interfaces for between four and six hours in all. Time and accuracy measures were inconclusive, but subjective data showed a preference for the permanent......, about the benefits and limitations of transient visualizations. We describe an experiment that compares the usability of a fisheye view that participants could call up temporarily, a permanent fisheye view, and a linear view: all interfaces gave access to source code in the editor of a widespread...

  17. [Transient epileptic amnesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Kazuhiro; Yoshizaki, Takahito

    2016-03-01

    Transient amnesia is one of common clinical phenomenon of epilepsy that are encountered by physicians. The amnestic attacks are often associated with persistent memory disturbances. Epilepsy is common among the elderly, with amnesia as a common symptom and convulsions relatively uncommon. Therefore, amnesia due to epilepsy can easily be misdiagnosed as dementia. The term 'transient epileptic amnesia (TEA)' was introduced in the early 1990s by Kapur, who highlighted that amnestic attacks caused by epilepsy can be similar to those occurring in 'transient global amnesia', but are distinguished by features brevity and recurrence. In 1998, Zeman et al. proposed diagnostic criteria for TEA.

  18. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... TIA , or transient ischemic attack, is a "mini stroke" that occurs when a blood clot blocks an ... a short time. The only difference between a stroke and TIA is that with TIA the blockage ...

  19. Transient tic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... makes 1 or many brief, repeated, movements or noises (tics). These movements or noises are involuntary (not on purpose). Causes Transient tic ... less than a year. Other disorders such as anxiety , attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ), uncontrollable movement ( myoclonus ), ...

  20. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ischemic Attack TIA , or transient ischemic attack, is a "mini stroke" that occurs when a blood clot blocks an artery for a short time. The only difference between a stroke ...

  1. Transient Microcavity Sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Fang-Jie; Özdemir, Şahin Kaya; Yang, Lan; Guo, Guang-Can

    2015-01-01

    A transient and high sensitivity sensor based on high-Q microcavity is proposed and studied theoretically. There are two ways to realize the transient sensor: monitor the spectrum by fast scanning of probe laser frequency or monitor the transmitted light with fixed laser frequency. For both methods, the non-equilibrium response not only tells the ultrafast environment variance, but also enable higher sensitivity. As examples of application, the transient sensor for nanoparticles adhering and passing by the microcavity is studied. It's demonstrated that the transient sensor can sense coupling region, external linear variation together with the speed and the size of a nanoparticle. We believe that our researches will open a door to the fast dynamic sensing by microcavity.

  2. Marketing actions can modulate neural representations of experienced pleasantness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plassmann, Hilke; O'Doherty, John; Shiv, Baba; Rangel, Antonio

    2008-01-22

    Despite the importance and pervasiveness of marketing, almost nothing is known about the neural mechanisms through which it affects decisions made by individuals. We propose that marketing actions, such as changes in the price of a product, can affect neural representations of experienced pleasantness. We tested this hypothesis by scanning human subjects using functional MRI while they tasted wines that, contrary to reality, they believed to be different and sold at different prices. Our results show that increasing the price of a wine increases subjective reports of flavor pleasantness as well as blood-oxygen-level-dependent activity in medial orbitofrontal cortex, an area that is widely thought to encode for experienced pleasantness during experiential tasks. The paper provides evidence for the ability of marketing actions to modulate neural correlates of experienced pleasantness and for the mechanisms through which the effect operates.

  3. Transient multivariable sensor evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilim, Richard B.; Heifetz, Alexander

    2017-02-21

    A method and system for performing transient multivariable sensor evaluation. The method and system includes a computer system for identifying a model form, providing training measurement data, generating a basis vector, monitoring system data from sensor, loading the system data in a non-transient memory, performing an estimation to provide desired data and comparing the system data to the desired data and outputting an alarm for a defective sensor.

  4. Women experiencing the intergenerationality of conjugal violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvânia Patrícia do Nascimento Paixão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the family relationship, in childhood and adolescence, of women who experience conjugal violence.Method: qualitative study. Interviews were held with 19 women, who were experiencing conjugal violence, and who were resident in a community in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (N. 42/2011.Results: the data was organized using the Discourse of the Collective Subject, identifying the summary central ideas: they witnessed violence between their parents; they suffered repercussions from the violence between their parents: they were angry about the mother's submission to her partner; and they reproduced the conjugal violence. The discourse showed that the women witnessed, in childhood and adolescence, violence between their parents, and were injured both physically and psychologically. As a result of the mother's submission, feelings of anger arose in the children. However, in the adult phase of their own lives, they noticed that their conjugal life resembled that of their parents, reproducing the violence.Conclusion: investment is necessary in strategies designed to break inter-generational violence, and the health professionals are important in this process, as it is a phenomenon with repercussions in health. Because they work in the Family Health Strategy, which focuses on the prevention of harm and illness, health promotion and interdepartmentality, the nurses are essential in the process of preventing and confronting this phenomenon.

  5. Women experiencing the intergenerationality of conjugal violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, Gilvânia Patrícia do Nascimento; Gomes, Nadirlene Pereira; Diniz, Normélia Maria Freire; Carvalho e Lira, Margaret Ollinda de Souza; Carvalho, Milca Ramaiane da Silva; da Silva, Rudval Souza

    2015-01-01

    to analyze the family relationship, in childhood and adolescence, of women who experience conjugal violence. qualitative study. Interviews were held with 19 women, who were experiencing conjugal violence, and who were resident in a community in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (N. 42/2011). the data was organized using the Discourse of the Collective Subject, identifying the summary central ideas: they witnessed violence between their parents; they suffered repercussions from the violence between their parents: they were angry about the mother's submission to her partner; and they reproduced the conjugal violence. The discourse showed that the women witnessed, in childhood and adolescence, violence between their parents, and were injured both physically and psychologically. As a result of the mother's submission, feelings of anger arose in the children. However, in the adult phase of their own lives, they noticed that their conjugal life resembled that of their parents, reproducing the violence. investment is necessary in strategies designed to break inter-generational violence, and the health professionals are important in this process, as it is a phenomenon with repercussions in health. Because they work in the Family Health Strategy, which focuses on the prevention of harm and illness, health promotion and interdepartmentality, the nurses are essential in the process of preventing and confronting this phenomenon.

  6. Transient trimethylaminuria related to menstruation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Makiko; Cashman, John R; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Background Trimethylaminuria, or fish odor syndrome, includes a transient or mild malodor caused by an excessive amount of malodorous trimethylamine as a result of body secretions. Herein, we describe data to support the proposal that menses can be an additional factor causing transient trimethylaminuria in self-reported subjects suffering from malodor and even in healthy women harboring functionally active flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3). Methods FMO3 metabolic capacity (conversion of trimethylamine to trimethylamine N-oxide) was defined as the urinary ratio of trimethylamine N-oxide to total trimethylamine. Results Self-reported Case (A) that was homozygous for inactive Arg500stop FMO3, showed decreased metabolic capacity of FMO3 (i.e., ~10% the unaffected metabolic capacity) during 120 days of observation. For Case (B) that was homozygous for common [Glu158Lys; Glu308Gly] FMO3 polymorphisms, metabolic capacity of FMO3 was almost ~90%, except for a few days surrounding menstruation showing 90%) metabolic capacity, however, on days around menstruation the FMO3 metabolic capacity was decreased to ~60–70%. Conclusion Together, these results indicate that abnormal FMO3 capacity is caused by menstruation particularly in the presence, in homozygous form, of mild genetic variants such as [Glu158Lys; Glu308Gly] that cause a reduced FMO3 function. PMID:17257434

  7. Modelling and transient simulation of water flow in pipelines using WANDA Transient software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.U. Akpan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pressure transients in conduits such as pipelines are unsteady flow conditions caused by a sudden change in the flow velocity. These conditions might cause damage to the pipelines and its fittings if the extreme pressure (high or low is experienced within the pipeline. In order to avoid this occurrence, engineers usually carry out pressure transient analysis in the hydraulic design phase of pipeline network systems. Modelling and simulation of transients in pipelines is an acceptable and cost effective method of assessing this problem and finding technical solutions. This research predicts the pressure surge for different flow conditions in two different pipeline systems using WANDA Transient simulation software. Computer models were set-up in WANDA Transient for two different systems namely; the Graze experiment (miniature system and a simple main water riser system based on some initial laboratory data and system parameters. The initial laboratory data and system parameters were used for all the simulations. Results obtained from the computer model simulations compared favourably with the experimental results at Polytropic index of 1.2.

  8. Transient Heat Conduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    Analytical theory of transient heat conduction.Fourier's law. General heat conducation equation. Thermal diffusivity. Biot and Fourier numbers. Lumped analysis and time constant. Semi-infinite body: fixed surface temperature, convective heat transfer at the surface, or constant surface heat flux...

  9. Transient cavitation in pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.

    1974-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to set up a one-dimensional mathematical model, which describes the transient flow in pipelines, taking into account the influence of cavitation and free gas. The flow will be conceived of as a three-phase flow of the liquid, its vapour and non-condensible gas. The

  10. Experienced biology teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) on photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, Ari

    2017-05-01

    Teacher certification program raises a question of whether certified teachers really more competence than non-certified teachers. However, since the notion of teachers' competence is measure in terms of content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge instead of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK). Teacher' PCK as the essence of teachers' competence is somehow ignored. The study presented here analyses experienced biology teachers' PCK. Subjects are experienced biology teachers who teach at the formerly called Pioneered Standardized Schools (RSBI). They are purposively chosen since they are certified teachers who have received very intensive training organized by the education authorities (national, province and district) as well as by the schools. Therefore, this group of teachers can be considered as experienced and well-prepared for teaching science.

  11. Compressive Transient Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Qilin

    2017-04-01

    High resolution transient/3D imaging technology is of high interest in both scientific research and commercial application. Nowadays, all of the transient imaging methods suffer from low resolution or time consuming mechanical scanning. We proposed a new method based on TCSPC and Compressive Sensing to achieve a high resolution transient imaging with a several seconds capturing process. Picosecond laser sends a serious of equal interval pulse while synchronized SPAD camera\\'s detecting gate window has a precise phase delay at each cycle. After capturing enough points, we are able to make up a whole signal. By inserting a DMD device into the system, we are able to modulate all the frames of data using binary random patterns to reconstruct a super resolution transient/3D image later. Because the low fill factor of SPAD sensor will make a compressive sensing scenario ill-conditioned, We designed and fabricated a diffractive microlens array. We proposed a new CS reconstruction algorithm which is able to denoise at the same time for the measurements suffering from Poisson noise. Instead of a single SPAD senor, we chose a SPAD array because it can drastically reduce the requirement for the number of measurements and its reconstruction time. Further more, it not easy to reconstruct a high resolution image with only one single sensor while for an array, it just needs to reconstruct small patches and a few measurements. In this thesis, we evaluated the reconstruction methods using both clean measurements and the version corrupted by Poisson noise. The results show how the integration over the layers influence the image quality and our algorithm works well while the measurements suffer from non-trival Poisson noise. It\\'s a breakthrough in the areas of both transient imaging and compressive sensing.

  12. Transient simulation of molten salt central receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doupis, Dimitri; Wang, Chuan; Carcorze-Soto, Jorge; Chen, Yen-Ming; Maggi, Andrea; Losito, Matteo; Clark, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Alstom is developing concentrated solar power (CSP) utilizing 60/40wt% NaNO3-KNO3 molten salt as the working fluid in a tower receiver for the global renewable energy market. In the CSP power generation cycle, receivers undergo a daily cyclic operation due to the transient nature of solar energy. Development of robust and efficient start-up and shut-down procedures is critical to avoiding component failures due to mechanical fatigue resulting from thermal transients, thus maintaining the performance and availability of the CSP plant. The Molten Salt Central Receiver (MSCR) is subject to thermal transients during normal daily operation, a cycle that includes warmup, filling, operation, draining, and shutdown. This paper describes a study to leverage dynamic simulation and finite element analysis (FEA) in development of start-up, shutdown, and transient operation concepts for the MSCR. The results of the FEA also verify the robustness of the MSCR design to the thermal transients anticipated during the operation of the plant.

  13. Experienced General Music Teachers' Instructional Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Daniel C.; Matthews, Wendy K.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore experienced general music teachers' decision-making processes. Participants included seven experienced, American general music teachers who contributed their views during two phases of data collection: (1) responses to three classroom scenarios; and (2) in-depth, semi-structured, follow-up…

  14. Experienced discrimination amongst European old citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.; van Santvoort, Marc M.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the experienced age discrimination of old European citizens and the factors related to this discrimination. Differences in experienced discrimination between old citizens of different European countries are explored. Data from the 2008 ESS survey are used. Old age is defined as

  15. Transient FDTD simulation validation

    OpenAIRE

    Jauregui Tellería, Ricardo; Riu Costa, Pere Joan; Silva Martínez, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    In computational electromagnetic simulations, most validation methods have been developed until now to be used in the frequency domain. However, the EMC analysis of the systems in the frequency domain many times is not enough to evaluate the immunity of current communication devices. Based on several studies, in this paper we propose an alternative method of validation of the transients in time domain allowing a rapid and objective quantification of the simulations results.

  16. Transient cerebral ischemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Cusimano, M D; Ameli, F M

    1989-01-01

    Stroke is a major cause of disability and death in North America. About 30% to 40% of patients with stroke have had transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). The recognition and treatment of TIAs and possibly of asymptomatic stenoses of the carotid arteries may be beneficial in preventing stroke. We review the epidemiologic features, natural history, pathogenetic features, clinical presentation, methods of investigation and management of patients with TIAs.

  17. Transient Astrophysics Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jordan

    2017-08-01

    Transient Astrophysics Probe (TAP), selected by NASA for a funded Concept Study, is a wide-field high-energy transient mission proposed for flight starting in the late 2020s. TAP’s main science goals, called out as Frontier Discovery areas in the 2010 Decadal Survey, are time-domain astrophysics and counterparts of gravitational wave (GW) detections. The mission instruments include unique imaging soft X-ray optics that allow ~500 deg2 FoV in each of four separate modules; a high sensitivity, 1 deg2 FoV soft X-ray telescope based on single crystal silicon optics; a passively cooled, 1 deg2 FoV Infrared telescope with bandpass 0.6-3 micron; and a set of ~8 small NaI gamma-ray detectors. TAP will observe many events per year of X-ray transients related to compact objects, including tidal disruptions of stars, supernova shock breakouts, neutron star bursts and superbursts, and high redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts. Perhaps most exciting is TAP’s capability to observe X-ray and IR counterparts of GWs involving stellar mass black holes detected by LIGO/Virgo, and possibly X-ray counterparts of GWs from supermassive black holes, detected by LISA and Pulsar Timing Arrays.

  18. Advanced PFBC transient analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J.S. [Parsons Power Group, Inc., Reading, PA (United States); Bonk, D.L.; Rogers, L. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Transient modeling and analysis of Advanced Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems is a research area that is currently under investigative study by the United States Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The object of the effort is to identify key operating parameters affecting plant performance and then quantify the basic response of major sub-systems to changes in operating conditions. PC-TRAX, a commercially available dynamic software program, was chosen and applied in this modeling and analysis effort. This paper summarizes and describes the development of a series of TRAX-based transient models of Advanced PFBC power plants. These power plants generate a high temperature flue gas by burning coal or other suitable fuel in a PFBC. The high temperature flue gas supports low-Btu fuel gas or natural gas combustion in a gas turbine topping combustor. When utilized, low-Btu fuel gas is produced in a bubbling bed carbonizer. High temperature, high pressure combustion products exiting the topping combustor are expanded in a modified gas turbine to generate electrical power. Waste heat from the system is used to generate and superheat steam for a reheat steam turbine bottoming cycle that generates additional electrical power. Basic control/instrumentation models were developed and modeled in PC-TRAX and used to investigate off-design plant performance. System performance for various transient conditions and control philosophies was studied.

  19. Advanced PFBC transient analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J.S. [Parsons Power Group, Inc., Reading, PA (United States); Bonk, D.L. [USDOE Federal Energy Technology Center, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Transient modeling and analysis of advanced Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems is a research area that is currently under investigation by the US Department of Energy`s Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC). The object of the effort is to identify key operating parameters that affect plant performance and then quantify the basic response of major sub-systems to changes in operating conditions. PC-TRAX{trademark}, a commercially available dynamic software program, was chosen and applied in this modeling and analysis effort. This paper describes the development of a series of TRAX-based transient models of advanced PFBC power plants. These power plants burn coal or other suitable fuel in a PFBC, and the high temperature flue gas supports low-Btu fuel gas or natural gas combustion in a gas turbine topping combustor. When it is utilized, the low-Btu fuel gas is produced in a bubbling bed carbonizer. High temperature, high pressure combustion products exiting the topping combustor are expanded in a modified gas turbine to generate electrical power. Waste heat from the system is used to raise and superheat steam for a reheat steam turbine bottoming cycle that generates additional electrical power. Basic control/instrumentation models were developed and modeled in PC-TRAX and used to investigate off-design plant performance. System performance for various transient conditions and control philosophies was studied.

  20. The role of rumination in the occurrence of positive effects of experienced traumatic events

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Ogińska-Bulik

    2016-01-01

    Background Cognitive processes play a significant role in both the negative and positive consequences of traumatic experiences. The aim of this research was to investigate the role of rumination in the occurrence of positive effects, in the form of posttraumatic growth, of experienced traumatic events. Participants and procedure Data were collected from 227 subjects who had experienced traumatic events, including cancer patients (31.30%), women who had experienced domestic...

  1. Familial Transient Global Amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Rhys Davies

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Following an episode of typical transient global amnesia (TGA, a female patient reported similar clinical attacks in 2 maternal aunts. Prior reports of familial TGA are few, and no previous account of affected relatives more distant than siblings or parents was discovered in a literature survey. The aetiology of familial TGA is unknown. A pathophysiological mechanism akin to that in migraine attacks, comorbidity reported in a number of the examples of familial TGA, is one possibility. The study of familial TGA cases might facilitate the understanding of TGA aetiology.

  2. [Transient removable dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouadio, A A; Jordana, F; N'Goran, J K; Le Bars, P

    2015-09-01

    Removable dentures are always transient current. The epidemiology and causes of tooth gaps demonstrate the need to master the different prosthetic treatment. This made whether to propose treatment plans that take into account psychological, physiological and technical support for this patient. Different situations may arise. A gradual transition may be considered or immediate passage to the total edentulous according to general criteria, local and desiderata of patients. After tooth extraction, the transitional prosthesis can control bone lysis thereby it is part of a complete treatment before prosthesis. It also facilitates a good psychological and physiological integration before the prosthesis use.

  3. Expected usability is not a valid indicator of experienced usability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meinald T. Thielsch

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Usability is a core construct of website evaluation and inherently defined as interactive. Yet, when analysing first impressions of websites, expected usability, i.e., before use, is of interest. Here we investigate to what extend ratings of expected usability are related to (a experienced usability, i.e., ratings after use, and (b objective usability measures, i.e., task performance. Furthermore, we try to elucidate how ratings of expected usability are correlated to aesthetic judgments. In an experiment, 57 participants submitted expected usability ratings after the presentation of website screenshots in three viewing-time conditions (50, 500, and 10,000 ms and after an interactive task (experienced usability. Additionally, objective usability measures (task completion and duration and subjective aesthetics evaluations were recorded for each website. The results at both the group and individual level show that expected usability ratings are not significantly related either to experienced usability or objective usability measures. Instead, they are highly correlated with aesthetics ratings. Taken together, our results highlight the need for interaction in empirical website usability testing, even when exploring very early usability impressions. In our study, user ratings of expected usability were no valid proxy neither for objective usability nor for experienced website usability.

  4. Detecting individual sites subject to episodic diversifying selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Murrell

    Full Text Available The imprint of natural selection on protein coding genes is often difficult to identify because selection is frequently transient or episodic, i.e. it affects only a subset of lineages. Existing computational techniques, which are designed to identify sites subject to pervasive selection, may fail to recognize sites where selection is episodic: a large proportion of positively selected sites. We present a mixed effects model of evolution (MEME that is capable of identifying instances of both episodic and pervasive positive selection at the level of an individual site. Using empirical and simulated data, we demonstrate the superior performance of MEME over older models under a broad range of scenarios. We find that episodic selection is widespread and conclude that the number of sites experiencing positive selection may have been vastly underestimated.

  5. Transient dimers of allergens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Rouvinen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Allergen-mediated cross-linking of IgE antibodies bound to the FcepsilonRI receptors on the mast cell surface is the key feature of the type I allergy. If an allergen is a homodimer, its allergenicity is enhanced because it would only need one type of antibody, instead of two, for cross-linking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An analysis of 55 crystal structures of allergens showed that 80% of them exist in symmetric dimers or oligomers in crystals. The majority are transient dimers that are formed at high protein concentrations that are reached in cells by colocalization. Native mass spectrometric analysis showed that native allergens do indeed form transient dimers in solution, while hypoallergenic variants of them exist almost solely in the monomeric form. We created a monomeric Bos d 5 allergen and show that it has a reduced capability to induce histamine release. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that dimerization would be a very common and essential feature for allergens. Thus, the preparation of purely monomeric variants of allergens could open up novel possibilities for specific immunotherapy.

  6. Transient regional osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Trotta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Transient osteoporosis of the hip and regional migratory osteoporosis are uncommon and probably underdiagnosed bone diseases characterized by pain and functional limitation mainly affecting weight-bearing joints of the lower limbs. These conditions are usually self-limiting and symptoms tend to abate within a few months without sequelae. Routine laboratory investigations are unremarkable. Middle aged men and women during the last months of pregnancy or in the immediate post-partum period are principally affected. Osteopenia with preservation of articular space and transitory edema of the bone marrow provided by magnetic resonance imaging are common to these two conditions, so they are also known by the term regional transitory osteoporosis. The appearance of bone marrow edema is not specific to regional transitory osteoporosis but can be observed in several diseases, i.e. trauma, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, avascular osteonecrosis, infections, tumors from which it must be differentiated. The etiology of this condition is unknown. Pathogenesis is still debated in particular the relationship with reflex sympathetic dystrophy, with which regional transitory osteoporosis is often identified. The purpose of the present review is to remark on the relationship between transient osteoporosis of the hip and regional migratory osteoporosis with particular attention to the bone marrow edema pattern and relative differential diagnosis.

  7. Do in-car devices affect experienced users' driving performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allert S. Knapper

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Distracted driving is considered to be an important factor in road safety. To investigate how experienced user's driving behaviour is affected by in-vehicle technology, a fixed-base driving simulator was used. 20 participants drove twice in a rich simulated traffic environment while performing secondary, i.e. mobile phone and navigation system tasks. The results show that mean speed was lower in all experimental conditions, compared to baseline driving, while subjective effort increased. Lateral performance deteriorated only during visual–manual tasks, i.e. texting and destination entry, in which the participants glanced off the forward road for a substantial amount of time. Being experienced in manipulating in-car devices does not solve the problem of dual tasking when the primary task is a complex task like driving a moving vehicle. The results and discussion may shed some light on the current debate regarding phone use hazards.

  8. Transient Go: A Mobile App for Transient Astronomy Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, D.; Mahabal, A.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Drake, A.; Early, J.; Ivezic, Z.; Jacoby, S.; Kanbur, S.

    2016-12-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is set to revolutionize human interaction with the real world as demonstrated by the phenomenal success of `Pokemon Go'. That very technology can be used to rekindle the interest in science at the school level. We are in the process of developing a prototype app based on sky maps that will use AR to introduce different classes of astronomical transients to students as they are discovered i.e. in real-time. This will involve transient streams from surveys such as the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey (CRTS) today and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) in the near future. The transient streams will be combined with archival and latest image cut-outs and other auxiliary data as well as historical and statistical perspectives on each of the transient types being served. Such an app could easily be adapted to work with various NASA missions and NSF projects to enrich the student experience.

  9. Experiencing Variation: Learning Opportunities in Doctoral Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Sofie; Berge, Maria; Grout, Brian W. W.; Rump, Camilla Østerberg

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes towards a better understanding of learning dynamics in doctoral supervision by analysing how learning opportunities are created in the interaction between supervisors and PhD students, using the notion of experiencing variation as a key to learning. Empirically, we have based the study on four video-recorded sessions, with…

  10. Psychological demands experienced by recreational endurance athletes

    OpenAIRE

    McCormick, Alister; Meijen, Carla; Marcora, Samuele

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify psychological demands that are commonly experienced by endurance athletes so that these demands could inform the design of performance-enhancement psychological interventions for endurance athletes. Focus group interviews were conducted with 30 recreational endurance athletes of various sports (running, cycling, and triathlon), distances, and competitive levels to explore the psychological demands of training, competition preparation, and competition participation...

  11. Activity limitations and participation restrictions experienced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cite as: Urimubenshi G. Activity limitations and participation restrictions experienced by people with stroke in Musanze district in Rwanda. Afri Health ..... analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse Education To- day 2004, 24(2), 105–112. 20. Lincoln YS, Guba EA.

  12. Perceived and experienced restrictions in participation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived and experienced restrictions in participation and autonomy among adult survivors of stroke in Ghana. ... There were significant differences in two domains between survivors who received physiotherapy and those who received traditional rehabilitation. Over half of the survivors also perceived they would ...

  13. Children's Actions when Experiencing Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overlien, Carolina; Hyden, Margareta

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is, by analysing children's discourses, to investigate their actions or absence of actions during a domestic violence episode. The empirical data are recorded group therapy sessions and individual interviews with children who have grown up experiencing their fathers' violence against their mothers. The analysis shows that…

  14. Experienced and physiological fatigue in neuromuscular disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schillings, M.L.; Kalkman, J.S.; Janssen, H.M.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Bleijenberg, G.; Zwarts, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fatigue has been described as a typical symptom of neurological diseases. It might be caused both by changes at the peripheral and at the central level. This study measured the level of experienced fatigue and physiological correlates of fatigue in three genetically defined neuromuscular

  15. Novice and experienced teachers’ views on professionalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okas, Anne; van der Schaaf, Marieke; Krull, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses teachers’ practical knowledge and beliefs of their profession based on reflective writings of twenty Estonian teachers.Ten novice and ten experienced teachers participated in the study. They put together their professional portfolios, which among other documents included

  16. [Sense of agency: experiencing is not judging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulot, V; Thomas, P; Delevoye-Turrell, Y

    2007-09-01

    Experiencing oneself as the author of an action defines the sense of agency, which is a component of the self. A deficit affecting this process is thought to cause the principle symptoms characterizing schizophrenia - e.g. delusions of control and auditive hallucinations would exist because patients do not experience themselves as the author of their own actions. To explore this specific problem of the sense of agency in schizophrenia, Frith et al. collected a serie of experimental data that lead them to propose that the sense of agency relied on the automatic motor system, processes that enable the predictive adjustment of action. An impairment in these processes (called in the literature) would lead to the problem of dissociation between our own actions and those performed by others. More specifically, the problem would lay in the comparison between the predicted state and the desired state (figure 1). Jeannerod et al. from Lyon used attribution judgements that suggested that the sense of agency would not depend uniquely on the motor mechanisms but would also involve conscious processes. Recently, Frith et al. have published new data that integrates both preceding models. According to this theory, the sense of agency would depend on the processes involved in the predictive control of action but at a conscious level: the attenuation of the sensory feedback, specific of our own actions. This attenuation would depend on the accuracy of comparison between the predicted state and the actual state. Moreover, the sense of agency would also imply the management of social frame, which normally gives the means to cope with human interaction. The conception of the sense of agency has greatly evolved over the years, mainly because of the various experimental methods employed. The consequences of this are the various theoretical interpretations given to the characteristics of the sense of agency. They can be explained in two main points: a non-unified definition of the sense

  17. Frequency-Domain Transient Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingyu Lin; Yebin Liu; Jinli Suo; Qionghai Dai

    2017-05-01

    A transient image is the optical impulse response of a scene, which also visualizes the propagation of light during an ultra-short time interval. In contrast to the previous transient imaging which samples in the time domain using an ultra-fast imaging system, this paper proposes transient imaging in the frequency domain using a multi-frequency time-of-flight (ToF) camera. Our analysis reveals the Fourier relationship between transient images and the measurements of a multi-frequency ToF camera, and identifies the causes of the systematic error-non-sinusoidal and frequency-varying waveforms and limited frequency range of the modulation signal. Based on the analysis we propose a novel framework of frequency-domain transient imaging. By removing the systematic error and exploiting the harmonic components inside the measurements, we achieves high quality reconstruction results. Moreover, our technique significantly reduces the computational cost of ToF camera based transient image reconstruction, especially reduces the memory usage, such that it is feasible for the reconstruction of transient images at extremely small time steps. The effectiveness of frequency-domain transient imaging is tested on synthetic data, real data from the web, and real data acquired by our prototype camera.

  18. Pressure transients in pipeline systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    This text is to give an overview of the necessary background to do investigation of pressure transients via simulations. It will describe briefly the Method of Characteristics which is the defacto standard for simulating pressure transients. Much of the text has been adopted from the book Pressure...

  19. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  20. Transient Reliability of Ceramic Structures For Heat Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Jadaan, Osama M.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this report was to develop a methodology to predict the time-dependent reliability (probability of failure) of brittle material components subjected to transient thermomechanical loading, taking into account the change in material response with time. This methodology for computing the transient reliability in ceramic components subjected to fluctuation thermomechanical loading was developed, assuming SCG (Slow Crack Growth) as the delayed mode of failure. It takes into account the effect of varying Weibull modulus and materials with time. It was also coded into a beta version of NASA's CARES/Life code, and an example demonstrating its viability was presented.

  1. Applied hydraulic transients

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhry, M Hanif

    2014-01-01

    This book covers hydraulic transients in a comprehensive and systematic manner from introduction to advanced level and presents various methods of analysis for computer solution. The field of application of the book is very broad and diverse and covers areas such as hydroelectric projects, pumped storage schemes, water-supply systems, cooling-water systems, oil pipelines and industrial piping systems. Strong emphasis is given to practical applications, including several case studies, problems of applied nature, and design criteria. This will help design engineers and introduce students to real-life projects. This book also: ·         Presents modern methods of analysis suitable for computer analysis, such as the method of characteristics, explicit and implicit finite-difference methods and matrix methods ·         Includes case studies of actual projects ·         Provides extensive and complete treatment of governed hydraulic turbines ·         Presents design charts, desi...

  2. Experiencing the enchantment of place and mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærenholdt, Jørgen Ole

    2016-01-01

    Experiences of place and mobility play central roles not only in what was traditionally understood as tourism, but also in the broader practices of travelling and visiting sites and sights. On the one hand, such experiences are performed to an extent where it is difficult to isolate the sites...... and movements experienced per se, since visitors and travellers take part in ‘doing’ places and mobility. On the other, experience sites and routes stand out with specific traces and characteristics affording some – and not other – experiences. This paper discusses conceptual understandings that may help...... to better analyse what it takes to perform tourist sites. Following a discussion of Walter Benjamin’s way of understanding experiences as Erlebnisse, I suggest that ideas about multiplicity and absence-presence in Actor-Network Theory can develop new insights into how place and mobility are experienced...

  3. The Occupational Wellbeing of People Experiencing Homelessness

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Yvonne; Gray, M.; McGinty, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports findings of a study that utilised an occupational perspective to explore how wellbeing was achieved and sustained by the occupations of people experiencing homelessness in Australia. Thirty three in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with homeless individuals in a regional city in Australia. Data from the interviews were thematically analysed to understand the relationship between wellbeing, as defined by the individual, and the occupations engaged in by people exp...

  4. Security Selection Factors: Novice Versus Experienced Investors

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Freund; Dev Prasad; Frank Andrews

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examine the differences in the factors perceived to be significant in the security selection process between novice and experienced investors. We apply the direct inquiry approach to two distinct groups: One group is composed of students enrolled in traditional face-to-face introductory investments classes, while the other group consists of students enrolled in the online sections of the same course. The online students tend to be generally older part-time students with grea...

  5. Coexistent transient pulmonary edema and pericardial effusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, B.; Oh, K.S.; Park, S.C.

    1988-09-01

    Eight (23%) of 35 children with acute pericardial effusions due to infection or juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) had associated transient pulmonary edema demonstrated on plain chest radiographs. The presence or absence of radiographic pulmonary edema correlated well with clinical and hemodynamic parameters in patients with JRA but not in those with infectious pericarditis. There was no definite relationship between radiographic edema and amount of pericardial fluid as estimated echocardiographically or removed at pericardiocentesis. Rapidity of pericardial fluid accumulation could not be assessed in this study. Children of young age with underlying JRA were the most likely subjects to have radiographic pulmonary edema in conjunction with an acute pericardial effusion.

  6. Burnout among Low and High Experienced Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedehhava Mousavy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Burnout is a serious psychological syndrome that can affect not only an individual’s well-being, but also the functioning of whole organisations, such as schools. It is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and decreased personal accomplishment.The level of burnout among teachers in the field of education has a negative impact on student success. The present investigation examines the level of burn out among high and low experienced teachers. It focused on a group of English teachers from different nationalities: Iranian, and Malaysian at UPM to examine if there is any relation between burnout and experience level. The sample consisted of 30 English teachers. Two instruments namely, The Maslach Burnout Inventory and Demographic Questionnaire were used to collect data. Data analysis revealed that there is no significant difference in depersonalization and personal accomplishment scores between low and high experienced teachers. But the result of this study also revealed that there is a significant difference in Emotional Exhaustion scores between low and high experienced teachers. Further research is required to explore the roots and the causes of burnout.

  7. Stigma experienced by persons under psychiatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struch, Naomi; Levav, Itzhak; Shereshevsky, Yechiel; Baidani-Auerbach, Alona; Lachman, Max; Daniel, Noga; Zehavi, Tali

    2008-01-01

    Mental health-related stigma causes suffering and interferes with care and social inclusion. This study explored stigma as experienced by mental health service users. Particular attention is given to their use of coping mechanisms. Interviews were held with 167 adults undergoing outpatient psychiatric treatment; two-thirds of them had previously been hospitalized. Examples of frequency of stigma-related situations included the following: Over half of service users expect people to refuse to have a person with a mental disorder as a co-worker or neighbor, or to engage in other types of social contact. A sizeable group acknowledged that they feared or had experienced rejection. A third of respondents reported they feared or had experienced inappropriate treatment by their doctor. Service users utilize several coping mechanisms to deal with stigma, among them: education, withdrawal, secrecy, and positive distinctiveness. Although we studied a convenience sample of service users, our findings provide sufficient basis to suggest different types of intervention, i.e., to address stigma in the course of treatment in the specialist settings, to promote the establishment of mutual support groups, and to raise family physicians' awareness with regard to the stigma that may be present when caring for persons with mental disorders.

  8. Transient Peripapillary Retinoschisis in Glaucomatous Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josine van der Schoot

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate transient focal microcystic retinoschisis in glaucomatous eyes in images obtained with several imaging techniques used in daily glaucoma care. Methods. Images of 117 glaucoma patients and 91 healthy subjects participating in a large prospective follow-up study into glaucoma imaging were reviewed. Participants were measured with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT, scanning laser polarimetry (SLP, scanning laser tomography (SLT, and standard automated perimetry (SAP. The presence of a focal retinoschisis in SD-OCT was observed and correlated to SLP, SLT, and SAP measurements, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results. Seven out of 117 glaucoma patients showed a transient, localised, peripapillary, heterogeneous microcystic schisis of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL and sometimes other retinal layers as well in SD-OCT. None of the healthy eyes showed this phenomenon nor did any of the other imaging techniques display it as detailed and consistently as did the SD-OCT. SAP showed a temporarily decreased focal retinal sensitivity during the retinoschisis and we found no signs of glaucomatous progression related to the retinoschisis. Conclusions. Transient microcystic retinoschisis appears to be associated with glaucomatous wedge defects in the RNFL. It was best observed with SD-OCT and it was absent in healthy eyes. We found no evidence that the retinoschisis predicted glaucomatous progression.

  9. Transient Thermoelectric Solution Employing Green's Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jon; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2014-01-01

    The study works to formulate convenient solutions to the problem of a thermoelectric couple operating under a time varying condition. Transient operation of a thermoelectric will become increasingly common as thermoelectric technology permits applications in an increasing number of uses. A number of terrestrial applications, in contrast to steady-state space applications, can subject devices to time varying conditions. For instance thermoelectrics can be exposed to transient conditions in the automotive industry depending on engine system dynamics along with factors like driving style. In an effort to generalize the thermoelectric solution a Greens function method is used, so that arbitrary time varying boundary and initial conditions may be applied to the system without reformulation. The solution demonstrates that in thermoelectric applications of a transient nature additional factors must be taken into account and optimized. For instance, the materials specific heat and density become critical parameters in addition to the thermal mass of a heat sink or the details of the thermal profile, such as oscillating frequency. The calculations can yield the optimum operating conditions to maximize power output andor efficiency for a given type of device.

  10. Electromagnetic transients in power cables

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Filipe Faria

    2013-01-01

    From the more basic concepts to the most advanced ones where long and laborious simulation models are required, Electromagnetic Transients in Power Cables provides a thorough insight into the study of electromagnetic transients and underground power cables. Explanations and demonstrations of different electromagnetic transient phenomena are provided, from simple lumped-parameter circuits to complex cable-based high voltage networks, as well as instructions on how to model the cables.Supported throughout by illustrations, circuit diagrams and simulation results, each chapter contains exercises,

  11. Machine Classification of Transient Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buisson, Lise Du; Sivanandam, Navin; Bassett, Bruce A.; Smith, Mathew

    2014-05-01

    Using transient imaging data from the 2nd and 3rd years of the SDSS supernova survey, we apply various machine learning techniques to the problem of classifying transients (e.g. SNe) from artefacts, one of the first steps in any transient detection pipeline, and one that is often still carried out by human scanners. Using features mostly obtained from PCA, we show that we can match human levels of classification success, and find that a K-nearest neighbours algorithm and SkyNet perform best, while the Naive Bayes, SVM and minimum error classifier have performances varying from slightly to significantly worse.

  12. Electromagnetic Transients in Power Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Faria Da; Bak, Claus Leth

    of electromagnetic phenomena associated to their operation, among them electromagnetic transients, increased as well. Transient phenomena have been studied since the beginning of power systems, at first using only analytical approaches, which limited studies to more basic phenomena; but as computational tools became...... more powerful, the analyses started to expand for the more complex phenomena. Being old phenomena, electromagnetic transients are covered in many publications, and classic books such as the 40-year-old Greenwood’s ‘‘Electric Transients in Power Systems’’ are still used to this day. However...... example.However, the book is not only intended for students . It can also be used by engineers who work in this area and need to understand the challenges/problems they are facing or who need to learn how to prepare their simulation models as well as their function. It also shows how to calculate...

  13. Transient heating of moving objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Baida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of transient and quasistatic heating of moving objects by various heat sources is considered. The mathematical formulation of the problem is described, examples of thermal calculation given.

  14. Transient thyrotoxicosis during nivolumab treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooten, M. J.; van den Berg, G.; Glaudemans, A. W. J. M.; Hiltermann, T. J. N.; Groen, H. J. M.; Rutgers, A.; Links, T. P.

    Two patients presented with transient thyrotoxicosis within 2-4 weeks after starting treatment with nivolumab. This thyrotoxicosis turned into hypothyroidism within 6-8 weeks. Temporary treatment with a beta blocker may be sufficient.

  15. Ethical Conflicts Experienced by Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Mendes Menezes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The current study aimed to identify and analyze the prevalence of ethical conflicts experienced by medical students. This study is a cross-sectional and analytical research that was conducted in a public school in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The instrument used for the data collection was a self-administered questionnaire. The data collected were presented in absolute and percentage values. For the analytical statistical treatment of the data, the level of significance was considered p <0.05. The outcome variables were: Experiences of ethical conflicts in interpersonal relations within the medical course and Ethical conduct in health care. The identification of the prevalence of ethical conflicts in the undergraduate program adopted the perspective of different interpersonal relations (academic-teaching, academic-academic, academic-employee, academic-patient, teacher-teacher, teacher-patient, teacher-employee and employee-patient. (Importance of identifying themselves to the health services user and requesting consent to perform the physical examination, assistance without the supervision of the teacher, issuance of health documents without the signature of the professional responsible and use of social networks to share data Of patient. It was verified the association of the outcome variables with sex, year of graduation and course evaluation. A total of 281 undergraduate students enrolled in all undergraduate courses in Medicine of both sexes, with a predominance of female (52.7%. The students reported having experienced conflicting situations in interpersonal relations with teachers (59.6%, provided assistance without proper supervision of a teacher (62.6%, reported having issued health documents without the accompaniment of teachers (18, 5%. The highest frequency was observed among those enrolled in the most advanced years of the undergraduate program (p <0.05. The use of social networks for the purpose of sharing patient

  16. The gingival biotype assessed by experienced and inexperienced clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghbali, Aryan; De Rouck, Tim; De Bruyn, Hugo; Cosyn, Jan

    2009-11-01

    A recent cluster analysis has identified three gingival biotypes among 100 periodontally healthy subjects based on different combinations of morphometric data related to maxillary front teeth and surrounding soft tissues. Patients with a thin-scalloped biotype are considered at risk because they have been associated with a compromised soft tissue response following surgical and/or restorative therapy. Hence, an accurate identification of these high-risk patients is warranted. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the precision of simple visual inspection as a method to identify the gingival biotype by experienced and inexperienced clinicians. Fifteen clinicians (five Restorative Dentists, five Periodontists and five Students) were invited to assess the gingival biotype (thin-scalloped, thick-flat, thick-scalloped) of 100 periodontally healthy subjects based on clinical slides. Cluster analysis on these subjects was used as the gold standard and the accuracy in identifying the gingival biotype was determined using percentile agreement and kappa statistics. Intra- and inter-examiner reliability were also calculated. The gingival biotype was accurately identified only in about half of the cases irrespective of the clinician's experience. The thick-flat biotype was mostly recognized especially by experienced clinicians (> or =70% of the cases). Nearly half of the thin-scalloped cases were misclassified. The intra-examiner repeatability was fair to substantial (kappa: 0.328-0.670) and the inter-examiner reproducibility was slight to moderate (kappa: 0.127-0.547). Simple visual inspection may not be considered a valuable method to identify the gingival biotype as nearly half of the high-risk patients are overlooked.

  17. Transient global amnesia after cerebral angiography still occurs: Case report and literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss-Skiftesvik, Jon; Snoer, Agneta Henriette; Wagner, Aase

    2014-01-01

    . While the condition by definition is self-limiting, its differential diagnoses may cause severe morbidity and/or mortality if left untreated. It is therefore important to build and maintain awareness of transient global amnesia as a possible complication of cerebral angiography.......Transient global amnesia is considered a very rare complication of diagnostic cerebral angiography, and has only been reported in a limited number of case reports more than 15 years ago. We describe a patient experiencing transient global amnesia following cerebral digital subtraction angiography...

  18. Subjection, subjectivity, and agency: the power, meaning, and practice of mothering among women experiencing intimate partner abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, Ingrid; Jasinski, Jana L; Bubriski-McKenzie, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on in-depth interviews with mothers who were abused by intimate partners, we argue that mothering can be a source of empowerment that helps battered women both care for their children and survive and assert themselves. Women in the study sample described a violation of some aspect of their mothering as the reason they left their partners. However, narrative analysis exposed contradictions in participants' stories, revealing multiple factors that shaped their decisions to leave. Although motherhood was significant for the women who participated in the study, it was not their only motivation for ending their relationships with abusive partners.

  19. Physics Climate as Experienced by LGBT+ Physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Elena

    2012-02-01

    In 2009, Elena Long created the LGBT+ Physicists website (http://lgbtphysicists.x10hosting.com) as a warehouse for resources useful for sexual and gender minorities working in physics. This resource has grown to include networking resources, lists of LGBT-friendly universities and localities, recommendations for enacting positive change in physics communities, and out-reach to other STEM-oriented LGBT organizations. This has been possible in large part by the dynamic community of LGBT+ physicists and allies looking to make physics more welcoming towards our community. In 2011, Elena used hir position as Member at Large on the executive committee of the Forum of Graduate Student Affairs (FGSA) to conduct a climate survey that included, among other things, the first serious look at LGBT+ demographics in physics. The survey focused particularly on issues of language heard and harassment experienced by physicists and was broken down into categories based on race, physical and mental ability, gender, and sexuality. Furthermore, it examined the outcomes of experienced harassment and the reasons for when harassment was not reported. Due to the nature of the study, overlapping demographics, especially ``multiple minorities,'' were also explored. This talk will give a brief history of the LGBT+ Physicists resource as well as an overview of the FGSA study.

  20. Ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, Kely Regina; Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira; Schmidtt, Pablo Henrique; Barlem, Edison Luiz Devos; Tomaschewski-Barlem, Jamila Geri; da Rosa, Luciana Martins

    2015-01-01

    To know the ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses. Descriptive and exploratory study with a qualitative approach, performed in inpatient units and in chemotherapy out-patients units that provide assistance to oncological patients in two capitals in the South region of Brazil. Eighteen nurses participated in this study, selected by snowball sampling type. For data collection, semi-structured interviews were carried out, which were recorded and transcribed, and then analyzed by thematic analysis. Two categories were established: when informing or not becomes a dilemma - showing the main difficulties related to oncological treatment information regarding health staff, health system, and infrastructure; to invest or not - dilemmas related to finitude - showing situations of dilemmas related to pain and confrontation with finitude. For the effective confrontation of the ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses to occur, it is important to invest in the training of these professionals, preparing them in an ethical and human way to act as lawyers of the patient with cancer, in a context of dilemmas related mainly to the possibility of finitude.

  1. Ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kely Regina da Luz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to know the ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses. Method: descriptive and exploratory study with a qualitative approach, performed in inpatient units and in chemotherapy out-patients units that provide assistance to oncological patients in two capitals in the South region of Brazil. Eighteen nurses participated in this study, selected by snowball sampling type. For data collection, semi-structured interviews were carried out, which were recorded and transcribed, and then analyzed by thematic analysis. Results: two categories were established: when informing or not becomes a dilemma - showing the main difficulties related to oncological treatment information regarding health staff, health system, and infrastructure; to invest or not - dilemmas related to finitude - showing situations of dilemmas related to pain and confrontation with finitude. Conclusion: for the effective confrontation of the ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses to occur, it is important to invest in the training of these professionals, preparing them in an ethical and human way to act as lawyers of the patient with cancer, in a context of dilemmas related mainly to the possibility of finitude.

  2. Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions otologically in normal adults

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All patients were screened to insure otologically normal subjects based on history and otological examination and tympanometry. Examined was done in the KHMC between 1999-2000 using a manually Operated Madson Audiometer, and the IL 088 otodynamic Analyser was used to record transient otoacoustic emission.

  3. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  4. Experienced poker players are emotionally stable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakasuo, Michael; Palomäki, Jussi; Salmela, Mikko

    2014-10-01

    Online poker and poker subcultures have become exceedingly popular. Previous studies assessing experience and skill in poker have revealed that proficiency in emotion regulation is a consequential factor in explaining financial success in the game. We assessed (N=478) the associations between poker players' (recruited from online poker forums) level of poker experience and HEXACO-PI-R personality traits. The results indicate that a predisposition for emotional stability-that is, lower scores on emotionality-is linked to high levels of poker experience. Thus, in order to become a successful and experienced poker player, it helps to be able to "keep cool" under pressure. Further exploratory analyses suggest that players who prefer live play to online play are more likely to be extroverted and open to experiences. The results contribute to the extant literature on individual differences in personality in poker players, and in particular help to fill the interdisciplinary gap between personality and gambling research.

  5. Experienced discrimination in home mortgage lending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secchi, Davide; Seri, Raffaello

    2017-01-01

    the applicant’s nationality is considered. In addition to its findings, the study (a) provides an original econometric model on a two-step procedure to test perceived discrimination and (b) suggests a method and approach that may constitute a point of reference for those willing to study perceived......This article proposes a framework for the analysis of experienced discrimination in home mortgages. It addresses the problem of home mortgage lending discrimination in one of the richest areas of northern Italy. Employees of a local hospital were interviewed to study their perception (or experience......) of discriminatory behavior related to home financing. The analysis follows two steps. The first evaluates self-selection (the probability that individuals apply) and the second focuses on the likelihood that applications are accepted by the bank. Findings show that discrimination is likely to appear when...

  6. Challenges experienced by debt counsellors in Gauteng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kgomotso Masilo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gauteng, Province of South Africa is experiencing a decreasing number of registered and practising debt counsellors. This paper investigates and assesses the challenges that debt counsellors in Gauteng experiences. Fifteen debt counsellors from three municipalities of Gauteng were interviewed. Data was analysed using ATLAS ti. The paper concluded that though debt counsellors are complying with the regulations in rendering debt counselling service, they still had challenges regarding backlogs in debt review. The paper recommends that debt counsellors should be adequately trained and should restructure their rehabilitation methods on the one hand and the National Credit Regulator should monitor debt counsellors’ practices and assist them with their queries on the other hand.

  7. Recent development of transient electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanyu Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient electronics are an emerging class of electronics with the unique characteristic to completely dissolve within a programmed period of time. Since no harmful byproducts are released, these electronics can be used in the human body as a diagnostic tool, for instance, or they can be used as environmentally friendly alternatives to existing electronics which disintegrate when exposed to water. Thus, the most crucial aspect of transient electronics is their ability to disintegrate in a practical manner and a review of the literature on this topic is essential for understanding the current capabilities of transient electronics and areas of future research. In the past, only partial dissolution of transient electronics was possible, however, total dissolution has been achieved with a recent discovery that silicon nanomembrane undergoes hydrolysis. The use of single- and multi-layered structures has also been explored as a way to extend the lifetime of the electronics. Analytical models have been developed to study the dissolution of various functional materials as well as the devices constructed from this set of functional materials and these models prove to be useful in the design of the transient electronics.

  8. Experiencing Past and Future Personal Events: Functional Neuroimaging Evidence on the Neural Bases of Mental Time Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botzung, Anne; Denkova, Ekaterina; Manning, Lilianne

    2008-01-01

    Functional MRI was used in healthy subjects to investigate the existence of common neural structures supporting re-experiencing the past and pre-experiencing the future. Past and future events evocation appears to involve highly similar patterns of brain activation including, in particular, the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior regions and the…

  9. Explosive and Radio-Selected Transients: Transient Astronomy with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In India, active research is going on in transient astronomy, especially in the fields of supernovae, gamma ray .... to ∼9 as of now. We currently understand them as catastrophic events generating a central engine which ..... bubbles blown by hot progenitor or with complex circumstellar environments set up by variable winds.

  10. Explosive and Radio-Selected Transients: Transient Astronomy with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Therefore, multiwaveband observational efforts with wide fields of view will be the key to progress of transients astronomy from the middle 2020s offering unprecedented deep images and high spatial and spectral resolutions. Radio observations of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) with SKA will uncover not only much fainter ...

  11. Sexually Experienced Adolescents' Thoughts About Sexual Pleasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliares, Ellen; Wilkerson, J Michael; Sieving, Renee E; Brady, Sonya S

    Little research on adolescents has examined developmentally normative facets of sexuality that are not obviously linked to physical health. The purpose of this secondary data analysis was to qualitatively analyze adolescents' thoughts about and experiences with sexual pleasure. The study sample consisted of 56 sexually experienced, ethnically diverse, predominantly female adolescents who were participating in a Web-based intervention to promote healthy sexual decision making. Comments on one message board, "Sexual Pleasure: Does It Matter to You?," provided an opportunity to examine adolescents' thoughts about and experiences with sexual pleasure, as well as their communication with partners about that topic. Adolescents' comments demonstrated that they experience difficulties with pleasure in their sexual relationships. Adolescents generally believed that men are more likely than women to feel pleasure due to differences that include biology, understanding of one's body, and control over partnered sexual behavior. Adolescents defined inequality of received pleasure differently and discussed contexts in which inequality may be acceptable. Adolescents expressed motivation to communicate with partners about sexual pleasure. However, their statements suggested they often lack the skills to do so. Future prevention and intervention programs should equip adolescents with skills to communicate with partners about sexual pleasure.

  12. Transient filament stretching rheometer II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The Lagrangian sspecification is used to simulate the transient stretching filament rheometer. Simulations are performed for dilute PIB-solutions modeled as a four mode Oldroyd-B fluid and a semidilute PIB-solution modeled as a non-linear single integral equation. The simulations are compared...

  13. Body composition and somatotype of experienced mountain climbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Davide; Zaccagni, Luciana; Cogo, Annalisa; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2012-03-01

    In order to evaluate body composition and somatotype, 10 Italian experienced mountain climbers were assessed from an anthropometric point of view, before a high altitude ascent. Body mass, height, girths, skinfolds, and bone breadths were gathered and used to calculate body composition and somatotype of each subject. Means and standard deviations of the subjects' anthropometric characteristics were calculated. Mesomorphism (5.28±1.10) is the dominant somatotype component in all but one the participants, endomorphism (1.55±0.49) is low, and body fat percentage (11.76%±2.93) is low. Comparisons with athletes involved in other climbing subdisciplines highlight the specificity of elite mountain climbers anthropometry. The elite mountain climbers in our sample were predominantly mesomorphic with somatotype attitudinal mean values lower than reported for male athletes participating in free-climbing, volleyball, gymnastics, and soccer. Anthropometric characteristics may therefore play a role in mountain climbing, even though the trainable components may be more relevant than the nontrainable ones.

  14. Virtual Distance and Soundstage, and their Impacts on Experienced Emotional Valence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Research from animal ethology and affective neuroscience suggest that a listener’s perceived distance from a signal source can alter their experienced emotional valence of the music. Furthermore, appraisal theories of emotion suggest that emotionally valenced responses will diverge according...... to the type of emotion presented. For these exploratory investigations, subjects listen to selected musical excerpts on speakers in combination with a tactile transducer attached to their chair. The listening sessions are recorded on EEG supported by subject feedback responses. My hypothesis is that musical...... stimuli should cause stronger valenced responses in the nearfield than at a distance. Thus, music experienced as being negatively valenced at a distance should be more negatively valenced in nearfield, and music that is experienced as having a positive valence at a distance should be more positively...

  15. "Sad, Just Sad": A Woman with a Learning Disability Experiencing Bereavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Alison; Bell, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    This case study considers the psychological assessment, formulation and treatment of Hannah, a woman with a learning disability who recently experienced the death of her mother. Death still remains a challenging and often taboo subject. Moreover, when the grief is of a person with a learning disability, this combines with underlying difficulties…

  16. Aortic Valve Fibroelastoma Masquerading as Transient Ischaemic Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope-Anne Gowland

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The following paper is on a 49-year-old man who presented to accident and emergency department having experienced five hours of left-sided chest pain, tightness in the chest, and shortness of breath. He also reported paresthesia and an ache in the left arm. Further investigations revealed an aortic valve papillary fibroelastoma. Although histologically papillary fibroelastomas are described as benign, they carry with them considerable risk of morbidity and mortality. This patient experienced recurrent transient ischemic attacks (TIAs’. He was taken to theatre on urgent basis to remove the papillary fibroelastoma. His aortic valve was preserved during the operation. The patient had an uneventful recovery following the surgery. His neurologic symptoms resolved following the operation. The operation was curative and no further symptoms were reported at followup.

  17. THE CONGENITAL MOTOR DISABILITY EXPERIENCED AS COMMONSENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolita Viluckienė

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article applies Alfred Schutz’s phenomenologically grounded sociological perspective to explore how persons with a congenital motor disability or having a disability ever since their childhood construct and maintain their significant social reality through subjective meanings and how they interpret their disabled bodies. Their personal narratives are based on qualitative in-depth interviews and suggest that these persons face the disability only during secondary socialization, after internalization of social typifications of disabled body of negative meaning, the overcoming of which and successful socialization requires the involvement into new social group or community, i.e., into a positive social structure, confirming their identity. This article performs cognitive function and contributes to the social workers‘ understanding and knowledge building in order to get a re-evaluating the social needs of people with congenital physical disability.

  18. Stress Management Training for Employees Experiencing Corporate Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Timothy R.; Maples, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Describes a stress management seminar for employees experiencing corporate acquisition which was attended by 40 men and 16 women. Presents information regarding specific types of stressors experienced by these employees. Notes that participant reactions support the design and utility of this type of program for employees experiencing corporate…

  19. Susceptibility and hardening of electronic systems to fast transient threats: new challenges ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sabath

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of susceptibility and hardening of electronic systems to transient threats has experienced a significant growth during the past ten years. Driven by the development in the area of non-lethal electromagnetic weapons it has become necessary to extend the classical set of transient threats, consisting of LEMP, ESD and NEMP, by a fast transient threat with an extreme bandwidth. The investigation of the susceptibility to those UWB threats, characterized by a bandwidth of more than a quarter of the center frequency, rise times of less than 200 ps and pulse durations in the ns regime, is of special interest. This paper presents an overview of current challenges of the hardening against UWB threats. It discusses recent research trends in transient susceptibility measurements, protection concepts and methods of analysis.

  20. Nonlinear Diffusion and Transient Osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akira, Igarashi; Lamberto, Rondoni; Antonio, Botrugno; Marco, Pizzi

    2011-08-01

    We investigate both analytically and numerically the concentration dynamics of a solution in two containers connected by a narrow and short channel, in which diffusion obeys a porous medium equation. We also consider the variation of the pressure in the containers due to the flow of matter in the channel. In particular, we identify a phenomenon, which depends on the transport of matter across nano-porous membranes, which we call “transient osmosis". We find that nonlinear diffusion of the porous medium equation type allows numerous different osmotic-like phenomena, which are not present in the case of ordinary Fickian diffusion. Experimental results suggest one possible candidate for transiently osmotic processes.

  1. Simulation of Transient Viscoelastic Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole

    1993-01-01

    The Lagrangian kinematic description is used to develop a numerical method for simulation of time-dependent flow of viscoelastic fluids described by integral models. The method is shown to converge to first order in the time step and at least second order in the spatial discretization. The method...... is tested on the established sphere in a cylinder benchmark problem, and an extension of the problem to transient flow is proposed....

  2. Simulation Model of a Transient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauch, Clemens; Sørensen, Poul; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the simulation model of a controller that enables an active-stall wind turbine to ride through transient faults. The simulated wind turbine is connected to a simple model of a power system. Certain fault scenarios are specified and the turbine shall be able to sustain operation...... in case of such faults. The design of the controller is described and its performance assessed by simulations. The control strategies are explained and the behaviour of the turbine discussed....

  3. Transient virulence of emerging pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolker, Benjamin M; Nanda, Arjun; Shah, Dharmini

    2010-05-06

    Should emerging pathogens be unusually virulent? If so, why? Existing theories of virulence evolution based on a tradeoff between high transmission rates and long infectious periods imply that epidemic growth conditions will select for higher virulence, possibly leading to a transient peak in virulence near the beginning of an epidemic. This transient selection could lead to high virulence in emerging pathogens. Using a simple model of the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of emerging pathogens, along with rough estimates of parameters for pathogens such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, West Nile virus and myxomatosis, we estimated the potential magnitude and timing of such transient virulence peaks. Pathogens that are moderately evolvable, highly transmissible, and highly virulent at equilibrium could briefly double their virulence during an epidemic; thus, epidemic-phase selection could contribute significantly to the virulence of emerging pathogens. In order to further assess the potential significance of this mechanism, we bring together data from the literature for the shapes of tradeoff curves for several pathogens (myxomatosis, HIV, and a parasite of Daphnia) and the level of genetic variation for virulence for one (myxomatosis). We discuss the need for better data on tradeoff curves and genetic variance in order to evaluate the plausibility of various scenarios of virulence evolution.

  4. Cortical computations via transient attractors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver L C Rourke

    Full Text Available The ability of sensory networks to transiently store information on the scale of seconds can confer many advantages in processing time-varying stimuli. How a network could store information on such intermediate time scales, between typical neurophysiological time scales and those of long-term memory, is typically attributed to persistent neural activity. An alternative mechanism which might allow for such information storage is through temporary modifications to the neural connectivity which decay on the same second-long time scale as the underlying memories. Earlier work that has explored this method has done so by emphasizing one attractor from a limited, pre-defined set. Here, we describe an alternative, a Transient Attractor network, which can learn any pattern presented to it, store several simultaneously, and robustly recall them on demand using targeted probes in a manner reminiscent of Hopfield networks. We hypothesize that such functionality could be usefully embedded within sensory cortex, and allow for a flexibly-gated short-term memory, as well as conferring the ability of the network to perform automatic de-noising, and separation of input signals into distinct perceptual objects. We demonstrate that the stored information can be refreshed to extend storage time, is not sensitive to noise in the system, and can be turned on or off by simple neuromodulation. The diverse capabilities of transient attractors, as well as their resemblance to many features observed in sensory cortex, suggest the possibility that their actions might underlie neural processing in many sensory areas.

  5. Igniter heater EMI transient test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, M.

    1989-01-01

    Testing to evaluate Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor igniter heater electromagnetic interference (EMI) effects on the Safe and Arm (S and A) device was completed. It was suspected that EMI generated by the igniter heater and it's associated electromechanical relay could cause a premature firing of the NASA Standard Initiators (NSIs) inside the S and A. The maximum voltage induced into the NSI fire lines was 1/4 of the NASA specified no-fire limit of one volt (SKB 26100066). As a result, the igniter heaters are not expected to have any adverse EMI effects on the NSIs. The results did show, however, that power switching causes occasional high transients within the igniter heater power cable. These transients could affect the sensitive equipment inside the forward skirt. It is therefore recommended that the electromechanical igniter heater relays be replaced with zero crossing solid state relays. If the solid state relays are installed, it is also recommended that they be tested for EMI transient effects.

  6. Numerical Modeling of Transient Heat Transfer in Longitudinal Fin

    OpenAIRE

    Farshad Panahizadeh; Mohammed Hasnat; Ashkan Ghafour

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of the present numerical study is to investigate the transient heat transfer in one kind of all-purpose longitudinal fin with the triangular profile. The lateral surface of the concerned fin and the tip of it are subjected to general situations included heat flux at the base and insulation on the tip. For this study developed a one dimensional in house code written by Fortran 90 programming language by using finite difference method with an implicit scheme...

  7. Transient combustion in hybrid rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabeyoglu, Mustafa Arif

    1998-09-01

    Hybrid rockets regained interest recently as an alternative chemical propulsion system due to their advantages over the solid and liquid systems that are currently in use. Development efforts on hybrids revealed two important problem areas: (1) low frequency instabilities and (2) slow transient response. Both of these are closely related to the transient behavior which is a poorly understood aspect of hybrid operation. This thesis is mainly involved with a theoretical study of transient combustion in hybrid rockets. We follow the methodology of identifying and modeling the subsystems of the motor such as the thermal lags in the solid, boundary layer combustion and chamber gasdynamics from a dynamic point of view. We begin with the thermal lag in the solid which yield the regression rate for any given wall heat flux variation. Interesting phenomena such as overshooting during throttling and the amplification and phase lead regions in the frequency domain are discovered. Later we develop a quasi-steady transient hybrid combustion model supported with time delays for the boundary layer processes. This is integrated with the thermal lag system to obtain the thermal combustion (TC) coupled response. The TC coupled system with positive delays generated low frequency instabilities. The scaling of the instabilities are in good agreement with actual motor test data. Finally, we formulate a gasdynamic model for the hybrid chamber which successfully resolves the filling/emptying and longitudinal acoustic behavior of the motor. The TC coupled system is later integrated to the gasdynamic model to obtain the overall response (TCG coupled system) of gaseous oxidizer motors with stiff feed systems. Low frequency instabilities were also encountered for the TCG coupled system. Apart from the transient investigations, the regression rate behavior of liquefying hybrid propellants such as solid cryogenic materials are also studied. The theory is based on the possibility of enhancement

  8. Dark adaptation during transient hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holfort, Stig Kraglund; Jackson, Gregory R; Larsen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    It was the purpose of the present study to examine dark adaptation in subjects with type 2 diabetes during transient hyperglycemia. Twenty-four subjects with type 2 diabetes and minimal diabetic retinopathy were randomized to undergo an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) or to remain fasting. Dark...... glycemia increased in the 12 OGTT subjects, from 8.6±2.1 at baseline to 21.1±3.6 mM after 80 min. In the OGTT group, four out of seven subjects with delayed dark adaptation at baseline reached normal values during hyperglycemia. All examined aspects of rod adaptation were accelerated by hyperglycemia (time...... to rod-cone break -26%; time to rod intercept -16%, rod sensitivity recovery slope (log units/min) +35%), whereas no measurable change in cone adaptation was seen. The results are consistent with rod adaptation being limited by glycemia and with rod adaptation being delayed in subjects with diabetes...

  9. Mechanical response of FFTF reference and P1 cladding tubes under transient heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngahl, C.A.; Ariman, T.; Lepacek, B.E.

    1977-01-01

    Burst tests of Type 316 stainless steel cladding tube samples subjected to increasing temperature and relatively constant internal pressure were conducted to assist in the pretest analysis of the P1 experiment performed in the Sodium Loop Safety Facility. This paper reports and analyzes the burst test results and those of subsequent transient heating work. The use of a modified extensometer in obtaining mechanical response data for stainless steel in the high temperature range is illustrated, some of such data is provided, and the potential of further experiments and analysis is indicated. Tubing of the same design as Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) cladding (20% cold worked, 0.230 in. OD, 15 mil wall) was tested as-received and after annealing or electrolytic thinning. P1 tubing (38% cold worked, 0.230 in. OD, 10 mil wall) was tested before and after aging under conditions anticipated in the P1 reactor experiment. The P1 cladding was designed to simulate FFTF tubing that had experienced irradiation embrittlement and attack by cesium oxide and sodium impurities.

  10. Experiencing stigma as a nurse with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, A L

    2017-06-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Stigma involves connecting individuals with a particular label to negative characteristics; this is based not on the stigmatized condition itself, but cultural reactions to it. Stigma exists towards nurses with mental illness. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This paper offers a first-person account of experiencing stigma as a nurse with a mental illness. This paper incorporates the existing literature to offer a broader cultural perspective on the experiences of a nurse with a mental illness. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Nurses are likely to encounter a nurse with a mental illness at some point in their practice. Nurses' reactions towards colleagues with mental illness can have significant implications for those colleague(s)' wellbeing. Nurses with mental illness will have to navigate their person and professional journey while giving consideration to the attitudes of their nursing peers and leaders. Limited research has been done on the stigma faced by nurses with mental illness from their nursing peers. Mental illness is not generally considered acceptable within the context of nursing culture, so when nurses do experience mental illness, their experiences in a professional context may be influenced by stereotypes, particularly those relating to dangerousness. Using autoethnography as a research method, the author examines her own subjective experiences of stigma as a nurse with a mental illness, and draws upon existing literature on stigma, deviance and the phenomenon of mental illness in nurses to analyse broader cultural implications for nursing. Assessment of suitability to return to work arises throughout the narratives, and consideration is given to the way that risk assessment by nursing leaders is impacted by negative stereotypes that surround mental illness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Transient noise suppression algorithm in speech system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Keyu; Wang, Mingjiang

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, I mainly introduce the algorithm of transient noise suppression in speech system. Firstly, it divides into impulsive noise and other types of transient noise according to the characteristics of transient noise. In the impulse noise suppression algorithm, I mainly use the averaging energy threshold method to detect the impulse noise, and then I use the amplitude threshold method to reduce the impulse noise which was detected. In the other types of transient noise suppression algorithm, I mainly use the Optimally Modified-Log Spectral Amplitude estimation (OM-LSA) algorithm and the Minimum Control Recursive Average (MCRA) algorithm to suppress the transient noise.

  12. Can environmental conditions experienced in early life influence future generations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Tim; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of early developmental conditions for performance in later life are now subjected to convergent interest from many different biological sub-disciplines. However, striking data, largely from the biomedical literature, show that environmental effects experienced even before conception can be transmissible to subsequent generations. Here, we review the growing evidence from natural systems for these cross-generational effects of early life conditions, showing that they can be generated by diverse environmental stressors, affect offspring in many ways and can be transmitted directly or indirectly by both parental lines for several generations. In doing so, we emphasize why early life might be so sensitive to the transmission of environmentally induced effects across generations. We also summarize recent theoretical advancements within the field of developmental plasticity, and discuss how parents might assemble different ‘internal’ and ‘external’ cues, even from the earliest stages of life, to instruct their investment decisions in offspring. In doing so, we provide a preliminary framework within the context of adaptive plasticity for understanding inter-generational phenomena that arise from early life conditions. PMID:24807254

  13. Women experiencing the intergenerationality of conjugal violence1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, Gilvânia Patrícia do Nascimento; Gomes, Nadirlene Pereira; Diniz, Normélia Maria Freire; Lira, Margaret Ollinda de Souza Carvalho e; Carvalho, Milca Ramaiane da Silva; da Silva, Rudval Souza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to analyze the family relationship, in childhood and adolescence, of women who experience conjugal violence. Method: qualitative study. Interviews were held with 19 women, who were experiencing conjugal violence, and who were resident in a community in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (N. 42/2011). Results: the data was organized using the Discourse of the Collective Subject, identifying the summary central ideas: they witnessed violence between their parents; they suffered repercussions from the violence between their parents: they were angry about the mother's submission to her partner; and they reproduced the conjugal violence. The discourse showed that the women witnessed, in childhood and adolescence, violence between their parents, and were injured both physically and psychologically. As a result of the mother's submission, feelings of anger arose in the children. However, in the adult phase of their own lives, they noticed that their conjugal life resembled that of their parents, reproducing the violence. Conclusion: investment is necessary in strategies designed to break inter-generational violence, and the health professionals are important in this process, as it is a phenomenon with repercussions in health. Because they work in the Family Health Strategy, which focuses on the prevention of harm and illness, health promotion and interdepartmentality, the nurses are essential in the process of preventing and confronting this phenomenon. PMID:26487137

  14. Atopic asthmatic subjects but not atopic subjects without ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is a known risk factor for acute ozone-associated respiratory disease. Ozone causes an immediate decrease in lung function and increased airway inflammation. The role of atopy and asthma in modulation of ozone-induced inflammation has not been determined. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether atopic status modulates ozone response phenotypes in human subjects. METHODS: Fifty volunteers (25 healthy volunteers, 14 atopic nonasthmatic subjects, and 11 atopic asthmatic subjects not requiring maintenance therapy) underwent a 0.4-ppm ozone exposure protocol. Ozone response was determined based on changes in lung function and induced sputum composition, including airway inflammatory cell concentration, cell-surface markers, and cytokine and hyaluronic acid concentrations. RESULTS: All cohorts experienced similar decreases in lung function after ozone. Atopic and atopic asthmatic subjects had increased sputum neutrophil numbers and IL-8 levels after ozone exposure; values did not significantly change in healthy volunteers. After ozone exposure, atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly increased sputum IL-6 and IL-1beta levels and airway macrophage Toll-like receptor 4, Fc(epsilon)RI, and CD23 expression; values in healthy volunteers and atopic nonasthmatic subjects showed no significant change. Atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly decreased IL-10 levels at baseline compared with healthy volunteers; IL-10 levels did not significa

  15. Transient simulation of radiating flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selcuk, Nevin [Department of Chemical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Inonu Bulvari, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: selcuk@metu.edu.tr; Bilge Uygur, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Inonu Bulvari, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Ayranci, Isil [Department of Chemical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Inonu Bulvari, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Tarhan, Tanil [Department of Chemical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Inonu Bulvari, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2005-06-15

    Time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations are solved in conjunction with the radiative transfer equation by coupling a previously developed direct numerical simulation-based computational fluid dynamics code to an existing radiation code, both based on the method of lines approach. The temperature profiles predicted by the coupled code are validated against steady-state solutions available in the literature for laminar, axisymmetric, hydrodynamically developed flow of a gray, absorbing, emitting fluid in a heated pipe. Favorable comparisons show the predictive accuracy and reliability of the coupling strategy employed. Transient solutions for a more realistic heat transfer problem are also demonstrated for simultaneous hydrodynamic and thermal development.

  16. Exercise dependence, social physique anxiety, and social support in experienced and inexperienced bodybuilders and weightlifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, R.; Hale, B.; Smith, D.; Collins, D.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To investigate psychological correlates of exercise dependence in experienced and inexperienced bodybuilders and weightlifters. Secondary objectives included measuring social physique anxiety, bodybuilding identity, and social support among bodybuilders and weightlifters. Methods—Thirty five experienced bodybuilders, 31 inexperienced bodybuilders, and 23 weightlifters completed the bodybuilding dependence scale, a bodybuilding version of the athletic identity measurement scale, the social physique anxiety scale, and an adapted version of the social support survey-clinical form. Results—A between subjects multivariate analysis of variance was calculated on the scores of the three groups of lifters for the four questionnaires. Univariate F tests and follow up tests indicated that experienced bodybuilders scored significantly higher than inexperienced bodybuilders and weightlifters on bodybuilding dependence (pbodybuilding identity (pbodybuilders exhibit more exercise dependence, show greater social support behaviour, and experience less social physique anxiety than inexperienced bodybuilders and weightlifters. Key Words: bodybuilding; exercise dependence; social physical anxiety; social support; athletic identity PMID:11131230

  17. Automatic classification of transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions using an artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, G; Lutman, M E

    1998-08-01

    The increasing use of transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) in large neonatal hearing screening programmes makes a standardized method of response classification desirable. Until now methods have been either subjective or based on arbitrary response characteristics. This study takes an expert system approach to standardize the subjective judgements of an experienced scorer. The method that is developed comprises three stages. First, it transforms TEOAEs from waveforms in the time domain into a simplified parameter set. Second, the parameter set is classified by an artificial neural network that has been taught on a large database TEOAE waveforms and corresponding expert scores. Third, additional fuzzy logic rules automatically detect probable artefacts in the waveforms and synchronized spontaneous emission components. In this way, the knowledge of the experienced scorer is encapsulated in the expert system software and thereafter can be accessed by non-experts. Teaching and evaluation of the neural network was based on TEOAEs from a database totalling 2190 neonatal hearing screening tests. The database was divided into learning and test groups with 820 and 1370 waveforms respectively. From each recorded waveform a set of 12 parameters was calculated, representing signal static and dynamic properties. The artifical network was taught with parameter sets of only the learning groups. Reproduction of the human scorer classification by the neural net in the learning group showed a sensitivity for detecting screen fails of 99.3% (299 from 301 failed results on subjective scoring) and a specificity for detecting screen passes of 81.1% (421 of 519 pass results). To quantify the post hoc performance of the net (generalization), the test group was then presented to the network input. Sensitivity was 99.4% (474 from 477) and specificity was 87.3% (780 from 893). To check the efficiency of the classification method, a second learning group was selected out of the

  18. Multimodal Person Re-identification Using RGB-D Sensors and a Transient Identification Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Nasrollahi, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    . Subjects are added to a transient database and re-identified based on the distance between recorded biometrics and the currently measured metrics. The system works on live video and requires no collaboration from the subjects. The system achieves a 68% re-identification rate with no wrong re...

  19. Transient global amnesia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiegel DR

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available David R Spiegel, Justin Smith, Ryan R Wade, Nithya Cherukuru, Aneel Ursani, Yuliya Dobruskina, Taylor Crist, Robert F Busch, Rahim M Dhanani, Nicholas Dreyer Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, USA Abstract: Transient global amnesia (TGA is a clinical syndrome characterized by the sudden onset of an extraordinarily large reduction of anterograde and a somewhat milder reduction of retrograde episodic long-term memory. Additionally, executive functions are described as diminished. Although it is suggested that various factors, such as migraine, focal ischemia, venous flow abnormalities, and epileptic phenomena, are involved in the pathophysiology and differential diagnosis of TGA, the factors triggering the emergence of these lesions are still elusive. Recent data suggest that the vulnerability of CA1 neurons to metabolic stress plays a pivotal part in the pathophysiological cascade, leading to an impairment of hippocampal function during TGA. In this review, we discuss clinical aspects, new imaging findings, and recent clinical–epidemiological data with regard to the phenotype, functional anatomy, and putative cellular mechanisms of TGA. Keywords: transient global amnesia, vascular, migraines, psychiatric

  20. Transient Science from Diverse Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabal, A.; Crichton, D.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Donalek, C.; Drake, A.; Graham, M.; Law, E.

    2016-12-01

    Over the last several years we have moved closer to being able to make digital movies of the non-static sky with wide-field synoptic telescopes operating at a variety of depths, resolutions, and wavelengths. For optimal combined use of these datasets, it is crucial that they speak and understand the same language and are thus interoperable. Initial steps towards such interoperability (e.g. the footprint service) were taken during the two five-year Virtual Observatory projects viz. National Virtual Observatory (NVO), and later Virtual Astronomical Observatory (VAO). Now with far bigger datasets and in an era of resource excess thanks to the cloud-based workflows, we show how the movement of data and of resources is required - rather than just one or the other - to combine diverse datasets for applications such as real-time astronomical transient characterization. Taking the specific example of ElectroMagnetic (EM) follow-up of Gravitational Wave events and EM transients (such as CRTS but also other optical and non-optical surveys), we discuss the requirements for rapid and flexible response. We show how the same methodology is applicable to Earth Science data with its datasets differing in spatial and temporal resolution as well as differing time-spans.

  1. Transient electromagnetic sounding for groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterman, David V.; Stewart, Mark T.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of using the transient electromagnetic sounding (TS or TDEM) method for groundwater exploration can be studied by means of numerical models. As examples of its applicability to groundwater exploration, we study four groundwater exploration problems: (1) mapping of alluvial fill and gravel zones over bedrock; (2) mapping of sand and gravel lenses in till; (3) detection of salt or brackish water interfaces in freshwater aquifers; and (4) determination of hydrostratigraphy. These groundwater problems require determination of the depth to bedrock; location of resistive, high‐porosity zones associated with fresh water; determination of formation resistivity to assess water quality; and determination of lithology and geometry, respectively. The TS method is best suited for locating conductive targets, and has very good vertical resolution. Unlike other sounding techniques where the receiver‐transmitter array must be expanded to sound more deeply, the depth of investigation for the TS method is a function of the length of time the transient is recorded. Present equipment limitations require that exploration targets with resistivities of 50 Ω ⋅ m or more be at least 50 m deep to determine their resistivity. The maximum depth of exploration is controlled by the geoelectrical section and background electromagnetic (EM) noise. For a particular exploration problem, numerical studies are recommended to determine if the target is detectable.

  2. Transient facial nerve paralysis (Bell's palsy following intranasal delivery of a genetically detoxified mutant of Escherichia coli heat labile toxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J M Lewis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available An association was previously established between facial nerve paralysis (Bell's palsy and intranasal administration of an inactivated influenza virosome vaccine containing an enzymatically active Escherichia coli Heat Labile Toxin (LT adjuvant. The individual component(s responsible for paralysis were not identified, and the vaccine was withdrawn.Subjects participating in two contemporaneous non-randomized Phase 1 clinical trials of nasal subunit vaccines against Human Immunodeficiency Virus and tuberculosis, both of which employed an enzymatically inactive non-toxic mutant LT adjuvant (LTK63, underwent active follow-up for adverse events using diary-cards and clinical examination. Two healthy subjects experienced transient peripheral facial nerve palsies 44 and 60 days after passive nasal instillation of LTK63, possibly a result of retrograde axonal transport after neuronal ganglioside binding or an inflammatory immune response, but without exaggerated immune responses to LTK63.While the unique anatomical predisposition of the facial nerve to compression suggests nasal delivery of neuronal-binding LT-derived adjuvants is inadvisable, their continued investigation as topical or mucosal adjuvants and antigens appears warranted on the basis of longstanding safety via oral, percutaneous, and other mucosal routes.

  3. Answering the Call: Facilitating Responsive Services for Students Experiencing Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothaus, Tim; Lorelle, Sonya; Anderson, Kie; Knight, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    After a review of the literature elucidating the status quo for students experiencing homelessness, this article shares the results of a mixed methods study. With a phenomenological qualitative emphasis, the mixed methods study explored the perceptions of parents and children experiencing homelessness regarding their academic needs and the…

  4. Young Children Experiencing Homelessness: The Overlooked Medium of Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlembach, Sue

    2017-01-01

    The number of mothers with young children experiencing homelessness and seeking shelter has increased in the USA over the past decade. Shelters are often characterized as environments offering few opportunities for appropriate play experiences. This article delineates the important role of play for young children experiencing homelessness and…

  5. Emotions Experienced by Students Taking Online and Classroom Quizzes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Jeffrey R.; Allan, Wesley D.; Teoro, Samantha M.

    2012-01-01

    Emotions experienced during online academic examinations may differ from emotions experienced in the traditional classroom testing situation. Students in a "Psychology of Learning" course (n = 61) completed assessments of emotions before and after a quiz in each of the following settings: online at their own choice of time and location; online in…

  6. Self-motion perception compresses time experienced in return travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seno, Takeharu; Ito, Hiroyuki; Shoji, Sunaga

    2011-01-01

    It is often anecdotally reported that time experienced in return travel (back to the start point) seems shorter than time spent in outward travel (travel to a new destination). Here, we report the first experimental results showing that return travel time is experienced as shorter than the actual time. This discrepancy is induced by the existence of self-motion perception.

  7. Problems experienced by women re-entering the education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problems experienced by women re-entering the education profession in South Africa were focused on. A review of the literature revealed that problems are experienced at five different levels: within the women themselves, in their work situation, at management level, within their career, and within society.

  8. Five Years on: Leadership Challenges of an Experienced CEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarros, James C.; Sarros, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    Experienced leaders face challenges that demand different leadership approaches to those of inexperienced leaders. The purposes of this article are to: (1) explore the leadership initiatives prominent for experienced leaders compared with inexperienced leaders; (2) examine the relationship between transformational leadership and these initiatives;…

  9. What drives transient behavior in complex systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grela, Jacek

    2017-08-01

    We study transient behavior in the dynamics of complex systems described by a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Destabilizing nature of transient trajectories is discussed and its connection with the eigenvalue-based linearization procedure. The complexity is realized as a random matrix drawn from a modified May-Wigner model. Based on the initial response of the system, we identify a novel stable-transient regime. We calculate exact abundances of typical and extreme transient trajectories finding both Gaussian and Tracy-Widom distributions known in extreme value statistics. We identify degrees of freedom driving transient behavior as connected to the eigenvectors and encoded in a nonorthogonality matrix T0. We accordingly extend the May-Wigner model to contain a phase with typical transient trajectories present. An exact norm of the trajectory is obtained in the vanishing T0 limit where it describes a normal matrix.

  10. Transient Performance of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onol, Aykut; Yesilyurt, Serhat

    2016-11-01

    A coupled CFD/rotor dynamics modeling approach is presented for the analysis of realistic transient behavior of a height-normalized, three-straight-bladed VAWT subject to inertial effects of the rotor and generator load which is manipulated by a feedback control under standardized wind gusts. The model employs the k- ɛ turbulence model to approximate unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and is validated with data from field measurements. As distinct from related studies, here, the angular velocity is calculated from the rotor's equation of motion; thus, the dynamic response of the rotor is taken into account. Results include the following: First, the rotor's inertia filters large amplitude oscillations in the wind torque owing to the first-order dynamics. Second, the generator and wind torques differ especially during wind transients subject to the conservation of angular momentum of the rotor. Third, oscillations of the power coefficient exceed the Betz limit temporarily due to the energy storage in the rotor, which acts as a temporary buffer that stores the kinetic energy like a flywheel in short durations. Last, average of transient power coefficients peaks at a smaller tip-speed ratio for wind gusts than steady winds. This work was supported by the Sabanci University Internal Research Grant Program (SU-IRG-985).

  11. PESSTO spectroscopic classification of optical transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, N.; Fraser, M.; Blagorodnova, N.; Taubenberger, S.; Dennefeld, M.; Benetti, S.; Pastorello, A.; Inserra, C.; Smartt, S.; Smith, K.; Young, D.; Sullivan, M.; Valenti, S.; Yaron, O.; Gal-Yam, A.; Knapic, C.; Smareglia, R.; Molinaro, M.; Manulis, I.; Wright, D.; Kotak, R.; Valenti, S.; Burgett, W.; Chambers, K.; Huber, M.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Magnier, E.; Morgan, J.; Stubbs, C.; Sweeney, W.; Tonry, J.; Waters, C.; Draper, P.; Metcalfe, N.; Rest, A.; Baltay, C.; Ellman, N.; Hadjiyska, E.; McKinnon, R.; Rabinowitz, D.; Walker, E. S.; Feindt, U.; Kowalski, M.; Nugent, P.

    2014-03-01

    PESSTO, the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey for Transient Objects (see Valenti et al., ATel #4037; http://www.pessto.org ), reports the following supernova classifications. Targets were supplied by Pan-STARRS (see Valenti et al., ATel #2668), the La Silla-Quest survey (see Hadjiyska et al., ATel #3812), the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey (http://crts.caltech.edu/), DECam (Forster et al., ATel #5949) and the IAU Transient Objects Confirmation Page list.

  12. Transient vibration of wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanzhe; Li, Minghai; Jiang, Feng

    2017-09-01

    This article aims to the transient vibration of wind turbine blades. We firstly introduce transient vibration and previous studies in this area. The report then shows the fundamental equations and derivation of Euler Equation. A 3-D beam are created to compare the analytical and numerical result. In addition we operate the existing result and Patran result of a truncation wedge beam, especially the frequencies of free vibration and transient vibration. Transient vibration cannot be vanished but in some case it can be reduced.

  13. Transient global amnesia: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, David R; Smith, Justin; Wade, Ryan R; Cherukuru, Nithya; Ursani, Aneel; Dobruskina, Yuliya; Crist, Taylor; Busch, Robert F; Dhanani, Rahim M; Dreyer, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a clinical syndrome characterized by the sudden onset of an extraordinarily large reduction of anterograde and a somewhat milder reduction of retrograde episodic long-term memory. Additionally, executive functions are described as diminished. Although it is suggested that various factors, such as migraine, focal ischemia, venous flow abnormalities, and epileptic phenomena, are involved in the pathophysiology and differential diagnosis of TGA, the factors triggering the emergence of these lesions are still elusive. Recent data suggest that the vulnerability of CA1 neurons to metabolic stress plays a pivotal part in the pathophysiological cascade, leading to an impairment of hippocampal function during TGA. In this review, we discuss clinical aspects, new imaging findings, and recent clinical–epidemiological data with regard to the phenotype, functional anatomy, and putative cellular mechanisms of TGA. PMID:29123402

  14. Transient field generation and measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, D. M.; Smith, P. D.

    The mathematical modeling and numerical computation of the elecromagnetic field radiated by a biconic antenna excited by a transient waveform such as a pulse are outlined. Very good agreement between the model and experiment is achieved for the time history of the radiated pulse. Amplitudes of calculated field strengths are within engineering tolerances. The type of field and its amplitude which result when any variant of biconic antenna is excited by a given input pulse can be predicted, since the time marching method of solving integral equations is shown to be successfully implemented on a computer. Because the system is not limited to single shot events, measurement of induced currents inside target equipments when illuminated by the radiation field is simplified, since sampling technology can be employed. Current waveforms which occur in antennas can also be predicted.

  15. Transient global amnesia: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, David R; Smith, Justin; Wade, Ryan R; Cherukuru, Nithya; Ursani, Aneel; Dobruskina, Yuliya; Crist, Taylor; Busch, Robert F; Dhanani, Rahim M; Dreyer, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a clinical syndrome characterized by the sudden onset of an extraordinarily large reduction of anterograde and a somewhat milder reduction of retrograde episodic long-term memory. Additionally, executive functions are described as diminished. Although it is suggested that various factors, such as migraine, focal ischemia, venous flow abnormalities, and epileptic phenomena, are involved in the pathophysiology and differential diagnosis of TGA, the factors triggering the emergence of these lesions are still elusive. Recent data suggest that the vulnerability of CA1 neurons to metabolic stress plays a pivotal part in the pathophysiological cascade, leading to an impairment of hippocampal function during TGA. In this review, we discuss clinical aspects, new imaging findings, and recent clinical-epidemiological data with regard to the phenotype, functional anatomy, and putative cellular mechanisms of TGA.

  16. Finite element solution of transient fluid-structure interaction problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everstine, Gordon C.; Cheng, Raymond S.; Hambric, Stephen A.

    1991-01-01

    A finite element approach using NASTRAN is developed for solving time-dependent fluid-structure interaction problems, with emphasis on the transient scattering of acoustic waves from submerged elastic structures. Finite elements are used for modeling both structure and fluid domains to facilitate the graphical display of the wave motion through both media. For the liquid, the use of velocity potential as the fundamental unknown results in a symmetric matrix equation. The approach is illustrated for the problem of transient scattering from a submerged elastic spherical shell subjected to an incident tone burst. The use of an analogy between the equations of elasticity and the wave equation of acoustics, a necessary ingredient to the procedure, is summarized.

  17. Wings and Flying in Immersive VR - Controller Type, Sound Effects and Experienced Ownership and Agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikström, Erik; Götzen, Amalia De; Serafin, Stefania

    An experiment investigated the subjective experiences of ownership and agency of a pair of virtual wings attached to a motion controlled avatar in an immersive virtual reality setup. A between groups comparison of two ways of controlling the movement of the wings and flight ability. One where...... the subjects achieved the wing motion and flight ability by using a hand-held video game controller and the other by moving the shoulder. Through four repetitions of a flight task with varying amounts of self-produced audio feedback (from the movement of the virtual limbs), the subjects evaluated...... their experienced embodiment of the wings on a body ownership and agency questionnaire. The results shows significant differences between the controllers in some of the questionnaire items and that adding self-produced sounds to the avatar, slightly changed the subjects evaluations....

  18. The effect of transversus abdominis activation on exercise-related transient abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mole, Jason L; Bird, Marie-Louise; Fell, James W

    2014-05-01

    had stronger trunk muscles and larger resting Transversus abdominis size experienced Exercise-related transient abdominal pain less. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transient Adverse Side Effects During Neurofeedback Training: A Randomized, Sham-Controlled, Double Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogel, Ainat; Guez, Jonathan; Getter, Nir; Keha, Eldad; Cohen, Tzlil; Amor, Tali; Todder, Doron

    2015-09-01

    The benefits of clinical neurofeedback training are well known, however, its adverse side-effects are less studied. This research focuses on the transient adverse side effects of neurofeedback training via a double-blind, sham/controlled methodology. Thirty healthy undergraduate students volunteers were randomly divided into three treatment groups: increasing a modified Sensory Motor Rhythm, increasing Upper Alpha, and Sham/control group who receive a random reward. The training sessions were administered for a total of ten sessions. Questionnaires of transient adverse side effects were completed by all volunteers before each session. The results suggest that similar to most medical treatments, neurofeedback can cause transient adverse side effects. Moreover, most participants reported experiencing some side effects. The side effects can be divided into non-specific side effect, associated with the neurofeedback training in general and specific ones associated with the particular protocol. Sensory Motor Rhythm protocol seems to be the most sensitive to side effects.

  20. Peran Experienced Stigma terhadap Self Esteem pada Suku Nias

    OpenAIRE

    Hutauruk, Lucy Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to determine the role of experienced stigma against self esteem in Nias ethnic. The study involved 151 people of Nias ethnic who lived in Medan. Sampling was done by incidental sampling and processed by simple linear regression test with an SPSS 17.0 Software Program. The instrument in this research are the scale of experienced stigma and self-esteem scale developed by the researchers.These results indicate there is the role of experienced stigma against self esteem in Nias et...

  1. Transient receptor potential channels in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Daoyan; Scholze, Alexandra; Zhu, Zhiming

    2006-01-01

    The role of nonselective cation channels of the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) family in essential hypertension has not yet been investigated.......The role of nonselective cation channels of the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) family in essential hypertension has not yet been investigated....

  2. simulation of electromagnetic transients in power systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    1996-09-01

    Sep 1, 1996 ... Electromagnetic (EM) transients produced by these mathematical models serve as a useful reference in the design of protective devices and fault locators. ... with simulated fault data from electromagnetic. (EM) transients calculation. .... problem in the frequency domain and, finally, taking the inverse Fourier ...

  3. First airborne transient em survey in antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auken, Esben; Mikucki, J. J.; Sørensen, Kurt Ingvard K.I.

    2012-01-01

    A first airborne transient electromagnetic survey was flown in Antarctica in December 2011 with the SkyTEM system. This transient airborne EM system has been optimized in Denmark for almost ten years and was specially designed for ground water mapping. The SkyTEM tool is ideal for mapping...

  4. The LOFAR Transients Key Science Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stappers, B.; Fender, R.; Wijers, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Transients Key Science Project (TKP) is one of six Key Science Projects of the next generation radio telescope LOFAR. Its aim is the study of transient and variable low-frequency radio sources with an extremely broad science case ranging from relativistic jet sources to pulsars, exoplanets,

  5. Impact of experienced professionalism on professional culture in probation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butter, R.; Hermanns, J.

    2011-01-01

    The level of work engagement is an important aspect of organizational culture. In this empirical study the relation between engagement and experienced professionalism of probation officers is investigated. Starting from ideal-typical theories on professionalism, a psychometric instrument for

  6. Active Experiencing Training Improves Episodic Memory Recall in Older Adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarah E. Banducci; Ana M. Daugherty; John R. Biggan; Gillian E. Cooke; Michelle Voss; Tony Noice; Helga Noice; Arthur F. Kramer

    2017-01-01

    Active experiencing (AE) is an intervention aimed at attenuating cognitive declines with mindfulness training via an immersive acting program, and has produced promising results in older adults with limited formal education...

  7. Transient Neurological Symptoms after Spinal Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Hatipoglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lidocaine has been used for more than 50 years for spinal anesthesia and has a remarkable safety record. In 1993, a new adverse effect, transient neurologic toxicity was described in patients recovering from spinal anesthesia with lidocaine. Transient neurological symptoms have been defined as pain in the lower extremities (buttocks, thighs and legs after an uncomplicated spinal anesthesia and after an initial full recovery during the immediate postoperative period (less than 24 h. The incidence of transient neurological symptoms reported in prospective, randomized trials varies from 4% to 37%. The etiology of transient neurological symptoms remains unkonwn. Despite the transient nature of this syndrome, it has proven to be difficult to treat effectively. Drug or some interventional therapy may be necessary. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 33-44

  8. Machine Learning for Zwicky Transient Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabal, Ashish; Zwicky Transient Facility, Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey

    2018-01-01

    The Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) will operate from 2018 to 2020 covering the accessible sky with its large 47 square degree camera. The transient detection rate is expected to be about a million per night. ZTF is thus a perfect LSST prototype. The big difference is that all of the ZTF transients can be followed up by 4- to 8-m class telescopes. Given the large numbers, using human scanners for separating the genuine transients from artifacts is out of question. For that first step as well as for classifying the transients with minimal follow-up requires machine learning. We describe the tools and plans to take on this task using follow-up facilities, and knowledge gained from archival datasets.

  9. [A Case of Spinal Epidural Hematoma Presenting with Transient Hemiplegia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komai, Takanori; Nakashima, Kazuya; Tominaga, Takashi; Nogaki, Hidekazu

    2016-04-01

    We report a rare case of a patient with spinal epidural hematoma who presented with transient hemiplegia. A 90-year-old man awakened from sleep due to sudden neck pain. Fifteen minutes later, the man experienced progressively worsening weakness in his left hand, and was transported in an ambulance to our hospital. At the hospital, he presented with hemiplegia, and we suspected intracranial disease. Therefore, we performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which revealed no intracranial lesions. Shortly after the MRI, the patient showed no signs of hemiplegia. However, since the severe neck pain persisted, we performed cervical MRI, which showed a high-intensity area at the C2-C5 level, predominantly on the left side. Despite recovery from hemiplegia, we performed a laminectomy of C3-C5 with evacuation of a hematoma at the C2-C6 level. After the surgery, the patient had no neck pain.

  10. Transient sensitivity to nisin in cold-shocked Gram negatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boziaris, I S; Adams, M R

    2000-09-01

    Rapid chilling in the presence of nisin caused a dose-dependent reduction in the populations of several Gram-negative bacteria, despite the fact that appreciable structural injury to the outer membrane was not detected. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was most affected, followed by Pseudomonas fragi, Salmonella enteritidis PT4, PT7 and Escherichia coli, respectively. Addition of nisin after the chilling treatment had no effect. The results are ascribed to a transient susceptibility caused by phase changes in the lipids associated with the outer membrane, which are rapidly reversed when the cells return to higher temperatures. Combinations of chilling shock, nisin and EDTA gave much lower reductions of Salmonella and Pseudomonas on chicken skin in comparison with broths. This is attributed to a buffering of the temperature shock experienced by adherent bacteria and binding of the nisin by food particles.

  11. Advance Selling in the Presence of Experienced Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Loginova; X. Hnery Wang; Chenhang Zeng

    2011-01-01

    The advance selling strategy is implemented when a firm offers consumers the opportunity to order its product in advance of the regular selling season. Advance selling reduces uncertainty for both the firm and the buyer and enables the firm to update its forecast of future demand. The distinctive feature of the present theoretical study of advance selling is that we divide consumers into two groups, experienced and inexperienced. Experienced consumers know their valuations of the product in a...

  12. Energetic ion leakage from foreshock transient cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Terry Z.; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Hietala, Heli

    2017-07-01

    Earth's foreshock is filled with backstreaming particles that can interact with the ambient solar wind and its discontinuities to form foreshock transients. Many foreshock transients have a core with low dynamic pressure that can significantly perturb the bow shock and the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. Foreshock transients have also been recently recognized as sites of particle acceleration, which may be important for seeding the parent shock with energetic particles. A relevant step of this seeding would be energetic ion leakage into the surrounding foreshock environment. On the other hand, such leakage would also suppress the energetic particle flux contrast across foreshock transients' boundaries masking their perceived contribution to ion energization. To further examine this hypothesis of ion leakage, we report on multipoint case studies of three foreshock transient events selected from a large database. The cases were selected to exemplify, in increasing complexity, the nature and consequences of energetic ion leakage. Ion energy dispersion, observed upstream and/or downstream of the foreshock transients, is explained with a simple, ballistic model of ions leaking from the foreshock transients. Larger energies are required for leaked ions to reach the spacecraft as the distance between the transient and spacecraft increases. Our model, which explains well the observed ion energy dispersion and velocity distributions, can also be used to reveal the shape of the foreshock transients in three dimensions. Our results suggest that ion leakage from foreshock transient cores needs to be accounted for both in statistical studies and in global models of ion acceleration under quasi-parallel foreshock conditions.

  13. Experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdok, Hilde; Cronie, Doug; van der Speld, Cecile; van Dillen, Jeroen; de Jonge, Ank; Rijnders, Marlies; de Graaf, Irene; Schellevis, François G; Verhoeven, Corine J

    2017-11-01

    High levels of experienced job autonomy are found to be beneficial for healthcare professionals and for the relationship with their patients. The aim of this study was to assess how maternity care professionals in the Netherlands perceive their job autonomy in the Dutch maternity care system and whether they expect a new system of integrated maternity care to affect their experienced job autonomy. A cross-sectional survey. The Leiden Quality of Work Life Questionnaire was used to assess experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals. Data were collected in the Netherlands in 2015. 799 professionals participated of whom 362 were primary care midwives, 240 obstetricians, 93 clinical midwives and 104 obstetric nurses. The mean score for experienced job autonomy was highest for primary care midwives, followed by obstetricians, clinical midwives and obstetric nurses. Primary care midwives scored highest in expecting to lose their job autonomy in an integrated care system. There are significant differences in experienced job autonomy between maternity care professionals. When changing the maternity care system it will be a challenge to maintain a high level of experienced job autonomy for professionals. A decrease in job autonomy could lead to a reduction in job related wellbeing and in satisfaction with care among pregnant women. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Experienced and potential medical tourists' service quality expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiry, Michael; Scott, Jeannie J; Vequist, David G

    2013-01-01

    The paper's aim is to compare experienced and potential US medical tourists' foreign health service-quality expectations. Data were collected via an online survey involving 1,588 US consumers engaging or expressing an interest in medical tourism. The sample included 219 experienced and 1,369 potential medical tourists. Respondents completed a SERVQUAL questionnaire. Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to determine significant differences between experienced and potential US medical tourists' service-quality expectations. For all five service-quality dimensions (tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy) experienced medical tourists had significantly lower expectations than potential medical tourists. Experienced medical tourists also had significantly lower service-quality expectations than potential medical tourists for 11 individual SERVQUAL items. Results suggest using experience level to segment medical tourists. The study also has implications for managing medical tourist service-quality expectations at service delivery point and via external marketing communications. Managing medical tourists' service quality expectations is important since expectations can significantly influence choice processes, their experience and post-consumption behavior. This study is the first to compare experienced and potential US medical tourist service-quality expectations. The study establishes a foundation for future service-quality expectations research in the rapidly growing medical tourism industry.

  15. Transient thermohydraulic heat pipe modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michael L.; Doster, Joseph M.

    Many space based reactor designs employ heat pipes as a means of conveying heat. In these designs, thermal radiation is the principle means for rejecting waste heat from the reactor system, making it desirable to operate at high temperatures. Lithium is generally the working fluid of choice as it undergoes a liquid-vapor transformation at the preferred operating temperature. The nature of remote startup, restart, and reaction to threats necessitates an accurate, detailed transient model of the heat pipe operation. A model is outlined of the vapor core region of the heat pipe which is part of a large model of the entire heat pipe thermal response. The vapor core is modeled using the area averaged Navier-Stokes equations in one dimension, which take into account the effects of mass, energy and momentum transfer. The core model is single phase (gaseous), but contains two components: lithium gas and a noncondensible vapor. The vapor core model consists of the continuity equations for the mixture and noncondensible, as well as mixture equations for internal energy and momentum.

  16. Clinical applications of transient elastography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Sik Jung

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic liver disease represents a major public health problem, accounting for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. As prognosis and management depend mainly on the amount and progression of liver fibrosis, accurate quantification of liver fibrosis is essential for therapeutic decision-making and follow-up of chronic liver diseases. Even though liver biopsy is the gold standard for evaluation of liver fibrosis, non-invasive methods that could substitute for invasive procedures have been investigated during past decades. Transient elastography (TE, FibroScan® is a novel non-invasive method for assessment of liver fibrosis with chronic liver disease. TE can be performed in the outpatient clinic with immediate results and excellent reproducibility. Its diagnostic accuracy for assessment of liver fibrosis has been demonstrated in patients with chronic viral hepatitis; as a result, unnecessary liver biopsy could be avoided in some patients. Moreover, due to its excellent patient acceptance, TE could be used for monitoring disease progression or predicting development of liver-related complications. This review aims at discussing the usefulness of TE in clinical practice.

  17. Older people experiencing homelessness show marked impairment on tests of frontal lobe function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogoz, Astrid; Burke, David

    2016-03-01

    Reported rates of mild and moderate cognitive impairment in older people experiencing homelessness range from 5-80%. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of cognitive impairment in older people experiencing homelessness in the inner city of Sydney, Australia. Men and women experiencing homelessness aged 45 years and over in the inner city were screened for cognitive impairment. Participants who scored 26 or below on the mini-mental state examination and/or were impaired on any one of the clock-drawing test, the verbal fluency test and the trail-making test, part B were then assessed with a semi-structured interview, including the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Screening of 144 men and 27 women aged between 45 years and 93 years identified cognitive impairment in 78%. Subsequently, high rates of mental and physical illness were identified, and 75% of subjects who were cognitively impaired performed poorly on frontal lobe tests. The trail-making test, part B was the most sensitive measure of frontal function. This study demonstrated that a large majority of older people experiencing homelessness, in the inner city of a high-income country, showed impairment on tests of frontal lobe function, a finding that could have significant implications for any medical or psychosocial intervention. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Acute effects of ayahuasca on neuropsychological performance: differences in executive function between experienced and occasional users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouso, José Carlos; Fábregas, Josep Maria; Antonijoan, Rosa Maria; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Riba, Jordi

    2013-12-01

    Ayahuasca, a South American psychotropic plant tea containing the psychedelic 5-HT2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine, has been shown to increase regional cerebral blood flow in prefrontal brain regions after acute administration to humans. Despite interactions at this level, neuropsychological studies have not found cognitive deficits in abstinent long-term users. Here, we wished to investigate the effects of acute ayahuasca intake on neuropsychological performance, specifically on working memory and executive function. Twenty-four ayahuasca users (11 long-term experienced users and 13 occasional users) were assessed in their habitual setting using the Stroop, Sternberg, and Tower of London tasks prior to and following ayahuasca intake. Errors in the Sternberg task increased, whereas reaction times in the Stroop task decreased and accuracy was maintained for the whole sample following ayahuasca intake. Interestingly, results in the Tower of London showed significantly increased execution and resolution times and number of movements for the occasional but not the experienced users. Additionally, a correlation analysis including all subjects showed that impaired performance in the Tower of London was inversely correlated with lifetime ayahuasca use. Acute ayahuasca administration impaired working memory but decreased stimulus-response interference. Interestingly, detrimental effects on higher cognition were only observed in the less experienced group. Rather than leading to increased impairment, greater prior exposure to ayahuasca was associated with reduced incapacitation. Compensatory or neuromodulatory effects associated with long-term ayahuasca intake could underlie preserved executive function in experienced users.

  19. The role of rumination in the occurrence of positive effects of experienced traumatic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ogińska-Bulik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Cognitive processes play a significant role in both the negative and positive consequences of traumatic experiences. The aim of this research was to investigate the role of rumination in the occurrence of positive effects, in the form of posttraumatic growth, of experienced traumatic events. Participants and procedure Data were collected from 227 subjects who had experienced traumatic events, including cancer patients (31.30%, women who had experienced domestic violence (39.20%, and medical rescue workers exposed to traumatic events at work (29.50%. The age of participants ranged from 19 to 67 years (M = 40.12, SD = 13.28. The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory was used to measure positive changes, and the Event Related Rumination Inventory was used to assess the two types of ruminations (intrusive and deliberate. Results Both types of ruminations (intrusive and deliberate were positively correlated with the level of posttraumatic growth in the group of cancer patients, and deliberate ruminations were associated with posttraumatic growth in the group of women who had experienced domestic violence and in the medical rescue workers. The results of regression analysis confirmed a significant role of deliberate rumination. Conclusions The study of ruminations allows us to better explain the mechanisms underlying the consequences of traumatic experiences.

  20. Transient global amnesia and neurological events: the Framingham Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Rafael Romero

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/ objective: Transient global amnesia (TGA is a temporary amnestic syndrome characterized by lack of other focal neurological deficits. Cerebrovascular disease, migraine and seizures have been suggested as underlying mechanisms. TGA may be a risk factor for cerebrovascular or other neurological events. We studied the relation of TGA, vascular risk factors, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI indices of subclinical ischemia and neurological events in a community-based sample. Design/setting: A total of 12 TGA cases were ascertained using standard criteria by experienced neurologists, and matched to 41 stroke- and seizure-free controls. Vascular risk factors, brain MRI findings, and subsequent cerebrovascular or seizure events were compared in cases and controls. Participants: Framingham Heart Study (FHS original and offspring cohort participants were included.Results: No significant differences between the groups were observed in the prevalence of vascular risk factors, or brain MRI measures. Few incident stroke/transient ischemic attacks (TIA (1 event among the cases and 4 in controls or subsequent seizures occurred in either group. Head CT during the acute event (n=11 and brain MRI (n=7 were negative for acute abnormalities. Electroencephalograms (EEG (n=5 were negative for epileptiform activity. Extracranial vascular studies were negative for significant stenosis in all cases.Conclusions: In our community-based study TGA was not related to traditional vascular risk factors, or cerebrovascular disease. However, our study is limited by small sample size and power, and larger studies are required to exclude an association.

  1. Transient Mechanical Response of Lung Airway Tissue during Mechanical Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israr Bin Muhammad Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with acute lung injury, airway and other pulmonary diseases often require Mechanical Ventilation (MV. Knowledge of the stress/strain environment in lung airway tissues is very important in order to avoid lung injuries for patients undergoing MV. Airway tissue strains responsible for stressing the lung’s fiber network and rupturing the lung due to compliant airways are very difficult to measure experimentally. Multi-level modeling is adopted to investigate the transient mechanical response of the tissue under MV. First, airflow through a lung airway bifurcation (Generation 4–6 is modeled using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD to obtain air pressure during 2 seconds of MV breathing. Next, the transient air pressure was used in structural analysis to obtain mechanical strain experienced by the airway tissue wall. Structural analysis showed that airway tissue from Generation 5 in one bifurcation can stretch eight times that of airway tissue of the same generation number but with different bifurcation. The results suggest sensitivity of load to geometrical features. Furthermore, the results of strain levels obtained from the tissue analysis are very important because these strains at the cellular-level can create inflammatory responses, thus damaging the airway tissues.

  2. Shielding of Electronic Systems against Transient Electromagnetic Interferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Herlemann

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to protect electronic systems against the effects of transient electromagnetic interferences, shields made of electrically conductive material can be used. The subject of this paper is an electrically conductive textile. When applying the shield, a reliable measure is needed in order to determine the effectiveness of the shield to protect against electromagnetic pulses. For this purpose, a time domain measurement technique is presented using double exponential pulses. With these pulses, the susceptibility of an operating electronic device with and without the shield is determined. As a criterion of quality of a shield, the breakdown failure rate found in both cases is compared.

  3. Discrete oscillator design linear, nonlinear, transient, and noise domains

    CERN Document Server

    Rhea, Randall W

    2014-01-01

    Oscillators are an essential part of all spread spectrum, RF, and wireless systems, and today's engineers in the field need to have a firm grasp on how they are designed. Presenting an easy-to-understand, unified view of the subject, this authoritative resource covers the practical design of high-frequency oscillators with lumped, distributed, dielectric and piezoelectric resonators. Including numerous examples, the book details important linear, nonlinear harmonic balance, transient and noise analysis techniques. Moreover, the book shows you how to apply these techniques to a wide range of os

  4. Calculation of surface impedance effects on transient antenna radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, S. M.; Lambert, A. P.; Smith, P. D.

    1996-11-01

    A numerical time domain approach to radiation and scattering problems is introduced for surfaces of arbitrary conductivity. This approach is based upon a method of moments solution of the electric field integral equation. The problem is posed as a second-kind integral equation in discrete time for those regions of the surface with finite conductivity; it is shown that this formulation possesses desirable stability properties. The numerical method introduced is used to determine the far field radiation of both directive and nondirective transient antennas excited by temporally compact, ultrawideband pulses when the antenna surfaces are subject to a Wu-King surface impedance profile. Such loads are shown to suppress the "late time ringing" resulting from reflected surface currents without significantly affecting the initial radiated waveform. In the case of nondirective transient radiators, such as the bicone or bow tie antenna, the presence of a surface loading has no effect on the peak radiated field strength. In the case of a directive transient radiator, such as a transverse electromagnetic horn, the introduction of a surface impedance reduces the radiated field strength somewhat. The difference in the physical behavior of these two classes of antenna is accounted for.

  5. Feasibility study on the transient fuel test loop installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. Y.; Lee, C. Y.

    1997-02-01

    The design and installation of the irradiation test facility for verification test of the fuel performance are very important in connection with maximization of the utilization of HANARO. The objective of this study is to investigate and analyze the test capsules and loops in research reactors of the other countries and to design preliminarily the eligible transient fuel test facility to be installed in HANARO. The principle subjects of this study are to analyze the contents, kinds and scopes of the irradiation test facilities for nuclear technology development. The guidances for the basic and detail design of the transient fuel test facility in the future are presented. The investigation and analysis of various kinds of test facilities that are now in operation at the research reactors of nuclear advanced countries are carried out. Based on the design data of HANARO the design materials for an eligible transient fuel test facility comprises two pacts : namely, in pile test fuel in reactor core site, and out of pile system regulates the experimental conditions in the in pile test section. Especially for power ramping and cycling selection of the eligible power variation equipment in HANARO is carried out. (author). 13 refs., 4 tabs., 46 figs.

  6. Distinct features of auditory steady-state responses as compared to transient event-related potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    Full Text Available Transient event-related potentials (ERPs and steady-state responses (SSRs have been popularly employed to investigate the function of the human brain, but their relationship still remains a matter of debate. Some researchers believed that SSRs could be explained by the linear summation of successive transient ERPs (superposition hypothesis, while others believed that SSRs were the result of the entrainment of a neural rhythm driven by the periodic repetition of a sensory stimulus (oscillatory entrainment hypothesis. In the present study, taking auditory modality as an example, we aimed to clarify the distinct features of SSRs, evoked by the 40-Hz and 60-Hz periodic auditory stimulation, as compared to transient ERPs, evoked by a single click. We observed that (1 SSRs were mainly generated by phase synchronization, while late latency responses (LLRs in transient ERPs were mainly generated by power enhancement; (2 scalp topographies of LLRs in transient ERPs were markedly different from those of SSRs; (3 the powers of both 40-Hz and 60-Hz SSRs were significantly correlated, while they were not significantly correlated with the N1 power in transient ERPs; (4 whereas SSRs were dominantly modulated by stimulus intensity, middle latency responses (MLRs were not significantly modulated by both stimulus intensity and subjective loudness judgment, and LLRs were significantly modulated by subjective loudness judgment even within the same stimulus intensity. All these findings indicated that high-frequency SSRs were different from both MLRs and LLRs in transient ERPs, thus supporting the possibility of oscillatory entrainment hypothesis to the generation of SSRs. Therefore, SSRs could be used to explore distinct neural responses as compared to transient ERPs, and help us reveal novel and reliable neural mechanisms of the human brain.

  7. Relationship between motor function of the proximal stomach and transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation after morphine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penagini, R; Allocca, M; Cantù, P; Mangano, M; Savojardo, D; Carmagnola, S; Bianchi, P A

    2004-01-01

    Background: Morphine reduces the rate of transient lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) relaxations but its site of action is presently unknown. There are no data available concerning its motor effects on the proximal stomach, an important site for triggering transient LOS relaxations. Aim: To evaluate the effect of morphine on the rate of transient LOS relaxations and motor function of the proximal stomach. Subjects and methods: In 19 healthy subjects, concurrent transient LOS relaxations with a sleeve sensor and motor function of the proximal stomach with a bag connected to an electronic barostat were recorded during pressure controlled (n = 9) and volume controlled (n = 10) gastric distensions after intravenous administration of placebo and morphine 100 μg/kg. Results: During pressure controlled distensions, intrabag volume was markedly decreased by morphine (median 189 ml (interquartile range 101–448) v 404 (265–868) after placebo; p<0.01) as was the rate of transient LOS relaxations (0.5/30 minutes (0.4–2) v 2.5 (2–4); p<0.01). When intrabag volume was kept constant (525 ml (490–600)) (that is, in volume controlled distensions), the rate of transient LOS relaxations was not affected by morphine (2/30 minutes (2–3) v 2.5 (2–3)). Gastric contractions decreased after morphine similarly during pressure controlled and volume controlled distensions (8.5/30 minutes (4–10) v 15.5 (9.5–20.5), p<0.02; and 6.5 (0–24) v 19.5 (12–22), p<0.05). Conclusions: The effect of morphine on transient LOS relaxations is dependent on the decrease in volume of the proximal stomach. Our data suggest that pharmacological interventions which decrease fundal volume should result in control of transient LOS relaxation mediated gastro-oesophageal reflux. PMID:15306575

  8. Pairing virtual reality with dynamic posturography serves to differentiate between patients experiencing visual vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshner, Emily A; Streepey, Jefferson; Dhaher, Yasin; Hain, Timothy

    2007-07-09

    To determine if increased visual dependence can be quantified through its impact on automatic postural responses, we have measured the combined effect on the latencies and magnitudes of postural response kinematics of transient optic flow in the pitch plane with platform rotations and translations. Six healthy (29-31 yrs) and 4 visually sensitive (27-57 yrs) subjects stood on a platform rotated (6 deg of dorsiflexion at 30 deg/sec) or translated (5 cm at 5 deg/sec) for 200 msec. Subjects either had eyes closed or viewed an immersive, stereo, wide field of view virtual environment (scene) moved in upward pitch for a 200 msec period for three 30 sec trials at 5 velocities. RMS values and peak velocities of head, trunk, and head with respect to trunk were calculated. EMG responses of 6 trunk and lower limb muscles were collected and latencies and magnitudes of responses determined. No effect of visual velocity was observed in EMG response latencies and magnitudes. Healthy subjects exhibited significant effects (p vestibular disorder demonstrated exceedingly large head velocities; patients with a history of vestibular disorder exhibited head velocities that fell within the bandwidth of healthy subjects. Differentiation of postural kinematics in visually sensitive subjects when exposed to the combined perturbations suggests that virtual reality technology could be useful for differential diagnosis and specifically designed interventions for individuals whose chief complaint is sensitivity to visual motion.

  9. A Case of Transient Global Amnesia with Small Left Putamen Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kosuke

    2017-01-01

    A 67-year-old right-handed woman experienced a sudden anterograde and retrograde short-term memory deficit that recovered on the next day. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a spotty high-intensity lesion in the left putamen in the diffusion-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. Transient global amnesia due to lacunar infarction of the left putamen was diagnosed. Transient global amnesia is characterized by a sudden onset of anterograde amnesia that disappears within 24 hours. The cause of transient global amnesia is still uncertain. Some studies with MRI showed small lesions in the hippocampus at 24-74 hours after the episode. These lesions disappear within several weeks. However, our case of transient global amnesia showed a small lesion in the left putamen, not the hippocampus. Some studies with functional MRI reported that the stratum plays an important role in short-term memory and cognitive function. This case showed only a left putamen lesion, which indicates that a putamen lesion can cause transient global amnesia. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Transient epileptic amnesia: a concise review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A

    2014-02-01

    Transient epileptic amnesia (TEA) is a distinctive syndrome and comprises episodic transient amnesia with an epileptic basis, without impairment of other aspects of cognitive function. Additional interictal memory deficits are common in TEA. An epileptic origin, after other etiologies have been excluded, should be considered and carefully investigated in patients complaining of isolated memory disturbances, particularly with recurrent short-lasting amnesic attacks. In all suspected cases of epilepsy, a detailed clinical history is of paramount importance, but ancillary tests including EEG and MRI could be very helpful. Transient epileptic amnesia is typically a benign and treatable condition. Future studies should investigate the exact mechanism(s) of this unique syndrome. © 2013.

  11. Conducted Transients on Spacecraft Primary Power Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Closkey, John; Dimov, Jen

    2017-01-01

    One of the sources of potential interference on spacecraft primary power lines is that of conducted transients resulting from equipment being switched on and off of the bus. Susceptibility to such transients is addressed by some version of the CS06 requirement of MIL-STD-461462. This presentation provides a summary of the history of the CS06 requirement and test method, a basis for understanding of the sources of these transients, analysis techniques for determining their worst-case characteristics, and guidelines for minimizing their magnitudes and applying the requirement appropriately.

  12. Transient phenomena in electrical power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Venikov, V A; Higinbotham, W

    1964-01-01

    Electronics and Instrumentation, Volume 24: Transient Phenomena in Electrical Power Systems presents the methods for calculating the stability and the transient behavior of systems with forced excitation control. This book provides information pertinent to the analysis of transient phenomena in electro-mechanical systems.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the principal requirements in an excitation system. This text then explains the electromagnetic and electro-mechanical phenomena, taking into account the mutual action between the components of the system. Ot

  13. Breaking up Romantic Relationships: Costs Experienced and Coping Strategies Deployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carin Perilloux

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined differences between men and women, and between individuals experiencing rejection (Rejectees and individuals doing the rejecting (Rejectors in romantic relationship break-ups. We tested fourteen evolution-based predictions about romantic breakups using data from 193 participants; ten received support. Women more than men, for example, experienced costly sequelae such as the loss of a mate's physical protection and harmful post-breakup stalking by the ex-partner. Both men and women who were rejected, compared with those who did the rejecting, experienced more depression, loss of self-esteem, and rumination. Rejectors, on the other hand, experienced the reputational cost of being perceived by others as cruel. Exploratory data analyses revealed that women more than men reported experiencing negative emotions after a breakup, particularly feeling sad, confused, and scared. Both sexes used an array of strategies to cope with the breakup, ranging from high base-rate strategies such as discussing the breakup with friends to low base-rate strategies such as threatening suicide. The largest sex difference in coping strategies centered on the act of shopping, used by women Rejectors as well as women Rejectees, likely a strategy of appearance enhancement prior to reentering the mating market. Discussion focuses on the adaptive significance of sex differences and individual differences based on rejection status.

  14. Experienced drug users assess the relative harms and benefits of drugs: a web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin Lester; Nutt, David John

    2013-01-01

    A web-based survey was used to consult the opinions of experienced drug users on matters related to drug harms. We identified a rare sample of 93 drug users with personal experience with 11 different illicit drugs that are widely used in the UK. Asked to assess the relative harms of these drugs, they ranked alcohol and tobacco as the most harmful, and three "Class A" drugs (MDMA, LSD, and psilocybin) and one class B (cannabis) were ranked as the four least harmful drugs. When asked to assess the relative potential for benefit of the 11 drugs, MDMA, LSD, psilocybin, and cannabis were ranked in the top four; and when asked why these drugs are beneficial, rather than simply report hedonic properties, they referred to potential therapeutic applications (e.g., as tools to assist psychotherapy). These results provide a useful insight into the opinions of experienced drug users on a subject about which they have a rare and intimate knowledge.

  15. Leaving or Staying in Teaching: A "Vignette" of an Experienced Urban Teacher "Leaver" of A London Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, Emma; Maguire, Meg

    2017-01-01

    In the field of teacher attrition, there is a significant body of literature on why teachers leave high-needs urban schools and particularly why beginning teachers leave their schools and the profession. However, there is little research on the reasons why experienced teachers leave the teaching profession. This paper examines this subject by…

  16. Use of analogies by novice and experienced design engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema; Christensen, Bo T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a study to understand the use of analogies by design engineers with different levels of experience. Protocol analyses of twelve design engineers have been analysed to understand the functions and reasoning of the analogies. The protocols are real world data from the aerospace...... industry. The findings indicate a significant difference in both the functions and reasoning by novices and experienced designers. Novices were found to predominantly transfer information without explicit reference to design issues, whereas experienced designers tended to either solve or identify problems....... Experienced designers were found to reason about the function of a component and to some degree the predicted behaviour of the component, whereas the novices seem to lack such reasoning processes....

  17. Mapping Discrimination Experienced by Indonesian Trans* FtM Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Danny; Pratama, Mario Prajna

    2017-01-01

    This work sought to document how Indonesian trans* FtM persons experienced discrimination across the interlinked domains of social networks, religious and educational institutions, employment and the workplace, and health care institutions. Objectives were (1) to map the discrimination experienced by trans* FtM individuals in Indonesia, and (2) to establish the specific priorities of the Indonesian trans* FtM community. In-depth interviews, focus groups, and participant observation was used involving 14 respondents. Findings revealed that respondents experienced othering through rejection, misidentification, harassment, "correction," and bureaucratic discrimination across the five preestablished domains. Health care and a lack of information emerged as areas of particular concern for respondents. This work calls for health care that is sensitive to the needs of trans* FtM people coupled with high-quality information to alleviate the cycles through which discrimination is sustained.

  18. Detection of Transient Signals in Doppler Spectra

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Signal processing is used to detect transient signals in the presence of noise. Two embodiments are disclosed. In both embodiments, the time series from a remote...

  19. Prony Analysis for Power System Transient Harmonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cartes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Proliferation of nonlinear loads in power systems has increased harmonic pollution and deteriorated power quality. Not required to have prior knowledge of existing harmonics, Prony analysis detects frequencies, magnitudes, phases, and especially damping factors of exponential decaying or growing transient harmonics. In this paper, Prony analysis is implemented to supervise power system transient harmonics, or time-varying harmonics. Further, to improve power quality when transient harmonics appear, the dominant harmonics identified from Prony analysis are used as the harmonic reference for harmonic selective active filters. Simulation results of two test systems during transformer energizing and induction motor starting confirm the effectiveness of the Prony analysis in supervising and canceling power system transient harmonics.

  20. Transient Analysis of Manufacturing Systems Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Narahari, Y.; Viswanadham, N

    1994-01-01

    Studies in performance evaluation of automated manufacturing systems, using simulation or analytical models,have always emphasized steady-state or equilibrium performance in preference to transient performance. In this study, we present several situations in manufacturing systems where transient analysis is very important. Manufacturing systems and models in which such situations arise include: systems with failure states and deadlocks, unstable queueing systems, and systems with fluctuating ...

  1. Cable system transients theory, modeling and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ametani, Akihiro; Nagaoka, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    A systematic and comprehensive introduction to electromagnetic transient in cable systems, written by the internationally renowned pioneer in this field Presents a systematic and comprehensive introduction to electromagnetic transient in cable systems Written by the internationally renowned pioneer in the field Thorough coverage of the state of the art on the topic, presented in a well-organized, logical style, from fundamentals and practical applications A companion website is available

  2. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  3. Not as transient: patients with transient ischaemic attack or minor stroke experience cognitive and communication problems; an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fens, Manon; van Heugten, Caroline M; Beusmans, George H M I; Limburg, Martien; Haeren, Roel; Kaemingk, Anita; Metsemakers, Job F M

    2013-03-01

    Patients with transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke generally receive, besides secondary prevention, no regular follow up care after discharge directly home from the Emergency Room or TIA outpatient clinic; because it is believed that they will experience no consequences. To explore whether the TIA and minor stroke patients have persistent problems due to the event. This study has a cross-sectional, comparative non-randomized, exploratory design. Patients with TIA or minor stroke, not requiring hospital admission, and a control group of stroke patients, recently discharged home, were selected and interviewed with a questionnaire by telephone or home visit, between one and eight months after the event. Patients with angina pectoris (AP) were recruited as a second control group. Data showed that 51% of the TIA and minor stroke patients and 71% of the stroke patients experienced five or more problems, as opposed to 32% of patients with AP. Between 39 and 49% of the TIA, minor stroke and the stroke patients reported cognitive and communicative difficulties. Moreover, the TIA and minor stroke patients had more cognitive deficits (n = 27, 49%) and communicative limitations (n = 23, 42%) than the AP group (n = 7, 10% and n = 4, 6%, respectively). About half of the TIA and minor stroke patients experienced problems regarding cognition and communication, which were specific to the event. General practitioners should be aware of these potential problems and monitor patients regularly. Future research should focus on prognostic indicators to identify patients at risk.

  4. Dynamic instability of dielectric elastomer actuators subjected to unequal biaxial prestress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Atul Kumar; Bajpayee, S.; Joglekar, D. M.; Joglekar, M. M.

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents a Hamiltonian approach for extracting the dynamic instability parameters of homogeneously deforming dielectric elastomer actuators subjected to an unequal biaxial prestress, and driven by a suddenly applied electric load. The approach relies on setting up the balance between the kinetic, strain, and electrostatic energy at the point of maximum overshoot in an oscillation cycle. The equation of the stagnation curve, obtained by invoking aforestated statement of energy-balance, is operated upon by the condition of instability to determine the instability parameters. The underlying principles of the approach are elucidated by considering the Ogden family of hyperelastic material models. The approach is however portrayed generically, and hence, can be extended to the other hyperelastic material models of interest. The estimates of the dynamic instability parameters are corroborated by examining the saddle-node bifurcation points in the time-history response obtained by integrating the equation of motion. A parametric study is conducted to bring out the effect of unequal biaxial prestress, and the trends of variation of the critical electric field and the thickness-stretch on the onset of dynamic instability are presented. A quantitative comparison with the static instability parameters reveals that the dynamic instability gets triggered for electric fields that are lower than those corresponding to the static instability. In contrast, the maximum stretch experienced by the actuator at the dynamic instability is significantly higher than that at the static instability. The crucial inferences can find their potential use in the design of DEAs subjected to a transient motion.

  5. Exploring transient detection with WFI onboard Athena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Pragati; Kennea, Jamie; Falcone, Abraham; Burrows, David N.

    2018-01-01

    X-ray transients are among the most enigmatic objects in the cosmic sky. The unpredictability of their transient behaviour has been a study of much interest in the recent years. While significant progress has been made in this direction, a more complete understanding of such events is often hampered by the delay in the rapid follow-up of any transient event. An efficient way to mitigate this constraint would be to devise a way for onboard detection of such transient phenomenon. The Wide Field Imager (WFI), which is a part of the upcoming X-ray mission Athena, with its 40' X 40' field of view can add some valuable contribution to this In this work, we aim to discuss an algorithm for the on-board detection of X-ray transients with WFI. We will also present a few test cases for the feasibility test of that algorithm on Swift-XRT data. Finally, we discuss what type of X-ray transients are best suited for onboard detection from WFI, their probability of detections and the useful science that can follow.

  6. Pairing virtual reality with dynamic posturography serves to differentiate between patients experiencing visual vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streepey Jefferson

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine if increased visual dependence can be quantified through its impact on automatic postural responses, we have measured the combined effect on the latencies and magnitudes of postural response kinematics of transient optic flow in the pitch plane with platform rotations and translations. Methods Six healthy (29–31 yrs and 4 visually sensitive (27–57 yrs subjects stood on a platform rotated (6 deg of dorsiflexion at 30 deg/sec or translated (5 cm at 5 deg/sec for 200 msec. Subjects either had eyes closed or viewed an immersive, stereo, wide field of view virtual environment (scene moved in upward pitch for a 200 msec period for three 30 sec trials at 5 velocities. RMS values and peak velocities of head, trunk, and head with respect to trunk were calculated. EMG responses of 6 trunk and lower limb muscles were collected and latencies and magnitudes of responses determined. Results No effect of visual velocity was observed in EMG response latencies and magnitudes. Healthy subjects exhibited significant effects (p p Conclusion Differentiation of postural kinematics in visually sensitive subjects when exposed to the combined perturbations suggests that virtual reality technology could be useful for differential diagnosis and specifically designed interventions for individuals whose chief complaint is sensitivity to visual motion.

  7. Objective and subjective assessing efficacy of a lubricating drop in eyes wearing silicone hydrogel contact lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Asharlous

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Our results showed that although the lubricating drop did not improve the tear film stability and optical quality in the silicone hydrogel contact lens wearers, subjects experienced a subjective improvement.

  8. Brain correlates of subjective freedom of choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filevich, Elisa; Vanneste, Patricia; Brass, Marcel; Fias, Wim; Haggard, Patrick; Kühn, Simone

    2013-01-01

    The subjective feeling of free choice is an important feature of human experience. Experimental tasks have typically studied free choice by contrasting free and instructed selection of response alternatives. These tasks have been criticised, and it remains unclear how they relate to the subjective feeling of freely choosing. We replicated previous findings of the fMRI correlates of free choice, defined objectively. We introduced a novel task in which participants could experience and report a graded sense of free choice. BOLD responses for conditions subjectively experienced as free identified a postcentral area distinct from the areas typically considered to be involved in free action. Thus, the brain correlates of subjective feeling of free action were not directly related to any established brain correlates of objectively-defined free action. Our results call into question traditional assumptions about the relation between subjective experience of choosing and activity in the brain’s so-called voluntary motor areas. PMID:24021855

  9. Transient flows of Newtonian viscous fluids in a tube extended by a viscoelastic vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennis, S.; Ly, D.; Bellet, D. (C.N.R.S., 31 - Toulouse (France))

    1982-09-20

    A resolution method based on symbolical calculation is finalized and applied to the determination of fields of velocity and power load, in Newtonian transient flows in a rigid tube one end of which is extended by a viscoelastic vessel and the other subjected to variable pressures.

  10. Transient thermal sensation and comfort resulting from adjustment of clothing insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goto, Tomonobu; Toftum, Jørn; Fanger, Povl Ole

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the transient effects on human thermal responses of clothing adjustments. Two different levels of activity were tested, and the temperature was set to result in a warm or cool thermal sensation at each activity level. The subjects (12 females and 12 males) wore identical...... minutes after both an increase and a decrease of clothing insulation, independent of the activity level....

  11. Transient charging and discharging of spin-polarized electrons in a quantum dot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Souza, Fabricio; Leao, S.A.; Gester, R. M.

    2007-01-01

    We study spin-polarized transient transport in a quantum dot coupled to two ferromagnetic leads subjected to a rectangular bias voltage pulse. Time-dependent spin-resolved currents, occupations, spin accumulation, and tunneling magnetoresistance TMR are calculated using both nonequilibrium Green ...

  12. Transient profound mesenteric ischemia strongly affects the strength of intestinal anastomoses in the rat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posma, L.A.; Bleichrodt, R.P.; Goor, H. van; Hendriks, T.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Experimental data suggest that transient preoperative ischemia and reperfusion may compromise anastomotic strength. However, data on this subject are equivocal, in particular as to the onset and duration of this effect. This study was designed to comprehensively characterize the effects of

  13. Analytical Solution for Transient Water Table Heights and Outflows from Inclined Ditch-Drained Terrains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoest, N.E.C.; Pauwels, V.R.N.; Troch, P.A.; Troch, De F.P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents two analytical solutions of the linearized Boussinesq equation for an inclined aquifer, drained by ditches, subjected to a constant recharge rate. These solutions are based on different initial conditions. First, the transient solution is obtained for an initially fully saturated

  14. Correlates of condom use among sexually experienced secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analyses are based on 214 sexually experienced males aged 14 - 20 years who completed web-based questionnaires about their sexual attitudes and behaviour. Results indicate that students did not see themselves as susceptible to HIV/AIDS and believed condom effectiveness in preventing HIV to be low. Consequently ...

  15. Do in-car devices affect experienced users' driving performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapper, A.S.; Hagenzieker, M.P.; Brookhuis, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Distracted driving is considered to be an important factor in road safety. To investigate how experienced user's driving behaviour is affected by in-vehicle technology, a fixed-base driving simulator was used. 20 participants drove twice in a rich simulated traffic environment while performing

  16. Experiencing Beach in Australia: Study Abroad Students' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yoshifumi; Payne, Phillip G.

    2011-01-01

    The current "Australian-"ness"" of outdoor environmental education is an evolving "set" of socio-cultural constructions. These constructions can be interpreted within the circumstances of an empirical study of tertiary study abroad students' participation in an undergraduate semester long unit "Experiencing the…

  17. Environmental barriers experienced by stroke patients in Musanze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Patients with stroke experience a number of environmental barriers, limiting their re-integration. Information regarding the barriers experienced by patients with stroke in a specific setting such as the Musanze district in Rwanda would assist with the development of rehabilitation programmes that would take into ...

  18. Hearing Voices: Qualitative Research with Postsecondary Students Experiencing Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venville, Annie; Street, Annette F.

    2014-01-01

    Vocational Education and Training (VET) students experiencing mental illness have been described as one of the most vulnerable student groups in the Australian post-secondary sector. This vulnerability can be attributed to the impacts of illness, the oft-reported experiences of stigma and discrimination, and low educational outcomes. There is…

  19. Children with sickle cell disease who are experiencing psychosocial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of the study was to identify children with Sickle cell disease (SCD) who are experiencing psychosocial problems concurrently with their mothers; and comparing the dyads to determine correlation, pattern of correlation and to identify correlating or modifying factors. Method: The psychosocial impact ...

  20. On Mathematical Understanding: Perspectives of Experienced Chinese Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jinfa; Ding, Meixia

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have long debated the meaning of mathematical understanding and ways to achieve mathematical understanding. This study investigated experienced Chinese mathematics teachers' views about mathematical understanding. It was found that these mathematics teachers embrace the view that understanding is a web of connections, which is a result…

  1. Common difficulties experienced by grade 12 students in learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to examine the nature and causes of common difficulties experienced by grade twelve students in learning chemistry in Ebinat preparatory school. A qualitative method was employed to investigate the questions, which used interviews and questionnaires with students and teachers. The key ...

  2. The nature of workplace bullying experienced by teachers and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on the nature of workplace bullying experienced by teachers in South African schools and the biopsychosocial health effects that may arise from such victimisation. Voluntary victimised teachers who wanted to share their experiences were sampled using a lifestyle magazine and online articles.

  3. Counseling Adult Women Who Experienced Incest in Childhood or Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, Christine A.; Watts, Deborah L.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the definition and incidence of incest, counseling needs of incest victims, and strategies for working with women who experienced incest in childhood or adolescence. Identifies techniques and resources for individual and group counseling. Suggests counselors expand their knowledge about incest in order to offer appropriate services.…

  4. Persistent Classroom Management Training Needs of Experienced Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stough, Laura M.; Montague, Marcia L.; Landmark, Leena Jo; Williams-Diehm, Kendra

    2015-01-01

    Experienced special education teachers (n = 62) were surveyed on their professional preparation to become effective classroom managers. Despite having received extensive preservice training, over 83% of the sample reported being underprepared in classroom management and behavioral interventions. No statistically significant difference was found…

  5. The Changes in Experienced Teachers' Understanding towards Classroom Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersozlu, Alpay; Cayci, Dilara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the views of experienced teachers related to the changes in their understanding of classroom management in general terms until today. In this study according to the information given by teachers, it is expected to contribute to the discussions about the development of classroom management, which is a key to…

  6. Students' Ways of Experiencing Human-Centered Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltowski, Carla B.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the qualitatively different ways which students experienced human-centered design. The findings of this research are important in developing effective design learning experiences and have potential impact across design education. This study provides the basis for being able to assess learning of human-centered design which…

  7. Adolescent reports of experiencing gender based violence: findings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although a quarter of perpetrators were strangers, more were known to the victim. Findings suggest that adolescents are experiencing high levels of GBV from those known to them. Hence, there is a need for more accessible options for reporting and supporting adolescents to deal with these experiences, such as social ...

  8. Sources of marital stress experienced by married people as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated sources of marital stress experienced by married people as perceived by lecturers of College of Education. Respondents were stratified into different strata of gender, age group, educational qualification and number of children, after which simple random sampling technique was used for selecting 20 ...

  9. Simulated Citizen: How Students Experienced a Semester Length Legislative Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzler, Louis M.

    2010-01-01

    This collective case study contains the results of year-long inquiry into how students experienced a semester length legislative simulation that was rife with political conflict. Specifically the study sought to determine: what teaching strategies were employed, what role conflict played in affecting students' political engagement, and what the…

  10. A look at language problems experienced by children with hearing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results revealed that children with hearing impairments experienced communication and language problems at home and at school. They had to learn either Chishona or isiNdebele at home, as well as Zimbabwe Sign Language at school. There is need for the parents and siblings to be taught Zimbabwe Sign ...

  11. TESOL Degree Programs for Experienced English Teachers from Abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoof, Maurice

    1970-01-01

    Stated positively, the experienced foreign teacher of English comes to the United States to improve his English teaching abilities. Stated negatively, he comes, more often than not, to retrain rather than expand, to correct faulty language skills and improper or non-productive teaching practices. Identified here are some of the major problem areas…

  12. Experiencing and Verifying what is Felt as Real in Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the criteria by which films and scenes in films are experienced as real and argues that the feeling of realism is not congruent with what is actually real. It discusses how visual salience is one parameter, categorical match another. It argues that formal criteria are unable...

  13. Problems experienced by professional nurses providing care for HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to describe the problems experienced by professional nurses providing health care to patients living with HIV and AIDS in the public hospitals of Polokwane municipality, Limpopo province. A qualitative descriptive, contextual and phenomenology design was used to described the problems ...

  14. Perpetrators of sexual harassment experienced by athletes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evidence in literature and reports showed that both male and female athletes are sexually harassed in their course of participating in sports. The purpose of the study was to find out the perpetrators of sexual harassment experienced by athletes in southern Nigerian universities. A cross-sectional survey design was ...

  15. Children with sickle cell disease who are experiencing psychosocial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Psychiatry • November 2011. 392. Introduction. Sickle cell ... disease and their social environment including the family, is dynamic and fraught with ... Objective: The objective of the study was to identify children with Sickle cell disease (SCD) who are experiencing psychosocial problems concurrently with ...

  16. The nature of workplace bullying experienced by teachers and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    2015-08-21

    Aug 21, 2015 ... This article reports on the nature of workplace bullying experienced by teachers in South African schools and the bio- psychosocial health effects .... disciplinary thinking and collaboration when study- ing the interaction between the ..... those participants who felt that their family did not support them (De Vos, ...

  17. Experienced Teachers' Voices: What Motivates Them to Mentor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Ruben; Ramirez, Alfredo, Jr.; Ovando, Martha

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study examined 88 experienced teachers' responses related to mentoring. Our findings suggest mentors possess the willingness and expertise to enhance the professional development and growth of a beginning teacher. Mentors were motivated by the opportunity to express an altruistic value, to provide affective support, to grow…

  18. Experiencing the Meaning of Breathing | Edwards | Indo-Pacific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The meaning of breathing is discussed in relation to consciousness, bodiliness, spirituality, illness prevention and health promotion. Experiencing the meaning of breathing is to experience more meaning in life itself. Experiential vignettes confirm that breathing skills may be regarded as an original method of survival, ...

  19. Factors influencing the occupational well-being of experienced nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangping Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: By identifying the factors that contribute to a nurse's occupational well-being, the nursing management is better able to address the nurse's needs to maintain a positive well-being. This in turn will decrease the burnout and increase retention of experienced nurses, which will raise the quality of patient care.

  20. The phenomenon of xenophobia as experienced by immigrant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article aims to describe how xenophobia is experienced by a small selection of immigrant participants in five inner city schools in Johannesburg. The May 2008 xenophobic violence prompted the investigation. Theoretically, the article is also concerned with ways to combat xenophobia in schools with a view to bringing ...

  1. Thermal analysis of GFRP-reinforced continuous concrete decks subjected to top fire

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hawileh, Rami A; Rasheed, Hayder A

    2017-01-01

    ...) bars subjected to top surface fire. A finite element (FE) model is developed and a detailed transient thermal analysis is performed on a continuous concrete bridge deck under the effect of various fire curves...

  2. Liver afferents contribute to water drinking-induced sympathetic activation in human subjects: a clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    May, M.; Gueler, F.; Barg-Hock, H.; Heiringhoff, K.H.; Engeli, S.; Heusser, K.; Diedrich, A.; Brandt, A.; Strassburg, C.P.; Tank, J.; Sweep, F.C.; Jordan, J.

    2011-01-01

    Water drinking acutely increases sympathetic activity in human subjects. In animals, the response appears to be mediated through transient receptor potential channel TRPV4 activation on osmosensitive hepatic spinal afferents, described as osmopressor response. We hypothesized that hepatic

  3. Re-donation intentions among experienced blood donors: does gender make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Janis L; France, Christopher R; Himawan, Lina K

    2008-04-01

    Path analysis was used to examine sex differences in motivation for repeat donation among experienced blood donors. Results confirm the importance of constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior (e.g., donation attitude, subjective norm, personal moral norm, and donation self-efficacy) and of prior donation experience (e.g., vasovagal symptoms, overall satisfaction) as significant predictors of donation intention. Importantly, the findings also indicate that a consideration of sex differences in donor motivations results in a better prediction model and suggests a framework of possible avenues where interventions could be expected to improve donor return rates.

  4. Temporal and spatial variation in temperature experienced by macrofauna at Main Endeavour hydrothermal vent field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Raymond W.; Robert, Katleen; Matabos, Marjolaine; Bates, Amanda E.; Juniper, S. Kim

    2015-12-01

    A significant focus of hydrothermal vent ecological studies has been to understand how species cope with various stressors through physiological tolerance and biochemical resistance. Yet, the environmental conditions experienced by vent species have not been well characterized. This objective requires continuous observations over time intervals that can capture environmental variability at scales that are relevant to animals. We used autonomous temperature logger arrays (four roughly parallel linear arrays of 12 loggers spaced every 10-12 cm) to study spatial and temporal variations in the thermal regime experienced by hydrothermal vent macrofauna at a diffuse flow vent. Hourly temperatures were recorded over eight months from 2010 to 2011 at Grotto vent in the Main Endeavour vent field on the Juan de Fuca Ridge, a focus area of the Ocean Networks Canada cabled observatory. The conspicuous animal assemblages in video footage contained Ridgeia piscesae tubeworms, gastropods (primarily Lepetodrilus fucensis), and polychaetes (polynoid scaleworms and the palm worm Paralvinella palmiformis). Two dimensional spatial gradients in temperature were generally stable over the deployment period. The average temperature recorded by all arrays, and in some individual loggers, revealed distinctive fluctuations in temperature that often corresponded with the tidal cycle. We postulate that this may be related to changes in bottom currents or fluctuations in vent discharge. A marked transient temperature increase lasting over a period of days was observed in April 2011. While the distributions and behavior of Juan de Fuca Ridge vent invertebrates may be partially constrained by environmental temperature and temperature tolerance, except for the one transient high-temperature event, observed fluid temperatures were generally similar to the thermal preferences for some species, and typically well below lethal temperatures for all species. Average temperatures of the four arrays

  5. Experienced nurses learning with medical students: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, L; Jones, H M

    1999-05-01

    Although there are successful examples of interdisciplinary education this generally relates to pre-registration health-care professionals. Post-registration projects are usually confined to skills workshops or social science subjects, which rarely include medical staff. This project was unusual in its attempt to combine the needs of experienced practitioners with those of medical students. There are practical issues for this form of learning such as, the organization of modules into 'systems' when health-care professionals (as part of a parallel project) indicated their interests lay in courses that related to clinical practice organized around disease processes/conditions. This case study demonstrates that concerns related to the potential mismatch of clinical expertise, maturity and scientific background are not insurmountable problems, and that clear benefits can be gained. It could be argued that until pre- and post-graduate medical staff are integrated with other disciplines, the real benefits of shared understanding, enhanced team work and mutual respect will remain illusive. It is not anticipated that this form of learning would be suitable for the majority of practitioners, whose core needs are generally met by existing opportunities. However, there is a need for a greater depth of academic understanding particularly for those in senior positions or in specific specialized areas (also identified in the parallel study) and for those whose roles are expanding. These practitioners are more likely to have the ability to apply their new knowledge to clinical practice, using reflective techniques with minimal facilitation to enhance their established clinical expertise. For them this model of learning offers the opportunity to tailor education to the individual needs of the practitioner without the costly establishment of complete new programmes of learning. This case study proved particularly successful for the participants as they enhanced understanding and

  6. Transient diabetes insipidus in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Pedro; Gunawardana, Kavinga; Grossman, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare complication of pregnancy, usually developing in the third trimester and remitting spontaneously 4-6 weeks post-partum. It is mainly caused by excessive vasopressinase activity, an enzyme expressed by placental trophoblasts which metabolises arginine vasopressin (AVP). Its diagnosis is challenging, and the treatment requires desmopressin. A 38-year-old Chinese woman was referred in the 37th week of her first single-gestation due to polyuria, nocturia and polydipsia. She was known to have gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosed in the second trimester, well-controlled with diet. Her medical history was unremarkable. Physical examination demonstrated decreased skin turgor; her blood pressure was 102/63 mmHg, heart rate 78 beats/min and weight 53 kg (BMI 22.6 kg/m(2)). Laboratory data revealed low urine osmolality 89 mOsmol/kg (350-1000), serum osmolality 293 mOsmol/kg (278-295), serum sodium 144 mmol/l (135-145), potassium 4.1 mmol/l (3.5-5.0), urea 2.2 mmol/l (2.5-6.7), glucose 3.5 mmol/l and HbA1c 5.3%. Bilirubin, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and full blood count were normal. The patient was started on desmopressin with improvement in her symptoms, and normalisation of serum and urine osmolality (280 and 310 mOsmol/kg respectively). A fetus was delivered at the 39th week without major problems. After delivery, desmopressin was stopped and she had no further evidence of polyuria, polydipsia or nocturia. Her sodium, serum/urine osmolality at 12-weeks post-partum were normal. A pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the neurohypophyseal T1-bright spot situated ectopically, with a normal adenohypophysis and infundibulum. She remains clinically well, currently breastfeeding, and off all medication. This case illustrates some challenges in the diagnosis and management of transient gestational DI. Gestational DI is a rare complication of pregnancy occurring in two to four out of

  7. Transient diabetes insipidus in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardana, Kavinga; Grossman, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Summary Gestational diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare complication of pregnancy, usually developing in the third trimester and remitting spontaneously 4–6 weeks post-partum. It is mainly caused by excessive vasopressinase activity, an enzyme expressed by placental trophoblasts which metabolises arginine vasopressin (AVP). Its diagnosis is challenging, and the treatment requires desmopressin. A 38-year-old Chinese woman was referred in the 37th week of her first single-gestation due to polyuria, nocturia and polydipsia. She was known to have gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosed in the second trimester, well-controlled with diet. Her medical history was unremarkable. Physical examination demonstrated decreased skin turgor; her blood pressure was 102/63 mmHg, heart rate 78 beats/min and weight 53 kg (BMI 22.6 kg/m2). Laboratory data revealed low urine osmolality 89 mOsmol/kg (350–1000), serum osmolality 293 mOsmol/kg (278–295), serum sodium 144 mmol/l (135–145), potassium 4.1 mmol/l (3.5–5.0), urea 2.2 mmol/l (2.5–6.7), glucose 3.5 mmol/l and HbA1c 5.3%. Bilirubin, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and full blood count were normal. The patient was started on desmopressin with improvement in her symptoms, and normalisation of serum and urine osmolality (280 and 310 mOsmol/kg respectively). A fetus was delivered at the 39th week without major problems. After delivery, desmopressin was stopped and she had no further evidence of polyuria, polydipsia or nocturia. Her sodium, serum/urine osmolality at 12-weeks post-partum were normal. A pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the neurohypophyseal T1-bright spot situated ectopically, with a normal adenohypophysis and infundibulum. She remains clinically well, currently breastfeeding, and off all medication. This case illustrates some challenges in the diagnosis and management of transient gestational DI. Learning points Gestational DI is a rare complication of

  8. Experiencing the changing climate on the shores of Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, K.; Maibach, E.

    2011-12-01

    The Great Lakes of the United States - the largest freshwater system in the world - have been termed "the canary in the coal mine" of environmental change. To assess if and how residents of Alger County, Michigan are experiencing changes in climate on the shores of Lake Superior, during the summer of 2010 we conducted a representative household mail survey in collaboration with a national lakeshore and watershed partnership. A total of 765 adult residents (18 years or older) responded to the survey; a 57% survey completion rate. We content analyzed respondents' open-ended characterizations of how they have personally experienced global warming, and compared the results with land surface and storm data for the same geographic region to see whether public perceptions of local changes match trends in National Climatic Data Center data. Just over a quarter of residents (27%) indicated that they had personally experienced global warming. Those who had were most likely to say that they had experienced global warming locally (as opposed to in other locations of the country or globally), and most frequently cited changes in seasons, weather, lake levels, and animals or plant species. However, some local public perceptions appeared to conflict with weather records. For example, residents were more likely to say that they had been experiencing less snow in the winters, while NCDC data suggests the reverse is true. As climate changes differentially in regions across the United States, the public will in turn experience its physical impacts in distinct ways that are unique to each landscape. This may be counter-intuitive to a public that increasingly experiences the world, and issues such as climate change, through sources of information such as national news media that operate at much larger geographic scales. Understanding where these forms of cognitive dissonance may arise may assist researchers, educators, and communicators in furthering discourses with the public about

  9. [Professional Development Processes of Trainee and Experienced Psychotherapists in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilican, F Işıl; Soygüt, Gonca

    2015-01-01

    This study explored professional characteristics of psychotherapists in Turkey, examined the changes in their professional developmental processes, and compared the professional characteristics of the trainees and experienced therapists. The participants were 88 psychotherapists, including trainee (N=37) and experienced (N=51) psychotherapists in Turkey. They completed the Development of Psychotherapists International Study-Common Core Questionnaire (DPCCQ), developed by the Collaborative Research Network. The participants identified with the cognitive theoretical orientation most often. 30% of the participants had more than two salient orientations. The most prevalent therapy modality was individual, followed by couples, family, and group psychotherapy. Ongoing supervision rate was 44%. Trainees scored lower on effectiveness in engaging patients in a working alliance, feeling natural while working with patients, effectiveness in communicating their understanding and concern to their patients, and feeling confident in their role as a therapist. Experienced therapists made changes in the therapeutic contract and invited collaboration from families more compared to the trainees. 63% of the variance in Healing Involvement was explained by Overall Career Development, Currently Experienced Growth, being influenced by the humanistic approach, and the impact of the main therapeutic environment; 26% of the variance in Stressful Involvement was explained by the length of official supervision received and having control over the length of therapy sessions. Therapists were more cognitively oriented, less eclectic, and had less supervision compared to their international counterparts. Experienced therapists were more flexible, natural, and confident than the trainees. Supervision, a supportive work environment, the humanistic approach, and investing in career development were essential to providing a healing experience.

  10. Occupational Violence and Aggression Experienced by Nursing and Caring Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Tracey; Sheehan, Cathy; Donohue, Ross; Cooper, Brian; De Cieri, Helen

    2017-03-01

    To examine the extent and source of occupational violence and aggression (OVA) experienced by nursing and caring professionals. This study also examines the relative contributions of demographic characteristics and workplace and individual safety factors in predicting OVA. A cross-sectional study design with data collected using an online survey of employees in the nursing and caring professions in Victoria, Australia. Survey data collected from 4,891 members of the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation (Victorian branch) were analyzed using logistic regression. Sixty-seven percent of respondents reported experiencing OVA in the preceding 12 months, with nearly 20% experiencing OVA on a weekly or daily basis. The dominant sources of OVA were patients (79%) or relatives of patients (48%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that respondents working in public hospitals and aged care facilities were more likely to experience OVA, compared to those working in other workplaces. While higher levels of safety compliance reduced the likelihood of experiencing OVA, role overload and workplace safety factors such as prioritization of employee safety and leading indicators of occupational health and safety were stronger predictors. The likelihood of healthcare workers experiencing OVA varies across demographic and workplace characteristics. While some demographic characteristics and individual safety factors were significant predictors, our results suggest that a greater reduction in OVA could be achieved by improving workplace safety. The study's outcomes identify workforce segments that are most vulnerable to OVA. The study also highlights workplace safety factors such as the prioritization of employee safety that might assist in the reduction of OVA. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  11. Experiencing aggression in clubs: social group and individual level predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brenda A; Bourdeau, Beth; Johnson, Mark; Voas, Robert

    2015-05-01

    To examine the social drinking group's influence on the individual's experiences of physical or sexual aggression at clubs, data were collected from 368 groups (N = 986 individuals). Both group and individual level indicators were examined for impact on self-reports of physical and sexual aggression experiences while at the club. Recent aggressive experiences and perpetration, concerns for group safety, one's own plans and assessment of other group members' plans to drink to the point of intoxication, and personal characteristics were examined, using both individual and group indicators. At exit, participants reported experiencing physical aggression (12.3 %) and sexual aggression (12.6 %) at the club. Using generalized linear mixed modeling to account for nested data (club, event, and group), group level indicators predicted both the individual's physical and sexual aggression experiences. Especially for experiences of physical aggression, group effects are notable. Being in a group whose members recently experienced physical aggression increased the risk for the individual. Interestingly, groups that had higher levels of planned intoxication decreased risks of experiencing aggression, while a discrepancy in these intentions among group members increased the risks. Group effects were also noted for experiencing sexual aggression. High levels of prior experiences for sexual aggression in the group increased the risks for the individual during the event. Also, being in a group that is identified as having at least one member who is frequently drunk increases the risk for experiencing sexual aggression. These findings inform prevention strategies for young adults engaged in high-risk behaviors by targeting social drinking groups who frequent clubs.

  12. Predictors of experiencing aggression in clubs: Beyond alcohol consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brenda A.; Bourdeau, Beth; Johnson, Mark; Voas, Robert

    2014-01-01

    To examine the social drinking group's influence on the individual's experiences of physical or sexual aggression at clubs, data were collected from 368 groups (N=986 individuals). Both group and individual level indicators were examined for impact on self-reports of physical and sexual aggression experiences while at the club. Recent aggressive experiences and perpetration, concerns for group safety, one's own plans and assessment of other group members' plans to drink to the point of intoxication, and personal characteristics were examined, using both individual and group indicators. At exit, participants reported experiencing physical aggression (12.3%) and sexual aggression (12.6%) at the club. Using generalized linear mixed modeling to account for nested data (club, event, and group), group level indicators predicted both the individual's physical and sexual aggression experiences. Especially for experiences of physical aggression, group effects are notable. Being in a group whose members recently experienced physical aggression, increased the risk for the individual. Interestingly, groups that had higher levels of planned intoxication decreased risks of experiencing aggression, while a discrepancy in these intentions among group members increased the risks. Group effects were also noted for experiencing sexual aggression. High levels of prior experiences for sexual aggression in the group increased the risks for the individual during the event. Also, being in a group that is identified as having at least one member who is frequently drunk, increases the risk for experiencing sexual aggression. These findings inform prevention strategies for young adults engaged in high risk behaviors by targeting social drinking groups who frequent clubs. PMID:24838821

  13. The role of empathy in experiencing vicarious anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jocelyn; Hassell, Samuel; Weber, Jochen; Ochsner, Kevin N; Mobbs, Dean

    2017-08-01

    With depictions of others facing threats common in the media, the experience of vicarious anxiety may be prevalent in the general population. However, the phenomenon of vicarious anxiety-the experience of anxiety in response to observing others expressing anxiety-and the interpersonal mechanisms underlying it have not been fully investigated in prior research. In 4 studies, we investigate the role of empathy in experiencing vicarious anxiety, using film clips depicting target victims facing threats. In Studies 1 and 2, trait emotional empathy was associated with greater self-reported anxiety when observing target victims, and with perceiving greater anxiety to be experienced by the targets. Study 3 extended these findings by demonstrating that trait empathic concern-the tendency to feel concern and compassion for others-was associated with experiencing vicarious anxiety, whereas trait personal distress-the tendency to experience distress in stressful situations-was not. Study 4 manipulated state empathy to establish a causal relationship between empathy and experience of vicarious anxiety. Participants who took an empathic perspective when observing target victims, as compared to those who took an objective perspective using reappraisal-based strategies, reported experiencing greater anxiety, risk-aversion, and sleep disruption the following night. These results highlight the impact of one's social environment on experiencing anxiety, particularly for those who are highly empathic. In addition, these findings have implications for extending basic models of anxiety to incorporate interpersonal processes, understanding the role of empathy in social learning, and potential applications for therapeutic contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Transient cognitive dynamics, metastability, and decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail I Rabinovich

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea that cognitive activity can be understood using nonlinear dynamics has been intensively discussed at length for the last 15 years. One of the popular points of view is that metastable states play a key role in the execution of cognitive functions. Experimental and modeling studies suggest that most of these functions are the result of transient activity of large-scale brain networks in the presence of noise. Such transients may consist of a sequential switching between different metastable cognitive states. The main problem faced when using dynamical theory to describe transient cognitive processes is the fundamental contradiction between reproducibility and flexibility of transient behavior. In this paper, we propose a theoretical description of transient cognitive dynamics based on the interaction of functionally dependent metastable cognitive states. The mathematical image of such transient activity is a stable heteroclinic channel, i.e., a set of trajectories in the vicinity of a heteroclinic skeleton that consists of saddles and unstable separatrices that connect their surroundings. We suggest a basic mathematical model, a strongly dissipative dynamical system, and formulate the conditions for the robustness and reproducibility of cognitive transients that satisfy the competing requirements for stability and flexibility. Based on this approach, we describe here an effective solution for the problem of sequential decision making, represented as a fixed time game: a player takes sequential actions in a changing noisy environment so as to maximize a cumulative reward. As we predict and verify in computer simulations, noise plays an important role in optimizing the gain.

  15. A small metabolic flux model to identify transient metabolic regulations in Saccaromucs cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herwig, C.; Stockar, U. von [Lab. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland); 1

    2002-03-01

    The understanding of dynamic metabolic regulations is important for physiological studies and strain characterization tasks. The present study combined transient experiments with online metabolic flux analysis (MFA) in order to quantify metabolic regulations, namely carbon catabolite repression of respiration and transient acetic-acid production, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during aerobic growth on glucose. The aim was to investigate which additional information can be gained from using a small metabolic flux model to study transient growth provoked by shift-up and shift-down experiments, compared to online monitoring alone. The MFA model allowed us to propose new correlations between pathways of the central metabolism. A linear correlation between glycolytic flux and respiratory capacity holds for shift-down and shift-up experiments. This confirmed that respiratory functions were subjected to carbon catabolite repression and suggested that respiratory capacity is controlled by the glycolytic flux rather than the glucose influx. Furthermore, the model showed that control of repression of respiration by the glycolytic flux was a dynamic phenomenon. Co-factor balancing within the MFA model showed that transient acetic-acid production indicated a transient limitation in another part of the central metabolism but not in oxidative phosphorylation. However, at super-critical growth rates and when coupling of anabolism and catabolism is resumed, the limitation shifts to oxidative phosphorylation, with the consequence that ethanol is formed. The online application of small metabolic flux models to transient experiments enhanced the physiological insight into transient growth and opens up the use of transient experiments as an efficient tool to understand dynamic metabolic regulations. (orig.)

  16. Determining the Reasons of Technostress Experienced by Teachers: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Naci Çoklar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, especially means of information and communication technologies are intensively tried to be integrated into education period in educational fields. In this period, leadership and teachers who shape the ways to use this technology play an important role. Therefore, teachers are expected to use an intensive amount of technology following the technological investments in education fields required by the ministry in recent years. However, this expectation also brings some negative issues into the agenda. One of them is the stress caused by technology, namely; technostress. Technostress is defined as the price of technology use. The purpose of this study is to determine the reasons leading to technostress experienced by teachers, who are the addressee of an intensive use of technology as a result of an integration process to which they are subjected in this study. For this purpose, qualitative data were collected from 64 teachers, who benefit from technology intensively and themes were prepared using 117 different opinions after the content analysis. According to this, there are five main reasons indicating technostress experienced by teachers: individual problems, technical problems, education oriented problems, health problems and time problem. It was also seen in the study that the distribution of reasons leading to technostress experienced by teachers also differs in terms of gender.

  17. [Experienced bullying and hostile behavior in the workplace and symptoms of burnout in teachers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mościcka-Teske, Agnieszka; Drabek, Marcin; Pyżalski, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between the exposure to workplace bullying and hostile behavior and occupational burnout in a sample of Polish teachers. In our research we studied a nationwide random sample of 1214 teachers. The frequency and type of hostile behaviors against employees was measured with the use of MDM Questionnaire, ("Mobbing, dręczenie, molestowanie" - "Bullying, harrasement, maltreatment") by Mościcka, Drabek, Merecz, developed in the Department of Occupational Psychology of the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Łódź (Poland), and the level of burnout was assessed with Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Survey (MBI-GS). As many as 63% of teachers experienced hostile behavior in their workplace and 7% of them experienced workplace bullying. Employees affected by bullying and hostile behavior reported more symptoms of professional burnout, such as emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and lower level of professional efficacy. The majority of teachers in this study experienced some form of hostile behavior in the workplace. One in ten respondents was the subject of workplace bullying. The experience of hostile behavior and bullying at work was significantly connected with symptoms of professional burnout. Therefore, it is desirable to take care of good interpersonal relationships in educational institutions, strengthen teachers' abilities to cope with difficult interpersonal situations, and implement procedures to prevent bullying and hostile behavior in the workplace.

  18. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging of the prostate with computer-aided detection: experienced observer performance study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannini, Valentina; Mazzetti, Simone; Armando, Enrico; Carabalona, Silvia; Russo, Filippo [FPO, IRCCS, Department of Radiology at the Candiolo Cancer Institute, Candiolo, Turin (Italy); Giacobbe, Alessandro [San Giovanni Bosco Hospital, Department of Urology, Turin (Italy); Muto, Giovanni [University Campus Biomedico, Department of Urology, Rome (Italy); Regge, Daniele [FPO, IRCCS, Department of Radiology at the Candiolo Cancer Institute, Candiolo, Turin (Italy); University of Torino, A.O.U. Citta della Salute e della Scienza, Department of Surgical Sciences, Turin (Italy)

    2017-10-15

    To compare the performance of experienced readers in detecting prostate cancer (PCa) using likelihood maps generated by a CAD system with that of unassisted interpretation of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI). Three experienced radiologists reviewed mp-MRI prostate cases twice. First, readers observed CAD marks on a likelihood map and classified as positive those suspicious for cancer. After 6 weeks, radiologists interpreted mp-MRI examinations unassisted, using their favourite protocol. Sensitivity, specificity, reading time and interobserver variability were compared for the two reading paradigms. The dataset comprised 89 subjects of whom 35 with at least one significant PCa. Sensitivity was 80.9% (95% CI 72.1-88.0%) and 87.6% (95% CI 79.8-93.2; p = 0.105) for unassisted and CAD paradigm respectively. Sensitivity was higher with CAD for lesions with GS > 6 (91.3% vs 81.2%; p = 0.046) or diameter ≥10 mm (95.0% vs 80.0%; p = 0.006). Specificity was not affected by CAD. The average reading time with CAD was significantly lower (220 s vs 60 s; p < 0.001). Experienced readers using likelihood maps generated by a CAD scheme can detect more patients with ≥10 mm PCa lesions than unassisted MRI interpretation; overall reporting time is shorter. To gain more insight into CAD-human interaction, different reading paradigms should be investigated. (orig.)

  19. Experienced bullying and hostile behavior in the workplace and symptoms of burnout in teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mościcka-Teske

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between the exposure to workplace bullying and hostile behavior and occupational burnout in a sample of Polish teachers. Material and Methods: In our research we studied a nationwide random sample of 1214 teachers. The frequency and type of hostile behaviors against employees was measured with the use of MDM Questionnaire, (“Mobbing, dręczenie, molestowanie” – “Bullying, harrasement, maltreatment” by Mościcka, Drabek, Merecz, developed in the Department of Occupational Psychology of the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Łódź (Poland, and the level of burnout was assessed with Maslach Burnout Inventory – General Survey (MBI-GS. Results: As many as 63% of teachers experienced hostile behavior in their workplace and 7% of them experienced workplace bullying. Employees affected by bullying and hostile behavior reported more symptoms of professional burnout, such as emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and lower level of professional efficacy. Conclusions: The majority of teachers in this study experienced some form of hostile behavior in the workplace. One in ten respondents was the subject of workplace bullying. The experience of hostile behavior and bullying at work was significantly connected with symptoms of professional burnout. Therefore, it is desirable to take care of good interpersonal relationships in educational institutions, strengthen teachers’ abilities to cope with difficult interpersonal situations, and implement procedures to prevent bullying and hostile behavior in the workplace. Med Pr 2014;65(4:535–542

  20. The social and learning environments experienced by underrepresented minority medical students: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orom, Heather; Semalulu, Teresa; Underwood, Willie

    2013-11-01

    To review the literature on the social and learning environments experienced by underrepresented minority (URM) medical students to determine what type of interventions are needed to eliminate potential barriers to enrolling and retaining URM students. The authors searched MEDLINE, PubMed, Ovid HealthStar, and Web of Science, and the reference lists of included studies, published between January 1, 1980, and September 15, 2012. Studies of the learning and social environments and of students' satisfaction, experiences with discrimination or unfair practices, and academic performance or progress, as well as assessments of programs or interventions to improve URM students' academic performance, were eligible for inclusion. The authors identified 28 studies (27 unique data sets) meeting the inclusion criteria. The results of the included studies indicated that URM students experienced less supportive social and less positive learning environments, were subjected to discrimination and racial harassment, and were more likely to see their race as having a negative impact on their medical school experiences than non-URM students. Academic performance on standardized exams was worse, progress less timely, and attrition higher for URM students as well. For URM students, an adverse climate may be decreasing the attractiveness of careers in medicine, impairing their academic performance, and increasing attrition. Improvements to the social and learning environments experienced by URM students are needed to make medicine a more inclusive profession. The current environment of health care reform creates an opportunity for institutions to implement strategies to achieve this goal.

  1. Successive Bifurcation Conditions of a Lorenz-Type Equation for the Fluid Convection Due to the Transient Thermal Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling He

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the convection flow between the two parallel plates in a fluid cell subject to the transient thermal field. We use the modal approximations similar to that of the original Lorenz model to obtain a generalized Lorenz-type model for the flow induced by the transient thermal field at the bottom plate. This study examines the convection flow bifurcation conditions in relation to the transient temperature variations and the flow properties. We formulated successive bifurcation conditions and illustrated the various flow behaviors and their steady-state attractors affected by the thermal field functions and fluid properties.

  2. Moisture-triggered physically transient electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Xu; Sim, Kyoseung; Liu, Jingshen; Chen, Ji; Feng, Xue; Xu, Hangxun; Yu, Cunjiang

    2017-09-01

    Physically transient electronics, a form of electronics that can physically disappear in a controllable manner, is very promising for emerging applications. Most of the transient processes reported so far only occur in aqueous solutions or biofluids, offering limited control over the triggering and degradation processes. We report novel moisture-triggered physically transient electronics, which exempt the needs of resorption solutions and can completely disappear within well-controlled time frames. The triggered transient process starts with the hydrolysis of the polyanhydride substrate in the presence of trace amounts of moisture in the air, a process that can generate products of corrosive organic acids to digest various inorganic electronic materials and components. Polyanhydride is the only example of polymer that undergoes surface erosion, a distinct feature that enables stable operation of the functional devices over a predefined time frame. Clear advantages of this novel triggered transience mode include that the lifetime of the devices can be precisely controlled by varying the moisture levels and changing the composition of the polymer substrate. The transience time scale can be tuned from days to weeks. Various transient devices, ranging from passive electronics (such as antenna, resistor, and capacitor) to active electronics (such as transistor, diodes, optoelectronics, and memories), and an integrated system as a platform demonstration have been developed to illustrate the concept and verify the feasibility of this design strategy.

  3. Transient T wave Changes Concerning Arrhythmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Tasaki, MD PhD

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available T-wave changes are thought to be associated with the repolarization phase of myocardial action potential. Although it has been known that persistent T-wave change is associated with the heart disease or the prognosis, the sensitivity and the specificity are not necessarily satisfactory for clinical therapeutic strategy. Recent basic studies have shown that, in some kinds of pathological states, transient repolarization changes of myocardial action potential were associated with life-threatening arrhythmia. Also clinical studies are being conducted to elucidate the clinical implication of transient T-wave changes on electrocardiography (ECG in such an arrhythmia. Transient repolarization or T-wave change is thought to occur because of environmental or neurohumoral factors, circadian variation, stretching of myocardium or other triggers in daily life, resulting in fatal arrhythmia. Such fatal arrhythmias are thought to occur under restricted conditions even in the patients with serious heart disease. It is important to clarify and utilize the transient T-wave change directly associated with the fatal arrhythmia on a clinical basis. In this article, we first assess the mechanisms of transient repolarization or T-wave changes on ECG concerning fatal arrhythmia, and afterwards refer to possible attempts at clinical evaluation and application.

  4. Switching transients in a superconducting coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, E.W.; Shimer, D.W.

    1983-11-18

    A study is made of the transients caused by the fast dump of large superconducting coils. Theoretical analysis, computer simulation, and actual measurements are used. Theoretical analysis can only be applied to the simplest of models. In the computer simulations two models are used, one in which the coil is divided into ten segments and another in which a single coil is employed. The circuit breaker that interrupts the current to the power supply, causing a fast dump, is represented by a time and current dependent conductance. Actual measurements are limited to measurements made incidental to performance tests on the MFTF Yin-yang coils. It is found that the breaker opening time is the critical factor in determining the size and shape of the transient. Instantaneous opening of the breaker causes a lightly damped transient with large amplitude voltages to ground. Increasing the opening time causes the transient to become a monopulse of decreasing amplitude. The voltages at the external terminals are determined by the parameters of the external circuit. For fast opening times the frequency depends on the dump resistor inductance, the circuit capacitance, and the amplitude on the coil current. For slower openings the dump resistor inductance and the current determine the amplitude of the voltage to ground at the terminals. Voltages to ground are less in the interior of the coil, where transients related to the parameters of the coil itself are observed.

  5. Investigating the impact of in-vehicle transients on diesel soot emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipi Zoran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes development of a test cell setup for concurrent running of a real engine and a simulation of the vehicle system, and its use for investigating highly-dynamic engine-in-vehicle operation and its effect on diesel engine emissions. Running an engine in the test cell under conditions experienced in the vehicle enables acquiring detailed insight into dynamic interactions between power train sub-systems, and the impact of it on fuel consumption and transient emissions. This type of data may otherwise be difficult and extremely costly to obtain from a vehicle prototype test. In particular, engine system response during critical transients and the effect of transient excursions on emissions are investigated using advanced, fast-response test instrumentation and emissions analyzers. Main enablers of the work include the highly dynamic AC electric dynamometer with the accompanying computerized control system and the computationally efficient simulation of the driveline/vehicle system. The latter is developed through systematic energy-based proper modeling that tailors the virtual model to capture critical powertrain transients while running in real time. Coupling the real engine with the virtual driveline/vehicle offers a chance to easily modify vehicle parameters, and even study different power train configurations. In particular, the paper describes the engine-in-the-loop study of a V-8, 6l engine coupled to a virtual 4´4 off road vehicle. This engine is considered as a high-performance option for this truck and the real prototype of the complete vehicle does not exist yet. The results shed light on critical transients in a conventional powertrain and their effect on NOx and soot emissions. Measurements demonstrate very large spikes of particulate concentration at the initiation of vehicle acceleration events. Characterization of transients and their effect on particulate emission provides a basis for devising engine-level or

  6. Remembered, read and experienced time in virtual text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raine Koskimaa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-9288.2015v11n1p250 In this article I will scrutinize Screen (2002, by WARDRIP-FRUIN & al., a literary work set and experienced in a CAVE Virtual Reality environment, especially from the perspective of its temporal aspects. There are obvious themes of remembering, forgetting and textually constructing the past in this work, but most notably, Screen emphasizes the temporality of the reading act itself. I will analyze this highly special work in relation to the remembered, read, and bodily experienced time, and thus, attempt to better understand both the notion of fictive time and the temporality of fiction.

  7. Experiencing Physical Pain Leads to More Sympathetic Moral Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qianguo; Zhu, Yi; Luo, Wen-bo

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that observing another’s pain can evoke other-oriented emotions, which instigate empathic concern for another’s needs. It is not clear whether experiencing first-hand physical pain may also evoke other-oriented emotion and thus influence people’s moral judgment. Based on the embodied simulation literature and neuroimaging evidence, the present research tested the idea that participants who experienced physical pain would be more sympathetic in their moral judgments. Study 1 showed that ice-induced physical pain facilitated higher self-assessments of empathy, which motivated participants to be more sympathetic in their moral judgments. Study 2 confirmed findings in study 1 and also showed that State Perspective Taking subscale of the State Empathy Scale mediated the effects of physical pain on moral judgment. These results provide support for embodied view of morality and for the view that pain can serve a positive psychosocial function. PMID:26465603

  8. Stochastic aspects of motor behavior and their dependence on auditory feedback in experienced cellists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jessie; Woollacott, Marjorie; Pologe, Steve; Moore, George P

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate movement accuracy of experienced cellists, the statistical properties of their note sequences during a reciprocal task, and the degree to which these movement characteristics depend on auditory feedback. Nine experienced cellists were asked to shift alternately between two notes using only their index finger to make contact with the string and fingerboard. Shifting sequences continued for two minutes at a rate of one note per second. The task was performed under two conditions: with auditory feedback (provided by the bow) or without auditory feedback (i.e., without the use of bow). When the bow was used, subjects had no difficulty in shifting between target notes with precision and stability. Some variability was present, but notes in these sequences were generally uncorrelated. The contact data and correlations in most bowed trials resembled those expected of a renewal process, a process in which successive values are statistically independent and identically distributed. Without the bow, subjects lost their ability to reach the same target positions accurately; contact locations tended to drift and had a random quality, indicating that without the bow subjects were uncertain of the target location in relation to the spatial location of their fingertips. Within these unbowed sequences, finger positions were highly correlated-within and between note sequences. In some trials without the bow, the statistical correlation patterns of the sequence were consistent with the expectations of a discrete Wiener process. Throughout our study, computer simulations of renewal and Wiener processes enabled us to determine the types of correlations to be expected from these theoretical models. The implications of the statistical results in terms of subject behavior are discussed.

  9. Stochastic aspects of motor behavior and their dependence on auditory feedback in experienced cellists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie eChen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate movement accuracy of experienced cellists, the statistical properties of their note sequences during a reciprocal task, and the degree to which these movement characteristics depend on auditory feedback. Nine experienced cellists were asked to shift alternately between two notes using only their index finger to make contact with the string and fingerboard. Shifting sequences continued for two minutes at a rate of one note per second. The task was performed under two conditions: with auditory feedback (provided by the bow or without auditory feedback (i.e., without the use of bow. When the bow was used, subjects had no difficulty in shifting between target notes with precision and stability. Some variability was present, but notes in these sequences were generally uncorrelated. The contact data and correlations in most bowed trials resembled those expected of a renewal process, a process in which successive values are statistically independent and identically distributed. Without the bow, subjects lost their ability to reach the same target positions accurately; contact locations tended to drift and had a random quality, indicating that without the bow subjects were uncertain of the target location in relation to the spatial location of their fingertips. Within these unbowed sequences, finger positions were highly correlated-- within and between note sequences. In some trials without the bow, the statistical correlation patterns of the sequence were consistent with the expectations of a discrete Wiener process. Throughout our study, computer simulations of renewal and Wiener processes enabled us to determine the types of correlations to be expected from these theoretical models. The implications of the statistical results in terms of subject behavior are discussed.

  10. Expected usability is not a valid indicator of experienced usability

    OpenAIRE

    Meinald T. Thielsch; Ronja Engel; Gerrit Hirschfeld

    2015-01-01

    Usability is a core construct of website evaluation and inherently defined as interactive. Yet, when analysing first impressions of websites, expected usability, i.e., before use, is of interest. Here we investigate to what extend ratings of expected usability are related to (a) experienced usability, i.e., ratings after use, and (b) objective usability measures, i.e., task performance. Furthermore, we try to elucidate how ratings of expected usability are correlated to aesthetic judgments. I...

  11. Experiencing authenticity - the core of student learning in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, Katri

    2016-10-01

    Learning in clinical practice is challenging regarding organizational and pedagogical issues. Clinical education wards are one way to meet these challenges by focusing on both patient care and student learning. However, more knowledge is needed about how students' learning can be enhanced and about patients' and supervisors' roles in these settings. The aim was to explore nursing students' learning on a clinical education ward with an explicit pedagogical framework. Semi-structured interviews of students were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and an ethnographic study including observations and follow-up interviews of students, patients and supervisors was conducted. The core of student meaningful learning experiences both external and internal authenticity. Students in early stages immediately created mutual relationships, experienced both external and internal authenticity, and patients became active participants in student learning. Without a mutual relationship, patients passively let students practice on their bodies. Students nearing graduation experienced only external authenticity, creating uncertainty as a threshold for learning. Caring for patients with complex needs helped students overcome the threshold and experience internal authenticity. Supervisors' challenges were to balance patient care and student learning by working as a team. They supported students coping with the complex challenges on the ward. Students need to experience external and internal authenticity to make learning meaningful. Experiencing authenticity, involving meaning-making processes and knowledge construction, is linked to transformative learning and overcoming thresholds. Therefore, an explicit pedagogical framework, based on patient-centredness, peer learning and the supervisory team, creates the prerequisites for experiencing external and internal authenticity.

  12. Which Poor Neighborhoods Experienced Income Growth in Recent Decades?

    OpenAIRE

    Aliprantis, Dionissi; Fee, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Why has average income grown in some poor neighborhoods over the past 30 years and not in others? We explore that question and find that low-income neighborhoods that experienced large improvements in income over the past three decades tended to be located in large, densely populated metro areas that grew in income and population. Residential sorting—changes in population and demographics within neighborhoods—could help to explain this relationship

  13. A STUDY OF EXPERIENCED REALITY OF AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS IN SCHIZOPHERENICS

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanathan, A.

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY 30 Schizophrenics having verbal auditory hallucinations and satisfying the criteria of Feighner et al. (1972) were examined for the experienced reality of auditory hallucinations and the influence of certain variables on such reality. Number of hallucinating days per month, fast movement of time during hallucination, presence of running commentary voices, interference in self-care and social activities due to the Voices and degree of success in manipulation and avoidance (coping theme...

  14. Transient brain activity explains the spectral content of steady-state visual evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaume, Antoine; Vialatte, François; Dreyfus, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) are widely used in the design of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). A lot of effort has therefore been devoted to find a fast and reliable way to detect SSVEPs. We study the link between transient and steady-state VEPs and show that it is possible to predict the spectral content of a subject's SSVEPs by simulating trains of transient VEPs. This could lead to a better understanding of evoked potentials as well as to better performances of SSVEP-based BCIs, by providing a tool to improve SSVEP detection algorithms.

  15. Iranian EFL Experienced vs. Novice Teachers’ Beliefs Regarding Learner Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Bashiri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Learner autonomy has been described as the ultimate objective in many language teaching programs since the third quarter of the twentieth century and educators have highlighted the significant role of promoting learner autonomy in the process of language learning and teaching. However, only limited number of studies has been awarded to what leaner autonomy mean to teachers. This study addressed the gap and investigated novice and experienced teachers’ beliefs regarding learner autonomy. Forty teachers participated in two groups who were grouped based on their teaching experiences as novice and experienced teachers. A questionnaire which was adapted from British Council was administered to elicit the teachers’ beliefs regarding learner autonomy. The independent samples t-test analysis of the data revealed a significant difference between novice and experienced teachers beliefs. The findings of the present study may have some implications for teachers in promoting learner autonomy in their classes, in general, and involving learners in the process of teaching and learning, in particular.

  16. Experienced Barriers to Lean in Swedish Manufacturing and Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Halling

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to compare similarities and divergences in how the concepts of Lean and barriers to Lean are described by key informants at a production unit in a large manufacturing company and two emergency health care units in Sweden. Data was collected via semi-structured interviews and analyzed with the constant comparative method (CCM and Porras and Robertson’s (1992 change model. : In both organizations, the view of Lean changed from a toolbox to a human behavior view. Eight barriers were experienced in both organizations. Three barriers were unique to manufacturing or to health care, respectively. Nine barriers were elements of social factors; five were elements of organizing arrangements. Only people practically involved and responsible for the implementation at the two organizations participated in the study. Persons responsible for implementing Lean should consider organizational arrangements and social factors in order to limit barriers to successful implementation. Most research on Lean has been about successful Lean implementations. This study focuses on how Lean is viewed and what barriers personnel in manufacturing and health care have experienced. In comparing the barriers to Lean experienced in the two groups, common, archetypical, and unique barriers for manufacturing and health care can be identified, thus contributing to knowledge about barriers to Lean implementation.

  17. Training Impact on Novice and Experienced Research Coordinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Potter, JoNell Efantis; Prikhidko, Alena; Swords, Stephanie; Sonstein, Stephen; Kolb, H Robert

    2017-12-01

    Competency-based training and professional development is critical to the clinical research enterprise. Understanding research coordinators' perspectives is important for establishing a common core curriculum. The purpose of this study was to describe participants' perspectives regarding the impact of online and classroom training sessions. 27 participants among three institutions, completed a two-day classroom training session. 10 novice and seven experienced research coordinators participated in focus group interviews. Grounded theory revealed similarities in novice and experienced coordinator themes including Identifying Preferences for Instruction and Changing Self Perceptions. Differences, seen in experienced participants, focused on personal change, in the theme of Re-Assessing Skills. Infrastructure and cultural issues were evident in their theme, Promoting Leadership and Advocacy. Novice participants recommended ways to improve training via their theme of Making Programmatic Improvements. Participants reported a clear preference for classroom learning. Training played an influential role in changing participants' self-perceptions by validating their experiences. The findings provided guidance for developing a standardized curriculum. Training must be carefully tailored to the needs of participants while considering audience needs based on work experience, how technology can be used and offering content that is most urgently needed.

  18. Meaning in life in psychotherapy: The perspective of experienced psychotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Clara E; Kanazawa, Yoshi; Knox, Sarah; Schauerman, Iris; Loureiro, Darren; James, Danielle; Carter, Imani; King, Shakeena; Razzak, Suad; Scarff, Melanie; Moore, Jasmine

    2017-07-01

    Our goal was to explore the meaning experienced psychotherapists derive from providing psychotherapy, their beliefs about the role of meaning in life (MIL) in psychotherapy, how they worked with MIL with a client who explicitly presented concerns about MIL, and how they worked with a different client for whom MIL was a secondary and more implicit concern. Thirteen experienced psychotherapists were interviewed and data were analyzed using consensual qualitative research. Therapists derived self-oriented meaning (e.g., feeling gratified, fulfilled, connected) and other-oriented meaning (helping others, making the world a better place) from providing psychotherapy. They believed that MIL is fundamental and underlies all human concerns, including those brought to therapy. In contrast to the clients who had implicit MIL concerns, clients who explicitly presented MIL concerns were reported to have more interpersonal problems and physical problems, but about the same amount of psychological distress and loss/grief. Therapists used insight-oriented interventions, support, action-oriented interventions, and exploratory interventions to work with MIL with both types of clients, but used more exploratory interventions with implicit than explicit MIL clients. MIL is a salient topic for experienced, existentially oriented psychotherapists; they work with MIL extensively with some clients in psychotherapy. We recommend that therapists receive training to work with MIL in therapy, and that they pay attention to MIL concerns when they conduct psychotherapy. We also recommend additional research on MIL in psychotherapy.

  19. Radio wavelength transients: Current and emerging prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, J.

    2008-03-01

    Known classes of radio wavelength transients range from the nearby stellar flares and radio pulsars to the distant Universe γ-ray burst afterglows. Hypothesized classes of radio transients include analogs of known objects, e.g., extrasolar planets emitting Jovian-like radio bursts and giant-pulse emitting pulsars in other galaxies, to the exotic, prompt emission from γ-ray bursts, evaporating black holes, and transmitters from other civilizations. A number of instruments and facilities are either under construction or in early observational stages and are slated to become available in the next few years. With a combination of wide fields of view and wavelength agility, the detection and study of radio transients will improve immensely.

  20. Transient ischemic attack: definition and natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Louis R

    2006-07-01

    The standard definition of a transient ischemic attack--"a cerebral dysfunction of an ischemic nature lasting no longer than 24 hours with a tendency to recur"--was arrived at arbitrarily and is no longer tenable. Experience shows that attacks are much briefer, usually less than an hour, and many are associated with brain infarction. A newer definition, more consonant with the data, is preferred--"transient ischemic attack is a brief episode of neurological dysfunction caused by focal brain or retinal ischemia, with clinical symptoms typically lasting less than an hour, and without evidence of acute infarction." Patients with transient ischemic attacks require urgent evaluation that includes brain and vascular imaging, blood tests, and often cardiac investigations. Treatment will depend on the nature of the causative cervico-cranial vascular, cardiac, and hematologic abnormalities found on investigation.

  1. Transient Exciplex Formation Electron Transfer Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Kuzmin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient exciplex formation mechanism of excited-state electron transfer reactions is analyzed in terms of experimental data on thermodynamics and kinetics of exciplex formation and decay. Experimental profiles of free energy, enthalpy, and entropy for transient exciplex formation and decay are considered for several electron transfer reactions in various solvents. Strong electronic coupling in contact pairs of reactants causes substantial decrease of activation energy relative to that for conventional long-range ET mechanism, especially for endergonic reactions, and provides the possibility for medium reorganization concatenated to gradual charge shift in contrast to conventional preliminary medium and reactants reorganization. Experimental criteria for transient exciplex formation (concatenated mechanism of excited-state electron transfer are considered. Available experimental data show that this mechanism dominates for endergonic ET reactions and provides a natural explanation for a lot of known paradoxes of ET reactions.

  2. Transient effects in friction fractal asperity creep

    CERN Document Server

    Goedecke, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Transient friction effects determine the behavior of a wide class of mechatronic systems. Classic examples are squealing brakes, stiction in robotic arms, or stick-slip in linear drives. To properly design and understand mechatronic systems of this type, good quantitative models of transient friction effects are of primary interest. The theory developed in this book approaches this problem bottom-up, by deriving the behavior of macroscopic friction surfaces from the microscopic surface physics. The model is based on two assumptions: First, rough surfaces are inherently fractal, exhibiting roughness on a wide range of scales. Second, transient friction effects are caused by creep enlargement of the real area of contact between two bodies. This work demonstrates the results of extensive Finite Element analyses of the creep behavior of surface asperities, and proposes a generalized multi-scale area iteration for calculating the time-dependent real contact between two bodies. The toolset is then demonstrated both...

  3. Characterization of electrical appliances in transient state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Augustyn; Winiecki, Wiesław

    2017-08-01

    The article contains the study about electrical appliance characterization on the basis of power grid signals. To represent devices, parameters of current and voltage signals recorded during transient states are used. In this paper only transients occurring as a result of switching on devices are considered. The way of data acquisition performed in specialized measurement setup developed for electricity load monitoring is described. The paper presents the method of transients detection and the method of appliance parameters calculation. Using the set of acquired measurement data and appropriate software the set of parameters for several household appliances operating in different operating conditions was processed. Usefulness of appliances characterization in Non-Intrusive Appliance Load Monitoring System (NIALMS) with the use of proposed method is discussed focusing on obtained results.

  4. Transient Growth of Ekman-Couette Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Liang; Tilgner, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Coriolis force effects on shear flows are important in geophysical and astrophysical contexts. We here report a study on the linear stability and the transient energy growth of the plane Couette flow with system rotation perpendicular to the shear direction. External rotation causes linear instability. At small rotation rates, the onset of linear instability scales inversely with the rotation rate and the optimal transient growth in the linearly stable region is slightly enhanced, ~Re^2. The corresponding optimal initial perturbations are characterized by roll structures inclined in the streamwise direction and are twisted under external rotation. At large rotation rates, the transient growth is significantly inhibited and hence linear stability analysis is a reliable indicator for instability.

  5. PSYCHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE CHECHEN YOUTH PROFESSING ISLAM AND EXPERIENCING MYTHOLOGICAL FEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razet Grimsoltanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article described the study of the relevance of the role and place of religious contents among young people in the postconflict areas of the South of Russia, the rate of experiences of mythological fear had been explored with the help of the survey, as well as individual psychological characteristics of subjects had been studied by methods of  Eysenck, Schmieschek, J. Rotter and Taylor. Those representatives of the surveyed youth sample experiencing a high level of mythological fear could fall into the danger zone of initiation in the group of non-traditional religious sects, as well as come under extremists’ influence, since manip-ulation of consciousness and human behavior, depending on individual psychological characteristics and by using of mythological content, such as fear of possession by jinni, is most effective. The study was attended by representatives of Islam at the age of 19-21, divided by gender: 100 young men and 100 girls. The study was aimed at identifying indi-vidual personality characteristics of temperament, character accentuations, locus of control, the level of personal anxiety and the results of a content analysis of the survey done by the author of the article were identified in accordance with five scales. Results of the study revealed that about 80% of subjects experiencing a high level of mythological fears had the same peculiar correlation indices. In connection with the results of research, we had worked out and suggested a complex of psycho-pedagogical support consisting of four modules for the purpose of education, preventive and corrective activities with young people experiencing a high level of mythological fear (fear of possession by jinni.

  6. Transient astronomy with the Gaia satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkin, Simon T; Wyrzykowski, Łukasz; Blagorodnova, Nadejda; Koposov, Sergey

    2013-06-13

    Gaia is a cornerstone European Space Agency astrometry space mission and a successor to the Hipparcos mission. Gaia will observe the whole sky for 5 years, providing a serendipitous opportunity for the discovery of large numbers of transient and anomalous events, e.g. supernovae, novae and microlensing events, gamma-ray burst afterglows, fallback supernovae, as well as theoretical or unexpected phenomena. In this paper, we discuss our preparations to use Gaia to search for transients at optical wavelengths, and briefly describe the early detection, classification and prompt publication of anomalous sources.

  7. Transient thermal camouflage and heat signature control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tian-Zhi; Su, Yishu; Xu, Weikai; Yang, Xiao-Dong

    2016-09-01

    Thermal metamaterials have been proposed to manipulate heat flux as a new way to cloak or camouflage objects in the infrared world. To date, however, thermal metamaterials only operate in the steady-state and exhibit detectable, transient heat signatures. In this letter, the theoretical basis for a thermal camouflaging technique with controlled transient diffusion is presented. This technique renders an object invisible in real time. More importantly, the thermal camouflaging device instantaneously generates a pre-designed heat signature and behaves as a perfect thermal illusion device. A metamaterial coating with homogeneous and isotropic thermal conductivity, density, and volumetric heat capacity was fabricated and very good camouflaging performance was achieved.

  8. Transient elastography for liver fibrosis diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ellen Sloth; Christensen, Peer Brehm; Weis, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Liver biopsy is considered the "golden standard" for assessment of hepatic fibrosis. However, the procedure has limitations because of inconvenience and rare but serious complications as bleeding. Furthermore, sampling errors are frequent, and interobserver variability often poses problems....... Recently, a modified ultrasound scanner (transient elastography) has been developed to assess fibrosis. The device measures liver elasticity, which correlates well with the degree of fibrosis. Studies have shown that transient elastography is more accurate in diagnosing cirrhosis than minor to moderate...... to be a valuable diagnostic procedure and follow-up of patients with chronic liver diseases....

  9. Transient waves in visco-elastic media

    CERN Document Server

    Ricker, Norman

    1977-01-01

    Developments in Solid Earth Geophysics 10: Transient Waves in Visco-Elastic Media deals with the propagation of transient elastic disturbances in visco-elastic media. More specifically, it explores the visco-elastic behavior of a medium, whether gaseous, liquid, or solid, for very-small-amplitude disturbances. This volume provides a historical overview of the theory of the propagation of elastic waves in solid bodies, along with seismic prospecting and the nature of seismograms. It also discusses the seismic experiments, the behavior of waves propagated in accordance with the Stokes wave

  10. Topology optimization for transient heat transfer problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeidan, Said; Sigmund, Ole; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov

    , TopOpt has later been extended to transient problems in mechanics and photonics (e.g. [5], [6] and [7]). In the presented approach, the optimization is gradient-based, where in each iteration the non-steady heat conduction equation is solved,using the finite element method and an appropriate time......The focus of this work is on passive control of transient heat transfer problems using the topology optimization (TopOpt) method [1]. The goal is to find distributions of a limited amount of phase change material (PCM), within a given design domain, which optimizes the heat energy storage [2]. Our...

  11. Nonlinear transient and chaotic interactions in disc brake squeal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.

    2015-04-01

    In automotive disc-brake squeal, most numerical studies have been focussed on the prediction of unstable vibration modes in the frequency domain using the complex eigenvalue analysis. However, the magnitude of the positive real part of a complex eigenvalue is an unreliable indicator of squeal occurrence. Although nonlinearities have been shown to play a significant role in brake squeal, transient nonlinear time domain analyses have rarely been applied owing to high computational costs. Here the complex eigenvalue analysis, the direct steady-state analysis and the transient nonlinear time domain analysis are applied to an isotropic pad-on-disc finite element model representing a simple model of a brake system. While in this investigation, in-plane pad-mode instabilities are not detected by the complex eigenvalue analysis, the dissipated energy obtained by the direct steady-state analysis of the model subjected to harmonic contact pressure excitation is negative at frequencies of pad modes, indicating a potential for instabilities. Transient nonlinear time domain analysis of the pad and disc dynamics reveal that in-plane pad vibrations excite a dominant out-of-plane disc mode. For intermittently chaotic pad motion, the disc dynamics is quasi-periodic; and for chaotic motion of the pad, a toroidal attractor is found for the disc's out-of-plane motion. Nonlinear interactions between the pad and the disc highlight that different parts in a brake system display different dynamic behaviour and need to be analysed separately. The type II intermittency route to chaos could be the cause for the experimentally observed instantaneous mode squeal.

  12. Continuation of ECT after recovery from transient, ECT-induced, postictal cortical blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonavane, Sushma; Bambole, Vivek; Bang, Abha; Shah, Nilesh; Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2012-03-01

    Transient, postictal cortical blindness is a rare adverse effect of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). There is no information on the safety of continuation of ECT in patients who recover from ECT-induced cortical blindness. An 18-year-old woman with paranoid schizophrenia experienced cortical blindness immediately after her first bifrontotemporal ECT treatment. There was complete, spontaneous recovery of vision after 6 hours. Neurological examination, computed tomography of the brain, and electroencephalographic study revealed no abnormality. A combination of circumstances suggested that continuation of ECT was desirable. After clearances from neurological and ophthalmological teams, she received 6 more ECT treatments, starting 9 days after the first. After resumption of ECT, there was marked improvement in psychopathology across the ECT course. There was no recurrence of visual symptoms. Patients who experience transient, ECT-induced, postictal cortical blindness may not necessarily experience the same adverse effect on rechallenge with ECT.

  13. Ignition transient modelling for the Space Shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagar, M. A.; Luke, G. D.; Stockham, L. W.

    1993-06-01

    Prediction of the ignition transient for the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) for the Space Shuttle presents an unusual set of modelling challenges because of its high length-to-diameter ratio and complex internal flow environment. A review of ignition modelling experience on the Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), which is similar in size and configuration to the ASRM, reveals that classical igniter design theory and modelling methods under-predict, by a factor of two, the measured pressure and thrust rise rates experienced on the RSRM. This paper (1) reviews the Titan and Shuttle SRM test experience, (2) presents the results of 0-Dimensional (0-D) and 1-Dimensional (1-D) analysis of the RSRM and ASRM motors, and (3) addresses the need for advanced analysis techniques, as they relate to ASRM ignition transient modelling requirements and igniter design drivers.

  14. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  15. Transient coupled calculations of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor using the Transient Fission Matrix approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laureau, A., E-mail: laureau.axel@gmail.com; Heuer, D.; Merle-Lucotte, E.; Rubiolo, P.R.; Allibert, M.; Aufiero, M.

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Neutronic ‘Transient Fission Matrix’ approach coupled to the CFD OpenFOAM code. • Fission Matrix interpolation model for fast spectrum homogeneous reactors. • Application for coupled calculations of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor. • Load following, over-cooling and reactivity insertion transient studies. • Validation of the reactor intrinsic stability for normal and accidental transients. - Abstract: In this paper we present transient studies of the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR). This generation IV reactor is characterized by a liquid fuel circulating in the core cavity, requiring specific simulation tools. An innovative neutronic approach called “Transient Fission Matrix” is used to perform spatial kinetic calculations with a reduced computational cost through a pre-calculation of the Monte Carlo spatial and temporal response of the system. Coupled to this neutronic approach, the Computational Fluid Dynamics code OpenFOAM is used to model the complex flow pattern in the core. An accurate interpolation model developed to take into account the thermal hydraulics feedback on the neutronics including reactivity and neutron flux variation is presented. Finally different transient studies of the reactor in normal and accidental operating conditions are detailed such as reactivity insertion and load following capacities. The results of these studies illustrate the excellent behavior of the MSFR during such transients.

  16. Searching for MHz Transients with the VLA Low-band Ionosphere and Transient Experiment (VLITE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polisensky, Emil; Peters, Wendy; Giacintucci, Simona; Clarke, Tracy; Kassim, Namir E.; hyman, Scott D.; van der Horst, Alexander; Linford, Justin; Waldron, Zach; Frail, Dale

    2018-01-01

    NRL and NRAO have expanded the low frequency capabilities of the VLA through the VLA Low-band Ionosphere and Transient Experiment (VLITE, http://vlite.nrao.edu/ ), effectively making the instrument two telescopes in one. VLITE is a commensal observing system that harvests data from the prime focus in parallel with normal Cassegrain focus observing on a subset of VLA antennas. VLITE provides over 6000 observing hours per year in a > 5 square degree field-of-view using 64 MHz bandwidth centered on 352 MHz. By operating in parallel, VLITE offers invaluable low frequency data to targeted observations of transient sources detected at higher frequencies. With arcsec resolution and mJy sensitivity, VLITE additionally offers great potential for blind searches of rarer radio-selected transients. We use catalog matching software on the imaging products from the daily astrophysics pipeline and the LOFAR Transients Pipeline (TraP) on repeated observations of the same fields to search for coherent and incoherent astronomical transients on timescales of a few seconds to years. We present the current status of the VLITE transient science program from its initial deployment on 10 antennas in November 2014 through its expansion to 16 antennas in the summer of 2017. Transient limits from VLITE’s first year of operation (Polisensky et al. 2016) are updated per the most recent analysis.

  17. Stigma Experienced by Parkinson’s Disease Patients: A Descriptive Review of Qualitative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Maffoni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor and nonmotor symptoms. Both of them imply a negative impact on Health-Related Quality of Life. A significant one is the stigma experienced by the parkinsonian patients and their caregivers. Moreover, stigma may affect everyday life and patient’s subjective and relational perception and it may lead to frustration and isolation. Aim of the present work is to qualitatively describe the stigma of PD patients stemming from literature review, in order to catch the subjective experience and the meaning of the stigma construct. Literature review was performed on PubMed database and Google Scholar (keywords: Parkinson Disease, qualitative, stigma, social problem, isolation, discrimination and was restricted to qualitative data: 14 articles were identified to be suitable to the aim of the present overview. Results are divided into four core constructs: stigma arising from symptoms, stigma linked to relational and communication problems, social stigma arising from sharing perceptions, and caregiver’s stigma. The principal relations to these constructs are deeply analyzed and described subjectively through patients’ and caregiver’s point of view. The qualitative research may allow a better understanding of a subjective symptom such as stigma in parkinsonian patients from an intercultural and a social point of view.

  18. Stigma Experienced by Parkinson's Disease Patients: A Descriptive Review of Qualitative Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffoni, Marina; Pierobon, Antonia; Ferrazzoli, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor and nonmotor symptoms. Both of them imply a negative impact on Health-Related Quality of Life. A significant one is the stigma experienced by the parkinsonian patients and their caregivers. Moreover, stigma may affect everyday life and patient's subjective and relational perception and it may lead to frustration and isolation. Aim of the present work is to qualitatively describe the stigma of PD patients stemming from literature review, in order to catch the subjective experience and the meaning of the stigma construct. Literature review was performed on PubMed database and Google Scholar (keywords: Parkinson Disease, qualitative, stigma, social problem, isolation, discrimination) and was restricted to qualitative data: 14 articles were identified to be suitable to the aim of the present overview. Results are divided into four core constructs: stigma arising from symptoms, stigma linked to relational and communication problems, social stigma arising from sharing perceptions, and caregiver's stigma. The principal relations to these constructs are deeply analyzed and described subjectively through patients' and caregiver's point of view. The qualitative research may allow a better understanding of a subjective symptom such as stigma in parkinsonian patients from an intercultural and a social point of view. PMID:28243481

  19. Global Instability and Transient Growth in a Model Fusifom Aneurysm with Steady Inflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheard, Gregory; Blackburn, Hugh

    2010-11-01

    The stability of the flow through a model aneurysm is computed using a global linear stability analysis and a direct transient growth analysis. The geometry consists of sinusoidal expansion in a circular pipe. Dimensions are chosen to represent a human abdominal aortic aneurysm near to the critical bulge size requiring surgical intervention. The bulge length and maximum width are 2.9 and 1.9 times the pipe diameter, respectively. Subject to a steady inflow, the flow is found to be weakly unstable to quasi-periodic global eigenmodes with azimuthal wavenumbers of 4 and 5 at a Reynolds number (based on area-averaged velocity and pipe diameter) of Re 3900. Perturbation structures in these eigenmodes are concentrated in the outer part of the bulge towards its downstream end. A transient growth analysis reveals that the flow is sensitive to transient disturbances beyond Re=33, well below the time-averaged Reynolds numbers of blood flow in the human abdominal aorta.

  20. A Quantification Index for Power Systems Transient Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengen Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the reliability of power systems, transient stability simulations must be conducted in addition to steady state study. The transient stability component of reliability studies usually involves extensive simulations generating large amounts of data to be analyzed. Conventional stability analysis relies on a visual examination of selected simulation data plots to classify the severity of disturbances. This conventional examination, which aims to compare the simulations results to established performance criteria, is not comprehensive, is time consuming and prone to subjective interpretation. This paper presents a quantification method for power system performance evaluation. It applies a range of criteria such as rotor angle separation, loss of source, damping, and voltage sag directly to the simulation data files to achieve a more efficient and objective stability assessment. By using stability modules, the proposed method evaluates the performance of every fault location, numerically, by providing a local stability index, as well as an overall global stability index. The method also provides an evaluation of dispatches and their impacts on system stability. The IEEE 39-bus test system and the Northeast Interconnection Power System were used to show the results of this method. This method will free engineers from tedious, time-consuming and error-susceptible offline visual analysis and yield significantly quantified results.

  1. simulation of electromagnetic transients in power systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    1996-09-01

    Sep 1, 1996 ... ABSTRACT. Transients in power systems are initiated by abrupt changes to otherwise steady operating conditions. These changes would be as a result of any of the following: opening or closing of circuit breakers, switching conditions, lightning or any other fault condition. For purposes of power system.

  2. Electric fields associated with transient surface currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1992-01-01

    The boundary condition to be fulfilled by the potential functions associated with a transient surface current is derived and expressed in terms of generalized orthogonal coordinates. From the analysis, it can be deduced that the use of the method of separation of variables is restricted to three ...

  3. Transient Evoked aotacoustic emissions otologically normal adults

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABUTH

    Objective: To examine the effects of aging on the existence of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions in normal adult. Material and methods 40 ... wax or any middle ear pathology which might affect the recording at TEOAEs. After that, ... related to decreased hearing sensitivity and are independent of aging, Previous studies.

  4. Laser spectroscopy and dynamics of transient species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clouthier, D.J. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to study the vibrational and electronic spectra and excited state dynamics of a number of transient sulfur and oxygen species. A variety of supersonic jet techniques, as well as high resolution FT-IR and intracavity dye laser spectroscopy, have been applied to these studies.

  5. Thermally triggered degradation of transient electronic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Woo; Kang, Seung-Kyun; Hernandez, Hector Lopez; Kaitz, Joshua A; Wie, Dae Seung; Shin, Jiho; Lee, Olivia P; Sottos, Nancy R; Moore, Jeffrey S; Rogers, John A; White, Scott R

    2015-07-01

    Thermally triggered transient electronics using wax-encapsulated acid, which enable rapid device destruction via acidic degradation of the metal electronic components are reported. Using a cyclic poly(phthalaldehyde) (cPPA) substrate affords a more rapid destruction of the device due to acidic depolymerization of cPPA. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Transient tests on an MHD thruster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, E.S. (Purdue Univ., Hammond, IN (United States). Dept. of Engineering); Libera, J.; Petrick, M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.)

    1993-01-01

    Three different types of transient tests were made -- coast downs to zero voltage and current under open circuit and short circuit conditions, reverses where the applied voltage was reversed to the same or a different value, and jumps where the voltage applied to the thruster was increased without a change in polarity. Most except the coast downs were dons both quickly (voltage changes as fast as possible) and slowly (6 s to complete the voltage change). A few slower (12 s) transients were done. Transient runs were made for water conductivities of 16.2 and 5.09 S/m. In all cases steady-state conditions were established and several seconds of data taken before initiating the transients. Data were measured every 0.75 to 1 .5 second over the time interval of interest. Particular attention was paid to looking for evidence of gas bubbles, and to the chance of the voltage profiles between the electrodes. The data are interpreted based on the behavior of the power supply and the thruster.

  7. Ad-Hoc Transient Communities Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, Bert; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Sloep, Peter; Brouns, Francis; Fetter, Sibren; Berlanga, Adriana

    2009-01-01

    Van den Berg, B., Van Rosmalen, P., Sloep, P. B., Brouns, F., Fetter, S., & Berlanga, A. J. (2009). Ad-Hoc Transient Communities Simulation. The Netlogo application is distributed as a java applet and for that matter part of an archive which contains also the NetlogoLiteJar and the index.htm to

  8. Tackling complex turbulent flows with transient RANS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenjeres, S.; Hanjalic, K.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews some recent applications of the transient-Reynoldsaveraged Navier–Stokes (T-RANS) approach in simulating complex turbulent flows dominated by externally imposed body forces, primarily by thermal buoyancy and the Lorentz force. The T-RANS aims at numerical resolving unsteady

  9. Generalized multibaker maps exhibiting transient diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufmann, Z

    1998-01-01

    Generalized multibaker maps are introduced to study properties of deterministic diffusion. Emphasis is put on transient diffusion modeling systems which are spatially extended only in certain directions and escape of particles is allowed in other ones. Effects of nonlinearity are investigated by varying a control parameter.

  10. Polynomial approximation approach to transient heat conduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work reports polynomial approximation approach to transient heat conduction in a long slab, long cylinder and sphere with linear internal heat generation. It has been shown that the polynomial approximation method is able to calculate average temperature as a function of time for higher value of Biot numbers.

  11. Ethernet susceptibility to electric fast transients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leersum, B.J.A.M.; Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Bergsma, J.G.; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Electric Fast Transients (EFT) phenomena in an Ethernet interface set-up is investigated in order to get more insight in coupling and interference mechanisms, robustness and susceptibility levels of a typical Ethernet installation on board of a naval vessel. It is shown that already a

  12. Physicians Experiencing Intense Emotions While Seeing Their Patients: What Happens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joana Vilela Da; Carvalho, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Physicians often deal with emotions arising from both patients and themselves; however, management of intense emotions when they arise in the presence of patients is overlooked in research. The aim of this study is to inspect physicians' intense emotions in this context, how these emotions are displayed, coping strategies used, adjustment behaviors, and the impact of the emotional reactions on the physician-patient relationship. A total of 127 physicians completed a self-report survey, built from a literature review. Participants were recruited in 3 different ways: through a snowball sampling procedure, via institutional e-mails, and in person during service meetings. Fifty-two physicians (43.0%) reported experiencing intense emotions frequently. Although most physicians (88.6%) tried to control their reactions, several reported not controlling themselves. Coping strategies to deal with the emotion at the moment included behavioral and cognitive approaches. Only the type of reaction (but not the emotion's valence, duration, relative control, or coping strategies used) seemed to affect the physician-patient relationship. Choking-up/crying, touching, smiling, and providing support were significantly associated with an immediate positive impact. Withdrawing from the situation, imposing, and defending oneself were associated with a negative impact. Some reactions also had an extended impact into future interactions. Experiencing intense emotions in the presence of patients was frequent among physicians, and the type of reaction affected the clinical relationship. Because many physicians reported experiencing long-lasting emotions, these may have important clinical implications for patients visiting physicians while these emotions last. Further studies are needed to clarify these results.

  13. Caffeine Improves Basketball Performance in Experienced Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Puente

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of caffeine intake on overall basketball performance in experienced players. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized experimental design was used for this investigation. In two different sessions separated by one week, 20 experienced basketball players ingested 3 mg of caffeine/kg of body mass or a placebo. After 60 min, participants performed 10 repetitions of the following sequence: Abalakov jump, Change-of-Direction and Acceleration Test (CODAT and two free throws. Later, heart rate, body impacts and game statistics were recorded during a 20-min simulated basketball game. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of caffeine increased mean jump height (37.3 ± 6.8 vs. 38.2 ± 7.4 cm; p = 0.012, but did not change mean time in the CODAT test or accuracy in free throws. During the simulated game, caffeine increased the number of body impacts (396 ± 43 vs. 410 ± 41 impacts/min; p < 0.001 without modifying mean or peak heart rate. Caffeine also increased the performance index rating (7.2 ± 8.6 vs. 10.6 ± 7.1; p = 0.037 during the game. Nevertheless, players showed a higher prevalence of insomnia (19.0 vs. 54.4%; p = 0.041 after the game. Three mg of caffeine per kg of body mass could be an effective ergogenic substance to increase physical performance and overall success in experienced basketball players.

  14. Caffeine Improves Basketball Performance in Experienced Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Carlos; Abián-Vicén, Javier; Salinero, Juan José; Lara, Beatriz; Areces, Francisco; Del Coso, Juan

    2017-09-19

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of caffeine intake on overall basketball performance in experienced players. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized experimental design was used for this investigation. In two different sessions separated by one week, 20 experienced basketball players ingested 3 mg of caffeine/kg of body mass or a placebo. After 60 min, participants performed 10 repetitions of the following sequence: Abalakov jump, Change-of-Direction and Acceleration Test (CODAT) and two free throws. Later, heart rate, body impacts and game statistics were recorded during a 20-min simulated basketball game. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of caffeine increased mean jump height (37.3 ± 6.8 vs. 38.2 ± 7.4 cm; p = 0.012), but did not change mean time in the CODAT test or accuracy in free throws. During the simulated game, caffeine increased the number of body impacts (396 ± 43 vs. 410 ± 41 impacts/min; p < 0.001) without modifying mean or peak heart rate. Caffeine also increased the performance index rating (7.2 ± 8.6 vs. 10.6 ± 7.1; p = 0.037) during the game. Nevertheless, players showed a higher prevalence of insomnia (19.0 vs. 54.4%; p = 0.041) after the game. Three mg of caffeine per kg of body mass could be an effective ergogenic substance to increase physical performance and overall success in experienced basketball players.

  15. Financial Hardships Experienced by Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altice, Cheryl K; Banegas, Matthew P; Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D; Yabroff, K Robin

    2017-02-01

    With rising cancer care costs, including high-priced cancer drugs, financial hardship is increasingly documented among cancer survivors in the United States; research findings have not been synthesized. We conducted a systematic review of articles published between 1990 and 2015 describing the financial hardship experienced by cancer survivors using PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and CINAHL databases. We categorized measures of financial hardship into: material conditions (eg, out-of-pocket costs, productivity loss, medical debt, or bankruptcy), psychological responses (eg, distress or worry), and coping behaviors (eg, skipped medications). We abstracted findings and conducted a qualitative synthesis. Among 676 studies identified, 45 met the inclusion criteria and were incorporated in the review. The majority of the studies (82%, n = 37) reported financial hardship as a material condition measure; others reported psychological (7%, n = 3) and behavioral measures (16%, n = 7). Financial hardship measures were heterogeneous within each broad category, and the prevalence of financial hardship varied by the measure used and population studied. Mean annual productivity loss ranged from $380 to $8236, 12% to 62% of survivors reported being in debt because of their treatment, 47% to 49% of survivors reported experiencing some form of financial distress, and 4% to 45% of survivors did not adhere to recommended prescription medication because of cost. Financial hardship is common among cancer survivors, although we found substantial heterogeneity in its prevalence. Our findings highlight the need for consistent use of definitions, terms, and measures to determine the best intervention targets and inform intervention development in order to prevent and minimize the impact of financial hardship experienced by cancer survivors. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Workplace aggression experienced by frontline staff in dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, Anne-Marie; Squires, Janet E; Mitchell, Agnes; Sales, Anne E; Estabrooks, Carole A

    2012-05-01

    To describe the frequency of aggressive acts experienced by frontline staff working in two models of dementia care: Residential Alzheimer's Care Centers and Secured Dementia Units and to explore the associations between aggressive acts experienced by frontline staff and factors related to the work context and care providers. Aggression towards healthcare providers in residential long-term care settings is well documented. However, few studies have examined associations between aggressive behaviours towards care providers and organisational factors. A cross-sectional survey. The survey included demographic items and questions about aggressive acts experienced by staff and contextual factors. Analyses included: (1) descriptive statistics, (2) tests of difference (i.e. Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, chi-squared test and anova), (3) bivariate associations (i.e. Pearson and Spearman rank order correlations) and (4) multivariate linear regression. Ninety-one health care aides and licensed practical nurses working in four nursing units using two models of dementia care participated (response rate 81%). The most frequently reported types of aggression were physical assault (50% of staff, n = 45) and emotional abuse (48% of staff, n = 44). Aggressive acts were significantly associated with working in Secured Dementia Units rather than Residential Alzheimer's Care Centers. Frontline staff working in Secured Dementia Units were exposed to higher frequencies of various types of aggressive acts mainly initiated by residents. Future research needs to explore modifiable workplace factors associated with aggressive acts in a larger sample across a variety of long-term care settings. To prevent staff perceived aggressive acts, leaders and managers in dementia care need to acknowledge the complex topic of workplace aggression and encourage an open discussion among frontline staff without assigning blame. Care provider strategies for dealing with aggressive behaviour have to

  17. Non-technical skills of surgical trainees and experienced surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostlow, H; Marlow, N; Thomas, M J W; Hewett, P J; Kiermeier, A; Babidge, W; Altree, M; Pena, G; Maddern, G

    2017-05-01

    In addition to technical expertise, surgical competence requires effective non-technical skills to ensure patient safety and maintenance of standards. Recently the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons implemented a new Surgical Education and Training (SET) curriculum that incorporated non-technical skills considered essential for a competent surgeon. This study sought to compare the non-technical skills of experienced surgeons who completed their training before the introduction of SET with the non-technical skills of more recent trainees. Surgical trainees and experienced surgeons undertook a simulated scenario designed to challenge their non-technical skills. Scenarios were video recorded and participants were assessed using the Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS) scoring system. Participants were divided into subgroups according to years of experience and their NOTSS scores were compared. For most NOTSS elements, mean scores increased initially, peaking around the time of Fellowship, before decreasing roughly linearly over time. There was a significant downward trend in score with increasing years since being awarded Fellowship for six of the 12 NOTSS elements: considering options (score -0·015 units per year), implementing and reviewing decisions (-0·020 per year), establishing a shared understanding (-0·014 per year), setting and maintaining standards (-0·024 per year), supporting others (-0·031 per year) and coping with pressure (-0·015 per year). The drop in NOTSS score was unexpected and highlights that even experienced surgeons are not immune to deficiencies in non-technical skills. Consideration should be given to continuing professional development programmes focusing on non-technical skills, regardless of the level of professional experience. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Stigma Perceived and Experienced by Adults with Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulla Møller; Willaing, Ingrid; Ventura, Adriana D

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to (a) culturally and linguistically adapt the Type 1 Diabetes Stigma Assessment Scale (DSAS-1) from English (for Australia) into Danish and (b) examine psychometric properties of the measure among Danish adults with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We performed a forward......-backward translation, face validity interviews with experts and cognitive debriefing of the Danish version (DSAS-1 DK) with ten adults from the target group. The DSAS-1 DK was then completed by 1594 adults with type 1 diabetes. Electronic clinical records provided age, diabetes duration, diabetes-related complications...... to advance research into the stigma perceived and experienced by adults with type 1 diabetes in a Danish context....

  19. Students' ways of experiencing human-centered design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltowski, Carla B.

    This study investigated the qualitatively different ways which students experienced human-centered design. The findings of this research are important in developing effective design learning experiences and have potential impact across design education. This study provides the basis for being able to assess learning of human-centered design which will allow educational programs to determine their impact, and what aspects are most effective. Because the object of study was the variation of students' experiences human-centered design, a phenomenographic framework was used to guide the methodology of the study. The literature and research on service-learning and human-centered design informed the construction of the phenomenographic study and also provided ways to interpret the data and situate the results. Thirty-three student designers from a variety of academic contexts were interviewed using a semi-structured, open-ended approach in which they discussed concrete experiences "designing for others", and reflections and meanings associated with those experiences. Analysis of the data yielded seven qualitatively different ways in which the students experienced human-centered design, or categories of description. Logically related, the seven categories of description formed an outcome space that was two-dimensional with distinct, but not independent, axes. The critical differences among the categories provided the basis for developing their hierarchical relationship. Five of the categories were nested hierarchically. From less comprehensive to more comprehensive, those categories included: Human-centered design as "User as Information Source Input to Linear Process", "Keep Users' Needs in Mind", "Design in Context", "Commitment" and "Empathic Design". Two categories represented ways of experiencing human-centered design that were distinct: design was not human-centered, but "Technology-Centered" and human-centered design was not design, but "Service". In addition, this

  20. Experiencing mathematics what do we do, when we do mathematics?

    CERN Document Server

    Hersh, Reuben

    2014-01-01

    The question "What am I doing?" haunts many creative people, researchers, and teachers. Mathematics, poetry, and philosophy can look from the outside sometimes as ballet en pointe, and at other times as the flight of the bumblebee. Reuben Hersh looks at mathematics from the inside; he collects his papers written over several decades, their edited versions, and new chapters in his book Experiencing Mathematics, which is practical, philosophical, and in some places as intensely personal as Swann's madeleine. -Yuri Manin, Max Planck Institute, Bonn, Germany What happens when mid-career a mathemat

  1. Diuretics for transient tachypnoea of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassab, Manal; Khriesat, Wadah M; Anabrees, Jasim

    2015-11-21

    Transient tachypnoea of the newborn (TTN) results from delayed clearance of lung liquid and is a common cause of admission of full-term infants to neonatal intensive care units. The condition is particularly common after elective caesarean section. Conventional treatment involves appropriate oxygen administration and continuous positive airway pressure in some cases. Most infants receive antibiotic therapy. Hastening the clearance of lung liquid may shorten the duration of the symptoms and reduce complications. To determine whether diuretic administration reduces the duration of oxygen therapy and respiratory symptoms and shortens hospital stay in term infants presenting with transient tachypnoea of the newborn. An updated search was carried out in September 2015 of the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library issue 9, 2015), MEDLINE via Ovid, EMBASE, PubMed, and CINAHL via OVID. We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared the effect of diuretics administration versus placebo or no treatment in infants of less than seven days of age, born at 37 or more weeks of gestation with the clinical picture of transient tachypnoea of the newborn. We extracted and analysed data according to the methods outlined in the latest Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Two review authors assessed trial quality in each potentially eligible manuscript and two review authors extracted data. Our previous systematic review included two trials enrolling a total of 100 infants with transient tachypnoea of the newborn (Wiswell 1985; Karabayir 2006). The updated search revealed no new trials. Wiswell 1985 randomised 50 infants to receive either oral furosemide (2 mg/kg body weight at time of diagnosis followed by a 1 mg/kg dose 12 hours later if the tachypnoea persisted) or placebo. Karabayir 2006 randomised 50 infants to receive either intravenous furosemide (2 mg/kg body

  2. Scotopic electrophysiology of the retina during transient hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holfort, Stig Kraglund; Klemp, Kristian; Kofoed, Peter Kristian

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine dark-adapted retinal function in subjects with type 2 diabetes during transient hyperglycemia. METHODS: Twenty-four subjects with type 2 diabetes and minimal diabetic retinopathy were randomized to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) or a fasting regimen. One study eye...... by hyperglycemia. The scotopic ffERG amplitudes rose and fell in phase with the glycemia. Implicit times did not change with the rise and fall in glycemia. CONCLUSIONS: The change in scotopic signaling amplitude in the outer and middle layers of retina in subjects with diabetes was proportional to the change...... in capillary glucose. Cone amplitude was not influenced by hyperglycemia in this study....

  3. A Study on the Transient Response of a Stepped Column Subjected to an Impact Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    buckling load of the model 1. Therefore, from the figure, we know that the stresses of all models exceed the ultimate tensile strength of Al2024 -t3, 45...reduced to 75% than that of model 1, and the stress values are exceeding the ultimate tensile strength of an Al2024 -t3, 45kg/mm2. Table 4 is

  4. Theoretical Solution for Temperature Profile in Multi-layered Pavement Systems Subjected to Transient Thermal Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    kcal/mm s ◦C) Geopolymer paste 2.0x10−7 PCC slab 5.1x10−7 Thermal diffusivity, α (mm2/s) Geopolymer 0.2 PCC slab 1.3 for the surface layer of airfield...concrete pavements. Geopolymer materials have desirable properties for serving as an alternative binder to traditional Portland cement in producing...high thermal stability. Thus it is possible to construct paving concrete made from a geopolymer binder on top of the ordinary concrete slab to limit

  5. Transient Vasospastic Response Following the Injection of Corticosteroid into the Hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulipan, Jacob; Lutsky, Kevin; Beredjiklian, Pedro

    2017-05-01

    A sixty-year-old right hand dominant woman with longstanding left basal joint arthritis and right small trigger finger presented for corticosteroid injections to both areas. She had previously received injections with no adverse effects and good relief of symptoms. Following this most recent injection of corticosteroid, she experienced transient ischemia of the left hand and the right long and ring fingers. Corticosteroid injections can rarely cause local vasospasm, even when not inadvertently injected into the vascular system. This condition is self-limited following supportive treatment.

  6. The fast transient sky with Gaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wevers, Thomas; Jonker, Peter G.; Hodgkin, Simon T.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Zuzanna; Harrison, Diana L.; Rixon, Guy; Nelemans, Gijs; Roelens, Maroussia; Eyer, Laurent; van Leeuwen, Floor; Yoldas, Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    The ESA Gaia satellite scans the whole sky with a temporal sampling ranging from seconds and hours to months. Each time a source passes within the Gaia field of view, it moves over 10 charge coupled devices (CCDs) in 45 s and a light curve with 4.5 s sampling (the crossing time per CCD) is registered. Given that the 4.5 s sampling represents a virtually unexplored parameter space in optical time domain astronomy, this data set potentially provides a unique opportunity to open up the fast transient sky. We present a method to start mining the wealth of information in the per CCD Gaia data. We perform extensive data filtering to eliminate known onboard and data processing artefacts, and present a statistical method to identify sources that show transient brightness variations on ≲2 h time-scales. We illustrate that by using the Gaia photometric CCD measurements, we can detect transient brightness variations down to an amplitude of 0.3 mag on time-scales ranging from 15 s to several hours. We search an area of ∼23.5 deg2 on the sky and find four strong candidate fast transients. Two candidates are tentatively classified as flares on M-dwarf stars, while one is probably a flare on a giant star and one potentially a flare on a solar-type star. These classifications are based on archival data and the time-scales involved. We argue that the method presented here can be added to the existing Gaia Science Alerts infrastructure for the near real-time public dissemination of fast transient events.

  7. Nonstationary Transient Vibroacoustic Response of a Beam Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimi, R. E.; Margasahayam, R. N.; Nayfeh, Jamal F.

    1997-01-01

    This study consists of an investigation into the nonstationary transient response of the Verification Test Article (VETA) when subjected to random acoustic excitation. The goal is to assess excitation models that can be used in the design of structures and equipment when knowledge of the structure and the excitation is limited. The VETA is an instrumented cantilever beam that was exposed to acoustic loading during five Space Shuttle launches. The VETA analytical structural model response is estimated using the direct averaged power spectral density and the normalized pressure spectra methods. The estimated responses are compared to the measured response of the VETA. These comparisons are discussed with a focus on prediction conservatism and current design practice.

  8. Suicide risk and protective factors among youth experiencing school difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Elaine; Eggert, Leona L

    2007-10-01

    Youth who experience difficulty in school are at risk for suicide, yet there is little published information specific to risk and protective factors among this group. The purpose of this study was to conduct an in-depth examination of risk and protective factors associated with suicidal behaviour among youth who were experiencing problems in school and to compare these factors between suicide risk and non-suicide risk subgroups. Participants were 730 high school students in the Northwest and Southwest regions of the United States, aged 14-21 years. All participants were known to be experiencing difficulty with grades and/or attendance. Students completed a paper-and-pencil questionnaire and a one-on-one interview, which assessed suicidal behaviours as well as risk factors (e.g. drug involvement, emotional distress, stress), and protective factors (e.g. self-esteem, coping, support). Analysis of covariance tests, controlling for age and sex, were conducted to examine differences between the suicide risk and non-suicide risk groups on each risk and protective factor. The suicide risk subgroup reported higher levels of all risk factors, except alcohol and marijuana use, and lower levels of protective factors. While the groups did not differ on frequency of alcohol or marijuana use, they did differ on other illicit drug use and consequences of alcohol and other illicit drug use. Recommendations for nurses practising in school settings are discussed.

  9. Stress and health in novice and experienced nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Cristobal; Navia-Osorio, Pilar Martínez; Diaz, Carmen Vacas

    2010-02-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to identify the differences in novice and experienced nursing students' reports of stress and health. Stress from clinical practice and its impact are international yet culturally mediated phenomena. Nursing students are under considerable stress during clinical practice periods, putting their education and health at risk. However, there is little or no empirical evidence about the stress suffered by nursing students and its impact on their health throughout clinical practice. We performed cross-sectional research using standard information gathering tools. This study was carried out with 357 students from all 3 years of a nursing diploma programme at a Spanish nursing college (71% response rate). The data were collected over an 8-month period in 2004-2005. We identified three types of stressors (clinical, academic and external) and two categories of symptoms (physiological and psychological) linked to clinical practice. Factor analysis identified six major sources of stress and six important symptoms. Students perceived clinical stressors more intensely than academic and external stressors, and showed psychological symptoms more frequently than physiological symptoms. Nursing students from all 3 years perceived moderate stress at similar levels. Experienced students perceived more academic stressors than novices. Although the students were healthy, second year students were the most vulnerable to somatic and psychic anxiety, and common symptoms. We suggest informing students about possible stressors associated with their profession, and introducing interventions to support development of professionalism, social skills and coping capacity for clinical practice.

  10. Ambiguous Loss Experienced by Transnational Mexican Immigrant Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, Catherine; Zaid, Samantha; Ballard, Jaime

    2016-06-01

    In this study, an ambiguous loss framework as described by Boss (1999, Ambiguous loss: Learning to live with unresolved grief, First Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA) was used to examine and understand the family experiences of Mexican immigrant agricultural workers in Minnesota. Transcripts from interviews with 17 workers in Minnesota and 17 family members in Mexico were analyzed using qualitative methodology to identify experiences of ambiguous loss in the participants' narratives. Key dimensions of ambiguous loss identified in the transcripts include: psychological family, feelings of chronic/recurring loss, finding support, and meaning making. In the category of psychological family, participants in both Mexico and the United States mourned the physical absence of their family members and experienced ambiguity regarding family responsibilities, but worked to maintain their psychological roles within the family. In the category of chronic/recurring loss, participants in both countries experienced chronic worry from not knowing if family members were safe, ambiguity regarding when the immigrant would return, and chronic stressors that compounded these feelings of loss. Participants in both countries coped with both real and ambiguous losses by accessing family support and by using ambiguous communication to minimize worry. Participants in Mexico also accessed work and community-based support. Participants in both countries made meaning of the ambiguous loss by identifying ways their lives were improved and goals were met as a result of the immigration for agricultural work in Minnesota. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  11. Caffeine Improves Basketball Performance in Experienced Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Carlos; Areces, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of caffeine intake on overall basketball performance in experienced players. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized experimental design was used for this investigation. In two different sessions separated by one week, 20 experienced basketball players ingested 3 mg of caffeine/kg of body mass or a placebo. After 60 min, participants performed 10 repetitions of the following sequence: Abalakov jump, Change-of-Direction and Acceleration Test (CODAT) and two free throws. Later, heart rate, body impacts and game statistics were recorded during a 20-min simulated basketball game. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of caffeine increased mean jump height (37.3 ± 6.8 vs. 38.2 ± 7.4 cm; p = 0.012), but did not change mean time in the CODAT test or accuracy in free throws. During the simulated game, caffeine increased the number of body impacts (396 ± 43 vs. 410 ± 41 impacts/min; p basketball players. PMID:28925969

  12. Mammalian ranges are experiencing erosion of natural darkness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, James P.; Bennie, Jonathan; Durán, América P.; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2015-07-01

    The continuous increase in the intensity and extent of anthropogenic artificial light has significantly shaped Earth’s nighttime environment. This environmental change has effects across the natural world, with consequences for organismal physiology and behaviour and the abundances and distributions of species. Here, we evaluate for the first time the relations between the spatio-temporal patterns of anthropogenic nighttime light and the distribution of terrestrial mammals, one of the most endangered species groups and one that expresses varying time partitioning strategies. Using descriptive statistics, trend tests and spatial prioritization analysis we show that in most places on earth there is a terrestrial mammal species whose range is experiencing detectable artificial light. For most species this tends only to be for small parts of their range, and those affected across large parts are typically rare. Over time (1992-2012), an increase in mean light intensity was found for the ranges of the majority of species, with very few experiencing a decrease. Moreover, nocturnal species are more likely to experience an increase in light within their ranges. This is of conservation concern as many terrestrial mammals are nocturnal and therefore often particularly vulnerable to a pressure such as artificial light at night.

  13. Experiencing a natural disaster alters children's altruistic giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiyuan; Li, Hong; Decety, Jean; Lee, Kang

    2013-09-01

    Altruism is thought to be a major contributor to the development of large-scale human societies. However, much of the evidence supporting this belief comes from individuals living in pacific and often affluent environments. It is entirely unknown whether humans act altruistically when facing adversity. Adversity is arguably a common human experience (as manifested in, e.g., personal tragedies, political upheavals, and natural disasters). In the research reported here, we found that experiencing a natural disaster affected children's altruistic giving. Immediately after witnessing devastations caused by a major earthquake, 9-year-olds became more altruistic. In addition, the more empathic they were, the more they gave. In contrast, experiencing a major earthquake caused 6-year-olds to be more selfish. Three years after the earthquake, children's altruistic tendencies returned to pre-earthquake levels, which suggests that changes in children's altruistic giving are an acute response to the immediate aftermath of a major natural disaster. These findings suggest that environmental insults and empathy play crucial roles in human altruism.

  14. Quantification of experienced hearing problems with item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenault, Michelene; Berger, Martijn; Kremer, Bernd; Anteunis, Lucien

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the effectiveness of adult hearing screens and demonstrate that interventions assessment methods are needed that address the individual's experienced hearing. Item response theory, which provides a methodology for assessing patient-reported outcomes, is examined here to demonstrate its usefulness in hearing screens and interventions. The graded response model is applied to a scale of 11 items assessing perceived hearing functioning and 10 items assessing experienced social limitations completed by a sample of 212 persons age 55+ years. Fixed and variable slope models are compared. Discrimination and threshold parameters are estimated and information functions evaluated. Variable slope models for both scales provided the best fit. The estimated discrimination parameters for all items except for one in each scale were good if not excellent (1.5-3.4). Threshold values varied, demonstrating the complementary and supplementary value of items within a scale. The information provided by each item varies relative to trait values so that each scale of items provides information over a wider range of trait values. Item response theory methodology facilitates the comparison of items relative to their discriminative ability and information provided and thus provides a basis for the selection of items for application in a screening setting.

  15. Transmission of vocational skills between experienced and new hospital workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thébault, Jeanne; Gaudart, Corinne; Cloutier, Esther; Volkoff, Serge

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study currently underway looking at the transmission of vocational skills between health care workers in a French hospital. The aim was to show that health care workers, in addition to their work with patients, also have to incorporate the transmission of vocational skills into their daily activities. Thirteen transmission situations were observed and analyzed by means of an activity-focused ergonomic work analysis, with the aim of reporting on this "invisible work". The population studied was composed of nurses and the nursing assistants from three different units in one hospital. The results show that the work required to integrate and supervise new staff members is left to the discretion of health care workers. This means they are constantly required to arbitrate on both an individual and collective basis between providing health care for patients and supporting new members of staff. The content of the transmission goes beyond the prescribed tasks and technical knowledge, as staff members also pass on their professional strategies (individual and collective), rules of practice and ethical considerations. Supervising students also offers experienced workers the opportunity to share their professional practices. This study highlights the issues arising from this transmission activity for the experienced workers, new workers, patients and the hospital.

  16. Spectroscopic observations of four transients by NUTS (NOT Un-biased Transient Survey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuncarayakti, H.; Mattila, S.; Harmanen, J.; Kangas, T.; Reynolds, T.; Somero, A.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Hamanowicz, A.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Fraser, M.; Stritzinger, M.; Pastorello, A.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Lundqvist, P.; Taddia, F.; Ergon, M.

    2017-01-01

    The Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) Un-biased Transient Survey (NUTS; ATel #8992) reports spectroscopic classifications of two supernovae in anonymous host galaxies, one cataclysmic variable star, and one object of undetermined class.

  17. The tactile perception of transient changes in friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueorguiev, David; Vezzoli, Eric; Mouraux, André; Lemaire-Semail, Betty; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2017-12-01

    When we touch an object or explore a texture, frictional strains are induced by the tactile interactions with the surface of the object. Little is known about how these interactions are perceived, although it becomes crucial for the nascent industry of interactive displays with haptic feedback (e.g. smartphones and tablets) where tactile feedback based on friction modulation is particularly relevant. To investigate the human perception of frictional strains, we mounted a high-fidelity friction modulating ultrasonic device on a robotic platform performing controlled rubbing of the fingertip and asked participants to detect induced decreases of friction during a forced-choice task. The ability to perceive the changes in friction was found to follow Weber's Law of just noticeable differences, as it consistently depended on the ratio between the reduction in tangential force and the pre-stimulation tangential force. The Weber fraction was 0.11 in all conditions demonstrating a very high sensitivity to transient changes in friction. Humid fingers experienced less friction reduction than drier ones for the same intensity of ultrasonic vibration but the Weber fraction for detecting changes in friction was not influenced by the humidity of the skin. © 2017 The Authors.

  18. Fluid-structure interaction analysis for pressurizer surge line subjected to thermal stratification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong Gu [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jhung, Myung Jo, E-mail: mjj@kins.re.k [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: Temperature of surge line due to stratified flow is defined using CFD analysis. Fluid-structure interaction analysis is performed to investigate the response characteristics due to thermal stress. Fatigue usage factors due to thermal stratification are relatively low. Simplifying temperature distribution in surge line is not always conservative. - Abstract: Serious mechanical damages such as cracks and plastic deformations due to excessive thermal stress caused by thermal stratification have been experienced in several nuclear power plants. In particular, the thermal stratification in the pressurizer surge line has been addressed as one of the significant safety and technical issues. In this study, a detailed unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis involving conjugate heat transfer analysis is performed to obtain the transient temperature distributions in the wall of the pressurizer surge line subjected to stratified internal flows either during out-surge or in-surge operation. The thermal loads from CFD calculations are transferred to the structural analysis code which is employed for the thermal stress analysis to investigate the response characteristics, and the fatigue analysis is ultimately performed. In addition, the thermal stress and fatigue analysis results obtained by applying the realistic temperature distributions from CFD calculations are compared with those by assuming the simplified temperature distributions to identify some requirements for a realistic and conservative thermal stress analysis from a safety point of view.

  19. Single Event Transients in Linear Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Stephen; McMorrow, Dale

    2005-01-01

    On November 5, 2001, a processor reset occurred on board the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP), a NASA mission to measure the anisotropy of the microwave radiation left over from the Big Bang. The reset caused the spacecraft to enter a safehold mode from which it took several days to recover. Were that to happen regularly, the entire mission would be compromised, so it was important to find the cause of the reset and, if possible, to mitigate it. NASA assembled a team of engineers that included experts in radiation effects to tackle the problem. The first clue was the observation that the processor reset occurred during a solar event characterized by large increases in the proton and heavy ion fluxes emitted by the sun. To the radiation effects engineers on the team, this strongly suggested that particle radiation might be the culprit, particularly when it was discovered that the reset circuit contained three voltage comparators (LM139). Previous testing revealed that large voltage transients, or glitches appeared at the output of the LM139 when it was exposed to a beam of heavy ions [NI96]. The function of the reset circuit was to monitor the supply voltage and to issue a reset command to the processor should the voltage fall below a reference of 2.5 V [PO02]. Eventually, the team of engineers concluded that ionizing particle radiation from the solar event produced a negative voltage transient on the output of one of the LM139s sufficiently large to reset the processor on MAP. Fortunately, as of the end of 2004, only two such resets have occurred. The reset on MAP was not the first malfunction on a spacecraft attributed to a transient. That occurred shortly after the launch of NASA s TOPEX/Poseidon satellite in 1992. It was suspected, and later confirmed, that an anomaly in the Earth Sensor was caused by a transient in an operational amplifier (OP-15) [KO93]. Over the next few years, problems on TDRS, CASSINI, [PR02] SOHO [HA99,HA01] and TERRA were also attributed

  20. Qualitative assessment of pica experienced by frequent blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansky, Melanie C; King, Melissa R; Bialkowski, Walter; Bryant, Barbara J; Kiss, Joseph E; D'Andrea, Pam; Cable, Ritchard G; Spencer, Bryan R; Mast, Alan E

    2017-04-01

    Pica, the compulsive consumption of ice or other nonnutritious substances, is associated with iron deficiency, a common negative consequence of frequent blood donation. Because of this, blood donors, such as those participating in the Strategies to Reduce Iron Deficiency (STRIDE) study, are an ideal population to explore pica and iron deficiency. STRIDE was a 2-year intervention trial to assess the effectiveness of iron supplementation for mitigating iron deficiency in frequent blood donors. Subjects completed baseline and follow-up questionnaires that included questions about pica symptoms. In-depth telephone interviews were conducted with 14 of these subjects reporting pica symptoms and eight presumed controls (casual ice chewers) to gain a deeper understanding of pica symptoms and their impact on daily life and to make a final determination on the presence of pica. Pica was confirmed in five of the 14 subjects reporting symptoms and in two of eight controls. Outcome misclassification based on the questionnaire was attributed to inadequate assessment of several pica symptoms identified during the interview. Comparison of subjects' repeated quantitative iron measurements taken throughout STRIDE with subjects' final adjudicated pica status revealed a positive relationship between development of pica and worsening iron status; the opposite was found in those whose pica symptoms resolved. Continued refinement of pica symptom questions will allow for rapid and accurate detection of pica in frequent blood donors and confirmation of successful treatment with iron supplements. © 2016 AABB.

  1. Experiencing the Implementation of New Inquiry Science Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ower, Peter S.

    Using a phenomenological methodology, a cohort of four experienced science teachers was interviewed about their experience transitioning from traditional, teacher and fact-centered science curricula to inquiry-based curricula. Each teacher participated in two interviews that focused on their teaching backgrounds, their experience teaching the prior traditional curriculum, and their experience teaching the new inquiry-based curriculum. The findings are presented as a narrative of each teachers' experience with the new curriculum implementation. Analyzing the data revealed four key themes. 1) The teachers felt trapped by the old curriculum as it did not align with their positive views of teaching science through inquiry. 2) The teachers found a way to fit their beliefs and values into the old and new curriculum. This required changes to the curriculum. 3) The teachers attempted to make the science curriculum as meaningful as possible for their students. 4) The teachers experienced a balancing act between their beliefs and values and the various aspects of the curriculum. The revealed essence of the curriculum transition is one of freedom and reconciliation of their beliefs. The teachers experienced the implementation of the new curriculum as a way to ensure their values and beliefs of science education were embedded therein. They treated the new curriculum as a malleable structure to impart their grander ideas of science education (e.g. providing important skills for future careers, creating a sense of wonder, future problem solving) to the students. Their changes were aligned with the philosophy of the curriculum kits they were implementing. Thus, the fidelity of the curriculum's philosophy was not at risk even though the curriculum kits were not taught as written. This study showed that phenomenological methods are able to reveal the relationship between a teacher's prior experiences, values and beliefs and their current instructional philosophy in science

  2. Comparison of Physiological Variables Between the Elliptical Bicycle and Run Training in Experienced Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Ian E; White, Jason B; Rana, Sharon R

    2016-11-01

    Klein, IE, White, JB, and Rana, SR. Comparison of physiological variables between the elliptical bicycle and run training in experienced runners. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 2998-3006, 2016-A novel outdoor elliptical bicycle (EBIKE) has been designed to elicit running-similar physiological adaptations while reducing the impact forces that commonly lead to injury. Various cross-training methods have been used to reduce injury risk, restore or maintain fitness, and prevent detraining. The purpose of this study was to compare 4 weeks of EBIKE-only training to run-only training on maximal oxygen consumption, ventilatory threshold, respiratory compensation point, running economy, and 5,000 m time trial times. Twelve experienced runners (age, 22.33 ± 3.33 years; running experience, 9.25 ± 4.53 years) completed 4 weeks of randomly assigned EBIKE or run training. Physiological and performance testing procedures were repeated, and subjects then performed a second matched 4-week training period in a crossover design. Ventilatory threshold was significantly greater after EBIKE (p ≤ 0.05; 41.60 ± 6.15 ml·kg·min) and run training (p ≤ 0.05; 42.33 ± 6.96 ml·kg·min) compared with the initial time point (40.17 ± 6.47 ml·kg·min). There were no significant group differences (p > 0.05) for these variables at any time point. In conclusion, EBIKE-only training yielded similar physiological and performance maintenance or improvements compared with run-only training. These results suggest that EBIKE training can be an effective cross-training method to maintain and improve certain physiological and performance variables in experienced runners over a 4-week period.

  3. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions, and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must...

  4. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must ...

  5. Subjective meaning: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Janneke; van Wijbergen-Huitink, Janneke; Meier, Cécile

    This introductory chapter traces some of the considerations on the basis of which relativistic approaches to subjective meaning became en vogue. In doing so, the chapter provides an overview of the relevant linguistic and philosophical issues when developing a treatment of subjectivity. In addition,

  6. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the

  7. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  8. Postpartum depression among women who have experienced intimate partner violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogathi, Jane J.; Manongi, Rachael; Mushi, Declare

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Post-partum depression (PPD) in many low-income countries, including Tanzania, is not well recognized, and the underlying predictors and causes of PPD remain unclear. Results from previous studies suggest that PPD is associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced during...... gestation attending antenatal clinics in two primary level health facilities. Women were interviewed at four time points: 1) Socio-demographic and reproductive health characteristics were assessed at recruitment; 2) At 34 weeks gestational age we screened for depression using the Edinburgh Postpartum...... Depression Scale (EPDS) and self-reported IPV experiences were assessed using structured questions adopted from the WHO's Multi-country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence; 3) Assessment for postpartum depression using EPDS was repeated at 40 days post-partum. Data were analyzed using bivariate...

  9. Suddenly included: cultural differences in experiencing re-inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfundmair, Michaela; Graupmann, Verena; Du, Hongfei; Frey, Dieter; Aydin, Nilüfer

    2015-03-01

    In the current research, we examined whether re-inclusion (i.e. the change from a previous state of exclusion to a new state of inclusion) was perceived differently by people with individualistic and collectivistic cultural backgrounds. Individualists (German and Austrian participants) but not collectivists (Chinese participants) experienced re-inclusion differently than continued inclusion: While collectivistic participants did not differentiate between both kinds of inclusion, individualistic participants showed reduced fulfilment of their psychological needs under re-inclusion compared to continued inclusion. The results moreover revealed that only participants from individualistic cultures expressed more feelings of exclusion when re-included than when continually included. These exclusionary feelings partially mediated the relationship between the different states of inclusion and basic need fulfilment. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  10. Public service: Experienced nurses' views on social and civic responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Joan M; Beal, Judy A

    2010-01-01

    Socially engaged nurses participate in public service because of their strong sense of civic and social responsibility. Public service within the profession of nursing has a historical mandate but is not well described in the literature. The purpose of this study was to describe how experienced nurses contribute nursing knowledge in public service, rationale for their service, and types of service activities. This article reports on a subset of data from a larger qualitative study exploring the meaning of scholarly nursing practice within the practice setting. Thirty-six nurses were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. The major finding of this study is that all participants fully embraced the concept of public service as an integral component of their professional identity. Data were organized around the themes of what participants did in their public service and why they did it. Participants viewed public service as their responsibility as a professional nurse. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Violence Experienced By Nursing Students in Clinical Practice Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem KÜRTÜNCÜ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was made to determine violence experienced by nurse students in clinical settings. It was applied to the School of Health Nursing Student of a university during a week in June, 2010. There were 360 students, 53 of whom were senior, 60 of whom were thirdyear, 114 of whom were sophomore, 79 of whom were first-year and 102 of whom were prep-school students, at the school. Students in preparatory classes were not included in the scope of the study since they didn't take applied courses. 70,58% of the students were reached. It was determined that the students were often exposed to verbal abuse and sexism in clinical setting and the abuse was performed by their colleagues.

  12. Andragogy of everyday – Learning by experiencing death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nives Ličen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The death is rite de passage which crosses life of everyone when the close ones die. Yet, we still do not know what effect it has on the individual person. The article presents a reflection on the learning in the time of bereavement and tries to add a component to the comprehension of learning as a lifelong process. We looked into how one changes when experiencing death by means of life story analysis. Evidence shows that learning takes place on physical, mental and spiritual level. One changes his/her attitudes and values. Therefore the narration of a life story is not merely a research method. Namely, it also unveils one self, which enables self-change and self-education.

  13. Counting is easier while experiencing a congruent motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Lugli

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest that numerical and spatial representations are intrinsically linked. Recent findings demonstrate that also motor actions interact with number magnitude processing, showing a motor-to-semantic effect. The current study assesses whether calculation processes can be modulated by motions performed with the whole body. Participants were required to make additions or subtractions while performing (on-line condition or after having experienced (off-line condition an ascending or descending motion through a passive (i.e., taking the elevator or an active (i.e., taking the stairs mode. Results show a congruency effect between the type of calculation and the direction of the motion depending on: a the off-line or on-line condition, b the passive or active mode and c the real or imagined task. Implications of the results for an embodied and grounded perspective view will be discussed.

  14. The nature of stress experienced by lesbians and gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yoshitaka; Ristock, Janice L

    2007-09-01

    This study examined both the meanings and sources/causes of stress from the perspectives of lesbians and gay men (n=30), using a series of focus groups. The findings suggest that stress is considered a part of life itself, and is perceived to contain both negative (e.g. detrimental effects on health and overall functioning, unfairness, out-of-control), and positive (e.g. a motivator, growth-facilitator) elements. The sources/causes of stress (i.e. stressors) identified include stress experienced from the "coming out" process, stress in family relations and intimate relationships, conflict over one's sexuality given society's homophobic and heterosexist attitudes toward lesbians and gay men, as well as stress from financial and work-related issues. More importantly, this study suggests that culture/ethnicity, gender, and aging, which are interconnected with one's sexual identity, play an important role in shaping the experiences of stress among lesbians and gay men.

  15. Sex differences in depressive effects of experiencing spousal bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Jung; Lee, Sang Gyu; Chun, Sung-Youn; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2017-02-01

    Spousal death is a significant event that becomes a turning point in an individual's life. Widowed persons experience new circumstances, which might induce depression. However, the effects of spousal death on depression can differ by sex and culture. Thus, the present study examined the association between depressive levels and experience of spousal death in Korean adults aged older than 45 years. The data were from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging from 2010 to 2012. The analysis used frequency analysis to compare the distribution of demographic variables between men and women, and anova to compare 10-item short-form Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores as the dependent variable among comparison groups. We also carried out linear mixed model analysis on the association between the 10-item short-form Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and experience of spousal death. Among 5481 respondents, 2735 were men and 2741 were women. The number of men and women who experienced spousal death were 43 (1.6%) and 181 (6.6%), respectively. Men had lower depressive levels than women when they had been married (men 2.99, women 3.64). Both men and women experiencing spousal death had significantly higher 10-item short-form Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores than married men and women (men β = 0.911, P = 0.003; women β = 0.512, P = 0.001; ref: no experience of spousal death). There was a significant association between experience of spousal death and depressive level for both men and women. We suggest that policy practitioners promote community programs that provide bereaved adults with easy access to meaningful social participation and support the minimum cost of living of the widowed. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 322-329. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Experiencing and the realization of motherhood by teenage mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Rzechowska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Early motherhood constitutes a difficult challenge for girls, and the level of their performance in that role is varied. In this article, teenage motherhood as a process is considered. The objective of the research was to determine the paths by which teenage girls enter the mother role. Particular attention was paid to the nature of individual differences in the ways of experiencing and the realization of the successive steps of teenage motherhood: how the girls reacted to the fact of being a mother, what they experienced and how they behaved during pregnancy and performed child care. Participants and procedure In the research, 166 mothers who had given birth to their children between the 15th and 19th year of life were included (at the moment of giving birth to the child, the age of the mother was M = 17.22. A follower interview was used. It was directed towards recreating the course of their lives from the period preceding becoming pregnant to the period of pregnancy and looking after the child, taking into consideration the complex situations connected with life and development of the female teenagers. Results In the research, we applied the Reconstruction Strategy of the Process Transformation, setting the direction of qualitative analyses: (1 the level of single cases (case study, and (2 the level of the collection of cases (extracting groups of girls with common characteristics using the artificial intelligence algorithm C4.5. The analysis revealed the diversity and the internal structure of paths of the experience and realization of early motherhood: from negating oneself as a responsible mother to accepting the role of mother. Conclusions The final result is constituted by the model revealing the transformation of teenage motherhood and mechanisms underlying it.

  17. Grief reaction model of families who experienced acute bereavement in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuno, Junko; Yamase, Hiroaki; Yamase, Yoshie

    2012-06-01

    The present study clarified the structure of factors that affect grief reactions of families who experienced acute bereavement in critical care settings in Japan. Sixty-four families who experienced acute bereavement answered a questionnaire. The questionnaire included the Miyabayashi Grief Measurement, recognition of bereavement, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Tri-Axial Coping Scale. We analyzed the causal structure regarding the relationship of stress recognition, coping, and grief reactions using structural equation modeling. The greatest influence on grief reactions of bereaved families was stress recognition. Factors that influenced stress recognition were subjective degree of sadness, acceptance of bereavement, regret for bereavement, and recognition of a peaceful death. These results show that the quality of end-of-life care in critical care settings is an important factor that affects bereaved families' stress recognition and grief reactions. Nurses and medical staff must provide end-of-life care to help family members accept the death of their loved one and reduce regrets as much as possible. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. HIV integrase variability and genetic barrier in antiretroviral naïve and experienced patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comolli Giuditta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 integrase (IN variability in treatment naïve patients with different HIV-1 subtypes is a major issue. In fact, the effect of previous exposure to antiretrovirals other than IN inhibitors (INI on IN variability has not been satisfactorily defined. In addition, the genetic barrier for specific INI resistance mutations remains to be calculated. Methods IN variability was analyzed and compared with reverse transcriptase (RT and protease (PR variability in 41 treatment naïve and 54 RT inhibitor (RTI and protease inhibitor (PRI experienced patients from subjects infected with subtype B and non-B strains. In addition, four HIV-2 strains were analyzed in parallel. Frequency and distribution of IN mutations were compared between HAART-naïve and RTI/PI-experienced patients; the genetic barrier for 27 amino acid positions related to INI susceptibility was calculated as well. Results Primary mutations associated with resistance to INI were not detected in patients not previously treated with this class of drug. However, some secondary mutations which have been shown to contribute to INI resistance were found. Only limited differences in codon usage distribution between patient groups were found. HIV-2 strains from INI naïve patients showed the presence of both primary and secondary resistance mutations. Conclusion Exposure to antivirals other than INI does not seem to significantly influence the emergence of mutations implicated in INI resistance. HIV-2 strain might have reduced susceptibility to INI.

  19. The difficulties experienced by nurses and healthcare staff involved in the process of breaking bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, Clare; Buchanan, Jean; Tod, Angela Mary

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the difficulties experienced by nurses and healthcare professionals when engaging in the process of breaking bad news. The challenges faced by staff when breaking bad news have previously been researched in relation to particular settings or participants. This study involved staff from diverse settings and roles to develop broader insights into the range of difficulties experienced in clinical practice. The study used a descriptive survey design involving self-reported written accounts and framework analysis. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire containing a free text section that asked participants to describe a difficult experience they had encountered when involved in the process of breaking bad news. Data were collected from healthcare staff from hospital, community, hospice and care home settings attending training days on breaking bad news between April 2011 and April 2014. Multiple inter-related factors presented challenges to staff engaging in activities associated with breaking bad news. Traditional subjects such as diagnostic and treatment information were described but additional topics were identified such as the impact of illness and care at the end of life. A descriptive framework was developed that summarizes the factors that contribute to creating difficult experiences for staff when breaking bad news. The framework provides insights into the scope of the challenges faced by staff when they engage in the process of breaking bad news. This provides the foundation for developing interventions to support staff that more closely matches their experiences in clinical practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. LSD Flashbacks - The Appearance of New Visual Imagery Not Experienced During Initial Intoxication: Two Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G Lerner, Arturo; Goodman, Craig; Rudinski, Dmitri; Lev-Ran, Shaul

    2014-01-01

    A side effect associated with the use of synthetic hallucinogens such as lysergic acid diethylamide-(LSD) is the partial or total recurrence of perceptual disturbances which previously appeared during intoxication, despite absence of recent use. These are commonly referred to as "flashbacks" or Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD). Here we present two cases of patients with a prior history of LSD use who turned to psychiatric consultation following brief episodes of HPPD. Surprisingly, in both cases new visual imagery appeared during episodes of flashbacks which was not experienced during primary LSD use. Both subjects reported the ability to discern between LSD-associated visual disturbances and new visual imagery. This phenomenon did not cause functional impairment and in both cases caused gradual concern due to its persistence. Both patients refused medical treatment and continued psychiatric follow-up. At one year follow-up both patients reported almost complete spontaneous remission. To the best of our knowledge these are the first reported cases of LSD-related benign flashbacks in which new imagery is experienced. Reasons for this reversible and apparently harmless side effect are proposed. Conclusions from case reports should be taken with caution.

  1. Transient Synchronization in Complex Neuronal Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2008-01-01

    Transient synchronization in complex neuronal networks as a consequence of activation-conserved dynamics induced by having sources placed at specific neurons is investigated. The basic integrate-and-fire neuron is adopted, and the dynamics is estimated computationally so as to obtain the activation at each node along each instant of time. The dynamics is implemented so as to conserve the total activation entering the system, which is a distinctive feature of the current work. The synchronization of the activation of the network is then quantified along time in terms of its normalized instantaneous entropy. The potential of such concepts and measurements is explored with respect to 6 theoretical models, as well as for the neuronal network of \\emph{C. elegans}. A series of interesting results are obtained and discussed, including the fact that all models led to a transient period of synchronization, whose specific features depend heavily on the topological features of the networks.

  2. Transient Diabetes Insipidus Following Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekim, Meral; Ekim, Hasan; Yilmaz, Yunus Keser; Bolat, Ali

    2015-04-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) results from inadequate output of Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) from the pituitary gland (central DI) or the inability of the kidney tubules to respond to ADH (nephrogenic DI). ADH is an octapeptide produced in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Cardiopulmonary Bypass (CPB) has been shown to cause a six-fold increased circulating ADH levels 12 hours after surgery. However, in some cases, ADH release may be transiently suppressed due to cardioplegia (cardiac standstill) or CPB leading to DI. We present the postoperative course of a 60-year-old man who developed transient DI after CPB. He was successfully treated by applying nasal desmopressin therapy. Relevant biochemical parameters should be monitored closely in patients who produce excessive urine after open heart surgery.

  3. Characterization of highly transient EUV emitting discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, Joost van der; Kieft, Erik; Broks, Bart [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2006-07-15

    The method of disturbed Bilateral Relations (dBR) is used to characterize highly transient plasmas that are used for the generation of Extreme Ultra Violet (EUV), i.e. radiation with a wavelength around 13.5 nm. This dBR method relates equilibrium disturbing to equilibrium restoring processes and follows the degree of equilibrium departure from the global down to the elementary plasma-level. The study gives global values of the electron density and electron temperature. Moreover, it gives a method to construct the atomic state distribution function (ASDF). This ASDF, which is responsible for the spectrum generated by the discharge, is found to be far from equilibrium. There are two reasons for this: first, systems with high charge numbers radiate strongly, second the highly transient behaviour makes that the distribution over the various ionization stages lags behind the temperature evolution.

  4. Salbutamol for transient tachypnea of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresco, Luca; Bruschettini, Matteo; Cohen, Amnon; Gaiero, Alberto; Calevo, Maria Grazia

    2016-05-23

    Transient tachypnea of the newborn is characterized by tachypnea and signs of respiratory distress. Transient tachypnea typically appears within the first two hours of life in term and late preterm newborns. Although transient tachypnea of the newborn is usually a self limited condition, it is associated with wheezing syndromes in late childhood. The rationale for the use of salbutamol (albuterol) for transient tachypnea of the newborn is based on studies showing that β-agonists can accelerate the rate of alveolar fluid clearance. To assess whether salbutamol compared to placebo, no treatment or any other drugs administered to treat transient tachypnea of the newborn, is effective and safe in the treatment of transient tachypnea of the newborn in infants born at 34 weeks' gestational age or more. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1996 to March 2016), EMBASE (1980 to March 2016) and CINAHL (1982 to March 2016). We applied no language restrictions. We searched the abstracts of the major congresses in the field (Perinatal Society of Australia New Zealand and Pediatric Academic Societies) from 2000 to 2015 and clinical trial registries. Randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials and cluster trials comparing salbutamol versus placebo or no treatment or any other drugs administered to infants born at 34 weeks' gestational age or more and less than three days of age with transient tachypnea of the newborn. For each of the included trials, two review authors independently extracted data (e.g. number of participants, birth weight, gestational age, duration of oxygen therapy, need for continuous positive airway pressure and need for mechanical ventilation, duration of mechanical ventilation, etc.) and assessed the risk of bias (e.g. adequacy of randomization, blinding, completeness of follow-up). The primary outcomes considered in this review were duration of oxygen therapy, need for

  5. Limb-shaking transient ischemic attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Limb shaking Transient Ischemic Attack is a rare manifestation of carotid-occlusive disease. The symptoms usually present with seizure like activity and often misdiagnosed as focal seizures. Only on careful history the important clinical clues-which may help in differentiating from seizure-are revealed: Lack of Jacksonian march or aura; precipitation by maneuvers that lead to carotid compression. We present the case of an elderly gentleman with recurrent limb shaking transient ischemic attacks that was initially diagnosed as a case of epilepsy. His symptoms responded to optimization of blood pressure. The case report highlights the importance of accurate diagnosis as the treatment of the associated carotid artery occlusion may not only abolish the attacks but also reduce the risk of future stroke.

  6. The SkyMapper Transient Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalzo, R. A.; Yuan, F.; Childress, M. J.; Möller, A.; Schmidt, B. P.; Tucker, B. E.; Zhang, B. R.; Onken, C. A.; Wolf, C.; Astier, P.; Betoule, M.; Regnault, N.

    2017-07-01

    The SkyMapper 1.3 m telescope at Siding Spring Observatory has now begun regular operations. Alongside the Southern Sky Survey, a comprehensive digital survey of the entire southern sky, SkyMapper will carry out a search for supernovae and other transients. The search strategy, covering a total footprint area of 2 000 deg2 with a cadence of ⩽5 d, is optimised for discovery and follow-up of low-redshift type Ia supernovae to constrain cosmic expansion and peculiar velocities. We describe the search operations and infrastructure, including a parallelised software pipeline to discover variable objects in difference imaging; simulations of the performance of the survey over its lifetime; public access to discovered transients; and some first results from the Science Verification data.

  7. A physically transient form of silicon electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Suk-Won; Tao, Hu; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Cheng, Huanyu; Song, Jun-Kyul; Rill, Elliott; Brenckle, Mark A; Panilaitis, Bruce; Won, Sang Min; Kim, Yun-Soung; Song, Young Min; Yu, Ki Jun; Ameen, Abid; Li, Rui; Su, Yewang; Yang, Miaomiao; Kaplan, David L; Zakin, Mitchell R; Slepian, Marvin J; Huang, Yonggang; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G; Rogers, John A

    2012-09-28

    A remarkable feature of modern silicon electronics is its ability to remain physically invariant, almost indefinitely for practical purposes. Although this characteristic is a hallmark of applications of integrated circuits that exist today, there might be opportunities for systems that offer the opposite behavior, such as implantable devices that function for medically useful time frames but then completely disappear via resorption by the body. We report a set of materials, manufacturing schemes, device components, and theoretical design tools for a silicon-based complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology that has this type of transient behavior, together with integrated sensors, actuators, power supply systems, and wireless control strategies. An implantable transient device that acts as a programmable nonantibiotic bacteriocide provides a system-level example.

  8. Automated source classification of new transient sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel, M.; Kreikenbohm, A.; Wilms, J.; DeLuca, A.

    2017-10-01

    The EXTraS project harvests the hitherto unexplored temporal domain information buried in the serendipitous data collected by the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) onboard the ESA XMM-Newton mission since its launch. This includes a search for fast transients, missed by standard image analysis, and a search and characterization of variability in hundreds of thousands of sources. We present an automated classification scheme for new transient sources in the EXTraS project. The method is as follows: source classification features of a training sample are used to train machine learning algorithms (performed in R; randomForest (Breiman, 2001) in supervised mode) which are then tested on a sample of known source classes and used for classification.

  9. Transient risk factors of acute occupational injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerlund, Anna H; Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent

    2017-01-01

    occupational injuries seen in 2013 at two emergency departments in Denmark. Effect estimates were calculated using the matched-pair interval approach. Results Increased risk for an occupational injury was found for time pressure [odds ratio (OR) 1.6, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.3-2.0], feeling sick (OR......Objectives The objectives of this study were to (i) identify transient risk factors of occupational injuries and (ii) determine if the risk varies with age, injury severity, job task, and industry risk level. Method A case-crossover design was used to examine the effect of seven specific transient...... risk factors (time pressure, disagreement with someone, feeling sick, being distracted by someone, non-routine task, altered surroundings, and broken machinery and materials) for occupational injuries. In the study, 1693 patients with occupational injuries were recruited from a total of 4002...

  10. Transient central diabetes insipidus following ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukrishnan Jayaraman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Central Diabetes Insipidus (CDI following ischemic infarction of the brain has been described as a rare presentation. Posterior pituitary ischemia has also been postulated as a possible cause of idiopathic CDI. We encountered a young male with bilateral extensive ischemic infarction sustained at high altitude, who had transient polyuria due to central diabetes insipidus, requiring desmopressin therapy. DI completely resolved during the course of his neurological recovery.

  11. Transient osteoporosis of pregnancy: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ergin, Tolga; Selam, Belgin; Lembet, Arda; Öztürk, Harika Bodur; Damlacık, Atilla; Demirel, Cem

    2010-01-01

    Transient osteoporosis of pregnancy is a rarely observed skeletal pathology developing in the last months of pregnancy. Meticulous evaluation is important for the differential diagnosis of severe and progressive hip and/or groin pain in pregnant patients. MRI is a valuable and safe technique for demonstrating bone marrow edema and skeletal abnormalities during pregnancy. Avoidance of vaginal delivery and non-weight bearing measures are essential in order to prevent complications such as hip f...

  12. The qualitative criterion of transient angle stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyu, R.; Xue, Y.; Xue, F.

    2015-01-01

    In almost all the literatures, the qualitative assessment of transient angle stability extracts the angle information of generators based on the swing curve. As the angle (or angle difference) of concern and the threshold value rely strongly on the engineering experience, the validity and robust...... that misjudgment would be taken if an angle (or angle difference) of concern departing from the concept of the controlling mode or a constant threshold value is used in the criterion....

  13. Car windshield behavior transient analysis by FDTD

    OpenAIRE

    Jauregui Tellería, Ricardo; Pous Solà, Marc; Vives, Yolanda; Fernández Chimeno, Mireya; Riu Costa, Pere Joan; Silva Martínez, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    The present article studies the influence of a car heatable windshield by means of an equivalent material that allows an appropriate meshing of the vehicle. This study has been performed analyzing the propagation of an electromagnetic radiated transient pulse generated by a wire inside a car with and without the windshield. The Finite Differences Time Domain (FDTD) is the method used to obtain the field coupled to antennas located inside and outside the car. We concluded that it is impo...

  14. Transient Seepage Analyses in Levee Engineering Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    transient seepage using viscous flow model and numerical methods . Miscellaneous Paper S-70-3, Report 1. Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Engineer Waterways...solutions in civil and military engineering , geospatial sciences, water resources, and environmental sciences for the Army, the Department of Defense...MS 39180-6199 Thomas L. Brandon Director, W. C. English Geotechnical Research Laboratory Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

  15. Spectroscopic classification of two optical transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, E.; Inserra, C.; Wright, D.; Fraser, M.; Smartt, S. J.; Lawrence, A.

    2013-02-01

    Further to S. Shurpakov et al. (ATel #4805) we report the spectroscopic classification of the transient MASTER OT J133253.32+355733.3. A spectrum obtained at the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope (+ISIS) (range 350-950nm) on 2013 Feb. 13.26 UT and fitted using SNID (Blondin and Tonry 2007, Ap.J. 666, 1024) shows reasonable matches to Type-Ia supernovae between -5 days and peak magnitude at z=0.06.

  16. Lightning transient analysis in wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Candela Garolera, Anna; Holbøll, Joachim; Madsen, Søren Find

    2013-01-01

    The transient behavior of lightning surges in the lightning protection system of wind turbine blades has been investigated in this paper. The study is based on PSCAD models consisting of electric equivalent circuits with lumped and distributed parameters involving different lightning current...... and other internal conductive elements of the blade is studied. Finally, several methods to prevent internal arcing are discussed in order to improve the lightning protection of the blade....

  17. Sustained Perceptual Deficits from Transient Sensory Deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Caras, Melissa L.; Sanes, Dan H.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory pathways display heightened plasticity during development, yet the perceptual consequences of early experience are generally assessed in adulthood. This approach does not allow one to identify transient perceptual changes that may be linked to the central plasticity observed in juvenile animals. Here, we determined whether a brief period of bilateral auditory deprivation affects sound perception in developing and adult gerbils. Animals were reared with bilateral earplugs, either from ...

  18. Efficacy of kinesiology taping for recovery from occupational wrist disorders experienced by a physical therapist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong-Jo; Lee, Jung-Hoon

    2014-06-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this paper was to report the efficacy of kinesiology taping for recovery from wrist pain and limited range of motion (ROM) in a physical therapist with repetitive strain injuries. [Subjects] A 32 year-old male physical therapist developed recurring severe pain in the dominant wrist and limited active ROM with extremely painful supination. [Methods] The kinesiology tape was applied to the lumbricals, musculi interossei dorsales, palmares, the wrist extensor and flexor muscles, and the wrist joint for 3 weeks for an average of 10 h/day. [Results] After application of the kinesiology tape, the Numeric Pain Rating Scale and Patient-rated Wrist Evaluation scores decreased, and the Patient-Specific Functional Scale score increased in comparison with the initial score. [Conclusion] Repeated kinesiology taping of the wrist muscles and joint could be an effective method for recovery from occupational wrist disorders experienced by physical therapists.

  19. [Ethical problems experienced by nurses in primary health care: integrative literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nora, Carlise Rigon Dalla; Zoboli, Elma Lourdes Campos Pavone; Vieira, Margarida

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study is to identify ethical problems experienced by nurses in primary health care and resources for coping based on publications on the subject. An integrative literature review was performed between the months of October and November 2013, using the databases: BDTD, CINAHL, LILACS, MEDLINE, Biblioteca Cochrane, PubMed, RCAAP and SciELO. Articles, dissertations and theses published in Portuguese, English and Spanish were included, totalling 31 studies published from 1992 to 2013. This analysis resulted in four categories: ethical problems in the relationship between team members, ethical problems in the relationship with the user, ethical problems in health services management and resources for coping with ethical problems. Results showed that nurses need to be prepared to face ethical problems, emphasizing the importance of ethics education during the education process before and during professional practice to enhance the development of ethical sensitivity and competence for problem resolution.

  20. Detection of transient events on planetary bodies .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, M.; Carbognani, A.

    Transient phenomena on planetary bodies are defined as luminous events of different intensities, which occur in planetary atmospheres and surfaces, their duration spans from about 0.1 s to some hours. They consist of meteors, bolides, lightning, impact flashes on solid surfaces, auroras, etc. So far, the study of these phenomena has been very limited, due to the lack of an ad hoc instrumentation, and their detection has been performed mainly on a serendipitous basis. Recently, ESA has issued an announcement of opportunity for the development of systems devoted to the detection of transient events in the Earth atmosphere and/or on the dark side of other planetary objects. One of such a detector as been designed and a prototype (\\textit{Smart Panoramic Optical Sensor Head}, SPOSH) has been constructed at Galileo Avionica S.p.A (Florence, Italy). For sake of clarity, in what follows, we classify the transient phenomena in ``Earth phenomena'' and ``Planetary phenomena'', even though some of them originate in a similar physical context.

  1. Transient dynamics for sequence processing neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Masaki [Faculty of Science, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi (Japan)]. E-mail: kawamura@sci.yamaguchi-u.ac.jp; Okada, Masato [RIKEN BSI, Hirosawa, Wako-shi (Japan)

    2002-01-18

    An exact solution of the transient dynamics for a sequential associative memory model is discussed through both the path-integral method and the statistical neurodynamics. Although the path-integral method has the ability to give an exact solution of the transient dynamics, only stationary properties have been discussed for the sequential associative memory. We have succeeded in deriving an exact macroscopic description of the transient dynamics by analysing the correlation of crosstalk noise. Surprisingly, the order parameter equations of this exact solution are completely equivalent to those of the statistical neurodynamics, which is an approximation theory that assumes crosstalk noise to obey the Gaussian distribution. In order to examine our theoretical findings, we numerically obtain cumulants of the crosstalk noise. We verify that the third- and fourth-order cumulants are equal to zero, and that the crosstalk noise is normally distributed even in the non-retrieval case. We show that the results obtained by our theory agree with those obtained by computer simulations. We have also found that the macroscopic unstable state completely coincides with the separatrix. (author)

  2. Initial Implementation of Transient VERA-CS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, Andrew [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kochunas, Brendan [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Salko, Robert [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wysocki, Aaron J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-11-01

    In this milestone the capabilities of both CTF and MPACT were extended to perform coupled transient calculations. This required several small changes in MPACT to setup the problems correctly, perform the edits correctly, and call the appropriate CTF interfaces in the right order. For CTF, revisions and corrections to the transient timestepping algorithm were made, as well as the addition of a new interface subroutine to allow MPACT to drive CTF at each timestep. With the modifications completed, the initial coupled capability was demonstrated on some problems used for code verification, a hypothetical small mini-core, and a Watts Bar demonstration problem. For each of these cases the results showed good agreement with the previous MPACT internal TH feedback model that relied on a simplified fuel heat conduction model and simplified coolant treatment. After the pulse the results are notably different as expected, where the effects of convection of heat to the coolant can be observed. Areas for future work were discussed, including assessment and development of the CTF dynamic fuel deformation and gap conductance models, addition of suitable transient boiling and CHF models for the rapid heating and cooling rates seen in RIAs, additional validation and demonstration work, and areas for improvement to the code input and output capabilities.

  3. Transient selection in multicellular immune networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanchenko, M. V.

    2011-03-01

    We analyze the dynamics of a multi-clonotype naive T-cell population competing for survival signals from antigen-presenting cells. We find that this competition provides with an efficacious selection of clonotypes, making the less able and more repetitive get extinct. We uncover the scaling principles for large systems the extinction rate obeys and calibrate the model parameters to their experimental counterparts. For the first time, we estimate the physiological values of the T-cell receptor-antigen presentation profile recognition probability and T-cell clonotypes niche overlap. We demonstrate that, while the ultimate state is a stable fixed point, sequential transients dominate the dynamics over large timescales that may span over years, if not decades, in real time. We argue that what is currently viewed as "homeostasis" is a complex sequential transient process, while being quasi-stationary in the total number of T-cells only. The discovered type of sequential transient dynamics in large random networks is a novel alternative to the stable heteroclinic channel mechanism.

  4. Transient chaotic transport in dissipative drift motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyarzabal, R.S. [Pós-Graduação em Ciências/Física, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Szezech, J.D. [Departamento de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Batista, A.M., E-mail: antoniomarcosbatista@gmail.com [Departamento de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Souza, S.L.T. de [Departamento de Física e Matemática, Universidade Federal de São João del Rei, 36420-000, Ouro Branco, MG (Brazil); Caldas, I.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, 05315-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Viana, R.L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Sanjuán, M.A.F. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Tulipán s/n, 28933 Móstoles, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-04-22

    Highlights: • We consider a situation for which a chaotic transient is present in the dynamics of the two-wave model with damping. • The damping in plasma models can be a way for study a realistic behavior of confinement due the collisional effect. • The escape time as a function of the damping obey a power-law scaling. • We have made a qualitative transport analysis with a simple model that can be useful for more complete models. • We have shown that the pattern of the basin of attraction depends on the damping parameter. - Abstract: We investigate chaotic particle transport in magnetised plasmas with two electrostatic drift waves. Considering dissipation in the drift motion, we verify that the removed KAM surfaces originate periodic attractors with their corresponding basins of attraction. We show that the properties of the basins depend on the dissipation and the space-averaged escape time decays exponentially when the dissipation increases. We find positive finite time Lyapunov exponents in dissipative drift motion, consequently the trajectories exhibit transient chaotic transport. These features indicate how the transient plasma transport depends on the dissipation.

  5. Aeroelastic Modeling of a Nozzle Startup Transient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ten-See; Zhao, Xiang; Zhang, Sijun; Chen, Yen-Sen

    2014-01-01

    Lateral nozzle forces are known to cause severe structural damage to any new rocket engine in development during test. While three-dimensional, transient, turbulent, chemically reacting computational fluid dynamics methodology has been demonstrated to capture major side load physics with rigid nozzles, hot-fire tests often show nozzle structure deformation during major side load events, leading to structural damages if structural strengthening measures were not taken. The modeling picture is incomplete without the capability to address the two-way responses between the structure and fluid. The objective of this study is to develop a tightly coupled aeroelastic modeling algorithm by implementing the necessary structural dynamics component into an anchored computational fluid dynamics methodology. The computational fluid dynamics component is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics formulation, while the computational structural dynamics component is developed under the framework of modal analysis. Transient aeroelastic nozzle startup analyses at sea level were performed, and the computed transient nozzle fluid-structure interaction physics presented,

  6. Could the cosmic acceleration be transient?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Antonio C.C.; Lima, J.A.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IAG/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The possibility of a transient cosmic acceleration appears in several theoretical scenarios and is theoretically interesting because it solves some difficulties inherent to eternally accelerating universes (like {Lambda}CDM). On the observational side, some authors, using a dynamical Ansatz for the dark energy equation of state, have suggested that the cosmic acceleration have already peaked and that we are currently witnessing its slowing down. Here, a possible slowing down of the cosmic expansion is investigated through a cosmographic approach. By expanding the luminous distance to fourth order and fitting the SNe Ia data from the most recent compilations (Union, Constitution and Union 2), the marginal likelihood distribution for the deceleration parameter today indicates that there is a considerable probability for q{sub 0} > 0. Also in contrast to the prediction of the {Lambda}CDM model, the cosmographic q(z) reconstruction suggests that the cosmic acceleration could already have peaked and be presently slowing down, what would imply that the recent accelerated expansion of the Universe is a transient phenomenon. It is also shown that to describe a transient acceleration the luminous distance needs to be expanded at least to fourth order. The present cosmographic results depend neither on the validity of general relativity nor on the matter-energy contents of the Universe. (author)

  7. [Transient global amnesia after general anaesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galipienzo, J; Lablanca, M S; Zannin, I; Rosado, R; Zarza, B; Olarra, J

    2012-01-01

    Transient global amnesia is a neurological syndrome in which there is a sudden and brief inability to form new memories, as well as an intense retrograde amnesia. However, awareness, personal identity and attention remain intact. It is an uncommon condition seen after an anaesthetic procedure. There are several aetiopathogenic hypotheses (epileptic, migrainous or ischaemic origin) and triggering factors (pain, anxiety, temperature changes, exercise, Valsalva manoeuvres, diagnostic tests or certain drugs). We describe the case of a patient with a high level of pre-operative anxiety who suffered an episode of transient global amnesia after undergoing otolaryngology surgery. With an acute and continued amnesia after general anaesthesia, the first thing that must be done is to establish a suitable differencial diagnosis, which should include transient global amnesia, as this is mainly an exclusion diagnosis. Preoperative anxiety may be a triggering factor to take into account in this condition, with anxiolytic treatment prior to the surgery being important. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. 40 CFR 86.1333-90 - Transient test cycle generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transient test cycle generation. 86... Procedures § 86.1333-90 Transient test cycle generation. (a) The heavy-duty transient engine cycles for Otto... question must be used. The generation of the maximum torque curve is described in § 86.1332. (3) The EPA...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1333-2010 - Transient test cycle generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transient test cycle generation. 86... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1333-2010 Transient test cycle generation. (a) Generating transient test.... The generation of the maximum torque curve is described in 40 CFR part 1065. (b) Example of the...

  10. Transient charging and discharging current study in pure PVF and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. PVF; PVDF; polyblend; fluoropolymers; transient current. Abstract. The transient current were analysed by considering the effect of variation of forming time, temperature, field and composition of blend specimens. Measurements indicated that transient charging and discharging currents exhibited thermally ...

  11. Unifying Subjectivity and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Chandrasekaran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dimensions of a single integrated reality. Subject and object constitute an integrated whole. The mind sees them as separate and independent. Or it views one as completely subordinate to the other. Unbiased approach to the study of all human experiences may prove that subject and object are interdependent dimensions or elements of reality.

  12. common difficulties experienced by grade 12 students in learning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temechegn

    being more challenged by topics like chemical bonding, thermodynamics, chemical equilibrium, kinetics, and ..... rate constant is the same in all orders of reactions like zero, first, second, and third order of reactions. Due to these ... Because chemistry subject needs more explanations about concepts of facts, laws and rules.

  13. Evolutionary Ideas Held by Experienced South African Biology Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, Xenia; de Beer, Josef; Ramnarain, Umesh

    2015-01-01

    With evolutionary biology relatively recently introduced into the South African school curriculum, the need arose to explore practising teachers' knowledge of the subject. A number of anticipated as well as unanticipated cognitive and affective barriers to the understanding of evolutionary biology were identified from a questionnaire with…

  14. The Impact of Aromatherapy on the Anxiety of Patients Experiencing Coronary Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homeyra Tahmasbi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety among patients experiencing coronary angiography increases within invasive studies including angiography. Anxiety as an intensifier at cardiovascular reactions can endanger patients in angiography clinics. Studies indicate that lavendula spica L. inhalation can decrease anxiety. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of aromatherapy on the anxiety level of patients experiencing coronary angiography. Materials and Methods: This research is a clinical trial study performed on a group of 96 patients hospitalized in Sari Fatemeh-Zahra Hospital for coronary angiography who were randomly selected. They were divided in two subject (45 patients and control (46 patients groups. Demographic data sheets, recording sheet of homodynamic variables and Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory were distributed among the two groups before and after aromatherapy. The data were analyzed using SPSS-16 as well as statistical T-test and chi-square test. Results: The two groups were homogenous in terms of gender, marital status, level of education, sickness background, age and health insurance. The data indicated that anxiety level decreased significantly in the subject group compared with the control group after aromatherapy (P < 0.0001. There was also a significant difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and respiratory rate as well as heartbeat parameters in these two groups. (P<0.05 Conclusion: Lavendula aroma inhalation can decrease anxiety level of patients before coronary angiography and accordingly aromatherapy can be used as health care intervention and mental support, without any side effects, for the patients before invasive interventions such as angiography.

  15. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  16. Simulation of Wind Speed in the Ventilation Tunnel for Surge Tanks in Transient Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Jiandong Yang; Huang Wang; Wencheng Guo; Weijia Yang; Wei Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Hydroelectric power plants' open-type surge tanks may be built in mountains subject to the provision of atmospheric air. Hence, a ventilation tunnel is indispensable. The air flow in the ventilation tunnel is associated with the fluctuation of water-level in the surge tank. There is a great relationship between the wind speed and the safe use and project investment of ventilation tunnels. To obtain the wind speed in a ventilation tunnel for a surge tank during transient processes, this articl...

  17. Effect of eye lateralization on contralateral suppression of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions

    OpenAIRE

    SOI, D.; Brambilla, D; COMIOTTO, E.; DI Berardino, F; Filipponi, E.; Socci, M; SPREAFICO, E.; Forti, S.; CESARANI, A.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Several studies have previously demonstrated that postural changes modify evoked otoacoustic emission. In order to evaluate a possible interaction between eye muscles and ciliated cells in the inner ear, we studied the effects of eye lateralization on the contralateral suppression of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs). Thirty-eight normal hearing subjects with TEOAEs were recruited. Their TEAOEs at threshold level were recorded with contralateral suppression (white noise)...

  18. Transients in reactors for power systems compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Hamid, Haziah

    This thesis describes new models and investigations into switching transient phenomena related to the shunt reactors and the Mechanically Switched Capacitor with Damping Network (MSCDN) operations used for reactive power control in the transmission system. Shunt reactors and MSCDN are similar in that they have reactors. A shunt reactor is connected parallel to the compensated lines to absorb the leading current, whereas the MSCDN is a version of a capacitor bank designed as a C-type filter for use in the harmonic-rich environment. In this work, models have been developed and transient overvoltages due to shunt reactor deenergisation were estimated analytically using MathCad, a mathematical program. Computer simulations used the ATP/EMTP program to reproduce both single-phase and three-phase shunt reactor switching at 275 kV operational substations. The effect of the reactor switching on the circuit breaker grading capacitor was also examined by considering various switching conditions.. The main original achievement of this thesis is the clarification of failure mechanisms occurring in the air-core filter reactor due to MSCDN switching operations. The simulation of the MSCDN energisation was conducted using the ATP/EMTP program in the presence of surge arresters. The outcome of this simulation shows that extremely fast transients were established across the air-core filter reactor. This identified transient event has led to the development of a detailed air-core reactor model, which accounts for the inter-turn RLC parameters as well as the stray capacitances-to-ground. These parameters are incorporated into the transient simulation circuit, from which the current and voltage distribution across the winding were derived using electric field and equivalent circuit modelling. Analysis of the results has revealed that there are substantial dielectric stresses imposed on the winding insulation that can be attributed to a combination of three factors. (i) First, the

  19. Association between environment and psycho-emotional stress experienced at sea by Lithuanian and Latvian seamen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyga, Jonas; Juozulynas, Algirdas

    2006-01-01

    This is the first scientific research in Lithuania and Latvia that involves a national cross-sectional study of the seamen of two different countries--Lithuania and Latvia--including the evaluation and comparison of seamen's working environment, lifestyle, health, the prevalence of health-damaging risk factors, as well as the causative relationships between the objective and subjective health evaluation and psycho-emotional stress experienced at sea. The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency and predictors of the psycho-emotional stress experienced at sea by Lithuanian and Latvian seamen. Beside the common statistical methods, the logistic stepwise regression analysis was used in order to find the risk factors of the self-rated stress and to correct the risk estimates for the confounding variables. Seamen of both countries indicated that they experienced psycho-emotional stress after, on the average, 2.7-2.8 months from the beginning of the voyage. More than one-half (57.5%) of Latvian seamen stated that they had experienced psycho-emotional stress, whereas the respective percentage of Lithuanian seamen was smaller (46.1%). The obtained findings showed that, having evaluated the influence of all the analyzed factors (industry-specific, health and lifestyle, medical and demographic), there was no significant difference between the seamen of the two countries concerning the experience of psycho-emotional stress on the ship. The following main prognostic factors related to the occurrence of psycho-emotional stress on the ship were determined: higher or specialized secondary education level (pwork per day when being exposed to detrimental factors (pstress was mostly influenced by work in the environment requiring increased visual strain (pstress on the ship: depression that occurred more frequently at sea than on shore (pworking and resting regimen due to time zone changes (pregular sexual life (p<0.001). Many of the unique aspects of seafaring are

  20. Epinephrine for transient tachypnea of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresco, Luca; Calevo, Maria Grazia; Baldi, Federica; Cohen, Amnon; Bruschettini, Matteo

    2016-05-23

    Transient tachypnea of the newborn is characterized by tachypnea and signs of respiratory distress. Transient tachypnea typically appears within the first two hours of life in term and late preterm newborns. Although transient tachypnea of the newborn is usually a self limited condition, it is associated with wheezing syndromes in late childhood. The rationale for the use of epinephrine (adrenaline) for transient tachypnea of the newborn is based on studies showing that β-agonists can accelerate the rate of alveolar fluid clearance. To assess whether epinephrine compared to placebo, no treatment or any other drugs (excluding salbutamol) is effective and safe in the treatment of transient tachypnea of the newborn in infants born at 34 weeks' gestational age or more. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1996 to March 2016), EMBASE (1980 to March 2016) and CINAHL (1982 to March 2016). We applied no language restrictions. We searched the abstracts of the major congresses in the field (Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand and Pediatric Academic Societies) from 2000 to 2015. Randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials and cluster trials comparing epinephrine versus placebo or no treatment or any other drugs administered to infants born at 34 weeks' gestational age or more and less than three days of age with transient tachypnea of the newborn. For the included trial, two review authors independently extracted data (e.g. number of participants, birth weight, gestational age, duration of oxygen therapy (hours), need for continuous positive airway pressure and need for mechanical ventilation, duration of mechanical ventilation, etc.) and assessed the risk of bias (e.g. adequacy of randomization, blinding, completeness of follow-up). The primary outcomes considered in this review were duration of oxygen therapy (hours), need for continuous positive airway pressure and need for

  1. The Data Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article considers whether it is fortunate that data protection rules, as a starting point, apply to all physical persons as data subjects, or whether it would be better to differentiate between kinds of persons on grounds of their ability to act as a data subject. In order to protect all...... persons, it is argued that a principle of care should be part of data protection law....

  2. Quantification of metabolically active transient storage (MATS) in two reaches with contrasting transient storage and ecosystem respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba Argerich; Roy Haggerty; Eugènia Martí; Francesc Sabater; Jay. Zarnetske

    2011-01-01

    Water transient storage zones are hotspots for metabolic activity in streams although the contribution of different types of transient storage zones to the whole�]reach metabolic activity is difficult to quantify. In this study we present a method to measure the fraction of the transient storage that is metabolically active (MATS) in two consecutive reaches...

  3. Transient thermo-mechanical analysis for metal fuel rod under transient operation condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Uk; Lee, Byoung Oon; Kim, Young Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    Computational models for analyzing in-reactor behavior of metallic fuel pins in liquid-metal reactors under transient conditions are developed and implemented in the TRAnsient thermo-Mechanical Analysis Code for metal fuel rod under transient operation condition (TRAMAC). Not only the basic models for fuel rod performance under transient condition, but also some sub-models used for transient condition are installed in TRAMAC. Among the models, fission gas release model, which takes multibubble size distribution into account to characterize the lenticular bubble shape and the saturation condition on the grain boundary and cladding deformation model have been mainly developed based on the existing models in MACSIS code. Finally, cladding strains are calculated from the amount of thermal creep, irradiation creep, irradiation swelling. The cladding strain model in TRAMAC well predicts the absolute magnitudes and general trends of their predictions compared with those of experimental data. TRAMAC results for FM-1,2,6 pins are more conservative than experimental data and relatively reasonable than those of FPIN2. From the calculation results of TRAMAC, it is apparent that the code is capable of predicting fission gas release, and cladding deformation for LMR metal fuel. The results show that in general, the predictions of TRAMAC agree well with the available irradiation data. 13 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  4. Comparison of three procedures for initial fitting of compression hearing aids. II. Experienced users, fitted unilaterally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara, José I; Moore, Brian C J; Marriage, Josephine

    2004-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series comparing three procedures for the initial fitting of multichannel compression hearing aids. The first paper reported the results for a group of 10 experienced hearing aid users fitted bilaterally. This paper reports the results for a different group of 10 experienced hearing aid users fitted unilaterally. The three procedures were: (1) CAMEQ, which aims to amplify speech so as to give equal loudness per critical band over the frequency range 500-5000 Hz, and to give similar overall loudness to normal over a wide range of speech levels; (2) CAMREST, which aims to amplify speech so as to restore normal specific loudness patterns, over a wide range of speech levels; and (3) DSL [i/o], which aims to map the dynamic range of normal-hearing people into the reduced dynamic range of hearing-impaired people, with full restoration of audibility. Each subject was fitted with one Danalogic 163D digital hearing aid, using each of the three fitting procedures in turn; the order was counter-balanced across subjects. Prescribed insertion gains for 55 and 80 dB SPL input levels were verified using real-ear measurements. Immediately after fitting with a given procedure, and 1 week after fitting. the gains were adjusted, when required, by the minimum amount necessary to achieve acceptable fittings. On average, the adjustments were smallest for the CAMREST procedure, slightly larger for the CAMEQ procedure, and largest of all for DSL [i/o]. For the DSL [i/o] the gain changes were mostly negative, especially for high frequencies and the higher input level. After these gain adjustments, users wore the aids for at least 3 weeks before speech reception thresholds (SRTs) for sentences in quiet and in steady and fluctuating background noise were measured. The APHAB questionnaire was also administered. The hearing aids were then refitted with the next procedure. SRTs and APHAB scores did not differ significantly between the three procedures. We conclude

  5. Transient Elastographic Values of Healthy Volunteers in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupendra Kumar Basnet

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Transient elastography is a very promising non invasive procedure to determine liver stiffness for diagnosis of fibrosis in various chronic liver diseases. However, studies on normal values of liver stiffness in apparently healthy subjects are still few. We aimed to determine liver stiffness values in healthy Nepalese volunteers. Methods:Transient elastography (FibroScanR, Echosens, Paris, France was performed to find out liver stiffness values in 45 apparently healthy volunteers after explaining study protocol. Complete medical examination with routine laboratory tests was performed. Subjects with normal liver biochemistries and normal liver ultrasonography were taken for analysis. Results:Mean liver stiffness value of study subjects was 4.24±0.70 kPa. Liver stiffness value was found higher in males than in females (4.32±0.74 vs 4.07±0.61 kPa, respectively, P=0.26 but not statistically significant. Similarly, comparison between age and liver stiffness also showed positive correlation (r=0.211 but not statistically significant (P=0.164 Conclusions: Our study showed that the mean liver stiffness value was 4.24±0.70 kPa in our population and influence of age, gender and body mass index were not significant. Keywords: chronic liver disease; FibroScanR; healthy volunteers; liver stiffness valve; transient elastography.

  6. Transient Studies in Large Offshore Wind Farms Employing Detailed Circuit Breaker Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Hjerrild

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Switching overvoltages (SOV are considered a possible source of component failures experienced in existing offshore wind farms (OWFs. The inclusion of sufficiently accurate and validated models of the main electrical components in the OWF in the simulation tool is therefore an important issue in order to ensure reliable switching operations. Transient measurement results in an OWF are compared with simulation results in PSCAD EMTDC and DigSILENT Power Factory. A user-defined model of the vacuum circuit breaker (VCB is included in both tools, capable of simulating multiple prestrikes during the closing operation. An analysis of the switching transients that might occur in OWFs will be made on the basis of the validated model, and the importance of the inclusion of a sufficiently accurate representation of the VCB in the simulation tool will be described. The inclusion of the VCB model in PSCAD greatly improves the simulation results, whereas little improvement is found in DigSILENT. Based on the transient study it is found that the simulated SOV can be up to 60% higher at the sending end when using the detailed VCB representation compared to the built-in switch, which emphasises the need for accurate representation of the VCB for energisation studies.

  7. Subjective Narcosis Assessment Scale: measuring the subjective experience of nitrogen narcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Charles H; Meintjes, W A J

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of subjective experiences and objective measures of neuropsychological performance during hyperbaric exposure has received less attention in the literature, in part due to the shortage of available and appropriately standardized measures. This study aimed to describe the psychometric properties of a modified version of the Subjective High Assessment Scale when used in the hyperbaric context, by exploring internal reliability, factor structure, associations with psychological variables and simple cognitive delayed recall, and the effect of task focus on the recall of subjective experience. Seventy qualified divers completed dry hyperbaric chamber dives to 607.95 kPa, and completed ratings of their subjective experiences. Some also completed a delayed recall task and psychological measures prior to their dives. The scale displayed good internal consistency, with four meaningful factors emerging. It showed some significant but small associations with trait anxiety and transient mood states, and a small to moderate correlation with recall performance. There was no significant effect of task focus on self-report of subjective experiences. The modified scale, renamed the Subjective Narcosis Assessment Scale here, has useful psychometric properties, and promising potential for future use.

  8. Hospitalized patients experienced suffering in life with incurable cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydahl-Hansen, Susan

    2005-09-01

    The concept 'suffering' has been central within nursing since Florence Nightingale. But few researchers have made empirical studies about the lived phenomenon. Several researchers within nursing agree that more research concerning individual groups of patients has to be initiated. Within research about patients with incurable cancer focus has been on death, the terminal period and patients experience of being dying. This qualitative study was initiated to describe the characteristics of a group of Danish hospitalized patients' experienced suffering in life with incurable cancer. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews were arranged with 12 patients ones a week within a period of 4 weeks. In week 2 and 4, the interviews were supplemented by questions developed on the basis of the potential signs of suffering which appeared during the participant observations that took place the day before each interview. C. S. Peirce's semiotic and phenomenological grounded theory of signs was used in order to identify the potential signs. A phenomenological methodology developed by A. Giorgi was used to develop and describe the general structure of the phenomenon. The phenomenon is described as: 'The experience of living in an increasingly unpredictable existents at the mercy of the body, the consciousness, the illness, the death, the treatment, the professionals, one's articulateness, the past, the present and the future, influenced by increasing powerlessness, loneliness and isolation, and the experience of existing in an persistent, and with time, unconquerable struggle to maintain and regain control'.

  9. The Likelihood of Experiencing Relative Poverty over the Life Course.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R Rank

    Full Text Available Research on poverty in the United States has largely consisted of examining cross-sectional levels of absolute poverty. In this analysis, we focus on understanding relative poverty within a life course context. Specifically, we analyze the likelihood of individuals falling below the 20th percentile and the 10th percentile of the income distribution between the ages of 25 and 60. A series of life tables are constructed using the nationally representative Panel Study of Income Dynamics data set. This includes panel data from 1968 through 2011. Results indicate that the prevalence of relative poverty is quite high. Consequently, between the ages of 25 to 60, 61.8 percent of the population will experience a year below the 20th percentile, and 42.1 percent will experience a year below the 10th percentile. Characteristics associated with experiencing these levels of poverty include those who are younger, nonwhite, female, not married, with 12 years or less of education, or who have a work disability.

  10. Experienced Gray Wolf Optimization Through Reinforcement Learning and Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emary, E; Zawbaa, Hossam M; Grosan, Crina

    2017-01-10

    In this paper, a variant of gray wolf optimization (GWO) that uses reinforcement learning principles combined with neural networks to enhance the performance is proposed. The aim is to overcome, by reinforced learning, the common challenge of setting the right parameters for the algorithm. In GWO, a single parameter is used to control the exploration/exploitation rate, which influences the performance of the algorithm. Rather than using a global way to change this parameter for all the agents, we use reinforcement learning to set it on an individual basis. The adaptation of the exploration rate for each agent depends on the agent's own experience and the current terrain of the search space. In order to achieve this, experience repository is built based on the neural network to map a set of agents' states to a set of corresponding actions that specifically influence the exploration rate. The experience repository is updated by all the search agents to reflect experience and to enhance the future actions continuously. The resulted algorithm is called experienced GWO (EGWO) and its performance is assessed on solving feature selection problems and on finding optimal weights for neural networks algorithm. We use a set of performance indicators to evaluate the efficiency of the method. Results over various data sets demonstrate an advance of the EGWO over the original GWO and over other metaheuristics, such as genetic algorithms and particle swarm optimization.

  11. Assessing the professional development needs of experienced nurse executive leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Linda Searle; McFarland, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the professional development topics that senior nurse leaders believe are important to their advancement and success. Senior/experienced nurse leaders at the executive level are able to influence the work environment of nurses and institutional and health policy. Their development needs are likely to reflect this and other contemporary healthcare issues and may be different from middle and frontline managers. A systematic way of assessing professional development needs for these nurse leaders is needed. A descriptive study using an online survey was distributed to a convenience sample of nurse leaders who were members of the Association of California Nurse Leaders (ACNL) or have participated in an ACNL program. Visionary leadership, leading complexity, and effective teams were the highest ranked leadership topics. Leading change, advancing health: The future of nursing, healthy work environments, and healthcare reform were also highly ranked topics. Executive-level nurse leaders are important to nurse retention, effective work environments, and leading change. Regular assessment and attention to the distinct professional development needs of executive-level nurse leaders are a valuable human capital investment.

  12. The Likelihood of Experiencing Relative Poverty over the Life Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, Mark R.; Hirschl, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Research on poverty in the United States has largely consisted of examining cross-sectional levels of absolute poverty. In this analysis, we focus on understanding relative poverty within a life course context. Specifically, we analyze the likelihood of individuals falling below the 20th percentile and the 10th percentile of the income distribution between the ages of 25 and 60. A series of life tables are constructed using the nationally representative Panel Study of Income Dynamics data set. This includes panel data from 1968 through 2011. Results indicate that the prevalence of relative poverty is quite high. Consequently, between the ages of 25 to 60, 61.8 percent of the population will experience a year below the 20th percentile, and 42.1 percent will experience a year below the 10th percentile. Characteristics associated with experiencing these levels of poverty include those who are younger, nonwhite, female, not married, with 12 years or less of education, or who have a work disability. PMID:26200781

  13. How experienced tutors facilitate tutorial dynamics in PBL groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gin-Hong; Lin, Chaou-Shune; Lin, Yu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) tutorial are conducted in small groups, and successful learning in such groups requires good group facilitating skills. There is a lack of research on actual skills employed by tutors in facilitating the group dynamics. To explore the process of PBL tutorial small groups, focusing on the tutors' actual behavior in facilitating group dynamics. Eight experienced tutors from various departments in medical colleges participated in this research. Forty tutorial group sessions were videotaped. Among the 636 tutorial intervention episodes, 142 of them were associated with facilitating group dynamics. Tutors interventions as well as their recalls were transcribed verbatim. Qualitative research methods were utilized to analyze the data. There were 10 tutorial group dynamic situations and 48 tutorial skills. Analysis of the tutors' intentions employing these skills in the 10 situations showed that tutors were trying to achieve the following aims: (1) iteration of PBL principles, (2) delegation of responsibility to the students, (3) creation of a good discussion forum, and (4) the generation of a good learning atmosphere. Results from this study provide PBL tutors with a practical frame of reference on group dynamic facilitating skills and stimulate further research on this topic.

  14. Experiencing organ donation: feelings of relatives after consent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Elisa Nascimento Fernandes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify experiences and feelings on the organ donation process, from the perspective of a relative of an organ donor in a transplant unit.Method: this was exploratory research using a qualitative approach, performed with seven family members of different organ donors, selected by a lottery. Sociodemographic data and the experiences regarding the donation process were collected through semi-structured interviews. The language material was transcribed and submitted to content analysis.Results: poor sensitivity of the medical staff communicating the relative's brain death - the potential donor - and the lack of socio-emotional support prior to the situation experienced by the family was highlighted by participants.Conclusions: the study identified the need to provide social-emotional support for families facing the experience of the organ donation process. From these findings, other care and management practices in health must be discussed to impact the strengthening of the family ties, post-donation, as well as the organ procurement indexes.

  15. Energy cost of the Trondheim firefighter test for experienced firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Heimburg, Erna; Medbø, Jon Ingulf

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure aerobic demands of fire fighting activities including exercise in the heat. Twenty-two experienced firefighters performed the Trondheim test simulating fire fighting tasks including work in the heat. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), heart rate (HR) and ventilation were recorded continuously. Data were compared with results obtained during a treadmill test during which the participants were dressed as smoke divers. The participants completed physical parts of the Trondheim test in ˜12 min (range: 7.5-17.4). Time to complete the test was closely related to the participant's VO2 max. HR of ˜170 beats/min and pulmonary ventilation of ˜100 L/min were higher than at lactate threshold (LT) during laboratory tests. VO2 averaged over the test's physical part was 35 ± 7 ml/min/kg, which was at the same or below the level corresponding to the participants' LT. Physically fit participants completed the test faster than less fit participants. Slower and physically less fit participants consumed more air and used more oxygen than faster and physically more fit participants. The Trondheim test is physically demanding; it distinguishes physically fit and less fit participants.

  16. Transient response of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weydahl, Helge; Møller-Holst, Steffen; Hagen, Georg; Børresen, Børre

    The transient response of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) supplied with pure hydrogen and oxygen was investigated by load step measurements assisted by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronoamperometry. Using an in-house designed resistance board, the uncontrolled response in both cell voltage and current upon step changes in a resistive load was observed. The PEMFC was found to respond quickly and reproducibly to load changes. The transient PEMFC response was limited by a cathodic charge transfer process with a potential-dependent response time. For load steps to high-current densitities, a second transient process with a constant response time was observed. This transient was offset from the charge transfer transient by a temporarily stable plateau. Results from chronoamperometry indicated that the second transient could be related to a diffusion process. Transient paths were plotted in the V- i diagram, matching a predicted pattern with overshooting cell voltage and current during a load step.

  17. Transient Recharge Estimability Through Field-Scale Groundwater Model Calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowling, Matthew J; Werner, Adrian D

    2017-11-01

    The estimation of recharge through groundwater model calibration is hampered by the nonuniqueness of recharge and aquifer parameter values. It has been shown recently that the estimability of spatially distributed recharge through calibration of steady-state models for practical situations (i.e., real-world, field-scale aquifer settings) is limited by the need for excessive amounts of hydraulic-parameter and groundwater-level data. However, the extent to which temporal recharge variability can be informed through transient model calibration, which involves larger water-level datasets, but requires the additional consideration of storage parameters, is presently unknown for practical situations. In this study, time-varying recharge estimates, inferred through calibration of a field-scale highly parameterized groundwater model, are systematically investigated subject to changes in (1) the degree to which hydraulic parameters including hydraulic conductivity (K) and specific yield (S y ) are constrained, (2) the number of water-level calibration targets, and (3) the temporal resolution (up to monthly time steps) at which recharge is estimated. The analysis involves the use of a synthetic reality (a reference model) based on a groundwater model of Uley South Basin, South Australia. Identifiability statistics are used to evaluate the ability of recharge and hydraulic parameters to be estimated uniquely. Results show that reasonable estimates of monthly recharge (recharge root-mean-squared error) require a considerable amount of transient water-level data, and that the spatial distribution of K is known. Joint estimation of recharge, S y and K, however, precludes reasonable inference of recharge and hydraulic parameter values. We conclude that the estimation of temporal recharge variability through calibration may be impractical for real-world settings. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  18. Accommodative training to reduce nearwork-induced transient myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Balamurali; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J; Ludlam, Diana P

    2009-11-01

    To assess changes in the nearwork-induced transient myopia parameters of initial magnitude and its decay duration, as well as accuracy of the near accommodative steady-state response and clinically based accommodative facility, after 6 weeks of home-based accommodative training in asymptomatic myopes. Ten young adult, progressing myopes participated in the study. The experimental paradigm consisted of a baseline session and two follow-up sessions at the end of the third and sixth weeks of training. At the first session, baseline refractive state and selected accommodative functions were assessed. Measurements were repeated at the two follow-up sessions. Home-based vision training included accommodative flippers (+/-2 D) at near, Hart chart at distance (6 m) and near (40 cm), and prism flipper (6 pd) training at near (40 cm), for a total of 20 minutes a day performed 5 days a week for 6 weeks. Several dynamic accommodative response functions improved significantly with training. Lens flipper rate increased significantly from 11 to 16 cpm in the OD (p = 0.04), 11 to 19 cpm in the OS (p = 0.03), and 8 to 11 cpm in the OU (p = 0.03). Hart chart rate increased significantly from 22 to 33 cpm in the OD (p = 0.01) and from 22 to 31 cpm in the OS (p = 0.02). There was a significant negative correlation between lens flipper rate and nearwork-induced transient myopia decay duration after training (p = 0.02) with binocular viewing. Training of the accommodative system in these progressing myopes resulted in improved dynamics in both laboratory and clinical measures. This is consistent with earlier reports in the literature of improvement in symptomatic myopic subjects.

  19. From transient response of a compact photobioreactor for microalgae cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilay, Emerson; Ribeiro, Robert Luis Lara; Pulliam, Raevon; Mariano, Andre Bellin [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Energia Auto-Sustentavel; Ordonez, Juan Carlos [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Center for Advanced Power Systems], E-mail: ordonez@caps.fsu.edu; Vargas, Jose Viriato Coelho [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    Biofuels from microalgae are currently the subject of funded scientific research in many countries due to their high productivity of oil when compared with other crops. Microalgae can also be used in many important applications such as to obtain compounds of interest for food, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. The high productivity of microalgae when compared with other crops is achieved because agricultural land is not mandatory for their cultivation, since they can be grown in open ponds, sea or vertical photo bioreactors. In this paper, a mathematical model is introduced for assessing the transient microalgae growth as a function of variable light intensity, temperature and environmental conditions in the daily cycle. Photo bioreactor geometry is considered as well. Light intensity is obtained from sun position, photo bioreactor geometry, and the installation location in the world. The photo bioreactor was discretized in space by the the volume element method. Balances of energy and species together with thermodynamics, heat transfer and chemistry empirical and theoretical correlations are applied to each volume element. Therefore, a system of ordinary differential equations with respect to time only is capable of delivering temperatures and concentrations as functions of space and time, even with a coarse mesh. The numerical results are capable of predicting the transient and steady state photo bioreactor biomass production with low computational time. Microalgae specific growth rate as a function of average light intensity inside the tubes and time was calculated. As a result, the model is expected to be a useful tool for simulation, design, and optimization of compact photo bioreactors. (author)

  20. Analytical solution of transient in-plane vibration of a thin viscoelastic disc and its multi-precision evaluation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adámek, V.; Valeš, František

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 85, NOV 2012 (2012), s. 34-44 ISSN 0378-4754 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/11/0288 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : transient vibration * viscoelastic disc * analytical solution Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.836, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037847541200225X

  1. Detection of and optical transient following the 13 March 2000 short/hard gamma-ray burst

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Castro Cerón, J. M.; Gorosabel, J.; Páta, P.; Soldán, Jan; Hudec, René; Jelínek, Martin; Topinka, Martin; Bernas, M.; Mateo Sanguino, T. J.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Berná, J. A.; Henden, A.; Vrba, F.; Canzian, B.; Harris, H.; Delfosse, X.; de Pontieu, B.; Polcar, J.; Sánchez-Fernández, C.; de la Morena, B. A.; Más-Hesse, J. M.; Torres Riera, J.; Barthelmy, S. D.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 393, č. 3 (2002), s. L55-L59 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/99/0145 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : gamma rays * optical transients Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.781, year: 2002

  2. Dose titration of BAF312 attenuates the initial heart rate reducing effect in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legangneux, Eric; Gardin, Anne; Johns, Donald

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have shown transient decreases in heart rate (HR) following administration of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulators including BAF312. This study was conducted to determine whether dose titration of BAF312 reduces or eliminates these effects. Fifty-six healthy subjects were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive BAF312 in one of two dose titration (DT) regimens (DT1 and DT2: 0.25-10 mg over 9-10 days), no titration (10 mg starting dose) or placebo. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed. Neither DT1 nor DT2 resulted in clinically significant bradycardia or atrioventricular conduction effects. Both titration regimens showed a favourable difference on each of days 1-12 vs. the non-titration regimen on day 1 for HR effects (P titration was 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13, 1.23) and 1.14 (95% CI 1.09, 1.18) for DT2 (both P titration HRs showed considerable separation from placebo throughout the study. There was no statistically significant reduction in HR vs. placebo on day 1 in either titration regimen. On days 3-7 subjects in DT1 and DT2 experienced minor reductions in HR vs. placebo (approximately 5 beats min⁻¹; P ≤ 0.0001). From days 9-12, HRs in both titration regimens were comparable with placebo. Both titration regimens effectively attenuated the initial bradyarrhythmia observed on day 1 of treatment with BAF312 10 mg. © 2012 Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research (NIBIR). British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. A transient absorption study of allophycocyanin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    A transient absorption study of allophycocyanin. 619 bb gb se ia. AAA ρε ε ε. ) (. 1. 1. 0. −. −. = −=∆. , dd gb se ia cc gb se ia ρε ε ε ρε ε ε. ) (. ) (. 3. 3. 2. 2. −. −. +. −. −. +. , ee gb se ia ρε ε ε. ) (. 4. 4. −. −. +. , where. 4. 3. 2. 1 gb gb gb gb gb ε ε ε ε ε. +. +. +. = ,. )0(. 1. 0 aa gb. A ρε. = , and ee dd cc bb aa aa ρ ρ ρ ρ ρ ρ. +. +. +. +. = )0(.

  4. Psychotherapies in Acute and Transient Psychoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel González de Chávez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available From a comprehensive and global view -psychological, biological and social - acute and transient psychoses could be considered identity breakdowns with fragmentation of its structure, paranoid mechanism and cognitive regression. Psychotherapies favour evolution of psychotic identity through disorder awareness and knowledge of aspects of patients that make them more vulnerable to psychotic experiences. We underline the key role of group psychotherapy to improve therapeutic relationships and best use of patient’s coping strategies in the chronology of therapeutic interventions and recovery process of these patients.

  5. Transient Heat Transfer in Coated Superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-29

    account for tran- sient effects as pointed out by Iwasa. 23 To model these transient conditions the following form was used qFB = (200(TL - Tbath)’ Ŗ...QNB*FRACTNB+ QFB *FRACTFB FJ=QTB*AREA GOTO 900 C C C TRANSITION BOILING - OUT OF THE BOUNDARY LAYER C C OTHSS (THE STEADY STATE HEAT FLUX IN C...THE FLUID C PROPERTIES WILL DROP OUT IN THE RATIO. C QFB =QFBSS*(EFBSS/EBLPUA) IF(PATHTB.GT.1.)GOTO 420 FJ= QFB *AREA GOTO 900 C C C FILM BOILING - OUT OF

  6. Transient Ionospheric Echoes at Five Metres Wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-10-01

    direct visual ibsexvation. 3, An analysis of transient oehoea jbaervod botrreon M October 19 Kovuiabor, was toad« by E.-. Britten ...1937) EoJcsrsley and Faxraar, Proo. Roy . Soo. A, 134. 196 (1945) . Mi ’ • 5) Olivlor, "Meteor >:’ Trowbridge, « Mrffttww ana Debaon...ic6KS»o«» I <. i_i.L-i.. •-."-•— I • —. -~ —: -> >« \\ N. \\ \\ °6 I \\ I \\ s TUT.ON 8 3. 𔃻 I *•’• roi « / - ##• / 0

  7. Future Transient Testing of Advanced Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon Carmack

    2009-09-01

    The transient in-reactor fuels testing workshop was held on May 4–5, 2009 at Idaho National Laboratory. The purpose of this meeting was to provide a forum where technical experts in transient testing of nuclear fuels could meet directly with technical instrumentation experts and nuclear fuel modeling and simulation experts to discuss needed advancements in transient testing to support a basic understanding of nuclear fuel behavior under off-normal conditions. The workshop was attended by representatives from Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique CEA, Japanese Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Department of Energy (DOE), AREVA, General Electric – Global Nuclear Fuels (GE-GNF), Westinghouse, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), universities, and several DOE national laboratories. Transient testing of fuels and materials generates information required for advanced fuels in future nuclear power plants. Future nuclear power plants will rely heavily on advanced computer modeling and simulation that describes fuel behavior under off-normal conditions. TREAT is an ideal facility for this testing because of its flexibility, proven operation and material condition. The opportunity exists to develop advanced instrumentation and data collection that can support modeling and simulation needs much better than was possible in the past. In order to take advantage of these opportunities, test programs must be carefully designed to yield basic information to support modeling before conducting integral performance tests. An early start of TREAT and operation at low power would provide significant dividends in training, development of instrumentation, and checkout of reactor systems. Early start of TREAT (2015) is needed to support the requirements of potential users of TREAT and include the testing of full length fuel irradiated in the FFTF reactor. The capabilities provided by TREAT are needed for the development of nuclear power and the following benefits will be realized by

  8. On closed loop transient response system identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christer Dalen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Some methods for transient closed loop step response system identification presented in the literature are reviewed. Interestingly some errors in a method published in the early 80's where propagated into a recently published method. These methods are reviewed and some improved methods are suggested and presented. The methods are compared against each other on some closed loop system examples, e.g. a well pipeline-riser severe-slugging flow regime example, using Monte Carlo simulations for comparison of the methods.

  9. Transient response of wire bicone antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. G.; Lizius, D. W.

    This paper describes the computational analysis of biconical wire antennas without end-caps performed using an extended and improved version of the Thin Wire Time Domain code from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Special attention is given to the computational algorithm used in the direct time domain analysis of the transient behavior of antennas. It is shown that the time domain numerical predictions are consistent with intuitive expectations and with predictions obtained from the Fourier transform of a frequency domain semianalytical model of a sheet bicone antenna.

  10. History of transient ischemic attack definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Jay P

    2014-01-01

    Transient ischemic attacks have been recognized as a clinical entity for well over a century. Efforts before the availability of modern imaging to establish a diagnosis of inferred ischemic stroke led to acceptance of too long a time period (>24 h) compared with the actual typical events lasting <24 min (usually 5-15 min). Revision of the time period has improved diagnostic yield and discovered many whose image-documented acute infarct is associated with a short clinical course. Copyright © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Transient Impulsive Giant Electronic Raman Redistribution

    CERN Document Server

    Miyabe, S

    2014-01-01

    Resonant Raman excitation by ultrafast vacuum ultraviolet laser pulses is a powerful means to study electron dynamics in molecules, but experiments must contend with linear background ionization: frequencies high enough to reach resonant core-valence transitions will usually ionize all occupied orbitals as well, and the ionization cross sections are usually dominant. Here we show that attosecond pulses can induce a new process, transient impulsive stimulated Raman scattering, which can overwhelm valence ionization. Calculations are performed for atomic sodium, but the principal is valid for many molecular systems. This approach opens the path for high fidelity multidimensional spectroscopy with attosecond pulses.

  12. Pressure transient method for front tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, S.M.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1983-08-01

    A pressure transient technique for tracking the advance of cold water fronts during water flooding and goethermal injection operations has been developed. The technique is based on the concept that the steady state pressure buildup in the reservoir region inside the front can be calculated by a fluid skin factor. By analyzing successive pressure falloff tests, the advance of the front in the reservoir can be monitored. The validity of the methods is demonstrated by application to three numerically simulated data sets, a nonisothermal step-rate injection test, a series of pressure falloffs in a multilayered reservoir, and a series of pressure falloff tests in a water flooded oil reservoir.

  13. Transient receptor potential channels on sensory nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, S R; Cortright, D N

    2009-01-01

    The somatosensory effects of natural products such as capsaicin, mustard oil, and menthol have been long recognized. Over the last decade, the identification of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in primary sensory neurons as the targets for these agents has led to an explosion of research into the roles of "thermoTRPs" TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPA1, and TRPM8 in nociception. In concert, through the efforts of many industrial and academic teams, a number of agonists and antagonists of these channels have been discovered, paving the way for a better understanding of sensory biology and, potentially, for novel treatments for diseases.

  14. Transient Mixed Convection Validation for NGNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Barton [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Schultz, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-10-19

    The results of this project are best described by the papers and dissertations that resulted from the work. They are included in their entirety in this document. They are: (1) Jeff Harris PhD dissertation (focused mainly on forced convection); (2) Blake Lance PhD dissertation (focused mainly on mixed and transient convection). This dissertation is in multi-paper format and includes the article currently submitted and one to be submitted shortly; and, (3) JFE paper on CFD Validation Benchmark for Forced Convection.

  15. Recognition of Transient Phenomena in a Biosignal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rozman

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrical Activity of a human brain measured on the skull(electroencephalogram, EEG contains in the sleep period manytransients (sleep spindles, spike-like structures or vertex waves, i.e. bursts of EEG activity of limited duration, having random occurrenceand may be coupled with specific sleep stages. A computer-baseddetector was designed that detects a transient called K-complex. Thedetector is based on linear matched filtering and its nonlinearmodifications. The linear and nonlinear approaches are compared andevaluated with respect to the detection efficiency.

  16. Sustained Perceptual Deficits from Transient Sensory Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanes, Dan H.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory pathways display heightened plasticity during development, yet the perceptual consequences of early experience are generally assessed in adulthood. This approach does not allow one to identify transient perceptual changes that may be linked to the central plasticity observed in juvenile animals. Here, we determined whether a brief period of bilateral auditory deprivation affects sound perception in developing and adult gerbils. Animals were reared with bilateral earplugs, either from postnatal day 11 (P11) to postnatal day 23 (P23) (a manipulation previously found to disrupt gerbil cortical properties), or from P23-P35. Fifteen days after earplug removal and restoration of normal thresholds, animals were tested on their ability to detect the presence of amplitude modulation (AM), a temporal cue that supports vocal communication. Animals reared with earplugs from P11-P23 displayed elevated AM detection thresholds, compared with age-matched controls. In contrast, an identical period of earplug rearing at a later age (P23-P35) did not impair auditory perception. Although the AM thresholds of earplug-reared juveniles improved during a week of repeated testing, a subset of juveniles continued to display a perceptual deficit. Furthermore, although the perceptual deficits induced by transient earplug rearing had resolved for most animals by adulthood, a subset of adults displayed impaired performance. Control experiments indicated that earplugging did not disrupt the integrity of the auditory periphery. Together, our results suggest that P11-P23 encompasses a critical period during which sensory deprivation disrupts central mechanisms that support auditory perceptual skills. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sensory systems are particularly malleable during development. This heightened degree of plasticity is beneficial because it enables the acquisition of complex skills, such as music or language. However, this plasticity comes with a cost: nervous system development

  17. Hardware Demonstration: Frequency Spectra of Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, John; Dimov, Jen

    2017-01-01

    Radiated emissions measurements as specified by MIL-STD-461 are performed in the frequency domain, which is best suited to continuous wave (CW) types of signals. However, many platforms implement signals that are single event pulses or transients. Such signals can potentially generate momentary radiated emissions that can cause interference in the system, but they may be missed with traditional measurement techniques. This demonstration provides measurement and analysis techniques that effectively evaluate the potential emissions from such signals in order to evaluate their potential impacts to system performance.

  18. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    such as concepts, aboutness, topic, isness and ofness are also briefly presented. The conclusion is that the most fruitful way of defining “subject” (of a document) is the documents informative or epistemological potentials, that is, the documents potentials of informing users and advance the development......This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  19. Transient Stability Improvement of Multi-machine Power System Using Fuzzy Controlled TCSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gundala Srinivasa

    2012-07-01

    Power system is subjected to sudden changes in load levels. Stability is an important concept which determines the stable operation of power system. In general rotor angle stability is taken as index, but the concept of transient stability, which is the function of operating condition and disturbances deals with the ability of the system to remain intact after being subjected to abnormal deviations. A system is said to be synchronously stable (i.e., retain synchronism) for a given fault if the system variables settle down to some steady-state values with time, after the fault is removed.For the improvement of transient stability the general methods adopted are fast acting exciters, circuit breakers and reduction in system transfer reactance. The modern trend is to employ FACTS devices in the existing system for effective utilization of existing transmission resources. These FACTS devices contribute to power flow improvement besides they extend their services in transient stability improvement as well.In this paper, the studies had been carried out in order to improve the Transient Stability of WSCC 9 Bus System with Fixed Compensation on Various Lines and Optimal Location has been investigated using trajectory sensitivity analysis for better results.In this paper, in order to improve the Transient Stability margin further series FACTS device has been implemented. A fuzzy controlled Thyristor Controlled Series Compensation (TCSC) device has been used here and the results highlight the effectiveness of the application of a TCSC in improving the transient stability of a power system.In this paper, Trajectory sensitivity analysis (TSA) has been used to measure the transient stability condition of the system. The TCSC is modeled by a variable capacitor, the value of which changes with the firing angle. It is shown that TSA can be used in the design of the controller. The optimal locations of the TCSC-controller for different fault conditions can also be identified with

  20. Science of the subjective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, R G; Dunne, B J

    2007-01-01

    Over the greater portion of its long scholarly history, the particular form of human observation, reasoning, and technical deployment we properly term "science" has relied at least as much on subjective experience and inspiration as it has on objective experiments and theories. Only over the past few centuries has subjectivity been progressively excluded from the practice of science, leaving an essentially secular analytical paradigm. Quite recently, however, a compounding constellation of newly inexplicable physical evidence, coupled with a growing scholarly interest in the nature and capability of human consciousness, are beginning to suggest that this sterilization of science may have been excessive and could ultimately limit its epistemological reach and cultural relevance. In particular, an array of demonstrable consciousness-related anomalous physical phenomena, a persistent pattern of biological and medical anomalies, systematic studies of mind/brain relationships and the mechanics of human creativity, and a burgeoning catalogue of human factors effects within contemporary information processing technologies, all display empirical correlations with subjective aspects that greatly complicate, and in many cases preclude, their comprehension on strictly objective grounds. However, any disciplined re-admission of subjective elements into rigorous scientific methodology will hinge on the precision with which they can be defined, measured, and represented, and on the resilience of established scientific techniques to their inclusion. For example, any neo-subjective science, while retaining the logical rigor, empirical/theoretical dialogue, and cultural purpose of its rigidly objective predecessor, would have the following requirements: acknowledgment of a proactive role for human consciousness; more explicit and profound use of interdisciplinary metaphors; more generous interpretations of measurability, replicability, and resonance; a reduction of ontological

  1. Brain hemodynamic activity during viewing and re-viewing of comedy movies explained by experienced humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Pajula, Juha; Tohka, Jussi; Lee, Hsin-Ju; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2016-06-21

    Humor is crucial in human social interactions. To study the underlying neural processes, three comedy clips were shown twice to 20 volunteers during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Inter-subject similarities in humor ratings, obtained immediately after fMRI, explained inter-subject correlation of hemodynamic activity in right frontal pole and in a number of other brain regions. General linear model analysis also indicated activity in right frontal pole, as well as in additional cortical areas and subcortically in striatum, explained by humorousness. The association of the right frontal pole with experienced humorousness is a novel finding, which might be related to humor unfolding over longer time scales in the movie clips. Specifically, frontal pole has been shown to exhibit longer temporal receptive windows than, e.g., sensory areas, which might have enabled processing of humor in the clips based on holding information and reinterpreting that in light of new information several (even tens of) seconds later. As another novel finding, medial and lateral prefrontal areas, frontal pole, posterior-inferior temporal areas, posterior parietal areas, posterior cingulate, striatal structures and amygdala showed reduced activity upon re-viewing of the clips, suggesting involvement in processing of humor related to novelty of the comedic events.

  2. Isometric force production in experienced fighter pilots during +3 Gz centrifuge acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiera, Simon; Bock, Otmar; Pongratz, Hans; Krause, Wolfgang

    2007-11-01

    Previously, we have shown that naïve subjects produce exaggerated isometric forces when exposed to increased acceleration (+Gz) for the first time. The present study investigates whether +G,-experienced PA-200 Tornado pilots show similar deficits. Experiments were conducted in the stationary (+1 Gz) or rotating (+3 Gz) gondola of a human-rated centrifuge. With their dominant hand, seven pilots produced visually prescribed forces of specific direction and magnitude using an isometric joystick. In practice trials, subjects received continuous visual feedback about their performance, while in test trials they did not. Peak forces during test trials were significantly higher in +3 Gz than in +1 Gz, although this increase of about 25% referring to the +1 Gz value was somewhat smaller in pilots than in nonpilot controls (increase of about 36%). Since pilots' responses were exaggerated in +3 Gz, it seems that frequent exposure to varying +Gz levels is not sufficient for a profound adaptation of force-producing mechanisms to +3 Gz. In consequence, pilots' performance on isometric tasks could be compromised during flight maneuvers in +Gz.

  3. FEELINGS EXPERIENCED BY PATIENTS FACED WITH A FIRST EVENT OF MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Botelho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently circulatory diseases are the first cause of death in Brazil and worldwide. After the diagnosis of Acute Myocardial Infarction the patient is faced with a new and daunting routine, a fact that constitutes a source of different and ambiguous feelings. In this context nursing has a fundamental role of providing adequate care to these patients. This study aimed at analyzing the feelings experienced by inpatients in a medical treatment unit when faced with Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI for the first time. This is an exploratory, descriptive study, with a qualitative approach. Seven inpatients participated in the study at diagnosis of first AMI in a medical treatment unit at a public hospital in the municipality of Sinop. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews. The analysis was carried out through the thematic content analysis technique. The study complied with the ethic principles governing research involving human subjects, under Resolution no. 466/2012. The project was submitted to the Research Ethic Committee and approved by Decision 632.272. The categories listed from the accounts were: a expectation of improvement and adoption of measures to promote health; b negative feelings after AMI. Given the above, we concluded that, although the subjects presented positive and negative feelings towards the event, the impact of AMI on patients’ lives must be considered likewise by the health team, especially by the professional since these feelings are generators of anguish and stress

  4. Darunavir-based dual therapy in HIV experienced patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterrantino, Gaetana; Zaccarelli, Mauro; Di Biagio, Antonio; Rosi, Andrea; Bruzzone, Bianca; Cicconi, Paola; Carli, Tiziana; Biondi, Maria Luisa; Antinori, Andrea; Bartolozzi, Dario; Penco, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the virological response of DRV/r-based dual therapy in drug-experienced patients included in the Italian antiretroviral resistance database (ARCA). Patients included in the study were treated with DRV/r in association with raltegravir (RAL), etravirine (ETV) or maraviroc (MAR) following treatment failure(s) and with a resistance test and at least one follow-up visit available. Observation was censored at last visit under dual therapy and survival analysis and proportional hazard models were used, taking virological failure (confirmed >50 c/mL HIV-RNA) as the end-point. Of the total 221 patients included, 149 (67.4%) started DRV/r with RAL, 45 (20.4%) with ETV, 27 (12.2%) with MAR. Patients characteristics at the start of dual regimen were as follows: mean number of previous regimens, nine (IQR: 5-13); non-B subtype, 17 (7.7%); median CD4 count, 347 (IQR: 246-544); undetectable viral load, 74 (33.5%). Full DRV/r resistance was detected in one (0.5%, HIV-DB interpretation system), 13 (5.9%, ANRS) and 17 patients (7.7%, Rega). 69 virological failures (31.2%) were observed during follow-up. At survival analysis, the overall proportion of failure was 29.2% at one year and 33.8% at two years. The proportion of failure was lower in patients starting with undetectable versus detectable viral load (13.3% and 25.2% versus 37.4% and 38.8% at one and two years, respectively, p=0.001 for both analyses) and in patients treated with DRV 600 BID versus 800 QD (HR: 0, 56; 95% CI 0.31-0.99; pfailure (27.7% at one year, 32.0% at two years) if compared with DRV/r-MAR (35.9%, 47.1%) and DRV/r-ETV (34.1%, 34.1% at one and two years). In the adjusted proportional model, no significant difference among the three regimens was detected. A significant lower risk of failure was associated with higher overall GSS (HIV-DB HR: 0.53, 95% CI 0.32-0.88, p=0.014; Rega 0.60, 0.40-0.88, pfailure was associated with detectable HIV-RNA (3.02, 1.70-5.72, p<0.001). Among experienced patients

  5. Darunavir-based dual therapy in HIV experienced patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetana Sterrantino

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: We assessed the virological response of DRV/r-based dual therapy in drug-experienced patients included in the Italian antiretroviral resistance database (ARCA. Materials and Methods: Patients included in the study were treated with DRV/r in association with raltegravir (RAL, etravirine (ETV or maraviroc (MAR following treatment failure(s and with a resistance test and at least one follow-up visit available. Observation was censored at last visit under dual therapy and survival analysis and proportional hazard models were used, taking virological failure (confirmed >50 c/mL HIV-RNA as the end-point. Results: Of the total 221 patients included, 149 (67.4% started DRV/r with RAL, 45 (20.4% with ETV, 27 (12.2% with MAR. Patients characteristics at the start of dual regimen were as follows: mean number of previous regimens, nine (IQR: 5–13; non-B subtype, 17 (7.7%; median CD4 count, 347 (IQR: 246–544; undetectable viral load, 74 (33.5%. Full DRV/r resistance was detected in one (0.5%, HIV-DB interpretation system, 13 (5.9%, ANRS and 17 patients (7.7%, Rega. 69 virological failures (31.2% were observed during follow-up. At survival analysis, the overall proportion of failure was 29.2% at one year and 33.8% at two years. The proportion of failure was lower in patients starting with undetectable versus detectable viral load (13.3% and 25.2% versus 37.4% and 38.8% at one and two years, respectively, p=0.001 for both analyses and in patients treated with DRV 600 BID versus 800 QD (HR: 0, 56; 95% CI 0.31–0.99; p<0.05. By regimen, patients treated with DRV/r-RAL showed a non-significant lower proportion of failure (27.7% at one year, 32.0% at two years if compared with DRV/r-MAR (35.9%, 47.1% and DRV/r-ETV (34.1%, 34.1% at one and two years. In the adjusted proportional model, no significant difference among the three regimens was detected. A significant lower risk of failure was associated with higher overall GSS (HIV-DB HR: 0.53, 95% CI

  6. Impact strength of small icy bodies that experienced multiple collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Minami; Hayama, Ryo; Arakawa, Masahiko

    2014-05-01

    Frequent collisions are common for small bodies in the Solar System, and the cumulative damage to these bodies is thought to significantly affect their evolution. It is important to study the effects of multiple impacts such as the number of impacts on the impact strength and the ejection velocity of impact fragments. Here we conducted multiple-impact experiments using a polycrystalline water ice target, varying the number of impacts from 1 to 10 times. An ice cylindrical projectile was impacted at 84-502 m s-1 by using a single-stage gas gun in a cold room between -10 and -15 °C. The impact strength of the ice target that experienced a single impact and multiple impacts is expressed by the total energy density applied to the same target, ΣQ, and this value was observed to be 77.6 J kg-1. The number of fine impact fragments at a fragment mass normalized by an initial target mass, m/Mt0 ∼ 10-6, nm, had a good correlation with the single energy density at each shot, Qj, and the relationship was shown to be nm=10·Qj1.31±0.12. We also estimated the cumulative damage of icy bodies as a total energy density accumulated by past impacts, according to the crater scaling laws proposed by Housen et al. (Housen, K.R., Schmidt, R.M., Holsapple, K.A. [1983]. J. Geophys. Res. 88, 2485-2499) of ice and the crater size distributions observed on Phoebe, a saturnian icy satellite. We found that the cumulative damage of Phoebe depended significantly on the impact speed of the impactor that formed the craters on Phoebe; and the cumulative damage was about one-third of the impact strength ΣQ* at 500 m s-1 whereas it was almost zero at 3.2 km s-1.

  7. Cultural modes of expressing emotions influence how emotions are experienced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Yang, Xiao-Fei; Damasio, Hanna

    2016-10-01

    The brain's mapping of bodily responses during emotion contributes to emotional experiences, or feelings. Culture influences emotional expressiveness, that is, the magnitude of individuals' bodily responses during emotion. So, are cultural influences on behavioral expressiveness associated with differences in how individuals experience emotion? Chinese and American young adults reported how strongly admiration- and compassion-inducing stories made them feel, first in a private interview and then during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). As expected, Americans were more expressive in the interview. Although expressiveness did not predict stronger reported feelings or neural responses during fMRI, in both cultural groups more-expressive people showed tighter trial-by-trial correlations between their experienced strength of emotion and activations in visceral-somatosensory cortex, even after controlling for individuals' overall strength of reactions (neural and felt). Moreover, expressiveness mediated a previously described cultural effect in which activations in visceral-somatosensory cortex correlated with feeling strength among Americans but not among Chinese. Post hoc supplementary analyses revealed that more-expressive individuals reached peak activation of visceral-somatosensory cortex later in the emotion process and took longer to decide how strongly they felt. The results together suggest that differences in expressiveness correspond to differences in how somatosensory mechanisms contribute to constructing conscious feelings. By influencing expressiveness, culture may therefore influence how individuals know how strongly they feel, what conscious feelings are based on, or possibly what strong versus weak emotions "feel like." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Imported malaria in pregnant women experienced in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Mikio; Koga, Michiko; Hasegawa, Chihiro; Mutoh, Yoshikazu; Kato, Yasuyuki; Maruyama, Haruhiko

    2017-08-01

    With ever-growing global exchanges, the number of travelers, including pregnant women, to the tropics is increasing, which poses a risk of contracting malaria. Although there are several reports on imported malaria in pregnancy from Western countries, those focusing on cases experienced in Japan are very limited. We searched for cases of malaria in pregnancy in the treatment records submitted to the Research Group on Chemotherapy of Tropical Diseases, Japan, during the period 1993-2016. Literature searches were also conducted using an American and a Japanese search system. Ten cases of malaria in pregnant women were identified, including four cases with Plasmodium falciparum. Of eight evaluable cases, only one practiced malaria chemoprophylaxis. Among the nine evaluable cases, eight resulted in uneventful delivery and one P. falciparum case developed severe hepatic disturbance, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and intrauterine fetal death. After the initial attack, none of the Plasmodium vivax/Plasmodium ovale cases practiced chloroquine prophylaxis until delivery. One P. ovale case received a lower dose regimen of chloroquine as acute-stage therapy. This study demonstrated additional cases of imported malaria in pregnant women to the literature and highlighted various epidemiological, demographic, and clinical characteristics. Some of the clinical issues raised need to be investigated. Due to the paucity of the cases worldwide, sharing information among various countries is indispensable, and international guidelines which are now increasingly recommending the use of artemisinins in pregnant women should be referred. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...... practices. Through this dialogue, it develops an original trans-disciplinary critical theory and practice of collective subjectivity for which the ongoing construction and overcoming of common sense, or ideology, is central. It also points to ways of relating discourse with agency, and fertilizing insights...... from interactionism and ideology theories in a cultural-historical framework....

  10. Predictors of transient congenital hypothyroidism in children with eutopic thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il Soon; Yoon, Jong Seo; So, Cheol Hwan; Lee, Hae Sang; Hwang, Jin Soon

    2017-06-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most common cause of preventable mental retardation. Recently, the detection of CH cases with eutopic thyroid gland has increased due to neonatal screening programs. In this study, we aimed to identify and evaluate predictive factors that could distinguish between permanent and transient CH in patients with eutopic thyroid gland. We retrospectively reviewed 100 children diagnosed with CH and with eutopic thyroid gland. All subjects were treated with levothyroxine and underwent re-evaluation after 3 years of age. Of the 100 CH patients, 35 (35.0%) were diagnosed with permanent CH (PCH) and 65 (65.0%) were diagnosed with transient CH (TCH). The initial thyroid stimulating hormone levels were significantly lower in the TCH subjects than in PCH subjects. In addition, the mean doses of levothyroxine (µg/kg/day) at the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd year of treatment were significantly lower in subjects with TCH than in PCH subjects with eutopic thyroid gland. Based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the optimal cutoff dose of levothyroxine at 3 years of 2.76 µg/kg/day could predict TCH, and was associated with 87.3% sensitivity and 67.6% specificity, with an area under the ROC curve of 0.769. The levothyroxine dose requirement during treatment period has a predictive role in differentiating TCH from PCH in CH patients with eutopic thyroid gland.

  11. A single session of meditation reduces of physiological indices of anger in both experienced and novice meditators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Alexander B; Benau, Erik M; Atchley, Ruth Ann

    2016-02-01

    The goal of the present study was to explore how anger reduction via a single session of meditation might be measured using psychophysiological methodologies. To achieve this, 15 novice meditators (Experiment 1) and 12 practiced meditators (Experiment 2) completed autobiographical anger inductions prior to, and following, meditation training while respiration rate, heart rate, and blood pressure were measured. Participants also reported subjective anger via a visual analog scale. At both stages, the experienced meditators' physiological reaction to the anger induction reflected that of relaxation: slowed breathing and heart rate and decreased blood pressure. Naïve meditators exhibited physiological reactions that were consistent with anger during the pre-meditation stage, while after meditation training and a second anger induction they elicited physiological evidence of relaxation. The current results examining meditation training show that the naïve group's physiological measures mimicked those of the experienced group following a single session of meditation training. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Relationships of contact pressure with subjective experiences of comfort and discomfort in using hand saws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijt-Evers, L.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships of objective measurements (contact pressure and productivity) with subjective experienced comfort and discomfort in using hand saws was examined. Professional carpenters evaluated five different hand saws. The pressure-time integral during the static pressure measurement (beta =

  13. Considering transient population dynamics in the conservation of slow life-history species: An application to the sandhill crane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Brian D.; Kendall, William L.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of transient dynamics of structured populations is increasingly recognized in ecology, yet these implications are not largely considered in conservation practices. We investigate transient and long-term population dynamics to demonstrate the process and utility of incorporating transient dynamics into conservation research and to better understand the population management of slow life-history species; these species can be theoretically highly sensitive to short- and long-term transient effects. We are specifically interested in the effects of anthropogenic removal of individuals from populations, such as caused by harvest, poaching, translocation, or incidental take. We use the sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) as an exemplar species; it is long-lived, has low reproduction, late maturity, and multiple populations are subject to sport harvest. We found sandhill cranes to have extremely high potential, but low likelihood for transient dynamics, even when the population is being harvested. The typically low population growth rate of slow life-history species appears to buffer against many perturbations causing large transient effects. Transient dynamics will dominate population trajectories of these species when stage structures are highly biased towards the younger and non-reproducing individuals, a situation that may be rare in established populations of long-lived animals. However, short-term transient population growth can be highly sensitive to vital rates that are relatively insensitive under equilibrium, suggesting that stage structure should be known if perturbation analysis is used to identify effective conservation strategies. For populations of slow life-history species that are not prone to large perturbations to their most productive individuals, population growth may be approximated by equilibrium dynamics.

  14. Physical Origin of Transient Negative Capacitance in a Ferroelectric Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sou-Chi; Avci, Uygar E.; Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian A.

    2018-01-01

    Transient negative differential capacitance, the dynamic reversal of transient capacitance in an electrical circuit, is of highly technological and scientific interest since it probes the foundation of ferroelectricity. We study a resistor-ferroelectric capacitor (R -FEC) network through a series of coupled equations based on Kirchhoff's law, electrostatics, and Landau theory. We show that transient negative capacitance (NC) in a R -FEC circuit originates from the mismatch in switching rate between the free charge on the metal plate and the bound charge in a ferroelectric (FE) capacitor during the polarization switching. This transient free charge-polarization mismatch is driven by the negative curvature of the FE free-energy landscape, and it is also analytically shown that a free-energy profile with a negative curvature is the only physical system that can describe transient NC in a R -FEC circuit. Furthermore, transient NC induced by the free charge-polarization mismatch is justified by its dependence on both external resistance and the intrinsic FE viscosity coefficient. The depolarization effect on FE capacitors emphasizes the importance of negative curvature to transient NC and also implies that transient and steady-state NC cannot be observed in a FE capacitor simultaneously. Finally, using the transient NC measurements, a procedure to experimentally determine the viscosity coefficient is presented to provide more insight into the relation between transient NC and the FE free-energy profile.

  15. Paying Hypertension Research Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarett, David; Karlawish, Jason; Asch, David A

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT Cash payments are often used to compensate subjects who participate in research. However, ethicists have argued that these payments might constitute an undue inducement. OBJECTIVES To determine whether potential subjects agree with theoretical arguments that a payment could be an undue inducement. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS Survey of 350 prospective jurors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Belief that a $500 payment for research participation would impair their own, and others' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of a clinical trial. RESULTS Two hundred sixty-one jurors (74.6%) believed that a $500 payment would impair subjects' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of research. Ninety-six of 120 (80%) expressed this concern about subjects with a low income ($50,000). In contrast, only 69 (19.7%) of jurors believed that a $500 payment would influence them. Jurors who believed that this payment would influence them reported lower incomes and less education. CONCLUSION Members of the general public share ethical concerns about the influence of payments for research, although they believe that these concerns are more applicable to others than to themselves.

  16. Subjects, Models, Languages, Transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Bézivin, J.; Heckel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Discussions about model-driven approaches tend to be hampered by terminological confusion. This is at least partially caused by a lack of formal precision in defining the basic concepts, including that of "model" and "thing being modelled" - which we call subject in this paper. We propose a minimal

  17. Subjective Duration and Psychophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, Hannes

    1975-01-01

    Three models are proposed to describe the strategy applied by a subject when he is confronted with two successive time intervals and is required to deal with some relation between them, for example, by telling which was the longer by adjusting the second to match the first. (Author)

  18. Barron's SAT subject test

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, MA, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.

  19. Transient Non-Newtonian Screw Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Nariman

    2013-03-01

    The influence of axial flow on the transient response of the pseudoplastic rotating flow is carried out. The fluid is assumed to follow the Carreau-Bird model and mixed boundary conditions are imposed. The four-dimensional low-order dynamical system, resulted from Galerkin projection of the conservation of mass and momentum equations, includes additional nonlinear terms in the velocity components originated from the shear-dependent viscosity. In absence of axial flow the base flow loses its radial flow stability to the vortex structure at a lower critical Taylor number, as the pseudoplasticity increases. The emergence of the vortices corresponds to the onset of a supercritical bifurcation which is also seen in the flow of a linear fluid. However, unlike the Newtonian case, pseudoplastic Taylor vortices lose their stability as the Taylor number reaches a second critical number corresponding to the onset of a Hopf bifurcation. Existence of an axial flow, manifested by a pressure gradient appears to further advance each critical point on the bifurcation diagram. In addition to the simulation of spiral flow, the proposed formulation allows the axial flow to be independent of the main rotating flow. Complete transient flow field together with viscosity maps are also presented.

  20. Direct Numerical Simulations of Transient Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, M.; Valdes-Parada, F.; Wood, B.

    2008-12-01

    Transient dispersion is important in many engineering applications, including transport in porous media. A common theoretical approach involves upscaling the micro-scale mass balance equations for convection- diffusion to macro-scale equations that contain effective medium quantities. However, there are a number of assumptions implicit in the various upscaling methods. For example, results obtained from volume averaging are often dependent on a given set of length and time scale constraints. Additionally, a number of the classical models for dispersion do not fully capture the early-time dispersive behavior of the solute for a general set of initial conditions. In this work, we present direct numerical simulations of micro-scale transient mass balance equations for convection-diffusion in both capillary tubes and porous media. Special attention is paid to analysis of the influence of a new time- decaying coefficient that filters the effects of the initial conditions. The direct numerical simulations were compared to results obtained from solving the closure problem associated with volume averaging. These comparisons provide a quantitative measure of the significance of (1) the assumptions implicit in the volume averaging method and (2) the importance of the early-time dispersive behavior of the solute due to various initial conditions.