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Sample records for subjects differed significantly

  1. No Clinically Significant Difference Between Adult and Pediatric IKDC Subjective Knee Evaluation Scores in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegmeier, Nicole; Oak, Sameer R; O'Rourke, Colin; Strnad, Greg; Spindler, Kurt P; Jones, Morgan; Farrow, Lutul D; Andrish, Jack; Saluan, Paul

    Two versions of the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Evaluation form currently exist: the original version (1999) and a recently modified pediatric-specific version (2011). Comparison of the pediatric IKDC with the adult version in the adult population may reveal that either version could be used longitudinally. We hypothesize that the scores for the adult IKDC and pediatric IKDC will not be clinically different among adult patients aged 18 to 50 years. Randomized crossover study design. Level 2. The study consisted of 100 participants, aged 18 to 50 years, who presented to orthopaedic outpatient clinics with knee problems. All participants completed both adult and pediatric versions of the IKDC in random order with a 10-minute break in between. We used a paired t test to test for a difference between the scores and a Welch's 2-sample t test to test for equivalence. A least-squares regression model was used to model adult scores as a function of pediatric scores, and vice versa. A paired t test revealed a statistically significant 1.6-point difference between the mean adult and pediatric scores. However, the 95% confidence interval (0.54-2.66) for this difference did not exceed our a priori threshold of 5 points, indicating that this difference was not clinically important. Equivalence testing with an equivalence region of 5 points further supported this finding. The adult and pediatric scores had a linear relationship and were highly correlated with an R2 of 92.6%. There is no clinically relevant difference between the scores of the adult and pediatric IKDC forms in adults, aged 18 to 50 years, with knee conditions. Either form, adult or pediatric, of the IKDC can be used in this population for longitudinal studies. If the pediatric version is administered in adolescence, it can be used for follow-up into adulthood.

  2. Differences in masticatory function of subjects with different closing path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Shiga, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Masaoki; Arakawa, Ichiro; Nakajima, Kunihisa

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify whether there was a difference in the masticatory function between two masticatory path patterns: a convex closing path and a concave closing path. For 80 healthy subjects, the masticatory function (masticatory muscular activity, mandibular movement, and masticatory performance) when chewing a gummy jelly was recorded. Out of the 160 chewing cases (80 subjects chewing on either side), 65 cases (Group I) in which the incisal point opened in a linear or concave manner toward the working side and closed in a convex manner, and 15 cases (Group II) in which the opening path was the same as that in Group I, but the closing followed a concave path, were selected. For the masticatory function, the integral values per unit time of masseter and temporal muscular activities, the gape and masticatory width, the indicators representing the stability of movement path, and the glucose extraction from chewing gummy jelly were measured and compared between the two groups. The integral values of muscular activities and the amount of glucose extraction were significantly greater in Group I. The gape and masticatory width were not significantly different between the groups. The values of the indicators representing the stability of path were smaller in Group I than in Group II. From these results, it was suggested that there was a functional difference between Group I (with a convex closing path) and Group II (with a concave closing path), and that Group I had a superior masticatory function to Group II.

  3. Significance of time scale differences in psychophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonowski, W

    2009-02-01

    We present modeling of both rational processes (thoughts) and emotional processes (feelings) on a two-dimensional lattice and on extremely simplified two-dimensional phase space of the brain. Our purpose is to analyze influence of differences in time-scales of various types of processes. In particular, we show that no 'central executive structure' between consciousness and unconsciousness, the existence of which was suggested by psychologists, is not needed.

  4. Neurocardiological differences between musicians and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burggraaf, J L I; Elffers, T W; Segeth, F M; Austie, F M C; Plug, M B; Gademan, M G J; Maan, A C; Man, S; de Muynck, M; Soekkha, T; Simonsz, A; van der Wall, E E; Schalij, M J; Swenne, C A

    2013-04-01

    Exercise training is beneficial in health and disease. Part of the training effect materialises in the brainstem due to the exercise-associated somatosensory nerve traffic. Because active music making also involves somatosensory nerve traffic, we hypothesised that this will have training effects resembling those of physical exercise. We compared two groups of healthy, young subjects between 18 and 30 years: 25 music students (13/12 male/female, group M) and 28 controls (12/16 male/female, group C), peers, who were non-musicians. Measurement sessions to determine resting heart rate, resting blood pressure and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were held during morning hours. Groups M and C did not differ significantly in age (21.4 ± 3.0 vs 21.2 ± 3.1 years), height (1.79 ± 0.11 vs 1.77 ± 0.10 m), weight (68.0 ± 9.1 vs 66.8 ± 10.4 kg), body mass index (21.2 ± 2.5 vs 21.3 ± 2.4 kg∙m(-2)) and physical exercise volume (39.3 ± 38.8 vs 36.6 ± 23.6 metabolic equivalent hours/week). Group M practised music daily for 1.8 ± 0.7 h. In group M heart rate (65.1 ± 10.6 vs 68.8 ± 8.3 beats/min, trend P =0.08), systolic blood pressure (114.2 ± 8.7 vs 120.3 ± 10.0 mmHg, P = 0.01), diastolic blood pressure (65.0 ± 6.1 vs 71.0 ± 6.2 mmHg, P active music making has training effects resembling those of physical exercise training. Our study opens a new perspective, in which active music making, additionally to being an artistic activity, renders concrete health benefits for the musician.

  5. Significance of perfectionism in understanding different forms of insomnia

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    Totić-Poznanović Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Studies consistently show a connection between perfectionism as a multidimensional construct with various psychological and psychopathological states and characteristics. However, studies that analyze the connection between this concept and sleep disturbances, especially modalities of insomnia, are rare. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine whether dimensions of perfectionism can explain different forms of insomnia; difficulties initiating sleep (insomnia early, difficulties during the sleep (insomnia middle, waking in early hours of the morning (insomnia late and dissatisfaction with sleep quality (subjective insomnia. Methods. The sample consisted of 254 students of the School of Medicine in Belgrade. Predictive significance of nine perfectionism dimensions, measured by Frost’s and Hewitt’s and Flett’s scales of multi-dimensional perfectionism, related to four modalities of insomnia, measured by a structured questionnaire, was analyzed by multiple linear regression method. Results. Perfectionism dimensions are significant predictors of each of the tested forms of insomnia. Doubt about actions significantly predicts initial insomnia; to other-oriented perfectionism in the negative pole and socially prescribed perfectionism underlie the difficulties during the sleep, while organization and parental criticism underlie late insomnia. Significant predictors of subjective insomnia are personal standards and organization and to other-oriented perfectionism on the negative pole. Three of nine analyzed dimensions were not confirmed as significant; concern over mistakes, parental expectations and self-oriented perfectionism. Conclusion. Various aspects of perfectionism can be considered as a vulnerability factor for understanding some forms of insomnia. Out of all forms of insomnia tested, perfectionism as the personality trait proved to be the most significant for understanding subjective insomnia.

  6. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banni, Sebastiano; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Cordeddu, Lina; Giordano, Elena; Sirigu, Anna Rita; Berge, Kjetil; Vik, Hogne; Maki, Kevin C; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Griinari, Mikko

    2011-01-30

    We have previously shown that krill oil (KO), more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats.We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO), which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO) for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects.The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  7. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Elena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have previously shown that krill oil (KO, more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats. We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO, which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects. The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  8. Acquisition in different and special subject areas

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Linda S

    2013-01-01

    Learn how acquisitions librarians successfully serve specialized users! In this book, you'll find profiles, methods, and processes for acquisitions in specialized subject areas, such as local and regional poetry, oceanography, educational information in electronic formats, popular fiction, regional and ethnic materials, and more. Seasoned acquisitions librarians share their experiences in gathering the hard-to-find materials their libraries' highly specialized clients need to access. You'll also examine issues surrounding the acquisition of new reference tools that are vital in today's emergi

  9. Systemic lupus erythematosus patients contain significantly less igm against mono-methylated lysine than healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sha; Liu, Ying; Ma, Younan; Zhao, Qing; Zhu, Liping; Shao, Yuehu; Gao, Fengying; Wu, Fengqi; Gao, Ruitong; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Post-translational modifications on proteins are important in biological processes but may create neo-epitopes that induce autoimmune responses. In this study, we measured the serum IgG and IgM response to a set of non-modified or acetyl- and methyl-modified peptides corresponding to residues 1-19 of the histone 3 N-terminal tail in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and healthy subjects. Our results indicated that the SLE patients and healthy subjects produced antibodies (Abs) to the peptides, but the two groups had different Ab isotype and epitope preferences. Abs to the non-modified form, H31-19, were of the IgG isotype and produced by SLE patients. They could not recognize the scrambled H31-19, which contained the same amino acid composition but a different sequence as H31-19. In comparison, healthy subjects in general did not produce IgG against H31-19. However, about 70% of the healthy subjects produced IgM Abs against mono-methylated K9 of H31-19 (H31-19K9me). Our further studies revealed that ε-amine mono-methylated lysine could completely inhibit the IgM binding to H31-19K9me, but lysine had no inhibitory effect. In addition, the IgM Abs could bind peptides containing a mono-methylated lysine residue but with totally different sequences. Thus, mono-methylated lysine was the sole epitope for the IgM. Interestingly, SLE patients had much lower levels of this type of IgM. There was no obvious correlation between the IgM levels and disease activity and the decreased IgM was unlikely caused by medical treatments.We also found that the IgM Abs were not polyreactive to dsDNA, ssDNA, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or insulin and they did not exist in umbilical cord serum, implying that they were not natural Abs. The IgM Abs against mono-methylated lysine are present in healthy subjects but are significantly lower in SLE patients, suggesting a distinct origin of production and special physiological functions.

  10. [Chin morphology in subjects with different vertical skeletal craniofacial pattern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Pei-Zeng; Wu, Wei

    2007-04-01

    To evaluate whether there is difference with regard to chin morphology in subjects with different vertical skeletal craniofacial pattern and the relationship among them. The sample was composed of 80 adolescents who denied orthodontic treatment history and presented Class I skeletal pattern, aged (12.69+/-0.70) years. They were divided into three groups according to mandibular plane angle: High angle group (21 cases, FH/MP> or = 32 degrees), average angle group(43 cases, 22 degrees pattern were evaluated. In addition, chin dimensions studied included height, depth, ratio (depth/height), angle, and so on. They were compared between different groups with One-Way ANOVA. Correlation was analyzed between vertical skeletal craniofacial pattern and chin morphology. SNA, SNB and ANB presented no significant difference among three groups. Compared with the low angle group, high angle subjects exhibited increased chin height, depth/height ratio, concavity and decreased chin angle. Therefore the chin looked lathier and less protrusive in high angle group. Positive correlation was found between mandibular plane angle and chin height, concavity, curvature (Pskeletal pattern, which deserves to be taken into consideration in orthodontic treatment planning.

  11. Differences in subjective well-being within households: An analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigate differences in subjective well-being (life satisfaction) within the household using matched data on co-resident couples drawn from the 2008 National Income Dynamics Study for South Africa. The majority of men and women in co-resident partnerships report different levels of subjective wellbeing. We use ...

  12. Significant differences in late Quaternary bedrock erosion and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrews, John; Bjørk, Anders Anker; Eberl, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    We use quantitative X-ray diffraction to determine the mineralogy of late Quaternary marine sediments from the West and East Greenland shelves offshore from early Tertiary basalt outcrops. Despite the similar basalt outcrop area (60 000–70 000 km2), there are significant differences between East ...

  13. Individual differences and subjective workload assessment - Comparing pilots to nonpilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidulich, Michael A.; Pandit, Parimal

    1987-01-01

    Results by two groups of subjects, pilots and nonpilots, for two subjective workload assessment techniques (the SWAT and NASA-TLX tests) intended to evaluate individual differences in the perception and reporting of subjective workload are compared with results obtained for several traditional personality tests. The personality tests were found to discriminate between the groups while the workload tests did not. It is concluded that although the workload tests may provide useful information with respect to the interaction between tasks and personality, they are not effective as pure tests of individual differences.

  14. Differences between Female Subjects Practicing Pilates and Aerobics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josipa Radas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish if there are differences in strength between female subjects who practice Pilates and aerobics. Research was conducted on a sample of two groups, each consisting of 28 subjects, with tests being push-ups, "hundred" and wall squat hold. Differences between groups have been established by T-test for independent samples. Research has shown certain differences between aerobics and Pilates programs. Subjects who practice aerobics scored better results in all tests than subjects who practice Pilates. It can be concluded that aerobics program is much better for development of these types of strength. However, because this is not a representative sample that cannot be claimed.

  15. The significance of cultural differences overcome in acquisition processes

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    Đorđević Slaviša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides the high merger failure rate, different types of corporation restructuring are still one of the most popular ways to realize particular strategic goals, as well as the identified and anticipated synergy effects. In this article we tried to point at the significance that might have cultural integration on the final derived transactions of two entities or new culture development in acquisition processes.

  16. Coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Faruk; Kilic, Leyla; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2014-06-01

    Activated coagulation and fibrinolytic system in cancer patients is associated with tumor stroma formation and metastasis in different cancer types. The aim of this study is to explore the correlation of blood coagulation assays for various clinicopathologic factors in breast cancer patients. A total of 123 female breast cancer patients were enrolled into the study. All the patients were treatment naïve. Pretreatment blood coagulation tests including PT, APTT, PTA, INR, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels, and platelet counts were evaluated. Median age of diagnosis was 51 years old (range 26-82). Twenty-two percent of the group consisted of metastatic breast cancer patients. The plasma level of all coagulation tests revealed statistically significant difference between patient and control group except for PT (p50 years) was associated with higher D-dimer levels (p=0.003). Metastatic patients exhibited significantly higher D-dimer values when compared with early breast cancer patients (p=0.049). Advanced tumor stage (T3 and T4) was associated with higher INR (p=0.05) and lower PTA (p=0.025). In conclusion, coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

  17. Oxygen Desaturation Index Differs Significantly Between Types of Sleep Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Yvonne; Joosten, Simon A; Edwards, Bradley A; Turton, Anthony; Romios, Helen; Samarasinghe, Thilini; Landry, Shane; Mansfield, Darren R; Hamilton, Garun S

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the oxygen desaturation index (ODI) generated by two different sleep software systems. Participants undergoing diagnostic polysomnography for suspected obstructive sleep apnea underwent simultaneous oximetry recording using the ResMed ApneaLink Plus device (AL) and Compumedics Profusion PSG3 system (Comp). The ODI was calculated by the algorithms in the respective software of each system. To determine if differences were due to algorithm or recording devices, the Comp software was also used to generate ODI values using oximetry data from the AL. In 106 participants, there was good correlation but poor agreement in the ODI generated by the two systems. AL ODI values tended to be higher than Comp ODI values, but with significant variability. For ODI4%, bias was 4.4 events/h (95% limits of agreement -5.8 to 14.6 events/h). There was excellent correlation and agreement when the same oximetry raw data was analyzed by both systems. For ODI4%, bias was 0.03 events/h (95% limits of agreement -2.7 to 2.8 events/h). Similar results were evident when the ODI3% was used. There is a clinically significant difference in ODI values generated by the two systems, likely due to device signal processing, rather than difference in ODI calculation algorithms.

  18. Assessment of Left Ventricular Torsion in Short Axis View between Healthy Subjects and Significant Coronary Artery Disease Patients

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    Zahra Arab

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary artery disease causes changes in biomechanical parameters and function of myocardial. Recently, torsion angle is one of the most important mechanical parameters. Therefore in this study, torsion angle in healthy subjects and LAD significant coronary artery disease patients, using echo tracking method in short axis view, was evaluated.Materials and Methods: In cross sectional study, 14 healthy subjects and 10 patients with significant stenosis of LAD were evaluated. Two dimensional echocardiography images were scanned in apical and basal parasternal short axis view were recorded. Successive ultrasonic images were processed by echo tracking under block matching algorithm and peak torsion angle were estimated. Difference between healthy group and patient group were extracted by using peak torsion angle by the confidence level of 95%.Results: In this study, basal rotation angle, apical rotation angle and torsion angle in short axis view in significant coronary artery disease patients significantly decreased 33%, 44% and 38% relative to healthy subjects, respectively. Also time to reach peak torsion angle in LAD coronary artery stenosis patients increased 19% relative to healthy group.Conclusion: It seems, torsion angle in short axis view, can diagnose LAD coronary artery stenosis patients reative to healthy subject.

  19. Haemovigilance: are there significant differences among plasma products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Wolfgang R

    2010-12-01

    An analysis of adverse reactions caused by single-donor fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and pooled (solvent/detergent) S/D-treated plasma reveals that these plasma products are significantly different. We are unaware of any reports associating pooled S/D-treated plasma with transfusion-associated acute lung injury, or post-transfusion-thrombocytopenia. In contrast, each of these transfusion reactions is a well-recognized adverse effect of single-donor FFP. Pooled S/D-treated plasma also has a more favorable clinical profile with reference to common acute reactions, such as fever, chills, and allergic reactions, which occur less frequently compared to single-donor FFP. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Are there gender differences in subjective attractiveness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite the global growing concern about adolescent cigarette smoking, there has been no attention paid to the attractiveness and trendiness of smoking among this vulnerable group in Nigeria. Objectives: This study determined gender differences in subjective attractiveness (SA) (the individual's personal ...

  1. Differences between Subjective Balanced Occlusion and Measurements Reported With T-Scan III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zana Lila-Krasniqi

    2017-08-01

    CONCLUSION: In our study, it was concluded that there were statistically significant differences of balanced occlusion in all three groups. Also it was concluded that subjective data are not exact with measurements reported with electronic device T-scan III.

  2. Geographical differences in subjective well-being predict extraordinary altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brethel-Haurwitz, Kristin M; Marsh, Abigail A

    2014-03-01

    Altruistic kidney donation is a form of extraordinary altruism, the antecedents of which are poorly understood. Although well-being is known to increase the incidence of prosocial behaviors and there is significant geographical variation in both well-being and altruistic kidney donation in the United States, it is unknown whether geographical variation in well-being predicts the prevalence of this form of extraordinary altruism. We calculated per capita rates of altruistic kidney donation across the United States and found that an index of subjective well-being predicted altruistic donation, even after we controlled for relevant sociodemographic variables. This relationship persisted at the state level and at the larger geographic regional level. Consistent with hypotheses about the relationship between objective and subjective well-being, results showed that subjective well-being mediated the relationship between increases in objective well-being metrics, such as income, and altruism. These results suggest that extraordinary altruism may be promoted by societal factors that increase subjective well-being.

  3. Persistent depression is a significant risk factor for the development of arteriosclerosis in middle-aged Japanese male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hiroki; Fujii, Satoshi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Depression often coexists with hypertension and various cardiovascular diseases. However, the relationship between depression and the development of arteriosclerosis has not been fully established. We assessed depression and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in 828 middle-aged Japanese male subjects at baseline and during 3 years of follow-up. Depression was assessed using Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression questionnaires, and the study subjects were divided into the following three groups: persistent depression, transient depression and no depression. The number (%) of subjects with persistent, transient and no depression were 104 (12.6), 76 (9.2) and 648 (78.2), respectively. Blood pressure and baPWV did not differ among the three groups at baseline. The changes in the baPWV values (⊿baPWV) correlated significantly and positively with age, body mass index, baseline systolic blood pressure and persistent depression (r = 0.32, P arteriosclerosis in middle-aged Japanese male subjects.

  4. Response amendment in fencing: differences between elite and novice subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L R; Walmsley, A

    2000-08-01

    Reaction time (RT), movement time (MT), total response time (RMT), and accuracy of 3 elite and 3 novice fencers were studied under a dual response paradigm requiring a full lunge. Electromyographic activity (EMG) from selected arm and leg muscles was used to compare response profiles of the two groups. Although the elite subjects had slower MTs, their faster RTs resulted in significantly shorter total response times. The EMG analysis showed that in comparison to the novice subjects, onset of muscle activity was significantly faster for the elite group in five of the six muscles studied. In addition, the elite subjects showed more coherent muscle synergies and more consistent patterns of muscle coordination. Although the requirement to change targets (signalled by the arrival of a second stimulus) led to slightly more target misses for the elite group, the overall frequency was low, which indicates that it did not pose difficulty for either group. The present findings show that measures of response timing and neuromuscular coordination differentiate skill level in the fencing lunge and draw attention to practical implications for skill assessment and training.

  5. Parent socialization effects in different cultures: significance of directive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkhabi, Nadia

    2012-06-01

    In this article, the controversy of divergent findings in research on parental socialization effects in different cultures is addressed. Three explanations intended to address divergent findings of socialization effects in different cultures, as advanced by researchers who emphasize cultural differences, are discussed. These include cultural differences in socialization values and goals of parents, parental emotional and cognitive characteristics associated with parenting styles, and adolescents' interpretations or evaluations of their parents' parenting styles. The empirical evidence for and against each of these arguments is examined and an alternative paradigm for understanding and empirical study of developmental outcomes associated with parenting styles in different cultures is suggested. Baumrind's directive parenting style is presented as an alternative to the authoritarian parenting style in understanding the positive developmental effects associated with "strict" parenting in cultures said to have a collectivist orientation. Directions for research on the three explanations are mentioned.

  6. Significant Differences in Nurses’ Knowledge of Basic Wound Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarchi, Kian; Latif, Seemab; Haugaard, Vibeke B

    2014-01-01

    Wounds represent a growing healthcare problem due to an aging population. Nurses play a key role in wound management and their theoretical understanding of basic wound management may be expected to influence the quality of wound therapy fundamentally. In this study, we evaluated the level...... of knowledge of wound management in 136 Danish nurses working in 3 different settings: advanced wound care clinics, home care and general hospital departments. We found that hospital nurses had less theoretical knowledge than home care nurses and nurses working at advanced wound care clinics. We also found...... of wound management in Denmark and suggests how improvements might be achieved....

  7. Significant differences in coeliac immunotoxicity of barley varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comino, Isabel; Real, Ana; Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; de Lorenzo, Laura; Moreno, Ma de Lourdes; López-Casado, Miguel Ángel; Lorite, Pedro; Cebolla, Angel; Torres, Ma Isabel; Barro, Francisco; Sousa, Carolina

    2012-11-01

    The only treatment available for coeliac disease (CD) is a strict diet in which the intake of wheat, barley, rye, or oats is avoided. Barley is a major cereal crop, grown mainly for its use in brewing, and it has high nutritional value. The identification of varieties with a reduced toxicity profile may contribute to improve the diet, the quality of life and health of CD patients. Searching for harmless barleys, we investigated accessions of malting and wild barley, used for developing new cultivated cereals. The CD toxicity profile of barleys was screened using G12 antibody and cell proliferation and IFN-γ release from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and intestinal biopsies from CD patients. We found a direct correlation between the reactivity with G12 and the immunogenicity of the different barleys. The malting barleys were less immunogenic, with reduced levels of toxic gluten, and were possibly less harmful to CD patients. Our findings could raise the prospect of breeding barley species with low levels of harmful gluten, and the attractive goal of developing nontoxic barley cultivars, always taking into account the Codex standard for foods for special dietary use for persons intolerant to gluten. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. [Differences in Subjective Experience Between Unipolar and Bipolar Depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Marco; Bustos, Andrés; Molina, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    It is important to make distinction between bipolar and unipolar depression because treatment and prognosis are different. Since the diagnosis of the two conditions is purely clinical, find symptomatic differences is useful. Find differences in subjective experience (first person) between unipolar and bipolar depression. Phenomenological-oriented qualitative exploratory study of 12 patients (7 with bipolar depression and 5 with unipolar depression, 3 men and 9 women). We used a semi-structured interview based on Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience (EASE). The predominant mood in bipolar depression is emotional dampening, in unipolar is sadness. The bodily experience in bipolar is of a heavy, tired body; an element that inserts between the desires of acting and performing actions and becomes an obstacle to the movement. In unipolar is of a body that feels more comfortable with the stillness than activity, like laziness of everyday life. Cognition and the stream of consciousness: in bipolar depression, compared with unipolar, thinking is slower, as if to overcome obstacles in their course. There are more difficult to understand what is heard or read. Future perspective: in bipolar depression, hopelessness is stronger and broader than in unipolar, as if the very possibility of hope was lost. Qualitative differences in predominant mood, bodily experience, cognition and future perspective were found between bipolar and unipolar depression. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. The Influence of Significant Others on Attitudes, Subjective Norms and Intentions Regarding Dietary Supplement Use among Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael S.; Eddy, James M.; Qi Wang, Min; Nagy, Steve; Perko, Michael A.; Bartee, R. Todd

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: (1) to determine whether attitudes are a better predictor of adolescents' intentions to use dietary supplements than are subjective norms, and (2) to assess the influence of significant others on attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions among adolescent athletes. Results indicated that attitudes were a better…

  10. Sex difference in subjective duration of looming and receding sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Looming sounds (sounds increasing in intensity over time) are more salient than receding sounds (a looming sound reversed in time). For example, they are estimated as being longer, louder, and more changing in loudness than receding sounds. Some authors interpret the looming salience as evolutionarily adaptive, because it increases the margins of safety of the perceiver in the case of preparatory behaviours (e.g., a motor reaction to an approaching sound source). Recently, Neuhoff et al (2009, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 35 225-234) found that females more than males show overestimation of the spatiotemporal properties of virtually simulated looming sound sources. Here, I investigated whether the sex difference could be observed for the subjective duration of looming and receding sounds, and found that females more than males overestimate the duration of looming sounds in comparison to receding sounds.

  11. Fasting Ghrelin Levels Are Decreased in Obese Subjects and Are Significantly Related With Insulin Resistance and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Papandreou

    2017-10-01

    CONCLUSION: Obese subjects have low fasting ghrelin levels that they are significantly related to insulin resistance and body mass index. More prospective studies are needed to establish the role of ghrelin in the pathogenesis of human obesity.

  12. Gender Differences in Marital Status Moderation of Genetic and Environmental Influences on Subjective Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finkel, Deborah; Franz, Carol E; Horwitz, Briana

    2016-01-01

    genetic and environmental influences on subjective health. Results differed for the 3 subjective health items, indicating that they do not tap the same construct. Although there was little impact of marital status on variance components for women, marital status was a significant modifier of variance...... in all 3 subjective health measures for men. For both SRH and ACT, single men demonstrated greater shared and nonshared environmental variance than married men. For the COMP variable, genetic variance was greater for single men vs. married men. Results suggest gender differences in the role of marriage...

  13. Salivary alpha amylase activity in human beings of different age groups subjected to psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-10-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip. Differences in sAA level based on sex of different age groups under stress have also been studied. A total of 112 subjects consisting of both the male and female subjects, divided into two groups on basis of age were viewed a video clip of corneal transplant surgery as stressor. Activity of sAA from saliva samples of the stressed subjects were measured and compared with the activity of the samples collected from the subjects before viewing the clip. The age ranges of subjects were 18-25 and 40-60 years. The sAA level increased significantly in both the groups after viewing the stressful video. The increase was more pronounced in the younger subjects. The level of sAA was comparatively more in males than females in the respective groups. No significant change in sAA activity was observed after viewing the soothed video clip. Significant increase of sAA level in response to psychological stress suggests that it might act as a reliable sympathetic activity biochemical marker in different stages of human beings.

  14. Differences in quantitative methods for measuring subjective cognitive decline - results from a prospective memory clinic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Salem, Lise Cronberg; Andersen, Birgitte Bo

    2016-01-01

    decline. Depression scores were significantly correlated to both scales measuring subjective decline. Linear regression models showed that age did not have a significant contribution to the variance in subjective memory beyond that of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Measures for subjective cognitive......BACKGROUND: Cognitive complaints occur frequently in elderly people and may be a risk factor for dementia and cognitive decline. Results from studies on subjective cognitive decline are difficult to compare due to variability in assessment methods, and little is known about how different methods...... influence reports of cognitive decline. METHODS: The Subjective Memory Complaints Scale (SMC) and The Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q) were applied in 121 mixed memory clinic patients with mild cognitive symptoms (mean MMSE = 26.8, SD 2.7). The scales were applied independently and raters were blinded...

  15. Gender Differences in Marital Status Moderation of Genetic and Environmental Influences on Subjective Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Deborah; Franz, Carol E; Horwitz, Briana; Christensen, Kaare; Gatz, Margaret; Johnson, Wendy; Kaprio, Jaako; Korhonen, Tellervo; Niederheiser, Jenae; Petersen, Inge; Rose, Richard J; Silventoinen, Karri

    2015-10-14

    From the IGEMS Consortium, data were available from 26,579 individuals aged 23 to 102 years on 3 subjective health items: self-rated health (SRH), health compared to others (COMP), and impact of health on activities (ACT). Marital status was a marker of environmental resources that may moderate genetic and environmental influences on subjective health. Results differed for the 3 subjective health items, indicating that they do not tap the same construct. Although there was little impact of marital status on variance components for women, marital status was a significant modifier of variance in all 3 subjective health measures for men. For both SRH and ACT, single men demonstrated greater shared and nonshared environmental variance than married men. For the COMP variable, genetic variance was greater for single men vs. married men. Results suggest gender differences in the role of marriage as a source of resources that are associated with subjective health.

  16. Gender Differences in Marital Status Moderation of Genetic and Environmental Influences on Subjective Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Deborah; Franz, Carol E.; Horwitz, Briana; Christensen, Kaare; Gatz, Margaret; Johnson, Wendy; Kaprio, Jaako; Korhonen, Tellervo; Niederheiser, Jenae; Petersen, Inge; Rose, Richard J.; Silventoinen, Karri

    2015-01-01

    From the IGEMS Consortium, data were available from 26,579 individuals aged 23 to 102 years on 3 subjective health items: self-rated health (SRH), health compared to others (COMP), and impact of health on activities (ACT). Marital status was a marker of environmental resources that may moderate genetic and environmental influences on subjective health. Results differed for the 3 subjective health items, indicating that they do not tap the same construct. Although there was little impact of marital status on variance components for women, marital status was a significant modifier of variance in all 3 subjective health measures for men. For both SRH and ACT, single men demonstrated greater shared and nonshared environmental variance than married men. For the COMP variable, genetic variance was greater for single men vs. married men. Results suggest gender differences in the role of marriage as a source of resources that are associated with subjective health. PMID:26468112

  17. Significantly Reduced Blood Pressure Measurement Variability for Both Normotensive and Hypertensive Subjects: Effect of Polynomial Curve Fitting of Oscillometric Pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fangwei; Chen, Fei; Zhu, Mingping; Chen, Aiqing; Zheng, Dingchang

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to compare within-subject blood pressure (BP) variabilities from different measurement techniques. Cuff pressures from three repeated BP measurements were obtained from 30 normotensive and 30 hypertensive subjects. Automatic BPs were determined from the pulses with normalised peak amplitude larger than a threshold (0.5 for SBP, 0.7 for DBP, and 1.0 for MAP). They were also determined from cuff pressures associated with the above thresholds on a fitted curve polynomial curve of the oscillometric pulse peaks. Finally, the standard deviation (SD) of three repeats and its coefficient of variability (CV) were compared between the two automatic techniques. For the normotensive group, polynomial curve fitting significantly reduced SD of repeats from 3.6 to 2.5 mmHg for SBP and from 3.7 to 2.1 mmHg for MAP and reduced CV from 3.0% to 2.2% for SBP and from 4.3% to 2.4% for MAP (all P oscillometric pulses had the ability to reduce automatic BP measurement variability.

  18. Viscoelastic performance of dielectric elastomer subject to different voltage stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Junjie; Zhang, Yuqing; Liu, Lei; Li, Bo; Chen, Hualing

    2017-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer (DE) is capable of giant deformation subject to an electric field, and demonstrates significant advantages in the potentially application of soft machines with muscle-like characteristics. Due to an inherent property of all macromolecular materials, DE exhibits strong viscoelastic properties. Viscoelasticity could cause a time-dependent deformation and lower the response speed and energy conversion efficiency of DE based actuators, thus strongly affect its electromechanical performance and applications. Combining with the rheological model of viscoelastic relaxation, the viscoelastic performance of a VHB membrane in a circular actuator configuration undergoing separately constant, ramp and sinusoidal voltages are analyzed both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical results indicated that DE could attain a big deformation under a small constant voltage with a longer time or under a big voltage with a shorter time. The model also showed that a higher critical stretch could be achieved by applying ramping voltage with a lower rate and the stretch magnitude under sinusoidal voltage is much larger at a relatively low frequency. Finally, experiments were designed to validate the simulation and show well consistent with the simulation results.

  19. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  20. Prevalence and Predictors of Significant Fibrosis Among Subjects with Transient Elastography-Defined Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Won; Kim, Beom Kyung; Kim, Seung Up; Park, Jun Yong; Kim, Do Young; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kwang Joon; Han, Kwang-Hyub

    2017-08-01

    Transient elastography (TE) can be used to assess the degree of liver fibrosis and steatosis. We investigated the prevalence and predictors of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with or without significant liver fibrosis in the general population. A total of 3033 subjects without alcoholic or chronic viral liver diseases who underwent a medical health check-up including TE were recruited from April 2013 to August 2014. TE-defined NAFLD was defined as a controlled attenuation parameter of ≥250 dB/m, and significant liver fibrosis was defined as a liver stiffness (LS) value of ≥8 kPa. Overall, 1178 (42.9%) subjects had NAFLD. Subjects with NAFLD had significantly higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and a higher prevalence of parameters related to metabolic syndrome, such as high blood pressure, a high body mass index (BMI), glucose intolerance, and dyslipidemia than did subjects without NAFLD (all P liver fibrosis was identified in 60 (5.1%) subjects with NAFLD, and its independent predictors were age [odds ratio (OR) 1.054], ALT level (OR 1.019), BMI (OR 1.217), and diabetes (OR 1.987) (all P liver fibrosis. The risk factors found in this study can help identify which subjects with NAFLD are vulnerable to fibrosis progression.

  1. [Tattooing and its significance in Switzerland. A representative study of 2177 20-year-old Swiss subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefeli, W E

    1990-03-03

    To investigate the incidence, significance and symbolism of tattooing in Switzerland, a representative group of 2177 young males (all liable for military service, age 19-21 years) were examined in 1988. All tattoos were sketched, the location was recorded and the individual meaning was discussed with the bearer. 135 subjects (6.2%) had 1-9 tattoos per person, showing 155 different marks. Only 13% of all tattoos were professional, moderate to large in size and most often located in the area of the upper arm and the shoulder. 87% of tattoos were self-inflicted or placed by a friend and the left side was therefore preferred (66%). In general, these were small to moderate in size, simple in design, and usually located on the forearm and the hand. The dominant significance of all tattoos was related to mental attitude (29%) and love affairs (14%). 13% were pictorial. Some were related to drug abuse, criminality of gangs, or contained magic symbolism or personal data such as zodiac signs and initials (about 4% each). Only 20% had no conventional or private meaning or involved concealed symbolism. For further understanding of the individuals' social history, it should be noted that some tattoos were characterized by minor differences of meaning, such as the "man-in-4-walls" mark (= prison), the "fuck-the-police" mark, the leaf of cannabis sativa or different cross motifs. Even greater consistency related to tattoos located in the web space between the thumb and the forefinger or on the back of the fingers. The location in itself may therefore provide additional personal information on individual circumstances at the time of tattooing.

  2. Subject Orientation of Teaching and Academic Subjects in the Context of Different Didactic Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Osmolovskaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the research findings concerning the didactic characteristics and means of subject-oriented teaching. The research question includes the content of the general secondary education regarded as the design object. The process of selecting and structuring materials is reviewed from the theoretical standpoint, and the attempt is made to identify the ways of selecting materials for students’ learning from the social experience reflected in culture. The author introduces the concept of subject-orientation as a tool providing pedagogic adaptation of social experience in the process of teaching content development. Subject-oriented teaching is defined in the context of traditional knowledge, as well as the competence and student-oriented didac- tic approaches; the forms and means of its realization being indicated providing the new ways for introducing and understanding the educational subject. The research results can be used by the specialists in didactic, curricula developers, authors of textbooks in various subjects

  3. Gender Differences in Marital Status Moderation of Genetic and Environmental Influences on Subjective Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finkel, Deborah; Franz, Carol E; Horwitz, Briana

    2016-01-01

    genetic and environmental influences on subjective health. Results differed for the 3 subjective health items, indicating that they do not tap the same construct. Although there was little impact of marital status on variance components for women, marital status was a significant modifier of variance...... in all 3 subjective health measures for men. For both SRH and ACT, single men demonstrated greater shared and nonshared environmental variance than married men. For the COMP variable, genetic variance was greater for single men vs. married men. Results suggest gender differences in the role of marriage......From the IGEMS Consortium, data were available from 26,579 individuals aged 23 to 102 years on 3 subjective health items: self-rated health (SRH), health compared to others (COMP), and impact of health on activities (ACT). Marital status was a marker of environmental resources that may moderate...

  4. Significantly Reduced Blood Pressure Measurement Variability for Both Normotensive and Hypertensive Subjects: Effect of Polynomial Curve Fitting of Oscillometric Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangwei Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare within-subject blood pressure (BP variabilities from different measurement techniques. Cuff pressures from three repeated BP measurements were obtained from 30 normotensive and 30 hypertensive subjects. Automatic BPs were determined from the pulses with normalised peak amplitude larger than a threshold (0.5 for SBP, 0.7 for DBP, and 1.0 for MAP. They were also determined from cuff pressures associated with the above thresholds on a fitted curve polynomial curve of the oscillometric pulse peaks. Finally, the standard deviation (SD of three repeats and its coefficient of variability (CV were compared between the two automatic techniques. For the normotensive group, polynomial curve fitting significantly reduced SD of repeats from 3.6 to 2.5 mmHg for SBP and from 3.7 to 2.1 mmHg for MAP and reduced CV from 3.0% to 2.2% for SBP and from 4.3% to 2.4% for MAP (all P<0.01. For the hypertensive group, SD of repeats decreased from 6.5 to 5.5 mmHg for SBP and from 6.7 to 4.2 mmHg for MAP, and CV decreased from 4.2% to 3.6% for SBP and from 5.8% to 3.8% for MAP (all P<0.05. In conclusion, polynomial curve fitting of oscillometric pulses had the ability to reduce automatic BP measurement variability.

  5. Subjective evaluation of different ventilation concepts combined with radiant heating and cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krajcik, Michal; Tomasi, Roberta; Simone, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Sixteen subjects evaluated the indoor environment in four experiments with different combinations of ventilation and radiant heating/cooling systems. Two test setups simulated a room in a low energy building with a single occupant during winter. The room was equipped either by a ventilation system...... with displacement ventilation. Vertical air temperature distribution was more uniform for floor heating than for warm air heating, but there was no significant difference in thermal perception between the two mixing ventilation systems. For the summer conditions the subjects voted warmer than predicted by the PMV...

  6. The influence of significant others on attitudes, subjective norms and intentions regarding dietary supplement use among adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, M S; Eddy, J M; Wang, M Q; Nagy, S; Perko, M A; Bartee, R T

    2001-01-01

    Dietary supplement use has increased significantly over the past decade. The use of supplements among adolescents seems to be influenced by their beliefs and attitudes. The influence of coaches, parents, and athletic trainers also may be important. The purpose of this study was (1) to determine whether attitudes are a better predictor of adolescents' intentions to use dietary supplements than are subjective norms, and (2) to assess the influence of significant others (coaches, parents, and trainers) on attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions among adolescent athletes. Adolescents (N = 1,626) who were enrolled in grades six through twelve in nine public schools completed a self-report questionnaire that measured attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions regarding dietary supplement use. Results indicated that attitudes were a better predictor of intentions to use dietary supplements than were subjective norms. It was also found that trainers had more influence on the attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions of adolescents regarding supplement use than did parents and coaches. Implications for prevention are addressed.

  7. Differences in Ventilatory Threshold for Exercise Prescription in Outpatient Diabetic and Sarcopenic Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Pietro Emerenziani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to examine cardiorespiratory parameters at individual ventilatory threshold (IVT and peak exercise capacity (V˙O2peak in outpatient diabetic and sarcopenic obese subjects. Seventeen obese subjects (BMI: 36.6±4.1 kg·m−1 and sixteen SO subjects (BMI: 37.0±7.3 kg·m−1 were compared with sixteen T2DM subjects (BMI: 37.7±5.6 kg·m−1. All groups performed an incremental exercise test on a treadmill according to their physical ability. V˙O2peak, %HRmax, and maximal metabolic equivalent (METmax were evaluated at maximal effort. Moreover, V˙O2ivt, %V˙O2peak, %HRmax, %HRR, ΔHR, and METivt were assessed at IVT. No significant differences were found in any physiological parameters at maximal effort (V˙O2peak, %HRmax, and METmax in all groups. On the contrary, V˙O2ivt, %V˙O2peak, %HRmax, %HRR, ΔHR, and METivt were significantly lower in T2DM subjects as compared to OB and SO subjects at IVT (p<0.05. Our results show that while at maximal effort there are no differences among groups, at IVT the physiological parameters are lower in T2DM subjects than in OB and SO subjects. Therefore, due to the differences observed in the groups, we suggest usng the IVT as a useful parameter to prescribe aerobic exercise in obese with sarcopenia or diabetes mellitus conditions.

  8. Different Serum Free Fatty Acid Profiles in NAFLD Subjects and Healthy Controls after Oral Fat Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gambino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free fatty acid (FFA metabolism can impact on metabolic conditions, such as obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. This work studied the increase in total FFA shown in NAFLD subjects to possibly characterize which fatty acids significantly accounted for the whole increase. Methods: 21 patients with NAFLD were selected according to specified criteria. The control group consisted of nine healthy subjects. All subjects underwent an oral standard fat load. Triglycerides; cholesterol; FFA; glucose and insulin were measured every 2 h with the determination of fatty acid composition of FFA. Results: higher serum FFA levels in NAFLD subjects are mainly due to levels of oleic, palmitic and linoleic acids at different times. Significant increases were shown for docosahexaenoic acid, linolenic acid, eicosatrienoic acid, and arachidonic acid, although this was just on one occasion. In the postprandial phase, homeostatic model assessment HOMA index positively correlated with the ω3/ω6 ratio in NAFLD patients. Conclusions: the higher serum levels of FFA in NAFLD subjects are mainly due to levels of oleic and palmitic acids which are the most abundant circulating free fatty acids. This is almost exactly corresponded with significant increases in linoleic acid. An imbalance in the n-3/n-6 fatty acids ratio could modulate postprandial responses with more pronounced effects in insulin-resistant subjects, such as NAFLD patients.

  9. Differences in walking pattern during 6-min walk test between patients with COPD and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annegarn, Janneke; Spruit, Martijn A; Savelberg, Hans H C M; Willems, Paul J B; van de Bool, Coby; Schols, Annemie M W J; Wouters, Emiel F M; Meijer, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    To date, detailed analyses of walking patterns using accelerometers during the 6-min walk test (6MWT) have not been performed in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Therefore, it remains unclear whether and to what extent COPD patients have an altered walking pattern during the 6MWT compared to healthy elderly subjects. 79 COPD patients and 24 healthy elderly subjects performed the 6MWT wearing an accelerometer attached to the trunk. The accelerometer features (walking intensity, cadence, and walking variability) and subject characteristics were assessed and compared between groups. Moreover, associations were sought with 6-min walk distance (6MWD) using multiple ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models. COPD patients walked with a significantly lower walking intensity, lower cadence and increased walking variability compared to healthy subjects. Walking intensity and height were the only two significant determinants of 6MWD in healthy subjects, explaining 85% of the variance in 6MWD. In COPD patients also age, cadence, walking variability measures and their interactions were included were significant determinants of 6MWD (total variance in 6MWD explained: 88%). COPD patients have an altered walking pattern during 6MWT compared to healthy subjects. These differences in walking pattern partially explain the lower 6MWD in patients with COPD.

  10. Differences in insulin clearance between metabolically healthy and unhealthy obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Maria A; Frontoni, Simona; Succurro, Elena; Arturi, Franco; Fiorentino, Teresa V; Sciacqua, Angela; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2014-04-01

    Metabolically healthy obese (MHO) are relatively insulin sensitive and have a favorable cardio-metabolic risk profile compared with metabolically abnormal obese (MAO). To evaluate whether MAO individuals have a decreased insulin clearance compared with MHO individuals, 49 MHO, 147 MAO, and 172 non-obese individuals were analyzed in this cross-sectional study. Insulin clearance and insulin sensitivity were assessed through euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. MHO subjects exhibited significant lower triglycerides, total cholesterol, 2-h post-challenge glucose, fasting and 2-h post-challenge insulin, steady-state plasma insulin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase as compared with MAO individuals. Disposition index was higher in MHO subjects as compared with MAO individuals after adjusting for gender and age (P = 0.04). Insulin clearance was significantly lower in MAO individuals as compared with MHO and non-obese individuals. The difference between the two obese subgroups remained significant after adjusting for gender, age, waist circumference, fat mass, and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (P = 0.03). The hepatic insulin extraction (C-peptide/insulin) in the fasting state was significantly higher in MHO subjects as compared with MAO individuals (P < 0.0001). In univariate analysis adjusted for gender and age, insulin clearance was correlated with hepatic insulin extraction (P = 0.01). In conclusion, insulin clearance differs among obese subjects with different metabolic phenotypes. Impaired insulin clearance may contribute to sustained fasting and post-meal hyperinsulinemia observed in MAO individuals.

  11. [Serum myeloperoxidase activity and serum paraoxonase-1 activity in patients with silicosis and observation subjects and their clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wei-hua; Qiu, Sheng-qiang; Hong, Xiao-ping; Wu, Quan

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the serum myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and serum paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) activity in patients with silicosis and observation subjects and their clinical significance. Seventy-two patients with silicosis (stage I: 30 cases, stage II: 22 cases, stage III: 20 cases) and 37 observation subjects were selected as a case group, and 110 healthy men were selected as a control group. Serum MPO activity was measured by double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and serum PON-1 activity was measured by chemical spectrophotometry. Serum MPO activity was significantly higher in the case group than in the control group [(102.1 ± 15.7) U/L vs. (62.4 ± 11.4) U/L, P silicosis than in the observation subjects [(91.3 ± 13.5) U/L, (85.7 ± 14.4) U/L, and (88.6 ± 14.5) U/L vs. (128.4 ± 16.4) U/L, P silicosis increased; serum PON-1 activity was significantly lower in the patients with stages II and III silicosis than in the observation subjects and the patients with stage I silicosis [(70.4 ± 11.4) U/ml and (67.6 ± 13.7) U/ml vs. (101.5 ± 14.0) U/ml and (89.1 ± 10.1) U/ml, P silicosis and evaluation of patient's condition.

  12. Is dietary pattern of schizophrenia patients different from healthy subjects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amani Reza

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited findings about dietary patterns and food preferences among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The main objective of this study was therefore to compare the nutritional pattern of schizophrenia patients with that of matched healthy subjects. Methods The dietary pattern of 30 hospitalized 16–67 years old schizophrenic patients (11 female was compared with that of 30 healthy age and sex matched individuals as control group. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height and body mass index (BMI, semi-quantitative food frequency (FFQ, medical and food history questionnaires were also collected and FFQs were then scored using Food Guide Pyramid to obtain the dietary scores. Percent body fat (%BF was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA method. Results Female patients had more %BF and lower dietary pattern scores than that of their controls (32 ± 3.6 vs 27.7 ± 4.6 percent and 43.2 ± 11.9 vs 54.5 ± 10.7 points; respectively, p Conclusion Schizophrenia patients have poor nutritional patterns. In particular, female patients have more percent body fat and lower dietary pattern scores compared with their healthy controls. All patients used to consume more fats and sweet drinks frequently. The findings of this study suggest that schizophrenia patients need specific medical nutrition therapies through limiting dietary fats and sugars intakes and weight control. Whether obesity is the consequence of disease, dietary preference or medications used remains to be cleared.

  13. [Indicators of anxiety and depression in subjects with different kinds of diet: vegetarians and omnivores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Jiménez, J; Rodríguez, J R; Gonzaléz, M J

    1998-01-01

    The following study, one of the first done in Puerto Rico, investigate the different kinds of diet and the level of anxiety and depression that the subjects present. The sample consists of 80 subjects between 25 and 70 years age divided into two main groups (vegetarian versus no vegetarian) depending their diet consumption. The basic findings in the three psychological tests given (IDARE-1, IDARE-2 and CES-D) to the subjects demonstrate significant differences in anxiety and depression between groups. More anxiety and depression where reported in the no vegetarian groups in comparison with the vegetarian groups. In addition, diet analysis found more nutritional antioxidant agents levels in the vegetarian group in comparison with the no-vegetarian group.

  14. Resilience of soils and vegetation subjected to different grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The resilience of rangeland soils and vegetation to different levels of grazing is still poorly understood. A study was conducted to determine the recovery of a rangeland grazed at different intensities and allowed a two-year rest period. The following treatments were applied to 0.5 hectare plots: 0, 4, 8 and 16 heifers per ...

  15. Six Different Fat Tolerance Tests in Young, Healthy Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ole Winther; Lauszus, Finn Friis

    2016-01-01

    ) was dtermined for the postprandial values. Results: The meals with six types of butters had similar postprandial response even if the saturated fat content varied with 50%.Gender significantly affected the TG responses, as time to pesk was 90 minutes in women and 180 min in men. Postprandial AUC was higherwith...... respect to TG (pcholesterol (pcholesterol (pcholesterol was lowest in men (AUC, p

  16. Is there significant variation in the material properties of four different allografts implanted for ACL reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, David; Willet, Thomas L; Glazebrook, Mark; Snow, Martyn; Stanish, William D

    2009-03-01

    The aims of our study were to: (1) determine if there are differences in the material properties of tendon obtained from implanted tibialis anterior, achilles, bone-patella- bone and tibialis posterior allografts; (2) determine the variability in material properties between the implanted specimens. A total of 60 specimens were collected from fresh frozen allografts implanted at ACL reconstruction. Specimens collected included 15 tibialis anterior, 15 tibialis posterior, 15 achilles and 15 bone-patella-bone tendons. Each specimen was mounted in a custom made cryogrip. The mounted specimens were loaded onto a MTS Testline servo-hydraulic testing machine in a uni-axial tensile test configuration. Specimens were subjected to a strain rate of 5% per second until the ultimate tensile stress (UTS), failure strain and high strain modulus was calculated for each specimen after being normalized for specimen dimensions. Individual material properties were tested using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Tukey's B test with a P value of <0.05 considered significant. Homogeneity of variance was assessed using the Levene's test. As a result, no significant difference was found between all four grafts with regards to UTS, failure strain or high strain linear modulus. The UTS was plotted against the modulus demonstrating a linear relationship which is typical of soft tissues. Significant variability in the results were observed. In conclusion, there was no significant statistical difference between the material properties of the four tendon allografts tested. But significant variability in results was observed within groups and between groups, which may provide one explanation for the range of results in allograft ACL reconstruction reported in the literature.

  17. Blood pressure variations in Subjects with different Haemoglobin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye Samuel

    variations in blood pressures as well as relating the blood pressures in different haemoglobin. (HB) genotypes to each other. Blood pressures in 20 steady and crisis states SCD patients respectively with 40 apparently healthy heterozygous HB AS and HB AA genotype (age and sex –matched). They were aged between 20 ...

  18. UK Library and Information Science Research is Having a Significant Influence on Research in Other Subject Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Lee Stone

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To quantify the value of librarianship and information science (LIS exports knowledge to other subject disciplines. Design – Bibliometric study. Setting – LIS departments in U.K. universities. Subjects – 232 LIS research articles published between 2001 and 2007. Methods – Data from the 2008 U.K. Research Assessment Exercise were checked to identify 405 research articles submitted by 10 selected university departments (out of a total of 21, which submitted research in the LIS category. The Web of Science database was then searched to see how many of these articles had been cited in other articles (n=232. If the citing article was published in a non-LIS journal it was considered a knowledge export. Journals were defined as non-LIS if they had not been assigned the subject category of Information Science & Library Science by the Journal of Citation Reports. The journal Impact Factors (IFs of citing journals were then normalized to measure the value of individual knowledge exports to their respective subject disciplines. This was done by comparing a citing journal’s IF with the median journal IF within that subject category. If the citing journal’s IF was above this median it was considered to be a valuable knowledge export. Main Results – The sample of LIS research articles produced a total of 1,061 knowledge exports in 444 unique non-LIS journals. These non-LIS journals covered 146 unique subject categories of which those related to computer science and chemistry/pharmacology cited LIS research with the greatest frequency. Just over three-quarters (n=798 of these citations were considered to be valuable knowledge exports. A sub-analysis showed that LIS articles published in non-LIS journals were significantly more valuable than the knowledge exports published in LIS journals. Conclusion – The validity of bibliometric studies can be improved by adopting the two methodological innovations presented in this study. The

  19. Difference in F-18 FDG uptake after esophago gastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy in healthy sedated subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jong Ryool; Chang, Woo Jin; Bae, Seung Il; Song, In Wook; Bong, Jin Gu; Jeong, Hye Yeon; Park, So Young; Bae, Jeong Yup; Yoon, Hyun Dae [Raphael Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Ji Hyoung [Dept. of Nuclear MedicineFatima Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    We aimed to evaluate the difference in fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in sedated healthy subjects after they underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and colonoscopy procedures. The endoscopy group (n = 29) included healthy subjects who underwent screening via F-18 FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) after an EGD and/or colonoscopy under sedation on the same day. The control group (n = 35) included healthy subjects who underwent screening via PET/CT only. FDG uptake in the tongue, uvula, epiglottis, vocal cords, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, liver, cecum, colon, anus, and muscle were compared between the two groups. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in the tongue, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus did not significantly differ between the endoscopy and control groups. In contrast, mean SUVmax in the whole stomach was 18 % higher in the endoscopy group than in the control group (SUVmax: 2.96 vs. 2.51, P = 0.010). In the lower gastrointestinal track, SUVmax from the cecum to the rectum was not significantly different between the two groups, whereas SUVmax in the anus was 20 % higher in the endoscopy group than in the control group (SUVmax: 4.21 vs. 3.50, P = 0.002). SUVmax in the liver and muscle was not significantly different between the two groups. Mean volume of the stomach and mean cross section of the colon was significantly higher in the endoscopy group than in the control group (stomach: 313.28 cm{sup 3} vs. 209.93 cm{sup 3}, P < 0.001, colon: 8.82 cm{sup 2} vs. 5.98 cm{sup 2}, P = 0.001). EGD and colonoscopy under sedation does not lead to significant differences in SUVmax in most parts of the body. Only gastric FDG uptake in the EGD subjects and anal FDG uptake in the colonoscopy subjects was higher than uptake in those regions in the control subjects.

  20. Differences in Urinary Arsenic Metabolites between Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Subjects in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamie Nakajima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of inorganic arsenic (iAs is considered to be related to the development of diabetes mellitus. In order to clarify the possible differences in the metabolism in diabetics, we measured urinary iAs metabolites in diabetic cases and non-diabetic control subjects in Faridpur, an arsenic-contaminated area in Bangladesh. Physician-diagnosed type 2 diabetic cases (140 persons and non-diabetic controls (180 persons were recruited. Drinking water and spot urine samples were collected. Mean concentrations of total arsenic in drinking water did not differ between cases (85.1 μg/L and controls (85.8 μg/L. The percentage of urinary iAs (iAs% was significantly lower in cases (8.6% than in controls (10.4%, while that of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA% was higher in cases (82.6% than in controls (79.9%. This may have been due to the higher secondary methylation index (SMI in the former (11.6 rather than the latter (10.0. Adjusting for matching factors (sex and unions, and the additional other covariates (age and water arsenic significantly attenuated the differences in iAs%, SMI, and DMA%, respectively, though the difference in monomethylarsonic acid% was newly significant in the latter adjustment. Our study did not suggest any significant differences in urinary arsenic metabolites between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects.

  1. Differences in phonetogram features between male and female subjects with and without vocal training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulter, A M; Schutte, H K; Miller, D G

    1995-12-01

    Singing not only requires good voluntary control over phonation and a musical ear, it also demands certain capacities of the voice source. These capacities include a desirable range of sound intensity and frequency, which can be measured and represented in a phonetogram. The influence of specific factors on voice capacities may be ascertained by the analysis of phonetograms. To determine the influence of the factors gender and voice training, phonetograms of 224 subjects, subdivided accordingly into four groups, were analyzed in two different ways. One is based on the rescaling of phonetograms, whereas the other derives analytic variables from the features' shape, area, and dynamic range. Analysis showed that, regarding gender, male subjects are able to produce softer phonations, whereas female subjects produced louder phonations at specific parts of their comparable frequency ranges. Trained subjects have a larger enclosed area of the phonetogram, which is primarily based on extended soft voice capabilities in both genders and the significantly larger frequency range in trained female subjects. The shape analysis, performed with Fourier Descriptors, revealed differences for the factors gender and training.

  2. The Role of Meaning in Translation of Different Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hojat Shamami

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work is an important consideration of the main issues at the core of meaning and the features of its process. We have seen that even within a single language there are a great variety of ways in which form expresses meaning. Only when a form is being used in its primary meaning or function is there a one – to one correlation between form and meaning each language has its own distinctive forms of representing the meaning. Therefore, in translation the same meaning may have to be expressed in another language by a very different form. To translate the form of one language literally according to the corresponding form in another language would often change the meaning, or at least result in a form which is unnatural in the second language. Meaning must, therefore have priority over form in translation. It is meaning which are to be the linguistic forms.

  3. Meat Quality of Chicken Breast Subjected to Different Thawing Methods

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    MR Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Freezing is one of the methods to preserve and guarantee the quality of meat until it reaches the consumer. Even though freezing is classified as a mild form of preservation, it causes meat changes resulting from the formation of ice crystals that subsequently affect the tenderness and functionality of meat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and structural characteristics of chicken half breast submitted to fast freezing (-36 °C for 2 hours and thawed by five different methods (under refrigeration, in a microwave, in a oven with air circulation, placed in cold water, or at room temperature. After thawing, the following parameters were evaluated: moisture content, drip loss (syneresis, water activity (aw, and shear force. Samples were also histologically evaluated by light microscopy. The results indicated that, despite being submitted to fast freezing, thawing affected (p <0.05 most of the physicochemical and structural properties of the meat, except for aw. Thawing in cold water (packed in low-density polyethylene bags and placed in cold water at approximately 10 °C for 2 hours and 15 minutes presented the best results due to lesser damage to the cell structure, as shown by the lower drip loss, higher moisture content, and greater tenderness of the samples compared to those thawed using the other methods. Histological examination showed that muscle fiber structural features and organization were maintained. Thawing at low temperatures seems to cause less damage to the meat structure and allows maintaining of its properties. It was concluded that the meat quality is not related only with the freezing method, but also with the method and conditions used in thawing.

  4. Seasonal differences in melatonin concentrations and heart rates during sleep in obese subjects in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Maki; Kanikowska, Dominika; Iwase, Satoshi; Shimizu, Yuuki; Nishimura, Naoki; Inukai, Yoko; Sato, Motohiko; Sugenoya, Junichi

    2013-09-01

    During the past several decades, obesity has been increasing globally. In Japan, obesity is defined by a BMI of 25 kg/m2 or over; 28.6 % of men and 20.6 % of women are obese. Obese people have an increased incidence of developing cardiovascular, renal, and hormonal diseases and sleep disorders. Obese people also have shortened sleep durations. We investigated seasonal differences in melatonin concentrations, heart rates, and heart rate variability during sleep in obese subjects in Japan. Five obese (BMI, 32.0 ± 4.9 kg/m2) and five non-obese (BMI, 23.2 ± 2.9 kg/m2) men participated in this study in the summer and winter. Electrocardiograms were measured continuously overnight in a climatic chamber at 26 °C with a relative humidity of 50 %. Saliva samples for melatonin were collected at 2300 hours, 0200 hours, and 0600 hours. We found that melatonin concentrations during sleep in obese subjects were significantly lower than those in non-obese subjects in the winter. Heart rate during sleep in winter was significantly higher than that in summer in both obese and non-obese subjects. Heart rate variability was not significantly different in the summer and winter in both obese and non-obese subjects. Our results show that decreased nocturnal melatonin concentrations during winter in obese men may be related to higher heart rates, and this may suggest that obese men are at an increased risk of a cardiovascular incident during sleep, especially in the winter.

  5. Quantitative analysis of iris changes following mydriasis in subjects with different mechanisms of angle closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Li, Si Zhen; Li, Lei; He, Ming Guang; Thomas, Ravi; Wang, Ning Li

    2015-01-08

    We estimate and compare change in iris cross-sectional area (IA) after physiologic and pharmacologic mydriasis in subjects with different dominant mechanisms for primary angle closure. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) measurements in light, dark, and following pharmacologic dilation were obtained on primary angle closure suspects (PACS), primary angle closure (PAC), and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) examined during the 5-year follow-up of the Handan Eye Study. Subjects were categorized into three subgroups according to their dominant angle closure (AC) mechanisms as determined by AS-OCT: pupillary block (PB), plateau iris configuration (PIC), and thick peripheral iris roll (TPIR). The IA and other biometric parameters measured using the Zhongshan Angle Assessment Program in the right eyes of all subjects were analyzed. A total of 364 right eyes of subjects with PACS (333), and PAC/PACG (31) was included in the analysis. Significant differences in the change of IAs (P = 0.030), IA loss per mm pupil diameter (PD) increase (P = 0.001) in light versus pharmacologic dilation, and IA loss per mm PD increase (P = 0.011) from dark versus pharmacologic dilation were observed among the three groups. The smallest decrease occurred in the PB group. There are significant differences in IA and IA loss per mm of pupil change following physiologic or pharmacologic mydriasis in Chinese subjects with dissimilar dominant mechanisms for AC. Dynamic iris change may have a more important role in angle closure where PB is the dominant mechanism. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  6. Sex differences in the significance of isolated reactive treponemal chemiluminescence immunoassay results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopage, Rohan I; Vollmer-Conna, Ute; Shand, Antonia W; Post, Jeffrey John

    2017-10-11

    The significance of sera with isolated reactive treponemal chemiluminescence immunoassay (IRTCIA) results is unclear. Women have this phenotype more commonly than men. Most cohorts examining this phenotype have included predominantly men and have demonstrated evidence of past or subsequently confirmed syphilis infection in a significant proportion of cases. We hypothesised that a proportion of sera with IRTCIA results would be positive on immunoblot testing and that sera from women with IRTCIA would have different results in immunoblot testing than men. IRTCIA sera from a tertiary referral serology laboratory serving multiple clinical sites were analysed with a syphilis line immunoblot assay (LIA) and analysed by sex. Logistic regression was undertaken to assess factors associated with LIA status. Medical record review and descriptive analysis of a separate cohort of women with the IRTCIA phenotype from a single campus was also undertaken. Overall, 19/63 (30.1%) subjects with the IRTCIA phenotype were positive in the LIA, including 13 men and 6 women. Women were significantly less likely to have definitive results (positive or negative) than men (p=0.015). Pregnant women were less likely than non-pregnant women to have a negative LIA result (OR 0.57; p=0.03). Record review of 22 different women with IRTCIA reactivity showed that 2/22 (9.1%) had HIV and previous syphilis infection, 15/22 (68.2%) were pregnant and 3 (13.6%) had autoimmune disease. A significant proportion of sera with IRTCIA results on serological tests are reactive on LIA testing and some may not be false positive results. The interpretation of IRTCIA results should be undertaken in conjunction with an assessment of factors such as sex, pregnancy, a history of syphilis and other STIs and syphilis risk. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Significant sex-based outcome differences in severely injured Chinese trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai-Chao; Zhou, Min-Jie; Sperry, Jason L; Rong, Liu; Zhu, Xiao-Guang; Geng, Lei; Wu, Wei; Zhao, Gang; Billiar, Timothy R; Feng, Qi-Ming

    2014-07-01

    A body of experimental evidence suggests that the female sex is associated with a lower risk of mortality after trauma-hemorrhage. However, controversy remains regarding the mechanism responsible for these differences and if basic science findings correspond to clinical differences. Racial disparities in trauma outcomes have also been increasingly described. Until now, research on the association between sex and trauma patient outcomes mainly focused on patients in Europe and the United States. Our research attempted to determine whether the female sex is associated with a survival advantage among severely injured Chinese trauma patients. A retrospective analysis of data derived from the Emergency Intensive Care Unit of the Shanghai Sixth People';s Hospital Acute Trauma Center during 2010 to 2013 was performed to characterize differences in sex-based outcomes after severe blunt trauma. The patient study cohort (858 Asian subjects) was then stratified by age and injury severity (using the Injury Severity Score [ISS]). Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to evaluate the association between sex and nosocomial infection rate and hospitalized mortality, both overall and by age and ISS category subgroups. Among all trauma patients, females had a significantly lower risk of in-hospital mortality compared with males (OR, 0.41; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.20 - 0.85). This difference was most apparent for patients younger than 50 years (OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.12 - 0.82) and the group with ISS scores of 25 or higher (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.17 - 0.91). No differences in the development of nosocomial infections between sexes were seen among the overall patient group and subgroups. This study revealed a statistically significant association between sex and mortality among severe blunt trauma patients, particularly those patients younger than 50 years and with ISSs of 25 or higher. Women had significantly lower mortality than men after severe blunt trauma

  8. Comparison of different pointing methods for sound localizability measurement in the vision impaired subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Atsunori; Ohsugi, Yudai; Yamamoto, Yuki; Nakamura, Takabun; Sugiura, Toshifumi; Tauchi, Masaki

    2007-05-01

    In order to find out the most suitable and accurate pointing methods to study the sound localizability of persons with visual impairment, we compared the accuracy of three different pointing methods for indicating the direction of sound sources in a semi-anechoic dark room. Six subjects with visual impairment (two totally blind and four with low vision) participated in this experiment. The three pointing methods employed were (1) directing the face, (2) directing the body trunk on a revolving chair and (3) indicating a tactile cue placed horizontally in front of the subject. Seven sound emitters were arranged in a semicircle 2.0 m from the subject, 0 degrees to +/-80 degrees of the subject's midline, at a height of 1.2 m. The accuracy of the pointing methods was evaluated by measuring the deviation between the angle of the target sound source and that of the subject's response. The result was that all methods indicated that as the angle of the sound source increased from midline, the accuracy decreased. The deviations recorded toward the left and the right of midline were symmetrical. In the whole frontal area (-80 degrees to +80 degrees from midline), both the tactile cue and the body trunk methods were more accurate than the face-pointing method. There was no significant difference in the center (-40 degrees to +40 degrees from midline). In the periphery (-80 degrees and +80 degrees ), the tactile cue pointing method was the most accurate of all and the body trunk method was the next best. These results suggest that the most suitable pointing methods to study the sound localizability of the frontal azimuth for subjects who are visually impaired are the tactile cue and the body trunk methods because of their higher accuracy in the periphery.

  9. Sex differences in the subjective effects of oral Δ9-THC in cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Jessica S; Kelly, Thomas H; Westgate, Philip M; Lile, Joshua A

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that there are sex differences in endocannabinoid function and the response to exogenous cannabinoids, though data from clinical studies comparing acute cannabinoid effects in men and women under controlled laboratory conditions are limited. To further explore these potential differences, data from 30 cannabis users (N=18 M, 12 F) who completed previous Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) discrimination studies were combined for this retrospective analysis. In each study, subjects learned to discriminate between oral Δ9-THC and placebo and then received a range of Δ9-THC doses (0, 5, 15 and a "high" dose of either 25 or 30mg). Responses on a drug-discrimination task, subjective effects questionnaire, psychomotor performance tasks, and physiological measures were assessed. Δ9-THC dose-dependently increased drug-appropriate responding, ratings on "positive" Visual Analog Scale (VAS) items (e.g., good effects, like drug, take again), and items related to intoxication (e.g., high, stoned). Δ9-THC also dose-dependently impaired performance on psychomotor tasks and elevated heart rate. Sex differences on VAS items emerged as a function of dose. Women exhibited significantly greater subjective responses to oral drug administration than men at the 5mg Δ9-THC dose, whereas men were more sensitive to the subjective effects of the 15mg dose of Δ9-THC than women. These results demonstrate dose-dependent separation in the subjective response to oral Δ9-THC administration by sex, which might contribute to the differential development of problematic cannabis use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Chewing side, bite force symmetry, and occlusal contact area of subjects with different facial vertical patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Guimarães Farias Gomes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial dimensions influence oral functions; however, it is not known whether they are associated with function asymmetry. The objective of this study was to evaluate chewing side preference and lateral asymmetry of occlusal contact area and bite force of individuals with different craniofacial patterns. Seventy-eight dentate subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the VERT index as follows: (1 mesofacial, (2 brachyfacial and (3 dolichofacial. Chewing side preference was evaluated using jaw tracking equipment, occlusal contact area was measured by silicon registration of posterior teeth, and bite force was measured unilaterally on molar regions using 2.25 mm-thick sensors. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA on Ranks, Student's t-test, and Mann-Whitney tests at a 5% significance level. Mesofacial, brachyfacial, and dolichofacial subjects presented more occlusal contact area on the left side. Only dolichofacial subjects showed lateral asymmetry for bite force, presenting higher force on the left side. No statistically significant differences were found for chewing side preference among all groups. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that craniofacial dimensions play a role in asymmetry of bite force. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01286363.

  11. Trismus following different treatment modalities for head and neck cancer: a systematic review of subjective measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Sook Y; Mcleod, Robert W J; Elhassan, Hassan A

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this review was to compare systematically the subjective measure of trismus between different interventions to treat head and neck cancer, particularly those of the oropharynx. Using The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Guidelines, Six databases were searched for the text using various terms which include "oropharyngeal/head and neck cancer", "trismus/mouth opening" and the various treatment modalities. Included in the review were clinical studies (> or =10 patients). Three observers independently assessed the papers identified. Among the six studies reviewed, five showed a significantly worst outcome with regard to the quality-of-life questionnaire scores for a radiotherapy or surgery and radiotherapy (RT) ± chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy when compared to surgery alone. Only one study showed no significant difference between surgery alone and other treatment modalities. Subjective quality-of-life measures are a concurrent part of modern surgical practice. Although subjective measures were utilised to measure post operative trismus successfully, there was no consensus as to which treatment modality had overall better outcomes, with conflicting studies in keeping with the current debate in this field. Larger and higher quality studies are needed to compare all three treatment modalities.

  12. Transcriptome analysis and identification of significantly differentially expressed genes in Holstein calves subjected to severe thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Krishnamoorthy; Lee, Eunjin; Kwan, Anam; Lim, Youngjo; Lee, Junyep; Jang, Gulwon; Chung, Hoyoung

    2017-09-01

    RNA-Seq analysis was used to characterize transcriptome response of Holstein calves to thermal stress. A total of eight animals aged between 2 and 3 months were randomly selected and subjected to thermal stress corresponding to a temperature humidity index of 95 in an environmentally controlled house for 12 h consecutively for 3 days. A set of 15,787 unigenes were found to be expressed and after a threshold of threefold change, and a Q value genes were found to be differentially expressed on days 1, 2, and 3 out of which 343, 261 and 256 genes were upregulated and 159, 133, and 120 genes were downregulated. Only 356 genes out of these were expressed on all 3 days, and only they were considered as significantly differentially expressed. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that ten pathways were significantly enriched; the top two among them were protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum and MAPK signaling pathways. These results suggest that thermal stress triggered a complex response in Holstein calves and the animals adjusted their physiological and metabolic processes to survive. Many of the genes identified in this study have not been previously reported to be involved in thermal stress response. The results of this study extend our understanding of the animal's response to thermal stress and some of the identified genes may prove useful in the efforts to breed Holstein cattle with superior thermotolerance, which might help in minimizing production loss due to thermal stress.

  13. Alpha reactivity to first names differs in subjects with high and low dream recall frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrine Marie RUBY

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies in cognitive psychology showed that personality (openness to experience, thin boundaries, absorption, creativity, nocturnal awakenings, and attitude toward dreams are significantly related to dream recall frequency (DRF. These results suggest the possibility of neurophysiological trait differences between subjects with high and low DRF. To test this hypothesis we compared sleep characteristics and alpha reactivity to sounds in subjects with high and low DRF using polysomnographic recordings and electroencephalography (EEG. We acquired EEG from 21 channels in 36 healthy subjects while they were presented with a passive auditory oddball paradigm (frequent standard tones, rare deviant tones and very rare first names during wakefulness and sleep (intensity, 50 dB above the subject’s hearing level. Subjects were selected as High-recallers (HR, DRF = 4.4 ± 1.1 dream recalls per week and Low-recallers (LR, DRF = 0.25 ± 0.1 using a questionnaire and an interview on sleep and dream habits. Despite the disturbing setup, the subjects’ quality of sleep was generally preserved. First names induced a more sustained decrease in alpha activity in HR than in LR at Pz (1000-1200ms during wakefulness, but no group difference was found in REM sleep. The current dominant hypothesis proposes that alpha rhythms would be involved in the active inhibition of the brain regions not involved in the ongoing brain operation. According to this hypothesis, a more sustained alpha decrease in HR would reflect a longer release of inhibition, suggesting a deeper processing of complex sounds than in LR during wakefulness. A possibility to explain the absence of group difference during sleep is that increase in alpha power in HR may have resulted in awakenings. Our results support this hypothesis since HR experienced more intra sleep wakefulness than LR (30 ± 4 vs 14 ± 4 min. As a whole our results support the hypothesis of neurophysiological trait differences in

  14. Differences between surface EMG in male and female subjects evidenced by automatic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioni, R; Giannini, F; Paradiso, C; Battistini, N; Denoth, F; Navona, C; Starita, A

    1988-10-01

    40 healthy volunteers (20 males and 20 females) have been studied by an automatic analysis of their surface EMG. The power density spectrum (PDS) of the electromyographic signal, derived from the tibialis anterior muscle, was used to evaluate the RMS values of the EMG developed during maximal voluntary (Vc) and evoked (Vm) contractions. The ratios between Vc, calculated over each of 5 frequency bands (5-15, 20-40, 45-70, 75-110, 115-160 Hz), and the total Vc have also been calculated. No significant differences emerge in the Vm values for males and females, whereas the Vc values for female subjects are found to be significantly reduced (P less than 0.001) with respect to the corresponding values for males. Significant differences have also been found concerning the percentage distribution of power in the above mentioned frequency bands for men and women (P less than 0.001). It can thus, be hypothesized that there are two different modalities of motor unit recruitment and that different sociological and cultural traditions may be more important in producing these differences than sexually determined physiological differences.

  15. Adaptation gap hypothesis: How differences between users’ expected and perceived agent functions affect their subjective impression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanori Komatsu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe an “adaptation gap” that indicates the differences between the functions of artificial agents that users expect before starting their interactions and the functions they perceive after their interactions. We investigated the effect of this adaptation gap on users’ impressions of artificial agents because any variations in impression before and after the start of an interaction determines whether the user feels that this agent is worth interacting with. The results showed that positive or negative signs of the adaptation gap and subjective impression scores of agents before the experiment significantly affected the users’ final impressions of the agents.

  16. Mediating pathways and gender differences between shift work and subjective cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Imelda S; Smith, Peter M; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Mustard, Cameron A; Gignac, Monique A M

    2016-11-01

    Increased injury risk among shift workers is often attributed to cognitive function deficits that come about as a result of sleep disruptions. However, little is known about the intermediate influences of other factors (eg, work stress, health) which may affect this relationship. In addition, gender differences in these the complex relationships have not been fully explored. The purpose of this study is to (1) identify the extent to which work and non-work factors mediate the relationship between shift work, sleep and subsequent subjective cognitive function; and (2) determine if the mediating pathways differ for men and women. Data from the 2010 National Population Health Survey was used to create a cross-sectional sample of 4255 employed Canadians. Using path modelling, we examined the direct and indirect relationships between shift work, sleep duration, sleep quality and subjective cognitive function. Multigroup analyses tested for significantly different pathways between men and women. Potential confounding effects of age and self-reported health and potential mediating effects of work stress were simultaneously examined. Work stress and sleep quality significantly mediated the effects of shift work on cognition. Age and health confounded the relationship between sleep quality and subjective cognition. No differences were found between men and women. Occupational health and safety programmes are needed to address stress and health factors, in addition to sleep hygiene, to effectively address cognitive function among shift workers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Subjective evaluation of different ventilation concepts combined with radiant heating and cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krajcik, Michal; Tomasi, Roberta; Simone, Angela

    2012-01-01

    with displacement ventilation. Vertical air temperature distribution was more uniform for floor heating than for warm air heating, but there was no significant difference in thermal perception between the two mixing ventilation systems. For the summer conditions the subjects voted warmer than predicted by the PMV...... supplying warm air space heating or by a combination of radiant floor heating and mixing ventilation system. Next two test setups simulated an office room with two occupants during summer, ventilated and cooled by a single displacement ventilation system or by a radiant floor cooling combined...... and about one third preferred more air movement. No significant difference in thermal perception between the two displacement ventilation systems was found....

  18. Phonetic imitation from an individual-difference perspective: subjective attitude, personality and "autistic" traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Alan C L; Abrego-Collier, Carissa; Sonderegger, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the phenomenon of phonetic imitation: the process by which the production patterns of an individual become more similar on some phonetic or acoustic dimension to those of her interlocutor. Though social factors have been suggested as a motivator for imitation, few studies has established a tight connection between language-external factors and a speaker's likelihood to imitate. The present study investigated the phenomenon of phonetic imitation using a within-subject design embedded in an individual-differences framework. Participants were administered a phonetic imitation task, which included two speech production tasks separated by a perceptual learning task, and a battery of measures assessing traits associated with Autism-Spectrum Condition, working memory, and personality. To examine the effects of subjective attitude on phonetic imitation, participants were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, where the perceived sexual orientation of the narrator (homosexual vs. heterosexual) and the outcome (positive vs. negative) of the story depicted in the exposure materials differed. The extent of phonetic imitation by an individual is significantly modulated by the story outcome, as well as by the participant's subjective attitude toward the model talker, the participant's personality trait of openness and the autistic-like trait associated with attention switching.

  19. Phonetic Imitation from an Individual-Difference Perspective: Subjective Attitude, Personality and “Autistic” Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Alan C. L.; Abrego-Collier, Carissa; Sonderegger, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the phenomenon of phonetic imitation: the process by which the production patterns of an individual become more similar on some phonetic or acoustic dimension to those of her interlocutor. Though social factors have been suggested as a motivator for imitation, few studies has established a tight connection between language-external factors and a speaker’s likelihood to imitate. The present study investigated the phenomenon of phonetic imitation using a within-subject design embedded in an individual-differences framework. Participants were administered a phonetic imitation task, which included two speech production tasks separated by a perceptual learning task, and a battery of measures assessing traits associated with Autism-Spectrum Condition, working memory, and personality. To examine the effects of subjective attitude on phonetic imitation, participants were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, where the perceived sexual orientation of the narrator (homosexual vs. heterosexual) and the outcome (positive vs. negative) of the story depicted in the exposure materials differed. The extent of phonetic imitation by an individual is significantly modulated by the story outcome, as well as by the participant’s subjective attitude toward the model talker, the participant’s personality trait of openness and the autistic-like trait associated with attention switching. PMID:24098665

  20. Phonetic imitation from an individual-difference perspective: subjective attitude, personality and "autistic" traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan C L Yu

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have documented the phenomenon of phonetic imitation: the process by which the production patterns of an individual become more similar on some phonetic or acoustic dimension to those of her interlocutor. Though social factors have been suggested as a motivator for imitation, few studies has established a tight connection between language-external factors and a speaker's likelihood to imitate. The present study investigated the phenomenon of phonetic imitation using a within-subject design embedded in an individual-differences framework. Participants were administered a phonetic imitation task, which included two speech production tasks separated by a perceptual learning task, and a battery of measures assessing traits associated with Autism-Spectrum Condition, working memory, and personality. To examine the effects of subjective attitude on phonetic imitation, participants were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions, where the perceived sexual orientation of the narrator (homosexual vs. heterosexual and the outcome (positive vs. negative of the story depicted in the exposure materials differed. The extent of phonetic imitation by an individual is significantly modulated by the story outcome, as well as by the participant's subjective attitude toward the model talker, the participant's personality trait of openness and the autistic-like trait associated with attention switching.

  1. Religion and Subjective Well-Being: Western and Eastern Religious Groups Achieved Subjective Well-Being in Different Ways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiah, Yung-Jong; Chang, Frances; Chiang, Shih-Kuang; Tam, Wai-Cheong Carl

    2016-08-01

    Culture can moderate which variables most influence subjective well-being (SWB). Because religion can be conceptualized as culture, religious differences can be considered cultural differences. However, there have been few studies comparing how different religious groups evaluate SWB at any given time. This study is among the first to investigate this issue. The present study compared Buddhists, Taoists, Christians, and atheists. In addition to demographic items, 451 Chinese adults completed Chinese version of the Socially Oriented Cultural Conception of SWB Scale. Religious belief was distributed as follows: 10 % Christian, 20 % Buddhist, 25 % Taoist, and 43 % atheists. As predicted, the socially oriented cultural conception of SWB was found to be highest among Buddhists, followed in order by Taoists, atheists, and Christians. It was concluded that the various religious groups achieved SWB in different ways.

  2. Evaluation of palatal rugae pattern in different sagittal skeletal relationship adolescent subjects.

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    Oral, Ekrem; Buyuk, S Kutalmiş; Simsek, Huseyin

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphological structure of palatal rugae in Turkish orthodontic subjects with different sagittal skeletal malocclusions. Orthodontic dental casts of 105 patients (Class I [23 females, 12 males]; 35, Class II [18 females, 17 males]; and 35, Class III [14 females, 21 males] 10-22 years old) were analyzed for rugae patterns. Palatal rugae pattern and number, direction of rugae alignment, shape of incisive papilla were analyzed. Modified Thomas and Kotze classification was performed to analyze palatal rugae characteristics. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Wavy and curved types were the most common types of rugae pattern in all groups (Class I, Class II, Class III). As regards to the number of primary and secondary rugae on the left and right sides, there was no statistically significant difference among subjects with different skeletal malocclusions. Droplet-shaped incisive papilla was the most common form of incisive papillae among different skeletal malocclusion groups. The most common palatal rugae were direction type arranged in the horizontal direction. All rugae patterns were unique for each individual. The use of antemortem or postmortem palatal rugae records may facilitate identification of the suspects in forensic investigations by enabling facial reconstruction through skeletal malocclusions.

  3. Subjective well-being: gender differences in Holocaust survivors-specific and cross-national effects.

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    Carmel, Sara; King, David B; O'Rourke, Norm; Bachner, Yaacov G

    2017-06-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB) has become an important concept in evaluating older adults' quality of life. The cognitive and emotional evaluations which are used to appraise it differ in structure, characteristics, and effects on life. The purpose of this study was to support hypotheses regarding expected Holocaust survivors-specific effects and cross-cultural differences on three indicators of SWB. We recruited samples of 50 male and female Israeli Holocaust survivors, other older Israelis, and older Canadians (N = 300) for allowing us to distinguish survivors-specific effects from cross-national differences. State anxiety, depressive symptoms, and life-satisfaction were compared across groups of men and women. Where univariate differences were detected, post hoc comparisons were computed to determine which of the groups significantly differed. In general, a higher level of SWB was found among Canadians in comparison to both comparative Israeli groups. Level of depressive symptoms was significantly higher among women survivors than in the other two groups. Both groups of Israeli women had higher scores on anxiety than Canadian Women; less apparent were differences across groups of men. Life-satisfaction did not differ among the groups. Our findings regarding depression support the survivor-specific effect hypothesis for women, and a national effect on anxiety, but not any effect on life-satisfaction. These findings suggest significant differences in impacts of traumatic life events on cognitive versus emotional indicators of SWB. This issue should be further investigated due to its practical implications in use of various measures of SWB with people who experienced traumatic events.

  4. Reading virtual slide using web viewers: results of subjective experience with three different solutions.

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    Rojo, Marcial García; Gallardo, Antonio J; González, Lucía; Peces, Carlos; Murillo, Cristina; González, Jesús; Sacristán, Jose

    2008-07-15

    Virtual slides are viewed using interactive software that enables the user to simulate the behaviour of a conventional optical microscope, like adjusting magnifications and navigating to any portion of the image. Nowadays, information about the performance and features of web-based solutions for reading slides in real environments is still scarce. The objective of this study is analyzing the subjective experience of pathologists with virtual slides, comparing the time needed to read slides using different web viewers and different network connections. Eight slides were randomly selected (4 biopsies and 2 cytologies) from Hospital General de Ciudad Real (HGCR) archives. Three different virtual slide web-viewing solutions were analyzed: Aperio web server, Olympus NetImage Server, and Aurora mScope. Five pathologists studied to time needed to access images of each virtual slide, selecting a panoramic view, 10 low magnification fields, and 20 high magnification fields. Aperio viewer is very efficient in overview images. Aurora viewer is especially efficient in lower magnifications (10x). For larger magnifications (20x and 40x) no significant differences were found between different vendors. Olympus was found to be the most user-friendly interface. When comparing Internet with intranet connections, despite being slower, users also felt comfortable using virtual slides through Internet connection. Available web solutions for virtual slides have different advantages, mainly in functionalities and optimization for different magnifications. Pathologists should select the solutions adapted to their needs.

  5. Structural differences in hippocampal subfields among schizophrenia patients, major depressive disorder patients, and healthy subjects.

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    Ota, Miho; Sato, Noriko; Hidese, Shinsuke; Teraishi, Toshiya; Maikusa, Norihide; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Hattori, Kotaro; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2017-01-30

    Many MRI studies have reported a volume reduction of the hippocampus in psychiatric diseases. However, disease-related volume differences in hippocampus subfields remain unclear. Here we compared the volumes of hippocampus subfields in patients with schizophrenia, patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), and healthy subjects as controls. T2-weighted images were acquired in 20 patients with schizophrenia, 36 with MDD, and 35 healthy volunteers by 3-Tesla MRI. Hippocampal subfields were segmented using an automatic algorithm, Automatic Segmentation of Hippocampal Subfields (ASHS). Schizophrenia patients exhibited significant volume reductions in the cornu ammonis (CA)1 compared to the controls, and in the dentate gyrus compared to the controls and MDD patients without medication, whereas there was no significant difference between the MDD patients and controls. There was a nominal negative correlation between the perirhinal cortex volume and depression severity in the MDD patients without medication, whereas there were negative correlations between CA2 volume and both negative symptoms and the duration of illness in the schizophrenia patients. We identified differing volume reductions in hippocampal subfields and varying correlations between disease severity and subfield volumes depending on diagnosis, suggesting that volume differences in hippocampus subfields may provide important information regarding the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and MDD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An arrhythmia classification algorithm using a dedicated wavelet adapted to different subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Se Dong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies have been conducted regarding a heartbeat classification algorithm over the past several decades. However, many algorithms have also been studied to acquire robust performance, as biosignals have a large amount of variation among individuals. Various methods have been proposed to reduce the differences coming from personal characteristics, but these expand the differences caused by arrhythmia. Methods In this paper, an arrhythmia classification algorithm using a dedicated wavelet adapted to individual subjects is proposed. We reduced the performance variation using dedicated wavelets, as in the ECG morphologies of the subjects. The proposed algorithm utilizes morphological filtering and a continuous wavelet transform with a dedicated wavelet. A principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis were utilized to compress the morphological data transformed by the dedicated wavelets. An extreme learning machine was used as a classifier in the proposed algorithm. Results A performance evaluation was conducted with the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. The results showed a high sensitivity of 97.51%, specificity of 85.07%, accuracy of 97.94%, and a positive predictive value of 97.26%. Conclusions The proposed algorithm achieves better accuracy than other state-of-the-art algorithms with no intrasubject between the training and evaluation datasets. And it significantly reduces the amount of intervention needed by physicians.

  7. Tongue position after deglutition in subjects with habitual open-mouth posture under different functional conditions.

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    Knösel, M; Klein, S; Bleckmann, A; Engelke, W

    2011-08-01

    To test the null hypothesis of no significant differences in (1) the duration of the post-deglutory, cranial tongue rest position (CTP) between different functional orofacial conditions and (2) the presence or absence of an oral screen (OS) in subjects with a habitual open-mouth posture. Twenty-nine subjects (aged 6-16; mean: 9.69 years; 13/16 girls/boys) were selected according to the inclusion criterion of a habitual, daytime open-mouth posture. Deglutition was screened at baseline during resting respiration using orofacial polysensography and simultaneous assessment of tongue-to-palate position and nasal airstream, during five functional intervals of 8 min each: F1 without instruction (RR); F2 the same, but including an oral screen (RROS); F3 with OS and the instruction to maintain a tongue-to-palate contact (IROS); F4 with OS and the instruction to perform tongue repositioning manoeuvres at the time of spontaneous swallowing (TRMOS); and F5 corresponds to F3 omitting OS (IR). Duration and frequency of deglutition were analysed descriptively as well as by anova and subsequent multiple comparisons, and the CTP was evaluated with chi-square tests and paired comparisons at a significance level of 5%. Of 542 identified swallowing acts, 75% were accompanied by a post-deglutory CTP. Mean duration of CTP increased for functional conditions RR/1.01s > RROS/2.56s > IR/3.21s > IROS/6.53s > TRMOS/6.58s. The null hypothesis (1) was rejected in comparison of resting respiration (F1, F2) with IROS and TRMOS, whereas the use of an oral screen alone did not significantly prolong the duration of CTP. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. QT/RR curvatures in healthy subjects: sex differences and covariates

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    Hnatkova, Katerina; Kowalski, Donna; Keirns, James J.; van Gelderen, E. Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Data of a large clinical study were used to investigate how much are the QT/RR patterns in healthy subjects curved and whether these curvatures differ between women and men. Daytime drug-free 12-lead Holter recordings were repeated 4 times in each of 176 female healthy subjects and 176 male healthy subjects aged 32.7 ± 9.1 yr. In each of the subjects, up to 1,440 carefully verified QT interval measurements were obtained with QT/RR hysteresis-corrected RR intervals. Individual subject data were used to fit the following regression equation: QT = χ + (δ/γ)(1 − RRγ) + ε, where QT and RR are QT and RR measurements (in s), χ is regression intercept, δ is the QT/RR slope, γ is the QT/RR curvature and provides the lowest regression residual, and ε represents normally distributed zero-centered errors. The bootstrap technique showed the intrasubject reproducibility of QT/RR slopes and curvatures. In women and men, QT/RR curvatures were 0.544 ± 0.661 and 0.797 ± 0.706, respectively (P = 0.0006). The corresponding QT/RR slopes were 0.158 ± 0.030 and 0.139 ± 0.023, respectively (P QT/RR curvatures were related to QT/RR slopes but not to individually corrected mean QTc intervals or individual QT/RR hysteresis profiles. The individual heart rate correction formula derived from the curvilinear regression provided a significantly lower intrasubject variability of QTc interval than individual optimisation of linear or log-linear QT/RR heart rate corrections. The QT/RR curvature can be reliable measured and expressed numerically. The corresponding heart rate correction formula provides more compact data than the previously proposed approaches. There are substantial sex differences in QT/RR patterns. Women have a QT/RR pattern that is not only steeper than men but also more curved. PMID:24163079

  9. Cannabis-related working memory deficits and associated subcortical morphological differences in healthy individuals and schizophrenia subjects.

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    Smith, Matthew J; Cobia, Derin J; Wang, Lei; Alpert, Kathryn I; Cronenwett, Will J; Goldman, Morris B; Mamah, Daniel; Barch, Deanna M; Breiter, Hans C; Csernansky, John G

    2014-03-01

    Cannabis use is associated with working memory (WM) impairments; however, the relationship between cannabis use and WM neural circuitry is unclear. We examined whether a cannabis use disorder (CUD) was associated with differences in brain morphology between control subjects with and without a CUD and between schizophrenia subjects with and without a CUD, and whether these differences related to WM and CUD history. Subjects group-matched on demographics included 44 healthy controls, 10 subjects with a CUD history, 28 schizophrenia subjects with no history of substance use disorders, and 15 schizophrenia subjects with a CUD history. Large-deformation high-dimensional brain mapping with magnetic resonance imaging was used to obtain surface-based representations of the striatum, globus pallidus, and thalamus, compared across groups, and correlated with WM and CUD history. Surface maps were generated to visualize morphological differences. There were significant cannabis-related parametric decreases in WM across groups. Similar cannabis-related shape differences were observed in the striatum, globus pallidus, and thalamus in controls and schizophrenia subjects. Cannabis-related striatal and thalamic shape differences correlated with poorer WM and younger age of CUD onset in both groups. Schizophrenia subjects demonstrated cannabis-related neuroanatomical differences that were consistent and exaggerated compared with cannabis-related differences found in controls. The cross-sectional results suggest that both CUD groups were characterized by WM deficits and subcortical neuroanatomical differences. Future longitudinal studies could help determine whether cannabis use contributes to these observed shape differences or whether they are biomarkers of a vulnerability to the effects of cannabis that predate its misuse.

  10. Cannabis-Related Working Memory Deficits and Associated Subcortical Morphological Differences in Healthy Individuals and Schizophrenia Subjects

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    Smith, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis use is associated with working memory (WM) impairments; however, the relationship between cannabis use and WM neural circuitry is unclear. We examined whether a cannabis use disorder (CUD) was associated with differences in brain morphology between control subjects with and without a CUD and between schizophrenia subjects with and without a CUD, and whether these differences related to WM and CUD history. Subjects group-matched on demographics included 44 healthy controls, 10 subjects with a CUD history, 28 schizophrenia subjects with no history of substance use disorders, and 15 schizophrenia subjects with a CUD history. Large-deformation high-dimensional brain mapping with magnetic resonance imaging was used to obtain surface-based representations of the striatum, globus pallidus, and thalamus, compared across groups, and correlated with WM and CUD history. Surface maps were generated to visualize morphological differences. There were significant cannabis-related parametric decreases in WM across groups. Similar cannabis-related shape differences were observed in the striatum, globus pallidus, and thalamus in controls and schizophrenia subjects. Cannabis-related striatal and thalamic shape differences correlated with poorer WM and younger age of CUD onset in both groups. Schizophrenia subjects demonstrated cannabis-related neuroanatomical differences that were consistent and exaggerated compared with cannabis-related differences found in controls. The cross-sectional results suggest that both CUD groups were characterized by WM deficits and subcortical neuroanatomical differences. Future longitudinal studies could help determine whether cannabis use contributes to these observed shape differences or whether they are biomarkers of a vulnerability to the effects of cannabis that predate its misuse. PMID:24342821

  11. Estimating Intervention Effects across Different Types of Single-Subject Experimental Designs: Empirical Illustration

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    Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Ferron, John M.; Onghena, Patrick; Heyvaert, Mieke; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate the multilevel meta-analysis of results from single-subject experimental designs of different types, including AB phase designs, multiple-baseline designs, ABAB reversal designs, and alternating treatment designs. Current methodological work on the meta-analysis of single-subject experimental designs…

  12. Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being: Comparing Societies with Respect to Gender Equality

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    Tesch-Romer, Clemens; Motel-Klingebiel, Andreas; Tomasik, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    These analyses explore the relationship between gender inequality and subjective well-being. The hypothesis was tested as to whether societal gender inequality is related to the size of gender differences in subjective well-being in various societies. Results come from comparative data sets (World Values Survey, involving 57 countries; OASIS…

  13. Identification of clinically significant psychological distress and psychiatric morbidity by examining quality of life in subjects with occupational asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghezzo Heberto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Juniper Asthma Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ(S is a questionnaire that allows measurement of disease specific quality of life. We wanted to examine correlations between the (AQLQ(S general and different subscale scores and both psychiatric morbidity and levels of psychological distress in individuals with occupational asthma (OA and to determine if results in the emotional function subscale allow identification of individuals with clinically significant psychological distress or current psychiatric disorders. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of individuals with OA who were assessed during a re-evaluation for permanent disability, after they were no longer exposed to the sensitizing agent. Patients underwent a general sociodemographic and medical history evaluation, a brief psychiatric interview (Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders, PRIME-MD and completed a battery of questionnaires including the AQLQ(S, the St-Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, and the Psychiatric Symptom Index (PSI. Results There was good internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.936 for the AQLQ(S total score and construct validity for the AQLQ(S (Spearman rho = -0.693 for the SGRQ symptom score and rho = -0.650 for the asthma severity score. There were medium to large correlations between the total score of the AQLQ(S and the SGRQ symptom score (r = -.693, and PSI total (r = -.619 and subscale scores (including depression, r = -.419; anxiety, r = -.664; anger, r = -.367; cognitive disturbances, r = -.419. A cut-off of 5.1 on the AQLQ(S emotional function subscale (where 0 = high impairment and 7 = no impairment had the best discriminative value to distinguish individuals with or without clinically significant psychiatric distress according to the PSI, and a cut-off of 4.7 best distinguished individuals with or without a current psychiatric disorder according to the PRIME-MD. Conclusions Impaired quality of life is

  14. Subject-level differences in reported locations of cutaneous tactile and nociceptive stimuli

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    Peter eSteenbergen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent theoretical advances on the topic of body representations have raised the question whether spatial perception of touch and nociception involve the same representations. Various authors have established that subjective localizations of touch and nociception are displaced in a systematic manner. The relation between veridical stimulus locations and localizations can be described in the form of a perceptual map; these maps differ between subjects. Recently, evidence was found for a common set of body representations to underlie spatial perception of touch and slow and fast pain, which receive information from modality specific primary representations. There are neurophysiological clues that the various cutaneous senses may not share the same primary representation. If this is the case, then differences in primary representations between touch and nociception may cause subject-dependent differences in perceptual maps of these modalities. We studied localization of tactile and nociceptive sensations on the forearm using electrocutaneous stimulation. The perceptual maps of these modalities differed at the group level. When assessed for individual subjects, the differences localization varied in nature between subjects. The agreement of perceptual maps of the two modalities was moderate. These findings are consistent with a common internal body representation underlying spatial perception of touch and nociception. The subject level differences suggest that in addition to these representations other aspects, possibly differences in primary representation and/or the influence of stimulus parameters, lead to differences in perceptual maps in individuals.

  15. Subjective well-being: evidence from the different personality traits of online game teenager players.

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    Chen, Lily Shui-Lien

    2008-10-01

    This present study provides insight into the relationship between personality traits and the subjective well-being for online game teenager players in Taiwan. The questionnaire has been adopted in the cyber cafe shops in Taipei, Taiwan, and 134 usable questionnaires produced to be used for the final data analysis. The results demonstrate that Neuroticism and Agreeableness have significant negative influence and Openness has significant positive influence on subjective well-being.

  16. Mastication, EMG activity and occlusal contact area in subjects with different facial types.

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    Gomes, Simone Guimarães Farias; Custodio, William; Jufer, Juliana Silva Moura; Del Bel, Cury Altair Antoninha; Garcia, Renata Cunha Matheus Rodrigues

    2010-10-01

    Dentofacial morphology may affect orofacial functions, therefore the aim of the current study was to evaluate the influence of craniofacial morphology on masticatory function, occlusal contact area (OCA), and masticatory muscles activity. Seventy-eight (78) subjects were divided into three groups according to vertical facial pattern: 1. mesofacial; 2. brachyfacial; and 3. dolichofacial. Artificial material and the sieving method were used to access masticatory efficiency (ME). OCA was determined by registration of posterior teeth. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the masseter and anterior temporal (AT) muscles was accessed bilaterally at rest and at maximal vertical clenching (MVC). ME (%) was significantly higher in brachyfacial and lower in dolichofacial subjects. Brachyfacials presented the highest OCA (mm2) followed by meso and dolichofacial subjects. The EMG of the masseter and AT at rest and at MVC showed that dolichofacial subjects presented the lowest activity values, while brachyfacial subjects presented significantly higher measurements. Craniofacial morphology affected masticatory function, OCA, and EMG activity of the masticatory muscles.

  17. The significance of organic carbon and nutrient export from peatland-dominated landscapes subject to disturbance, a stoichiometric perspective

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    S. Waldron

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial-aquatic interface is a crucial environment in which to consider the fate of exported terrestrial carbon in the aquatic system. Here the fate of dissolved organic carbon (DOC may be controlled by nutrient availability. However, peat-dominated headwater catchments are normally of low nutrient status and thus there is little data on how DOC and nutrient export co-varies. We present nutrient and DOC data for two UK catchments dominated by peat headwaters. One, Whitelee, is undergoing development for Europe's largest windfarm. Glen Dye by comparison is relatively undisturbed. At both sites there are significant linear relationships between DOC and soluble reactive phosphorus and nitrate concentrations in the drainage waters. However, inter-catchment differences exist. Changes in the pattern of nutrient and carbon export at Whitelee reveal that landscape disturbance associated with windfarm development impacts the receiving waters, and that nutrient export does not increase in a stoichiometric manner that will promote increase in microbial biomass but rather supports aquatic respiration. In turn greater CO2 efflux may prevail. Hence disturbance of terrestrial carbon stores may impact the both the aquatic and gaseous carbon cycle. We suggest estimates of aquatic carbon export should inform the decision-making process prior to development in ecosystems and catchments with high terrestrial carbon storage.

  18. The Ability of Different Imputation Methods to Preserve the Significant Genes and Pathways in Cancer

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    Rosa Aghdam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Deciphering important genes and pathways from incomplete gene expression data could facilitate a better understanding of cancer. Different imputation methods can be applied to estimate the missing values. In our study, we evaluated various imputation methods for their performance in preserving significant genes and pathways. In the first step, 5% genes are considered in random for two types of ignorable and non-ignorable missingness mechanisms with various missing rates. Next, 10 well-known imputation methods were applied to the complete datasets. The significance analysis of microarrays (SAM method was applied to detect the significant genes in rectal and lung cancers to showcase the utility of imputation approaches in preserving significant genes. To determine the impact of different imputation methods on the identification of important genes, the chi-squared test was used to compare the proportions of overlaps between significant genes detected from original data and those detected from the imputed datasets. Additionally, the significant genes are tested for their enrichment in important pathways, using the ConsensusPathDB. Our results showed that almost all the significant genes and pathways of the original dataset can be detected in all imputed datasets, indicating that there is no significant difference in the performance of various imputation methods tested. The source code and selected datasets are available on http://profiles.bs.ipm.ir/softwares/imputation_methods/.

  19. Cognitive reserve in young and old healthy subjects: differences and similarities in a testing-the-limits paradigm with DSST.

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    Josef Zihl

    Full Text Available Cognitive reserve (CR is understood as capacity to cope with challenging conditions, e.g. after brain injury or in states of brain dysfunction, or age-related cognitive decline. CR in elderly subjects has attracted much research interest, but differences between healthy older and younger subjects have not been addressed in detail hitherto. Usually, one-time standard individual assessments are used to characterise CR. Here we observe CR as individual improvement in cognitive performance (gain in a complex testing-the-limits paradigm, the digit symbol substitution test (DSST, with 10 repeated measurements, in 140 younger (20-30 yrs and 140 older (57-74 yrs healthy subjects. In addition, we assessed attention, memory and executive function, and mood and personality traits as potential influence factors for CR. We found that both, younger and older subjects showed significant gains, which were significantly correlated with speed of information processing, verbal short-term memory and visual problem solving in the older group only. Gender, personality traits and mood did not significantly influence gains in either group. Surprisingly about half of the older subjects performed at the level of the younger group, suggesting that interindividual differences in CR are possibly age-independent. We propose that these findings may also be understood as indication that one-time standard individual measurements do not allow assessment of CR, and that the use of DSST in a testing-the-limits paradigm is a valuable assessment method for CR in young and elderly subjects.

  20. An event-level examination of sex differences and subjective intoxication in alcohol-related aggression.

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    Quinn, Patrick D; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Fromme, Kim

    2013-04-01

    Laboratory-based experimental research has demonstrated that the pharmacological effects of alcohol can increase aggressive responding. Given mixed findings and concerns regarding task validity, however, it remains uncertain whether this effect holds constant across men and women and whether variability in subjective alcohol intoxication contributes to alcohol-related aggression. In this investigation, the authors used 4 years of event-level data in a sample of 1,775 college students (140,618 total observations) to provide a test of laboratory-derived findings on the link between alcohol and aggression in an alternative methodology. They found support for several such findings: (a) Within-person increases in alcohol intoxication, as assessed by estimated blood alcohol concentrations (eBACs), were associated with increases in the probability of aggression at the drinking-episode level; (b) this association was significantly stronger among men than among women; and (c) within-person variability and between-persons individual differences in levels of subjective alcohol intoxication were associated with aggression over and beyond eBACs. Cross-methodological replication can reduce the impact of constraints specific to experimental studies on conclusions regarding alcohol's relation with aggression.

  1. Investigating statistical differences in connectivity patterns properties at single subject level: a new resampling approach.

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    Toppi, J; Anzolin, A; Petti, M; Cincotti, F; Mattia, D; Salinari, S; Babiloni, F; Astolfi, L

    2014-01-01

    Methods based on the multivariate autoregressive (MVAR) approach are commonly used for effective connectivity estimation as they allow to include all available sources into a unique model. To ensure high levels of accuracy for high model dimensions, all the observations are used to provide a unique estimation of the model, and thus of the network and its properties. The unavailability of a distribution of connectivity values for a single experimental condition prevents to perform statistical comparisons between different conditions at a single subject level. This is a major limitation, especially when dealing with the heterogeneity of clinical conditions presented by patients. In the present paper we proposed a novel approach to the construction of a distribution of connectivity in a single subject case. The proposed approach is based on small perturbations of the networks properties and allows to assess significant changes in brain connectivity indexes derived from graph theory. Its feasibility and applicability were investigated by means of a simulation study and an application to real EEG data.

  2. An Event-Level Examination of Sex Differences and Subjective Intoxication in Alcohol-Related Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Patrick D.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Fromme, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory-based experimental research has demonstrated that the pharmacological effects of alcohol can increase aggressive responding. Given mixed findings and concerns regarding task validity, however, it remains uncertain whether this effect holds constant across men and women and whether variability in subjective alcohol intoxication contributes to alcohol-related aggression. In the present investigation, we used four years of event-level data in a sample of 1,775 college students (140,618 total observations) to provide a test of laboratory-derived findings on the link between alcohol and aggression in an alternative methodology. We found support for several such findings: 1) Within-person increases in alcohol intoxication, as assessed by estimated blood alcohol concentrations (eBACs), were associated with increases in the probability of aggression at the drinking-episode level; 2) This association was significantly stronger among men than among women; and 3) Within-person variability and between-persons individual differences in levels of subjective alcohol intoxication were associated with aggression over and beyond eBACs. Cross-methodological replication can reduce the impact of constraints specific to experimental studies on conclusions regarding alcohol’s relation with aggression. PMID:23421356

  3. Macular retinal sensitivity using MP-1 in healthy Malaysian subjects of different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Siti Aishah; Sharanjeet-Kaur; Mutalib, Haliza Abdul; Ngah, Nor Fariza

    2015-01-01

    To determine the influence of age and gender on macular sensitivity to light in healthy subjects of 4 age groups using the MP-1 microperimeter. A prospective study was carried out on 50 healthy subjects (age range: 18-60 years) divided into 4 age groups; 18-30 years, 31-40 years, 41-50 years and 51-60 years. Full-threshold microperimetry of the central 10° of retina was performed utilizing 32 points with the MP-1. Macula area was divided into four quadrants, which were superior nasal (SN), inferior nasal (IN), inferior temporal (IT) and superior temporal (ST). Total mean sensitivity at 10° for age groups 18-30 years, 31-40 years, 41-50 years and 51-60 years were 19.46 ± 0.30, 19.40 ± 0.39, 19.47 ± 0.35 and 18.73 ± 0.75 (dB), respectively. There was a significant difference in total mean retinal sensitivity at 10° and at the four quadrants with age but not for gender. The retinal sensitivity was highest in the IT quadrant and lowest in the SN quadrant for all age groups. The linear regression analysis revealed that there was a 0.019 dB, 0.016 dB, 0.022 dB, 0.029 dB and 0.029 dB per year age-related decline in mean macular sensitivity within the central 10° diameter in the SN, IN, IT and ST quadrants respectively. Among normal healthy subjects, there was a linear decline in retinal light sensitivity with increasing age with the highest reduction in the superior nasal quadrant and lowest in the inferior temporal quadrant. Copyright © 2015 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. [Characteristics of blood aggregation in human subjects of different age categories during normobaric interval hypo-oxytraining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotina, L A; Stepanov, V K; Dvornikov, M V

    2006-01-01

    Blood aggregation was studied in human subjects of different age groups given normobaric hypooxytraining. The experiment was performed with participation of two groups of volunteers: experienced human subjects well-adapted to hypoxia and young non-adapted subjects. NOT protocol included 7 min of breathing hypoxic mixture (90% N2 and 10% O2) and 3 min of breathing atmospheric air at room temperature, 6 cycles every other day during one month. Blood aggregation was assessed by 26 parameters with the use of a multifunctional diagnostic system that permitted biophysical (rheologic), biochemical (coagulative) and mathematic (systemic) diagnostics. Two groups of the human subjects displayed significantly different reactions to of blood aggregation to the extreme factor (NOT). There was a marked dependence of the blood aggregation reaction to the hypoxic factor on the body protective-adaptive potential. Our data substantiate the need to develop NOT protocols for pilots of specific ages.

  5. Italian and Swedish adolescents: differences and associations in subjective well-being and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Danilo; Sagone, Elisabetta; De Caroli, Maria Elvira; Nima, Ali Al

    2017-01-01

    One important aspect of subjective judgments about one's well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the "the ideal life." In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect) and psychological well-being was moderated by the adolescents' nationality. Italian (n = 255) and Swedish (n = 277) adolescents answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, and Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Differences between samples were tested using a Multiple Analysis of Variance. We also conducted a multiple group analysis (Italy and Sweden) using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate the relationship between all three subjective well-being constructs and psychological well-being. Italian adolescents scored significantly higher in satisfaction with life than Swedish adolescents. Additionally, across countries, girls scored significantly higher in negative affect than boys. In both countries, all three constructs of subjective well-being were significantly associated to adolescents' psychological well-being. Nevertheless, while the effect of the relationship between affect and psychological well-being was almost the same across countries, life satisfaction was more strongly related to psychological well-being among Swedish adolescents. The present study shows that there are larger variations between these two cultures in the cognitive construct of subjective well-being than in the affective construct. Accordingly, associations between the cognitive component, not the affective component, of subjective well-being and psychological well

  6. Italian and Swedish adolescents: differences and associations in subjective well-being and psychological well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagone, Elisabetta; De Caroli, Maria Elvira; Nima, Ali Al

    2017-01-01

    Background One important aspect of subjective judgments about one’s well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the “the ideal life.” In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect) and psychological well-being was moderated by the adolescents’ nationality. Method Italian (n = 255) and Swedish (n = 277) adolescents answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Differences between samples were tested using a Multiple Analysis of Variance. We also conducted a multiple group analysis (Italy and Sweden) using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate the relationship between all three subjective well-being constructs and psychological well-being. Results Italian adolescents scored significantly higher in satisfaction with life than Swedish adolescents. Additionally, across countries, girls scored significantly higher in negative affect than boys. In both countries, all three constructs of subjective well-being were significantly associated to adolescents’ psychological well-being. Nevertheless, while the effect of the relationship between affect and psychological well-being was almost the same across countries, life satisfaction was more strongly related to psychological well-being among Swedish adolescents. Conclusions The present study shows that there are larger variations between these two cultures in the cognitive construct of subjective well-being than in the affective construct. Accordingly, associations between the cognitive component, not the affective component, of

  7. Italian and Swedish adolescents: differences and associations in subjective well-being and psychological well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background One important aspect of subjective judgments about one’s well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the “the ideal life.” In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect and psychological well-being was moderated by the adolescents’ nationality. Method Italian (n = 255 and Swedish (n = 277 adolescents answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Differences between samples were tested using a Multiple Analysis of Variance. We also conducted a multiple group analysis (Italy and Sweden using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate the relationship between all three subjective well-being constructs and psychological well-being. Results Italian adolescents scored significantly higher in satisfaction with life than Swedish adolescents. Additionally, across countries, girls scored significantly higher in negative affect than boys. In both countries, all three constructs of subjective well-being were significantly associated to adolescents’ psychological well-being. Nevertheless, while the effect of the relationship between affect and psychological well-being was almost the same across countries, life satisfaction was more strongly related to psychological well-being among Swedish adolescents. Conclusions The present study shows that there are larger variations between these two cultures in the cognitive construct of subjective well-being than in the affective construct. Accordingly, associations between the cognitive component, not the affective

  8. Biomechanical analysis and modeling of different vertebral growth patterns in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driscoll Mark

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The etiology of AIS remains unclear, thus various hypotheses concerning its pathomechanism have been proposed. To date, biomechanical modeling has not been used to thoroughly study the influence of the abnormal growth profile (i.e., the growth rate of the vertebral body during the growth period on the pathomechanism of curve progression in AIS. This study investigated the hypothesis that AIS progression is associated with the abnormal growth profiles of the anterior column of the spine. Methods A finite element model of the spinal column including growth dynamics was utilized. The initial geometric models were constructed from the bi-planar radiographs of a normal subject. Based on this model, five other geometric models were generated to emulate different coronal and sagittal curves. The detailed modeling integrated vertebral body growth plates and growth modulation spinal biomechanics. Ten years of spinal growth was simulated using AIS and normal growth profiles. Sequential measures of spinal alignments were compared. Results (1 Given the initial lateral deformity, the AIS growth profile induced a significant Cobb angle increase, which was roughly between three to five times larger compared to measures utilizing a normal growth profile. (2 Lateral deformities were absent in the models containing no initial coronal curvature. (3 The presence of a smaller kyphosis did not produce an increase lateral deformity on its own. (4 Significant reduction of the kyphosis was found in simulation results of AIS but not when using the growth profile of normal subjects. Conclusion Results from this analysis suggest that accelerated growth profiles may encourage supplementary scoliotic progression and, thus, may pose as a progressive risk factor.

  9. Comparative Study of Sodium and Potassium in Different Types of Gallstones and in Serum of Subjects with Gallstones and Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Soomro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The study comprises evaluation of sodium and potassium in the pathogenesis of human gallstones as well as measurement of the concentration of these elements in gallstones and in sera of 109 gallstone subjects and 100 controls (age and sex matched with no personal or family history of gallstone disease. It was observed that serum concentrations for both sodium and potassium were comparable (p>0.05 between gallstone subjects and control subjects. In gallstones the concentration of sodium was significantly higher as compared to potassium (p<0.05. Normal sodium to potassium ratio was seen in serum of gallstone subjects, whereas, low sodium to potassium ratio was seen in gallstone carriers. Amongst the different types of gallstones, significantly high (p<0.05 concentrations of sodium and potassium were seen in calcium bilirubinate gallstones. The levels for these mineral elements were also raised in serum of pure calcium carbonate gallstone subjects.The results demonstrate that the higher concentration of sodium and potassium in gallstones may involve in both calcium bilirubinate gallstones and in serum of calcium carbonate gallstone subjects, which indicate their association with calcium in the precipitation of calcium bilirubinate and calcium carbonate in bile. Furthermore, low sodium to potassium ratio in gallstones indicates low ratio in bile of gallstone subjects.

  10. The impact of different 18FDG PET healthy subject scans for comparison with single patient in SPM analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallivanone, Francesca; Della Rosa, Pasquale A; Perani, Daniela; Gilardi, Maria C; Castiglioni, Isabella

    2017-03-01

    Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) has been applied for single-subject evaluation of [18F]FDG uptake in Alzheimer Disease (AD). In a single-subject framework, the patient is compared to a dataset of [18F]FDG PET images from healthy subjects (HS) evaluating brain metabolic abnormalities. No studies exist that assess the effects on SPM analysis of HS [18F]FDG PET datasets acquired from different subjects and using different PET scanners including the same or different PET scanners than those used for patients. This work aims to elucidate this issue from a methodological perspective. We considered six different [18F]FDG PET datasets, from different HS populations, acquired by different PET scanners. We applied SPM5 procedures for single-subject comparison with each of the six HS datasets in 10 probable AD patients showing the typical [18F]FDG pattern. We also implemented the same comparison in 3 probable AD patients and in 7 patients with a clinical diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impariment (MCI), showing subtle changes on visual inspection of [18F]FDG distribution. Considering the 10 patients with the typical [18F]FDG pattern, the results were comparable for all the SPM maps. In the 3 probable AD patients with subtle changes in [18F]FDG distribution, no significant AD pattern emerged when a small number (50) HS image set was used. In the 7 considered MCI patients the use of a large (>50) HS image set allowed to assess significant hypometabolic patterns related to a probable neurodegenerative pathology. The use of large HS datasets of PET scans (>50) is recommended for single-subject SPM analysis. On condition that appropriate preprocessing steps are provided, large HS datasets can include HS images acquired with different PET systems, not including images from the same scanner of that used for patients.

  11. PET and MRI show differences in cerebral asymmetry and functional connectivity between homo- and heterosexual subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Savic, Ivanka; Lindström, Per

    2008-01-01

    Cerebral responses to putative pheromones and objects of sexual attraction were recently found to differ between homo- and heterosexual subjects. Although this observation may merely mirror perceptional differences, it raises the intriguing question as to whether certain sexually dimorphic features in the brain may differ between individuals of the same sex but different sexual orientation. We addressed this issue by studying hemispheric asymmetry and functional connectivity, two parameters t...

  12. Comparison between repeats and non repeat residential burglaries: what is significantly different?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, L.; Junger, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Although the rate of residential burglary in the Netherlands is slightly less than 1% per year, over 3.2% of burgled houses in the city of Enschede on the Dutch-German border experience more than one burglary per year. A question arising from these figures is whether significantly different

  13. Transcriptome analysis and identification of significantly differentially expressed genes in Holstein calves subjected to severe thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Krishnamoorthy; Lee, Eunjin; Kwan, Anam; Lim, Youngjo; Lee, Junyep; Jang, Gulwon; Chung, Hoyoung

    2017-11-01

    RNA-Seq analysis was used to characterize transcriptome response of Holstein calves to thermal stress. A total of eight animals aged between 2 and 3 months were randomly selected and subjected to thermal stress corresponding to a temperature humidity index of 95 in an environmentally controlled house for 12 h consecutively for 3 days. A set of 15,787 unigenes were found to be expressed and after a threshold of threefold change, and a Q value protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum and MAPK signaling pathways. These results suggest that thermal stress triggered a complex response in Holstein calves and the animals adjusted their physiological and metabolic processes to survive. Many of the genes identified in this study have not been previously reported to be involved in thermal stress response. The results of this study extend our understanding of the animal's response to thermal stress and some of the identified genes may prove useful in the efforts to breed Holstein cattle with superior thermotolerance, which might help in minimizing production loss due to thermal stress.

  14. Objectively measured sedentary behaviour and moderate and vigorous physical activity in different school subjects: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Mooses, Kerli; M?gi, Katrin; Riso, Eva-Maria; Kalma, Maarja; Kaasik, Priit; Kull, Merike

    2017-01-01

    Background Evidence shows the positive influence of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and negative influence of sedentary time on health and academic achievement. Although schools can significantly contribute to overall physical activity, little is known about MVPA and sedentary behaviour in different school subjects in different grades. Methods Physical activity of 646 students from 18 schools (94 classes) and from three school stages (grades 1?9, aged 7?16) was measured with ac...

  15. Objectively measured sedentary behaviour and moderate and vigorous physical activity in different school subjects: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Kerli Mooses; Katrin Mägi; Eva-Maria Riso; Maarja Kalma; Priit Kaasik; Merike Kull

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Evidence shows the positive influence of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and negative influence of sedentary time on health and academic achievement. Although schools can significantly contribute to overall physical activity, little is known about MVPA and sedentary behaviour in different school subjects in different grades. Methods Physical activity of 646 students from 18 schools (94 classes) and from three school stages (grades 1–9, aged 7–16) was measure...

  16. Individual Differences in Subjective Utility and Risk Preferences: The Influence of Hedonic Capacity and Trait Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Jonathon R; Paulus, Martin P

    2017-01-01

    Individual differences in decision-making are important in both normal populations and psychiatric conditions. Variability in decision-making could be mediated by different subjective utilities or by other processes. For example, while traditional economic accounts attribute risk aversion to a concave subjective utility curve, in practice other factors could affect risk behavior. This distinction may have important implications for understanding the biological basis of variability in decision-making and for developing interventions to improve decision-making. Another aspect of decision-making that may vary between individuals is the sensitivity of subjective utility to counterfactual outcomes (outcomes that could have occurred, but did not). We investigated decision-making in relation to hedonic capacity and trait anxiety, two traits that relate to psychiatric conditions but also vary in the general population. Subjects performed a decision-making task, in which they chose between low- and high-risk gambles to win 0, 20, or 40 points on each trial. Subjects then rated satisfaction after each outcome on a visual analog scale, indicating subjective utility. Hedonic capacity was positively associated with the subjective utility of winning 20 points but was not associated with the concavity of the subjective utility curve (constructed using the mean subjective utility of winning 0, 20, or 40 points). Consistent with economic theory, concavity of the subjective utility curve was associated with risk aversion. Hedonic capacity was independently associated with risk seeking (i.e., not mediated by the shape of the subjective utility curve), while trait anxiety was unrelated to risk preferences. Contrary to our expectations, counterfactual sensitivity was unrelated to hedonic capacity and trait anxiety. Nevertheless, trait anxiety was associated with a self-report measure of regret-proneness, suggesting that counterfactual influences may occur via a pathway that is separate

  17. Individual Differences in Subjective Utility and Risk Preferences: The Influence of Hedonic Capacity and Trait Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon R. Howlett

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in decision-making are important in both normal populations and psychiatric conditions. Variability in decision-making could be mediated by different subjective utilities or by other processes. For example, while traditional economic accounts attribute risk aversion to a concave subjective utility curve, in practice other factors could affect risk behavior. This distinction may have important implications for understanding the biological basis of variability in decision-making and for developing interventions to improve decision-making. Another aspect of decision-making that may vary between individuals is the sensitivity of subjective utility to counterfactual outcomes (outcomes that could have occurred, but did not. We investigated decision-making in relation to hedonic capacity and trait anxiety, two traits that relate to psychiatric conditions but also vary in the general population. Subjects performed a decision-making task, in which they chose between low- and high-risk gambles to win 0, 20, or 40 points on each trial. Subjects then rated satisfaction after each outcome on a visual analog scale, indicating subjective utility. Hedonic capacity was positively associated with the subjective utility of winning 20 points but was not associated with the concavity of the subjective utility curve (constructed using the mean subjective utility of winning 0, 20, or 40 points. Consistent with economic theory, concavity of the subjective utility curve was associated with risk aversion. Hedonic capacity was independently associated with risk seeking (i.e., not mediated by the shape of the subjective utility curve, while trait anxiety was unrelated to risk preferences. Contrary to our expectations, counterfactual sensitivity was unrelated to hedonic capacity and trait anxiety. Nevertheless, trait anxiety was associated with a self-report measure of regret-proneness, suggesting that counterfactual influences may occur via a pathway

  18. Affective Norms for 718 Polish Short Texts (ANPST): Dataset with Affective Ratings for Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Subjective Significance and Source Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbir, Kamil K

    2016-01-01

    Affective sciences are of burgeoning interest and are attracting more and more research attention. Three components of stimuli meaning have traditionally been distinguished: valence (degree of pleasantness), arousal (degree of intensity of sensations), and dominance (degree of control over sensations). Recently, another three dimensions have been introduced to measure qualities connected to the emotion-duality model: origin (the main component originating in the heart or in the mind), subjective significance (the degree of the subjective goal's relevance), and source (the location of the stimuli evoking the state). All six affective dimensions were assessed in our study of 718 Polish short texts (sentences of 5-23 words and 36-133 characters in length) describing situations or states in a way that can be referenced to an individual's experience. Assessments were carried out by 148 psychology students (all women for 108 sentences) and 2,091 students of different faculties (social science, engineering, life science, and science) from Warsaw colleges and universities (1,061 women and 1,030 men for all 718 sentences). Assessing sets of sentences for emotional response is especially useful for researchers interested in emotion elicitation through the use of a phrase such as "imagine that …" or by simply reading emotionally charged material that is more complex and that provides better context than single pictures or words.

  19. Nitrogen dynamics in oak model ecosystems subjected to air warming and drought on two different soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, T M; Schleppi, P; Hu, B; Schulin, R; Günthardt-Goerg, M S

    2013-01-01

    Being tolerant to heat and drought, oaks are promising candidates for future forestry in view of climate change in Central Europe. Air warming is expected to increase, and drought decrease soil N availability and thus N supply to trees. Here, we conducted a model ecosystem experiment, in which mixed stands of young oaks (Quercus robur, Q. petraea and Q. pubescens) were grown on two different soils and subjected to four climate treatments during three growing seasons: air warming by 1-2 °C, drought periods (average precipitation reduction of 43-60%), a combination of these two treatments, and a control. In contrast to our hypotheses, neither air warming nor drought significantly affected N availability, whereas total amounts, vertical distribution and availability of soil N showed substantial differences between the two soils. While air warming had no effect on tree growth and N accumulation, the drought treatment reduced tree growth and increased, or tended to increase, N accumulation in the reduced biomass, indicating that growth was not limited by N. Furthermore, (15) N-labelling revealed that this accumulation was associated with an increased uptake of nitrate. On the basis of our results, climate change effects on N dynamics are expected to be less important in oak stands than reduced soil water availability. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. Gender differences of social interactions and their effects on subjective well-being among Japanese elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, Hideki; Hougham, Gavin W

    2014-01-01

    Gender differences of social interactions and their effects on subjective well-being among Japanese elders over three years were examined. Repeated measurements of 498 elders over a three-year survey interval were obtained from a baseline mail survey and two- and three-year follow-up surveys. Outcomes were analyzed using Hierarchical Linear Modeling. Male elders were more likely to have a spouse and work at paid jobs, while female elders were likely to have more frequent contacts with their child/children and more interactions with friends. As the elders aged over three years, life satisfaction decreased, while depression did not show any significant overall trend. There were no beneficial effects of social interactions on change in well-being, although social participation, interaction with friends, and conversation with spouse were beneficially related to baseline levels of both depressive tendency and life satisfaction. Among female elders only, the number of children had beneficial effects on life satisfaction. There are modest gender differences of the impact of social interactions on the well-being of Japanese elders, and the number of children seems to be more important as potential sources of support for female rather than male elders. Spousal conversation and non-obligatory social interaction such as unpaid social activities and friendship seem to be important for both male and female elders in Japan. These findings suggest that social relations among Japanese elders may be moving away from more gender dependent patterns seen in the past.

  1. Cannabis-related episodic memory deficits and hippocampal morphological differences in healthy individuals and schizophrenia subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew J; Cobia, Derin J; Reilly, James L; Gilman, Jodi M; Roberts, Andrea G; Alpert, Kathryn I; Wang, Lei; Breiter, Hans C; Csernansky, John G

    2015-09-01

    Cannabis use has been associated with episodic memory (EM) impairments and abnormal hippocampus morphology among both healthy individuals and schizophrenia subjects. Considering the hippocampus' role in EM, research is needed to evaluate the relationship between cannabis-related hippocampal morphology and EM among healthy and clinical groups. We examined differences in hippocampus morphology between control and schizophrenia subjects with and without a past (not current) cannabis use disorder (CUD). Subjects group-matched on demographics included 44 healthy controls (CON), 10 subjects with a CUD history (CON-CUD), 28 schizophrenia subjects with no history of substance use disorders (SCZ), and 15 schizophrenia subjects with a CUD history (SCZ-CUD). Large-deformation, high-dimensional brain mapping with MRI produced surface-based representations of the hippocampus that were compared across all four groups and correlated with EM and CUD history. Surface maps of the hippocampus were generated to visualize morphological differences. CON-CUD and SCZ-CUD were characterized by distinct cannabis-related hippocampal shape differences and parametric deficits in EM performance. Shape differences observed in CON-CUD were associated with poorer EM performance, while shape differences observed in SCZ-CUD were associated with a longer duration of CUD and shorter duration of CUD remission. A past history of CUD may be associated with notable differences in hippocampal morphology and EM impairments among adults with and without schizophrenia. Although the results may be compatible with a causal hypothesis, we must consider that the observed cannabis-related shape differences in the hippocampus could also be explained as biomarkers of a neurobiological susceptibility to poor memory or the effects of cannabis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Gender differences in childhood food preference: evaluation using a subjective picture choice method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Shinji; Endo, Yuri; Minamimae, Keiko; Kanzaki, Susumu; Hanaki, Keiichi

    2014-06-01

    A preference for calorie-dense food in men seems to be closely linked with a considerably higher incidence of obesity in adulthood for men than women, but it is not clear in which life stage the gender differences in food preference begin to appear. In order to clarify this, a picture choice method has been developed that is designed to evaluate food preferences or interests in children based on their subjective choices. In total, 486 children aged 6-12 years were enrolled. To evaluate food interest, children were instructed to choose any 10 from 36 pictures in the panel showing 10 different foods and 26 other things. The number of foods chosen was set as the food interest score. For food preference, they were also instructed to choose any 10 from 36 pictures in the other panel depicting 36 different foods. For the 10 foods chosen, Japanese food score, energy density, fat energy content, and saturated fatty acid score were calculated. These indices were compared for sex, age group and body mass index. Indices reflecting food interest or fat preference were significantly higher in boys than girls both in the 7-9- and 10-12-year-old age groups. Positive correlations were found between food interest score and energy density, fat energy content, and saturated fatty acid score. Using the picture choice method, definite gender differences in food preference were identified in early elementary school children. This information could be useful for dietary therapy in childhood obesity. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  3. Significance analysis of the regional differences on icing time of water onto fire protective clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L. Z.; Jing, L. S.; Zhang, X. Z.; Xia, J. J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, T.; Hu, C.; Bao, Z. M.; Fu, X. C.; Wang, R. J.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. J.

    2017-09-01

    The object of this work was to determine the icing temperature in icing experiment. Firstly, a questionnaire investigation was carried out on 38 fire detachments in different regions. These Statistical percentage results were divided into northern east group and northern west group. Secondly, a significance analysis between these two results was made using Mann-Whitney U test. Then the icing temperature was determined in different regions. Thirdly, the icing experiment was made in the environment of -20°C in Daxing’an Mountain. The anti-icing effect of new fire protective clothing was verified in this icing.

  4. Significant Differences in Physicochemical Properties of Human Immunoglobulin Kappa and Lambda CDR3 Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Catherine L.; Laffy, Julie M. J.; Wu, Yu-Chang Bryan; Silva O’Hare, Joselli; Martin, Victoria; Kipling, David; Fraternali, Franca; Dunn-Walters, Deborah K.

    2016-01-01

    Antibody variable regions are composed of a heavy and a light chain, and in humans, there are two light chain isotypes: kappa and lambda. Despite their importance in receptor editing, the light chain is often overlooked in the antibody literature, with the focus being on the heavy chain complementarity-determining region (CDR)-H3 region. In this paper, we set out to investigate the physicochemical and structural differences between human kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. We constructed a dataset containing over 29,000 light chain variable region sequences from IgM-transcribing, newly formed B cells isolated from human bone marrow and peripheral blood. We also used a published human naïve dataset to investigate the CDR-H3 properties of heavy chains paired with kappa and lambda light chains and probed the Protein Data Bank to investigate the structural differences between kappa and lambda antibody CDR regions. We found that kappa and lambda light chains have very different CDR physicochemical and structural properties, whereas the heavy chains with which they are paired do not differ significantly. We also observed that the mean CDR3 N nucleotide addition in the kappa, lambda, and heavy chain gene rearrangements are correlated within donors but can differ between donors. This indicates that terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase may work with differing efficiencies between different people but the same efficiency in the different classes of immunoglobulin chain within one person. We have observed large differences in the physicochemical and structural properties of kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. This may reflect different roles in the humoral immune response. PMID:27729912

  5. Significant differences in pediatric psychotropic side effects: Implications for school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiszyn, Thomas; Mire, Sarah; Dutt, Sonia; Papathopoulos, Katina; Burridge, Andrea Backsheider

    2012-03-01

    Some side effects (SEs) of increasingly prescribed psychotropic medications can impact student performance in school. SE risk varies, even among drugs from the same class (e.g., antidepressants). Knowing which SEs occur significantly more often than others may enable school psychologists to enhance collaborative risk-benefit analysis, medication monitoring, data-based decision-making, and inform mitigation efforts. SE data from Full Prescribing Information (PI) on the FDA website for ADHD drugs, atypical antipsychotics, and antidepressants with pediatric indications were analyzed. Risk ratios (RR) are reported for each drug within a category compared with placebo. RR tables and graphs inform the reader about SE incidence differences for each drug and provide clear evidence of the wide variability in SE incidence in the FDA data. Breslow-Day and Cochran Mantel-Haenszel methods were used to test for drug-placebo SE differences and to test for significance across drugs within each category based on odds ratios (ORs). Significant drug-placebo differences were found for each drug compared with placebo, when odds were pooled across all drugs in a category compared with placebo, and between some drugs within categories. Unexpectedly, many large RR differences did not reach significance. Potential explanations are offered, including limitations of the FDA data sets and statistical and methodological issues. Future research directions are offered. The potential impact of certain SEs on school performance, mitigation strategies, and the potential role of the school psychologist is discussed, with consideration for ethical and legal limitations. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Significance of different microalgal species for growth of moon jellyfish ephyrae, Aurelia sp.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shan; Sun, Xiaoxia; Wang, Yantao; Sun, Song

    2015-10-01

    The scyphozoan Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus) sp. l., is a cosmopolitan species-complex which blooms seasonally in a variety of coastal and shelf sea environments around the world. The effects of different microalgal species on the growth of newly-released Aurelia sp.1 ephyrae were studied under laboratory conditions. We fed ephyrae with four different microalgal species (diatom, autotrophic dinoflagellate, heterotrophic dinoflagellate, and chlorophyta) plus Artemia nauplii for 12-24 d at 18°C. Results showed that the growth rate diverged significantly for Artemia nauplii compared to other food types. In addition, there was no significant variation between the growth rates for Skeletonema costatum and Prorocentrum donghaiense, and no significant variation was found in the growth rates for N. scintillans and P. subcordiformis. Artemia nauplii could support the energy requirement for the newly-released ephyrae to develop to meduase, and the ephyrae with Artemia nauplii showed a significant average growth rate of 25.85% d-1. Newly-released ephyrae could grow slightly with some species of microalgae in the earliest development stage. Chain diatom Skeletonema costatum and autotrophic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense, could not support the growth of the ephyrae, while heterotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans and chlorophyta Platymonas subcordiformis could support the growth of the ephyrae. However, none of the ephyrae fed with the tested phytoplankton could mature to medusae.

  7. Mechanical properties of two-way different configurations of prestressed concrete members subjected to axial loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaobi Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the mechanical properties of two-way different configurations of prestressed concrete members subjected to axial loading, a finite element model based on the nuclear power plant containments is demonstrated. This model takes into account the influences of different principal stress directions, the uniaxial or biaxial loading, and biaxial loading ratio. The displacement-controlled load is applied to obtain the stress–strain response. The simulated results indicate that the differences of principal stress axes have great effects on the stress–strain response under uniaxial loading. When the specimens are subjected to biaxial loading, the change trend of stress with the increase of loading ratio is obviously different along different layout directions. In addition, correlation experiments and finite element analyses were conducted to verify the validity and reliability of the analysis in this study.

  8. Comparative analysis of the Shadoo gene between cattle and buffalo reveals significant differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While prions play a central role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, the biology of these proteins and the pathophysiology of these diseases remain largely unknown. Since no case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE has ever been reported in buffalo despite their phylogenetic proximity to cattle, genetic differences may be driving the different susceptibilities of these two species to BSE. We thus hypothesized that differences in expression of the most recently identified member of the prion family or Shadoo (SPRN gene may relate to these species-specific differences. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We first analyzed and compared the polymorphisms of the SPRN gene (~4.4 kb, including the putative promoter, coding and 3' regions, and further verified the entire ORF and putative promoter. This yielded a total of 117 fixed differences, remarkably: 1 a 12-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the hydrophobic domain of the cattle but not buffalo gene, introducing a four amino acid expansion/contraction in a series of 5 tandem Ala/Gly-containing repeats; 2 two fixed missense mutations (102Ser→Gly and 119Thr→Ala, and three missense mutations (92Pro>Thr/Met, 122Thr>Ile and 139Arg>Trp in the coding region presenting different (P<0.05 genotypic and allelic frequency distributions between cattle and buffalo; and, 3 functional luciferase-reporter experiments for the predicted promoter region, consistent with a significantly higher activity in buffalo than cattle. Supporting these findings, immunoblotting revealed higher relative expression levels of Sho protein in cerebrum from buffalo than from cattle. In addition, for cattle, highest Sho expression was detected in obex, as compared to cerebrum or cerebellum. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings support Sho as a non-PrP specific marker for prion infections, with obex as the best tissue source for the detection of Sho in TSE rapid tests. Moreover, these discoveries may prove

  9. Intensified emotion perception in depression: Differences in physiological arousal and subjective perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzler, Sofia; Hagen, Marleen; Tarvainen, Mika P; Hilke, Marietheres; Ghirmai, Naddy; Huthmacher, Ann-Caitlin; Trettin, Marco; van Dick, Rolf; Reif, Andreas; Oertel-Knöchel, Viola

    2017-07-01

    People suffering from depression perceive themselves and their surroundings as more negative than healthy ones. An explanation might be that depressed individuals experience negative information as more stressful than non-depressed subjects and, consequently, respond in an amplified manner on a subjective and physiological level. To test this proposition, we presented 41 patients with recurrent depressive episodes and 42 controls with stimuli from the International Affective Picture System split into three valence categories while different parameters of physiological arousal (e.g., heart rate variability) and subjective perceptions of valence and arousal were assessed. Furthermore, we examined social skills and emotional competence. Results regarding physiological arousal revealed an elevated skin temperature and a more accentuated respiratory frequency in depressed subjects. Furthermore, depressed subjects rated the stimuli as more negative and arousing, which was associated with reduced social and emotional competence. Variation in antidepressant medication, menstrual cycle and other factors that have an impact on HRV are a potential bias. Our findings suggest an intensified perception of negative emotion in depressed individuals as compared to controls that manifests itself in an increased physiological arousal as well as on a subjective level. This intensified emotion perception is further associated with deficits in social and emotional competence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Response of different lines and cultivars of rice subjected to low temperatures under controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra H Díaz Solís

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is the most important food crop in the world and primary source of food for more than a third of the population. The low temperatures are among the main abiotic stresses that affect the yield of this cereal. The objective of this work was to determinate the response of different lines and cultivars of rice in seedling state to low temperature stress under controlled conditions. 172 lines and cultivars were studied. It were subjected to 5 0C for 24 hours, when the plants were about three to four leaves. The evaluations were conducted by measured of chlorophyll fluorescence and visually. A wide range of response was obtained, which indicated a high allelic diversity for the low temperatures sensitivity in the studied germplasm. A group of 30 cultivars responded more favorably to the cold and the most prominent cultivars showed Fv/Fm values between 0.80 and 0.89. A significant relationship between visual evaluation and chlorophyll fluorescence was found. The correlation coefficient revealed a moderately strong relationship between both variables. Tolerant plant materials were more consistently identified. However, the dispersion between methods increased to more susceptible cultivars.   Keywords: cold tolerance, chlorophyll fluorescence, Oryza sativa, visual evaluation

  11. Gender Differences in Contextual Predictors of Urban, Early Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Moallem, B. Isabel; Vacek, Kimberly R.; Blackmon, Sha'kema; Coyle, Laura D.; Gomez, Kenia L.; Lamp, Kristen; Langrehr, Kimberly J.; Luginbuhl, Paula; Mull, Megan K.; Telander, Kyle J.; Steele, J. Corey

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences in predicting subjective well-being (SWB) were examined in 168 urban adolescents. School satisfaction predicted life satisfaction for boys; for girls, family satisfaction predicted life satisfaction and neighborhood satisfaction predicted negative affect. Self-esteem predicted positive affect for both genders, but friends…

  12. Sex differences in subjective and actigraphic sleep measures: A population-based study of elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, J.F. van den; Miedema, H.M.E.; Tulen, J.H.M.; Hofman, A.; Neven, A.K.; Tiemeier, H.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate and explain sex differences in subjective and actigraphic sleep parameters in community-dwelling elderly persons. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: The study was embedded in the Rotterdam Study, a population-based study. Participants: Nine hundred fifty-six

  13. Two distinct groups within the Bacillus subtilis group display significantly different spore heat resistance properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, Erwin M; Zwietering, Marcel H; Kuipers, Oscar P; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J

    2015-02-01

    The survival of bacterial spores after heat treatment and the subsequent germination and outgrowth in a food product can lead to spoilage of the food product and economical losses. Prediction of time-temperature conditions that lead to sufficient inactivation requires access to detailed spore thermal inactivation kinetics of relevant model strains. In this study, the thermal inactivation kinetics of spores of fourteen strains belonging to the Bacillus subtilis group were determined in detail, using both batch heating in capillary tubes and continuous flow heating in a micro heater. The inactivation data were fitted using a log linear model. Based on the spore heat resistance data, two distinct groups (p subtilis group could be identified. One group of strains had spores with an average D120 °C of 0.33 s, while the spores of the other group displayed significantly higher heat resistances, with an average D120 °C of 45.7 s. When comparing spore inactivation data obtained using batch- and continuous flow heating, the z-values were significantly different, hence extrapolation from one system to the other was not justified. This study clearly shows that heat resistances of spores from different strains in the B. subtilis group can vary greatly. Strains can be separated into two groups, to which different spore heat inactivation kinetics apply. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes in Macular Pigment Optical Density and Serum Lutein Concentration in Japanese Subjects Taking Two Different Lutein Supplements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Obana

    Full Text Available To investigate macular pigment optical density (MPOD and serum concentration changes of lutein in Japanese subjects participating in a clinical trial in which two formulations of lutein and zeaxanthin supplements with different physiochemical properties are used.Thirty-six healthy volunteers were recruited into this prospective, randomized, parallel-group, double-masked comparative study at a single institute. Two products were used, FloraGLO® (Kemin Japan and XanMax® (Katra Phytochem. The lutein particle size and zeaxanthin concentrations differed between the formulations. The subjects consumed one of the two supplements for a duration of up to 6 months. MPOD levels were measured by resonance Raman spectrometry at baseline and once a month until the end of the study. Serum lutein concentration was measured at baseline, month 3, and month 6. The subjects were also tested for contrast sensitivity, glare sensitivity, visual acuity, and in addition had a focal electroretinogram measured.The mean serum lutein concentrations increased significantly after the first three months, but the mean MPOD levels in either supplement group did not show any statistically significant increase. A detailed analysis, however, revealed three response patterns in both groups for the increase of MPOD levels and serum lutein concentration, i.e. "retinal responders", who had an increase of both MPOD levels and serum lutein concentrations (n = 13, "retinal non-responders", who had only increased serum concentrations and no change in MPOD levels (n = 20, and "retinal and serum non-responders", who had neither MPOD level nor plasma concentration increases (n = 3. The subjects with low MPOD levels at baseline appeared to show increased MPOD levels at the 6 month time point upon lutein supplementation (r = -0.4090, p = 0.0133. Glare sensitivity improved in retinal responders in both supplement groups, while there were no remarkable changes in contrast sensitivity

  15. Changes in Macular Pigment Optical Density and Serum Lutein Concentration in Japanese Subjects Taking Two Different Lutein Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obana, Akira; Tanito, Masaki; Gohto, Yuko; Okazaki, Shigetoshi; Gellermann, Werner; Bernstein, Paul S

    2015-01-01

    To investigate macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and serum concentration changes of lutein in Japanese subjects participating in a clinical trial in which two formulations of lutein and zeaxanthin supplements with different physiochemical properties are used. Thirty-six healthy volunteers were recruited into this prospective, randomized, parallel-group, double-masked comparative study at a single institute. Two products were used, FloraGLO® (Kemin Japan) and XanMax® (Katra Phytochem). The lutein particle size and zeaxanthin concentrations differed between the formulations. The subjects consumed one of the two supplements for a duration of up to 6 months. MPOD levels were measured by resonance Raman spectrometry at baseline and once a month until the end of the study. Serum lutein concentration was measured at baseline, month 3, and month 6. The subjects were also tested for contrast sensitivity, glare sensitivity, visual acuity, and in addition had a focal electroretinogram measured. The mean serum lutein concentrations increased significantly after the first three months, but the mean MPOD levels in either supplement group did not show any statistically significant increase. A detailed analysis, however, revealed three response patterns in both groups for the increase of MPOD levels and serum lutein concentration, i.e. "retinal responders", who had an increase of both MPOD levels and serum lutein concentrations (n = 13), "retinal non-responders", who had only increased serum concentrations and no change in MPOD levels (n = 20), and "retinal and serum non-responders", who had neither MPOD level nor plasma concentration increases (n = 3). The subjects with low MPOD levels at baseline appeared to show increased MPOD levels at the 6 month time point upon lutein supplementation (r = -0.4090, p = 0.0133). Glare sensitivity improved in retinal responders in both supplement groups, while there were no remarkable changes in contrast sensitivity. No statistically

  16. The house of difference: gender, culture, and the subject-in-process on the American stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, L

    1993-01-01

    A lesbian woman of color is often defined by her multiple differences as "other" and/or "object." Yet these very differences can also allow her to challenge culturally held notions of gender, subjectivity, and representation. This article examines one such example, Cherríe Moraga's teatro Giving Up the Ghost where, for the first time, the issue of Chicana lesbian sexuality is addressed on the stage.

  17. Habitual sleep durations and subjective sleep quality predict white matter differences in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakh Khalsa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-imposed short sleep durations are increasingly commonplace in society, and have considerable health and performance implications for individuals. Reduced sleep duration over multiple nights has similar behavioural effects to those observed following acute total sleep deprivation, suggesting that lack of sleep affects brain function cumulatively. A link between habitual sleep patterns and functional connectivity has previously been observed, and the effect of sleep duration on the brain's intrinsic functional architecture may provide a link between sleep status and cognition. However, it is currently not known whether differences in habitual sleep patterns across individuals are related to changes in the brain's white matter, which underlies structural connectivity. In the present study we use diffusion–weighted imaging and a group comparison application of tract based spatial statistics (TBSS to investigate changes to fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD in relation to sleep duration and quality, hypothesising that white matter metrics would be positively associated with sleep duration and quality. Diffusion weighted imaging data was acquired from a final cohort of 33 (23–29 years, 10 female, mean 25.4 years participants. Sleep patterns were assessed for a 14 day period using wrist actigraphs and sleep diaries, and subjective sleep quality with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Median splits based on total sleep time and PSQI were used to create groups of shorter/longer and poorer/better sleepers, whose imaging data was compared using TBSS followed by post-hoc correlation analysis in regions identified as significantly different between the groups. There were significant positive correlations between sleep duration and FA in the left orbito-frontal region and the right superior corona radiata, and significant negative correlations between sleep duration and MD in right orbito-frontal white matter and the right

  18. Factors correlating with significant differences between X-ray structures of myoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashin, Alexander A., E-mail: alexander-rashin@hotmail.com [BioChemComp Inc., 543 Sagamore Avenue, Teaneck, NJ 07666 (United States); Iowa State University, 112 Office and Lab Bldg, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); Domagalski, Marcin J. [University of Virginia, 1340 Jefferson Park Avenue, Jordan Hall, Room 4223, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); Zimmermann, Michael T. [Iowa State University, 112 Office and Lab Bldg, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); Minor, Wladek [University of Virginia, 1340 Jefferson Park Avenue, Jordan Hall, Room 4223, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); Chruszcz, Maksymilian [University of Virginia, 1340 Jefferson Park Avenue, Jordan Hall, Room 4223, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); University of South Carolina, 631 Sumter Street, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Jernigan, Robert L. [Iowa State University, 112 Office and Lab Bldg, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); BioChemComp Inc., 543 Sagamore Avenue, Teaneck, NJ 07666 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Conformational differences between myoglobin structures are studied. Most structural differences in whale myoglobin beyond the uncertainty threshold can be correlated with a few specific structural factors. There are always exceptions and a search for additional factors is needed. The results might have serious implications for biological insights from conformational differences. Validation of general ideas about the origins of conformational differences in proteins is critical in order to arrive at meaningful functional insights. Here, principal component analysis (PCA) and distance difference matrices are used to validate some such ideas about the conformational differences between 291 myoglobin structures from sperm whale, horse and pig. Almost all of the horse and pig structures form compact PCA clusters with only minor coordinate differences and outliers that are easily explained. The 222 whale structures form a few dense clusters with multiple outliers. A few whale outliers with a prominent distortion of the GH loop are very similar to the cluster of horse structures, which all have a similar GH-loop distortion apparently owing to intermolecular crystal lattice hydrogen bonds to the GH loop from residues near the distal histidine His64. The variations of the GH-loop coordinates in the whale structures are likely to be owing to the observed alternative intermolecular crystal lattice bond, with the change to the GH loop distorting bonds correlated with the binding of specific ‘unusual’ ligands. Such an alternative intermolecular bond is not observed in horse myoglobins, obliterating any correlation with the ligands. Intermolecular bonds do not usually cause significant coordinate differences and cannot be validated as their universal cause. Most of the native-like whale myoglobin structure outliers can be correlated with a few specific factors. However, these factors do not always lead to coordinate differences beyond the previously determined uncertainty

  19. No gender differences in prognosis and preventive treatment in patients with AMI without significant stenoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim; Hvelplund, Anders; Abildstrøm, Steen Zabell

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate possible gender differences in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and without significant stenoses on coronary angiography (CAG) regarding prognosis and use of secondary preventive medication. Design: Nationwide register-based cohort study. Patients...... a prescription for a lipid-lowering drug, beta-blocker, clopidogrel, or aspirin within 60 days of discharge. Results: During follow-up, 97 women and 60 men died, resulting in a crude female/male hazard ratio (HR) of 1.51 (95% CI 1.09-2.08). After adjustment for age, time-period, and comorbidity, the gender...

  20. Process of Judging Significant Modifications for Different Transportation Systems compared to the Approach for Nuclear Installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Petrek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the CSM regulation by the European Commission in 2009 which harmonizes the risk assessment process and introduces a rather new concept of judging changes within the European railway industry. This circumstance has risen the question how other technology sectors handle the aspect of modifications and alterations. The paper discusses the approaches for judging the significance of modifications within the three transport sectors of European railways, aviation and maritime transportation and the procedure which is used in the area of nuclear safety. We will outline the similarities and differences between these four methods and discuss the underlying reasons. Finally, we will take into account the role of the European legislator and the fundamental idea of a harmonization of the different approaches.

  1. Proinflammatory and Prothrombotic State in Subjects with Different Glucose Tolerance Status before Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Isordia-Salas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inflammation has been associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and atherothrombosis. Aim. To determine differences in levels of proinflammatory and prothrombotic markers such as high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and fibrinogen in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, prediabetes, and T2DM and to establish their relationship with other cardiovascular risk factors before clinical manifestations of cardiovascular disease. Methods. We conducted a nonrandomized, cross-sectional assay in a hospital at México City. The levels of hs-CRP and fibrinogen were measured and compared according to glucose tolerance status. Results. We enrolled 1047 individuals and they were distributed into NGT n=473, pre-DM n=250, and T2DM n=216. There was a statistical difference between NGT and T2DM groups for fibrinogen (P=0.01 and hs-CRP (P=0.05. Fibrinogen and hs-CRP showed a significant positive correlation coefficient (r=0.53, P<0.0001. In a multiple stepwise regression analysis, the variability in fibrinogen levels was explained by age, HbA1c, and hs-CRP (adjusted R2=0.31, P<0.0001, and for hs-CRP it was explained by BMI and fibrinogen (adjusted R2=0.33, P<0.0001. Conclusion. Inflammation and prothrombotic state are present in people with T2DM lacking cardiovascular disease. Fibrinogen and Hs-CRP are positively correlated. Fibrinogen and hs-CRP concentrations are predominantly determined by BMI rather than glucose levels.

  2. Proinflammatory and Prothrombotic State in Subjects with Different Glucose Tolerance Status before Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isordia-Salas, Irma; Galván-Plata, María Eugenia; Leaños-Miranda, Alfredo; Aguilar-Sosa, Eberth; Anaya-Gómez, Francisco; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham; Santiago-Germán, David

    2014-01-01

    Background. Inflammation has been associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and atherothrombosis. Aim. To determine differences in levels of proinflammatory and prothrombotic markers such as high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and fibrinogen in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), prediabetes, and T2DM and to establish their relationship with other cardiovascular risk factors before clinical manifestations of cardiovascular disease. Methods. We conducted a nonrandomized, cross-sectional assay in a hospital at México City. The levels of hs-CRP and fibrinogen were measured and compared according to glucose tolerance status. Results. We enrolled 1047 individuals and they were distributed into NGT n = 473, pre-DM n = 250, and T2DM n = 216. There was a statistical difference between NGT and T2DM groups for fibrinogen (P = 0.01) and hs-CRP (P = 0.05). Fibrinogen and hs-CRP showed a significant positive correlation coefficient (r = 0.53, P<0.0001). In a multiple stepwise regression analysis, the variability in fibrinogen levels was explained by age, HbA1c, and hs-CRP (adjusted R 2 = 0.31, P<0.0001), and for hs-CRP it was explained by BMI and fibrinogen (adjusted R 2 = 0.33, P<0.0001). Conclusion. Inflammation and prothrombotic state are present in people with T2DM lacking cardiovascular disease. Fibrinogen and Hs-CRP are positively correlated. Fibrinogen and hs-CRP concentrations are predominantly determined by BMI rather than glucose levels. PMID:24772446

  3. Differences in personality traits between male-to-female and female-to-male gender identity disorder subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Eiichi; Taira, Naoki; Koda, Munenaga; Kondo, Tsuyoshi

    2014-12-15

    The present study aimed to investigate differences in personality traits among male-to-female (MtF), female-to-male (FtM) gender identity disorder (GID) subjects and non-transsexual male (M) and female (F) controls. Subjects were 72 MtF and 187 FtM GID subjects without psychiatric comorbidities together with 184 male and 159 female non-transsexual controls. Personality traits were assessed using a short version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-125). Group comparisons were made by two-way ANOVA. Statistical significances were observed as follows: 1) lower novelty seeking in FtM than in M or MtF, 2) higher reward dependence in FtM than in M, 3) higher cooperativeness in FtM than in M or MtF, 4) the highest self-transcendence in MtF among all the groups. The highest self-transcendence in MtF subjects may reflect their vulnerable identity and constrained adaptation to society as the minority. Nevertheless, higher reward dependence and cooperativeness in FtM subjects can be related to more determined motivation for the treatments of GID and might promise better social functioning and adjustment than MtF subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Study on the posterior teeth mesiodistal tipping degree of normal occlusion subjects among different facial growth patterns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chun-hui; Yang, Pu; Zhao, Zhi-he; Zhao, Mei-ying

    2010-08-01

    To study the relationship between the mesiodistal tipping degree of maxillary and mandible posterior teeth and different vertical facial skeletal types of subjects with normal occlusion. 163 subjects with normal occlusion were selected, lateral cephalograms were taken and divided into three different facial skeletal types. The difference of the mesiodistal tipping degrees and intersection angles of upper and lower posterior teeth between the three different facial skeletal types were analyzed. Among 163 subjects, vertical growth pattern, average growth pattern and horizontal growth pattern were 24, 96 and 43 respectively. There were statistic differences of mesiodistal tipping degrees of the first and second maxillary and mandible premolar and the first permanent molar between vertical growth and horizontal growth pattern, horizontal growth and average growth pattern (P 0.05). The differences of the maxillary and mandible posterior teeth's intersection angle among three vertical facial skeletal types had no statistic significance (P > 0.05). Different vertical facial skeletal type has its own normal and coordinated posterior teeth mesiodistal tipping degrees.

  5. Effect of gender, age and anthropometric variables on plantar fascia thickness at different locations in asymptomatic subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascual Huerta, Javier [Department of Podiatry, Universidad Europea de Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: javier.pascual@uem.es; Alarcon Garcia, Juan Maria [Ultrasound Unit, Hospital Nuestra Senora de America, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    Purpose: The study was aimed to investigate plantar fascia thickness at different locations in healthy asymptomatic subjects and its relationship to the following variables: weight, height, sex and age. Material and methods: The study evaluates 96 feet of healthy asymptomatic volunteers. The plantar fascia thickness was measured at four different locations: 1 cm proximal to the insertion of the plantar fascia, at the insertion of the plantar fascia on the calcaneus and separate out 1 cm + 2 cm distal to the insertion. A 10 MHz linear-array transducer was used. Results: There were statistically significant differences in plantar fascia thickness at the four different locations (p < 0.001) although no differences in PF thickness were found between the two distal from insertion locations (1 and 2 cm). Multiple regression analysis showed sex as independent predictor of plantar fascia thickness at 1 cm proximal to the insertion. At origin and 1 cm distal to insertion weight was an independent predictor of plantar fascia thickness. Conclusions: There are differences of thickness at different locations of plantar fascia measured by ultrasonography. Thickness at 1 cm proximal to the insertion is influenced by sex and thickness at origin and at 1 cm distal to the insertion has a direct relationship with body weight. This could be attributed to the overloading effect that weight has on plantar fascia in healthy symptomatic subjects at these two locations. Height and age did not seem to influence as independent variables in plantar fascia thickness among non-painful subjects.

  6. Super-resolution structure of DNA significantly differs in buccal cells of controls and Alzheimer's patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Angeles; Huang, David; Righolt, Amanda; Righolt, Christiaan; Kalaw, Maria Carmela; Mathur, Shubha; McAvoy, Elizabeth; Anderson, James; Luedke, Angela; Itorralba, Justine; Mai, Sabine

    2017-09-01

    The advent of super-resolution microscopy allowed for new insights into cellular and physiological processes of normal and diseased cells. In this study, we report for the first time on the super-resolved DNA structure of buccal cells from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) versus age- and gender-matched healthy, non-caregiver controls. In this super-resolution study cohort of 74 participants, buccal cells were collected and their spatial DNA organization in the nucleus examined by 3D Structured Illumination Microscopy (3D-SIM). Quantitation of the super-resolution DNA structure revealed that the nuclear super-resolution DNA structure of individuals with AD significantly differs from that of their controls (p structure of AD significantly differs in mild, moderate, and severe disease with respect to the DNA-containing and DNA-free/poor spaces. We conclude that whole genome remodeling is a feature of buccal cells in AD. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. DNA entropy reveals a significant difference in complexity between housekeeping and tissue specific gene promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David; Finan, Chris; Newport, Melanie J; Jones, Susan

    2015-10-01

    The complexity of DNA can be quantified using estimates of entropy. Variation in DNA complexity is expected between the promoters of genes with different transcriptional mechanisms; namely housekeeping (HK) and tissue specific (TS). The former are transcribed constitutively to maintain general cellular functions, and the latter are transcribed in restricted tissue and cells types for specific molecular events. It is known that promoter features in the human genome are related to tissue specificity, but this has been difficult to quantify on a genomic scale. If entropy effectively quantifies DNA complexity, calculating the entropies of HK and TS gene promoters as profiles may reveal significant differences. Entropy profiles were calculated for a total dataset of 12,003 human gene promoters and for 501 housekeeping (HK) and 587 tissue specific (TS) human gene promoters. The mean profiles show the TS promoters have a significantly lower entropy (pentropy distributions for the 3 datasets show that promoter entropies could be used to identify novel HK genes. Functional features comprise DNA sequence patterns that are non-random and hence they have lower entropies. The lower entropy of TS gene promoters can be explained by a higher density of positive and negative regulatory elements, required for genes with complex spatial and temporary expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Clinical and pathological features of autoimmune hepatitis: no significant differences between genders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi-xia; Miao, Qi; Xiao, Xiao; Shen, Lei; Chen, Xiao-yu; Qiu, De-kai; Ma, Xiong

    2012-05-01

    To explore the clinical and pathological features of male and female autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) patients. One hundred and sixty-nine AIH patients were enrolled. The clinical and histological data of the male cases were compared with the female ones. There were 23 (13.6%) male patients in our study. The general status, biochemical and immunological test, and histological findings between two groups had no significant difference (P more than 0.05). The IAIHG's revised original scoring system pretreatment scores of male patients (14.4+/-2.3) were lower than that of female ones (16.6+/-2.6, Z= -3.728, P=0.000), whereas the simplified scoring system scores of male patients (7.2+/-0.8) were higher than that of female ones (6.5+/-1.2, Z=-2.372, P=0.018). There were 15 male AIH patients treated with immunosuppressive therapy, then 12 of them reached complete biochemical remission, the other three cases were incomplete response. The complete biochemical remission rate in our male cases was 80%. Median duration of remission was 3 months (95% CI 2.070-3.930 months). There are no significant differences in clinical and pathological features of AIH between genders. The diagnosis of AIH should be suspected in male patients with any abnormality in serum aminotransferases levels. Liver biopsy examination is recommended to establish the diagnosis of AIH. The simplified criteria have good diagnostic value for male AIH patients.

  9. Neural correlates of musical creativity: differences between high and low creative subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta F Villarreal

    Full Text Available Previous studies of musical creativity suggest that this process involves multi-regional intra and interhemispheric interactions, particularly in the prefrontal cortex. However, the activity of the prefrontal cortex and that of the parieto-temporal regions, seems to depend on the domains of creativity that are evaluated and the task that is performed. In the field of music, only few studies have investigated the brain process of a creative task and none of them have investigated the effect of the level of creativity on the recruit networks. In this work we used magnetic resonance imaging to explore these issues by comparing the brain activities of subjects with higher creative abilities to those with lesser abilities, while the subjects improvised on different rhythmic fragments. We evaluated the products the subjects created during the fMRI scan using two musical parameters: fluidity and flexibility, and classified the subjects according to their punctuation. We examined the relation between brain activity and creativity level. Subjects with higher abilities generated their own creations based on modifications of the original rhythm with little adhesion to it. They showed activation in prefrontal regions of both hemispheres and the right insula. Subjects with lower abilities made only partial changes to the original musical patterns. In these subjects, activation was only observed in left unimodal areas. We demonstrated that the activations of prefrontal and paralimbic areas, such as the insula, are related to creativity level, which is related to a widespread integration of networks that are mainly associated with cognitive, motivational and emotional processes.

  10. Neural correlates of musical creativity: differences between high and low creative subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Mirta F; Cerquetti, Daniel; Caruso, Silvina; Schwarcz López Aranguren, Violeta; Gerschcovich, Eliana Roldán; Frega, Ana Lucía; Leiguarda, Ramón C

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of musical creativity suggest that this process involves multi-regional intra and interhemispheric interactions, particularly in the prefrontal cortex. However, the activity of the prefrontal cortex and that of the parieto-temporal regions, seems to depend on the domains of creativity that are evaluated and the task that is performed. In the field of music, only few studies have investigated the brain process of a creative task and none of them have investigated the effect of the level of creativity on the recruit networks. In this work we used magnetic resonance imaging to explore these issues by comparing the brain activities of subjects with higher creative abilities to those with lesser abilities, while the subjects improvised on different rhythmic fragments. We evaluated the products the subjects created during the fMRI scan using two musical parameters: fluidity and flexibility, and classified the subjects according to their punctuation. We examined the relation between brain activity and creativity level. Subjects with higher abilities generated their own creations based on modifications of the original rhythm with little adhesion to it. They showed activation in prefrontal regions of both hemispheres and the right insula. Subjects with lower abilities made only partial changes to the original musical patterns. In these subjects, activation was only observed in left unimodal areas. We demonstrated that the activations of prefrontal and paralimbic areas, such as the insula, are related to creativity level, which is related to a widespread integration of networks that are mainly associated with cognitive, motivational and emotional processes.

  11. Neural Correlates of Musical Creativity: Differences between High and Low Creative Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Mirta F.; Cerquetti, Daniel; Caruso, Silvina; Schwarcz López Aranguren, Violeta; Gerschcovich, Eliana Roldán; Frega, Ana Lucía; Leiguarda, Ramón C.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of musical creativity suggest that this process involves multi-regional intra and interhemispheric interactions, particularly in the prefrontal cortex. However, the activity of the prefrontal cortex and that of the parieto-temporal regions, seems to depend on the domains of creativity that are evaluated and the task that is performed. In the field of music, only few studies have investigated the brain process of a creative task and none of them have investigated the effect of the level of creativity on the recruit networks. In this work we used magnetic resonance imaging to explore these issues by comparing the brain activities of subjects with higher creative abilities to those with lesser abilities, while the subjects improvised on different rhythmic fragments. We evaluated the products the subjects created during the fMRI scan using two musical parameters: fluidity and flexibility, and classified the subjects according to their punctuation. We examined the relation between brain activity and creativity level. Subjects with higher abilities generated their own creations based on modifications of the original rhythm with little adhesion to it. They showed activation in prefrontal regions of both hemispheres and the right insula. Subjects with lower abilities made only partial changes to the original musical patterns. In these subjects, activation was only observed in left unimodal areas. We demonstrated that the activations of prefrontal and paralimbic areas, such as the insula, are related to creativity level, which is related to a widespread integration of networks that are mainly associated with cognitive, motivational and emotional processes. PMID:24069414

  12. Dietary patterns differently associate with inflammation and gut microbiota in overweight and obese subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Chun Kong

    Full Text Available Associations between dietary patterns, metabolic and inflammatory markers and gut microbiota are yet to be elucidated.We aimed to characterize dietary patterns in overweight and obese subjects and evaluate the different dietary patterns in relation to metabolic and inflammatory variables as well as gut microbiota.Dietary patterns, plasma and adipose tissue markers, and gut microbiota were evaluated in a group of 45 overweight and obese subjects (6 men and 39 women. A group of 14 lean subjects were also evaluated as a reference group.Three clusters of dietary patterns were identified in overweight/obese subjects. Cluster 1 had the least healthy eating behavior (highest consumption of potatoes, confectionary and sugary drinks, and the lowest consumption of fruits that was associated also with low consumption of yogurt, and water. This dietary pattern was associated with the highest LDL cholesterol, plasma soluble CD14 (p = 0.01 a marker of systemic inflammation but the lowest accumulation of CD163+ macrophages with anti-inflammatory profile in adipose tissue (p = 0.05. Cluster 3 had the healthiest eating behavior (lower consumption of confectionary and sugary drinks, and highest consumption of fruits but also yogurts and soups. Subjects in this Cluster had the lowest inflammatory markers (sCD14 and the highest anti-inflammatory adipose tissue CD163+ macrophages. Dietary intakes, insulin sensitivity and some inflammatory markers (plasma IL6 in Cluster 3 were close to those of lean subjects. Cluster 2 was in-between clusters 1 and 3 in terms of healthfulness. The 7 gut microbiota groups measured by qPCR were similar across the clusters. However, the healthiest dietary cluster had the highest microbial gene richness, as evaluated by quantitative metagenomics.A healthier dietary pattern was associated with lower inflammatory markers as well as greater gut microbiota richness in overweight and obese subjects.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01314690.

  13. Patients with gout differ from healthy subjects in renal response to changes in serum uric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sha; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Miner, Jeffrey N

    2017-03-01

    Our objectives were to determine whether a change in serum uric acid (sUA) resulted in a corresponding change in the fractional excretion of uric acid (FEUA) and whether the renal response was different in patients with gout versus healthy subjects. FEUA was calculated from previously published studies and four new phase I studies in healthy subjects and/or patients with gout before and after treatment to lower or raise sUA. Treatments included xanthine oxidase inhibitors to lower sUA as well as infusion of uric acid and provision of a high-purine diet to raise sUA. Plots were created of FEUA versus sUA before and after treatment. For the phase I studies, percent change in FEUA per mg/dL change in sUA was calculated separately for healthy subjects and patients with gout, and compared using Student's t test. Analysis of previously published data and the new phase I clinical data indicates that changing sUA by a non-renal mechanism leads to a change in FEUA. The magnitude of change is greater in subjects with higher baseline FEUA versus patients with gout. Healthy subjects excrete more urate than do patients with gout at physiological urate-filtered load; this difference disappears when the urate-filtered load is decreased to ∼5000mg/24hours. These observations are consistent with a less saturated urate reabsorption system in patients with gout versus healthy subjects, resulting in elevated retention of uric acid. Further investigation could lead to the discovery of mechanisms responsible for the etiology of hyperuricemia/gout. Copyright © 2016 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Prognostic significance of low microRNA-218 expression in patients with different types of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Fujiao; Wang, Kaijuan; Dai, Liping; Zhao, Xia; Feng, Yajing; Song, Chunhua; Cui, Shuli; Wang, Chengzeng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Mounting evidence showed that microRNAs may be useful as prognostic biomarkers of cancer. Therefore, we summarize the predictive role of microRNA-218 (miR-218) for survival in patients with various cancers. Methods: We performed a systematic literature review and assessed the quality of included studies based on Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology group (MOOSE). Hazard ratios (HRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the correlation between miR-218 expression and prognosis of different cancers. Results: We identified 10 studies for pooled analyses. For overall survival, a lower expression levels of miR-218 significantly predicted poorer survival, with the pooled HR of 2.61 (95% CI: 2.11–3.22, P < 0.001). For disease-free survival/progressive-free survival/recurrence-free survival (DFS/PFS/RFS), a lower expression level of miR-218 significantly predicted worse DFS/PFS/RFS in various carcinomas, with the pooled HR of 2.73 (95% CI: 2.08–3.58, P < 0.001). Similarly, subgroup analysis by detection method, ethnicity and cancer subtype analysis suggested that lower expression of miR-218 correlated with. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that lower miR-218 expression is significantly associated with poorer overall survival (OS) and DFS/PFS/RFS and may be a novel prognostic biomarker in some cancer types. PMID:27631228

  15. Subgroups of Paediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Might Differ Significantly in Genetic Predisposition to Asparaginase Hypersensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nóra Kutszegi

    Full Text Available L-asparaginase (ASP is a key element in the treatment of paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL. However, hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs to ASP are major challenges in paediatric patients. Our aim was to investigate genetic variants that may influence the risk to Escherichia coli-derived ASP hypersensitivity. Sample and clinical data collection was carried out from 576 paediatric ALL patients who were treated according to protocols from the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Study Group. A total of 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in GRIA1 and GALNT10 genes were genotyped. Patients with GRIA1 rs4958351 AA/AG genotype showed significantly reduced risk to ASP hypersensitivity compared to patients with GG genotype in the T-cell ALL subgroup (OR = 0.05 (0.01-0.26; p = 4.70E-04, while no such association was found in pre-B-cell ALL. In the medium risk group two SNPs of GRIA1 (rs2055083 and rs707176 were associated significantly with the occurrence of ASP hypersensitivity (OR = 0.21 (0.09-0.53; p = 8.48E-04 and OR = 3.02 (1.36-6.73; p = 6.76E-03, respectively. Evaluating the genders separately, however, the association of rs707176 with ASP HSRs was confined only to females. Our results suggest that genetic variants of GRIA1 might influence the risk to ASP hypersensitivity, but subgroups of patients can differ significantly in this respect.

  16. Subject domain differences in secondary school teachers' attitudes towards grouping pupils by ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallam Susan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has revealed that teachers' attitudes to ability grouping are influenced by the type of ability grouping adopted in the school where they teach. This research aimed to compare the attitudes of teachers of different subjects teaching low, high or mixed ability classes in years 7 to 9 in 45 secondary schools. Over 1500 teachers from 45 secondary schools, with a range of subject specialisms completed a questionnaire which elicited their responses to statements of beliefs about ability grouping and its effects. Teachers of mathematics and modern foreign languages were more in favour of structured ability grouping than those teaching English and humanities. Science, arts and PE, and ICT, design and business studies teachers expressed intermediate attitudes. Attitudes were determined in part by conceptions of the nature of the subject but also by the type of ability groupings adopted by the school in which they taught. In taking decisions about the type of ability grouping to adopt consideration needs to be given to the nature of the subject matter to be taught and the attitudes of the teachers who teach that subject.

  17. Violence-related Versus Terror-related Stabbings: Significant Differences in Injury Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenfeld, Michael; Givon, Adi; Peleg, Kobi

    2017-01-24

    To demonstrate the gap between injury epidemiology of terror-related stabbings (TRS) and non-terror-related intentional stabbings. Terror attacks with sharp instruments have multiplied recently, with many victims of these incidents presented to hospitals with penetrating injuries. Because most practical experience of surgeons with intentional stabbing injuries comes from treating victims of interpersonal violence, potential gaps in knowledge may exist if injuries from TRS significantly differ from interpersonal stabbings (IPS). A retrospective study of 1615 patients from intentional stabbing events recorded in the Israeli National Trauma Registry during the period of "Knife Intifada" (January 2013-March 2016). All stabbings were divided into TRS and IPS. The 2 categories were compared in terms of sustained injuries, utilization of hospital resources, and clinical outcomes. TRS patients were older, comprised more females and were ethnically homogenous. Most IPS incidents happened on weekdays and at night hours, whereas TRS events peaked midweek during morning and afternoon hours. TRS patients had more injuries of head, face, and neck, and severe head and neck injuries. IPS patients had more abdomen injuries; however, respective injuries in the TRS group were more severe. Greater injury severity of the TRS patients reflected on their higher hospital resources utilization and greater in-hospital mortality. Victims of terror stabbings are profoundly different in their characteristics, sustain injuries of a different profile and greater severity, require more hospital resources, and have worse off clinical outcomes, emphasizing the need of the healthcare systems to adjust itself appropriately to deal successfully with future terror attacks.

  18. Occlusal force, electromyographic activity of masticatory muscles and mandibular flexure of subjects with different facial types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, William; Gomes, Simone Guimarães Farias; Faot, Fernanda; Garcia, Renata Cunha Matheus Rodrigues; Del Bel Cury, Altair Antoninha

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether vertical facial patterns influence maximal occlusal force (MOF), masticatory muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity, and medial mandibular flexure (MMF). Seventy-eight dentate subjects were divided into 3 groups by Ricketts's analysis: brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolychofacial. Maximum occlusal force in the molar region was bilaterally measured with a force transducer. The electromyographic activities of the masseter and anterior temporal muscles were recorded during maximal voluntary clenching. Medial mandibular flexure was calculated by subtracting the intermolar distance of maximum opening or protrusion from the distance in the rest position. The data were analyzed using ANOVA followed by Tukey's HSD test. The significance level was set at 5%. Data on maximum occlusal force showed that shorter faces had higher occlusal forces (Pmandibular flexure, followed by the mesofacial and dolychofacial groups. Additionally, dolychofacial subjects showed significantly lower electromyographic temporalis activities (Pmandibular flexure were influenced by the vertical facial pattern.

  19. PET and MRI show differences in cerebral asymmetry and functional connectivity between homo- and heterosexual subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Ivanka; Lindström, Per

    2008-07-08

    Cerebral responses to putative pheromones and objects of sexual attraction were recently found to differ between homo- and heterosexual subjects. Although this observation may merely mirror perceptional differences, it raises the intriguing question as to whether certain sexually dimorphic features in the brain may differ between individuals of the same sex but different sexual orientation. We addressed this issue by studying hemispheric asymmetry and functional connectivity, two parameters that in previous publications have shown specific sex differences. Ninety subjects [25 heterosexual men (HeM) and women (HeW), and 20 homosexual men (HoM) and women (HoW)] were investigated with magnetic resonance volumetry of cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres. Fifty of them also participated in PET measurements of cerebral blood flow, used for analyses of functional connections from the right and left amygdalae. HeM and HoW showed a rightward cerebral asymmetry, whereas volumes of the cerebral hemispheres were symmetrical in HoM and HeW. No cerebellar asymmetries were found. Homosexual subjects also showed sex-atypical amygdala connections. In HoM, as in HeW, the connections were more widespread from the left amygdala; in HoW and HeM, on the other hand, from the right amygdala. Furthermore, in HoM and HeW the connections were primarily displayed with the contralateral amygdala and the anterior cingulate, in HeM and HoW with the caudate, putamen, and the prefrontal cortex. The present study shows sex-atypical cerebral asymmetry and functional connections in homosexual subjects. The results cannot be primarily ascribed to learned effects, and they suggest a linkage to neurobiological entities.

  20. Neuropathologically defined subtypes of Alzheimer's disease differ significantly from neurofibrillary tangle-predominant dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janocko, Nicholas J; Brodersen, Kevin A; Soto-Ortolaza, Alexandra I; Ross, Owen A; Liesinger, Amanda M; Duara, Ranjan; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Dickson, Dennis W; Murray, Melissa E

    2012-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be classified based on the relative density of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the hippocampus and association cortices into three subtypes: typical AD, hippocampal-sparing AD (HpSp AD), and limbic-predominant AD (LP AD). AD subtypes not only have pathologic, but also demographic, clinical, and genetic differences. Neurofibrillary tangle-predominant dementia (NFTD), a disorder with NFTs relatively restricted to limbic structures, shares this feature with LP AD raising the possibility that NFTD is a variant of AD. The objective criteria for pathologic diagnosis of NFTD are not available. A goal of this study was to design a mathematical algorithm that could diagnose NFTD from NFT and senile plaque (SP) counts in hippocampus and association cortices, analogous to that used to subtype AD. Moreover, we aimed to compare pathologic, demographic, clinical, and genetic features of NFTD (n = 18) with LP AD (n = 19), as well as the other AD subtypes, typical AD (n = 52) and HpSp AD (n = 17). Using digital microscopy, we confirmed that burden of phospho-tau (CP13) and of an NFT conformational epitope (Ab39) correlated with NFT densities and showed expected patterns across AD subtypes. HpSp AD had the highest and LP AD had the lowest burden of cortical CP13 and Ab39 immunoreactivity. On the other hand, cortical β-amyloid burden did not significantly differ between AD subtypes. Semi-quantitative assessment of SPs in the basal ganglia did show HpSp AD to have significantly more frequent presence of SPs compared to typical AD, which was more frequent than LP AD. Compared to LP AD, NFTD had an older age at disease onset and shorter disease duration, as well as lower Braak NFT stage. NFTs and SPs on thioflavin-S fluorescent microscopy, as well as CP13, Ab39, and Aβ immunoreactivities were very low in the frontal cortex of NFTD, differentiating NFTD from AD subtypes, including LP AD. MAPT H1H1 genotype frequency was high (~70 %) in NFTD and LP AD

  1. Intrapartum caesarean rates differ significantly between ethnic groups--relationship to induction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ismail, Khadijah I

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: Given international variation in obstetric practices and outcomes, comparison of labour outcomes in different ethnic groups could provide important information regarding the underlying reasons for rising caesarean delivery rates. Increasing numbers of women from Eastern European countries are now delivering in Irish maternity hospitals. We compared labour outcomes between Irish and Eastern European (EE) women in a large tertiary referral center. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective consecutive cohort study encompassing a single calendar year. The cohort comprised 5550 Irish and 867 EE women delivered in a single institution in 2009. Women who had multiple pregnancies, breech presentation, and elective or pre-labour caesarean sections (CS) were excluded. Data obtained from birth registers included maternal age, nationality, parity, gestation, onset of labour, mode of delivery and birth weight. RESULTS: The overall intrapartum CS rate was 11.4% and was significantly higher in Irish compared to EE women (11.8% vs. 8.8%; p=0.008). The proportion of primiparas was lower in Irish compared to EE women (44.8% vs. 63.6%; p<0.0001). The intrapartum CS rate was almost doubled in Irish compared to EE primiparas (20.7% vs. 11.0%; p<0.0001). Analysis of primiparas according to labour onset revealed a higher intrapartum CS rate in Irish primiparas in both spontaneous (13.5% vs. 7.2%; p<0.0001) and induced labour (29.5% vs. 19.3%; p=0.005). Irish women were older with 19.7% of primiparas aged more than 35, compared to 1.6% of EE women (p<0.0001). The primigravid CS rate in Irish women was significantly higher in women aged 35 years or older compared women aged less than 35 (30.6% vs. 18.3%; p<0.0001) consistent in both spontaneous and induced labour. The primiparous induction rate was 45.4% in Irish women compared to 32% in EE women, and more Irish women were induced before 41 weeks gestation. CONCLUSION: The results highlight that primigravid intrapartum CS rates were

  2. Leisure participation and subjective well-being: Exploring gender differences among elderly in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Feng, Qiushi; Lacanienta, Joy; Zhen, Zhihong

    To explore the association between leisure participation and subjective well-being and the role gender in this issue among elderly Chinese in Shanghai, China. Principal components analysis and logistic regressions are used to analyze the cross-sectional data of the 2013 Shanghai Elderly Life and Opinion Survey that contains 2884 respondents (60+ with a mean age of 72.6) recruited from a multistage cluster sampling design. Subjective well-being is measured by happiness and life satisfaction, and leisure participation is examined by the type and diversity of leisure activities. Principal components analysis identifies four major types of leisure activity that elderly Chinese are actively engaged in-detachment-recovery, aesthetic, social, and performing-arts activities. Among them, social activities and performing-arts activities have the most relevance to subjective well-being. Females are more likely to engage in social and performing-arts activities whereas males are more likely to engage in detachment-recovery and aesthetic activities. Performing-arts activities promote subjective well-being only for females. Social activities are beneficial for both gender groups, but more so for males than for females. While increased levels of leisure diversity are linearly related to increased odds of subjective well-being for females, moderate level of leisure diversity is found to be the most important for males. Leisure participation is positively related to subjective well-being among elderly Chinese, and thus could play a critical role in promoting healthy aging. The major gender differences as observed suggest the need to further explore gender-specific barriers in leisure participation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sex differences in lipolysis-regulating mechanisms in overweight subjects: effect of exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Cédric; Pillard, Fabien; de Glisezinski, Isabelle; Crampes, François; Thalamas, Claire; Harant, Isabelle; Marques, Marie-Adeline; Lafontan, Max; Berlan, Michel

    2007-09-01

    To explore sex differences in the regulation of lipolysis during exercise, the lipid-mobilizing mechanisms in the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) of overweight men and women were studied using microdialysis. Subjects matched for age, BMI, and physical fitness performed two 30-minute exercise bouts in a randomized fashion: the first test at 30% and 50% of their individual maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2max)) and the second test at 30% and 70% of their Vo(2max). In both groups, an exercise-dependent increment in extracellular glycerol concentration (EGC) was observed. Whatever the intensity, phentolamine [alpha-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonist] added to a dialysis probe potentiated exercise-induced lipolysis only in men. In a probe containing phentolamine plus propranolol (beta-AR antagonist), no changes in EGC occurred when compared with the control probe when exercise was performed at 30% and 50% Vo(2max). A significant reduction of EGC (when compared with the control probe) was observed in women at 70% Vo(2max). At each exercise power, the plasma non-esterified fatty acid and glycerol concentrations were higher in women. Exercise-induced increase in plasma catecholamine levels was lower in women compared with men. Plasma insulin decreased and atrial natriuretic peptide increased similarly in both groups. Overweight women mobilize more lipids (assessed by glycerol) than men during exercise. alpha(2)-Anti-lipolytic effect was functional in SCAT of men only. The major finding is that during low-to-moderate exercise periods (30% and 50% Vo(2max)), lipid mobilization in SCAT relies less on catecholamine-dependent stimulation of beta-ARs than on an increase in plasma atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations and the decrease in plasma insulin.

  4. [Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in different breast tissues and clinical significance thereof].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-Guo; Wang, Gang; Liu, Yang; Zou, Yu-Huan; Song, Ji-Ning; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Wen-Ya

    2008-03-25

    To investigate the differences in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and microvessel density (MVD) count in breast benign affection, breast atypical hyperplasia, and breast carcinoma in situ and to clarify the association of VEGF expression and MVD with the clinicopathological features of these diseases. Immunohistochemistry (SP-method) was used to examine the expression of VEGF and MVD count in 100 samples of breast benign affection (including 35 cases of breast fibroid tumor, 35 cases of breast cystic hyperplasia, and 30 cases of intraductal papilloma), and 15 samples of breast atypical hyperplasia, and 25 samples of breast carcinoma in situ, obtained during operation. The positive rate of VEGF of the breast carcinoma in situ group was 56% , significantly higher than hose of the breast benign affection and breast atypical hyperplasia groups (22% and 33% respectively, P breast fibroid tumor, breast cystic hyperplasia, and intraductal papilloma (all P > 0.05). The MVD value of the breast carcinoma in situ group was 20.1 +/- 6.1, significantly higher than those of the breast benign affection group and breast atypical hyperplasia groups (14.3 +/- 3. 5 and 18.5 +/- 3.6 respectively, both P breast fibroid tumor, breast cystic hyperplasia, and intraductal papilloma (all P > 0.05). In breast tumors, angiogenesis is probably mediated mainly by VEGF. The occurrence and progression of breast cancer may be related with the expression of VEGF.

  5. Field Dependence/Independence Cognitive Styles: Are They Significant At Different Levels Of Vocabulary Knowledge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rostampour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive styles influence the performance of language learners and can predict their success in the process of language learning. Considering field dependence/independence cognitive styles, this study aims at determining if they are significant in English vocabulary knowledge. A number of EFL university students took part in the study. The investigation was done through using Vocabulary Size Test (VST (Nation, 2007 and the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT (Witkin, Oltman, Raskin, and Karp, 1971. Using the Vocabulary Size Test (VST, the participants were divided into three groups of high, mid, and low. Moreover, with respect to the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT, they were divided into two groups, field dependents and field independents. Mean score comparison revealed there was a credible and meaningful relationship between field dependence/independence cognitive styles and total vocabulary knowledge. It was also indicated there was a significant relationship between field dependence/independence cognitive styles and vocabulary knowledge in the high and mid groups. Finally, based on the findings, teachers should take learners’ individual differences into consideration so that they could adopt and apply teaching methods in line with the learners’ various cognitive styles.

  6. The Prognostic Significance of Different Definitions for Angiosome-Targeted Lower Limb Revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špillerová, Kristýna; Biancari, Fausto; Settembre, Nicla; Albäck, Anders; Venermo, Maarit

    2017-04-01

    The definition of angiosome-targeted revascularization is confusing, especially when a tissue lesion affects several angiosomes. Two different definitions of direct revascularization exist in the literature. The study aim was (1) to compare the 2 definitions of direct revascularization in patients with foot lesions involving more than one angiosome and (2) to evaluate which definition better predicts clinical outcome. This study cohort comprises 658 patients with Rutherford 5-6 foot lesions who underwent infrapopliteal endovascular or surgical revascularization between January 2010 and July 2013. We compared the 2 angiosome-targeted definitions using multivariate analysis; the impact of each angiosome-targeted definition was adjusted for a propensity score obtained by means of nonparsimonious logistic regression. Direct revascularization according to definition A was performed in 367 cases (55.8%) versus 198 cases (30.1%) with definition B. The propensity-score-adjusted analysis showed that definition A of direct revascularization was associated with significantly better wound healing (P revascularization according to definition A was confirmed in a Cox proportional hazard analysis. Definition A of direct revascularization was associated with a significantly higher wound healing and leg salvage rate than indirect revascularization in both series. Therefore, it seems that, if the wound spreads over several angiosomes in the forefoot or heel, any angiosome involved in the wound can be targeted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Neural correlates of interindividual differences in the subjective experience of pain

    OpenAIRE

    Coghill, Robert C.; McHaffie, John G.; Yen, Ye-Fen

    2003-01-01

    Some individuals claim that they are very sensitive to pain, whereas others say that they tolerate pain well. Yet, it is difficult to determine whether such subjective reports reflect true interindividual experiential differences. Using psychophysical ratings to define pain sensitivity and functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess brain activity, we found that highly sensitive individuals exhibited more frequent and more robust pain-induced activation of the prim...

  8. [Personal and social factors that influence subjective well-being: socioeconomic differences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Tania; Balancho, Leonor

    2017-04-01

    The main objective is to study the relation and impact of Socioeconomic Status (SES) on the subjective well-being in children and adolescents and the role of social and personal factors in this relation. Data was collected in 16 schools; 8 in the North and 8 in the Lisbon Region of Portugal. The questionnaires were filled out by 1,181 youths, 51.5% of which were female. Ages ranged between 8 and 17, the girl's average age being 9.8 years (SD = 1.32) and the boy's average age being 10.0 (SD = 1.53); 2.6% of young people had special educational needs, and 3% did not use the Portuguese language at home; 12.2% had repeated a grade; 27.1% had a high SES; 64.2% had medium/low SES and 8.7% were unemployed. Three adequate regression models were built. Model 1 established the association between SES and subjective well-being. This association turned out to be not significant with the effect of personal and social factors, which were strongly associated with subjective wellbeing. It was revealed that the impact of SES on subjective well-being is mitigated by the presence of social and personal factors. The promotion of personal and social skills appears to be an effective way to avoid the negative effects of low SES in child and adolescent development.

  9. High blood acetaldehyde levels after ethanol administration. Difference between alcoholic and nonalcoholic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsten, M A; Matsuzaki, S; Feinman, L; Lieber, C S

    1975-02-20

    Blood actaldehyde and ethanol levels were measured in 11 subjects, six with chronic alcholoism and five nonalcholic controls, after alcohol had been given intravenously. Despite a progressive fall in blood ethanol over a range of 54 to 33 mM/acetaldehyde did not decrease in any of the 11 subjects. The mean acetaldehyde plateau level was significantly (p less than 0.001) higher in alcoholic (42.7 plus or minus 1.2 mum) than in nonalcoholic (26.5 plus or minus 1.5 mum) subjects. When the mean blood ethanol concentration reached 24 mM,the acetaldehyde plateau ended abruptly in each subject. The ethanol concentration at which this fall of blood acetaldehyde occurred suggests desaturation of an ethanol oxidizing system other than alcohol dehydrogenase and indicates that at high ethanol blood levels, such a system contributes to ethanol oxidation. The highet acetaldehyde levels in alcholism may result from both greater activity of this system and mitochondrial damage, and could contribut to the neurologic, hepatic and cardiac complications of alcoholism.

  10. Individual differences in timing of peak positive subjective responses to d-amphetamine: Relationship to pharmacokinetics and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher T; Weafer, Jessica; Cowan, Ronald L; Kessler, Robert M; Palmer, Abraham A; de Wit, Harriet; Zald, David H

    2016-04-01

    Rate of delivery of psychostimulants has been associated with their positive euphoric effects and potential addiction liability. However, information on individual differences in onset of d-amphetamine's effects remains scarce. We examined individual differences in the time to peak subjective and physiological effects and the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of oral d-amphetamine. We considered two independent studies that used different dosing regimens where subjects completed the drug effects questionnaire at multiple time points post d-amphetamine. Based on the observation of distinct individual differences in time course of drug effects questionnaire "feel", "high", and "like" ratings (DEQH+L+F) in Study 1, subjects in both studies were categorized as early peak responders (peak within 60 minutes), late peak responders (peak > 60 minutes) or nonresponders; 20-25% of participants were categorized as early peak responders, 50-55% as late peak responders and 20-30% as nonresponders. Physiological (both studies) and plasma d-amphetamine (Study 1) were compared among these groups. Early peak responders exhibited an earlier rise in plasma d-amphetamine levels and more sustained elevation in heart rate compared to late peak responders. The present data illustrate the presence of significant individual differences in the temporal pattern of responses to oral d-amphetamine, which may contribute to heightened abuse potential. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Occlusal force, electromyographic activity of masticatory muscles and mandibular flexure of subjects with different facial types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Custodio

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether vertical facial patterns influence maximal occlusal force (MOF, masticatory muscle electromyographic (EMG activity, and medial mandibular flexure (MMF. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-eight dentate subjects were divided into 3 groups by Ricketts's analysis: brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolychofacial. Maximum occlusal force in the molar region was bilaterally measured with a force transducer. The electromyographic activities of the masseter and anterior temporal muscles were recorded during maximal voluntary clenching. Medial mandibular flexure was calculated by subtracting the intermolar distance of maximum opening or protrusion from the distance in the rest position. The data were analyzed using ANOVA followed by Tukey's HSD test. The significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: Data on maximum occlusal force showed that shorter faces had higher occlusal forces (P<0.0001. Brachyfacial subjects presented higher levels of masseter electromyographic activity and medial mandibular flexure, followed by the mesofacial and dolychofacial groups. Additionally, dolychofacial subjects showed significantly lower electromyographic temporalis activities (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of the study, it may be concluded that maximum occlusal force, masticatory muscle activity and medial mandibular flexure were influenced by the vertical facial pattern.

  12. Therapeutic satisfaction and subjective effects of different strains of pharmaceutical-grade cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Tibor M; van Genugten, Marianne; Höner-Snoeken, Kathrin; van de Velde, Marco J; Niesink, Raymond J M

    2014-06-01

    In The Netherlands, pharmaceutical-grade cultivated cannabis is distributed for medicinal purposes as commissioned by the Ministry of Health. Few studies have thus far described its therapeutic efficacy or subjective (adverse) effects in patients. The aims of this study are to assess the therapeutic satisfaction within a group of patients using prescribed pharmaceutical-grade cannabis and to compare the subjective effects among the available strains with special focus on their delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol content. In a cross-sectional and natural design, users of pharmaceutical-grade cannabis were investigated with questionnaires. Medical background of the patients was asked as well as experienced therapeutic effects and characteristics of cannabis use. Subjective effects were measured with psychometric scales and used to compare among the strains of cannabis used across this group of patients. One hundred two patients were included; their average age was 53 years and 76% used it for more than a year preceding this study. Chronic pain (53%; n = 54) was the most common medical indication for using cannabis followed by multiple sclerosis (23%; n = 23), and 86% (n = 88) of patients (almost) always experienced therapeutic satisfaction when using pharmaceutical cannabis. Dejection, anxiety, and appetite stimulation were found to differ among the 3 strains of cannabis. These results show that patients report therapeutic satisfaction with pharmaceutical cannabis, mainly pain alleviation. Some subjective effects were found to differ among the available strains of cannabis, which is discussed in relation to their different tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol content. These results may aid in further research and critical appraisal for medicinally prescribed cannabis products.

  13. Single muscle fibre contractile properties differ between body-builders, power athletes and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, J P; Jaspers, R T; Rittweger, J; Seynnes, O R; Kamandulis, S; Brazaitis, M; Skurvydas, A; Pišot, R; Šimunič, B; Narici, M V; Degens, H

    2015-11-01

    What is the central question of this study? Do the contractile properties of single muscle fibres differ between body-builders, power athletes and control subjects? What is the main finding and its importance? Peak power normalized for muscle fibre volume in power athletes is higher than in control subjects. Compared with control subjects, maximal isometric tension (normalized for muscle fibre cross-sectional area) is lower in body-builders. Although this difference may be caused in part by an apparent negative effect of hypertrophy, these results indicate that the training history of power athletes may increase muscle fibre quality, whereas body-building may be detrimental. We compared muscle fibre contractile properties of biopsies taken from the vastus lateralis of 12 body-builders (BBs; low- to moderate-intensity high-volume resistance training), six power athletes (PAs; high-intensity, low-volume combined with aerobic training) and 14 control subjects (Cs). Maximal isotonic contractions were performed in single muscle fibres, typed with SDS-PAGE. Fibre cross-sectional area was 67 and 88% (P power (PP) of PA fibres was 58% higher than that of BB fibres (P < 0.05), whereas BB fibres, despite considerable hypertrophy, had similar PP to the C fibres. This work suggests that high-intensity, low-volume resistance training with aerobic exercise improves PP, while low- to moderate-intensity high-volume resistance training does not affect PP and results in a reduction in specific tension. We postulate that the decrease in specific tension is caused by differences in myofibrillar density and/or post-translational modifications of contractile proteins. © 2015 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  14. Significant Differences in Perceived Odor Pleasantness Found in Children with ASD

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrdlička, M.; Vodička, J.; Havlovičová, M.; Urbánek, Tomáš; Blatný, Marek; Dudová, I.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 4 (2011), s. 524-527 ISSN 0162-3257 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : autism * Asperger’s syndrome * sensory abnormalities Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines Impact factor: 3.341, year: 2011

  15. Lippia alba morphotypes cidreira and melissa exhibit significant differences in leaf characteristics and essential oil profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline N. Jezler

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson, Verbenaceae, is widely used in traditional Brazilian medicine for the treatment of abdominal distress. The species exhibits considerable chemical and morphological diversity, and various chemotypes have been characterized. A comparative study of L. alba, has been carried out of the morphoanatomical characteristics of the leaves and the profiles of the essential oils of the morphotypes cidreira and melissa grown in the Medicinal Plant Garden of the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. The mean plant height of cidreira was 1.80 m and the stems and branches were fairly erect, while melissa plants were smaller (1.60 m and presented prostrate stems and branches. Although the leaf of the morphotypes look were similar, the mean values of length, width and area of the leaves of cidreira (respectively, 7.42 cm, 3.32 cm and 17.31 cm² differed significantly from those of melissa (4.68 cm, 2.35 cm and 7.32 cm2. The morphotypes presented amphistomatic leaves with uniseriate epidermis on both surfaces. The mesophyll was dorsiventral, but in cidreira the palisade parenchyma was biseriate while in melissa it was uniseriate. Simple tector and capitate glandular trichomes were present on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the leaf blades of both morphotypes. Six distinct types of glandular trichomes could be distinguished: types I and II were present in both morphotypes, while type III was detected only in cidreira, and types IV to VI were present only in melissa. The two morphotypes also differed with respect to the composition of the essential oil, cidreira produced oil composed mainly of citral, while the oil from melissa was rich in citral, limonene and carvone.

  16. Lippia alba morphotypes cidreira and melissa exhibit significant differences in leaf characteristics and essential oil profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline N. Jezler

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Br. ex Britton & P. Wilson, Verbenaceae, is widely used in traditional Brazilian medicine for the treatment of abdominal distress. The species exhibits considerable chemical and morphological diversity, and various chemotypes have been characterized. A comparative study of L. alba, has been carried out of the morphoanatomical characteristics of the leaves and the profiles of the essential oils of the morphotypes cidreira and melissa grown in the Medicinal Plant Garden of the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. The mean plant height of cidreira was 1.80 m and the stems and branches were fairly erect, while melissa plants were smaller (1.60 m and presented prostrate stems and branches. Although the leaf of the morphotypes look were similar, the mean values of length, width and area of the leaves of cidreira (respectively, 7.42 cm, 3.32 cm and 17.31 cm² differed significantly from those of melissa (4.68 cm, 2.35 cm and 7.32 cm2. The morphotypes presented amphistomatic leaves with uniseriate epidermis on both surfaces. The mesophyll was dorsiventral, but in cidreira the palisade parenchyma was biseriate while in melissa it was uniseriate. Simple tector and capitate glandular trichomes were present on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the leaf blades of both morphotypes. Six distinct types of glandular trichomes could be distinguished: types I and II were present in both morphotypes, while type III was detected only in cidreira, and types IV to VI were present only in melissa. The two morphotypes also differed with respect to the composition of the essential oil, cidreira produced oil composed mainly of citral, while the oil from melissa was rich in citral, limonene and carvone.

  17. Lung Adenocarcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma Gene Expression Subtypes Demonstrate Significant Differences in Tumor Immune Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruki, Hawazin; Mayhew, Gregory M; Serody, Jonathan S; Hayes, D Neil; Perou, Charles M; Lai-Goldman, Myla

    2017-06-01

    Molecular subtyping of lung adenocarcinoma (AD) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) reveal biologically diverse tumors that vary in their genomic and clinical attributes. Published immune cell signatures and several lung AD and SCC gene expression data sets, including The Cancer Genome Atlas, were used to examine immune response in relation to AD and SCC expression subtypes. Expression of immune cell populations and other immune related genes, including CD274 molecule gene (CD274) (programmed death ligand 1), was investigated in the tumor microenvironment relative to the expression subtypes of the AD (terminal respiratory unit, proximal proliferative, and proximal inflammatory) and SCC (primitive, classical, secretory, and basal) subtypes. Lung AD and SCC expression subtypes demonstrated significant differences in tumor immune landscape. The proximal proliferative subtype of AD demonstrated low immune cell expression among ADs whereas the secretory subtype showed elevated immune cell expression among SCCs. Tumor expression subtype was a better predictor of immune cell expression than CD274 (programmed death ligand 1) in SCC tumors but was a comparable predictor in AD tumors. Nonsilent mutation burden was not correlated with immune cell expression across subtypes; however, major histocompatibility complex class II gene expression was highly correlated with immune cell expression. Increased immune and major histocompatibility complex II gene expression was associated with improved survival in the terminal respiratory unit and proximal inflammatory subtypes of AD and in the primitive subtype of SCC. Molecular expression subtypes of lung AD and SCC demonstrate key and reproducible differences in immune host response. Evaluation of tumor expression subtypes as potential biomarkers for immunotherapy should be investigated. Copyright © 2017 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Subjective and objective image differences in pediatric computed tomography cardiac angiography using lower iodine concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jae-Yeon [Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Yangsan-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Yangsan-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Choo, Ki Seok; Choi, Yoon Young; Kim, Jin Hyeok; Ryu, Hwaseong; Kim, Yong-Woo; Jeon, Ung Bae; Nam, Kyung Jin [Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Yangsan-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Han, Junhee [Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Division of Biostatistics, Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Yangsan-si, Gyeongsangnam-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Several recent studies showed the optimal contrast enhancement with a low-concentration and iso-osmolar contrast media in both adult and pediatric patients. However, low contrast media concentrations are not routinely used due to concerns of suboptimal enhancement of cardiac structures and small vessels. To evaluate the feasibility of using iso-osmolar contrast media containing a low iodine dose for CT cardiac angiography at 80 kilovolts (kVp) in neonates and infants. The iodixanol 270 group consisted of 79 CT scans and the iopromide 370 group of 62 CT scans in patients ≤1 year old. Objective measurement of the contrast enhancement was analyzed and contrast-to-noise ratios of the ascending aorta and left ventricle were calculated. Regarding subjective measurement, a four-point scale system was devised to evaluate degrees of contrast enhancement, image noise, motion artifact and overall image quality of each image set. Reader performance for correctly differentiating iodixanol 270 and iopromide 370 by visual assessment was evaluated. Group objective and subjective measurements were nonsignificantly different. Overall sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy for correctly differentiating iodixanol 270 and iopromide 370 by visual assessment were 42.8%, 59%, and 50%, respectively. The application of iodixanol 270 achieved optimal enhancement for performing pediatric cardiac CT angiography at 80 kVp in neonates and infants. Objective measurements of contrast enhancement and subjective image quality assessments were not statistically different in the iodixanol 270 and iopromide 370 groups. (orig.)

  19. TNF-α in CRPS and 'normal' trauma--significant differences between tissue and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Heidrun H; Eberle, Tatiana; Uçeyler, Nurcan; Wagner, Ina; Klonschinsky, Thomas; Müller, Lars P; Sommer, Claudia; Birklein, Frank

    2011-02-01

    Posttraumatic TNF-alpha signaling may be one of the factors responsible for pain and hyperalgesia in complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS). In order to further specify the role of TNF-alpha we investigated tissue (skin) and serum concentrations in three different patient groups: patients with osteoarthritis and planned surgery, with acute traumatic upper limb bone fracture waiting for surgery, and with CRPS I. Thirty patients (10 in each group) were recruited. Mean CRPS duration was 36.1 ± 8.1 weeks (range 8- 90 weeks). Skin punch biopsies were taken at the beginning of the surgery in osteoarthritis and fracture patients and from the affected side in CRPS patients. Blood samples were taken before the respective procedures. Skin and serum TNF-alpha levels were quantified by ELISA. Compared to patients with osteoarthritis, skin TNF-alpha was significantly elevated in CRPS (pCRPS patients was higher than in patients with acute bone fracture (pCRPS, and lower in fracture patients (pCRPS patients. This increase persists for months after limb trauma and may offer the opportunity for targeted treatment. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cannabis-Related Working Memory Deficits and Associated Subcortical Morphological Differences in Healthy Individuals and Schizophrenia Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Matthew J.; Cobia, Derin J.; Wang, Lei; Alpert, Kathryn I.; Cronenwett, Will J.; Goldman, Morris B.; Mamah, Daniel; Barch, Deanna M.; Breiter, Hans C.; Csernansky, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis use is associated with working memory (WM) impairments; however, the relationship between cannabis use and WM neural circuitry is unclear. We examined whether a cannabis use disorder (CUD) was associated with differences in brain morphology between control subjects with and without a CUD and between schizophrenia subjects with and without a CUD, and whether these differences related to WM and CUD history. Subjects group-matched on demographics included 44 healthy controls, 10 subject...

  1. Comparison of Far-field Noise for Three Significantly Different Model Turbofans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Richard P.

    2008-01-01

    Far-field noise sound power level (PWL) spectra and overall sound pressure level (OASPL) directivities were compared for three significantly different model fan stages which were tested in the NASA Glenn 9 15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel. The test fans included the Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP) Fan1, the baseline Source Diagnostic Test (SDT) fan, and the Quiet High Speed Fan2 (QHSF2). These fans had design rotor tangential tip speeds from 840 to 1474 ft/s and stage pressure ratios from 1.29 to 1.82. Additional parameters included rotor-stator spacing, stator sweep, and downstream support struts. Acoustic comparison points were selected on the basis of stage thrust. Acoustic results for the low tip speed/low pressure ratio fan (ADP Fan1) were thrust-adjusted to show how a geometrically-scaled version of this fan might compare at the higher design thrust levels of the other two fans. Lowest noise levels were typically observed for ADP Fan1 (which had a radial stator) and for the intermediate tip speed fan (Source Diagnostics Test, SDT, R4 rotor) with a swept stator. Projected noise levels for the ADP fan to the SDT swept stator configuration at design point conditions showed the fans to have similar noise levels. However, it is possible that the ADP fan could be 2 to 3 dB quieter with incorporation of a swept stator. Benefits of a scaled ADP fan include avoidance of multiple pure tones associated with transonic and higher blade tip speeds. Penalties of a larger size ADP fan would include increased nacelle size and drag.

  2. Significance of nitrogen removal mass in uremic patients on different modalities of dialysis therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T W; Huang, T P; Wang, M L

    2000-02-01

    While most nephrologists use Kt/V values for dialysis prescriptions, some researchers are beginning to view the role of solute removal mass as an indicator of adequate dialysis. This study, using nitrogen as a surrogate for solute removal, probed whether solute removal mass can be used as the target of adequate dialysis. Mathematical formulas for easy bedside calculation of nitrogen removal mass were used to avoid the problems associated with direct measurement. The weekly removal mass of urea nitrogen (M) and the urea generation rate (G) of 32 conventional hemodialysis (HD) and 21 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients were calculated. All the patients were anuric, clinically stable, and under adequate dialysis pursuant to either the criterion of the urea index, Kt/V, or clinical requirements. The difference in MHD (MHD = 41.9 +/- 9.5 g/week, MCAPD = 38.8 +/- 11.9 g/week) and G (GHD = 3.90 +/- 1.02 mg/min, GCAPD = 3.85 +/- 1.21 mg/min) between the two groups was statistically insignificant (p = 0.119 and p = 0.868, respectively). When protein nitrogen leaking through the peritoneal membrane was considered and added to MCAPD, nitrogen removal in CAPD patients (M'CAPD = 42.3 +/- 13.0 g/week) approached that in HD patients (p = 0.886). There was no correlation between dialysis dosage and urea removal mass in either the CAPD or HD groups. Urea nitrogen removal mass is similar to the protein catabolic rate (PCR) in stable patients. It is meaningful in dialysis evaluation only when it is used simultaneously with blood urea nitrogen measurement. However, because M changes at the inception of dialysis, it more significant than PCR in the evaluation of unstable patients.

  3. Performance effects and subjective disturbance of speech in acoustically different office types--a laboratory experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haka, M; Haapakangas, A; Keränen, J; Hakala, J; Keskinen, E; Hongisto, V

    2009-12-01

    This study examined how the intelligibility of irrelevant speech, determined with the Speech Transmission Index (STI), affects demanding cognitive task performance. Experiment was carried out in a laboratory that resembled an open-plan office. Three speech conditions were tested corresponding to a private office (STI = 0.10), an acoustically excellent open office (STI = 0.35) and an acoustically poor open office (STI = 0.65). All conditions were presented at equal level, 48 dBA. The STI was adjusted by the relative levels of speech and masking sound. Thirty-seven students participated in the experiment that lasted for 4 h. All participants performed five tasks in each of the three speech conditions. Questionnaires were used to assess subjective perceptions of the speech conditions. Performance in the operation span task, the serial recall and the activation of prior knowledge from long-term memory were deteriorated in the speech condition with the highest speech intelligibility (STI = 0.65) in comparison with the other two conditions (STI = 0.10 and STI = 0.35). Unlike performance measures, questionnaire results showed consistent differences among all three speech conditions, i.e. subjective disturbance increased with ascending speech intelligibility. Thus, subjective comfort was disturbed more easily than performance. The results support the use of STI as an essential room acoustic design measure in open-plan offices. Reduction of speech intelligibility in office environments by proper acoustic design would be beneficial in terms of both work performance and subjective comfort. Proper acoustic design requires both the use of high acoustic absorption and an appropriate masking sound.

  4. Biomedical research in france and brazil: an analysis of significant differences and ethical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Moizan

    2016-06-01

    creator of knowledge but is also a pioneer, what imposes an ethical responsibility. For the last 20 years, the way how biomedical research is led has changed with the definition of “good clinical practice”. The globalization of the biomedical research is explained by the fact that we have made many improvements so far but we always need more and more patients to prove the superiority of a treatment to another. Many patents about “blockbusters treatments” expire soon, so the pharmaceutical industry speeds up to discover new ones to replace them, which explains the multiplication of clinical trials. The pharmaceutical industry and the emerging markets share common interests, which lead them to work together, increasing the phenomenon of globalization. The good clinical practice refers to standards shared by Europe, North America, Japan and Australia, about international ethical and scientific quality defining the conception, the conduct, the registration and the presentation of data during trials involving human beings. Emerging markets are not obliged to follow these standards, what implies that part of the modalities can be dissimulated. The International Conference on Harmonisation(3 has elaborated recommendations related to the research and the development of new medications which clearly aim to limit human, animal and material resources to decrease the time for the trials. The Brazilian health law respects these international standards and is the most advanced in Latin America along with the Argentinian and Mexican systems. In addition, many Brazilian doctors have studied overseas and respect these rules. However, if consensuses on theoretical notions about bioethics exist, there are still differences on the way research policies are applied. If respecting all international standards about ethics (Declaration of Helsinki 1964, Belmont Report 1978, International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects and the Resolution of the

  5. First year medical students' learning style preferences and their correlation with performance in different subjects within the medical course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Torrano, Daniel; Ali, Syed; Chan, Chee-Kai

    2017-08-08

    Students commencing their medical training arrive with different educational backgrounds and a diverse range of learning experiences. Consequently, students would have developed preferred approaches to acquiring and processing information or learning style preferences. Understanding first-year students' learning style preferences is important to success in learning. However, little is understood about how learning styles impact learning and performance across different subjects within the medical curriculum. Greater understanding of the relationship between students' learning style preferences and academic performance in specific medical subjects would be valuable. This cross-sectional study examined the learning style preferences of first-year medical students and how they differ across gender. This research also analyzed the effect of learning styles on academic performance across different subjects within a medical education program in a Central Asian university. A total of 52 students (57.7% females) from two batches of first-year medical school completed the Index of Learning Styles Questionnaire, which measures four dimensions of learning styles: sensing-intuitive; visual-verbal; active-reflective; sequential-global. First-year medical students reported preferences for visual (80.8%) and sequential (60.5%) learning styles, suggesting that these students preferred to learn through demonstrations and diagrams and in a linear and sequential way. Our results indicate that male medical students have higher preference for visual learning style over verbal, while females seemed to have a higher preference for sequential learning style over global. Significant associations were found between sensing-intuitive learning styles and performance in Genetics [β = -0.46, B = -0.44, p styles and performance in Genetics [β = 0.36, B = 0.43, p learning techniques. Instructors can also benefit by modifying and adapting more appropriate teaching approaches in these

  6. Performance of Purunã beef calves subjected to different weaning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Kuss

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was developed at Fazenda Modelo an Experimental Station belonged to the Instituto Agronômico do Paraná - IAPAR, in the city of Ponta Grossa, PR, from June to November 2011. The objective was to evaluate the performance of calves subjected to different weaning systems. 161 calves crossbred Purunã were divided into three groups: calves subjected to early weaning (DP, weaned at an average of 75 days old; calves subjected to controlled nursing system (AC with 75 days of age, exposed to suck only once a day during the duration of the breeding season (85 days and; the control group, calves submitted to the system of conventional weaning (DC, were kept together with cow, without interfering in breastfeeding until the end of the breeding season (85 days. Calves fed the DP had lower mean (P<0.05 average daily gain (0.56 kg during the experimental group compared to the AC and DC (0.95 kg and 0.88 kg, respectively which did not differ (P<0.05. Thus, the DP had calves at the end of the breeding season, 32.36 kg and 26.48 kg unless the AC group (167.44 kg and DC (161.56 kg, respectively. The system controlled breastfeeding does not provid damage on the performance of calves at 150 days of age. Already early weaning at 75 days cause decrease of 19.6% in weight of calves at 150 days of age compared to suckler calves.

  7. Significant difference of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in male hemodialysis patients with or without diabetes; a single center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasri Hamid

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well found that the assessment of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D offers better information about vitamin D status in patients. This cross-sectional study was aimed to better understand the probable difference of 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in a group of hemodialysis (HD patients with or without diabetes. 25-hydroxyvitamin D level (normal range of values is 25 to 125 nmol/L was measured following an overnight fasting. The study was conducted on 36 subjects (15 female, 21 male, consisting of 25 (female=11, male=14 non-diabetic HD patients and 11 (female=4, male=7 diabetic HD patients. A significant difference of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level between diabetic and non-diabetic male HD patients with more values of 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in none-diabetic HD patients was found (r=0.014. Least studied was conducted on the influence of diabetes on 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in HD patients, lower vitamin D level in diabetes patients may aggravates their condition. Thus, further investigations need to define this aspect of hemodialysis patients.

  8. School-performance indicators and subjective health complaints: are there gender differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brolin Låftman, Sara; Modin, Bitte

    2012-05-01

    Although boys and girls are generally located in the same physical school environment, it may be experienced differently by, and have varying implications for, boys and girls. Girls like school more and achieve higher school marks, but they also perceive more school-related pressure. Based on a total sample of 8456 ninth grade pupils in Stockholm in 2004, this study uses multilevel linear regression to analyse differences between boys and girls with regard to a number of school-performance indicators (demands, motivation, teacher support and school marks) and their association with subjective health complaints. Results showed that girls perceive more demands, show greater academic motivation, perform better in school and report more emotional support from teachers than boys. In contrast, instrumental and appraisal support from teachers are more commonly reported by boys. Associations between school-performance indicators and subjective health complaints were slightly stronger for girls than for boys. Contextual variation in health complaints, especially between classes, was found only for girls. High achievement motivation and emotional teacher support in the school class was associated with better pupil health, suggesting that a positive climate in terms of motivation and support favours class health as a whole. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Are Gender Differences in Perceived and Demonstrated Technology Literacy Significant? It Depends on the Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohlfeld, Tina N.; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Barron, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines gender differences related to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literacy using two valid and internally consistent measures with eighth grade students (N = 1,513) from Florida public schools. The results of t test statistical analyses, which examined only gender differences in demonstrated and perceived ICT skills,…

  10. From the Philosophy of Consciousness to the Philosophy of Difference: The Subject for Education after Humanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoping

    2015-01-01

    Biesta has suggested that education after humanism should be interested in existence, not essence, in what the subject can do, not in what the subject is--the truth about the subject--and this is the way inspired by Foucault and Levinas. In this article, I analyze Foucault's alleged deconstruction and reconfiguration of the subject and Levinas'…

  11. Gender differences in subjective health complaints in adolescence: The roles of self-esteem, stress from schoolwork and body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanesen, Fiona; Meland, Eivind; Torp, Steffen

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to examine subjective health complaints among Norwegian adolescents and assess the development of gender differences in subjective health complaints between age 14 and 16; to investigate whether self-esteem, stress from schoolwork or body dissatisfaction affected adolescents' subjective health complaints; and determine whether these factors could explain the excess of subjective health complaints among girls. We used multiple linear regression analyses to analyse longitudinal survey data from 751 Norwegian adolescents at the ages of 14 and 16. The results from various cross-sectional and prospective analyses were compared. Girls reported more subjective health complaints than boys, and gender differences increased from age 14 to 16. Self-esteem and stress from schoolwork had cross-sectional and prospective associations with subjective health complaints. Stress from schoolwork at age 14 was also associated with changes in subjective health complaints from age 14 to 16. The cross-sectional mediation analyses indicated that self-esteem and stress from schoolwork accounted for 61% of the excess of subjective health complaints among girls at age 16. The same variables measured at age 14 accounted for 24% of the gender differences in subjective health complaints two years later. The investigated factors could not account for the increase in gender differences in subjective health complaints between ages 14 and 16. The findings showed that self-esteem and stress from schoolwork were associated with subjective health complaints during adolescence. These factors could partially explain the excess of subjective health complaints among girls.

  12. Prognostic ability of VE/VCO2 slope calculations using different exercise test time intervals in subjects with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Ross; Humphrey, Reed; Peberdy, Mary Ann

    2003-12-01

    The minute ventilation-carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2) slope, obtained during exercise testing, possesses prognostic value in heart failure (HF). The VE-VCO2 relationship is generally linear thereby hypothetically producing similar slope values regardless of the exercise-test time interval used for calculation. This study assesses the ability of the VE/VCO2 slope, calculated at different time intervals throughout a progressive exercise test, to predict 1-year cardiac-related hospitalization and mortality in subjects with HF. Seventy-two subjects underwent symptom-limited exercise testing with ventilatory expired gas analysis. Mean age and left ventricular ejection fraction for 44 male and 28 female subjects were 51.2 years (+/-13.0) and 27.0% (+/-12.3) respectively. The VE/VCO2 slope was calculated from time 0 to 25, 50, 75 and 100% of exercise time and subsequently used to create five randomly selected VE/VCO2 slope categories. (The intraclass correlation coefficient found calculation of the VE/VCO2 slope, when divided into quartiles, to be a reliable measure (alpha=0.94, Pslope categories (25-100% and random selections) were significant predictors of cardiac-related hospitalization and mortality over a 1-year period. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed all VE/VCO2 slope categories outperformed peak oxygen consumption (VO2) in predicting hospitalization and mortality at 1 year. Although the different classification schemes were not identical, these results suggest VE/VCO2 slope maintains prognostic significance regardless of exercise-test time interval. Calculation of VE/VCO2 slope may therefore still be valuable in subjects putting forth a sub-maximal effort while effort-dependent measures, such as peak VO2, are not.

  13. Auditory middle latency responses differ in right- and left-handed subjects: an evaluation through topographic brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbi, Mehrnaz; Mahmoudian, Saeid; Alborzi, Marzieh Sharifian; Najafi-Koopaie, Mojtaba; Farahani, Ehsan Darestani; Farhadi, Mohammad

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the association of handedness with auditory middle latency responses (AMLRs) using topographic brain mapping by comparing amplitudes and latencies in frontocentral and hemispheric regions of interest (ROIs). The study included 44 healthy subjects with normal hearing (22 left handed and 22 right handed). AMLRs were recorded from 29 scalp electrodes in response to binaural 4-kHz tone bursts. Frontocentral ROI comparisons revealed that Pa and Pb amplitudes were significantly larger in the left-handed than the right-handed group. Topographic brain maps showed different distributions in AMLR components between the two groups. In hemispheric comparisons, Pa amplitude differed significantly across groups. A left-hemisphere emphasis of Pa was found in the right-handed group but not in the left-handed group. This study provides evidence that handedness is associated with AMLR components in frontocentral and hemispheric ROI. Handedness should be considered an essential factor in the clinical or experimental use of AMLRs.

  14. ANALYSIS OF NON-CIRCULAR MEMBERS SUBJECTED TO TWISTING LOADS: A FINITE DIFFERENCE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitanya Goteti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many torque carrying members have circular sections such as shafts. However, there are certain structural members like automotive chassis frames, cross members and machine frames which are often subjected to twisting loads and their cross sections are non circular. several methods were developed to analyze such sections such as Saint Venant’s semi inverse method, Prandtl’s elastic membrane analogy...etc. In this paper, the second order partial differential stress function equation for non-circular torsional members is applied on a rectangular section for different b/h (height /width of section values and the solutions for maximum torsional shear stress are found by employing second order finite difference method. The results are compared to the results obtained from commercial finite element software (ANSYS 10 and by direct solution of the stress function equation using analytical correlations available for rectangular sections. The results obtained by different approaches are in close congruence with a percentage deviation of only 3.22. It is observed that, in implementing second order finite difference scheme, the error in estimating stress is proportional to S2. Where “S” is the grid size.   Keywords: Non-Circular Section, Prandtl’s stress function, Finite difference scheme, Grid size

  15. Significant regional differences in Denmark in outcome after cochlear implants in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Percy-Smith, Lone; Busch, Georg Walter; Sandahl, Minna

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to study regional differences in outcome for a paediatric cochlear implant (CI) population after the introduction of universal neonatal hearing screening (UNHS) and bilateral implantation in Denmark....

  16. Explaining Differences in Subjective Well-Being Across 33 Nations Using Multilevel Models: Universal Personality, Cultural Relativity, and National Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cecilia; Cheung, Mike W-L; Montasem, Alex

    2016-02-01

    This multinational study simultaneously tested three prominent hypotheses--universal disposition, cultural relativity, and livability--that explained differences in subjective well-being across nations. We performed multilevel structural equation modeling to examine the hypothesized relationships at both individual and cultural levels in 33 nations. Participants were 6,753 university students (2,215 men; 4,403 women; 135 did not specify), and the average age of the entire sample was 20.97 years (SD = 2.39). Both individual- and cultural-level analyses supported the universal disposition and cultural relativity hypotheses by revealing significant associations of subjective well-being with Extraversion, Neuroticism, and independent self-construal. In addition, interdependent self-construal was positively related to life satisfaction at the individual level only, whereas aggregated negative affect was positively linked with aggregate levels of Extraversion and interdependent self-construal at the cultural level only. Consistent with the livability hypothesis, gross national income (GNI) was related to aggregate levels of negative affect and life satisfaction. There was also a quadratic relationship between GNI and aggregated positive affect. Our findings reveal that universal disposition, cultural self-construal, and national income can elucidate differences in subjective well-being, but the multilevel analyses advance the literature by yielding new findings that cannot be identified in studies using individual-level analyses alone. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effect of different protein types on second meal postprandial glycaemia in normal weight and normoglycemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Ton, Winder Tadeu; das Graças de Almeida, Crislaine; de Morais Cardoso, Leandro; Marvila Girondoli, Yassana; Feliciano Pereira, Patrícia; Viana Gomes Schitini, Josiane Keila; Galvão Cândido, Flávia; Marques Arbex, Priscila; de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas, Rita

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a global epidemic affecting 346 million people in the world. The glycemic control is the key for diabetes prevention and management. Some proteins can stimulate insulin release and modulate glycemic response. To assess the effect of the consumption of different types of protein (whey protein, soy protein and egg white) on a second meal postprandial glycaemia in normal weight and normoglycemic subjects. Randomized crossover clinical trial. After an overnight fast of 12-hours, ten subjects attended the laboratory to drink one of the protein shakes (whey, soy or egg white) or the control drink. Thirty minutes later, the subjects consumed a glucose solution (25 g glucose). Glycemic response was monitored at times 0 (before glucose solution) and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min (after glucose solution consumption). Incremental area under the glycemic curve (iAUC) was calculated by the trapezoidal method. Furthermore, glycemic response was assessed by a new method using iG equation. Compared with control, whey and soy protein drinks reduced postprandial iAUC in 56.5% (p = 0.004) and 44.4% (p = 0.029), respectively. Whey protein was the only protein capable of avoiding great fluctuations and a peak in postprandial glycemia. The assessment of glycemic response by iG equation showed positive correlation with iAUC (Pearson 0.985, p protein 30 minutes before a glucose load resulted in lower iAUC compared with control drink. Whey protein maintained postprandial glycemia more stable. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Disciplinary Difference in Academic Leadership and Management and Its Development: A Significant Factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The influence of disciplinary identity remains significant in understanding academic practice, although its nature and extent has been debated. A framework of organisational, cognitive and social perspectives is commonly used as a means of structuring investigation. A limited amount of empirical research on academic roles, attitudes, beliefs and…

  19. Field Dependence/Independence Cognitive Styles: Are They Significant at Different Levels of Vocabulary Knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostampour, Mohammad; Niroomand, Seyyedeh Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive styles influence the performance of language learners and can predict their success in the process of language learning. Considering field dependence/independence cognitive styles, this study aims at determining if they are significant in English vocabulary knowledge. A number of EFL university students took part in the study. The…

  20. Bile ductal injury and ductular reaction are frequent phenomena with different significance in autoimmune hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, Robert C.; Lozano, Mallaki F.; Berg, van den Aad P.; Gouw, Annette S. H.

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The significance of bile duct injury and ductular reaction in biopsies from autoimmune hepatitis patients is not clear. We aim to establish the prevalence and clinical relevance of both phenomena in autoimmune hepatitis. METHODS: Cases of newly diagnosed, untreated autoimmune

  1. Effects of differences in postprandial glycaemia on cognitive functions in healthy middle-aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, A; Radeborg, K; Björck, I

    2009-01-01

    To find useful methods for the studies of cognitive function during a postprandial period, and to use these methods to evaluate function after test meals differing in post meal glycaemia. Forty healthy volunteers aged 49-70 years were studied. A glucose solution (glucose 50 g) was provided through either a bolus or sipping regimen at breakfast to simulate a high-GI or a low-GI breakfast, respectively. Cognitive tests of working memory (WM) were performed at 35, 90, 120 and 150 min after commencing the breakfast, and a test of selective attention (SA) was performed at 170 min. Subjects with higher glucose tolerance performed better in the cognitive tests (Pglucose tolerance as covariate, the subjects performed better in the working memory test at 90 min (Pglucose concentration and by maintaining a higher glycaemia in the late postprandial period, respectively. A low-GI diet is preferable in the prevention of the risk of cognitive decline as a result of less efficient glucose regulation.

  2. Subjective well-being, personality, demographic variables, and American state differences in smoking prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2010-09-01

    The present study was conducted to determine relations between smoking prevalence, subjective well-being, and the Big Five personality variables at the American state level. State smoking prevalence was based on the responses of more than 350,000 adults interviewed in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in 2008. Subjective well-being was based on the state-aggregated responses of 353,039 adults to the Gallup-Healthways Well-Being Index phone interviews during 2008. Big Five variables were based on the state-aggregated responses of 619,397 persons to an Internet survey between 1999 and 2005, which included the 44-item Big Five Inventory. Well-being and smoking prevalence were negatively correlated and remained so when state Big Five, socioeconomic status (SES), White population percent, urban population percent, and median age were controlled in a partial correlation. Hierarchical and stepwise multiple regressions showed (a) that SES and neuroticism were the prime predictors of well-being, (b) that well-being was the prime predictor of smoking prevalence, and (c) that openness to experience was the sole personality or demographic variable to account for differences in smoking prevalence when well-being was controlled, and it explained very little of the remaining variance. Applied implications for state-tailored attempts to reduce smoking are briefly discussed, and suggestions for future research directions are put forward.

  3. [The manifestations and clinical significance of chest CT in paragonimiasis at different clinical phases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-hua; You, Zheng-qian; Ma, Jun; Jang, Sheng; Pen, Gang; Yu, Dong; Sun, Chun-yi

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the chest CT manifestations of paragonimiasis at different clinical phases. Forty-eight cases of paragonimiasis confirmed by laboratory studies were retrospectively analyzed. There were 30 males and e18 females ageing 9 - 66 years (average, 31.4 years). Conventional chest CT was performed in all cases and contrast enhanced CT in some cases. The chest CT findings of paragonimiasis included: (1) peribronchial inflammation (n = 9); (2) infiltration (n = 13), manifested as unilateral or bilateral patchy infiltrates with hazy borders. The location and shape were variable. The typical "canal gas-path" sign was seen in a few patients; (3) nodular and masses (n = 11); (4) cysts and cavity (n = 6); (5) pleural effusion (n = 9). The CT appearances of paragonimiasis were different at different clinical phases. Peribronchial inflammation, infiltration and pleural effusion were early presentations, not distinguishable from other common infections. The appearance of nodules, masses, cysts and cavities was more common in the clinical course. At the stabilization phase, nodular cavity or pleura thickening and calcification were revealed. There are various abnormalities on chest CT at different phases of paragonimiasis. Combination of clinical manifestations with chest CT characteristics is important in the diagnosis of paragonimiasis.

  4. What Makes Your Writing Style Unique? Significant Differences Between Two Famous Romanian Orators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dascalu, Mihai; Gifu, Daniela; Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel, in-depth approach of analyzing the differences in writing style between two famous Romanian orators, based on automated textual complexity indices for Romanian language. The considered authors are: (a) Mihai Eminescu, Romania’s national poet and a

  5. Do Age and Sex of School Students Make Significant Difference in Their Multiple Intelligences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, R.; Vedapriya, S. Gethsi

    2009-01-01

    Multiple Intelligences are a new educational theory proposed by Howard Gardner in 1983. Multiple intelligences describe an array of different kinds of intelligences exhibited by human beings. This theory consists of verbal-linguistic, logical and mathematics, visual and spatial, bodily kinesthetic, musical-rhythmic, intrapersonal, interpersonal,…

  6. Clinical and prognostic significance of human papillomavirus DNA in the sperm or exfoliated cells of infertile patients and subjects with risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresta, Carlo; Pizzol, Damiano; Moretti, Afra; Barzon, Luisa; Palù, Giorgio; Garolla, Andrea

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate human papillomavirus (HPV) sperm infection and its correlation with sperm parameters in infertile patients and subjects with risk factors. Cross-sectional clinical study. Andrology and microbiology sections at a university hospital. A cohort of 290 subjects: 26 with genital warts, 66 with HPV positive partners, 108 infertile patients, and 90 fertile controls. Semen analysis, sperm culture, polymerase chain reaction, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for HPV detection. Statistical analysis was performed with a two-tailed Student's t-test. The prevalence of HPV semen infection found in all groups was as follows: patients with genital warts, 53.8%; infected partners, 40.9%; infertile patients, 10.2%, fertile controls, 2.2%. Infertile patients had a higher HPV DNA prevalence in sperm cells than the other groups. The results of HPV investigation were compared with sperm parameters and the results of FISH analysis. Sperm motility was more frequently reduced in infected samples and in particular when the infection was present in the sperm. This study demonstrated a very high prevalence of infection in the semen of patients with risk factors for HPV. In each group of subjects, HPV seems to be preferentially located in sperm or exfoliated cells, with different effects on sperm motility. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical significance of different virus load of human bocavirus in patients with lower respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wujun; Yin, Fang; Zhou, Weifang; Yan, Yongdong; Ji, Wei

    2016-02-01

    To assess the impact of human bocavirus (HBoV) virus load on epidemiologic and clinical characteristics in children with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). Clinical records of a total of 654 patients with HBoV infection during January 2013 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with high HBoV virus load infection had a similar age distribution with the total HBoV infection, which had a peak age group of 6-24 months. Patients with high virus load are significantly younger (P infection was found significantly more frequently among patients with low virus load than those with high virus load (57.0% vs 38.9%; P infections are found in an important proportion of the hospitalized children with respiratory illnesses (8.85% in our series). A high HBoV virus load could be an etiologic agent for LRTI, which may lead to more severe lower respiratory tract symptom and severe disease.

  8. Field Dependence/Independence Cognitive Styles: Are They Significant At Different Levels Of Vocabulary Knowledge?

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Rostampour; Seyyedeh Mitra Niroomand

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive styles influence the performance of language learners and can predict their success in the process of language learning. Considering field dependence/independence cognitive styles, this study aims at determining if they are significant in English vocabulary knowledge. A number of EFL university students took part in the study. The investigation was done through using Vocabulary Size Test (VST) (Nation, 2007) and the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) (Witkin, Oltman, Raskin, and Kar...

  9. Differences in Pre and Post Vascular Patterning of Retinas from ISS Crew Members and HDT Subjects by VESGEN Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, M. C.; Vizzeri, G.; Taibbi, G.; Mason, S. S.; Young, M. H.; Zanello, S. B.; Parsons-Wingerter, P. A.

    2018-01-01

    Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH). For the initial blinded VESGEN phase, ophthalmic retinal images were masked as to subject identity and pre- and post-status. In the second unblinded phase, VESGEN results were analyzed according to the pre- and post-status of left and right retinas matched to each subject. To complete our study, vascular results will be subjected to NASA biostatistical analysis and correlated with other ophthalmic and medical findings. Preliminary results for changes in the pre- to post-status of vascular patterning in the retinas of crewmembers and HDT subjects are strikingly opposite. By Df and other vascular branching measures, the space-filling capacity of arterial and venous trees decreased in a substantial subset of crewmembers (11/16 retinas). In contrast, vascular densities increased in a substantial subset of HDT subjects by the same parameters (6/10 retinas, currently excluding one anomalous subject). To conclude the study, biostatistical and medical analyses will be of critical importance for investigating the validity of these vascular findings. Vascular densities appeared to decrease in the retinas of crewmembers following ISS Missions, and increase in subjects after HDT. The vascular increases and decreases most likely derive primarily from limits of resolution to the ophthalmic imaging that does not capture the smallest vessels, rather than from vessel growth or atrophy. Differences in arterial and venous response to cephalad fluid shifts induced by ISS and HDT may have resulted from a long-duration conditioning phenomenon (for example, 6-month ISS missions compared to 70-day HDT), or the presence of gravity in HDT compared to microgravity onboard the ISS. To conclude our study, the biostatistical and medical analyses will be of critical importance for investigating the validity and significance of the VESGEN findings.

  10. A study of the pinch performance and subjective satisfaction with chopsticks of different lengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Rain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Total 40 college students (16 males and 24 females, with an average age of 22, were surveyed in this study. The participants are highly familiar with the use of chopsticks and were tested with their handedness (95% of the participants are right-handers and 5% of the participants are left-handers. The control variable in this study is chopsticks 6 millimeters in diameter. Instruments used in this experiment were four pairs of chopsticks of different lengths:120 mm (Type A, 150 mm (Type B, 180 mm (Type C, 210 mm (Type D. Each participant was requested to randomly use these 4 pairs of chopsticks to pick up peanuts (10 millimeters in diameter. Least Significant Difference (LSD was utilized for measuring quantity of pinched peanuts and participants’ satisfaction at four different types of chopsticks.. The research results revealed that quantity of pinched peanuts showed significant difference (p=0.017 when the length of chopsticks changed from 120 mm to 180 mm. In terms of satisfaction, it presented significant difference (p=0.001 among four types, and participants showed higher satisfaction at longer chopsticks. Correlation Analysis will be further applied in future study, with a larger quantity and a random approach, and the future study can be used to find out the most appropriate chopsticks length for the reference of chopsticks manufacturers.

  11. Nasal hyperresponders and atopic subjects report different symptom intensity to air quality: a climate chamber study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodin, Lennart; Andersson, K.; Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort

    2009-01-01

    -atopic with nasal histamine hyperreactivity, 13 were non-atopic, and 12 were atopic. Subjective ratings of symptoms and general health were registered four times during four 6-h exposure sessions. Six symptom intensity indices were constructed. The nasal hyperreactive group had a high and time-dependent increase...... and Neurological Effects these were dependent on group affiliation, thus preventing a uniform statement of exposure effects for all three investigated groups. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Opportunities for identifying persons with high or low sensitivity to low-level exposures are important in preventive medicine...... of mucous membrane irritations, whereas the atopic group had a low and stable rate of irritations with exposure time, close to the reference group (P = 0.02 for differences between the groups with respect to time under exposure for Weak Inflammatory Responses and P = 0.05 for Irritative Body Perception...

  12. Significance of different animal species in experimental models for in vivo investigations of hematopoiesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević-Filipović Milica

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous discoveries in medicine are results of experiments on different animal species. The most frequently used animals in hematopoiesis investigations are laboratory mice and rats, but so-called big animals, such as pigs, sheep, cats, dogs, and monkeys, evolution-wise closer to humans have a place in experimental hematology as well. The specific problematics of a certain animal specie can lead to fundamental knowledge on certain aspects of the process of hematopoiesis end the biology of stem cells in hematopoiesis. Furthermore, comparative investigations of certain phenomena in different species help in the recognition of the general rules in the living world. In the area f preclinicalinvesti- gations, animal models are an inevitable step in studies of transplantation biology of stem cells in hematopoiesis, as well as in studies of biologically active molecules which have an effect on the hematopoietic system. Knowledge acquired on animal models is applied in both human and veterinary medicine.

  13. The significance of different diacylgycerol synthesis pathways on plant oil composition and bioengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip David Bates

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The unique properties of vegetable oils from different plants utilized for food, industrial feedstocks, and fuel is dependent on the fatty acid (FA composition of triacylglycerol (TAG. Plants can use two main pathways to produce diacylglycerol (DAG, the immediate precursor molecule to TAG synthesis: 1 De novo DAG synthesis, and 2 conversion of the membrane lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC to DAG. The FA esterified to PC are also the substrate for FA modification (e.g. desaturation, hydroxylation, etc., such that the FA composition of PC-derived DAG can be substantially different than that of de novo DAG. Since DAG provides two of the three FA in TAG, the relative flux of TAG synthesis from de novo DAG or PC-derived DAG can greatly affect the final oil FA composition. Here we review how the fluxes through these two alternate pathways of DAG/TAG synthesis are determined and present evidence that suggests which pathway is utilized in different plants. Additionally, we present examples of how the endogenous DAG synthesis pathway in a transgenic host plant can produce bottlenecks for engineering of plant oil FA composition, and discuss alternative strategies to overcome these bottlenecks to produce crop plants with designer vegetable oil compositions.

  14. Double-blind comparison of the two hallucinogens psilocybin and dextromethorphan: similarities and differences in subjective experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonaro, Theresa M; Johnson, Matthew W; Hurwitz, Ethan; Griffiths, Roland R

    2017-11-07

    Although psilocybin and dextromethorphan (DXM) are hallucinogens, they have different receptor mechanisms of action and have not been directly compared. This study compared subjective, behavioral, and physiological effects of psilocybin and dextromethorphan under conditions that minimized expectancy effects. Single, acute oral doses of psilocybin (10, 20, 30 mg/70 kg), DXM (400 mg/70 kg), and placebo were administered under double-blind conditions to 20 healthy participants with histories of hallucinogen use. Instructions to participants and staff minimized expectancy effects. Various subjective, behavioral, and physiological effects were assessed after drug administration. High doses of both drugs produced similar increases in participant ratings of peak overall drug effect strength, with similar times to maximal effect and time-course. Psilocybin produced orderly dose-related increases on most participant-rated subjective measures previously shown sensitive to hallucinogens. DXM produced increases on most of these same measures. However, the high dose of psilocybin produced significantly greater and more diverse visual effects than DXM including greater movement and more frequent, brighter, distinctive, and complex (including textured and kaleidoscopic) images and visions. Compared to DXM, psilocybin also produced significantly greater mystical-type and psychologically insightful experiences and greater absorption in music. In contrast, DXM produced larger effects than psilocybin on measures of disembodiment, nausea/emesis, and light-headedness. Both drugs increased systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and pupil dilation and decreased psychomotor performance and balance. Psilocybin and DXM produced similar profiles of subjective experiences, with psilocybin producing relatively greater visual, mystical-type, insightful, and musical experiences, and DXM producing greater disembodiment.

  15. Antisocial and psychopathic personalities in a sample of addicted subjects: differences in psychological resources, symptoms, alexithymia and impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Alessio; Craparo, Giuseppe; Sareri, Giuseppe Iraci; Caretti, Vincenzo; Giannini, Marco; Meringolo, Patrizia

    2014-10-01

    Psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are two constructs not interchangeable. Compared to the ASPD, psychopathy is characterized by lack of anxiety, low withdrawal, and high levels of attention seeking. The sample of this study included 76 subjects with a substance use disorder. Subjects were aged between 18 and 59 years old (M=32.87, SD=9.36). With respect to level of education 3 subjects are elementary school graduates, 49 have a middle school diploma, 21 own a high school diploma, and 3 participants have a bachelor's degree. We administered the following measures: a) Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R); b) Psychological Treatment Inventory (PTI); c) 20-Item-Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20); d) Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). Most of the significant correlations between the Psychopathic Index (PPI-R total score), and the measures administered are listed below: PPI-R total score and Deviance (r=.482, p<.001), PPI-R total score and Hypomania (r=.369, p < .001), PPI-R total score and Unresolved attachment (r=.293, p<.001), PPI-R total score and Manipulativeness (r=.550, p<.001), PPI-R total score and the TAS-20 total score (r=.230; p<.001), PPI-R total score and Difficulty in Identifying Feelings (DIF) factor (r=.250, p<.001), PPI-R total score and Attentional Impulsiveness (r=.409, p<.001); PPI-R total score and Motor Impulsiveness (r=.526, p<.001). Results of MANOVAs between the two groups also revealed significant differences on several variables analyzed. Our study showed that addicted subjects with psychopathic tendencies are more likely to experience negative emotions and have a peculiar cognitive style with respect to antisocial addicts. These results partially confirm those ones of previous studies underlining that psychopathic population is generally characterized for a major need for stimulation, poor behavioral controls, lack of realistic long-term goals, impulsivity, irresponsibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc

  16. Shoulder muscle activation during stable and suspended push-ups at different heights in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borreani, Sebastien; Calatayud, Joaquin; Colado, Juan C; Tella, Victor; Moya-Nájera, Diego; Martin, Fernando; Rogers, Michael E

    2015-08-01

    To analyze shoulder muscle activation when performing push-ups under different stability conditions and heights. Comparative study by repeated measures. Valencia University laboratory. 29 healthy males participated. Subjects performed 3 push-ups each with their hands at 2 different heights (10 vs. 65 cm) under stable conditions and using a suspension device. Push-up speed was controlled and the testing order was randomized. The average amplitudes of the electromyographic root mean square of the long head of the triceps brachii (TRICEP), upper trapezius (TRAPS), anterior deltoid (DELT) and clavicular pectoralis (PEC) were recorded. The electromyographic signals were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Suspended push-ups at 10 cm resulted in greater activation in the TRICEP (17.14 ± 1.31 %MVIC vs. 37.03 ± 1.80 %MVIC) and TRAPS (5.83 ± 0.58 %MVIC vs. 14.69 ± 1.91 %MVIC) than those performed on the floor. For DELT and PEC similar or higher activation was found performing the push-ups on the floor, respectively. Height determines different muscle activation patterns. Stable push-ups elicit similar PEC and higher DELT muscle activation, being greater at 10 cm; whereas suspended push-ups elicit greater TRAPS and TRICEP muscle activation, being greater at 65 cm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gender Differences in Natural Language Factors of Subjective Intoxication in College Students: An Experimental Vignette Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Ash; Schlauch, Robert C.; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Examining the natural language college students use to describe various levels of intoxication can provide important insight into subjective perceptions of college alcohol use. Previous research (Levitt et al., 2009) has shown that intoxication terms reflect moderate and heavy levels of intoxication, and that self-use of these terms differs by gender among college students. However, it is still unknown whether these terms similarly apply to other individuals and, if so, whether similar gender differences exist. Method To address these issues, the current study examined the application of intoxication terms to characters in experimentally manipulated vignettes of naturalistic drinking situations within a sample of university undergraduates (N = 145). Results Findings supported and extended previous research by showing that other-directed applications of intoxication terms are similar to self-directed applications, and depend on the gender of both the target and the user. Specifically, moderate intoxication terms were applied to and from women more than men, even when the character was heavily intoxicated, whereas heavy intoxication terms were applied to and from men more than women. Conclusions The findings suggest that gender differences in the application of intoxication terms are other-directed as well as self-directed, and that intoxication language can inform gender-specific prevention and intervention efforts targeting problematic alcohol use among college students. PMID:23841828

  18. Gender differences in natural language factors of subjective intoxication in college students: an experimental vignette study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Ash; Schlauch, Robert C; Bartholow, Bruce D; Sher, Kenneth J

    2013-12-01

    Examining the natural language college students use to describe various levels of intoxication can provide important insight into subjective perceptions of college alcohol use. Previous research (Levitt et al., Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2009; 33: 448) has shown that intoxication terms reflect moderate and heavy levels of intoxication and that self-use of these terms differs by gender among college students. However, it is still unknown whether these terms similarly apply to other individuals and, if so, whether similar gender differences exist. To address these issues, the current study examined the application of intoxication terms to characters in experimentally manipulated vignettes of naturalistic drinking situations within a sample of university undergraduates (n = 145). Findings supported and extended previous research by showing that other-directed applications of intoxication terms are similar to self-directed applications and depend on the gender of both the target and the user. Specifically, moderate intoxication terms were applied to and from women more than men, even when the character was heavily intoxicated, whereas heavy intoxication terms were applied to and from men more than women. The findings suggest that gender differences in the application of intoxication terms are other-directed as well as self-directed and that intoxication language can inform gender-specific prevention and intervention efforts targeting problematic alcohol use among college students. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  19. Tuning to the Positive: Age-Related Differences in Subjective Perception of Facial Emotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle Picardo

    Full Text Available Facial expressions aid social transactions and serve as socialization tools, with smiles signaling approval and reward, and angry faces signaling disapproval and punishment. The present study examined whether the subjective experience of positive vs. negative facial expressions differs between children and adults. Specifically, we examined age-related differences in biases toward happy and angry facial expressions. Young children (5-7 years and young adults (18-29 years rated the intensity of happy and angry expressions as well as levels of experienced arousal. Results showed that young children-but not young adults-rated happy facial expressions as both more intense and arousing than angry faces. This finding, which we replicated in two independent samples, was not due to differences in the ability to identify facial expressions, and suggests that children are more tuned to information in positive expressions. Together these studies provide evidence that children see unambiguous adult emotional expressions through rose-colored glasses, and suggest that what is emotionally relevant can shift with development.

  20. Significant differences between the Nordic laws on public access to documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Oluf

    2017-01-01

    . The wide access to information in today’s world also makes possible the publication of personal information about individuals’ private life in an unprecedented way. Does this mean that the relative importance of the protection of privacy has to be strengthened at the cost of access to information? What...... analyse transparency from a number of different angles in time and space. The papers were first presented at a colloquium at the Faculty of Law, Uppsala University in October 2016, in order to celebrate the 250 year anniversary of the Swedish Freedom of the Press Act....

  1. Biomedical research in france and brazil: an analysis of significant differences and ethical issues

    OpenAIRE

    Hervé Moizan

    2016-01-01

    At first sight, Brazil and France seem pretty distant from one another, but on the map, they are not separated by the Atlantic Ocean, but by the Oyapock River, located between the state of Amapa and French Guiana (French overseas department), creating a 730 km long international border. If the distance does exist, it is very different when we finely analyze some similarities in the field of biomedical research. France is the biggest country of Western Europe and covers 1/5 of the European ...

  2. Null hypothesis significance tests. A mix-up of two different theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg

    2015-01-01

    criticisms raised against NHST. As practiced, NHST has been characterized as a ‘null ritual’ that is overused and too often misapplied and misinterpreted. NHST is in fact a patchwork of two fundamentally different classical statistical testing models, often blended with some wishful quasi......-Bayesian interpretations. This is undoubtedly a major reason why NHST is very often misunderstood. But NHST also has intrinsic logical problems and the epistemic range of the information provided by such tests is much more limited than most researchers recognize. In this article we introduce to the scientometric community...

  3. The Role of Personality in Relation to Gender Differences in School Subject Choices in Pre-University Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpershoek, H.; Kuyper, H.; Van der Werf, M.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Boys and girls to some extent differ in personality characteristics while they also prefer different school subjects in secondary education. This study has attempted to unravel the relations among gender, personality, and students' subject choices. The study was based on a sample of 1,740 9th grade

  4. [Clinical significance of new urine red blood cell parameter in different kinds of glomerulonephritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Muye; Li, Li; Deng, Xinli; Cong, Yulong

    2015-09-22

    To investigate the clinical value of new kinds of urinary erythrocyte morphology parameter in discriminating different pathology types of glomerulonephritis. All of the 52 urine samples were from glomerulonephritis patients who had been diagnosed by renal biopsy results. The change of the percentage of acanthocytes, the size of RBC, the shape of RBC between the primary glomerulonephritis (39 cases) and secondary glomerulonephritis (13 cases) urine were detected by AVE-764 fully automatic urine cell analyzer. Acanthocytes could be found in both primary glomerulonephritis and secondary glomerulonephritis. Of the patients whose acanthocytes percentages above 10%, 94.1% had primary glomerulonephritis and 5.9% had secondary glomerulonephritis. The picture of size-shape phase were classified as strip-type, inverted triangle-type and hanging tail-type. 95.2% Strip-type cases were from primary glomerulonephritis patients. Triangle-typenormally cases were all from primary glomerulonephritis patients. Hanging tail-type cases were all from secondary glomerulonephritis. High acanthocytes percentage is most common in primary glomerulonephritis, going with the size and shape of RBC can be useful in the differential diagnosis of different pathology types of glomerulonephritis.

  5. The construction of "cultural difference" and its therapeutic significance in immigrant mental health services in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Carolyn; Larchanché, Stéphanie

    2009-03-01

    Since the early 1970s, the French public health system has been accorded considerable responsibility for immigrants identified by the educational, judicial or social service authorities as psychologically distressed or socially disruptive. In this paper we discuss three models of healing embedded in constructs of "cultural difference" and addressed at specialized mental health-care centers catering to immigrants in Paris: "cultural mediation," transcultural psychiatry/ethnopsychiatry and clinical medical anthropology. Based on observations and interviews at three specialized mental health centers in Paris, we explore how these clinical approaches address migrant wellbeing and seek to resolve crises in migrant families, especially those of West African origin. We suggest that the prevalent approaches to therapy creatively blend concepts and practices of anthropology, psychiatry and psychology but, at the same time, confront challenges inherent in the use of a generic "African" healing modality. Cases studies demonstrate that in order for such interventions to be perceived as effective by patients, "cultural difference" must be acknowledged but also situated in broader social, political and economic contexts.

  6. Harvesting yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at different physiological phases significantly affects its functionality in bread dough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mohammad N; Dornez, Emmie; Jacobs, Pieter; Parsi, Anali; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2014-05-01

    Fermentation of sugars into CO2, ethanol and secondary metabolites by baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during bread making leads to leavening of dough and changes in dough rheology. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of the impact of yeast on dough related aspects by investigating the effect of harvesting yeast at seven different points of the growth profile on its fermentation performance, metabolite production, and the effect on critical dough fermentation parameters, such as gas retention potential. The yeast cells harvested during the diauxic shift and post-diauxic growth phase showed a higher fermentation rate and, consequently, higher maximum dough height than yeast cells harvested in the exponential or stationary growth phase. The results further demonstrate that the onset of CO2 loss from fermenting dough is correlated with the fermentation rate of yeast, but not with the amount of CO2 that accumulated up to the onset point. Analysis of the yeast metabolites produced in dough yielded a possible explanation for this observation, as they are produced in different levels depending on physiological phase and in concentrations that can influence dough matrix properties. Together, our results demonstrate a strong effect of yeast physiology at the time of harvest on subsequent dough fermentation performance, and hint at an important role of yeast metabolites on the subsequent gas holding capacity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns in Women with Positive Urine Culture: Does Menopausal Status Make a Significant Difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Miotla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Urinary tract infection (UTI is considered one of the most common bacterial infections in women. The aim of this study was to investigate the types of uropathogens present, as well as the degree of antimicrobial drug resistance seen among premenopausal (n=2748 and postmenopausal (n=1705 women with uncomplicated UTI. Methods. Urinary samples (n=4453 collected from women with UTI were analyzed in terms of uropathogens present. These were considered as positive if bacterial growth was ≥105 colony forming units (CFUs/mL. Susceptibility and resistance testing for commonly used antibiotics was subsequently assessed. Results. The most common uropathogens cultured from urine samples were Escherichia coli (65.5%, followed by Enterococcus faecalis (12.2%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (4.7%, and Proteus mirabilis (4.2%. The resistance to ampicillin exceeded 40%, independently of menopausal status. Of note, resistance to ciprofloxacin exceeded 25% among postmenopausal patients. Moreover, resistance of all uropathogens to commonly used antimicrobials was significantly higher in postmenopausal women. Conclusion. Due to the high resistance rate, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and the trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole combination should be avoided in treating postmenopausal women affected by UTI without being indicated by initial urine culture report. Finally, cephalexin and cefuroxime are promising alternatives as initial treatment in postmenopausal women.

  8. Thermodynamic study of three pharmacologically significant drugs: Density, viscosity, and refractive index measurements at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Javed [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)], E-mail: mjiqauchem@yahoo.com; Chaudhry, Mansoora Ahmed [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2009-02-15

    Measurements of density, viscosity, and refractive index of three pharmacologically significant drugs, i.e. diclofenac sodium, cetrizine, and doxycycline have been carried in aqueous medium at T = (293.15 to 313.15) K. An automated vibrating-tube densimeter, viscometer, and refractometer are used in a concentration range from (7.5) . 10{sup -3} to 25 . 10{sup -3}) mol . kg{sup -1}. The precise density results are used to evaluate the apparent molar volume, partial molar volume, thermal expansion coefficient, partial molar expansivity, and the Hepler's constant. Viscosity results are used to calculate the Jones-Dole viscosity B-coefficient, free energy of activation of the solute and solvent, activation enthalpy, and activation entropy. The molar refractive indices of the drug solutions can be employed to calculate molar refraction. It is inferred from these results that the above mentioned drugs act as structure-making compounds due to hydrophobic hydration of the molecules in the drugs.

  9. Does “Experience” Bring about Any Significant Difference in EFL Teacher Talk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Rahmani Doqarun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rationale for the present study is based on the fact that understanding the teaching pro-cess and the development of teachers is incomplete unless the teachers' classroom behavior, especially their talk, is objectively explored. To this end, four male teachers offering Eng-lish as a foreign language (EFL were recruited and divided into two groups, namely inex-perienced and experienced. To secure the objectivity in data collection they were observed in their classes and one lesson of each teacher was audio-recorded. The audio-recordings were then fully transcribed and analyzed through micro structural approach of schema theo-ry. The approach is based on the assumption that any word uttered by the teacher represents a specific concept commonly known as a schema. The schema enters into a hierarchical re-lationship with other schemata to constitute species, genera and semantic, syntactic and parasyntactic domains of language. The teachers’ talks were thus parsed into their constitut-ing schema types, species, genera and domains and certain codes were assigned to them to run statistical analyses. The findings showed that the inexperienced teachers significantly outnumbered their experienced counterparts in all schema categories and thus challenged “experience” as an effective variable in EFL teaching

  10. Objectively measured sedentary behaviour and moderate and vigorous physical activity in different school subjects: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerli Mooses

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence shows the positive influence of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA and negative influence of sedentary time on health and academic achievement. Although schools can significantly contribute to overall physical activity, little is known about MVPA and sedentary behaviour in different school subjects in different grades. Methods Physical activity of 646 students from 18 schools (94 classes and from three school stages (grades 1–9, aged 7–16 was measured with accelerometry for 5 school days. Time and proportion of MVPA and sedentary time, also average sedentary bout length was calculated for native language (Estonian, mathematics, science, foreign language, music and crafts lessons. Results A total of 6363 lessons were measured, with lesson duration of 45 min. The average lesson time MVPA remained below 2.2 min in all school stages and in all subjects. Students in grades 4–6 had greatest decline in the proportion of lesson time MVPA in science (β = −1.9, 95%CI −3.1– -0.6 and music (−1.2, −2.1– -0.4 and in grades 7–9 in music (−1.7, −3.1– -0.3 lessons compared to grades 1–3. In grades 1–3 students spent on average 76% of lesson time (34.0 ± 7.0 min as sedentary, whereas in grades 7–9 the average proportion of sedentary time was 87% (38.9 ± 5.7 min. An average sedentary bout length increased from 13 min in grades 1–3 to 20 min in grades 7–9. An increase in sedentary bout length from grades 1–3 compared to grades 7–9 was present in most subjects, except crafts, with smallest increase in foreign language (6 min, 3.5–8.9 and greatest in music lessons (16.6 min, 11.9–21.3. Lessons with prolonged sedentary bouts formed a maximum 36% of all lessons in grades 1–3 and 73% in grades 7–9. Conclusion The long sedentary time, bout length and low MVPA in most subjects were unfavourable in respect of both health and academic achievement. Significantly

  11. Objectively measured sedentary behaviour and moderate and vigorous physical activity in different school subjects: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooses, Kerli; Mägi, Katrin; Riso, Eva-Maria; Kalma, Maarja; Kaasik, Priit; Kull, Merike

    2017-01-23

    Evidence shows the positive influence of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and negative influence of sedentary time on health and academic achievement. Although schools can significantly contribute to overall physical activity, little is known about MVPA and sedentary behaviour in different school subjects in different grades. Physical activity of 646 students from 18 schools (94 classes) and from three school stages (grades 1-9, aged 7-16) was measured with accelerometry for 5 school days. Time and proportion of MVPA and sedentary time, also average sedentary bout length was calculated for native language (Estonian), mathematics, science, foreign language, music and crafts lessons. A total of 6363 lessons were measured, with lesson duration of 45 min. The average lesson time MVPA remained below 2.2 min in all school stages and in all subjects. Students in grades 4-6 had greatest decline in the proportion of lesson time MVPA in science (β = -1.9, 95%CI -3.1- -0.6) and music (-1.2, -2.1- -0.4) and in grades 7-9 in music (-1.7, -3.1- -0.3) lessons compared to grades 1-3. In grades 1-3 students spent on average 76% of lesson time (34.0 ± 7.0 min) as sedentary, whereas in grades 7-9 the average proportion of sedentary time was 87% (38.9 ± 5.7 min). An average sedentary bout length increased from 13 min in grades 1-3 to 20 min in grades 7-9. An increase in sedentary bout length from grades 1-3 compared to grades 7-9 was present in most subjects, except crafts, with smallest increase in foreign language (6 min, 3.5-8.9) and greatest in music lessons (16.6 min, 11.9-21.3). Lessons with prolonged sedentary bouts formed a maximum 36% of all lessons in grades 1-3 and 73% in grades 7-9. The long sedentary time, bout length and low MVPA in most subjects were unfavourable in respect of both health and academic achievement. Significantly increasing sedentary time and sedentary bout length in older school stages highlights the need for

  12. Tuberculin skin testing in intravenous drug users: differences between HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portu, José J; Aldamiz-Etxebarria, Mikel; Agud, José M; Arévalo, José M; Almaraz, María J; Ayensa, Cándido

    2002-04-01

    The prevalence of tuberculin skin test reactions among intravenous drug abusers and differences in tuberculin skin test positivity between HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative subjects were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 1131 subjects. They were recruited from a therapeutic community, from those who attended the centre for the treatment of drug addiction and from those who visited for any reason an acute tertiary-care hospital in Vitoria-Gasteiz, Basque Country (Spain). All subjects underwent skin testing with purified protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin and testing for HIV antibodies. CD4(+) T-lymphocyte count was determined in HIV-seropositive individuals. Positive PPD tests were recorded in 35% of drug users who were HIV-seropositive and in 65% in those who were HIV-seronegative. In the HIV-infected group, there was a significant association between results of the tuberculin test and CD4(+) T-lymphocyte count. When the CD4(+) T-lymphocyte count was > or = 500 cells/mm(3), percentages of positive PPD tests were similar in HIV-seropositives and HIV-seronegatives (47% versus 65%) but when the CD4(+) count was < 500 cells/mm(3), positive PPD tests occurred in only 21% of HIV-seropositives. The PPD test showed a decreased sensitivity for detecting tuberculosis infection in HIV-infected intravenous drug users with CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts fewer than 500 cells/mm(3).

  13. The impact of different types of textile liners used in protective footwear on the subjective sensations of firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irzmańska, Emilia

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents ergonomic evaluation of footwear used with three types of textile liners differing in terms of design and material composition. Two novel textile composite liners with enhanced hygienic properties were compared with a standard liner used in firefighter boots. The study involved 45 healthy firefighters from fire and rescue units who wore protective footwear with one of the three types of liners. The study was conducted in a laboratory under a normal atmosphere. The ergonomic properties of the protective footwear and liners were evaluated according to the standard EN ISO 20344:2012 as well as using an additional questionnaire concerning the thermal and moisture sensations experienced while wearing the footwear. The study was conducted on a much larger group of subjects (45) than that required by the ISO standard (3) to increase the reliability of subjective evaluations. Some statistically significant differences were found between the different types of textile liners used in firefighter boots. It was confirmed that the ergonomic properties of protective footwear worn in the workplace may be improved by the use of appropriate textile components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  14. DIFFERENT CIRCULATING BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR RESPONSES TO ACUTE EXERCISE BETWEEN PHYSICALLY ACTIVE AND SEDENTARY SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Nofuji

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Although circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF level is affected by both acute and chronic physical activity, the interaction of acute and chronic physical activity was still unclear. In this study, we compared the serum and plasma BDNF responses to maximal and submaximal acute exercises between physically active and sedentary subjects. Eight active and 8 sedentary female subjects participated in the present study. Both groups performed 3 exercise tests with different intensities, i.e. 100% (maximal, 60% (moderate and 40% (low of their peak oxygen uptake. In each exercise test, blood samples were taken at the baseline and immediately, 30 and 60 min after the test. The serum BDNF concentration was found to significantly increase immediately after maximal and moderate exercise tests in both groups. In maximal exercise test, the pattern of change in the serum BDNF concentration was different between the groups. While the serum BDNF level for the sedentary group returned to the baseline level during the recovery phase, the BDNF levels for the active group decreased below the baseline level after the maximal exercise test. No group differences were observed in the pattern of plasma BDNF change for all exercise tests. These findings suggest that regular exercise facilitates the utilization of circulating BDNF during and/or after acute exercise with maximal intensity

  15. Blood pressure differences between office and home settings among Japanese normotensive subjects and hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hisao; Ukai, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Hareaki; Yuasa, Shouhei; Suzuki, Yoshiro; Chin, Keiichi; Katsumata, Takuma; Umemura, Satoshi

    2017-03-01

    This study attempted to clarify the differences in blood pressure (BP) between the office (clinic) and home settings in patients with controlled, sustained, masked or white-coat hypertension. The following formula was used: office mean systolic BP (omSBP)-mean morning home SBP (mmhSBP)/office mean diastolic BP (omDBP)-mean morning home DBP (mmhDBP). The paired t-test was used for statistical analysis. The omSBP-mmhSBP/omDBP-mmhDBP calculation yielded the following results: among normotensive subjects, -1.1±11.2/-1.7±8.5 mm Hg (mean SBP and mean DBP were higher at home than in the office; n=451, P=0.038 in SBP, P=0.000 in DBP); in controlled hypertensive patients, -0.42±10.9/-2.2±8.2 mm Hg (n=1362, P=0.160 in SBP, P=0.000 in DBP); among sustained hypertensive patients, 5.6±14.7/0.048±9.9 mm Hg (n=1370, P=0.000 in SBP, P=0.857 in DBP); in masked hypertensive patients, -15.3±12.9/-9.3±9.5 mm Hg (n=1308, both P=0.000); and among white-coat hypertensive patients, 23.7±13.2/8.2±9.1 mm Hg (n=580, both P=0.000). Our results showed a difference of 5 mm Hg in SBP among sustained hypertensive patients, as recommended by the Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension; however, in other hypertensive patient types, the differences in SBP and DBP between office and home measurements differed by >5 mm Hg. Office and home BP measurements should be interpreted cautiously, keeping in mind the clinical setting.

  16. Different reasons for one significant choice: Factors influencing homeschooling choice in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Oz; Neuman, Ari

    2017-06-01

    Homeschooling is an alternative to conventional education in many countries all over the world, though legal regulations vary. This article examines why parents opt for homeschooling. The large body of research on the topic (especially from the United States) points to a variety of reasons for making the choice to homeschool. The most common reasons are of a pedagogical nature, but in many cases they are also family-related. What has not yet been investigated in depth is the relationship between the different reasons for choosing homeschooling and the way in which homeschooling is practised. There is also a lack of research on the relationship between the reasons for choosing homeschooling and the parents' personalities, educational background and attitudes towards both homeschooling in particular and the education system in general. Using a mixed methods design in order to examine these relationships, the authors of this article questioned 62 homeschooling families in Israel. The findings indicate that some parents chose to homeschool for pedagogical reasons only and others for both pedagogical and family-related reasons. Furthermore, the latter group held more positive views of the effect of homeschooling on children - and the mothers in that group, on average, were more educated compared with those who cited pedagogical reasons alone. The reasons for choosing homeschooling were also found to be associated with the character of the homeschooling practice, with families whose reasons were pedagogical only devoting more hours, on average, specifically to studying.

  17. Physiological Response of Rice Seedlings (Oryza sativa L. Subjected to Different Periods of Two Night Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Alvarado-Sanabria

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Night temperatures have shown an increase in rice-growing regions due to climate change in Colombia in recent years, causing a reduction in grain yield. The objective of this research was to study the effect of four different periods of exposure to two night temperatures (24°C vs. 30°C on the physiological behavior of an Indica rice cultivar widely grown in Colombia. Fedearroz 60 (ʻF60ʼ were grown under greenhouse conditions for forty-five days. After this period, 12 plants in each treatment was established in a growth chamber at 30°C from 18:00 to 24:00 to carry out the duration of the different periods of heat nighttime stress (4, 8, 12, and 16 days respectively. The control plants were kept in a greenhouse at 24°C. The results showed that leaf photosynthesis, carboxylation efficiency, and pigment content decreased in rice seedlings subjected to 30°C. Also, dark respiration and intercellular CO2 concentration increased. These reductions in the variables as mentioned above were more severe during the first four days of exposure to 30°C than 24°C. In conclusion, these results suggest that these physiological variables may be useful to assess the tolerance of rice plants to high nighttime temperatures in plant breeding programs.

  18. Carcass characteristics and meat evaluation of Nelore cattle subjected to different antioxidant treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Jesus do Carmo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Forty Nelore cattle were used to evaluate the effects of supplementation with different antioxidants on carcass characteristics and meat quality of feedlot cattle. Animals were fed Brachiaria brizantha hay and subjected to five treatments (control and four antioxidants: zinc, selenium, vitamin E, and selenium + vitamin E. After a 105-day feeding period, cattle were slaughtered. Tissue composition, as well as carcass proximate composition, color, tenderness, pH, and fatty acid profile were evaluated. Analysis of variance was carried out and means compared by Tukey test at 0.05 probability. The group fed selenium showed the lowest muscle amount (66.61 g/100 g compared with the other antioxidants evaluated. There was no difference among treatments for bone, fat, and comestible portion percentages as well as muscle:bone, muscle:fat, and comestible portion:bone ratios, with mean values of 16.85 g/100 g, 14.70 g/100 g, 82.99 g/100 g, 4.06, 4.85, and 4.95, respectively. Neither brightness, red, or yellow contents of the meat nor carcass pH were affected by treatments. For tenderness and losses during thawing and cooking, there were no differences among treatments, with averages of 6.43 kgf cm2, 3.22 g/100 g, and 21.15 g/100 g, respectively. Supplementation of Nelore cattle fed Brachiaria brizantha hay with antioxidants do not influence carcass characteristics or meat quality. However, vitamin E supplementation reduces the levels of omega 3 fatty acid, whereas supplementation with selenium + vitamin E promotes an increase in linoleic and palmitoleic acids and a decrease in myristoleic acid, making the supplementation feasible due to the beneficial effects provided by these acids.

  19. Gender differences in substrate utilization during submaximal exercise in endurance-trained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepstorff, Carsten; Steffensen, Charlotte H; Madsen, Marianne; Stallknecht, Bente; Kanstrup, Inge-Lis; Richter, Erik A; Kiens, Bente

    2002-02-01

    Substrate utilization across the leg during 90 min of bicycle exercise at 58% of peak oxygen uptake (VO(2 peak)) was studied in seven endurance-trained males and seven endurance-trained, eumenorrheic females by applying arteriovenous catheterization, stable isotopes, and muscle biopsies. The female and male groups were matched according to VO(2 peak) per kilogram of lean body mass, physical activity level, and training history of the subjects. All subjects consumed the same diet, well controlled in terms of nutrient composition as well as energy content, for 8 days preceding the experiment, and all females were tested in the midfollicular phase of the menstrual cycle. During exercise, respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and leg respiratory quotient (RQ) were similar in females and males. Myocellular triacylglycerol (TG) degradation was negligible in males but amounted to 12.4 +/- 3.2 mmol/kg dry wt in females and corresponded to 25.0 +/- 6.0 and 5.0 +/- 7.3% of total oxygen uptake in females and males, respectively (P < 0.05). Utilization of plasma fatty acids (12.0 +/- 2.5 and 9.6 +/- 1.5%), blood glucose (13.6 +/- 1.5 and 14.3 +/- 1.5%), and glycogen (48.5 +/- 4.9 and 42.8 +/- 2.1%) were similar in females and males. Thus, in females, measured substrate oxidation accounted for 99% of the leg oxygen uptake, whereas in males 28% of leg oxygen uptake was unaccounted for in terms of measured oxidized lipid substrates. These findings may indicate that males utilized additional lipid sources, presumably very low density lipoprotein-TG or TG located between muscle fibers. On the basis of RER and leg RQ, it is concluded that no gender difference existed in the relative contribution from carbohydrate and lipids to the oxidative metabolism across the leg during submaximal exercise at the same relative workload. However, an effect of gender appears to occur in the utilization of the different lipid sources.

  20. Pedagogies of difference: Unknowing immigrant teachers as subjects forever in process

    OpenAIRE

    Arndt Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Immersed in the bicultural, increasingly globalized, yet uniquely local, Aotearoa New Zealand early childhood landscape, immigrant teacher subjects are shaped in complicated, entangled ways. This paper attempts to open fresh spaces for re-thinking knowable teacher identities by drawing on Julia Kristeva’s work on the foreigner and the subject-in-process. It explores the immigrant teacher subject as “infinitely in construction, de-constructible, open and evolving” (Kristeva, 2008, p. 2). In a ...

  1. Phisyological quality of Pinus elliotti Engelm. seeds subjected to differents storage methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Geraldo Fonseca

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growing demand for forest products, it is necessary to increase knowledge about the tree species of economic importance, especially in relation to seed storage. One method to study forest species is the storage of seeds. Cryopreservation is the cheapest and the most efficient method of seed preservation. The objective of this study was to test the behavior of Pinus elliottii Engelm. seeds storaged on liquid nitrogen; laboratory environment and refrigerator. The experiment was conducted in the seed Laboratory of the Federal University of the Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valley. The seeds were donated by Rigesa Ltda on June 2007. Three types of storage were tested: 1 liquid nitrogen temperature of -196 º C, 2 laboratory environment, 3 refrigerator. All treatments were evaluated at 0, 40, 80 and 120 days of storage. The vigor, germination and germination rate tests were mounted on gerbox with blotters and moistened with distilled water and kept in BOD incubator chamber at 25 º C. Seeds length, green mass and dry mass were also evaluated. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey test at 5% significance level. It was found that there was loss of quality of the Pinus elliottii seeds in all treatments. Cryopreservation of P. elliotii seeds can be used as an alternative of storage in genebanks.

  2. Dynamic Connectivity States Estimated from Resting fMRI Identify Differences among Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Healthy Control Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnaly eRashid

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder share significant overlap in clinical symptoms, brain characteristics, and risk genes, and both are associated with dysconnectivity among large-scale brain networks. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI data facilitates studying macroscopic connectivity among distant brain regions. Standard approaches to identifying such connectivity include seed-based correlation and data-driven clustering methods such as independent component analysis (ICA but typically focus on average connectivity. In this study, we utilize ICA on rsfMRI data to obtain intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs in cohorts of healthy controls (HC and age matched schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients. Subsequently, we investigated difference in functional network connectivity (FNC, defined as pairwise correlations among the timecourses of ICNs, between healthy controls and patients. We quantified differences in both static (average and dynamic (windowed connectivity during the entire scan duration. Disease-specific differences were identified in connectivity within different dynamic states. Schizophrenia patients showed more differences from healthy subjects than did bipolars, including both hyper and hypo connectivity in one common connectivity state (dynamic state 3. Also group differences between schizophrenia and bipolar patients were identified in patterns (states of connectivity involving the frontal (dynamic state 1 and frontal-parietal regions (dynamic state 3. Our results provide new information about these illnesses and strongly suggest that state-based analyses are critical to avoid averaging together important factors that can help distinguish these clinical groups.

  3. Mono- and polysubstance dependent subjects differ on social factors, childhood trauma, personality, suicidal behaviour, and comorbid Axis I diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinotti, G; Carli, V; Tedeschi, D; Di Giannantonio, M; Roy, A; Janiri, L; Sarchiapone, M

    2009-09-01

    The study aimed to examine the clinical correlates of polysubstance dependence. Seven hundred and fifty two substance-dependent subjects were interviewed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Brown-Goodwin Assessment for Lifetime History of Aggression (BGLHA), and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Subjects completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), and Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS). Subjects found to have polysubstance dependence were compared with subjects with monosubstance dependence. Polysubstance dependence was found in 48.3% of the subjects. Subjects with polysubstance dependence were significantly younger, more were separated/divorced and unemployed, and they had significantly higher CTQ scores for childhood emotional and physical neglect, higher EPQ psychoticism scores, higher BGLHA aggression scores, and higher BIS impulsivity scores. Significantly more of the polysubstance dependent subjects had attempted suicide, self-mutilated, and exhibited aggressive behavior. Significantly more monosubstance dependent subjects had an Axis I psychiatric disorder and they had higher HDRS depression scores. Polysubstance dependence is common among the groups studied and may be associated with certain socio-demographic, developmental, and personality factors.

  4. Is there a difference in subjective experience of cognitive function in patients with unipolar disorder versus bipolar disorder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla; Vinberg, Maj; Christensen, Ellen Magrethe

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cognitive dysfunction in unipolar disorder (UD) and bipolar disorder (BD) may persist into remission and affect psychosocial function. Executive and memory deficits during remission may be more pronounced in BD than UD. However, patients' subjective experience of cognitive difficulties...... at their initial consultation at the clinic. Results: Patients experienced mild to moderate cognitive impairment despite being in partial or full remission, but there were no differences in subjective difficulties between BD and UD. Subjective cognitive dysfunction was predicted by depression severity, anxiety...

  5. Differences in performance on the functional movement screen between chronic low back pain patients and healthy control subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Min-Joo; Noh, Kyung-Hee; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Differences in scores on the Functional Movement Screen between patients with chronic lower back pain and healthy control subjects were investigated. [Subjects and Methods] In all, 20 chronic lower back pain patients and 20 healthy control subjects were recruited. Chronic lower back pain patients and healthy controls performed the Functional Movement Screen (deep squat, hurdle step, inline lunge, shoulder mobility, active straight leg raise, trunk stability pushup, and rotary stabil...

  6. The acute inflammatory response to intranigral α-synuclein differs significantly from intranigral lipopolysaccharide and is exacerbated by peripheral inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couch Yvonne

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activated microglia are a feature of the host response to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD and are thought to contribute to disease progression. Recent evidence suggests that extracellular α-synuclein (eSNCA may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PD and that this may be mediated by a microglial response. Methods We wished to discover whether the host response to eSNCA would be sufficient to induce significant cytokine production. In vitro cultured BV-2 microglia were used to determine the basic inflammatory response to eSNCA. In vivo, 8-week old Biozzi mice were subjected to a single intranigral injection of either 3 μg SNCA, lipopolysaccharide (LPS or serum protein (BSA and allowed to recover for 24 hours. A second cohort of animals were peripherally challenged with LPS (0.5 mg/kg 6 hours prior to tissue collection. Inflammation was studied by quantitative real-time PCR for a number of pro-inflammatory genes and immunohistochemistry for microglial activation, endothelial activation and cell death. Results In vitro data showed a robust microglial response to SNCA, including a positive NFĸB response and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Direct injection of SNCA into the substantia nigra resulted in the upregulation of mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, the expression of endothelial markers of inflammation and microglial activation. However, these results were significantly different to those obtained after direct injection of LPS. By contrast, when the animals were injected intracerebrally with SNCA and subsequently challenged with systemic LPS, the level of production of IL-1β in the substantia nigra became comparable to that induced by the direct injection of LPS into the brain. The injection of albumin into the nigra with a peripheral LPS challenge did not provoke the production of a significant inflammatory response. Direct injection of LPS into the substantia nigra also

  7. The Difference in Translaminar Pressure Gradient and Neuroretinal Rim Area in Glaucoma and Healthy Subjects

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    Lina Siaudvytyte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess differences in translaminar pressure gradient (TPG and neuroretinal rim area (NRA in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG, high tension glaucoma (HTG, and healthy controls. Methods. 27 patients with NTG, HTG, and healthy controls were included in the prospective pilot study (each group consisted of 9 patients. Intraocular pressure (IOP, intracranial pressure (ICP, and confocal laser scanning tomography were assessed. TPG was calculated as the difference of IOP minus ICP. ICP was measured using noninvasive two-depth transcranial Doppler device. The level of significance P 0.05. The difference between TPG for healthy (5.4(7.7 mmHg and glaucomatous eyes (NTG 6.3(3.1 mmHg, HTG 15.7(7.7 mmHg was statistically significant (P < 0.001. Higher TPG was correlated with decreased NRA (r = −0.83; P = 0.01 in the NTG group. Conclusion. Translaminar pressure gradient was higher in glaucoma patients. Reduction of NRA was related to higher TPG in NTG patients. Further prospective studies are warranted to investigate the involvement of TPG in glaucoma management.

  8. Calcium responses of endothelial cell monolayers subjected to pulsatile and steady laminar flow differ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmlinger, G; Berk, B C; Nerem, R M

    1995-08-01

    The vascular endothelium is the primary transducer of hemodynamically imposed mechanochemical events. In this study, we measured the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) using the fluorescent probe fura 2 and ratiometric digital imaging in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) subjected to various laminar flow patterns. These were steady shear stress (0.2-70 dyn/cm2) and three types of sinusoidal pulsatile shear stress (nonreversing: 40 +/- 20 dyn/cm2; reversing: 20 +/- 40 dyn/cm2; and purely oscillatory: 0 +/- 20 dyn/cm2; flow frequencies: 0.4, 1.0, and 2.0 Hz) in a serum-containing medium. The most dramatic finding was failure of a purely oscillatory flow to increase [Ca2+]i in BAEC monolayers. In contrast, steady flow, as well as nonreversing and reversing pulsatile flows, increased [Ca2+]i. The dynamics of the response were dependent on the flow pattern. Both internal Ca2+ release and extracellular Ca2+ entry were involved in these [Ca2+]i increases. Also, switching from either a steady nonreversing pulsatile or reversing pulsatile flow back to a static condition resulted in a [Ca2+]i increase. However, switching from an oscillatory flow to a static condition did not induce any changes in average [Ca2+]i. This study shows that endothelial cells are able to sense different flow environments in terms of [Ca2+]i signaling and is relevant to further studies of the influence of hemodynamic forces on vascular pathophysiology.

  9. Stability and microbiological quality of rice bran subjected to different heat treatments

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    Márcia Gonzaga de Castro Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran is a byproduct commonly used for animal feeding; however its nutritional value and potential application in human diet have attracted market interest. Its preservation for safe use is still a challenge, so the objective of this study was to determine the quality of commercially available rice bran samples subjected to different heat treatments (extruding, parboiling, toasting, and microwave oven heating in order to promote stabilization during storage under room temperature. Rice bran samples were collected from two industries, and each treatment was divided in three parts, each corresponding to three repetitions. All samples were evaluated for moisture content, total microorganisms, mold and yeast counting, hydrolytic rancidity, and lipase activity during 90 days of storage. Most of the heat treatments, including domestic and thermoplastic extrusion, generated products which may be used for human consumption under the tested conditions in terms of physicochemical and microbiological quality. The domestic treatments were more efficient in eliminating microorganisms or keeping them within acceptable limits. The toasted rice bran showed satisfactory results in terms of moisture, hydrolytic rancidity control, and lipase activity.

  10. Effects of two different types of fast food on postprandial metabolism in normal and overweight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramel, A; Gudmundsdottir, F D; Thorsdottir, I

    2012-11-01

    The aim was to investigate the effects of a conventional and an unconventional fast-food meal on postprandial metabolism in normal and in overweight subjects. Twenty-five healthy normal (n = 12) and overweight (n = 13) volunteers (21-39 years) participated in this randomized, dietary cross-over study and received two test meals (matched in energy and energy giving nutrients) after an overnight fast with 1 week between test days. The conventional fast-food meal was a hamburger meal (hamburger, bacon, cola drink, calculated glycemic load = 48.7), the unconventional fast food was a salmonburger meal (fiber-rich sourdough rye bread, salad with vinegar, orange juice, glycemic load = 46.0). Blood samples were taken before and after the meal and analyzed for glucose (before 20, 40, 60 and 80 min) and insulin (before 1, 2 and 3 h). Postprandial increases in glucose and insulin were 44% lower after the unconventional meal (Pfast food can have less effect on blood insulin and glucose postprandially compared with conventional fast food matched in energy and energy giving nutrients. The difference between meals in insulin response is associated with higher BMI. Thus, improvement in food quality might help to control postprandial increases in blood glucose and blood insulin.

  11. Linking the Tinnitus Questionnaire and the subjective Clinical Global Impression: Which differences are clinically important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Development of new tinnitus treatments requires prospective placebo-controlled randomized trials to prove their efficacy. The Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ) is a validated and commonly used instrument for assessment of tinnitus severity and has been used in many clinical studies. Defining the Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) for TQ changes is an important step to a better interpretation of the clinical relevance of changes observed in clinical trials. In this study we aimed to estimate the minimum change of the TQ score that could be considered clinically relevant. Methods 757 patients with chronic tinnitus were pooled from the TRI database and the RESET study. An anchor-based approach using the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale and distributional approaches were used to estimate MCID. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated to define optimal TQ change cutoffs discriminating between minimally changed and unchanged subjects. Results The relationship between TQ change scores and CGI ratings of change was good (r = 0.52, p MCID for improvement was −5 points and for deterioration +1 points. Conclusion Distribution and anchor-based methods yielded comparable results in identifying MCIDs. ΔTQ scores of −5 and +1 points were identified as the minimal clinically relevant change for improvement and worsening respectively. The asymmetry of the MCIDs for improvement and worsening may be related to expectation effects. PMID:22781703

  12. Linking the Tinnitus Questionnaire and the subjective Clinical Global Impression: Which differences are clinically important?

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    Adamchic Ilya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of new tinnitus treatments requires prospective placebo-controlled randomized trials to prove their efficacy. The Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ is a validated and commonly used instrument for assessment of tinnitus severity and has been used in many clinical studies. Defining the Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID for TQ changes is an important step to a better interpretation of the clinical relevance of changes observed in clinical trials. In this study we aimed to estimate the minimum change of the TQ score that could be considered clinically relevant. Methods 757 patients with chronic tinnitus were pooled from the TRI database and the RESET study. An anchor-based approach using the Clinical Global Impression (CGI scale and distributional approaches were used to estimate MCID. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves were calculated to define optimal TQ change cutoffs discriminating between minimally changed and unchanged subjects. Results The relationship between TQ change scores and CGI ratings of change was good (r = 0.52, p  Conclusion Distribution and anchor-based methods yielded comparable results in identifying MCIDs. ΔTQ scores of −5 and +1 points were identified as the minimal clinically relevant change for improvement and worsening respectively. The asymmetry of the MCIDs for improvement and worsening may be related to expectation effects.

  13. Physicochemical Characteristics and Lipid Oxidation of Chicken Inner Fillets Subjected to Different Thermal Processing Types

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    NN Arguelo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different types of thermal processing on the physiochemical characteristics and lipid oxidation of chicken inner fillets. The study was divided into three assays. In the first assay, 50 chicken inner fillets were divided into five treatments, totaling 10 samples per treatment. Treatments consisted in cooking in water bath, electric oven, microwave oven, deep frying, or grilling. The analyzed variables were: cooking weight loss (CWL and lipid oxidation determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS. In the second assay, 50 chicken inner fillets were divided into five treatments, totaling 10 samples per treatment. Each treatment consisted of the same cooking methods applied in the first assay, and storage for 48 hours under refrigeration and reheating in a microwave oven. The variable analyzed in the second assay was lipid oxidation (TBARS. In the third assay, 30 samples of chicken inner fillets were subjected to one, four and eight freeze-thaw cycles, after which meat pH, myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI, water retention capacity (WRC, and lipid oxidation (TBARS were determined. Chicken inner fillets submitted to deep frying and cooked in a microwave oven presented greater lipid oxidation than the other cooking methods, and deep frying resulted in the highest cooking weight loss. Reheating chicken inner fillets in a microwave oven caused the highest meat lipid oxidation. Increasing the number of freeze-thaw cycles increases the pH, MFI, WRC and TBARS values of chicken inner fillets.

  14. Serum antioxidant capacity and peroxide level of seven healthy subjects after consumption of different foods

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    Maura N. Laus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports experimental data related to the research article entitled “Different effectiveness of two pastas supplemented with either lipophilic or hydrophilic/phenolic antioxidants in affecting serum as evaluated by the novel Antioxidant/Oxidant Balance approach” (M.N. Laus, M. Soccio, M. Alfarano, A. Pasqualone, M.S. Lenucci, G. Di Miceli, D. Pastore, 2016 [1]. Antioxidant status of blood serum of seven healthy subjects was evaluated during four hours after consumption of two functional pastas, supplemented with either bran oleoresin or bran water extract obtained from durum wheat. For comparison, the effect of a non-supplemented reference pasta was also evaluated, as well as the effects of glucose, of the wheat grain dietary supplement Lisosan G, and of the reference pasta consumed together with Lisosan G. Serum antioxidant status was evaluated by measuring both the serum antioxidant capacity, using LOX-FL, ORAC and TEAC methods, and the serum oxidant status, assessed as peroxide level.

  15. Subjective Well-being and Partnership Dynamics; Are Same-sex Relationships Different?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Shuai; van Ours, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Partnered individuals are happier than singles. This can be because partnership leads to more satisfactory subjective well-being or because happier people are more likely to find a partner. We analyze Dutch panel data to investigate whether there is a causal effect of partnership on subjective

  16. Patterns of similarity and difference between the vocabularies of psychology and other subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjafield, John G

    2014-02-01

    The vocabulary of Anglophone psychology is shared with many other subjects. Previous research using the Oxford English Dictionary has shown that the subjects having the most words in common with psychology are biology, chemistry, computing, electricity, law, linguistics, mathematics, medicine, music, pathology, philosophy, and physics. The present study presents a database of the vocabularies of these 12 subjects that is similar to one previously constructed for psychology, enabling the histories of the vocabularies of these subjects to be compared with each other as well as with psychology. All subjects have a majority of word senses that are metaphorical. However, psychology is not among the most metaphorical of subjects, a distinction belonging to computing, linguistics, and mathematics. Indeed, the history of other subjects shows an increasing tendency to recycle old words and give them new, metaphorical meanings. The history of psychology shows an increasing tendency to invent new words rather than metaphorical senses of existing words. These results were discussed in terms of the degree to which psychology's vocabulary remains unsettled in comparison with other subjects. The possibility was raised that the vocabulary of psychology is in a state similar to that of chemistry prior to Lavoisier.

  17. Different alternative splicing patterns are subject to opposite selection pressure for protein reading frame preservation

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    Chuang Trees-Juen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing (AS has been regarded capable of altering selection pressure on protein subsequences. Particularly, the frequency of reading frame preservation (FRFP, as a measure of selection pressure, has been reported to be higher in alternatively spliced exons (ASEs than in constitutively spliced exons (CSEs. However, recently it has been reported that different ASE types – simple and complex ASEs – may be subject to opposite selection forces. Therefore, it is necessary to re-evaluate the evolutionary effects of such splicing patterns on frame preservation. Results Here we show that simple and complex ASEs, respectively, have higher and lower FRFPs than CSEs. Since complex ASEs may alter the ends of their flanking exons, the selection pressure on frame preservation is likely relaxed in this ASE type. Furthermore, conservation of the ASE/CSE splicing pattern increases the FRFPs of simple ASEs but decreases those of complex ASEs. Contrary to the well-recognized concept of strong selection pressure on conserved ASEs for protein reading frame preservation, our results show that conserved complex ASEs are relaxed from such pressure and the frame-disrupting effect caused by the insertion of complex ASEs can be offset by compensatory changes in their flanking exons. Conclusion In this study, we find that simple and complex ASEs undergo opposite selection pressure for protein reading frame preservation, with CSEs in-between. Simple ASEs have much higher FRFPs than complex ones. We further find that the FRFPs of complex ASEs coupled with flanking exons are close to those of simple ASEs, indicating that neighboring exons of an ASE may evolve in a coordinated way to avoid protein dysfunction. Therefore, we suggest that evolutionary analyses of AS should take into consideration the effects of different splicing patterns and the joint effects of multiple AS events.

  18. Ethnic difference in serum antibodies to oxidized low density lipoprotein in healthy Malaysian subjects

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    Win M. Kyi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some populations are more susceptible to atherosclerotic diseases than others. Indians had a higher mortality due to coronary heart disease (CHD than Chinese and Malays. Antibodies to oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ab-oxLDL are produced as an immune response to oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL. The difference in prevalence of CHD among the ethnic groups may be related to the immune response. The objectives of this study were to determine the serum Ab-oxLDL levels and lipid profile among the three major Malaysian ethnic groups.Methods: The participants of this study were 150 healthy subjects consisting of 50 Malays, 50 Chinese and 50 Indians. Serum Ab-oxLDL was measured by enzyme immunoassay method. Serum triglycerides and total cholesterol were measured by enzymatic methods. Serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C was measured by precipitation method and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C was calculated using Friedewald formula.Results: AboxLDL level [adjusted mean (95% of CI] was highest in Malays [1404 (1202-1607 mU/mL] followed by Chinese [1026 (829-1223 mU/mL] and Indians [954 (744-1163 mU/mL] (P = 0.006 and HDL-C level was highest in Chinese [1.53 (1.44-1.61 mmol/L] followed by Malays [1.44 (1.35-1.53 mmol/L] and Indians [1.35 (1.26-1.45 mmol/L] (P = 0.035.Conclusion: Our results indicate that Ab-oxLDL and HDL-C levels differed by ethnic and AboxLDL may have antiatherogenic properties among Malaysian ethnic groups. (Med J Indones 2012;21:18-22Keywords: Antibodies to oxLDL, coronary heart disease, ethnic groups, LDL, lipid profile

  19. Evidence for the different physiological significance of the 6- and 2-minute walk tests in multiple sclerosis

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    Motl Robert W

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers have recently advocated for the 2-minute walk (2MW as an alternative for the 6-minute walk (6MW to assess long distance ambulation in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS. This recommendation has not been based on physiological considerations such as the rate of oxygen consumption (V·O2 over the 6MW range. Objective This study examined the pattern of change in V·O2 over the range of the 6MW in a large sample of persons with MS who varied as a function of disability status. Method Ninety-five persons with clinically-definite MS underwent a neurological examination for generating an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score, and then completion of the 6MW protocol while wearing a portable metabolic unit and an accelerometer. Results There was a time main effect on V·O2 during the 6MW (p = .0001 such that V·O2 increased significantly every 30 seconds over the first 3 minutes of the 6MW, and then remained stable over the second 3 minutes of the 6MW. This occurred despite no change in cadence across the 6MW (p = .84. Conclusions The pattern of change in V·O2 indicates that there are different metabolic systems providing energy for ambulation during the 6MW in MS subjects and steady state aerobic metabolism is reached during the last 3 minutes of the 6MW. By extension, the first 3 minutes would represent a test of mixed aerobic and anaerobic work, whereas the second 3 minutes would represent a test of aerobic work during walking.

  20. Pedagogies of difference: Unknowing immigrant teachers as subjects forever in process

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    Arndt Sonja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Immersed in the bicultural, increasingly globalized, yet uniquely local, Aotearoa New Zealand early childhood landscape, immigrant teacher subjects are shaped in complicated, entangled ways. This paper attempts to open fresh spaces for re-thinking knowable teacher identities by drawing on Julia Kristeva’s work on the foreigner and the subject-in-process. It explores the immigrant teacher subject as “infinitely in construction, de-constructible, open and evolving” (Kristeva, 2008, p. 2. In a sector that is grappling with the complexities of outcomes driven expectations of productivity, mass participation and often homogenized indicators of ‘quality’, this paper elevates insights into the subject formation of the Other, to expose cracks in this veneer, through the notions of the semiotic and revolt. In this critical philosophical examination, I reconceptualise the idea of knowing immigrant teacher subjects, and their confrontation and (renegotiation of social, political and professional expectations and unknowable foreignness.

  1. Students' Perceptions of Teachers' Interpersonal Behaviour across Four Different School Subjects: Control Is Good but Affiliation Is Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telli, Sibel

    2016-01-01

    Many researchers have pointed out that teachers' interpersonal behaviour relates to students' positive attitudes towards schooling. However, only few studies have examined whether students' perceptions of their teachers' interpersonal behaviour relates to students' subject-related attitudes across different school subjects. In this study, it was…

  2. Responses to high-fat challenges varying in fat type in subjects with different metabolic risk phenotypes: a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van S.J.; Mensink, M.R.; Esser, D.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Muller, M.R.; Afman, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The ability of subjects to respond to nutritional challenges can reflect the flexibility of their biological system. Nutritional challenge tests could be used as an indicator of health status but more knowledge on metabolic and immune responses of different subjects to nutritional

  3. Seasonal differences in the subjective assessment of outdoor thermal conditions and the impact of analysis techniques on the obtained results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kántor, Noémi; Kovács, Attila; Takács, Ágnes

    2016-11-01

    Wide research attention has been paid in the last two decades to the thermal comfort conditions of different outdoor and semi-outdoor urban spaces. Field studies were conducted in a wide range of geographical regions in order to investigate the relationship between the thermal sensation of people and thermal comfort indices. Researchers found that the original threshold values of these indices did not describe precisely the actual thermal sensation patterns of subjects, and they reported neutral temperatures that vary among nations and with time of the year. For that reason, thresholds of some objective indices were rescaled and new thermal comfort categories were defined. This research investigates the outdoor thermal perception patterns of Hungarians regarding the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature ( PET) index, based on more than 5800 questionnaires. The surveys were conducted in the city of Szeged on 78 days in spring, summer, and autumn. Various, frequently applied analysis approaches (simple descriptive technique, regression analysis, and probit models) were adopted to reveal seasonal differences in the thermal assessment of people. Thermal sensitivity and neutral temperatures were found to be significantly different, especially between summer and the two transient seasons. Challenges of international comparison are also emphasized, since the results prove that neutral temperatures obtained through different analysis techniques may be considerably different. The outcomes of this study underline the importance of the development of standard measurement and analysis methodologies in order to make future studies comprehensible, hereby facilitating the broadening of the common scientific knowledge about outdoor thermal comfort.

  4. Circulating resistin is a significant predictor of mortality independently from cardiovascular comorbidities in elderly, non-diabetic subjects with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marouga, Anna; Dalamaga, Maria; Kastania, Anastasia N; Kroupis, Christos; Lagiou, Maria; Saounatsou, Koralia; Dimas, Kleanthi; Vlahakos, Demetrios V

    2016-01-01

    Resistin is associated with inflammation, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular (CV) disease. To associate circulating resistin with all-cause and CV mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Serum resistin was determined in a cohort of 80 elderly, non-diabetic patients with stable CKD at different stages in a follow-up period of 5 years. Circulating resistin was significantly elevated in deceased compared to alive patients. Resistin emerged as an independent biomarker of all-cause and CV mortality after a 5-year follow-up period. Elevated circulating resistin was a significant independent predictor of CV and all-cause mortality in elderly, non-diabetic CKD patients.

  5. Validation of (18)F-FDG-PET Single-Subject Optimized SPM Procedure with Different PET Scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presotto, Luca; Ballarini, Tommaso; Caminiti, Silvia Paola; Bettinardi, Valentino; Gianolli, Luigi; Perani, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    (18)F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) allows early identification of neurodegeneration in dementia. The use of an optimized method based on the SPM software package highly improves diagnostic accuracy. However, the impact of different scanners for data acquisition on the SPM results and the effects of different pools of healthy subjects on the statistical comparison have not been investigated yet. Images from 144 AD patients acquired using six different PET scanners were analysed with an optimized single-subject SPM procedure to identify the typical AD hypometabolism pattern at single subject level. We compared between-scanners differences on the SPM outcomes in a factorial design. Single-subject SPM comparison analyses were also performed against a different group of healthy controls from the ADNI initiative. The concordance between the two analyses (112 vs. 157 control subjects) was tested using Dice scores. In addition, we applied the optimized single-subject SPM procedure to the FDG-PET data acquired with 3 different scanners in 57 MCI subjects, in order to assess for tomograph influence in early disease phase. All the patients showed comparable AD-like hypometabolic patterns, also in the prodromal phase, in spite of being acquired with different PET scanners. SPM statistical comparisons performed with the two different healthy control databases showed a high degree of concordance (76% average pattern volume overlap and 90% voxel-wise agreement in AD-related brain structures). The validated optimized SPM-based single-subject procedure is influenced neither by the scanners used for image acquisition, nor by differences in healthy control groups, thus implying a great reliability of this method for longitudinal and multicentre studies.

  6. What Constitutes a Good Life? Cultural Differences in the Role of Positive and Negative Affect in Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Derrick; Chiu, Chi-yue; Diener, Ed; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2009-01-01

    East Asians and Asian Americans report lower levels of subjective well-being than Europeans and European Americans. Three studies found support for the hypothesis that such differences may be due to the psychological meanings Eastern and Western cultures attach to positive and negative affect. Study 1 demonstrated that the desire to repeat a recent vacation was significantly predicted by recalled positive affect—but not recalled negative affect—for European Americans, whereas Asian Americans considered both positive and negative affect. Study 2 replicated this effect in judging satisfaction with a personal friendship. Study 3 linked changes in European Americans’ life satisfaction to everyday positive events caused by the self (vs. others) and changes in Japanese life satisfaction to everyday negative events caused by others (vs. the self). Positive affect appears particularly meaningful for European Americans and negative affect for Asian Americans and Japanese when judging a satisfying vacation, friendship, or life. PMID:19558439

  7. Subjective Social Status, Mental and Psychosocial Health, and Birth Weight Differences in Mexican-American and Mexican Immigrant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2015-12-01

    Recent Mexican immigrant women on average have an unexpectedly low incidence of low birth weight (LBW). Birth weights decline and LBW incidence increases in post-immigrant generations. This pilot project tested the hypothesis that subjective social status (SSS) of pregnant women predicts variation in birth weight between Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women. 300 low-income pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women in South Texas were surveyed for SSS, depression, pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived social stress and self-esteem and subsequent birth weight. No significant difference in SSS levels between pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women were found. However, SSS better predicted variation in birth weight across both groups than mental and psychosocial health variables. Results suggest distinct relationships among SSS, mental and psychosocial health that could impact birth weight. They underscore the relevance of a multilevel, biopsychosocial analytical framework to studying LBW.

  8. Electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, and indirect blood pressure evaluation in dogs subjected to different sedation protocols

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    Helena Mondardo Cardoso

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of different sedation protocols on blood pressure and echocardiographic and electrocardiographic parameters in dogs. In total, 24 male mixed-breed dogs with a mean weight of 9.87±3.0kg were used.Animals were randomly divided into four groups (n=6, which were subjected to sedation using the following protocols: acepromazine (0.05mgkg-1 and butorphanol (0.3mgkg-1 (AB; acepromazine (0.05mgkg-1and methadone (0.5mgkg-1 (AM; acepromazine (0.03mgkg-1, methadone (0.5mgkg-1, and midazolam (0.3mgkg-1(MAM; and methadone only (0.5mgkg-1 (M. Indirect blood pressure (BP measurements and computerized electrocardiography (ECG and echocardiography (ECO were performed immediately before the application of the sedation protocol (baseline, and the same evaluations were repeated after 15 minutes. BP decreased in groups AB, MAM, and AM compared to baseline values. Electrocardiographic measurements showed decreased heart rates (HRs after sedation in all groups, and bradycardia was observed after sedation in two dogs from group M and one animal from group AM. The P-wave duration increased after sedation in groups AM and M. After sedation, no changes in cardiac dimensions were revealed byECO.Fractional shortening (FS decreased after sedation in the AM group, and dogs from group AB exhibited a smaller decrease in FS compared with the other groups. The cardiac index (CI was lower in groups AM and M than in the other groups. Animals from group AB were less resistant to examination and exhibited the most favorable sedation scores. It was concluded that the combination of acepromazine and butorphanol was the best sedation protocol for performing echocardiogram measurementsbecause dogs were less resistant to examinations and echocardiographic parameters of FS and CI remained stable.

  9. Effect of different types of exercise on sleep quality of elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonardi, José M T; Lima, Leandra G; Campos, Giulliard O; Bertani, Rodrigo F; Moriguti, Júlio C; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Lima, Nereida K C

    2016-09-01

    There are still many gaps in research concerning the effect of different physical training modalities on sleep quality in the elderly population. Thus, the objective of the present study was to compare the quality of sleep of hypertensive elderly subjects submitted to two types of training (ie, aerobic exercise alone or combined aerobic and resistance training). Participants aged 60-75 years were randomized to three groups: aerobic group (AG), combined aerobic and resistance group (ARG), and control untrained group (CG). Training lasted ten consecutive weeks with 30 uninterrupted sessions. The actigraph (Actiwatch Minimitter Company, INC - Sunriver, OR, USA) was placed on the non-dominant wrist and activities were monitored continuously while being recorded at one minute intervals. The participants kept the device for a period of 96 hours before the first and last training sessions. There was a reduction in sleep fragmentation index of 18.9 for AG and 13 for ARG (p sleep efficacy was improved in the exercise groups, with a 5.6% increase for AG (p = 0.02) and a 6.1% increase for ARG (p = 0.01). After training, percentage of minutes motionless was increased by 8.2% for AG and by 6.9% for ARG (p sleep quality. A reduction in total activity score during sleep was observed for AG and ARG (p exercise performed for ten weeks similarly improved sleep quality, thus reducing the fragmentation index, the percentage of minutes in motion and total activity score, and increasing sleep efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Subject-level differences in reported locations of cutaneous tactile and nociceptive stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, P.; Buitenweg, Jan R.; Trojan, J.; Klaassen, Bart; Veltink, Petrus H.

    2012-01-01

    Recent theoretical advances on the topic of body representations have raised the question whether spatial perception of touch and nociception involve the same representations. Various authors have established that subjective localizations of touch and nociception are displaced in a systematic

  11. Clinical interpretation of a masticatory normative indicator analysis of masticatory function in subjects with different occlusal and prosthodontic status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, D.J.; Woda, A.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse the masticatory function of subjects characterised by different occlusal and prosthodontic status. Using Optosil((R)) as a test food, the masticatory normative indicator (MNIOPT) was used to differentiate between sufficient ('normal') and impaired masticatory function.

  12. Differences in myocardial strain between pectus excavatum patients and healthy subjects assessed by cardiac MRI: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollert, André; Emrich, Tilman; Eichstädt, Jakob; Kampmann, Christoph; Abu-Tair, Tariq; Turial, Salmai; Düber, Christoph; Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich; Staatz, Gundula

    2017-09-11

    To evaluate differences in myocardial strain between pectus excavatum (PE) patients and healthy subjects (HS) assessed by cardiac MRI using the feature-tracking algorithm. Cardiac MRI was performed in 14 PE patients and 14 HS (9:5 male to female in each group; age 11-30 years) using a 3T scanner. Post-examination analysis included manual biventricular contouring with volumetry and ejection fraction measurement by two independent radiologists. Dedicated software was used for automated strain assessment. In five of the PE patients, the right ventricular ejection fraction was slightly impaired (40-44 %). PE patients had a significantly higher left ventricular longitudinal strain (P=0.004), mid (P=0.035) and apical (P=0.001) circumferential strain as well as apical circumferential strain rate (P=0.001), mid right ventricular circumferential strain (P=0.008) and strain rate (P=0.035), and apical right ventricular circumferential strain (P=0.012) and strain rate (P=0.044) than HS. The right ventricular longitudinal strain and strain rate did not differ significantly between PE patients and HS. Myocardial strain differs significantly between PE patients and HS. Higher myocardial strain in the mid and apical ventricles of PE patients indicates a compensation mechanism to enhance ventricular output against basal sternal compression. • The right ventricle is frequently affected by the pectus excavatum deformity. • Cardiac MRI revealed differences in myocardial strain in pectus excavatum patients. • Pectus excavatum patients exhibited higher strain in the mid/apical ventricles. • A compensation mechanism to enhance ventricular output against sternal compression is possible.

  13. Sex differences in objective measures of sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Anne; Metzler, Thomas J; Ruoff, Leslie M; Inslicht, Sabra S; Rao, Madhu; Talbot, Lisa S; Neylan, Thomas C

    2013-12-01

    A growing literature shows prominent sex effects for risk for post-traumatic stress disorder and associated medical comorbid burden. Previous research indicates that post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with reduced slow wave sleep, which may have implications for overall health, and abnormalities in rapid eye movement sleep, which have been implicated in specific post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, but most research has been conducted in male subjects. We therefore sought to compare objective measures of sleep in male and female post-traumatic stress disorder subjects with age- and sex-matched control subjects. We used a cross-sectional, 2 × 2 design (post-traumatic stress disorder/control × female/male) involving83 medically healthy, non-medicated adults aged 19-39 years in the inpatient sleep laboratory. Visual electroencephalographic analysis demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with lower slow wave sleep duration (F(3,82)  = 7.63, P = 0.007) and slow wave sleep percentage (F(3,82)  = 6.11, P = 0.016). There was also a group × sex interaction effect for rapid eye movement sleep duration (F(3,82)  = 4.08, P = 0.047) and rapid eye movement sleep percentage (F(3,82)  = 4.30, P = 0.041), explained by greater rapid eye movement sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder females compared to control females, a difference not seen in male subjects. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with lower energy in the delta spectrum (F(3,82)  = 6.79, P = 0.011) in non-rapid eye movement sleep. Slow wave sleep and delta findings were more pronounced in males. Removal of post-traumatic stress disorder subjects with comorbid major depressive disorder, who had greater post-traumatic stress disorder severity, strengthened delta effects but reduced rapid eye movement effects to non-significance. These findings support previous evidence that post

  14. A Preliminary Investigation of Individual Differences in Subjective Responses to D-Amphetamine, Alcohol, and Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Using a Within-Subjects Randomized Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret C Wardle

    Full Text Available Polydrug use is common, and might occur because certain individuals experience positive effects from several different drugs during early stages of use. This study examined individual differences in subjective responses to single oral doses of d-amphetamine, alcohol, and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC in healthy social drinkers. Each of these drugs produces feelings of well-being in at least some individuals, and we hypothesized that subjective responses to these drugs would be positively correlated. We also examined participants' drug responses in relation to personality traits associated with drug use. In this initial, exploratory study, 24 healthy, light drug users (12 male, 12 female, aged 21-31 years, participated in a fully within-subject, randomized, counterbalanced design with six 5.5-hour sessions in which they received d-amphetamine (20mg, alcohol (0.8 g/kg, or THC (7.5 mg, each paired with a placebo session. Participants rated the drugs' effects on both global measures (e.g. feeling a drug effect at all and drug-specific measures. In general, participants' responses to the three drugs were unrelated. Unexpectedly, "wanting more" alcohol was inversely correlated with "wanting more" THC. Additionally, in women, but not in men, "disliking" alcohol was negatively correlated with "disliking" THC. Positive alcohol and amphetamine responses were related, but only in individuals who experienced a stimulant effect of alcohol. Finally, high trait constraint (or lack of impulsivity was associated with lower reports of liking alcohol. No personality traits predicted responses across multiple drug types. Generally, these findings do not support the idea that certain individuals experience greater positive effects across multiple drug classes, but instead provide some evidence for a "drug of choice" model, in which individuals respond positively to certain classes of drugs that share similar subjective effects, and dislike other types

  15. Nitrogen oxides emission from two beech forests subjected to different nitrogen loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kitzler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We analysed nitrogen oxides (N2O, NO and carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions from two beech forest soils close to Vienna, Austria, which were exposed to different nitrogen input from the atmosphere. The site Schottenwald (SW received 20.2 kg N ha−1 y−1 and Klausenleopoldsdorf (KL 12.6 kg N ha−1 y−1 through wet deposition. Nitric oxide emissions from soil were measured hourly with an automatic dynamic chamber system. Daily N2O measurements were carried out by an automatic gas sampling system. Measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O and CO2 emissions were conducted over larger areas on a biweekly (SW or monthly (KL basis by manually operated chambers. We used an autoregression procedure (time-series analysis for establishing time-lagged relationships between N-oxides emissions and different climate, soil chemistry and N-deposition data. It was found that changes in soil moisture and soil temperature significantly effected CO2 and N-oxides emissions with a time lag of up to two weeks and could explain up to 95% of the temporal variations of gas emissions. Event emissions after rain or during freezing and thawing cycles contributed significantly (for NO 50% to overall N-oxides emissions. In the two-year period of analysis the annual gaseous N2O emissions at SW ranged from 0.64 to 0.79 kg N ha−1 y−1 and NO emissions were 0.24 to 0.49 kg N ha−1 per vegetation period. In KL significantly lower annual N2O emissions (0.52 to 0.65 kg N2O-N kg ha−1 y−1 as well as considerably lower NO-emissions were observed. During a three-month measurement campaign NO emissions at KL were 0.02 kg N ha−1, whereas in the same time period significantly more NO was emitted in SW (0.32 kg NO-N ha−1. Higher N-oxides emissions, especially NO emissions from the high N-input site (SW may indicate that atmospheric deposition has an impact on emissions of gaseous N from our forest soils. At KL there was a strong correlation between N-deposition and N-emission over time

  16. Non-invasive prediction of hemodynamically significant coronary artery stenoses by contrast density difference in coronary CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hell, Michaela M., E-mail: michaela.hell@uk-erlangen.de [Department of Cardiology, University of Erlangen (Germany); Dey, Damini [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Taper Building, Room A238, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Marwan, Mohamed; Achenbach, Stephan; Schmid, Jasmin; Schuhbaeck, Annika [Department of Cardiology, University of Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Overestimation of coronary lesions by coronary computed tomography angiography and subsequent unnecessary invasive coronary angiography and revascularization is a concern. • Differences in plaque characteristics and contrast density difference between hemodynamically significant and non-significant stenoses, as defined by invasive fractional flow reserve, were assessed. • At a threshold of ≥24%, contrast density difference predicted hemodynamically significant lesions with a specificity of 75%, sensitivity of 33%, PPV of 35% and NPV of 73%. • The determination of contrast density difference required less time than transluminal attenuation gradient measurement. - Abstract: Objectives: Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) allows the detection of obstructive coronary artery disease. However, its ability to predict the hemodynamic significance of stenoses is limited. We assessed differences in plaque characteristics and contrast density difference between hemodynamically significant and non-significant stenoses, as defined by invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR). Methods: Lesion characteristics of 59 consecutive patients (72 lesions) in whom invasive FFR was performed in at least one coronary artery with moderate to high-grade stenoses in coronary CTA were evaluated by two experienced readers. Coronary CTA data sets were acquired on a second-generation dual-source CT scanner using retrospectively ECG-gated spiral acquisition or prospectively ECG-triggered axial acquisition mode. Plaque volume and composition (non-calcified, calcified), remodeling index as well as contrast density difference (defined as the percentage decline in luminal CT attenuation/cross-sectional area over the lesion) were assessed using a semi-automatic software tool (Autoplaq). Additionally, the transluminal attenuation gradient (defined as the linear regression coefficient between intraluminal CT attenuation and length from the ostium) was determined

  17. Evaluating variation in human gut microbiota profiles due to DNA extraction method and inter-subject differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett eWagner Mackenzie

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The human gut contains dense and diverse microbial communities which have profound influences on human health. Gaining meaningful insights into these communities requires provision of high quality microbial nucleic acids from human fecal samples, as well as an understanding of the sources of variation and their impacts on the experimental model. We present here a systematic analysis of commonly used microbial DNA extraction methods, and identify significant sources of variation. Five extraction methods (Human Microbiome Project protocol, MoBio PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit, QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit, ZR Fecal DNA MiniPrep, phenol:chloroform-based DNA isolation were evaluated based on the following criteria: DNA yield, quality and integrity, and microbial community structure based on Illumina amplicon sequencing of the V4 region of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes. Our results indicate that the largest portion of variation within the model was attributed to differences between subjects (biological variation, with a smaller proportion of variation associated with DNA extraction method (technical variation and intra-subject variation. A comprehensive understanding of the potential impact of technical variation on the human gut microbiota will help limit preventable bias, enabling more accurate diversity estimates.

  18. Evaluating variation in human gut microbiota profiles due to DNA extraction method and inter-subject differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner Mackenzie, Brett; Waite, David W; Taylor, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    The human gut contains dense and diverse microbial communities which have profound influences on human health. Gaining meaningful insights into these communities requires provision of high quality microbial nucleic acids from human fecal samples, as well as an understanding of the sources of variation and their impacts on the experimental model. We present here a systematic analysis of commonly used microbial DNA extraction methods, and identify significant sources of variation. Five extraction methods (Human Microbiome Project protocol, MoBio PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit, QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit, ZR Fecal DNA MiniPrep, phenol:chloroform-based DNA isolation) were evaluated based on the following criteria: DNA yield, quality and integrity, and microbial community structure based on Illumina amplicon sequencing of the V4 region of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes. Our results indicate that the largest portion of variation within the model was attributed to differences between subjects (biological variation), with a smaller proportion of variation associated with DNA extraction method (technical variation) and intra-subject variation. A comprehensive understanding of the potential impact of technical variation on the human gut microbiota will help limit preventable bias, enabling more accurate diversity estimates.

  19. Subjective and objective observation of skin graft recovery on Indonesian local cat with different periods of transplantation time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The success of a skin graft in a cat is highly dependent on the granulation formed by the base of recipient bed. Granulation by the base of recipient bed will form after several days after injury. This research aimed to observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats with different periods of donor skin placement. Materials and Methods: Nine male Indonesian local cats aged 1-2 years old, weighing 3-4 kg were divided into three groups. The first surgery for creating defect wound of 2 cm×2 cm in size was performed in the whole group. The wound was left for several days with the respective interval for each group, respectively: Group I (for 2 days, Group II (for 4 days, and Group III (for 6 days. In the whole group, the second surgery was done by the harvesting skin of thoracic area which then applied on recipient bed of respective groups. Result: The donor skin on Group II was accepted faster compared to Group I and Group III. The donor skin did not show color differences compared to surrounding skin, painless, bright red in bleeding test had faster both hair growth and drug absorption. Test toward the size of donor skin and the effect of drugs did not show a significant difference between each group. Conclusion: The observe subjective and objective profile of skin graft recovery on forelimb of cats on Group II were accepted faster compared to Group I and III.

  20. Peculiarities of Subjectively Evaluated Giftedness of University Students with Different Statuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kursov S.O.,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the interconnection of subjective evaluation of giftedness with status position of university students in the study group. The paper presents a theoretical analysis of approaches to the study giftedness and proves necessity of the study of giftedness subjective assessments. The empirical study included 231 full-time students of the first, third and fifth year of Moscow higher education institute. The paper confirmed the hypothesis that student’s giftedness subjectively evaluated by his (her classmates positively correlated with its position in the study group. To test the hypothesis we used sociometry, referentometry, methodological procedure to define the informal power structure in a group, as well as the author's questionnaire to identify giftedness subjective assessments. The paper analyzes the features of the giftedness subjective assessments of student by his (her groupmates studying the engineering and natural science. Giftedness estimation in the groups of students studying engineering is more associated with the status position of students than in the groups studying natural science

  1. Blink reflex in subjects with different hypnotizability: New findings for an old debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarcangelo, Enrica L; Briscese, Lucia; Capitani, Simone; Orsini, Paolo; Varanini, Maurizio; Rossi, Bruno; Carboncini, Maria C

    2016-09-01

    Hypnotizability is associated with attentional characteristics whose neurophysiological bases are still under debate. Aim of the study was the assessment of possible hypnotizability-related differences in blink reflex (BR) which has a nociceptive component, is sensitive to attentional-emotional traits and states and is modulated by the brain dopamine content. In 10 high (highs) and 10 low hypnotizable participants (lows) BR was induced by electrical nociceptive stimulation of the right supraorbital nerve in the absence (noW) and in the presence of a visual cue preceding the electrical stimulation by 0.1ms (W01) and by 1ms (W1). The studied variables were: the amplitude of BR components (R1, R2, R3), the amplitude of the quick change (TO) of heart rate ("turbulence") induced by stimulation and its recovery slope (TS), the role of the Behavioral Inhibition/Activation System (BIS/BAS) in the variability BR and cardiac turbulence. Repeated measures ANOVA did not show any significant difference between highs and lows in blink reflex. TO indicated stimulation related HR increase in highs and decrease in lows, TS was larger in highs. BIS and BAS accounted for the warning effects on the BR amplitude and modulated the hypnotizability and warning effects on TO and TS. Findings do not support dopamine based hypnotizability-related attentional abilities. In contrast, they indicate that hypnotizability modulates the short-lasting cardiac response to electrical nociceptive stimulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigating an approach to identifying the biomechanical differences between intercostal cartilage in subjects with pectus excavatum and normals in vivo: preliminary assessment of normal subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechowicz, Krzysztof; McKenzie, Frederic; Yan, Zhenzhen; Bawab, Sebastian; Ringleb, Stacie

    2009-02-01

    The cause of pectus excavatum (PE) is unknown and little research has been done to assess the material properties of the PE costal cartilage. One source reported, after studying ex vivo various properties of the costal cartilage in cases of PE that the biomechanical stability of PE cartilage is decreased when compared to that of normals. Building on this idea, it would be beneficial to measure the biomechanical properties of the costal cartilages in vivo to further determine the differences between PE subjects and normals. An approach to doing this would be to use a modified FARO arm, which can read applied loads and resulting deflections. These values can be used to establish a finite element model of the chest area of a person with PE. So far, a validated technique for the registration between a CT based 3D model of the ribcage and a skin surface scan in case of PE has been addressed. On the basis of the data gathered from 10 subjects with normal chests using a robot arm, stylus and 3D laser scanner, we tried to evaluate the influence of inter-measurement respiration of a subject on results accuracy and the possibility of using the stylus for deflection measurement. In addition, we established the best strategy for taking measurements.

  3. Measurements of potential differences in human subjects induced by motion in a superconducting magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frinak, S; Knight, R A; Liboff, A R

    1992-01-01

    We have attempted to measure the electromotive forces (emfs) induced in human beings moving at a constant speed in a highly dense magnetic field. Experiments were initially conducted on a set of models, and then directly on human subjects. The models consisted of single circular loops of Tygon tubing (I.D., 0.635 cm; O.D., 0.9525 cm) filled with normal saline solution, with circumferences of 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 cm. The models were connected to an amplifier via silver/silver-chloride electrodes. Each saline loop was mounted on a movable platform, with the plane of the loop perpendicular to the platform's axis; the platform was enabled to move at known constant speeds into and out of the bore of a 1.89-T magnet. The human subjects were then substituted for the saline loops, with the long axis parallel to the direction of motion, and with standard EKG electrodes placed at 180 degrees successively on the ankle, calf, lower thigh, upper thigh, chest, and head. In all cases, for human subjects and models, the peak induced voltage was directly proportional to the speed of movement and the square of the circumference of the bounded cross-sectional areas. Thus, for the saline loops, the correlation coefficient between induced voltage and circumference was .998, and for human subjects, .947. Under the loose assumption that for equal circumferences the bounded areas in human subjects were equal to those in the circular loops, the induced emfs in human subjects were consistently about 13% greater than those in the loops. At a mean speed of 1.18 m/s, the chest had a peak induced voltage of 260 mV, while the voltage at the ankle had a peak of 19.8 mV. The experimental data were used to estimate the corresponding induced-current density at the pericardium, 17 mA/m2. We conclude for a human subject moving at constant speed along the body's long axis into a magnetic field that Faraday's law is closely followed for various cross-sections of the body. Further, in those cases in

  4. Gratitude and Subjective Well-Being in Early Adolescence: Examining Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froh, Jeffrey J.; Yurkewicz, Charles; Kashdan, Todd B.

    2009-01-01

    Gratitude was examined among 154 students to identify benefits from its experience and expression. Students completed measures of subjective well-being, social support, prosocial behavior, and physical symptoms. Positive associations were found between gratitude and positive affect, global and domain specific life satisfaction, optimism, social…

  5. Does My Program Really Make a Difference? Program Evaluation Utilizing Aggregate Single-Subject Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    In the current climate of increasing fiscal and clinical accountability, information is required about overall program effectiveness using clinical data. These requests present a challenge for programs utilizing single-subject data due to the use of highly individualized behavior plans and behavioral monitoring. Subsequently, the diversity of the…

  6. Subjective quality of video sequences rendered on LCD with local backlight dimming at different lighting conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Korhonen, Jari; Pedersen, Jesper Mørkhøj

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the influence of ambient light on the perceived quality of videos displayed on Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) with local backlight dimming. A subjective test assessing the quality of videos with two backlight dimming methods and three lighting conditions, i.e. no light, low...

  7. Subject- and Experience-Bound Differences in Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, C.; Gericke, N.; Höglund, H.-O.; Bergman, E.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the results of a nationwide questionnaire study of 3229 Swedish upper secondary school teachers' conceptual understanding of sustainable development in relation to their subject discipline and teaching experience. Previous research has shown that teachers have difficulties understanding the complex concept of sustainable…

  8. Quality Appraisal of Single-Subject Experimental Designs: An Overview and Comparison of Different Appraisal Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Oliver; Miller, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    Critical appraisal of the research literature is an essential step in informing and implementing evidence-based practice. Quality appraisal tools that assess the methodological quality of experimental studies provide a means to identify the most rigorous research suitable for evidence-based decision-making. In single-subject experimental research,…

  9. Dimensions of national culture as predictors of cross-national differences in subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, W.A.; Hatzichristou, C; Wensink, J; Rosenberg, E; van Twillert, B; Stedema, J; Meijer, D

    The value of predicting cross-national variations in Subjective Well-Being (SWB) from Hofstede's dimensions of national culture (1980) was examined using data collected in 36 nations; The Hofstede dimensions were: Individualism-Collectivism (IDV), Power Distance (PDI), Masculinity-Femininity (MAS),

  10. Forgetting the Past: Individual Differences in Recency in Subjective Valuations from Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Nathaniel J. S.; Rakow, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Recent research investigating decisions from experience suggests that not all information is treated equally in the decision process, with more recently encountered information having a greater impact. We report 2 studies investigating how this differential treatment of sequentially encountered information affects subjective valuations of risky…

  11. Sex Differences in Psychiatric Comorbidity and Plasma Biomarkers for Cocaine Addiction in Abstinent Cocaine-Addicted Subjects in Outpatient Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraz, María; Araos, Pedro; García-Marchena, Nuria; Serrano, Antonia; Romero-Sanchiz, Pablo; Suárez, Juan; Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Mayoral-Cleries, Fermín; Ruiz, Juan Jesús; Pastor, Antoni; Barrios, Vicente; Chowen, Julie A.; Argente, Jesús; Torrens, Marta; de la Torre, Rafael; Rodríguez De Fonseca, Fernando; Pavón, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    There are sex differences in the progression of drug addiction, relapse, and response to therapies. Because biological factors participate in these differences, they should be considered when using biomarkers for addiction. In the current study, we evaluated the sex differences in psychiatric comorbidity and the concentrations of plasma mediators that have been reported to be affected by cocaine. Fifty-five abstinent cocaine-addicted subjects diagnosed with lifetime cocaine use disorders (40 men and 15 women) and 73 healthy controls (48 men and 25 women) were clinically assessed with the diagnostic interview “Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders.” Plasma concentrations of chemokines, cytokines, N-acyl-ethanolamines, and 2-acyl-glycerols were analyzed according to history of cocaine addiction and sex, controlling for covariates age and body mass index (BMI). Relationships between these concentrations and variables related to cocaine addiction were also analyzed in addicted subjects. The results showed that the concentrations of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2/monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (CCL2/MCP-1) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12/stromal cell-derived factor-1 (CXCL12/SDF-1) were only affected by history of cocaine addiction. The plasma concentrations of interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) were affected by history of cocaine addiction and sex. In fact, whereas cytokine concentrations were higher in control women relative to men, these concentrations were reduced in cocaine-addicted women without changes in addicted men. Regarding fatty acid derivatives, history of cocaine addiction had a main effect on the concentration of each acyl derivative, whereas N-acyl-ethanolamines were increased overall in the cocaine group, 2-acyl-glycerols were decreased. Interestingly, N-palmitoleoyl-ethanolamine (POEA) was only increased in cocaine-addicted women. The covariate BMI had a significant

  12. Different response to hypoxia of adipose-derived multipotent cells from obese subjects with and without metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Indias, Isabel; Coín-Aragüez, Leticia; Lhamyani, Said; Alcaide Torres, Juan; Fernández-Veledo, Sonia; Vendrell, Joan; Camargo, Antonio; El Bekay, Rajaa; Tinahones, Francisco José

    2017-01-01

    -visASC-conditioned culture medium decreased significantly with increasing plasma glucose. The survival rate and tubules formed by endothelial cells cultured in hypox-visASC-conditioned medium decreased significantly with increasing homeostasis model assessment to quantify insulin resistance. Conclusions Our results suggest that hypox-visASCs from NonMS subjects could promote healthy adipose tissue expansion, while hypox-visASCs from MS subjects appear to contribute to the decreased angiogenic potential and increased inflammation underlying adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity. Our results emphasize the importance of taking into account not only the BMI but also the metabolic profile of the subjects during the implementation of ASCs-based therapy to promote neovascularization. PMID:29166648

  13. Different response to hypoxia of adipose-derived multipotent cells from obese subjects with and without metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Oliva-Olivera

    decreased significantly with increasing plasma glucose. The survival rate and tubules formed by endothelial cells cultured in hypox-visASC-conditioned medium decreased significantly with increasing homeostasis model assessment to quantify insulin resistance.Our results suggest that hypox-visASCs from NonMS subjects could promote healthy adipose tissue expansion, while hypox-visASCs from MS subjects appear to contribute to the decreased angiogenic potential and increased inflammation underlying adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity. Our results emphasize the importance of taking into account not only the BMI but also the metabolic profile of the subjects during the implementation of ASCs-based therapy to promote neovascularization.

  14. CO2 sequestration in two mediterranean dune areas subjected to a different level of anthropogenic disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonito, Andrea; Ricotta, Carlo; Iberite, Mauro; Gratani, Loretta; Varone, Laura

    2017-09-01

    Coastal sand dunes are among the most threatened habitats, especially in the Mediterranean Basin, where the high levels of human pressure impair the presence of plant species, putting at risk the maintenance of the ecosystem services, such as CO2 sequestration provided by these habitats. The aim of this study was to analyze how disturbance-induced changes in plant species abundance patterns account for variations in annual CO2 sequestration flow (CS) of Mediterranean sand dune areas. Two sites characterized by a high (site HAD) and a lower (site LAD) anthropogenic disturbance level were selected. At both sites, plant species number, cover, height and CS based on net photosynthesis measurements were sampled. At the plant species level, our results highlighted that Ammophila arenaria and Pancratium maritimum, had a key role in CS. Moreover, the results revealed a patchy species assemblage in both sites. In particular, HAD was characterized by a higher extension of the anthropogenic aphytoic zone (64% of the total transect length) than LAD. In spite of the observed differences in plant species composition, there were not significant differences between HAD and LAD in structural and functional traits, such as plant height and net photosynthesis. As a consequence, HAD and LAD had a similar CS (443 and 421 Mg CO2 ha-1 y-1, respectively). From a monetary point of view, our estimates based on the social costs of carbon revealed that the flow of sequestered CO2 valued on an average 3181 ± 114 ha-1 year-1 (mean value for the two sites). However, considering also the value of the CO2 negative flow related to loss of vegetated area, the annual net benefit arising from CO2 sequestration amounted to 1641 and 1772 for HAD and LAD, respectively. Overall, the results highlighted the importance to maximize the efforts to preserve dune habitats by applying an effective management policy, which could allow maintaining also a regulatory ecosystem service such as CO2 sequestration.

  15. Recruitment of subjects for clinical trials after informed consent: does gender and educational status make a difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitanjali B

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Researchers and investigators have argued that getting fully informed written consent may not be possible in the developing countries where illiteracy is widespread. AIMS: To determine the percentage of patients who agree to participate in a trial after receiving either complete or partial information regarding a trial and to find out whether there were gender or educational status-related differences. To assess reasons for consenting or refusing and their depth of understanding of informed consent. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A simulated clinical trial in two tertiary health care facilities on in-patients. METHODS AND MATERIAL: An informed consent form for a mock clinical trial of a drug was prepared. The detailed / partial procedure was explained to a purposive sample of selected in-patients and their consent was asked for. Patients were asked to free list the reasons for giving or withholding consent. Their depth of understanding was assessed using a questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: The percentages of those consenting after full disclosure 29/102 (30% and after partial disclosure 15/50 (30% were the same. There was a significant (p=0.043 gender difference with a lesser percentage of females (30% consenting to participation in a trial. Educational status did not alter this percentage. Most patients withheld consent because they did not want to give blood or take a new drug. Understanding of informed consent was poor in those who consented. CONCLUSIONS: The fact that only one-third of subjects are likely to give consent to participate in a trial needs to be considered while planning clinical trials with a large sample size. Gender but not educational status influences the number of subjects consenting for a study. Poor understanding of the elements of informed consent in patients necessitates evolving better methods of implementing consent procedures in India.

  16. Sex Differences in High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Subjects with Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Vinicius Pacheco; Rocha, Helena Naly Miguens [Laboratório de Ciências do Exercício - Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia - Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Sales, Allan Robson Kluser [Unidade de Reabilitação Cardiovascular e Fisiologia do Exercício - Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Natália Galito; Nóbrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas da, E-mail: anobrega@id.uff.br [Laboratório de Ciências do Exercício - Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia - Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a prototypic marker of inflammation usually increased in MetS. Women with MetS-related diseases present higher hsCRP levels than men with MetS-related diseases, suggesting sex differences in inflammatory markers. However, it is unclear whether serum hsCRP levels are already increased in men and/or women with MetS risk factors and without overt diseases or under pharmacological treatment. To determine the impact of the number of MetS risk factors on serum hsCRP levels in women and men. One hundred and eighteen subjects (70 men and 48 women; 36 ± 1 years) were divided into four groups according to the number of MetS risk factors: healthy group (CT; no risk factors), MetS ≤ 2, MetS = 3, and MetS ≥ 4. Blood was drawn after 12 hours of fasting for measurement of biochemical variables and hsCRP levels, which were determined by immunoturbidimetric assay. The groups with MetS risk factors presented higher serum hsCRP levels when compared with the CT group (p < 0.02). There were no differences in hsCRP levels among groups with MetS risk factors (p > 0.05). The best linear regression model to explain the association between MetS risk factors and hsCRP levels included waist circumference and HDL cholesterol (r = 0.40, p < 0.01). Women with MetS risk factors presented higher hsCRP levels when compared with men (p{sub sex} < 0.01). Despite the absence of overt diseases and pharmacological treatment, subjects with MetS risk factors already presented increased hsCRP levels, which were significantly higher in women than men at similar conditions.

  17. Experimental Investigation of Wave Velocity-Permeability Model for Granite Subjected to Different Temperature Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghui Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the change of permeability of rocks before and after heating is of great significance for exploitation of hydrocarbon resources and disposal of nuclear waste. The rock permeability under high temperature cannot be measured with most of the existing methods. In this paper, quality, wave velocity, and permeability of granite specimen from Maluanshan tunnel are measured after high temperature processing. Quality and wave velocity of granite decrease and permeability of granite increases with increasing temperature. Using porosity as the medium, a new wave velocity-permeability model is established with modified wave velocity-porosity formula and Kozeny-Carman formula. Under some given wave velocities and corresponding permeabilities through experiment, the permeabilities at different temperatures and wave velocities can be obtained. By comparing the experimental and the theoretical results, the proposed formulas are verified. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed to examine the effect of particle size, wave velocities in rock matrix, and pore fluid on permeability: permeability increases with increasing particle size, wave velocities in rock matrix, and pore fluid; the higher the rock wave velocity, the lower the effect of wave velocities in rock matrix and pore fluid on permeability.

  18. fMRI differences between subjects with low and high responses to alcohol during a stop signal task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuckit, Marc A; Tapert, Susan; Matthews, Scott C; Paulus, Martin P; Tolentino, Neil J; Smith, Tom L; Trim, Ryan S; Hall, Shana; Simmons, Alan

    2012-01-01

    A low level of response (i.e., a low LR) to alcohol is a genetically influenced phenotype that predicts later alcoholism. While the low LR reflects, at least in part, a low brain response to alcohol, the physiological underpinnings of the low LR have only recently been addressed. Forty-nine drinking but not yet alcoholic matched pairs of 18- to 25-year-old subjects (N = 98; 53% women) with low and high LRs as established in separate alcohol challenges were evaluated in 2 event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions (placebo and approximately 0.7 ml/kg of alcohol) while performing a validated stop signal task. The high and low LR groups had identical blood alcohol levels during the alcohol session. Significant high versus low LR group and LR group × condition effects were observed in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal during error and inhibitory processing, despite similar LR group performance on the task. In most clusters with significant (corrected p 1,344 μl) LR group × alcohol/placebo condition interactions, the low LR group demonstrated relatively less, whereas the high LR group demonstrated more, error and inhibition-related activation after alcohol compared with placebo. This is one of the first fMRI studies to demonstrate significant differences between healthy groups with different risks of a future life-threatening disorder. The results may suggest a brain mechanism that contributes to how a low LR might enhance the risk of future heavy drinking and alcohol dependence. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  19. An Event-Level Examination of Sex Differences and Subjective Intoxication in Alcohol-Related Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Patrick D.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Fromme, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory-based experimental research has demonstrated that the pharmacological effects of alcohol can increase aggressive responding. Given mixed findings and concerns regarding task validity, however, it remains uncertain whether this effect holds constant across men and women and whether variability in subjective alcohol intoxication contributes to alcohol-related aggression. In the present investigation, we used four years of event-level data in a sample of 1,775 college students (140,61...

  20. Chronological and subjective age differences in flourishing mental health and major depressive episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Corey L M; Westerhof, Gerben J

    2012-01-01

    Mental health is more than the absence of psychopathology, but few studies use positive mental health along with a measure of past year major depressive episode (MDE). This study addresses this gap by investigating the association of MDE and flourishing mental health (FMH) with chronological age and subjective (felt and ideal) age. Data are from the Midlife in the United States random digit dialing sample of adults ages 25 to 74, collected in 1995 (n = 3032). Rates of MDE were lowest, and FMH highest, among the three oldest age cohorts (45-54, 55-64, 65-74 years). Subjective age was linked with chronological age; with age, adults tend to feel younger, and want to be an age that is younger, than their actual age. As predicted by the model of subjective age as an adaptive strategy, feeling younger was related to a lower risk of MDE and a higher risk of FMH. However, wanting to be younger was related to a lower risk of FMH and unrelated to MDE.

  1. Concentration and correlations of perfluoroalkyl substances in whole blood among subjects from three different geographical areas in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chon Rae; Lam, Nguyen Hoang [College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, Chonnam National University, Yeosu 550-749 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Byung Mann [Department of Preventive Medicine and Occupational Medicine, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Kannan, Kurunthachalam [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza PO Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Cho, Hyeon Seo, E-mail: hscho@jnu.ac.kr [College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, Chonnam National University, Yeosu 550-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Toxicity and persistence of perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) in human have raised considerable concern and several biomonitoring studies throughout the world reported the widespread occurrence of these compounds in human tissues. However, information regarding influence of geographic, lifestyle and demographic factor on PFAS levels in human blood tissues is limited. In this study, whole blood samples collected in 2006–2007 from 319 donors from suburban Seoul (Suwon and Yongin), Busan and Yeosu in Korea were analyzed for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). Blood donors classified into seven age groups with ages ranging from 8 to 82 years, and different lifestyles and socio-economic status. PFOS (median = 4.15 ng/mL) was found at the highest concentration with a maximum concentration of 59.1 ng/mL. The concentrations of other PFASs were in the decreasing order of; PFOA (median = 1.30 ng/mL) > PFNA (median = 0.85 ng/mL) > PFHxS (median = 0.47 ng/mL) > PFOSA (median = 0.12 ng/mL). Geographical differences in the concentrations of five target PFASs were found. Significant positive relationships between PFAS concentrations and the age of the donors were found. Gender-related differences were found in the concentrations of PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS and PFOSA. No association was found between PFAS levels and several lifestyle factors and socio-economic status which included drinking habit, furniture/carpet in an indoor environment and monthly income. Occupation was an important determinant for PFNA and PFHxS concentrations in the whole blood. Except for PFOSA, significant associations were noted between PFASs concentrations and smoking habit. The results of this study provide information for further public health monitoring and safety management for PFASs in Korea. - Highlights: • Significant geographical differences in PFAS levels in whole

  2. Value of the individual components subject training gymnasts according to the survey of coaches with different skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Andreeva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : assess the significance of the individual components subject training gymnasts according to the survey of coaches with different skills. Material : two groups of coaches with different qualifications (n = 40. The first group of coaches -, experience from 1 to 10 years (n = 20; the second group - work experience from 11 to 25 years (n = 20. Gymnasts preliminary stage of basic training. Coaches are asked to answer 15 questions. Results : the content of questioning coaches gymnastics shows the relevance of the basic problems of technical training of young gymnasts (throwing and catching objects. The most difficult exercises in the training and improvement are throws and catches the ball (coefficient of concordance W = 0,814. The necessity of the development and use of new techniques for analyzing sports equipment exercises with the ball, learning and improving them. Conclusions : basic technical training and preparedness of gymnasts to perform exercises with objects represent a problem that is solved enough in theory and practice gymnastics.

  3. Psychopathological symptoms, defense mechanisms and time perspectives among subjects with alcohol dependence (AD) presenting different patterns of coping with stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanicka, Katarzyna; Gerhant, Aneta; Olajossy, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    The problem of coping with stress is an important one in the context of development and persistence of alcohol dependence. In the literature to date very little attention has been paid to coping patterns construed as a configuration of specific coping styles, particularly as regards the functioning of addicted individuals. The aim of the study was to verify whether individuals with alcohol dependence characterized by different coping patterns differ with respect to the severity of psychopathological symptoms, defense mechanisms and time perspectives. Participants were given a battery of psychological tests-Coping Inventory for Stresfull Situations (CISS), Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ 40), Syndrom Checklist (SCL-90) and Short Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (SZPTI-PL). The sample comprised 112 individuals with alcohol dependence, aged 20 to 63 years old, the average age was 37.86; 78 percent were men. There were identified three sub-groups of individuals characterized by a distinctive patterns of coping with stress -"emotional-avoidant", "task oriented" and a "mixed one". Individuals with the predominant emotional-avoidant coping pattern are characterized by significantly higher severity of psychopathological symptoms, less mature defense mechanisms and past time perspectives. Subjects reliant on task-oriented coping pattern were characterized by the highest level of adaptation and the most constructive way of functioning in the face of difficulties. It is worth regarding the examination of patterns of coping as an indispensable element of collecting medical history from alcohol dependent individuals.

  4. Factors influencing subjective orthodontic treatment need and culture-related differences among Chinese natives and foreign inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Ting, Li; Tang, Yin; Huang, Xue-Lian; Wan, Hua; Chen, Yang-Xi

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this survey was to compare Chinese natives and foreign inhabitants in Chengdu, China, with respect to: (1) attitudes towards dental appearance, (2) subjective orthodontic treatment need, and (3) the main factors influencing orthodontic treatment need. A total of 522 subjects, including 227 foreign inhabitants and 295 Chinese natives in Chengdu participated in the survey. A simple random sampling method was adopted and a face-to-face interview was conducted at some public sites using a questionnaire. Data was entered by two persons synchronously using Epidata 3.0, and SPSS 13.0 was used to analyze these data. 89.0% of foreign inhabitants were satisfied with their teeth compared to only 46.8% of Chinese natives. Females were more dissatisfied with their teeth than males. Chinese natives put improving appearance as the top priority (55.9%) for seeking orthodontic treatment; however, in foreign inhabitants, the main reason for seeking treatment was to improve masticatory function (44.1%), followed by "to be pretty" (35.2%). The importance of well-aligned teeth and self-perception of psychosocial impact of malocclusion were the same two main factors influencing subjective orthodontic treatment need (P different (P differences in orthodontic treatment motives between the two target groups. (3) There were differences in subjective orthodontic treatment needs between foreign inhabitants and Chinese natives. However, the prominent influential factors were almost the same. There may be benefit to understanding subjective orthodontic needs of different races.

  5. Responses to high-fat challenges varying in fat type in subjects with different metabolic risk phenotypes: a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J van Dijk

    Full Text Available The ability of subjects to respond to nutritional challenges can reflect the flexibility of their biological system. Nutritional challenge tests could be used as an indicator of health status but more knowledge on metabolic and immune responses of different subjects to nutritional challenges is needed. The aim of this study was to compare the responses to high-fat challenges varying in fat type in subjects with different metabolic risk phenotypes.In a cross-over design 42 men (age 50-70 y consumed three high-fat shakes containing saturated fat (SFA, monounsaturated fat (MUFA or n-3 polyunsaturated (PUFA. Men were selected on BMI and health status (lean, obese or obese diabetic and phenotyped with MRI for adipose tissue distribution. Before and 2 and 4 h after shake consumption blood was drawn for measurement of expression of metabolic and inflammation-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, plasma triglycerides (TAG, glucose, insulin, cytokines and ex vivo PBMC immune response capacity. The MUFA and n-3 PUFA challenge, compared to the SFA challenge, induced higher changes in expression of inflammation genes MCP1 and IL1β in PBMCs. Obese and obese diabetic subjects had different PBMC gene expression and metabolic responses to high-fat challenges compared to lean subjects. The MUFA challenge induced the most pronounced TAG response, mainly in obese and obese diabetic subjects.The PBMC gene expression response and metabolic response to high-fat challenges were affected by fat type and metabolic risk phenotype. Based on our results we suggest using a MUFA challenge to reveal differences in response capacity of subjects.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00977262.

  6. Sex Differences in High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Subjects with Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Pacheco Garcia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS is associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP is a prototypic marker of inflammation usually increased in MetS. Women with MetS-related diseases present higher hsCRP levels than men with MetS-related diseases, suggesting sex differences in inflammatory markers. However, it is unclear whether serum hsCRP levels are already increased in men and/or women with MetS risk factors and without overt diseases or under pharmacological treatment. Objective: To determine the impact of the number of MetS risk factors on serum hsCRP levels in women and men. Methods One hundred and eighteen subjects (70 men and 48 women; 36 ± 1 years were divided into four groups according to the number of MetS risk factors: healthy group (CT; no risk factors, MetS ≤ 2, MetS = 3, and MetS ≥ 4. Blood was drawn after 12 hours of fasting for measurement of biochemical variables and hsCRP levels, which were determined by immunoturbidimetric assay. Results: The groups with MetS risk factors presented higher serum hsCRP levels when compared with the CT group (p 0.05. The best linear regression model to explain the association between MetS risk factors and hsCRP levels included waist circumference and HDL cholesterol (r = 0.40, p < 0.01. Women with MetS risk factors presented higher hsCRP levels when compared with men (psex < 0.01. Conclusions: Despite the absence of overt diseases and pharmacological treatment, subjects with MetS risk factors already presented increased hsCRP levels, which were significantly higher in women than men at similar conditions.

  7. Gender differences and regionalization of the cultural significance of wild mushrooms around La Malinche volcano, Tlaxcala, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, A; Torres-García, E A; Kong, A; Estrada-Torres, A; Caballero, J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the cultural significance of wild mushrooms in 10 communities on the slopes of La Malinche volcano, Tlaxcala. The frequency and order of mention of each mushroom species in interviews of 200 individuals were used as indicators of the relative cultural significance of each species. A X(2) analysis was used to compare the frequency of mention of each species between males and females, and a Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the difference in the total number of fungi mentioned by either gender. Traditional names for mushroom species were documented and frequency of mention assessed through multivariate statistics. The fungi with highest frequency of mention were Amanita basii, Lyophyllum decastes, Boletus pinophilus, Gomphus floccosus and Cantharellus cibarius complex. We found significant differences in the frequency of mention of different fungi by males and females but no significant difference was found for the total number of fungi mentioned by either gender. Principal component analysis suggested a cultural regionalization of La Malinche volcano communities based on preferences for consumption and use of traditional names. We observed two groups: one formed by communities on the eastern part of the volcano (with mixed cultures) and the other including communities on the western slope (ethnic Nahua towns). San Isidro Buensuceso is the most distinct community, according to the criteria in this study.

  8. Explaining age differences in women's emotional well-being: The role of subjective experiences of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Anne E; Toothman, Erica L

    2016-01-01

    Our study examines explanations for the "paradox" of older women's better emotional well-being compared with younger women. We consider the role of subjective experiences of aging in a society that devalues older women. Using a sample of women (n = 872) from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (1995-1996 and 2004-2006), we examine the role of five components of the subjective experience of aging in explaining older women's better emotional well-being compared with younger women: age identity, conceptions of the timing of middle age, aging attitudes, aging anxieties, and self-assessed physiological changes. We find that, compared with women 50-54 years old, those 35-39 years old report lower positive affect, and those 25-49 report higher negative affect. These patterns are partially explained by younger women's greater anxiety about declines in health and attractiveness and older women's more youthful identities. Our study underscores the value of considering the implications of our ageist and sexist society for women's emotional well-being across adulthood.

  9. Blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in healthy, untrained subjects: effects of different exercise intensities controlled by individual anaerobic threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Kathleen; Hilberg, Thomas

    2011-02-01

    The influence of different exercise intensities on haemostasis in healthy, untrained subjects has not been intensively studied. We investigated untrained subjects for alterations in coagulation and fibrinolysis induced by two exercise intensities, precisely controlled by individual anaerobic threshold (IAT). Twenty-five healthy, untrained non-smokers (age 25 ± 3 years; relative VO(2) peak 43.1 ± 5.2 ml/kg/min) underwent exercise tests at 80% (moderate) and 100% (strenuous) of IAT for 60 min. Blood samples were taken after 30 min rest and immediately after exercise. The present results reveal that an exercise intensity at 100% IAT induces a more pronounced coagulation activity than exercises at 80% IAT. 100% IAT led to a significant higher increase in FVIII (80% IAT 85 ± 33 to 114 ± 30% vs. 100% IAT 81 ± 20 to 132 ± 29%) and TAT (80% IAT 2.5 ± 1.4 to 2.9 ± 1.0 μg/l vs. 100% IAT 2.6 ± 1.0 to 5.4 ± 4.2 μg/l). Furthermore, both exercises affected fibrinolysis, but it was significantly higher at 100% IAT (tPA activity; 80% IAT 0.44 ± 0.17 to 4.65 ± 2.67 U/ml vs. 100% IAT 0.43 ± 0.19 to 6.47 ± 3.97 U/ml). The data show that fibrinolytic activity is significantly elevated already after moderate exercise (80% IAT). After strenuous exercise (100% IAT), coagulation is more sharply enhanced together with a higher increase of fibrinolysis in comparison with 80% IAT. However, haemostasis seems to be in balance after moderate as well as after strenuous exercise intensity in healthy, untrained participants. Based on these data, exercise-induced changes of both haemostatic systems should also be tested in patients with cardiovascular diseases in order to be in a position to give recommendations for endurance training modalities in rehabilitation training.

  10. Die Bedeutung Subjektiver Elternschaftskonzepte fur Erziehungsverhalten und elterliche Partnerschaft. Ein Uberblick uber neuere Forschungsergebnisse (The Significance of Subjective Concepts of Parenthood for Educational Behavior and Parental Partnership).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalicki, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    Outlines the subjective concept of parenthood as the personal interpretation of parental responsibility, distinguishing it from related theoretical concepts. Discusses, against the background of theoretical models and empirical findings, the relationship of the parenthood concept with the parents' actual educational behavior. Suggests ways to…

  11. Evidence of uneven selective pressure on different subsets of the conserved human genome; implications for the significance of intronic and intergenic DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacKenzie Alasdair

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human genetic variation produces the wide range of phenotypic differences that make us individual. However, little is known about the distribution of variation in the most conserved functional regions of the human genome. We examined whether different subsets of the conserved human genome have been subjected to similar levels of selective constraint within the human population. We used set theory and high performance computing to carry out an analysis of the density of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs within the evolutionary conserved human genome, at three different selective stringencies, intersected with exonic, intronic and intergenic coordinates. Results We demonstrate that SNP density across the genome is significantly reduced in conserved human sequences. Unexpectedly, we further demonstrate that, despite being conserved to the same degree, SNP density differs significantly between conserved subsets. Thus, both the conserved exonic and intronic genomes contain a significantly reduced density of SNPs compared to the conserved intergenic component. Furthermore the intronic and exonic subsets contain almost identical densities of SNPs indicating that they have been constrained to the same degree. Conclusion Our findings suggest the presence of a selective linkage between the exonic and intronic subsets and ascribes increased significance to the role of introns in human health. In addition, the identification of increased plasticity within the conserved intergenic subset suggests an important role for this subset in the adaptation and diversification of the human population.

  12. Bioequivalence of eslicarbazepine acetate from two different sources of its active product ingredient in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão, Amílcar; Lima, Ricardo; Sousa, Rui; Nunes, Teresa; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2013-06-01

    To compare the bioavailability (BA) and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties and to demonstrate the bioequivalence (BE) between two active product ingredient (API) sources of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) in healthy volunteers. Forty healthy male and female subjects aged 18-40 years were randomized to treatment with 400 or 800 mg ESL marketed (MF) formulation [current active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) source] and 400 or 800 mg ESL to-be-marketed (TBM) formulation (new API source) under a gender-balanced, two-period, two-sequence crossover open-label study design. Subjects were assigned to receive either 400 or 800 mg ESL dose strengths, and each was randomly administered on two occasions--either a single oral tablet of MF or a single oral tablet of TBM--separated by a washout period of at least 7 days. Formulations were to be considered bioequivalent if, for both 400 or 800 mg ESL dosage strengths, the test (TBM)/reference (MF) geometric mean ratios (GMR) and 90% confidence intervals (90% CI) of the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and peak plasma concentration (Cmax) were within the predetermined range of 80-125%. Test/reference GMR (90% CI) for the Cmax and AUC was respectively 100% (94-109%) and 96% (94-98%) following 400 mg ESL and 100% (95-105%) and 100% (97-103%) following 800 mg ESL. Oral tablet formulations of either 400 or 800 mg ESL from the new API source were found to be bioequivalent to the corresponding marketed Zebinix® formulation according to the regulatory definition of bioequivalence.

  13. International Differences in Subjective Performance Evaluation, Compensation and Career Dynamics in a Global Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halse, Nikolaj; Smeets, Valerie Anne Rolande; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    .S. and Asia (Japan and China). We try to understand why performance evaluation is distributed differently across countries, and how these differences affect wage growth, the size of the bonus and promotion decisions. We find that evaluations tend to be better on average at the headquarter, but also that wages...

  14. Duration of load behaviour of different sized straight timber beams subjected to bending in variable climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanhijärvi, A.; Galimard, P.; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1998-01-01

    The paper is the second in a series which sums up the results of an extensive project to quantify the duration-of-load (DOL) effect on different sized timber beams in different climates. The paper deals with straight (unnotched) beams. The results of various DOL-tests of stepwise and constant...

  15. Clinically significant differences exist between curves in operative idiopathic early-onset scoliosis and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Mark J; Sponseller, Paul D; Fuhrhop, Sara K; Russell, Colin J; Newton, Peter O; Marks, Michelle C; Sanders, James O; Yazici, Muharrem; Pawelek, Jeff B; Akbarnia, Behrooz A

    2013-07-15

    Retrospective analysis. To determine if statistically significant differences exist between operative idiopathic early-onset scoliosis (IEOS) and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in primary curve characteristics, stable vertebra, kyphosis, or lumbar deformity and, if so, to identify the clinical significance of these differences. To our knowledge, no study has statistically compared radiographical measures of operative IEOS and AIS. We identified operative patients (60, IEOS; 1537, AIS) in 2 multicenter databases and measured preoperative radiographical parameters of interest. The measurements were compared using the Student t test and other appropriate statistical methods (significance, P = 0.05). The IEOS and AIS groups were significantly different in primary curve magnitude (70° ± 20° vs. 54° ± 13°, respectively; P exist between operative IEOS and AIS curves. IEOS curves are greater in magnitude, more kyphotic, less well compensated, and have a more caudal apex and stable vertebra. These findings suggest that younger patients may require more distal instrumentation and that proximal fixation techniques should consider the additional pullout forces created by the greater kyphosis.

  16. Discovery of a significant optical chromatographic difference between spores of Bacillus anthracis and its close relative, Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sean J; Terray, Alex; Leski, Tomasz A; Arnold, Jonathan; Stroud, Rhonda

    2006-05-01

    A significant difference between two closely related Bacillus spores has been discovered using optical chromatography. This difference can be harnessed for the separation of microscopic particles using opposing laser and fluid flow forces. Particles of different size, composition, and shape experience different optical and fluid forces and come to rest at unique equilibrium positions where the two forces balance. Separations in excess of 600 mum have been observed between Bacillus anthracis Sterne strain and its genetic relative, Bacillus thuringiensis. These findings open new possibilities for detection and characterization of the biological warfare agent, B. anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, the deadly mammalian disease. The large optical separation between these species is surprising given their close genetic relationship but may be explained by differences in their shape and exosporium morphology, which may result in differences in fluid drag force. The observation of large differences due to less common variables indicates the complex nature of the force balance in optical chromatography, which may in the future be used to separate and characterize microbiological samples. In general, the discovery of such large differences between such closely related biological species suggests new possibilities for the separation and characterization of microorganisms using the full range of emerging techniques that employ radiation pressure (optical filtering, laser tweezers, optical chromatography, etc.).

  17. Disease progression in systemic sclerosis-overlap syndrome is significantly different from limited and diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moinzadeh, Pia; Aberer, Elisabeth; Ahmadi-Simab, Keihan; Blank, Norbert; Distler, Joerg H W; Fierlbeck, Gerhard; Genth, Ekkehard; Guenther, Claudia; Hein, Ruediger; Henes, Joerg; Herich, Lena; Herrgott, Ilka; Koetter, Ina; Kreuter, Alexander; Krieg, Thomas; Kuhr, Kathrin; Lorenz, Hanns-Martin; Meier, Florian; Melchers, Inga; Mensing, Hartwig; Mueller-Ladner, Ulf; Pfeiffer, Christiane; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Sárdy, Miklós; Schmalzing, Marc; Sunderkoetter, Cord; Susok, Laura; Tarner, Ingo H; Vaith, Peter; Worm, Margitta; Wozel, Gottfried; Zeidler, Gabriele; Hunzelmann, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc)-overlap syndromes are a very heterogeneous and remarkable subgroup of SSc-patients, who present at least two connective tissue diseases (CTD) at the same time, usually with a specific autoantibody status. To determine whether patients, classified as overlap syndromes, show a disease course different from patients with limited SSc (lcSSc) or diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc). The data of 3240 prospectively included patients, registered in the database of the German Network for Systemic Scleroderma and followed between 2003 and 2013, were analysed. Among 3240 registered patients, 10% were diagnosed as SSc-overlap syndrome. Of these, 82.5% were female. SSc-overlap patients had a mean age of 48±1.2 years and carried significantly more often 'other antibodies' (68.0%; poverlap patients was significantly earlier than in patients with lcSSc and occurred later than in patients with dcSSc. Oesophagus, kidney and PH progression was similar to lcSSc patients, whereas dcSSc patients had a significantly earlier onset. These data support the concept that SSc-overlap syndromes should be regarded as a separate SSc subset, distinct from lcSSc and dcSSc, due to a different progression of the disease, different proportional distribution of specific autoantibodies, and of different organ involvement. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Evaluation of the Position of Mental Foramen for Clinical and Forensic Significance in terms of Gender in Dentate Subjects by Digital Panoramic Radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakare, Shweta; Mhapuskar, Amit; Hiremutt, Darshan; Giroh, Versha R; Kalyanpur, Kedarnath; Alpana, K R

    2016-09-01

    Evaluation of the position of mental foramen aids in forensic, surgical, endodontic, as well as diagnostic procedures. Thus, in view of this, the present study was conducted among the population of Pune, a central part of India, to determine the most regular location of the mental foramen and to estimate difference in position of mental foramen based on gender. The present retrospective study was commenced on 200 digital panoramic radiographs of dentate patients. The location of the representation of the mental foramen was traced. Measurements for evaluating distance of superior and inferior borders of the foramen in relation to the lower border of the mandible were made using the reference lines drawn from anatomical landmarks. The data so obtained were statistically analyzed using chi-square test. The most common position of mental foramen among Pune population in horizontal plane in both male and female patients was in line with second premolar followed by position in between first and second premolar, whereas in the vertical plane, most common position was at or in line with apex of second premolar followed by in between apex of first and second premolar. The variation in length of superior and inferior border of the foramen in relation to lower border of the mandible with respect to gender was found to be significant, with p-value forensic identification of gender.

  19. Illness perceptions in the context of differing work participation outcomes: exploring the influence of significant others in persistent back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has demonstrated that the significant others of individuals with persistent back pain may have important influences on work participation outcomes. The aim of this study was to extend previous research by including individuals who have remained in work despite persistent back pain in addition to those who had become incapacitated for work, along with their significant others. The purpose of this research was to explore whether the illness beliefs of significant others differed depending on their relative’s working status, and to make some preliminary identification of how significant others may facilitate or hinder work participation for those with persistent back pain. Methods Interviews structured around the Illness Perception Questionnaire (chronic pain version were conducted with back pain patients recruited from a hospital pain management clinic along with their significant others. Some patients had remained in work despite their back pain; others had ceased employment. Data were analysed using template analysis. Results There were clear differences between beliefs about, and reported responses to, back pain symptoms amongst the significant others of individuals who had remained in employment compared with the significant others of those who had ceased work. Three overarching themes emerged: perceived consequences of back pain, specific nature of employment and the impact of back pain on patient identity. Conclusions Significant others of employed individuals with back pain focused on the extent to which activity could still be undertaken despite back pain symptoms. Individuals out of work due to persistent back pain apparently self-limited their activity and were supported in their beliefs and behaviours by their significant others. To justify incapacity due to back pain, this group had seemingly become entrenched in a position whereby it was crucial that the individual with back pain was perceived

  20. STRUCTURE AND PRODUCTIVITY OF TANZANIA GRASS SUBJECTED TO DIFFERENT DEFOLIATION FREQUENCIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vitor Hugo Maués Macedo; Antônio Marcos Quadros Cunha; Ebson Pereira Cândido; Felipe Nogueira Domingues; Deyvid de Menezes Melo; Aníbal Coutinho do Rêgo

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different frequencies of defoliation at fixed periods on the structural and productive characteristics of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum...

  1. Variations of the histomorphological characteristics of human skin of different body regions in subjects of different age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakasheva-Mazhenkovska, L; Milenkova, L; Gjokik, G; Janevska, V

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to create a reference model for the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of healthy human skin in different body regions and different life periods. For this purpose we have taken skin biopsy specimens from 15 different body regions: capillitium, forehead, cheeks, anterior neck, thorax, axilla, abdomen, back, gluteus, anterior arm, anterior forearm, palm, anterior leg, anterior lower leg and sole. The biopsies were histologically elaborated according to a standard paraffin technique, and the obtained histological slides were qualitatively and quantitatively analysed with the use of a computer system for image processing and analysis (Lucia M, Version 3, System for Image Processing and Analysis). The examinees were divided by age into five groups: from full-term infants up to the age of 1 year; from the age of 2 up to the age of 12 years; from the age of 13 up to the age of 22; from the age of 23 up to the age of 55; from the age of 56 up to the age of 73. In each exemplar were determined: the total skin thickness in each region at each age group, total thickness of the epidermis, total thickness of the corium, thickness of the papillary and reticular layers of the corium. In this period the thickening is about 4-4.5 times. The growth of the thickness comes as a result of the growth of the thickness of the reticular corium, values of which grow by 4-5 times. The height of the epidermis in newborns shows higher values than the second group (childhood). In the third and fourth group the values of the epidermis are from 1.5 to 2.5 times higher on those parts of the body which are uncovered and exposed to externalities. The essence of the changes that happen to the skin is structural final formation, which is turbulent and targeted in youth (in order to harmonize structural and functional abilities of the human organism) and in mature age to synchronize the function of the skin with the other systems of the organism.

  2. Subjective impression of differences in realism, source width, and orientation between auralizations created from multi-channel anechoic recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigeant, Michelle C.; Wang, Lily M.; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2005-01-01

    in realism and source width. Auralizations were made using three different types of musical instruments: woodwinds (flute), brass (trombone) and strings (violin). Subjects were asked to rate each musical track on a seven-point scale for the degree of realism and source width. An analysis of variance (ANOVA...

  3. A Methodology for Investigating the Interactions of Individual Differences and Subject Matter Characteristics with Instructional Methods. ; Report 67.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.

    This paper presents a general model for conceptualizing and testing the interactions of individual differences and subject-matter characteristics with instructional methods. The model postulates certain ways of classifying the variables of interest in such investigations and of conceptualizing the cause-and-effect relationships among those classes…

  4. Performance Gaps between Online and Face-to-Face Courses: Differences across Types of Students and Academic Subject Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Di; Jaggars, Shanna S.

    2014-01-01

    Using a dataset containing nearly 500,000 courses taken by over 40,000 community and technical college students in Washington State, this study examines the performance gap between online and face-to-face courses and how the size of that gap differs across student subgroups and academic subject areas. While all types of students in the study…

  5. Thinking About One's Subjective Well-Being: Average Trends and Individual Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Maike; Hawkley, Louise C; Cacioppo, John T

    2014-08-01

    In two studies, participants reported what they had been thinking about while completing measures of subjective well-being (SWB). These thought reports were analyzed with respect to life domain, valence, and how strongly they were related to actual levels of SWB. Most people focused on their life circumstances (e.g., career) rather than on dispositional predictors (e.g., personality) of SWB. The domains mentioned most frequently (career, family, romantic life) were also the ones that were most strongly related to actual SWB, indicating that most of people think about things that actually contribute to their SWB. Some domains are predominantly mentioned in positive contexts (e.g., family) whereas others are predominantly mentioned in negative contexts (e.g., money). On average, people thought more about positive than about negative things, a result that is magnified for respondents high in extraversion or emotional stability. In sum, these findings provide insight into what people think contributes to their SWB; beliefs that may guide them as they make important decisions.

  6. Frequencies of polymorphisms associated with BSE resistance differ significantly between Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seabury Christopher M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs are neurodegenerative diseases that affect several mammalian species. At least three factors related to the host prion protein are known to modulate susceptibility or resistance to a TSE: amino acid sequence, atypical number of octapeptide repeats, and expression level. These factors have been extensively studied in breeds of Bos taurus cattle in relation to classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE. However, little is currently known about these factors in Bos indicus purebred or B. indicus × B. taurus composite cattle. The goal of our study was to establish the frequency of markers associated with enhanced susceptibility or resistance to classical BSE in B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. Results No novel or TSE-associated PRNP-encoded amino acid polymorphisms were observed for B. indicus purebred and composite cattle, and all had the typical number of octapeptide repeats. However, differences were observed in the frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel polymorphisms associated with two bovine PRNP transcription regulatory sites. Compared to B. taurus, B. indicus purebred and composite cattle had a significantly lower frequency of 23-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes. Conversely, B. indicus purebred cattle had a significantly higher frequency of 12-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes in relation to both B. taurus and composite cattle. The origin of these disparities can be attributed to a significantly different haplotype structure within each species. Conclusion The frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp indels were significantly different between B. indicus and B. taurus cattle. No other known or potential risk factors were detected for the B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. To date, no consensus exists regarding which bovine PRNP indel region is more influential with respect to classical BSE. Should one particular

  7. Frequencies of polymorphisms associated with BSE resistance differ significantly between Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelle, Brian W; Greenlee, Justin J; Seabury, Christopher M; Brown, Charles E; Nicholson, Eric M

    2008-09-22

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are neurodegenerative diseases that affect several mammalian species. At least three factors related to the host prion protein are known to modulate susceptibility or resistance to a TSE: amino acid sequence, atypical number of octapeptide repeats, and expression level. These factors have been extensively studied in breeds of Bos taurus cattle in relation to classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). However, little is currently known about these factors in Bos indicus purebred or B. indicus x B. taurus composite cattle. The goal of our study was to establish the frequency of markers associated with enhanced susceptibility or resistance to classical BSE in B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. No novel or TSE-associated PRNP-encoded amino acid polymorphisms were observed for B. indicus purebred and composite cattle, and all had the typical number of octapeptide repeats. However, differences were observed in the frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms associated with two bovine PRNP transcription regulatory sites. Compared to B. taurus, B. indicus purebred and composite cattle had a significantly lower frequency of 23-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes. Conversely, B. indicus purebred cattle had a significantly higher frequency of 12-bp insertion alleles and homozygous genotypes in relation to both B. taurus and composite cattle. The origin of these disparities can be attributed to a significantly different haplotype structure within each species. The frequencies of the 23-bp and 12-bp indels were significantly different between B. indicus and B. taurus cattle. No other known or potential risk factors were detected for the B. indicus purebred and composite cattle. To date, no consensus exists regarding which bovine PRNP indel region is more influential with respect to classical BSE. Should one particular indel region and associated genotypes prove more

  8. Three-dimensional kinematic analysis of pelvic and lower extremity differences during trunk rotation in subjects with and without chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ah Young; Jo, Hang Jin; Sung, Paul S; Kim, Yoon Hyuk

    2012-06-01

    To investigate three-dimensional angular changes of the pelvis and lower extremities during trunk axial rotation in subjects with and without chronic low back pain (LBP). Repeated-measures design. Thirty volunteers participated in the study (15 with LBP, 15 without LBP). The mean age of the subjects was 44 (standard deviation 15.8) years (range 27 to 63 years). All participants were asked to perform five sets of axial trunk rotation activities with a bar in a standing position. The outcome measures included three-dimensional rotational angles of the pelvis and lower extremities (foot, calf and thigh). The angular change of the pelvis in the sagittal plane differed between subjects with and without LBP (P=0.03). There were no significant differences in angular changes of the lower extremities in the frontal and transverse planes between groups. The angular change of the pelvis in the sagittal plane differed significantly between groups. Further research is needed to investigate the three-dimensional characteristics of biomechanical and neuromuscular aspects in subjects with LBP. Copyright © 2011 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Differences in perception of sweet and savoury waffles between elderly and young subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, S.; Mojet, J.; Kroeze, J.H.A.

    2007-01-01

    Differences between two age groups in texture and flavour perception, in food appreciation and in texture and olfactory sensitivity were investigated. Three experiments were conducted: ratings of texture and flavour attributes, ratings of pleasantness of (1) sweet vanilla waffles, (2) savoury cheese

  10. A Comparison of Different Teaching Designs of "Acids and Bases" Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ültay, Neslihan; Çalik, Muammer

    2016-01-01

    Inability to link the acid-base concepts with daily life phenomena (as contexts) highlights the need for further research on the context-based acid-base chemistry. In this vein, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different teaching designs (REACT strategy, 5Es learning model and traditional (existing) instruction) relevant with…

  11. Individuals Differ in the Attentional Blink: Mental Speed and Intra-Subject Stability Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Christoph; Arend, Isabel C.; Beauducel, Andre; Shapiro, Kimron L.

    2011-01-01

    The failure to correctly report two targets ("T[subscript 1]", "T[subscript 2]") that follow each other in close temporal proximity has been called the "attentional blink" (AB). The AB has, so far, mainly been studied using experimental approaches. The present studies investigated individual differences in AB performance, revealing (among further…

  12. Topology Optimization of Bonnet-like Plate Using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics Subjected to Different Criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Sang-Won

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of fiber composites has resulted in a new paradigm of material selection for automotive industries. In specific, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics (CFRTP) has shown its advantages in the feasibility of mass production as well as its high strength to weight ratio; allowing significant weight reduction compared to conventional steel largely in dominance today. In automotive sectors where weight saving is a major factor in operation, material shift from steel to CFRTP could be...

  13. A comparative evaluation of the reliability of three methods of assessing gingival biotype in dentate subjects in different age groups: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Sarfaraz; Patel, Jayanti R; Sethuraman, Rajesh; Patel, Ravi; Arora, Himanshu

    2015-01-01

    In the modern competitive society, a pleasing appearance often dictates the difference between success and failure in both our personal and professional lives. Evaluation of gingival biotype is very important from the start of treatment plan to the final restorative placement to provide excellent esthetics. For the study, subjects were divided into 4 groups of different ages, from 20-30, 31-40, 41-50 and 51-60 years. 30 subjects (15 men and 15 women) were selected in each group for the study. Examination of the thickness of Gingival Biotype was done in 3 different ways; - Direct visual, William's Graduated Probe and Using modified wax caliper. The McNemar test showed statistically significant differences in the way gingival biotype was identified when comparing visual assessment with assessment using direct measurement (P Biotype among the different age groups. Gingival biotype identification by visual assessment is statistically significantly different from assessment with direct measurement. Gingival biotype identification by assessment with a periodontal probe is not statistically significantly different from direct measurement.

  14. The satiating effects of eggs or cottage cheese are similar in healthy subjects despite differences in postprandial kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès; Fromentin, Gilles; Nau, Françoise; Airinei, Gheorghe; Piedcoq, Julien; Rémond, Didier; Barbillon, Pierre; Benamouzig, Robert; Tomé, Daniel; Gaudichon, Claire

    2015-07-01

    Studies have reported a better satiating effect of eggs when compared with common cereal-based breakfasts, an effect that can be attributed to their macronutrient composition. Our aim was to compare the satiating power of an omelette and cottage cheese, both being common food snacks with similar nutrient compositions (containing proteins and lipids) but in different food forms. Thirty healthy volunteers participated in a randomized crossover trial. On each test day, the subjects consumed one of the two snacks, both providing 1346 kJ, 26 g protein, 21 g lipids, and 8 g lactose. The elapsed time between the snack and lunch request, their food intake at lunch, and their satiety scores were recorded. In a subgroup of 10 volunteers, blood was sampled to measure plasma metabolites and hormones. The two preloads were similar in terms of the time between the snack and a request for the buffet (167 ± 8 min), energy intake at the buffet (3988 ± 180 kJ) and appetite ratings. Plasma amino acid and urea concentrations indicated a marked delay in kinetic delivery after the eggs compared with the cottage cheese. In contrast, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol displayed similar profiles after the snack. GIP and insulin secretions increased significantly after the cottage cheese, while glucagon and GLP-1 secretions were delayed with the omelette. We conclude that despite important differences in protein kinetics and their subsequent effects on hormone secretion, eggs and cottage cheese had a similar satiating power. This strongly suggests that with dose of proteins that is compatible to supplement strategies, i.e. 20-30 g, a modulation of protein kinetics is ineffective in increasing satiety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Association of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Hypertensive Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome Defined by Three Different Definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Shrestha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Different authorities have put forward their criteria to defi ne metabolic syndrome (MetS. The aim of this study was to fi nd the prevalence of MetS in hypertensive individuals by the available three different defi nitions from National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP, International diabetes Federation (IDF and WHO and their association with other cardiac risk factors. Methods: After anthropometric measurements fasting blood was analyzed for glucose, lipids, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP and anti-oxidized LDL antibody in 150 hypertensive individuals. A ten-year coronary heart disease risk was predicted using the Framingham risk score (FRS. Results: The prevalence of MetS was 54.7 % by NCEP, 42.0 % by IDF and 18.7 % by WHO. As many as 63.4 % had MetS by any defi nition, while only 9.4 % fulfi lled all the criteria of the three definitions. The association of cardiac risk factors also varied according to the defi nition used. hsCRP was signifi cantly elevated in MetS compared to non-MetS. Body mass index, waist circumference and HDL-C were associated in MetS defi ned by NCEP and IDF. FRS was higher in MetS defi ned by Adult Treatment Panel and WHO defi nitions. An increase in urine albumin and a decrease in eGFR were associated with MetS individuals defi ned by WHO only. Conclusions: There is a wide variation in the prevalence of MetS and associated cardiac risk factors according to three different defi nitions used. The different cardiac risk factors among MetS also vary with the defi nitions used. However, hsCRP and emerging risk factor are signifi cantly elevated in hypertensive individuals with MetS as defi ned by all defi nitions. Keywords: cardiovascular risk factors, hypertension,metabolic syndrome.

  16. Are the differences between Stw 431 (Australopithecus africanus) and A.L. 288-1 (A. afarensis) significant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Seth D

    2005-07-01

    Recent studies of early hominin body proportions paint a complex evolutionary picture, with multiple instances of reversal in body shape. These interpretations rest heavily upon the inferred limb joint proportions of Australopithecus africanus. For example, the partial skeleton Stw 431 has been suggested to show ape-like joint proportions compared to the A. afarensis specimen A.L. 288-1. This suggests an evolutionary reversal in the more recent A. africanus. However, no study has examined the probability of sampling the differences between Stw 431 and A.L. 288-1 from a single extant hominoid species. The present study compares elbow/hip and elbow/lumbosacral joint size ratios between Stw 431 and A.L. 288-1 using exact randomization, based on chimpanzee and human models of variation. Results indicate that differences in elbow/hip proportions between Stw 431 and A.L. 288-1 can be sampled from a single species. In contrast, differences in elbow/lumbosacral proportions between Stw 431 and A.L. 288-1 show a significantly low probability of being sampled from a single species. Thus, Stw 431 and A.L. 288-1 are not significantly different from each with regard to limb joint proportions, but Stw 431 has a significantly smaller lumbosacral joint. This pattern does not conform to previous interpretations of limb proportions in A. africanus. Low statistical power in the present study may account for the discrepancy. Further research is needed to illuminate the functional implications of variation in relative lumbosacral joint size in early hominins.

  17. Social Reward in Youth at Risk for Depression: A Preliminary Investigation of Subjective and Neural Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olino, Thomas M; Silk, Jennifer S; Osterritter, Catherine; Forbes, Erika E

    2015-11-01

    Offspring of depressed parents are at risk for developing depression at rates higher than the general population. One potential mechanism linking parent and offspring depression involves attenuated reward function. Despite the importance of social incentives for adolescents, no previous studies have relied on active social incentive reward paradigms in youth at risk for depression. The present study examined differences in youth self- and parent-report measures of and neural response to social reward between youth of mothers with and those of mothers without a history of depression. Imaging data were collected on 10 youth with a depressed parent and 23 youth without depressed parent, which included a task examining neural response to social rewards. Youth and parents also completed self-report measures of social reward. Offspring of depressed parents had lower levels of parent-reported affiliation and reduced neural response to social reward in the ventral striatum and anterior cingulate cortex than offspring of parents without a history of depression. Higher parent-reported affiliation was associated with greater ventral striatal response to social reward. Data suggest that risk status differences in ventral striatal response to social acceptance may be accounted for by affiliation. No differences were found in youth self-reports of behavior. The results suggest that attenuated response to social reward, assessed through neurobiology and behavior, may be mechanistically linked to the etiology and pathophysiology of depression. Targeting social interest and engagement may be a new direction in preventing the onset of depressive disorders in youth.

  18. Shear Bond Strength of a Resin Cement to Different Alloys Subjected to Various Surface Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Ezoji

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Micromechanical retention of resin cements to alloys is an important factor affecting the longevity of metal base restorations. This study aimed to compare the bond strength and etching pattern of a newly introduced experimental etchant gel namely Nano Met Etch with those of conventional surface treatment techniques for nickel-chrome (Ni-Cr and high noble alloys. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 discs (8×10×15 mm were cast with Ni-Cr (n=20, high noble BegoStar (n=50 and gold coin alloys (n=50. Their Surfaces were ground with abrasive papers. Ni-Cr specimens received sandblasting and etching. High noble alloy specimens (begoStar and gold coin received sandblasting, sandblasting-alloy primer, etching, etch-alloy primer and alloy primer alone. Cylindrical specimens of Panavia were bonded to surfaces using Tygon tubes. Specimens were subjected to micro-shear bond strength testing after storing at 37°C for 24 hours.Results: In gold coin group, the highest bond strength was achieved after sandblasting (25.82±1.37MPa, P<0.001 and etching+alloy primer (26.60 ± 5.47 MPa, P<0.01. The lowest bond strength belonged to sandblasting+alloy primer (17.79±2.96MPa, P<0.01. In BegoStar group, the highest bond strength was obtained in the sandblasted group (38.40±3.29MPa, P<0.001 while the lowest bond strength was detected in the sandblast+ alloy primer group (15.38±2.92MPa, P<0.001. For the Ni-Cr alloy, bond strength in the etched group (20.79±2.01MPa was higher than that in the sandblasted group (18.25±1.82MPa (P<0.01.Conclusions: For the Ni-Cr alloy, etching was more efficient than sandblasting but for the high noble alloys, higher Au content increased the efficacy of etching.

  19. Absence of a significant pharmacokinetic interaction between atorvastatin and fenofibrate: A randomized, crossover, study of a fixed-dose formulation in healthy Mexican subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar ePatiño-Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several clinical trials have substantiated the efficacy of the co-administration of statins like atorvastatin and fibrates. Without information currently available about the interaction between the two drugs, a pharmacokinetic study was conducted to investigate the effect when both drugs were co-administered. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic profile of tablets containing atorvastatin 20 mg, or the combination of atorvastatin 20 mg with fenofibrate 160 mg administered to healthy Mexican volunteers. This was a randomized, two-period, two-sequence, crossover study; 36 eligible subjects aged between 20 to 50 years were included. Blood samples were collected up to 96 h after dosing, and pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by non-compartmental analysis. Adverse events were evaluated based on subject interviews and physical examinations. Area under the concentration-time curve (AUC and maximum plasma drug concentration (Cmax were measured for atorvastatin as the reference and atorvastatin and fenofibrate as the test product for bioequivalence design. The estimation computed (90% confidence intervals for atorvastatin and fenofibrate combination versus atorvastatin for Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞, were 102,09, 125,95 and 120,97% respectively. These results suggest that atorvastatin and fenofibrate have no relevant clinical-pharmacokinetic drug interaction.

  20. Enhanced nerve growth factor expression by mast cells does not differ significantly between idiopathic and allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelincik, Aslı; Aydın, Filiz; Ozerman, Bilge; Ergüven, Mine; Aydın, Salih; Bilir, Ayhan; Genç, Sema; Eroğlu, Hacer; Colakoğlu, Bahattin; Erden, Sacide; Büyüköztürk, Suna

    2012-06-01

    The role of neurotrophins in allergic rhinitis (AR) has been well studied, but it has not been evaluated in idiopathic rhinitis (IR). We aimed to evaluate the nasal β-nerve growth factor (β-NGF) expressions of mast cells in patients with AR and IR. Seventeen patients with house dust mites-induced persistent moderate/severe allergic rhinitis (mean age: 29.7 ± 11.96), 14 patients with idiopathic rhinitis (mean age, 29.3 ± 10.62), and 16 healthy controls (29.9 ± 11.57) were included in the study. Nasal biopsy specimens were taken from the posterior part of the inferior turbinate from all of the study subjects. Nasal β-nerve growth factor and its receptors, pan-neurotrophin receptor p75, and tyrosine kinase A (trkA) were assessed with an immunofluorescence assay. Mast cells were determined by both an immunofluorescence assay and immunohistochemistry as tryptase-positive cells. The β-NGF, trkA, and p75 receptor counts were significantly higher in AR and IR patients than in the control group (P Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of different proportion of carbohydrate in breakfast on postprandial glucose excursion in normal glucose tolerance and impaired glucose regulation subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xin; Wang, Chun; Lifang, Lv; Chen, Dawei; Yang, Yanzhi; Liu, Guanjian; Wen, Hu; Chen, Lihong; He, Liping; Li, Xiujun; Tian, Haoming; Jia, Weiping; Ran, Xingwu

    2013-07-01

    The variability of postprandial plasma glucose is an independent risk factor for diabetes. The type and amount of carbohydrate may be important determinants of glycemic control. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of different proportions of carbohydrate in breakfast on postprandial blood glucose fluctuations in impaired glucose regulation (IGR) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects. This is a cross-sectional study of two groups including 55 subjects with IGR and 78 individuals with NGT. Their recorded breakfast was sorted into low-carbohydrate (LC) (carbohydrate 65%) meals according to the proportion of carbohydrate. Glucose concentrations were continuously measured with a continuous glucose monitoring system, and parameters such as the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of glucose and postprandial glucose excursion (PPGE) were calculated to evaluate postprandial glucose fluctuations. The postprandial fluctuations of glucose increased gradually with increased proportions of carbohydrate in breakfast in both IGR and NGT subjects. For the MC and HC meals, iAUC, PPGE, postprandial glucose spike (PGS), and mean blood glucose were significantly greater than those in the NGT group (Pglucose concentrations decreased to baseline after the MC and HC meals in the IGR group were significantly longer than those in the NGT group (Pglucose concentrations, SD, and PPGE (Pglucose excursions in the NGT and IGR subjects. In the IGR subjects, a HC meal should be avoided and a LC meal should be recommended to prevent development of diabetes.

  2. Selected biomarkers of age-related diseases in older subjects with different nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicova-Kudlackova, M; Babinska, K; Blazicek, P; Valachovicova, M; Spustova, V; Mislanova, C; Paukova, V

    2011-01-01

    The nutritionists introduce on the base of epidemiological and clinical studies that appropriately planned vegetarian diets are healthful, and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. Aging belongs to the main risks of cardiovascular disease. Markers of age-related diseases (cardiovascular, metabolic syndrome, diabetes) were assessed in two nutritional groups of older apparently healthy non-obese non-smoking women aged 60-70 years, 45 vegetarians (lacto-ovo-vegetarians and semi-vegetarians) and 38 non-vegetarians (control group on a traditional mixed diet, general population). Vegetarian values of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin and insulin resistance are significantly reduced. Non-vegetarian average values of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and C-reactive protein are risk. Vegetarians have a better antioxidative status (significantly increased vitamin C, lipid-standardized vitamine E and beta-carotene plasma concentrations). Favourable values of cardiovascular risk markers in older vegetarian women document a beneficial effect of vegetarian nutrition in prevention of this disease as well as the vegetarian diet can be an additional factor in therapy. Vegetarians suffer from mild hyperhomocysteinemia; it is due to the lower vitamin B12 concentration. Vitamin B12 supplements are inevitable for the hyperhomocysteinemia prevention (Tab. 2, Ref. 26).

  3. [The expression and significance of VIP and its receptor in the cochlea of different degrees of chronic alcoholism rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jing; Liu, Haibing

    2015-07-01

    To determine whether chronic alcoholism alters the expression levels of Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and its receptor (VIPR1) in the cochlea of chronic alcoholism rats. We measured their expression levels in 30 SD rats, in which we created models of different degrees of chronic alcoholism. We investigated the presence of the mRNA of VIP in the cochlea of chronic alcoholism rats and controls by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. We investigated the presence of proteins of VIPR1 in poisoned rats and controls by western blot. We also evaluated the local distribution of VIP cells by immunohistochemistry. We found that the levels of VIP and VIPR1 were downregulated in the chronic alcoholism groups compared to the controls group. The differences in some expression levels were significant different between chronic alcoholism rats and control rats. Moreover, at different degrees of alcohol poisoning in rats, the contents of VIP and VIPR1 differed. Decreased levels of VIP and VIPR1 were detected in the deep chronic alcoholism group compared to the group with low-degree poisoning (P 0.05). These results suggest that VIP and VIPR1 play an important role in the auditory function in rats with chronic alcoholism. Chronic alcoholism may cause a peptide hormone secretion imbalance in the auditory system, eventually leading to hearing loss.

  4. Arabidopsis plants grown in the field and climate chambers significantly differ in leaf morphology and photosystem components

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    Mishra Yogesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants exhibit phenotypic plasticity and respond to differences in environmental conditions by acclimation. We have systematically compared leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown in the field and under controlled low, normal and high light conditions in the laboratory to determine their most prominent phenotypic differences. Results Compared to plants grown under field conditions, the "indoor plants" had larger leaves, modified leaf shapes and longer petioles. Their pigment composition also significantly differed; indoor plants had reduced levels of xanthophyll pigments. In addition, Lhcb1 and Lhcb2 levels were up to three times higher in the indoor plants, but differences in the PSI antenna were much smaller, with only the low-abundance Lhca5 protein showing altered levels. Both isoforms of early-light-induced protein (ELIP were absent in the indoor plants, and they had less non-photochemical quenching (NPQ. The field-grown plants had a high capacity to perform state transitions. Plants lacking ELIPs did not have reduced growth or seed set rates, but their mortality rates were sometimes higher. NPQ levels between natural accessions grown under different conditions were not correlated. Conclusion Our results indicate that comparative analysis of field-grown plants with those grown under artificial conditions is important for a full understanding of plant plasticity and adaptation.

  5. Experimental analysis of CO₂ emissions from agricultural soils subjected to five different tillage systems in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buragienė, Sidona; Šarauskis, Egidijus; Romaneckas, Kęstutis; Sasnauskienė, Jurgita; Masilionytė, Laura; Kriaučiūnienė, Zita

    2015-05-01

    Intensive agricultural production strongly influences the global processes that determine climate change. Thus, tillage can play a very important role in climate change. The intensity of soil carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions, which contribute to the greenhouse effect, can vary depending on the following factors: the tillage system used, meteorological conditions (which vary in different regions of the world), soil properties, plant residue characteristics and other factors. The main purpose of this research was to analyse and assess the effects of autumn tillage systems with different intensities on CO₂ emissions from soils during different seasons and under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania. The research was conducted at the Experimental Station of Aleksandras Stulginskis University from 2009 to 2012; and in 2014. The soils at the experimental site were classified as Eutric Endogleyic Planosol (Drainic). The investigations were conducted using five tillage systems with different intensities, typical of the Baltic Region. Deep conventional ploughing was performed at a depth of 230-250 mm, shallow ploughing was conducted at a depth of 120-150 mm, deep loosening was conducted at depths of 250-270 mm, and shallow loosening was conducted at depths of 120-150 mm. The fifth system was a no-tillage system. Overall, autumn tillage resulted in greater CO₂ emissions from the soil over both short- and long-term periods under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania, regardless of the tillage system applied. The highest soil CO₂ emissions were observed for the conventional deep ploughing tillage system, and the lowest emissions were observed for the no-tillage system. The meteorological conditions greatly influenced the CO₂ emissions from the soil during the spring. Soil CO₂ emissions were enhanced as precipitation and the air and soil temperatures increased. Long-term investigations regarding the dynamics of CO₂ emissions from soils during the maize

  6. A study of the pinch performance and subjective satisfaction with chopsticks of different lengths

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Rain; Wang Min; Chang Jo-Han

    2017-01-01

    Total 40 college students (16 males and 24 females), with an average age of 22, were surveyed in this study. The participants are highly familiar with the use of chopsticks and were tested with their handedness (95% of the participants are right-handers and 5% of the participants are left-handers). The control variable in this study is chopsticks 6 millimeters in diameter. Instruments used in this experiment were four pairs of chopsticks of different lengths:120 mm (Type A), 150 mm (Type B), ...

  7. "Rural health is subjective, everyone sees it differently": understandings of rural health among Australian stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Lisa; Taylor, Judy; Humphreys, John S; Wakerman, John

    2013-11-01

    In Australia, a diversity of perspectives of rural health have produced a deficit discourse as well as multidisciplinary perspectives that acknowledge diversity and blend in social, cultural and public health concepts. Interviews with 48 stakeholders challenged categories of rural and remote, and discussed these concepts in different ways, but invariably marginalised Aboriginal voices. Respondents overwhelmingly used a deficit discourse to plead for more resources but also blended diverse knowledge and at times reflected a relational understanding of rurality. However, mainstream perspectives dominated Aboriginal voices and racial exclusion remains a serious challenge for rural/remote health in Australia. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reliability of different facial measurements for determination of vertical dimension of occlusion in edentulous using accepted facial dimensions recorded from dentulous subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Abhishek; Parkash, Hari; Bhargava, Akshay; Chittaranjan, B

    2014-09-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the reliability of different facial measurements for determination of vertical dimension of occlusion in edentulous subjects using accepted facial dimensions recorded from dentulous subjects. The hypothesis was that facial measurements can be used to obtain the vertical dimension of occlusion for edentulous patients where no pre-extraction records exist. A total of 180 subjects were selected in the age groups of 50-60 years, consisting of 75 dentate male and 75 dentate female subjects for whom different facial measurements were recorded including vertical dimension of occlusion and rest, and 15 edentulous male and 15 edentulous female subjects for whom all the facial measurements were recorded including the vertical dimension of rest and occlusion following construction of upper and lower complete dentures. The left outer canthus of eye to angle of mouth distance and the right Ear-Eye distance were found to be as valuable adjuncts in the determination of occlusal vertical dimension. The Glabella-Subnasion distance, the Pupil-Stomion distance, the Pupil-Rima Oris distance and the distance between the two Angles of the Mouth did not have a significant role in the determination of the occlusal vertical dimension. The vertical dimension can be determined with reasonable accuracy by utilizing other facial measurements for patients for whom no pre-extraction records exist.

  9. Commonly used bowel preparations have significant and different effects upon cell proliferation in the colon: a pilot study

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    Riley Stuart A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Markers of crypt cell proliferation are frequently employed in studies of the impact of genetic and exogenous factors on human colonic physiology. Human studies often rely on the assessment of tissue acquired at endoscopy. Modulation of cell proliferation by bowel preparation with oral laxatives may confound the findings of such studies, but there is little data on the impact of commonly used bowel preparations on markers of cell proliferation. Methods Crypt length, crypt cellularity and crypt cell proliferation were assessed in biopsies acquired after preparation with either Klean-Prep or Picolax. Crypt cell proliferation was assessed by whole-mount mitotic figure count, and by two different immunohistochemical (IHC labelling methods (Ki-67 and pHH3. Subsequent biopsies were obtained from the same patients without bowel preparation and similarly assessed. Parameters were compared between groups using analysis of variance and paired t-tests. Results There were significant differences in labelling indices (LI between biopsies taken after Klean-prep and those taken after Picolax preparation, for both Ki67 (p = 0.019 and pHH3 (p = 0.017. A similar trend was seen for whole-mount mitotic figure counts. Suppression or elevation of proliferation parameters by bowel preparation may mask any effect due to an intervention or disease. Conclusion Commonly used bowel preparations may have significant and different effects on crypt cell proliferation. This should be taken into account when designing studies and when considering the findings of existing studies.

  10. Gender differences in health and aging of Atlantic cod subject to size selective fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney Almroth, Bethanie; Sköld, Mattias; Nilsson Sköld, Helen

    2012-09-15

    We have analyzed health and physiological aging parameters in male and female Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, captured in Kattegat, Skagerrak and in Öresund. Gender differences were clearly evident in a number of variables. Males had longer liver telomeres and higher catalase activities than females, while females had higher superoxide dismutase activity, liver somatic index and condition factor. Effects of age were found for males where levels of the antioxidant glutathione and telomere length declined with age, indicating physiological aging. Liver somatic index increased and percentage oxidized glutathione decreased with age. Between-site comparisons of males show that percentage oxidized glutathione and catalase were lowest in Kattegat, whereas protein carbonyls and condition factor were higher in Skagerrak. Females, on the other hand, showed no differences between sites or indications of somatic aging or age-related effects in egg quality, indicating that older and larger female cod are healthy and show no changes in eggs with age. In contrast, males showed indications of physiological aging and lower condition than females. The results emphasize the importance of conserving old mature fish, in particular high egg-productive females, when managing fisheries.

  11. Gender differences in health and aging of Atlantic cod subject to size selective fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethanie Carney Almroth

    2012-07-01

    We have analyzed health and physiological aging parameters in male and female Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, captured in Kattegat, Skagerrak and in Öresund. Gender differences were clearly evident in a number of variables. Males had longer liver telomeres and higher catalase activities than females, while females had higher superoxide dismutase activity, liver somatic index and condition factor. Effects of age were found for males where levels of the antioxidant glutathione and telomere length declined with age, indicating physiological aging. Liver somatic index increased and percentage oxidized glutathione decreased with age. Between-site comparisons of males show that percentage oxidized glutathione and catalase were lowest in Kattegat, whereas protein carbonyls and condition factor were higher in Skagerrak. Females, on the other hand, showed no differences between sites or indications of somatic aging or age-related effects in egg quality, indicating that older and larger female cod are healthy and show no changes in eggs with age. In contrast, males showed indications of physiological aging and lower condition than females. The results emphasize the importance of conserving old mature fish, in particular high egg-productive females, when managing fisheries.

  12. Assessment of volatile organic compounds from banana Terra subjected to different alcoholic fermentation processes

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    Michely CAPOBIANGO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Banana characteristics could provide yeast growth and support the action of yeast to produce beverages. The effects of enzymatic treatment, centrifugation, commercial yeast and two selected strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated using the fermented banana Terra. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs were determined by solid phase microextraction using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The results showed that the condition employing enzymatic treatment, centrifugation and wet commercial yeast provided maximum ethanol yield (86% and effiency (98%. Twenty-two compounds of distinct chemical classes were analysed including alcohols, esters, acids and aldehydes. The concentrations of the VOCs differed depending on the fermentation condition and were more influenced by using different yeasts. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.056 to 2.694 mg L–1 and 0.057 to 2.904 mg L–1 respectively. Among the most prevalent VOCs the higher alcohols ranged from 353 to 1017 mg per 100 mL of anhydrous alcohol. The fermented banana studied showed a composition similar to other fermented fruit pulps.

  13. Thermal comfort index and infrared temperatures for lambs subjected to different environmental conditions

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    Tiago do Prado Paim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is an abundance of thermal indices with different input parameters and applicabilities. Infrared thermography is a promising technique for evaluating the response of animals to the environment and differentiating between genetic groups. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate superficial body temperatures of lambs from three genetic groups under different environmental conditions, correlating these with thermal comfort indices. Forty lambs (18 males and 22 females from three genetic groups (Santa Inês, Ile de France × Santa Inês and Dorper × Santa Inês were exposed to three climatic conditions: open air, housed and artificial heating. Infrared thermal images were taken weekly at 6h, 12h and 21h at the neck, front flank, rear flank, rump, nose, skull, trunk and eye. Four thermal comfort indices were calculated using environmental measurements including black globe temperature, air humidity and wind speed. Artificial warming, provided by infrared lamps and wind protection, conserved and increased the superficial body temperature of the lambs, thus providing lower daily thermal ranges. Artificial warming did not influence daily weight gain or mortality. Skin temperatures increased along with increases in climatic indices. Again, infrared thermography is a promising technique for evaluating thermal stress conditions and differentiating environments. However, the use of thermal imaging for understanding animal responses to environmental conditions requires further study.

  14. Differences in performance on the functional movement screen between chronic low back pain patients and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Min-Joo; Noh, Kyung-Hee; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] Differences in scores on the Functional Movement Screen between patients with chronic lower back pain and healthy control subjects were investigated. [Subjects and Methods] In all, 20 chronic lower back pain patients and 20 healthy control subjects were recruited. Chronic lower back pain patients and healthy controls performed the Functional Movement Screen (deep squat, hurdle step, inline lunge, shoulder mobility, active straight leg raise, trunk stability pushup, and rotary stability). The Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze differences in Functional Movement Screen scores between the two groups. [Results] Chronic lower back pain patients scored lower on the Functional Movement Screen total composite compared with healthy control subjects. Chronic lower back pain patients scored lower on Functional Movement Screen subtests including the deep squat, hurdle step, active straight leg raise, and rotary stability tests. [Conclusion] The deep squat, hurdle step, active straight leg raise, and rotary stability tasks of the Functional Movement Screen can be recommended as a functional assessment tools to identify functional deficits in chronic lower back pain patients.

  15. Gender differences in response to emotional stress: an assessment across subjective, behavioral, and physiological domains and relations to alcohol craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M; Hong, Kwangik; Bergquist, Keri; Sinha, Rajita

    2008-07-01

    Women and men are at risk for different types of stress-related disorders, with women at greater risk for depression and anxiety and men at greater risk for alcohol-use disorders. The present study examines gender differences in emotional and alcohol craving responses to stress that may relate to this gender divergence in disorders. Healthy adult social drinkers (27 men, 27 women) were exposed to individually developed and calibrated stressful, alcohol-related, and neutral-relaxing imagery, 1 imagery per session, on separate days and in random order. Subjective emotions, behavioral/bodily responses, cardiovascular arousal [heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP)], and self-reported alcohol craving were assessed. Women reported and displayed greater sadness and anxiety following stress than men and men had greater diastolic BP response than women. No gender differences in alcohol craving, systolic BP or HR were observed. Subjective, behavioral, and cardiovascular measures were correlated in both genders. However, for men, but not women, alcohol craving was associated with greater subjective emotion and behavioral arousal following stress and alcohol cues. These data suggest that men and women respond to stress differently, with women experiencing greater sadness and anxiety, while men show a greater integration of reward motivation (craving) and emotional stress systems. These findings have implications for the gender-related divergence in vulnerability for stress-related disorders, with women at greater risk for anxiety and depression than men, and men at greater risk for alcohol-use disorders than women.

  16. Normal range of lymph node cross sections in different anatomic regions and its significance for CT diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, P.E.; Beyer, K.

    1985-05-01

    In 102 patients, lymph node cross section measurements in different anatomic regions were taken from standard bipedal lymphograms without evidence of lymphatic disease. Corrections were made for geometric magnification due to anatomic changes in lymph node: film distances. In each region, the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, median value, Gaussian distribution, and 95% confidence limits were calculated. In 51 male patients (age range: 15 to 78 years) and 51 female patients (age range: 20 to 76 years), the following upper limits of normal lymph node cross section measurements were found: Retrocrural nodes - 7 mm, lumbar nodes - 10 mm, iliac lymph nodes - 12 mm, inguinal lymph nodes - up to 18 mm. The values obtained showed no statistically significant differences between male and female patients and between the right and left sides of the body. The problem of size as the only criterion of malignancy in computed tomography as well as in sonography of the retroperitoneal lymph nodes is discussed.

  17. Serum aspirin esterase is strongly associated with glucose and lipids in healthy subjects: different association patterns in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus

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    Kotani Kazuhiko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aspirin esterase (AE activity can account for part of aspirin pharmacokinetics in the circulation, possibly being associated with the impairment of aspirin effectiveness as an inhibitor of platelet aggregation. Aims The study was aimed at investigating the correlations of serum AE activity with cholinesterase (ChE and metabolic variables in healthy subjects in comparison to subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods In cardiovascular disease-free T2DM subjects and healthy controls, the AE activity levels and/or the correlation patterns between AE and the other variables were analyzed. Results Neither AE nor ChE activities were higher in the subjects with T2DM. Serum AE activity strongly correlated with ChE as well as glucose/lipids variables such as total cholesterol and triglyceride in healthy subjects, while the correlations between AE and glucose/lipids variables were not present in T2DM subjects. Conclusions These data may reflect the pathophysiological changes between healthy and T2DM subjects. Our data may thus provide the basis for future studies to unravel the mechanisms.

  18. Objective-subjective disparity in cancer-related cognitive impairment: does the use of change measures help reconcile the difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Farrell, Erin; Smith, Andra; Collins, Barbara

    2017-10-01

    Studies to date have found little correlation between subjective and objective measures of cognitive function in cancer patients, making it difficult to interpret the significance of their cognitive complaints. The purpose of this study was to determine if a stronger correlation would be obtained using measures of cognitive change rather than static scores. Sixty women with early stage breast cancer underwent repeated cognitive assessment over the course of chemotherapy with a neuropsychological test battery (objective measure) and with the FACT-Cog (subjective measure). Their results were compared to 60 healthy women matched on age and education and assessed at similar intervals. We used multilevel modeling, with FACT-Cog as the dependent measure and ordinary least squares slopes of a neuropsychological summary score as the independent variable, to evaluate the co-variation between the subjective and objective measures over time RESULTS: Measures of both objective and subjective cognitive function declined over the course of chemotherapy in the breast cancer patients but there was no significant relationship between them, even when using change measures. Change in objective cognitive function was not related to change in anxiety or fatigue scores but the decline in perceived cognitive function was associated with greater anxiety and fatigue. The discrepancy in objective and subjective measures of cognition in breast cancer patients cannot be accounted for in terms of a failure to use change measures. Although the results are negative, we contend that this is the more appropriate methodology for analyzing cancer-related changes in cognition. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Response of a circular steel plate with different weld geometries subject to impact loading

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    Meyer L.W.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic response of clamped circular steel plates was experimentally investigated under impact loading. The experiments were performed using a high energy drop weight machine with a 5 ton drop weight, which falls from a height of 0.8 m and results in a total impact energy of 40 kJ. Target plates of 10 mm thickness and 580 mm diameter were welded in three different geometrical configurations of weld elements on the lower side. The impact process was carried out using a hemispherical punch. The force was registered by strain gages on the punch. A full dynamic strain field measurement was applied on the tension side using two high speed cameras. The evaluation of the strain field was carried out with the speckle photography technique. The effect of cracks and welding on the deformation and failure behavior was studied using pre-cracked disks and plates with welded webs, welded circular discs and also with a weld seam only. The failure of the plates was registered using the high speed cameras and from the force signal. The results are analyzed and discussed regarding the behavior of the material and component under high rate loading.

  20. Physiological quality of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Steud. (Leguminosae - Papilionoideae seeds subjected to different storage conditions

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    Renata Conduru Ribeiro Reis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies of seed physiological processes represent the starting point for the sustainable utilization of native or cultivated plant species from the caatinga biome for which germination studies are still scarce. In order to determine adequate methods for the conservation of Gliricidia sepium seeds, the physiological quality of propagules exposed to different conditions and times of storage were examined. Recently collected seeds of G. sepium were analyzed immediately, while the other sample was stored for three, six, nine, or twelve months in plastic or paper bags under refrigeration or at room temperature for further analysis. The germination rates of seeds from each storage regime were determined and these rates compared to their water content. It was observed that germination capacity was directly related to changes in seed humidity. Storing seeds in plastic bags yielded the best conservation, mainly when they were stored at low temperatures. However, even at temperatures near 25°C it was possible to prolong seed viability when their water content was controlled through the use of impermeable packing.

  1. Resistance to compression of weakened roots subjected to different root reconstruction protocols

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    Lucas Villaça Zogheib

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated, in vitro, the fracture resistance of human non-vital teeth restored with different reconstruction protocols. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty human anterior roots of similar shape and dimensions were assigned to four groups (n=10, according to the root reconstruction protocol: Group I (control: non-weakened roots with glass fiber post; Group II: roots with composite resin by incremental technique and glass fiber post; Group III: roots with accessory glass fiber posts and glass fiber post; and Group IV: roots with anatomic glass fiber post technique. Following post cementation and core reconstruction, the roots were embedded in chemically activated acrylic resin and submitted to fracture resistance testing, with a compressive load at an angle of 45º in relation to the long axis of the root at a speed of 0.5 mm/min until fracture. All data were statistically analyzed with bilateral Dunnett's test (α=0.05. RESULTS: Group I presented higher mean values of fracture resistance when compared with the three experimental groups, which, in turn, presented similar resistance to fracture among each other. None of the techniques of root reconstruction with intraradicular posts improved root strength, and the incremental technique was suggested as being the most recommendable, since the type of fracture that occurred allowed the remaining dental structure to be repaired. CONCLUSION: The results of this in vitro study suggest that the healthy remaining radicular dentin is more important to increase fracture resistance than the root reconstruction protocol.

  2. Inviscid linear stability analysis of two fluid columns of different densities subject to gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathama, Aditya; Pantano, Carlos

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the inviscid linear stability of vertical interface between two fluid columns of different densities under the influence of gravity. In this flow arrangement, the two free streams are continuously accelerating, in contrast to the canonical Kelvin-Helmholtz or Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities whose base flows are stationary (or weakly time dependent). In these classical cases, the temporal evolution of the interface can be expressed as Fourier or Laplace solutions in time. This is not possible in our case; instead, we employ the initial value problem method to solve the equations analytically. The results, expressed in terms of the well-known parabolic cylinder function, indicate that the instability grows as the exponential of a quadratic function of time. The analysis shows that in this accelerating Kelvin-Helmholtz configuration, the interface is unconditionally unstable at all wave modes, despite the presence of surface tension. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (Award No. DE-NA0002382) and the California Institute of Technology.

  3. Performance of dairy cattle subjected to different food strategies during the growing and finishing phases

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    Marcondes Dias de Freitas Neto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the crossbreed animals, in feedlot, previously fed with different supplemented energetic systems and Brachiaria brizantha pasture. The treatments were: TAA – high level intake of energy during the growing and finishing phases; TAM – high intake of energy during the growing phase and medium intake of energy during of the finishing phase; TMA – medium intake of energy during growing phase and high intake of energy during finishing phase; TMM – medium intake of energy during the growing and finishing phases. During the growth phase the animals received supplementation of 1.0% and 0.5% body weight of animals. In the finishing phase, the animals were fed diets containing 50% of concentrate (medium intake of energy, TDN = 71% or 80% of concentrate (high intake of energy, TDN = 80% in the dry matter of the total diet. The animals of the TAA and TAM treatments had higher average body weight at the beginning of feedlot due to that achieved average slaughter weights of 42 and 21 days less than the other treatments. The animals of the TAA and TAM treatments were more dry matter intake (P 0.05 between treatments for these measures at the end of the termination. The high level of energy supplementation during the growing phase allowed animals to a greater initial weight input in confinement, and consequently, the best performance.

  4. Response of nitrogen metabolism in lettuce plants subjected to different doses and forms of selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Juan J; Blasco, Begoña; Rosales, Miguel A; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Eva; Leyva, Rocio; Cervilla, Luis M; Romero, Luis; Ruiz, Juan M

    2010-08-30

    Currently, biofortification programmes are being carried out with selenium (Se), since it is an essential element for humans and its ingestion depends partly on a vegetable diet, this not being so for plants. In this sense, few studies have tested the effect that Se has on some of the main plant metabolisms, such as nitrogen (N) metabolism. Thus the aim of this study was to establish the effect of the application of different doses (5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 120 micromol L(-1)) and forms (selenate and selenite) of Se on the reduction of nitrate (NO3-) and subsequent assimilation of ammonium (NH4+). The results showed an increase in all enzyme activities analysed (nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT)), especially with application of the selenite form, in addition to a decline in foliar NO3- concentration. Se applied in both forms increased N metabolism, with selenite inducing this physiological process more strongly, since it prompted a stronger activation of NR, GS and GOGAT as well as a greater concentration of total reduced N. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Filamentary MgB2 wires manufactured by different processes subjected to tensile loading and unloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováč, P.; Kulich, M.; Kopera, L.; Melišek, T.; Kováč, J.; Hušek, I.

    2017-06-01

    A reversible strain effect on the transport critical current (I c) of filamentary MgB2 wires manufactured by three different processes has been examined at 4.2 K and under an external field of 5 T. MgB2 wires with a Nb barrier and a Monel® outer sheath made by powder-in-tube ex situ, in situ and by diffusion of magnesium into the boron process, have been examined. The wire samples were loaded and partially unloaded at progressively higher strain levels to determine the irreversible strain limit (ε irr), which is defined as the ultimate strain where the critical current (I c) is still reversible. It was found that the strain tolerances of the tested MgB2 wires are affected by the production process. The highest annealing temperature (>900 °C), applied in the ex situ process, causes an apparent softening of the Monel® and, together with the poor grain connectivity of MgB2 filaments, leads to the lowest strain tolerance (ε irr = 0.20%). The best grain connectivity, in internal Mg diffusion (IMD)-made MgB2, combined with a stronger Monel® sheath (heat treated at a lower temperature ∼640 °C) results in the best strain tolerance (ε irr = 0.55%).

  6. SAMPLING PLAN FOR ASSESSING BROWN ROT SEVERITY IN PEACHES SUBJECTED TO DIFFERENT PLANT EXTRACTS

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    KELLY PAZOLINI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of brown rot control derivatives has been the focus of intense research owing to the negative effects of the unrelenting usage of fungicides. Brown rot, caused by Monilinia fructicola, is an important post-harvest disease of peaches. The goal of this study was to estimate the optimum sample size of peaches in order to assess the average lesion size and the influence of different plant extracts on the fruits. Three preparation forms (FPE were evaluated, as well as another seven forms of application (FAE of canola and mustard extracts on peaches, with applications of the pathogen’s inoculum. Five fruits were utilized in five repetitions per treatment. Evaluation involved measurement of the fruits’ lesioned areas. The necessary sampling size was determined for estimation of the averages for each treatment and experiment. For measurement of the lesion size, 99 fruits in FPE and 23 fruits in FAE were sufficient for estimating the average with an estimation error of 10%. Based on the same estimation error, the sampling size is contingent on the extracts (canola, and mustard, batches of fruits, forms of extraction, and extract application on the fruits.

  7. Femoral neck structure in adult female athletes subjected to different loading modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikander, Riku; Sievänen, Harri; Heinonen, Ari; Kannus, Pekka

    2005-03-01

    variation in Z, whereas the type of loading predicted 13% of the total variation of this variable-clearly more than the 2% attributable to isometric leg extension strength. Both high-impact and odd-impact loading modalities were associated with a large benefit in Z, corresponding to >1 SD in the reference group, whereas repetitive, low-impact loading showed a benefit that was only one-half of that. Surprisingly, high-magnitude loading (weightlifting) was not associated with a statistically significant increase in Z. We conclude that mechanical loading and its modality are strong external determinants of structure and concomitant strength of the femoral neck. Particularly effective seem to be loadings, which arise from high impacts or impacts from atypical loading directions.

  8. Clinically significant and practical! Enhancing precision does make a difference. Reply to McGlinchey and Jacobson, Hsu, and Speer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, W J; Arrindell, W A

    1999-12-01

    Based on a secondary analysis of the Jacobson and Truax [Jacobson, N.S. & Truax, P. (1991). a statistical approach to defining meaningful change in psychotherapy research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 12-19.] data using both their own traditional approach and the refined method advanced by Hageman and Arrindell [Hageman, W.J.J.M., & Arrindell, W.A. (1999). Establishing clinically significant change: increment of precision and the distinction between individual and group level of analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 37, 1169-1193], McGlinchey and Jacobson [McGlinchey, J. B., & Jacobson, N. S. (1999). Clinically significant but impractical? A response to Hageman and Arrindell. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 37, 1211-1217.] reported practically identical findings on reliable and clinically significant change across the two approaches. This led McGlinchey and Jacobson to conclude that there is little practical gain in utilizing the refined method over the traditional approach. Close inspection of the data used by McGlinchey and Jacobson however revealed a serious mistake with respect to the value of the standard error of measurement that was employed in their calculations. When the proper index value was utilised, further re-analysis by the present authors disclosed clear differences (i.e. different classifications of S's) across the two approaches. Importantly, these differences followed exactly the same pattern as depicted in Table 2 in Hageman and Arrindell (1999). The theoretical advantages of the refined method, i.e. enhanced precision, appropriate distinction between analysis at the individual and group levels, and maximal comparability of findings across studies, exceed those of the traditional method. Application of the refined method may be carried out within approximately half an hour, which not only supports its practical manageability, but also challenges the suggestion of McGlinchey and Jacobson (1999) that the relevant method

  9. Comparing journals from different fields of Science and Social Science through a JCR Subject Categories Normalized Impact Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Dorta-Gonzalez, Pablo; Dorta-Gonzalez, Maria Isabel

    2013-01-01

    The journal Impact Factor (IF) is not comparable among fields of Science and Social Science because of systematic differences in publication and citation behaviour across disciplines. In this work, a decomposing of the field aggregate impact factor into five normally distributed variables is presented. Considering these factors, a Principal Component Analysis is employed to find the sources of the variance in the JCR subject categories of Science and Social Science. Although publication and c...

  10. Comparison of formula-fed infants with and without colic revealed significant differences in total bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and faecal ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Francesco; Quartieri, Andrea; De Marco, Angela; Garro, Maria; Amaretti, Alberto; Raimondi, Stefano; Simone, Marta; Rossi, Maddalena

    2017-04-01

    This study compared the faecal microbial composition of formula-fed infants who did and did not have colic. Faecal samples from formula-fed infants under 16 weeks of age with (n = 38) and without (n = 39) colic were collected at Department of Pediatrics in Turin, Italy, between February 2014 and October 2015. The pH and faecal ammonia were determined and total bacteria, bifidobacteria, lactic acid bacteria and coliforms were quantified by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH). Faecal ammonia was significantly higher in the colicky infants than in the controls (483 vs. 216 μg/g, p bacteria were lower in colicky infants (1.8E10 ± 1.5E10) than in the controls (3.4E10 ± 3.0E10) (p coliform bacteria was significantly higher in colicky infants (p bacteria counts between the two groups. Our comparison of formula-fed infants with and without colic revealed significant differences in total bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and faecal ammonia. This study provides the stimulus for further studies of the gut microbiome, using new methods of analysis such as 16S metagenomics sequencing in order to lead to more tailored dietary approaches. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Inter-subject variability in the use of two different neuronal networks for reading aloud familiar words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghier, M L; Lee, H L; Schofield, T; Ellis, C L; Price, C J

    2008-09-01

    Cognitive models of reading predict that high frequency regular words can be read in more than one way. We investigated this hypothesis using functional MRI and covariance analysis in 43 healthy skilled readers. Our results dissociated two sets of regions that were differentially engaged across subjects who were reading the same familiar words. Some subjects showed more activation in left inferior frontal and anterior occipito-temporal regions while other subjects showed more activation in right inferior parietal and left posterior occipito-temporal regions. To explore the behavioural correlates of these systems, we measured the difference between reading speed for irregularly spelled words relative to pseudowords outside the scanner in fifteen of our subjects and correlated this measure with fMRI activation for reading familiar words. The faster the lexical reading the greater the activation in left posterior occipito-temporal and right inferior parietal regions. Conversely, the slower the lexical reading the greater the activation in left anterior occipito-temporal and left ventral inferior frontal regions. Thus, the double dissociation in irregular and pseudoword reading behaviour predicted the double dissociation in neuronal activation for reading familiar words. We discuss the implications of these results which may be important for understanding how reading is learnt in childhood or re-learnt following brain damage in adulthood.

  12. Different Techniques of Respiratory Support Do Not Significantly Affect Gas Exchange during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in a Newborn Piglet Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendler, Marc R; Maurer, Miriam; Hassan, Mohammad A; Huang, Li; Waitz, Markus; Mayer, Benjamin; Hummler, Helmut D

    2015-01-01

    There are no evidence-based recommendations on the use of different techniques of respiratory support and chest compressions (CC) during neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We studied the short-term effects of different ventilatory support strategies along with CC representing clinical practice on gas exchange [arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2)], hemodynamics and cerebral oxygenation. We hypothesized that in newborn piglets with cardiac arrest, use of a T-piece resuscitator (TPR) providing positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) improves gas exchange as measured by SaO2 during CPR as compared to using a self-inflating bag (SIB) without PEEP. Furthermore, we explored the effects of a mechanical ventilator without synchrony to CC. Thirty newborn piglets with asystole were randomized into three groups and resuscitated for 20 min [fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) = 0.21 for 10 min and 1.0 thereafter]. Group 1 received ventilation using a TPR [peak inspiratory pressure (PIP)/PEEP of 20/5 cm H2O, rate 30/min] with inflations interposed between CC (3:1 ratio). Group 2 received ventilation using a SIB (PIP of 20 cm H2O without PEEP, rate 30/min) with inflations interposed between CC (3:1 ratio). Group 3 received ventilation using a mechanical ventilator (PIP/PEEP of 20/5 cm H2O, rate 30/min). CC were applied with a rate of 120/min without synchrony to inflations. We found no significant differences in SaO2 between the three groups. However, there was a trend toward a higher SaO2 [TPR: 28.0% (22.3-40.0); SIB: 23.7% (13.4-52.3); ventilator: 44.1% (39.2-54.3); median (interquartile range)] and a lower PaCO2 [TPR: 95.6 mm Hg (82.1-113.6); SIB: 100.8 mm Hg (83.0-108.0); ventilator: 74.1 mm Hg (68.5-83.1); median (interquartile range)] in the mechanical ventilator group. We found no significant effect on gas exchange using different respiratory support strategies

  13. Do the levels of selected metals differ significantly between the roots of carious and non-carious teeth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malara, Piotr; Kwapulinski, Jerzy; Malara, Beata

    2006-10-01

    Since the metals deposited in teeth during formation and mineralization processes are to a large extent retained, human teeth receive a considerable attention as the indicators of the heavy metal exposure. The use of permanent teeth is limited because the extraction of healthy permanent teeth just for this purpose is hardly acceptable. As the issue of the loss of elements from a carious lesion in the coronal part of a tooth remains controversial, the valuable material could only be the root of carious and fractured permanent teeth. However, to ensure the validity of the results, it should be ascertained that the levels of certain toxic and essential elements do not differ significantly between the roots of non-carious and carious teeth, and therefore this is the aim of this project. The levels of cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, lead, zinc, potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium were determined in the roots of 344 permanent teeth (189 carious and 155 caries-free teeth) from the residents of Ruda Slaska, Poland, aged 18 to 34. No statistically significant difference between the concentration of these metals in the roots of non-carious and carious teeth was found. This finding applies to both the general population and after the grouping by donor's gender and tooth type. The concentration of lead, iron, calcium and manganese in the roots of non-carious and carious teeth exhibited dependence upon tooth type, as well as the concentration of potassium in the roots of carious teeth. Since the mineral composition of the roots of permanent teeth is similar for the non-carious, as well as the carious teeth, they can be indiscriminately selected for the tests required by a research project, as they will produce the comparable results. However, in the case of lead, iron, calcium, potassium and manganese, the comparison should be made after grouping by tooth type.

  14. Do the levels of selected metals differ significantly between the roots of carious and non-carious teeth?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malara, Piotr [Silesian Medical University, Department of Maxillofacial Surgery 20/24 Francuska Street, 40-027 Katowice (Poland)]. E-mail: malara@netinfo.pl; Kwapulinski, Jerzy [Silesian Medical University, Department of Toxicology 4 Jagiellonska Street, 41-200 Sosnowiec (Poland); Malara, Beata [Silesian Medical University, Department of Environmental Medicine and Epidemiology 19 Jordana Street, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland)

    2006-10-01

    Since the metals deposited in teeth during formation and mineralization processes are to a large extent retained, human teeth receive a considerable attention as the indicators of the heavy metal exposure. The use of permanent teeth is limited because the extraction of healthy permanent teeth just for this purpose is hardly acceptable. As the issue of the loss of elements from a carious lesion in the coronal part of a tooth remains controversial, the valuable material could only be the root of carious and fractured permanent teeth. However, to ensure the validity of the results, it should be ascertained that the levels of certain toxic and essential elements do not differ significantly between the roots of non-carious and carious teeth, and therefore this is the aim of this project. The levels of cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, lead, zinc, potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium were determined in the roots of 344 permanent teeth (189 carious and 155 caries-free teeth) from the residents of Ruda Slaska, Poland, aged 18 to 34. No statistically significant difference between the concentration of these metals in the roots of non-carious and carious teeth was found. This finding applies to both the general population and after the grouping by donor's gender and tooth type. The concentration of lead, iron, calcium and manganese in the roots of non-carious and carious teeth exhibited dependence upon tooth type, as well as the concentration of potassium in the roots of carious teeth. Since the mineral composition of the roots of permanent teeth is similar for the non-carious, as well as the carious teeth, they can be indiscriminately selected for the tests required by a research project, as they will produce the comparable results. However, in the case of lead, iron, calcium, potassium and manganese, the comparison should be made after grouping by tooth type.

  15. The effects of three different exercise modalities on markers of male reproduction in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh Maleki, Behzad; Tartibian, Bakhtyar; Chehrazi, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), high-intensity continuous training (HICT) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on markers of male reproduction including seminal markers of oxidative stress and inflammation as well as semen quality and sperm DNA integrity in healthy human subjects. A total of 397 healthy male volunteers were screened and 280 were randomly assigned to one of the MICT (n = 70), HICT (n = 70), HIIT (n = 70) and non-exercise (NON-EX, n = 70) groups. Subjects had inflammatory markers (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α), oxidants (ROS, MDA and 8-isoprostane), antioxidants (SOD, catalase and TAC), semen parameters and sperm DNA damage measured at baseline (T1), the end of week 12 (T2), the end of week 24 (T3), and 7 (T4) and 30 days (T5) after training. Chronic MICT, HICT and HIIT attenuated seminal markers of oxidative stress and inflammation with different kinetics for the three types of exercise (P reproductive function (P reproduction with different kinetics, suggesting intensity-, duration- and type-dependent adaptations to exercise training in healthy human subjects. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  16. Quantifying Forest Spatial Pattern Trends at Multiple Extents: An Approach to Detect Significant Changes at Different Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Frate

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a procedure to detect significant changes in forest spatial patterns and relevant scales. Our approach consists of four sequential steps. First, based on a series of multi-temporal forest maps, a set of geographic windows of increasing extents are extracted. Second, for each extent and date, specific stochastic simulations that replicate real-world spatial pattern characteristics are run. Third, by computing pattern metrics on both simulated and real maps, their empirical distributions and confidence intervals are derived. Finally, multi-temporal scalograms are built for each metric. Based on cover maps (1954, 2011 with a resolution of 10 m we analyze forest pattern changes in a central Apennines (Italy reserve at multiple spatial extents (128, 256 and 512 pixels. We identify three types of multi-temporal scalograms, depending on pattern metric behaviors, describing different dynamics of natural reforestation process. The statistical distribution and variability of pattern metrics at multiple extents offers a new and powerful tool to detect forest variations over time. Similar procedures can (i help to identify significant changes in spatial patterns and provide the bases to relate them to landscape processes; (ii minimize the bias when comparing pattern metrics at a single extent and (iii be extended to other landscapes and scales.

  17. Gender differences in public office workers' satisfaction, subjective symptoms and musculoskeletal complaints in workplace and office environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangbok; Park, Myoung Hwan; Jeong, Byung Yong

    2017-01-19

    This study investigates differences between male and female public office workers' satisfaction levels, sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms and musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) complaints in workplace and office environments. Questionnaire surveys were performed in 30 offices from 15 public institutions. Male and female workers of the same age were coupled and selected from each office, gathering a total of 120 male and 120 female subjects. The results show that differences exist between genders in noise and lighting satisfaction levels, SBS-related symptoms (eye, nose, skin) and MSD complaints of hand/wrist/finger, while there is no difference in overall satisfaction level of office environments. The study also suggests that office design for public office workers should take into account gender differences in preventing MSDs and also SBS. The findings of this study are expected to serve as basic data for designing effective public office environments.

  18. Resting Metabolic Rate Does Not Change in Response to Different Types of Training in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Karstoft

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectivesAmbiguous results have been reported regarding the effects of training on resting metabolic rate (RMR, and the importance of training type and intensity is unclear. Moreover, studies in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D are sparse. In this study, we evaluated the effects of interval and continuous training on RMR in subjects with T2D. Furthermore, we explored the determinants for training-induced alterations in RMR.MethodsData from two studies, both including T2D subjects, were encompassed in this manuscript. Study 1 was a randomized, crossover study where subjects (n = 14 completed three, 2-week interventions [control, continuous walking training (CWT, interval-walking training (IWT] separated by washout periods. Training included 10 supervised treadmill sessions, 60 min/session. CWT was performed at moderate walking speed [aiming for 73% of walking peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak], while IWT was performed as alternating 3-min repetitions at slow (54% VO2peak and fast (89% VO2peak walking speed. Study 2 was a single-arm training intervention study where subjects (n = 23 were prescribed 12 weeks of free-living IWT (at least 3 sessions/week, 30 min/session. Before and after interventions, RMR, physical fitness, body composition, and glycemic control parameters were assessed.ResultsNo overall intervention-induced changes in RMR were seen across the studies, but considerable inter-individual differences in RMR changes were seen in Study 2. At baseline, total body mass (TBM, fat-free mass (FFM, and fat mass were all associated with RMR. Changes in RMR were associated with changes in TBM and fat mass, and subjects who decreased body mass and fat mass also decreased their RMR. No associations were seen between changes in physical fitness, glycemic control, or FFM and changes in RMR.ConclusionNeither short-term continuous or interval-type training, nor longer term interval training affects RMR in subjects with T2D

  19. Resting Metabolic Rate Does Not Change in Response to Different Types of Training in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Brinkløv, Cecilie Fau; Thorsen, Ida Kær; Nielsen, Jens Steen; Ried-Larsen, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Ambiguous results have been reported regarding the effects of training on resting metabolic rate (RMR), and the importance of training type and intensity is unclear. Moreover, studies in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are sparse. In this study, we evaluated the effects of interval and continuous training on RMR in subjects with T2D. Furthermore, we explored the determinants for training-induced alterations in RMR. Data from two studies, both including T2D subjects, were encompassed in this manuscript. Study 1 was a randomized, crossover study where subjects (n = 14) completed three, 2-week interventions [control, continuous walking training (CWT), interval-walking training (IWT)] separated by washout periods. Training included 10 supervised treadmill sessions, 60 min/session. CWT was performed at moderate walking speed [aiming for 73% of walking peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak)], while IWT was performed as alternating 3-min repetitions at slow (54% VO2peak) and fast (89% VO2peak) walking speed. Study 2 was a single-arm training intervention study where subjects (n = 23) were prescribed 12 weeks of free-living IWT (at least 3 sessions/week, 30 min/session). Before and after interventions, RMR, physical fitness, body composition, and glycemic control parameters were assessed. No overall intervention-induced changes in RMR were seen across the studies, but considerable inter-individual differences in RMR changes were seen in Study 2. At baseline, total body mass (TBM), fat-free mass (FFM), and fat mass were all associated with RMR. Changes in RMR were associated with changes in TBM and fat mass, and subjects who decreased body mass and fat mass also decreased their RMR. No associations were seen between changes in physical fitness, glycemic control, or FFM and changes in RMR. Neither short-term continuous or interval-type training, nor longer term interval training affects RMR in subjects with T2D when no overall changes in body composition are seen

  20. Exercise significantly increases plasma adrenaline and oxidized low-density lipoprotein in normal healthy subjects but not in persons with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Toshihito; Nakamura, Takeshi; Ito, Tomoyuki; Umemoto, Yasunori; Sakamoto, Keiko; Kinoshita, Tokio; Nakagawa, Masafumi; Tajima, Fumihiro

    2012-04-01

    To compare plasma concentrations of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and adrenaline during exercise between persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) and able-bodied (AB) individuals. Randomized controlled study. Human laboratory at a medical university. Persons with SCI (n=7) and AB individuals (n=9). Two-hour arm crank ergometer exercise at 60% maximum oxygen consumption. Plasma oxLDL and adrenaline levels. Exercise significantly increased plasma adrenaline levels in AB persons (mean ± SD: rest, 45.4±32.2 pg/mL; exercise, 200.9±113.7 pg/mL; Pplasma oxLDL levels in AB persons (mean ± SD: rest, 102.2±30.2 U/L; exercise, 179.7±60.0 U/L; Pplasma adrenaline levels during exercise contribute to the increase in plasma oxLDL levels. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of host responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in a multi-site study of subjects with different TB and HIV infection states in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne S Sutherland

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a global health threat with 9 million new cases and 1.4 million deaths per year. In order to develop a protective vaccine, we need to define the antigens expressed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, which are relevant to protective immunity in high-endemic areas.We analysed responses to 23 Mtb antigens in a total of 1247 subjects with different HIV and TB status across 5 geographically diverse sites in Africa (South Africa, The Gambia, Ethiopia, Malawi and Uganda. We used a 7-day whole blood assay followed by IFN-γ ELISA on the supernatants. Antigens included PPD, ESAT-6 and Ag85B (dominant antigens together with novel resuscitation-promoting factors (rpf, reactivation proteins, latency (Mtb DosR regulon-encoded antigens, starvation-induced antigens and secreted antigens.There was variation between sites in responses to the antigens, presumably due to underlying genetic and environmental differences. When results from all sites were combined, HIV- subjects with active TB showed significantly lower responses compared to both TST(- and TST(+ contacts to latency antigens (Rv0569, Rv1733, Rv1735, Rv1737 and the rpf Rv0867; whilst responses to ESAT-6/CFP-10 fusion protein (EC, PPD, Rv2029, TB10.3, and TB10.4 were significantly higher in TST(+ contacts (LTBI compared to TB and TST(- contacts fewer differences were seen in subjects with HIV co-infection, with responses to the mitogen PHA significantly lower in subjects with active TB compared to those with LTBI and no difference with any antigen.Our multi-site study design for testing novel Mtb antigens revealed promising antigens for future vaccine development. The IFN-γ ELISA is a cheap and useful tool for screening potential antigenicity in subjects with different ethnic backgrounds and across a spectrum of TB and HIV infection states. Analysis of cytokines other than IFN-γ is currently on-going to determine correlates of protection, which may be useful for vaccine

  2. The significance of hypersensitivity to autologous sweat and serum in cholinergic urticaria: cholinergic urticaria may have different subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Eun; Jung, Kwan Ho; Cho, Hyun Hee; Kang, Hoon; Park, Young Min; Park, Hyun Jeong; Lee, Jun Young

    2015-07-01

    The pathogenesis of cholinergic urticaria (ChU) has been unclear except for the involvement of acetylcholine. Attempts to classify ChU according to etiology have rarely been performed. To evaluate the significance of responsiveness to autologous sweat and serum in ChU in relation to their clinical characteristics. This study involved 18 patients diagnosed with ChU between January 2010 and April 2011 in the Catholic Medical Center-St. Paul's Hospital. History taking included symptom duration, association with atopy, decreased sweat secretions, seasonal variation, and response to treatment. Intradermal autologous serum skin test (ASST) and autologous sweat skin test (ASwST) and basophil histamine release test with sweat were done. Sweat hypersensitivity was proven by a positive ASwST and basophil histamine release test in only 37.5% of patients with ChU, and in none of the healthy controls. The weal size of ASwST correlated with percentage basophil histamine release. A positive response to autologous serum was displayed by 38.9% of patients, whereas 10% of healthy controls showed a positive ASST response. Intriguingly, patients with a positive ASwST had a negative ASST, and vice versa. Despite this, there was no difference in the clinical characteristics between positive ASST and positive ASwST groups. The frequency of hypersensitivity to autologous sweat and serum was significantly higher in patients with ChU, compared with healthy controls. This suggests that autoimmunity to an unknown serum factor as well as sweat hypersensitivity may be involved in the pathogenesis of ChU. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  3. Functional MRI in healthy subjects during acupuncture: different effects of needle rotation in real and false acupoints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.L. [Department of Radiology, Guang An Men Hospital, China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Peking (China); Krings, T.; Weidemann, J.; Meister, I.G.; Thron, A. [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of the University of Technology, Aachen (Germany)

    2004-05-01

    The cerebral activation pattern due to acupuncture is not completely understood. Although the effect of acupuncture on cerebral haemodynamics has been studied, no previous report has focused on different puncture and stimulation methods. We used functional MRI (fMRI) in 15 healthy subjects to investigate cortical activation during stimulation of two real acupoints (Liv3 and G40) and one sham point, needled in a random and, for the subjects, blinded order employing rotating and non-rotating methods, using a blocked paradigm on a 1.5 tesla imager. Compared to the non-rotating stimulation method, during rotating stimulation of the real acupoints, we observed an increase in activation in both secondary somatosensory cortical areas, frontal areas, the right side of the thalamus and the left side of the cerebellum; no such effects of the needling technique were seen while stimulating the sham point. The observation that rotating the needle strengthened the effects of acupuncture only at real acupoints suggests that, as claimed in Chinese traditional medicine, stimulation of these acupoints has a specific effect on cortical neuronal activity, absent with sham acupoints. These specific cerebral activation patterns might explain the therapeutic effects of acupuncture in certain subjects. (orig.)

  4. DNA Methylation Profiling of Human Prefrontal Cortex Neurons in Heroin Users Shows Significant Difference between Genomic Contexts of Hyper- and Hypomethylation and a Younger Epigenetic Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kozlenkov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We employed Illumina 450 K Infinium microarrays to profile DNA methylation (DNAm in neuronal nuclei separated by fluorescence-activated sorting from the postmortem orbitofrontal cortex (OFC of heroin users who died from heroin overdose (N = 37, suicide completers (N = 22 with no evidence of heroin use and from control subjects who did not abuse illicit drugs and died of non-suicide causes (N = 28. We identified 1298 differentially methylated CpG sites (DMSs between heroin users and controls, and 454 DMSs between suicide completers and controls (p < 0.001. DMSs and corresponding genes (DMGs in heroin users showed significant differences in the preferential context of hyper and hypo DM. HyperDMSs were enriched in gene bodies and exons but depleted in promoters, whereas hypoDMSs were enriched in promoters and enhancers. In addition, hyperDMGs showed preference for genes expressed specifically by glutamatergic as opposed to GABAergic neurons and enrichment for axonogenesis- and synaptic-related gene ontology categories, whereas hypoDMGs were enriched for transcription factor activity- and gene expression regulation-related terms. Finally, we found that the DNAm-based “epigenetic age” of neurons from heroin users was younger than that in controls. Suicide-related results were more difficult to interpret. Collectively, these findings suggest that the observed DNAm differences could represent functionally significant marks of heroin-associated plasticity in the OFC.

  5. Subjective assessment of cochlear implant users' signal-to-noise ratio requirements for different levels of wireless device usability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julstrom, Stephen; Kozma-Spytek, Linda

    2014-01-01

    effect of possible noise-measurement weighting functions. The participants' preferred telephone speech levels subjectively matched or were somewhat lower than the level that they heard from a 65 dB SPL wideband reference. The mean speech (signal)-to-noise ratio requirement for them to consider their telephone experience "acceptable for normal use" was 20 dB, very similar to the results for the hearing aid users of the previous study. Significant differences in the participants' apparent levels of noise tolerance among the noise types when the noise level was determined using A-weighting were eliminated when a CI-specific noise-measurement weighting was applied. The results for the CI users in terms of both preferred levels for wireless and cordless phone communication and signal-to-noise requirements closely paralleled the corresponding results for hearing aid users from the previous study, and showed no significant differences between the microphone and telecoil modes of use. Signal-to-noise requirements were directly related to the participants' noise audibility threshold and were independent of noise type when appropriate noise-measurement weighting was applied. Extending the investigation to include noncontinuous interfering noises and forms of radiofrequency interference other than additive audiofrequency noise could be areas of future study. American Academy of Audiology.

  6. Gender difference in wellbeing during school lessons among 10-12-year-old children: the importance of school subjects and student-teacher relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsdottir, Aslaug; Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to examine gender difference in self-reported wellbeing during school lessons among Icelandic 10-12-year-old boys and girls, in grades 5-7 in elementary schools. Also, to examine whether factors related to attitudes towards school subjects, student-teacher relationships and student-peer relationships mediated the associations between gender and wellbeing during school lessons. A cross-sectional anonymous survey was conducted among 88% (in total 11,387 participants) of all registered students aged 10-12 attending grades 5-7 in Iceland. Multivariate logistic regression was used to test main, mediation, and interaction effects. Boys reported significantly less wellbeing during school lessons than girls. Not finding the subjects taught at school fun fully mediated the relationship between gender and self-reported wellbeing during school lessons. Furthermore, when not considering other school-related factors, finding the subjects at school to hard, not liking the teachers, not being praised by teachers, and being bullied in recess partially mediated the relationship between gender and self-reported wellbeing during school lessons. The results suggest that to improve boy's wellbeing during school lessons, making school subject more appealing to boys is of importance. Furthermore, fostering teacher-student relationships and decreasing bullying of boys in recess should be emphasised.

  7. Cultural differences in the relationships among autonomy support, psychological need satisfaction, subjective vitality, and effort in British and Chinese physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ian M; Lonsdale, Chris

    2010-10-01

    Using basic psychological needs theory (BPNT; Ryan & Deci, 2000) as our guiding framework, we explored cultural differences in the relationships among physical education students' perceptions of teacher autonomy support, psychological need satisfaction, subjective vitality and effort in class. Seven hundred and fifteen students (age range from 13 to 15 years) from the U.K. and Hong Kong, China, completed a multisection inventory during a timetabled physical education class. Multilevel analyses revealed that the relationships among autonomy support, subjective vitality and effort were mediated by students' perceptions of psychological need satisfaction. The relationship between autonomy support and perceptions of competence was stronger in the Chinese sample, compared with the U.K. sample. In addition, the relationship between perceptions of relatedness and effort was not significant in the Chinese students. The findings generally support the pan-cultural utility of BPNT and imply that a teacher-created autonomy supportive environment may promote positive student experiences in both cultures.

  8. High and low schizotypal female subjects do not differ in spatial memory abilities in a virtual reality task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Montes, José Manuel; Noguera, Carmen; Alvarez, Dolores; Ruiz, Marina; Cimadevilla Redondo, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Schizotypy is a psychological construct related to schizophrenia. The exact relationship between both entities is not clear. In recent years, schizophrenia has been associated with hippocampal abnormalities and spatial memory problems. The aim of this study was to determine possible links between high schizotypy (HS) and low schizotypy (LS) and spatial abilities, using virtual reality tasks. We hypothesised that the HS group would exhibit a lower performance in spatial memory tasks than the LS group. Two groups of female students were formed according to their score on the ESQUIZO-Q-A questionnaire. HS and LS subjects were tested on two different tasks: the Boxes Room task, a spatial memory task sensitive to hippocampal alterations and a spatial recognition task. Data showed that both groups mastered both tasks. Groups differed in personality features but not in spatial performance. These results provide valuable information about the schizotypy-schizophrenia connections. Schizotypal subjects are not impaired on spatial cognition and, accordingly, the schizotypy-schizophrenia relationship is not straightforward.

  9. Students of Different Subjects Have Different Levels of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation to Learn English: Two Different Groups of EFL Students in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kieran; Fujita, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    Here is documented investigation to assess the motivational drivers of a group of Japanese, first-year, dental-university students taking part in compulsory EFL classes and to compare those motivational drivers with an investigation into the motivational drivers of a group of Japanese IT students. There was a clear difference between extrinsic and…

  10. The value of the acoustic voice quality index as a measure of dysphonia severity in subjects speaking different languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryn, Youri; De Bodt, Marc; Barsties, Ben; Roy, Nelson

    2014-06-01

    The Acoustic Voice Quality Index (AVQI) is a relatively new clinical method to quantify dysphonia severity. Since it partially relies on continuous speech, its performance may vary with voice-related phonetic differences and thus across languages. The present investigation therefore assessed the AVQI's performance in English, Dutch, German, and French. Fifty subjects were recorded reading sentences in the four languages, as well as producing a sustained vowel. These recordings were later edited to calculate the AVQI. The samples were also perceptually rated on overall dysphonia severity by three experienced voice clinicians. The AVQI's cross-linguistic concurrent validity and diagnostic precision were assessed. The results support earlier data, and confirm good cross-linguistic validity and diagnostic accuracy. Although no statistical differences were observed between languages, the AVQI performed better in English and German and less well in French. These results validate the AVQI as a potentially robust and objective dysphonia severity measure across languages.

  11. Baseline CD4+ T cell counts correlates with HIV-1 synonymous rate in HLA-B*5701 subjects with different risk of disease progression.

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    Melissa M Norström

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available HLA-B*5701 is the host factor most strongly associated with slow HIV-1 disease progression, although risk of progression may vary among patients carrying this allele. The interplay between HIV-1 evolutionary rate variation and risk of progression to AIDS in HLA-B*5701 subjects was studied using longitudinal viral sequences from high-risk progressors (HRPs and low-risk progressors (LRPs. Posterior distributions of HIV-1 genealogies assuming a Bayesian relaxed molecular clock were used to estimate the absolute rates of nonsynonymous and synonymous substitutions for different set of branches. Rates of viral evolution, as well as in vitro viral replication capacity assessed using a novel phenotypic assay, were correlated with various clinical parameters. HIV-1 synonymous substitution rates were significantly lower in LRPs than HRPs, especially for sets of internal branches. The viral population infecting LRPs was also characterized by a slower increase in synonymous divergence over time. This pattern did not correlate to differences in viral fitness, as measured by in vitro replication capacity, nor could be explained by differences among subjects in T cell activation or selection pressure. Interestingly, a significant inverse correlation was found between baseline CD4+ T cell counts and mean HIV-1 synonymous rate (which is proportional to the viral replication rate along branches representing viral lineages successfully propagating through time up to the last sampled time point. The observed lower replication rate in HLA-B*5701 subjects with higher baseline CD4+ T cell counts provides a potential model to explain differences in risk of disease progression among individuals carrying this allele.

  12. Metabolite Profiling of Barley Grains Subjected to Water Stress: To Explain the Genotypic Difference in Drought-Induced Impacts on Malting Quality

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    Xiaojian Wu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Grain weight and protein content will be reduced and increased, respectively, when barley is subjected to water stress after anthesis, consequently deteriorating the malt quality. However, such adverse impact of water stress differs greatly among barley genotypes. In this study, two Tibetan wild barley accessions and two cultivated varieties differing in water stress tolerance were used to investigate the genotypic difference in metabolic profiles during grain-filling stage under drought condition. Totally, 71 differently accumulated metabolites were identified, including organic acids, amino acids/amines, and sugars/sugar alcohols. Their relative contents were significantly affected by water stress for all genotypes and differed distinctly between the wild and cultivated barleys. The principal component analysis of metabolites indicated that the Tibetan wild barley XZ147 possessed a unique response to water stress. When subjected to water stress, the wild barley XZ147 showed the most increase of β-amylase activity among the four genotypes, as a result of its higher lysine content, less indole-3-acetic acid (IAA biosynthesis, more stable H2O2 homeostasis, and more up-regulation of BMY1 gene. On the other hand, XZ147 had the most reduction of β-glucan content under water stress than the other genotypes, which could be explained by the faster grain filling process and the less expression of β-glucan synthase gene GSL7. All these results indicated a great potential for XZ147 in barley breeding for improving water stress tolerance.

  13. Tropical Malaysians and temperate Koreans exhibit significant differences in sweating sensitivity in response to iontophoretically administered acetylcholine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Beom; Bae, Jun-Sang; Matsumoto, Takaaki; Yang, Hun-Mo; Min, Young-Ki

    2009-03-01

    Natives of the tropics are able to tolerate high ambient temperatures. This results from their long-term residence in hot and often humid tropical climates. This study was designed to compare the peripheral mechanisms of thermal sweating in tropical natives with that of their temperate counterparts. Fifty-five healthy male subjects including 20 native Koreans who live in the temperate Korean climate (Temperate-N) and 35 native tropical Malaysian men that have lived all of their lives in Malaysia (Tropical-N) were enrolled in this study after providing written informed consent to participate. Quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing after iontophoresis (2 mA for 5 min) with 10% acetylcholine (ACh) was used to determine directly activated (DIR) and axon reflex-mediated (AXR) sweating during ACh iontophoresis. The sweat rate, activated sweat gland density, sweat gland output per single gland activated, and oral and skin temperature changes were measured. The sweat onset time of AXR (nicotinic-receptor-mediated) was 56 s shorter in the Temperate-N than in the Tropical-N subjects ( P stress.

  14. Different FDG-PET metabolic patterns at single-subject level in the behavioral variant of fronto-temporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerami, Chiara; Dodich, Alessandra; Lettieri, Giada; Iannaccone, Sandro; Magnani, Giuseppe; Marcone, Alessandra; Gianolli, Luigi; Cappa, Stefano F; Perani, Daniela

    2016-10-01

    The diagnosis of probable behavioral variant of fronto-temporal dementia (bvFTD) according to current criteria requires the imaging evidence of frontal and/or anterior temporal atrophy or hypoperfusion/hypometabolism. Different variants of this pattern of brain involvement may, however, be found in individual cases, supporting the presence of heterogeneous phenotypes. We examined in a case-by-case approach the FDG-PET metabolic patterns of patients fulfilling clinical criteria for probable bvFTD, assessing the presence and frequency of specific FDG-PET features. Fifty two FDG-PET scans of probable bvFTD patients were retrospectively analyzed together with clinical and neuropsychological data. Neuroimaging experts rated the FDG-PET hypometabolism maps obtained at the single-subject level with optimized voxel-based Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM). The functional metabolic heterogeneity was further tested by hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA). Both the SPM maps and cluster analysis identified two major variants of cerebral hypometabolism, namely the "frontal" and the "temporo-limbic", which were correlated with different cognitive profiles. Executive and language deficits were the cognitive hallmark in the "frontal" subgroup, while poor encoding and recall on long-term memory tasks was typical of the "temporo-limbic" subgroup. SPM single-subject analysis indicates distinct patterns of brain dysfunction in bvFTD, coupled with specific clinical features, suggesting different profiles of neurodegenerative vulnerability. These findings have important implications for the early diagnosis of bvFTD and for the application of the recent international consensus criteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Palatability, digestibility and emotional pattern in 60 healthy volunteers after ingestion of an iced dessert presented in four different flavours: a subjective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzaro, M; Raimondo, L; Pecorari, G; Riva, G; Sensini, M; Naqe, N; Giordano, C

    2012-01-01

    Several variables lead to changes in human and animal eating behaviour and food choices. A pivotal role is played by food palatability, represented by food, smell, taste, texture, appearance and temperature. The aim of our study is to assess the potential differences in palatability and digestibility of four different flavoured iced desserts, consumed at the end of a standardized meal, and their impact on the emotional status of 60 healthy volunteers. Sixty healthy volunteers, after ENT and psychological assessment, were asked to fill out a Psycho-Emotional Questionnaire (PEQ) to assess their basal emotional pattern before the consumption of an iced dessert at the end of a standard meal, after which they completed an Organoleptic-Sensory Questionnaire (OSQ), a Dynamic Digestibility Questionnaire (DDQ) and again the PEQ. Four different flavors (lemon, tangerine, pineapple and chocolate) were tested on 4 consecutive days on the same subjects. Most of the 60 subjects, by means of OSQ, found taste, aspect, texture and smell of the 4 flavours pleasant, lemon and tangerine were the freshest and lightest. The DDQ identified pineapple and chocolate dessert as those less digestible. By means of PEQ we recorded an improvement in joy, mood and activation, associated with good data of digestibility and palatability after the consumption of all flavors. Our data showed that all flavors improve joy, mood and activation, after their consumption, without statistically significant differences. However, among the tested flavours, lemon and tangerine appear to be the most pleasant and those which facilitate the digestive process.

  16. Prevention of denaturation of freshwater crayfish muscle subjected to different freeze-thaw cycles by gelatin hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasemi, Mehran

    2017-11-01

    The cryoprotective effect of gelatin hydrolysates from the skin of beluga sturgeon (Huso huso) on freshwater crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus) muscle subjected to different freeze-thaw cycles was investigated. Untreated muscle was particularly susceptible to quality loss as indicated by the formation of secondary lipid oxidation products and the loss in sulfhydryl groups and Ca2+-ATPase activity. Hydrolysate produced using flavourzyme which was mainly consisted of oligopeptides as the main fraction as well as small fraction of polypeptides could lower the denaturation of crayfish myosin heavy chain when compared to the control. In addition, lipid oxidation in treated muscle was impeded to some extent. Peptides with smaller or longer chain length than those in flavourzyme hydrolysate although exhibited antioxidant activity, but were less effective in maintaining the muscle quality during storage. Thus, the potential of flavourzyme hydrolysate as the alternative cryoprotectant might be employed during crustacean processing. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Study of Associated Genetic Variants in Indian Subjects Reveals the Basis of Ethnicity Related Differences in Susceptibility to Venous Thromboembolism

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    Babita Kumari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variants linked with the susceptibility of individuals to VTE are well known; however, the studies explaining the ethnicity based difference in susceptibility to VTE are limited. Present study assesses mutations in six candidate genes contributing to the etiology of VTE in Indian subjects. The study comprised 93 VTE patients and 102 healthy controls. A PCR-RFLP based analysis was performed for nine mutations in the following genes associated with VTE: favtor V Leiden (FVL, prothrombin, tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI, fibrinogen-beta, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1, and methylene tetrahydrofolatereductase (MTHFR. All the subjects were found to be monomorphic for FVL 1691G/A, prothrombin 20210G/A and TFPI −536C/T mutations. The mutation in the MTHFR gene (677C/T was observed only in patients. Contrarily, higher frequency of mutation in the PAI-1 −844G/A and the fibrinogen-β −455G/A was observed in controls in comparison to the patients. This study suggests that the PAI-1 −844G/A and fibrinogen-β −455G/A could be protective variants against VTE in Indians. While MTHFR 677C/T mutation was found to be associated, in contrast to other populations, the established genetic variants FVL 1691G/A, prothrombin 20210G/A, and TFPI −536C/T may not be associated with VTE in Indians thus revealing the basis of ethnicity related differences in susceptibility of Indians to VTE.

  18. Extraction of anthocyanins from black corn cultivated in Tunshi-Chimborazo subjected to different heat treatments for scalding

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    Carmen Díaz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to avoid the loss of anthocyanins during the preparation of black corn (Zea mays L. as food, and for the extraction of these metabolites for industrial purposes, it is necessary to determine the effect of several factors that influence its final content. The objective of this work was to extract anthocyanins from black corn cultivated in Tunshi-Chimborazo, Ecuador subjected to different heat treatments for scalding. Black corn seeds were used and planted manually. The corn cobs harvests were subjected to three scalding treatments (immersion in boiling water, steam and microwave with 160W of power with three times (3, 5 and 7 minutes. In addition, a control treatment was included without application of heat treatment. The content of total anthocyanins per sample was calculated as cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalent per kg fresh mass (mg kg-1. The content of anthocyanins was found to vary with the heat treatment applied. The extraction times conditioned the differences in anthocyanin content only at the extreme values for immersion in boiling water. Heat treatment methods of black corn for sclading such as immersion in boiling water, steam and microwave with 160 W of power condition the anthocyanin content. The maximum reduction of the anthocyanin equivalent content of cyanidin in the black corn grains was obtained in the treatment with immersion in boiling water during 7 min where it was reduced in 79%, while the preservation in these of the content of anthocyanins was achieved with the use of microwave with 160W of power for 3 min.   Keywords: microwave, secondary metabolites, Zea mays

  19. General Immune Status and Oral Microbiology in Patients with Different Forms of Periodontitis and Healthy Control Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jana; Jentsch, Holger; Stingu, Catalina-Suzana; Sack, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Objective Immunological processes in the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis, especially the aggressive form, are not well understood. This study examined clinical as well as systemic immunological and local microbiological features in healthy controls and patients with different forms of periodontitis. Materials and Methods 14 healthy subjects, 15 patients diagnosed with aggressive periodontitis, and 11 patients with chronic periodontitis were recruited. Periodontal examination was performed and peripheral blood was collected from each patient. Lymphocyte populations as well as the release of cytokines by T-helper cells were determined by flow cytometry and enzyme linked immunosorbent spot assay. Subgingival plaque samples were taken from each individual and immediately cultivated for microbiological examination. Results When stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with lipopolysaccharide, a higher IL-1β release was found in patients with moderate chronic periodontitis compared to the other groups (pperiodontitis showed the highest percentage of memory B-cells without class switch (p = 0.01). The subgingival plaque differed quantitatively as well as qualitatively with a higher number of Gram-negative anaerobic species in periodontitis patients. Prevotella denticola was found more often in patients with aggressive periodontitis (pperiodontitis, seems to be associated with an activation of the systemic immune response. Conclusion Differences between aggressive periodontitis and moderate chronic periodontitis are evident, which raises the question of an inadequate balance between systemic immune response and bacterial infection in aggressive periodontitis. PMID:25299619

  20. Factors affecting masticatory function of community-dwelling older people: Investigation of the differences in the relevant factors for subjective and objective assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Daisuke; Watanabe, Yutaka; Edahiro, Ayako; Ohara, Yuki; Murakami, Masaharu; Murakami, Kohji; Hironaka, Shouji; Taniguchi, Yu; Kitamura, Akihiko; Shinkai, Shoji; Hirano, Hirohiko

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to examine relevant factors for subjective and objective assessment of masticatory functions and elucidate any differences between the two methods. Previous studies have reported that the results of subjective and objective assessment of masticatory function in older people do not necessarily agree. This study included 487 community-dwelling Japanese older people (205 male and 282 female; mean age 74.1±6.3 years) who participated in a comprehensive geriatric health examination. Basic information (gender and age), higher level of competence in daily living, depression, subjective masticatory function (SMF) and objective masticatory function (OMF) assessments, cognitive function, skeletal muscle mass, handgrip strength, gait speed and oral status (number of remaining and functional teeth, mouth dryness and occlusal force) were recorded. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that depression (odds ratio [OR]: 1.181, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.094-1.275), mouth dryness (OR: 2.037, CI: 1.212-3.423) and occlusal force (OR: 0.997, CI: 0.996-0.999) were significantly associated with SMF, whereas higher level of competence in daily living (OR: 0.730 CI: 0.586-0.910), skeletal muscle mass (OR: 0.521 CI: 0.283-0.960), number of functional teeth (OR: 0.862 CI: 0.775-0.959), number of remaining teeth (OR: 0.868 CI: 0.810-0.930) and occlusal force (OR: 0.994, CI: 0.991-0.998) were associated with OMF. Subjective masticatory functionSMF and OMF were associated with different factors, suggesting that both mental and physical factors should be taken into consideration when treating decreased masticatory function. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Average Ambulatory Measures of Sound Pressure Level, Fundamental Frequency, and Vocal Dose Do Not Differ Between Adult Females With Phonotraumatic Lesions and Matched Control Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, Jarrad H; Mehta, Daryush D; Zeitels, Steven M; Burns, James A; Barbu, Anca M; Hillman, Robert E

    2015-11-01

    Clinical management of phonotraumatic vocal fold lesions (nodules, polyps) is based largely on assumptions that abnormalities in habitual levels of sound pressure level (SPL), fundamental frequency (f0), and/or amount of voice use play a major role in lesion development and chronic persistence. This study used ambulatory voice monitoring to evaluate if significant differences in voice use exist between patients with phonotraumatic lesions and normal matched controls. Subjects were 70 adult females: 35 with vocal fold nodules or polyps and 35 age-, sex-, and occupation-matched normal individuals. Weeklong summary statistics of voice use were computed from anterior neck surface acceleration recorded using a smartphone-based ambulatory voice monitor. Paired t tests and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests resulted in no statistically significant differences between patients and matched controls regarding average measures of SPL, f0, vocal dose measures, and voicing/voice rest periods. Paired t tests comparing f0 variability between the groups resulted in statistically significant differences with moderate effect sizes. Individuals with phonotraumatic lesions did not exhibit differences in average ambulatory measures of vocal behavior when compared with matched controls. More refined characterizations of underlying phonatory mechanisms and other potentially contributing causes are warranted to better understand risk factors associated with phonotraumatic lesions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Clinically significant and practical! Enhancing precision does make a difference. Reply to McGlinchey and Jacobson, Hsu, and Speer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, WJJM; Arrindell, WA

    1999-01-01

    Based on a secondary analysis of the Jacobson and Truax [Jacobson, N.S. & Truax, P. (1991). Clinical significance: a statistical approach to defining meaningful change in psychotherapy research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 12-19.] data using both their own traditional approach

  3. Disability, Physical Inactivity, and Impaired Health-Related Quality of Life Are Not Different in Metabolically Healthy vs. Unhealthy Obese Subjects

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    Lorenzo M. Donini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity represents a major health hazard, affecting morbidity, psychological status, physical functionality, quality of life, and mortality. The aim of the present study was to explore the differences between metabolically healthy (MHO and metabolically unhealthy (MUO obese subjects with regard to physical activity, disability, and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL. Methods: All subjects underwent a multidimensional evaluation, encompassing the assessment of body composition, metabolic biomarkers and inflammation, physical activity level (IPAQ questionnaire, disability (TSD-OC test, and HR-QoL (SF-36 questionnaire. MHO and MUO were defined based on the absence or the presence of the metabolic syndrome, respectively. Results: 253 subjects were included (54 men and 199 women; age: 51.7 ± 12.8 vs. 50.3 ± 11.7 years, p = 0.46; BMI: 38.1 ± 5.7 vs. 38.9 ± 6.7 kg/m2, p = 0.37. No significant difference was observed in body composition. There was no difference between MHO and MUO considering inflammation (hs-CRP: 6517.1 ± 11,409.9 vs. 5294.1 ± 5612.2 g/L; p = 0.37, physical inactivity (IPAQ score below 3000 METs-min/week in 77.6% of MHO vs. 80% of MUO subjects; p = 0.36, obesity-related disability (TSD-OC score > 33%, indicating a high level of obesity-related disability, in 20.2% of MHO vs. 26.5% of MUO subjects; p = 0.28, and the HR-QoL (SF-36 total score: 60 ± 20.8 vs. 62.8 ± 18.2, p = 0.27. Discussion and Conclusion: The metabolic comorbidity and the impairment of functional ability and psycho-social functioning may have a different timing in the natural history of obesity. Alterations in the physical activity level and mobility disabilities may precede the onset of metabolic abnormalities. (Trial registration 2369 prot 166/12—registered 23 February 2012; Amendment 223/14—registered 13 February 2014.

  4. Time Course and Association of Functional and Biochemical Markers in Severe Semitendinosus Damage Following Intensive Eccentric Leg Curls: Differences between and within Subjects

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    Gerard Carmona

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the extent and evolution of hamstring muscle damage caused by an intensive bout of eccentric leg curls (ELCs by (1 assessing the time course and association of different indirect markers of muscle damage such as changes in the force-generating capacity (FGC, functional magnetic resonance (fMRI, and serum muscle enzyme levels and (2 analyzing differences in the degree of hamstring muscle damage between and within subjects (limb-to-limb comparison.Methods: Thirteen male participants performed six sets of 10 repetitions of an ELC with each leg. Before and at regular intervals over 7 days after the exercise, FGC was measured with maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC. Serum enzyme levels, fMRI transverse relaxation time (T2 and perceived muscle soreness were also assessed and compared against the FGC.Results: Two groups of subjects were identified according to the extent of hamstring muscle damage based on decreased FGC and increased serum enzyme levels: high responders (n = 10, severe muscle damage and moderate responders (n = 3, moderate muscle damage. In the high responders, fMRI T2 analysis revealed that the semitendinosus (ST muscle suffered severe damage in the three regions measured (proximal, middle, and distal. The biceps femoris short head (BFsh muscle was also damaged and there were significant differences in the FGC within subjects in the high responders.Conclusion: FGC and serum enzyme levels measured in 10 of the subjects from the sample were consistent with severe muscle damage. However, the results showed a wide range of peak MVC reductions, reflecting different degrees of damage between subjects (high and moderate responders. fMRI analysis confirmed that the ST was the hamstring muscle most damaged by ELCs, with uniform T2 changes across all the measured sections of this muscle. During intensive ELCs, the ST muscle could suffer an anomalous recruitment pattern due to fatigue and damage, placing an

  5. [Different explanatory models for addictive behavior in Turkish and German youths in Germany: significance for prevention and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penka, S; Krieg, S; Hunner, Ch; Heinz, A

    2003-07-01

    Due to cultural and social barriers, immigrants seldom frequent centers for information, counseling, and treatment of addictive disorders. We examine cultural differences in the explanatory models of addictive behavior among Turkish and German youths in Germany with statistical devices that map the concepts associated with problems of addiction. Relevant differences were found between the disorder concepts of Turkish and German youth. German but not Turkish youths classified eating disorders among severe addictive disorders and associated them with embarrassment and shame. Concerning substance abuse, German but not Turkish youths clearly differentiated between illegal drug abuse and the abuse of alcohol and nicotine. Nearly half of all Turkish youths rejected central medical concepts such as "physical dependence" or "reduced control of substance intake" as completely inadequate to characterize problems of addictive behavior. Preventive information programs must consider these differences and use concepts that are accepted and clearly associated with addictive behavior by immigrant populations.

  6. Absence of significant interactive effects of high-dose D-cycloserine and ethanol in healthy human subjects: preliminary insights into ethanol actions at the glycine B site of NMDA glutamate receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Louis; Petrakis, Ismene L; Pittman, Brian; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; D'Souza, D Cyril; Perry, Edward; Limoncelli, Diana; Krystal, John H

    2008-01-01

    Ethanol reduces N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor function via multiple cellular targets. It is not yet clear whether direct ethanol antagonism of the glycine(B) co-agonist site of NMDA receptors is relevant to this effect. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether ethanol effects at the glycine(B) co-agonist site was clinically relevant by evaluating some aspects of the psychopharmacologic interactions between the glycine(B) partial agonist, D-cycloserine (DCS), and ethanol in healthy human subjects. All subjects completed 4 test days under double-blind conditions in which DCS or placebo was administered orally prior to ethanol or an ethanol-tainted placebo drink. Two groups of healthy subjects were studied. A first group of subjects (n = 25) were pretreated orally with DCS 500 mg or placebo 4 hours prior to ethanol (0.8 g/kg, p.o. or placebo) administration. A second group of subjects (n = 20) were pretreated with DCS 1000 mg or placebo prior to ethanol administration. Outcomes included subjective and cognitive responses to the experimental interventions. Predictable ethanol responses were observed in both groups of subjects, although the response to ethanol and the breath alcohol levels, but not plasma alcohol levels, were slightly but significantly lower in the group that received the higher DCS dose. DCS produced mild sedative effects that were greater for the lower than the higher dose. It also produced a mild impairment of verbal fluency without impairing attention. No statistically significant interactions between ethanol and DCS emerged in analyses. However, the combination of ethanol and DCS produced significantly greater impairment than both ethanol or DCS administered alone on a test of verbal fluency and aspects of memory function. DCS and ethanol both produced sedative and cognitive effects, consistent with their ability to reduce NMDA receptor function. However, the absence of interactive effects observed in this study raises

  7. Proteomic analysis of seedling roots of two maize inbred lines that differ significantly in the salt stress response.

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    Dezhou Cui

    Full Text Available Salinity is a major abiotic stress that limits plant productivity and quality throughout the world. Roots are the sites of salt uptake. To better understand salt stress responses in maize, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis of seedling roots from the salt-tolerant genotype F63 and the salt-sensitive genotype F35 under 160 mM NaCl treatment for 2 days. Under salinity conditions, the shoot fresh weight and relative water content were significantly higher in F63 than in F35, while the osmotic potential was significantly lower and the reduction of the K+/Na+ ratio was significantly less pronounced in F63 than in F35. Using an iTRAQ approach, twenty-eight proteins showed more than 2.0- fold changes in abundance and were regarded as salt-responsive proteins. Among them, twenty-two were specifically regulated in F63 but remained constant in F35. These proteins were mainly involved in signal processing, water conservation, protein synthesis and biotic cross-tolerance, and could be the major contributors to the tolerant genotype of F63. Functional analysis of a salt-responsive protein was performed in yeast as a case study to confirm the salt-related functions of detected proteins. Taken together, the results of this study may be helpful for further elucidating salt tolerance mechanisms in maize.

  8. Productivity loss due to absenteeism and presenteeism by different instruments in patients with RA and subjects without RA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakman-Jansen, Louise M A; Taal, Erik; Kuper, Ina H; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2012-02-01

    To explore the impact of at-work productivity loss on the total productivity cost by different instruments in patients recently diagnosed with RA and controls without RA. Cross-sectional data were collected from outpatients with RA between December 2007 and February 2008. The control group was formed by subjects without RA matched on age and gender. Absenteeism and presenteeism were estimated by the Quantity and Quality (QQ) Questionnaire, Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire General Health V2.0 (WPAI-GH) and Health and Labor Questionnaire (HLQ) questionnaires. Differences between groups were tested by Mann-Whitney U-test. Costs were valued by the human capital approach. Data were available from 62 patients with a paid job and 61 controls. QQ- and WPAI-GH scores of presenteeism were moderately correlated (r = 0.61) while the HLQ presenteeism score correlated poorly with the other instruments (r = 0.34). The contribution of presenteeism on total productivity costs was estimated at ∼70% in the RA group. The mean costs per person per week due to presenteeism varied between €79 and €318 per week in the RA group, dependent on the instrument used. The costs due to presenteeism were about two to four times higher in the RA group compared with the control group. This study indicates that the impact of presenteeism on the total productivity costs in patients with RA is high. However, work productivity in individuals without RA was not optimal either, which implies a risk of overestimation of cost when a normal score is not taken into account. Finally, different presenteeism instruments lead to different results.

  9. Clinical significance of fibromyalgia syndrome in different rheumatic diseases: Relation to disease activity and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Rabbat M, Sarah; Mahmoud, Nermeen K; Gheita, Tamer A

    2017-04-11

    To describe the frequencies of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) in various rheumatic diseases; rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and Behçets disease (BD) patients and to study the relation to clinical manifestations and quality of life (QoL). 160 patients (50 RA, 50 SLE, 30 SSc and 30 BD) and matched corresponding healthy controls were included. Disease activity was assessed using disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) for RA, SLE Disease Activity index (SLEDAI), modified Rodnan skin score for SSc and BD Current Activity Form (BDCAF). The QoL was also recorded. Severity in FMS cases was estimated using the revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire score. In the RA, SLE, SSc and BD patients, FMS was found in 14%, 18%, 6.67% and 3.33% respectively compared to 2.1%, 3%, 3.3% and 0% in their corresponding controls. In RA patients, DAS28 was significantly higher in those with FMS (p=0.009) and significantly correlated with both Widespread Pain Index (WPI) (p=0.011) and Symptom Severity (SS) scale (p=0.012). The QoL scale in those with FMS was significantly worse (62.3±7.9) compared to those without (71.7±14.4) (p=0.023). In SLE patients, The WPI and SS both significantly correlated with the presence of thrombosis (r=0.28, p=0.049 and r=0.43, p=0.002 respectively). The SS scale tended to correlate with the SLEDAI (r=0.28, p=0.05). In BD patients, BDCAF and WPI significantly correlated (p=0.03). Fibromyalgia syndrome is more frequent in rheumatic diseases, could be related to the disease activity in RA and BD patients and to thrombosis in SLE and affected the QoL in RA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of the different kinematic patterns during lateral bending between subjects with and without recurrent low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Paul S; Danial, Pamela; Lee, Dongchul C

    2016-10-01

    Lateral bending is a prerequisite for various functional activities of daily life, which require combined three-dimensional motion. Even though a number of studies have evaluated spinal kinematic changes during lateral bending, the literature reveals a lack of data based on limb dominance. The purpose of this study was to compare kinematic angular displacement of the spinal regions for dominant and non-dominant lateral bending in subjects with and without recurrent low back pain. Forty-four right hand dominant individuals with recurrent low back pain (43.1 [17.4] years) and without low back pain (39.7 [18.7] years) participated in this study. All participants were asked to perform trunk lateral bending to the dominant and non-dominant sides with a bar, three times repeatedly. The outcome measures included three-dimensional angular displacements for the three regions of the spine (upper thorax, lower thorax, and lumbar spine). Lumbar rotation (degrees) increased to the dominant side in the low back pain group (9.29 [1.06]) compared to the control group (6.20 [1.02]) with increased rotation in the upper thorax as well (t=-2.09, p=0.04). However, the upper thorax rotation increased in the low back pain group to the non-dominant side (t=2.08, p=0.03) and to the dominant side (t=-2.35, p=0.02). There was a group interaction with planes (F=5.82, p=0.02) during lateral bending. Although lower thorax motion was not different between groups, increased lumbar spine and upper thorax rotations to the dominant side in the low back pain group were evident during lateral bending. This directional asymmetry should be carefully monitored to understand increased lumbar rotation to the dominant side in subjects with recurrent low back pain. The interactions between group and plane explain compensation strategies through increased lumbar rotation to the dominant side with decreased lateral bending of the upper thorax in subjects with recurrent low back pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  11. Comparing Subjective Ratings of Sexual Arousal and Desire in Partnered Sexual Activities from Women of Different Sexual Orientations.

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    Persson, Tonje J; Ryder, Andrew G; Pfaus, James G

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about non-monosexual women's sexual arousal and desire. Typically, bisexual women have been excluded from research on sexual arousal and desire, whereas mostly heterosexual and mostly lesbian women have been placed into monosexual categories. This research (1) compared the subjective sexual arousal and desire of self-identified heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, mostly lesbian, and lesbian women in partnered sexual activities with men and with women, and (2) compared within-group differences for subjective sexual arousal and desire with men versus women for the five groups. Participants included 388 women (M age = 24.40, SD = 6.40, 188 heterosexual, 53 mostly heterosexual, 64 bisexual, 32 mostly lesbian, 51 lesbian) who filled out the Sexual Arousal and Desire Inventory (SADI). Sexual orientation was associated with sexual arousal and desire in sexual activities with both men and with women. Bisexuals reported higher sexual arousal and desire for women than heterosexuals and lesbians, while lesbians reported lower sexual arousal and desire with men than the other groups. Heterosexuals and mostly heterosexuals scored higher on the male than on the female motivational dimension of the SADI, while the reverse was found for lesbians and mostly lesbians. Findings indicate that non-monosexuals have higher sexual arousal and desire in sexual activities with women than monosexuals. Further, bisexual women did not differentiate their sexual arousal with men versus women, while the other sexual orientation groups differentiated in terms of their motivation to engage in sexual activity. These findings may have implications for how female sexual orientation is conceptualized.

  12. Evaluation of subjective image quality in relation to diagnostic task for cone beam computed tomography with different fields of view.

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    Lofthag-Hansen, Sara; Thilander-Klang, Anne; Gröndahl, Kerstin

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate subjective image quality for two diagnostic tasks, periapical diagnosis and implant planning, for cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using different exposure parameters and fields of view (FOVs). Examinations were performed in posterior part of the jaws on a skull phantom with 3D Accuitomo (FOV 3 cm×4 cm) and 3D Accuitomo FPD (FOVs 4 cm×4 cm and 6 cm×6 cm). All combinations of 60, 65, 70, 75, 80 kV and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 mA with a rotation of 180° and 360° were used. Dose-area product (DAP) value was determined for each combination. The images were presented, displaying the object in axial, cross-sectional and sagittal views, without scanning data in a random order for each FOV and jaw. Seven observers assessed image quality on a six-point rating scale. Intra-observer agreement was good (κw=0.76) and inter-observer agreement moderate (κw=0.52). Stepwise logistic regression showed kV, mA and diagnostic task to be the most important variables. Periapical diagnosis, regardless jaw, required higher exposure parameters compared to implant planning. Implant planning in the lower jaw required higher exposure parameters compared to upper jaw. Overall ranking of FOVs gave 4 cm×4 cm, 6 cm×6 cm followed by 3 cm×4 cm. This study has shown that exposure parameters should be adjusted according to diagnostic task. For this particular CBCT brand a rotation of 180° gave good subjective image quality, hence a substantial dose reduction can be achieved without loss of diagnostic information. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical interpretation of a masticatory normative indicator analysis of masticatory function in subjects with different occlusal and prosthodontic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Dick J; Woda, Alain; Bronkhorst, Ewald M; Creugers, Nico H J

    2013-05-01

    To analyse the masticatory function of subjects characterised by different occlusal and prosthodontic status. Using Optosil(®) as a test food, the masticatory normative indicator (MNIOPT) was used to differentiate between sufficient ('normal') and impaired masticatory function. Outcomes of occlusal force and masticatory tests were aggregated from three earlier studies dealing with four denture groups and three natural dentition groups. The four denture groups had a complete removable dental prosthesis in the upper jaw, and displayed one of the four following lower jaw prosthodontic rehabilitations: (i) complete removable dental prosthesis on a low mandible; (ii) complete removable dental prosthesis on a higher mandible; (iii) overdenture on natural roots; and (iv) overdenture on dental implants. The three natural dentition groups were: (i) shortened dental arch; (ii) complete dentition in older participants, and (iii) complete dentition in younger participants. All participants were women. They performed the same tests twice, and outcomes were averaged. A MNIOPT value of 3.68 mm was determined from the participants with complete natural dentitions. Applying the MNIOPT to the participants in the denture groups pointed at a considerable chance for impaired masticatory function, except for participants in the overdenture -implants group. The four denture groups compensated for reduced masticatory efficiency by increased number of masticatory cycles and prolonged mastication time until 'swallowing'. Nevertheless, they also 'swallowed' larger particles compared to the complete dentition group. For a given patient or for a group of subjects with specific dental conditions, MNI enables to discriminate between a sufficient ('normal') and an impaired masticatory function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Correlation of lithium levels between drinking water obtained from different sources and scalp hair samples of adult male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Shahnawaz; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Talpur, Farah Naz; Arain, Muhammad Balal

    2017-10-01

    There is some evidence that natural levels of lithium (Li) in drinking water may have a protective effect on neurological health. In present study, we evaluate the Li levels in drinking water of different origin and bottled mineral water. To evaluate the association between lithium levels in drinking water with human health, the scalp hair samples of male subjects (25-45 years) consumed drinking water obtained from ground water (GW), municipal treated water (MTW) and bottled mineral water (BMW) from rural and urban areas of Sindh, Pakistan were selected. The water samples were pre-concentrated five to tenfold at 60 °C using temperature-controlled electric hot plate. While scalp hair samples were oxidized by acid in a microwave oven, prior to determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The Li content in different types of drinking water, GW, MTW and BMW was found in the range of 5.12-22.6, 4.2-16.7 and 0.0-16.3 µg/L, respectively. It was observed that Li concentration in the scalp hair samples of adult males consuming ground water was found to be higher, ranged as 292-393 μg/kg, than those who are drinking municipal treated and bottle mineral water (212-268 and 145-208 μg/kg), respectively.

  15. The Effects of Different Isocaloric Oral Nutrient Solutions on Psychophysical, Metabolic, Cognitive, and Olfactory Function in Young Male Subjects

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    Stephan Bachlechner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Food intake influences human cognition, olfaction, hunger, and food craving. However, little research has been done in this field to elucidate the effects of different nutrients. Thus, the goal of our study was to investigate the effects of oral ingestion of different nutrient solutions on olfactory, cognitive, metabolic and psychophysical function. Twenty healthy men participated in our study employing a double-blind, cross-over, repeated measurement design. Participants were tested on four different study days. Each day participants received, in randomized order, one of three isocaloric (protein, carbohydrate or fat 600 kcal, 1,500 mL solutions or a placebo. Olfactory and cognitive tests (monitoring only were conducted three times, i.e., 60 min before the beginning of nutrient intake, following oral ingestion of the solution and 60, and 240 min after. Psychophysical and metabolic function tests (active grehlin, desacyl ghrelin, insulin, glucagon, glucose, triglyceride, urea were performed 7 times on each examination day (observation period: −60 min, 0 = solution intake, +60, +120, +180, +240, and +300 min. Ratings of hunger and food craving significantly differed over the observation period with lowest ratings following application of the protein solution. Highest ratings of craving were found following placebo intake. We further observed a significant positive correlation of active grehlin with hunger and fat, protein and sweets craving for each nutrient solution. Active grehlin significantly correlated with carbohydrate craving for carbohydrate and fat solution and with vegetable craving for fat solution only. Hunger hormone levels, hunger and food craving ratings demonstrated that the hierarchical order that appears in satiating efficiencies of isovolumetric-isocaloric ingested macronutrients is protein > fat > carbohydrate. Our study reveals that the type of nutrient exerts a significant influence on metabolic parameters, hunger and food

  16. Atomic force microscopy-based microrheology reveals significant differences in the viscoelastic response between malign and benign cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rother, Jan; Nöding, Helen; Mey, Ingo; Janshoff, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Mechanical phenotyping of cells by atomic force microscopy (AFM) was proposed as a novel tool in cancer cell research as cancer cells undergo massive structural changes, comprising remodelling of the cytoskeleton and changes of their adhesive properties. In this work, we focused on the mechanical properties of human breast cell lines with different metastatic potential by AFM-based microrheology experiments. Using this technique, we are not only able to quantify the mechanical properties of living cells in the context of malignancy, but we also obtain a descriptor, namely the loss tangent, which provides model-independent information about the metastatic potential of the cell line. Including also other cell lines from different organs shows that the loss tangent (G″/G') increases generally with the metastatic potential from MCF-10A representing benign cells to highly malignant MDA-MB-231 cells.

  17. Factors Associated with the Decline of Kidney Function Differ among eGFR Strata in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Shu Meguro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There is no report about risk factors for renal deterioration according to the clinical stage, divided by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR in type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods. We evaluated the factors correlated with the annual eGFR decline in 1303 subjects with type 2 diabetes whose eGFR was ≥30 mL/min/1.73 m2. eGFR strata were defined by baseline eGFR value as follows: stratum 1: ≥90, stratum 2: ≥60, <90, and stratum 3: ≥30, <60. Results. The annual eGFR decline was 2.3±5.4 mL/min/1.73 m2 in overall subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that age, male sex, systolic blood pressure, logarithmically transformed albumin excretion rate (AER, eGFR strata, and hemoglobin concentration were significantly correlated with the annual eGFR decline. When stratified by eGFR, the factors that showed a significant correlation were different among eGFR strata. AER was significantly correlated with annual eGFR decline in all eGFR strata. Hemoglobin concentration showed a significant correlation only in the advanced eGFR stratum. Conclusion. The factors correlated with the annual eGFR decline were different among eGFR strata in type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hemoglobin concentration and AER were important factors for renal deterioration, especially in the advanced eGFR stratum.

  18. Using hierarchical linear models to test differences in Swedish results from OECD’s PISA 2003: Integrated and subject-specific science education

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    Maria Åström

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The possible effects of different organisations of the science curriculum in schools participating in PISA 2003 are tested with a hierarchical linear model (HLM of two levels. The analysis is based on science results. Swedish schools are free to choose how they organise the science curriculum. They may choose to work subject-specifically (with Biology, Chemistry and Physics, integrated (with Science or to mix these two. In this study, all three ways of organising science classes in compulsory school are present to some degree. None of the different ways of organising science education displayed statistically significant better student results in scientific literacy as measured in PISA 2003. The HLM model used variables of gender, country of birth, home language, preschool attendance, an economic, social and cultural index as well as the teaching organisation.

  19. The Expression of miR-192 and Its Significance in Diabetic Nephropathy Patients with Different Urine Albumin Creatinine Ratio

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    Xiaoyu Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the expression of miR-192 and its significance in diabetic nephropathy (DN patients. Methods. 464 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM were divided into normal albuminuria group (NA, n=157, microalbuminuria group (MA, n=159, and large amount of albuminuria group (LA, n=148. 127 healthy persons were selected as the control group (NC, n=127. The serum miR-192 levels were detected by Real-Time PCR and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 and fibronectin (FN were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The relationships among these parameters were analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. Results. The miR-192 in the LA group was significantly lower than other groups, which was lower in the MA group than in the NA group (P<0.01. The TGF-β1 and FN in the LA group were significantly higher than other groups, which were higher in the MA group than in the NA group (P<0.01. The expression of miR-192 was negatively correlated with TGF-β1, FN, and Ln (UACR and miR-192, TGF-β1, and FN were independent relevant factors affecting Ln (UACR in T2DM (P<0.01. Conclusions. These findings indicate that the levels of miR-192 were lower accompanied by the decrease of urine albumin creatinine ratio (UACR and the association between miR-192 and nephritic fibrosis in DN.

  20. DNA methylation and gene expression patterns in adipose tissue differ significantly within young adult monozygotic BMI-discordant twin pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietiläinen, K H; Ismail, K; Järvinen, E; Heinonen, S; Tummers, M; Bollepalli, S; Lyle, R; Muniandy, M; Moilanen, E; Hakkarainen, A; Lundbom, J; Lundbom, N; Rissanen, A; Kaprio, J; Ollikainen, M

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about epigenetic alterations associated with subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in obesity. Our aim was to study genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression differences in SAT in monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs who are discordant for body mass index (BMI). This design completely matches lean and obese groups for genetic background, age, gender and shared environment. 14We analyzed DNA methylome and gene expression from SAT, together with body composition (magnetic resonance imaging/spectroscopy) and glucose tolerance test, lipids and C-reactive protein from 26 rare BMI-discordant (intrapair difference in BMI ⩾3 kg m(-2)) MZ twin pairs identified from 10 birth cohorts of young adult Finnish twins. We found 17 novel obesity-associated genes that were differentially methylated across the genome between heavy and lean co-twins. Nine of them were also differentially expressed. Pathway analyses indicated that dysregulation of SAT in obesity includes a paradoxical downregulation of lipo/adipogenesis and upregulation of inflammation and extracellular matrix remodeling. Furthermore, CpG sites whose methylation correlated with metabolically harmful fat depots (intra-abdominal and liver fat) also correlated with measures of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and low-grade inflammation, thus suggesting that epigenetic alterations in SAT are associated with the development of unhealthy obesity. This is the first study in BMI-discordant MZ twin pairs reporting genome-wide DNA methylation and expression profiles in SAT. We found a number of novel genes and pathways whose methylation and expression patterns differ within the twin pairs, suggesting that the pathological adaptation of SAT to obesity is, at least in part, epigenetically regulated.

  1. Individual differences in in vitro and in vivo metabolic clearances of antipsychotic risperidone from Japanese subjects genotyped for cytochrome P450 2D6 and 3A5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Maho; Morita, Shoko; Murayama, Norie; Akimoto, Youichi; Goto, Akiko; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    There are conflicting reports regarding the effects of cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) genotypes on the plasma concentrations of risperidone and its pharmacologically active metabolite, 9-hydroxyrisperidone (paliperidone), in clinical patients. The aim of this study was to investigate individual differences in the metabolic clearance of risperidone in vitro and in vivo. In vitro liver microsomal risperidone 9-hydroxylation activities and in vivo plasma concentrations of risperidone and paliperidone were investigated in 15 male and 12 female Japanese subjects (mean age 52 years, range: 24-75 years) genotyped for CYP2D6 and CYP3A5. CYP2D6 intermediate and poor metabolizers showed significantly lower liver microsomal risperidone 9-hydroxylation activities than extensive metabolizers did at 5 μM of risperidone; this difference was not evident at 50 μM of risperidone. The recombinant CYP3A5 Vmax/Km value for risperidone 9-hydroxylation was 30% that of CYP3A4, and liver microsomes from CYP3A5 expressers had similar risperidone 9-hydroxylation activities to those of CYP3A5 poor expressers. The plasma concentration/dose ratios for risperidone and paliperidone in 27 Japanese patients were not significantly influenced by the CYP2D6 or CYP3A5 genotypes. Individual differences in metabolic clearance of risperidone under the present conditions were not significantly influenced by the genotypes of CYP2D6 or CYP3A5. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Factors Associated with the Decline of Kidney Function Differ among eGFR Strata in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, Shu; Tomita, Masuomi; Kabeya, Yusuke; Katsuki, Takeshi; Oikawa, Yoichi; Shimada, Akira; Kawai, Toshihide; Itoh, Hiroshi; Atsumi, Yoshihito

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. There is no report about risk factors for renal deterioration according to the clinical stage, divided by the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods. We evaluated the factors correlated with the annual eGFR decline in 1303 subjects with type 2 diabetes whose eGFR was ≥30 mL/min/1.73 m(2). eGFR strata were defined by baseline eGFR value as follows: stratum 1: ≥90, stratum 2: ≥60, strata, and hemoglobin concentration were significantly correlated with the annual eGFR decline. When stratified by eGFR, the factors that showed a significant correlation were different among eGFR strata. AER was significantly correlated with annual eGFR decline in all eGFR strata. Hemoglobin concentration showed a significant correlation only in the advanced eGFR stratum. Conclusion. The factors correlated with the annual eGFR decline were different among eGFR strata in type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hemoglobin concentration and AER were important factors for renal deterioration, especially in the advanced eGFR stratum.

  3. Land cover transformation in two post-mining landscapes subjected to different ages of reclamation since dumping of spoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi, Effah K; Boakye-Danquah, John; Asabere, Stephen B; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko; Wiegleb, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Transformation of natural land cover (LC) into modified LC has become inevitable due to growing human needs. Nevertheless, landscape transformational patterns during reclamation of mine damaged lands remain vague. Our hypothesis was that post-mining landscapes with different ages since dumping become more diverse in LC transformation over time. The aim was to study the impact of landscape reclamation on land cover changes (LCC) in two post-mining landscapes. Land cover maps of 1988, 1991, 1995, 1998, 2000 and 2003 were produced from LANDSAT TM images of Schlabendorf Nord and Schlabendorf Süd and used to survey the changing landscape. Change detection extension was used to identify changes among land cover types (LCTs). Detrended correspondence analyses (DCA) ordination technique (CANOCO) aided study of similarity among LC distribution. Soil pH analysis was carried out to study effect of soil and climate conditions on LCC. The results show that visible patterns of increase and decrease in the LCTs occurred in both landscapes. Given two post-mining landscapes subjected to different ages of reclamation, clear differences in vegetation growth and LCC pattern would occur. At early stages of restoration, LCTs often have unstable conditions and experience more acute transformation depending on the level of land use intensity in space and time. LCCs were mostly due to progressive and reversed succession. Due to variation in post-mining landscape soil conditions, soil treatment during reclamation should be site specific. The comparative analysis of LCCs in Schlabendorf provides a framework for prioritizing land use planning options for sustainable management of post-mining landscapes in temperate ecosystems.

  4. The significance of the tactical training of volleyball players of different skill levels in their play activities

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    Artemenko B.O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To determine the features of tactical thinking volleyball players of different skill levels and the importance of this function during their competitive activities. Material and methods : the study involved in 28 different sports categories players aged 17-34 years. Used interactive methods «Volleyball-Test». Results: revealed that the level of masters of sports players had values at 64.22 % - tactical thinking in the attack, and 59.46 % - tactical thinking in defense. Accordingly - Candidate Master of Sports (42.24 % and 40.19 % and players Ι-ΙΙΙ bits (34.44 % and 28.89 %. The dependence of the quality of players in competitive activity level masters of sports of tactical thinking in the attack at r = 0,66, and to protect r = 0,54. As appointed a relationship as competitive activities and tactical thinking of attacking r = 0,58. The player Ι-ΙΙΙ bits of data dependencies as competitive activities of tactical training have been identified. Conclusions : The set features suggest the development of tactical thinking in sports games acquiring playing experience of the players.

  5. Glycemic variability in relation to oral disposition index in the subjects with different stages of glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Xu, Feng; Su, Jian-Bin; Wang, Xue-Qin; Chen, Jin-Feng; Wu, Gang; Jin, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Glucose variability could be an independent risk factor for diabetes complications in addition to average glucose. The deficiency in islet β cell secretion and insulin sensitivity, the two important pathophysiological mechanisms of diabetes, are responsible for glycemic disorders. The oral disposition index evaluated by product of insulin secretion and sensitivity is a useful marker of islet β cell function. The aim of the study is to investigate glycemic variability in relation to oral disposition index in the subjects across a range of glucose tolerance from the normal to overt type 2 diabetes. 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in total 220 subjects: 47 with normal glucose regulation (NGR), 52 with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM, 8 with isolated impaired fasting glucose [IFG], 18 with isolated impaired glucose tolerance [IGT] and 26 with combined IFG and IGT), 61 screen-diagnosed diabetes by isolated 2-h glucose (DM2h) and 60 newly diagnosed diabetes by both fasting and 2-h glucose (DM). Insulin sensitivity index (Matsuda index, ISI), insulin secretion index (ΔI30/ΔG30), and integrated β cell function measured by the oral disposition index (ΔI30/ΔG30 multiplied by the ISI) were derived from OGTT. All subjects were monitored using the continuous glucose monitoring system for consecutive 72 hours. The multiple parameters of glycemic variability included the standard deviation of blood glucose (SD), mean of blood glucose (MBG), high blood glucose index (HBGI), continuous overlapping net glycemic action calculated every 1 h (CONGA1), mean of daily differences (MODD) and mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE). From the NGR to IGM to DM2h to DM group, the respective values of SD (mean ± SD) (0.9 ± 0.3, 1.5 ± 0.5, 1.9 ± 0.6 and 2.2 ± 0.6 mmol/), MBG (5.9 ± 0.5, 6.7 ± 0.7, 7.7 ± 1.0 and 8.7 ± 1.5 mmol/L), HGBI [median(Q1-Q3)][0.8(0.2-1.2), 2.0(1.2-3.7), 3.8(2.4-5.6) and 6

  6. The effect of different diets on urine composition and the risk of calcium oxalate crystallisation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siener, Roswitha; Hesse, Albrecht

    2002-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the impact of defined diet modifications on urine composition and the risk of calcium oxalate crystallisation. Ten healthy male volunteers consumed a self-selected diet (SD) for 14 days, and three different standard diets for a period of 5 days each. Whereas the western-type diet (WD) is representative of the usual dietary habits, the normal mixed diet (ND) and the ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet (VD) were calculated according to the requirements. The risk of calcium oxalate crystallisation, calculated as relative supersaturation (EQUIL2) from urine composition, was highest during ingestion of diets SD and WD. The intake of diet ND resulted in a significant decrease in relative supersaturation with calcium oxalate by 58% (p<0.05) compared with diet WD, due to a significant decline in urinary calcium and uric acid excretion and a significant increase in urinary volume, pH-value and citrate excretion. In spite of an increase in urinary pH, citrate and magnesium excretion and a decline in calcium excretion, no further significant decrease in the risk of calcium oxalate crystallisation was observed on diet VD, due to a significant increase in urinary oxalate by 30% (p<0.05) on average. The change of usual dietary habits for a normal mixed diet significantly reduces the risk of calcium oxalate crystallisation. With a vegetarian diet a similar decline in urinary supersaturation with calcium oxalate can be achieved compared to a normal mixed diet. Since urinary oxalate excretion increased significantly, a vegetarian diet without adequate intake of calcium may not be recommended to patients with mild hyperoxaluria.

  7. Flow Cytometry Method Analysis of Apoptosis: No Significant Difference Between EDTA and EDTA-free Trypsin Treatment Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-yan; Nie, Xiao-cui; Ma, Hai-ying; Song, Guo-qing; Zhang, Xiao-tong; Jin, Yu-nan; Yu, Yan-qiu

    2015-04-01

    Flow cytometry method (FCM) is a generally accepted tool to analyze apoptosis. Although apoptosis assay kit was applied by many companies, the manufacturers were not consistent with whether using Trypsin with EDTA to collect the adherent cells. In another words, the influence of EDTA on apoptotic ratio is not clear. In this work, we compared the proportion of apoptotic cells with EDTA or EDTA-free Trypsin treatment by FCM. We concluded that Trypsin with or without EDTA has little influence on the proportion of apoptotic cells. In addition, we found that the ratio of necrosis and apoptosis was different in cells collected by scraping. WAVE2 protein was analyzed as a typical example for movement related protein. WAVE2 expression is elevated in the EDTA Trypsin treated group, compared with EDTA-free Trypsin treatment and scrapping group. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. The Gut Microbiota from Lean and Obese Subjects Contribute Differently to the Fermentation of Arabinogalactan and Inulin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Aguirre

    Full Text Available An aberrant metabolic activity or a compositional alteration of the gut microbiota has been proposed as a factor that makes us more prone to disease. Therefore, we explored the effect of two dietary fibers (arabinogalactan and inulin on the microbiota from lean and obese subjects during 72 h in vitro fermentation experiments using the validated TNO dynamic in vitro model of the proximal colon: TIM-2. Metabolically, arabinogalactan fermentation showed a higher production of propionate when compared to n-butyrate in the obese microbiota fermentations. In general, lean microbiota produced more n-butyrate from the fermentation of both substrates when compared to the obese microbiota. Furthermore, the obese microbiota extracted more energy from the fermentation of both fibers.Compositionally, bacteria belonging to Gemmiger, Dorea, Roseburia, Alistipes, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium genera were found to be highly abundant or stimulated by the prebiotics in the lean microbiota suggesting a potential role in leanness. Furthermore, a significant correlation between known butyrogenic strains including B. adolescentis, an unclassified Bifidobacterium and F. prausnitzii with this metabolite in the fermentation of inulin in both microbiotas was found.Although supplementary in vivo studies are needed, the current study provides more evidence for the consumption of specific ingredients with the aim of modulating the gut microbiota in the context of obesity.

  9. No significant gender difference in hospitalizations for acute coronary syndrome in Switzerland over the time period of 2001 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saner, Hugo; Mollet, Jannette D; Berlin, Claudia; Windecker, Stephan; Meier, Bernhard; Räber, Lorenz; Zwahlen, Marcel; Stute, Petra

    2017-09-15

    Morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases have decreased since the 1970s in most Western societies. However, it is unclear if this positive trend can also be found in younger women suffering from acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This is a prospective single center registry study including 11.015 women and men hospitalized for a first ACS between the years 2001 and 2010. We analyzed ACS rates according to sex and age group using Poisson regression in order to assess temporal trends. Overall ACS hospitalization rates per 100.000 inhabitants increased by 31% between 2001 and 2010 (Rate Ratio (RR) of 1.31, 95% CI 1.20-1.43; pdifference in trend for ACS hospitalization rates. Temporal trends for recorded risk factors showed a significant increase in smoking (p=0.03), and a trend to increased obesity prevalence (p=0.06) in females in the age group 60-69years. In contrast to other studies, we found no evidence for a particular increase in the number of younger women referred for a first ACS during the years 2001 and 2010. Potential negative effects of smoking and obesity on ACS incidence may be delayed to women older than 70years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Variability in foliar essential oils among different morphotypes of Lantana species complexes, and its taxonomic and ecological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Amit; Naik, Dattatraya; Basak, Sandip K; Babu, Suresh; Pathak, Namrata; Babu, Cherukuri R

    2009-12-01

    The genus Lantana has many species complexes, and L. camara is one of the aggressive alien weedy species complexes; species delimitation in these complexes is a nightmare for taxonomists. We examined the diversity in the chemical composition of foliar essential oils among morphotypes of Lantana species complexes inhabiting the same ecological gradient, and its taxonomic and ecological significance. The yields of essential oils varied from 0.1 to 0.79% in foliar hydrodistillates of eleven morphotypes, and a total of 39 chemical constituents were detected by GC/MS. The quantitative and qualitative variability in the composition of essential oils among morphotypes was very high, and hence they represent chemotypes. The diversity observed in the composition of essential oils appears to be of genetic origin and thus of taxonomic value. The formation of distinct clusters and sub-clusters at high distance cluster combine values also substantiates that the patterns of distribution of chemical constituents among morphotypes can be used in delimiting species and infraspecific taxa within the species complexes. The presence of beta-caryophyllene and other such compounds, which are known to prevent herbivory, in morphotypes of Lantana species complexes suggest that these compounds may provide selective advantage to Lantana over native species in the invasion of new and disturbed habitats.

  11. Histological and ultrastructural observation reveals significant cellular differences between Agrobacterium transformed embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Hai-Hong; Liu, Chuan-Liang; Zhang, Chao-Jun; Li, Feng-Lian; Hong, Wei-Dong; Li, Fu-Guang

    2009-05-01

    Over the past few decades genetic engineering has been applied to improve cotton breeding. Agrobacterium medicated transformation is nowadays widely used as an efficient approach to introduce exogenous genes into cotton for genetically modified organisms. However, it still needs to be improved for better transformation efficiency and higher embryogenic callus induction ratios. To research further the difference of mechanisms for morphogenesis between embryogenic callus and non-embryogenic callus, we carried out a systematical study on the histological and cellular ultrastructure of Agrobacterium transformed calli. Results showed that the embryogenic callus developed nodule-like structures, which were formed by small, tightly packed, hemispherical cells. The surface of some embryogenic callus was covered with a fibrilar-like structure named extracellular matrix. The cells of embryogenic calli had similar morphological characteristics. Organelles of embryogenic callus cells were located near the nucleus, and chloroplasts degraded to proplastid-like structures with some starch grains. In contrast, the non-embryogenic calli were covered by oval or sphere cells or small clusters of cells. It was observed that cells had vacuolation of cytoplasm and plastids with a well organized endomembrane system. This study aims to understand the mechanisms of embryogenic callus morphogenesis and to improve the efficiency of cotton transformation in future.

  12. Making a difference? Societal entrepreneurship and its significance for a practical theological ecclesiology in a local Western Cape context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatius Swart

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the question of whether and how a local church or congregation can, as indissoluble dimension of its vocation as a Christian faith agent, make a difference by influencing the dynamics of social and economic change that are transforming the face and structures of ‘traditional’ social and religious life in its community. Based upon the authors’ own interest in the specific context of the Dutch Reformed congregation of Simondium in the Western Cape and the case study work that they have conducted in this context, an argument about the potential role of this congregation is developed through the conceptual lens of ‘societal entrepreneurship’. After exploring some recent thoughts on this concept in the literature, the authors use the results of their recently conducted case study work to show how the dynamics of a new entrepreneurial drive amongst long-established residents and newcomers in the Simondium region shape the social reality of both the region and the congregation in a forceful way. This insight leads the authors to develop a sociologically and theologically motivated argument about the way in which this changing reality offers newfound opportunities to the Simondium congregation to fulfil its Christian calling. As such, the notion of becoming an ‘entrepreneurial church’ is introduced and a more detailed perspective is offered on those factors that a contextually orientated practical theological ecclesiology should take into account in building the entrepreneurial model in the congregation.

  13. Making a difference? Societal entrepreneurship and its significance for a practical theological ecclesiology in a local Western Cape context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatius Swart

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the question of whether and how a local church or congregation can, as indissoluble dimension of its vocation as a Christian faith agent, make a difference by influencing the dynamics of social and economic change that are transforming the face and structures of ‘traditional’ social and religious life in its community. Based upon the authors’ own interest in the specific context of the Dutch Reformed congregation of Simondium in the Western Cape and the case study work that they have conducted in this context, an argument about the potential role of this congregation is developed through the conceptual lens of ‘societal entrepreneurship’. After exploring some recent thoughts on this concept in the literature, the authors use the results of their recently conducted case study work to show how the dynamics of a new entrepreneurial drive amongst long-established residents and newcomers in the Simondium region shape the social reality of both the region and the congregation in a forceful way. This insight leads the authors to develop a sociologically and theologically motivated argument about the way in which this changing reality offers newfound opportunities to the Simondium congregation to fulfil its Christian calling. As such, the notion of becoming an ‘entrepreneurial church’ is introduced and a more detailed perspective is offered on those factors that a contextually orientated practical theological ecclesiology should take into account in building the entrepreneurial model in the congregation.

  14. Differences in self-regulatory skills among talented athletes: the significance of competitive level and type of sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Laura; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Research has shown that talented athletes outscore their mainstream peers on the basis of self-regulation. Although valuable, this does not tell us more about the distinction between good athletes and the best, which is a prerequisite in talent development. Therefore, we examined the self-regulatory skills of 222 male and female talented athletes aged 12-16 years as a function of competitive sport level (junior international or junior national athletes) and type of sport (individual or team sports). Multivariate analyses of covariance in combination with a discriminant function analysis revealed that "reflection" distinguishes between athletes at the highest levels of excellence. Furthermore, athletes playing individual sports had higher scores on "planning" and "effort" than team sport athletes, highlighting the importance of differences between types of sport. In conclusion, we emphasize the importance of reflection as a self-regulatory skill. Reflection facilitates the development of sport-specific characteristics, which may vary by type of sport. This means that an advanced sense of reflection may help talented athletes to acquire desirable characteristics during their "talent" years to ultimately reach adult elite levels of competition.

  15. Influence of Different Types of Resin Luting Agents on Color Stability of Ceramic Laminate Veneers Subjected to Accelerated Artificial Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silami, Francisca Daniele Jardilino; Tonani, Rafaella; Alandia-Román, Carla Cecilia; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of accelerated aging (AAA) on the color stability of resin cements for bonding ceramic laminate veneers of different thicknesses. The occlusal surfaces of 80 healthy human molars were flattened. Ceramic laminate veneers (IPS e-max Ceram) of two thicknesses (0.5 and 1.0 mm) were bonded with three types of luting agents: light-cured, conventional dual and self-adhesive dual cement. Teeth without restorations and cement samples (0.5 mm) were used as control. After initial color evaluations, the samples were subjected to AAA for 580 h. After this, new color readouts were made, and the color stability (ΔE) and luminosity (ΔL) data were analyzed. The greatest color changes (pveneers were fixed with light-cured cement and the lowest when 1.0 mm veneers were fixed with conventional dual cement. There was no influence of the restoration thickness when the self-adhesive dual cement was used. When veneers were compared with the control groups, it was verified that the cement samples presented the greatest alterations (p<0.05) in comparison with both substrates and restored teeth. Therefore, it was concluded that the thickness of the restoration influences color and luminosity changes for conventional dual and light-cured cements. The changes in self-adhesive cement do not depend on restoration thickness.

  16. Analysis of different materials subjected to open-air explosions in search of explosive traces by Raman microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Félix; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2017-06-01

    Post-explosion scenes offer such chaos and destruction that evidence recovery and detection of post-blast residues from the explosive in the surrounding materials is highly challenging and difficult. The suitability of materials to retain explosives residues and their subsequent analysis has been scarcely investigated. Particularly, the use of explosive mixtures containing inorganic oxidizing salts to make improvised explosive devices (IEDs) is a current security concern due to their wide availability and lax control. In this work, a wide variety of materials such as glass, steel, plywood, plastic bag, brick, cardboard or cotton subjected to open-air explosions were examined using confocal Raman microscopy, aiming to detect the inorganic oxidizing salts contained in explosives as black powder, chloratite, dynamite, ammonium nitrate fuel oil and ammonal. Post-blast residues were detected through microscopic examination of materials surfaces. In general, the more homogeneous and smoother the surface was, the less difficulties and better results in terms of identification were obtained. However, those highly irregular surfaces were the most unsuitable collectors for the posterior identification of explosive traces by Raman microscopy. The findings, difficulties and some recommendations related to the identification of post-blast particles in the different materials studied are thoroughly discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Metric distances between hippocampal shapes indicate different rates of change over time in nondemented and demented subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan, Elvan; Beg, Mirza Faisal; Ceritoğlu, Can; Wang, Lei; Morris, John C; Csernansky, John G; Miller, Michael I; Ratnanather, J Tilak

    2012-10-01

    In this article, we use longitudinal morphometry (shape and size) measures of hippocampus in subjects with mild dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT) and nondemented controls in logistic discrimination. The morphometric measures we use are volume and metric distance measures at baseline and follow-up (two years apart from baseline). Morphometric differences with respect to a template hippocampus were measured by the metric distance obtained from the large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping (LDDMM) algorithm. LDDMM assigns metric distances on the space of anatomical images, thereby allowing for the direct comparison and quantization of morphometric changes. We also apply principal component analysis (PCA) on volume and metric distance measures to obtain principal components that capture some salient aspect of morphometry. We construct classifiers based on logistic regression to distinguish diseased and healthy hippocampi (hence potentially diagnose the mild form of DAT). We consider logistic classifiers based on volume and metric distance change over time (from baseline to follow-up), on the raw volumes and metric distances, and on principal components from various types of PCA analysis. We provide a detailed comparison of the performance of these classifiers and guidelines for their practical use. Moreover, combining the information conveyed by volume and metric distance measures by PCA can provide a better biomarker for detection of dementia compared to volume, metric distance, or both.

  18. Schools That Make a Difference to Post-Compulsory Uptake of Physical Science Subjects: Some comparative case studies in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Judith; Lubben, Fred; Hampden-Thompson, Gillian

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the findings of the qualitative component of a combined methods research study that explores a range of individual and school factors that influence the uptake of chemistry and physics in post-compulsory study in England. The first phase involves using the National Pupil Database to provide a sampling frame to identify four matched pairs of high-uptake and low-uptake schools by salient school factors. Case studies of these eight schools indicate that students employ selection strategies related to their career aspirations, their sense of identity and tactics, and their prior experience. The school factors influencing subject choice relate to school management, student support and guidance, and student empowerment. The most notable differences between students in high-uptake and low-uptake schools are that students in high-uptake schools appear to make a proactive choice in relation to career aspirations, rather than a reactive choice on the basis of past experience. Schools with a high uptake offer a diverse science curriculum in the final two years of compulsory study, set higher examination entry requirements for further study and, crucially, provide a range of opportunities for students to interact with the world of work and to gain knowledge and experience of science-related careers.

  19. Yield and crop cycle time of peaches cultivated in subtropical climates and subjected to different pruning times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Augusto Ferraz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of peaches in regions of subtropical and tropical climate is currently achieved through a set of practices such as using less demanding cultivars in cold conditions, applying plant growth regulators to break dormancy, and performing specific pruning, like production and renewal pruning. Research on the climate adaptation of cultivars is of great importance in establishing a crop in a given region. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the agronomic performance of three cultivars subjected to different production pruning times in Botucatu/SP, where 2-year old peach trees were evaluated, grown at a spacing of 6.0 x 4.0 meters. The experimental design was a split plot design with four blocks, using the cultivars Douradão, BRS Kampai and BRS Rubimel, and the subplots corresponded to pruning times in May, June, July and August. Ten plants were used per plot, with the four central plants considered useful and the remaining considered as margins. Pruning in June and July showed the best results in terms of percentage of fruit set and production. The cultivar BRS Rubimel showed the best percentage of fruit set when pruned in June (44.96%, and best fruit production when pruned in July (18.7 kg plant-1. Pruning in May anticipated the harvest of cultivar BRS Rubimel by 13 days whereas pruning carried out in July and August provided late harvests for cultivars Douradão and BRS Kampai.

  20. Antioxidant Activity and Cytotoxicity Effect of Cocoa Beans Subjected to Different Processing Conditions in Human Lung Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Bauer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is a common malignancy in men and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in men in the western world. Phenolic cocoa ingredients have a strong antioxidative activity and the potential to have a protective effect against cancer. In the present study, we have evaluated the influence of cocoa beans subjected to different processing conditions on cell viability and apoptosis of human lung cancer cells (A549. We measured the viability of lung cells treated with cocoa beans, unroasted slates (US, roasted slates (RS, unroasted well fermented (UWF cocoa, and roasted well fermented (RWF cocoa for 24 h. Using an MTT assay, we observed a decrease in the viability of A549 cells after treatment with cocoa bean extracts. Flow cytometer analysis revealed that cocoa beans increased the percentage of cells in sub-G1 phase and promoted up to twofold increase of apoptotic cells when compared to the control group. Taken together, the present study suggests that cocoa beans may have a protective effect against lung cancer.

  1. Ellagitannin content, volatile composition and sensory profile of wines from different countries matured in oak barrels subjected to different toasting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Centeno, M R; Chira, K; Teissedre, P-L

    2016-11-01

    Ellagitannins and aromatic compounds evolution in Cabernet Sauvignon wines macerated in oak barrels for a year was studied. Identical barrels with different toastings (medium toasting, medium toasting with watering, Noisette) were used in French, Italian and USA cellars. Ellagitannins increased by 84-96% with aging time, as did woody volatiles, by 86-91% in French wines and 23-35% in Italian wines, while fruity aroma compounds declined by 50-57% in the French and Italian wines over a 12-months period. Nevertheless, other behaviors and different kinetics rates for these compounds were observed depending on barrel toasting, wine matrix and their interactions. Perceived overall woody intensity was closely related to trans-whiskey lactone, guaiacol and vanillin, whereas astringency and bitterness were significantly linked to ellagitannins (ptoasting effect on wines from different countries matured in the same oak barrels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. DIFFEREnCEs In sUBJECtIVE WELL-BEInG WItHIn HoUsEHoLDs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Happiness gaps, intra-household allocation, life satisfaction, subjective well-being. IntRoDUCtIon ... The finding that people who are married are happier or have higher levels of subjective well-being than ..... 9988) refer to various theories in the psychology literature which suggest that wisdom and emotional ...

  3. Subjective quality of videos displayed with local backlight dimming at different peak white and ambient light levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Korhonen, Jari; Forchhammer, Søren

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the influence of ambient light and peak white (maximum brightness) of a display on the subjective quality of videos shown with local backlight dimming is examined. A subjective experiment investigating those factors is set-up using high contrast test sequences. The results are firstly...

  4. Garden and landscape-scale correlates of moths of differing conservation status: significant effects of urbanization and habitat diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Adam J; Sadler, Jon P; Grundy, Dave; Lowe, Norman; Davis, George; Baker, David; Bridge, Malcolm; Freestone, Roger; Gardner, David; Gibson, Chris; Hemming, Robin; Howarth, Stephen; Orridge, Steve; Shaw, Mark; Tams, Tom; Young, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Moths are abundant and ubiquitous in vegetated terrestrial environments and are pollinators, important herbivores of wild plants, and food for birds, bats and rodents. In recent years, many once abundant and widespread species have shown sharp declines that have been cited by some as indicative of a widespread insect biodiversity crisis. Likely causes of these declines include agricultural intensification, light pollution, climate change, and urbanization; however, the real underlying cause(s) is still open to conjecture. We used data collected from the citizen science Garden Moth Scheme (GMS) to explore the spatial association between the abundance of 195 widespread British species of moth, and garden habitat and landscape features, to see if spatial habitat and landscape associations varied for species of differing conservation status. We found that associations with habitat and landscape composition were species-specific, but that there were consistent trends in species richness and total moth abundance. Gardens with more diverse and extensive microhabitats were associated with higher species richness and moth abundance; gardens near to the coast were associated with higher richness and moth abundance; and gardens in more urbanized locations were associated with lower species richness and moth abundance. The same trends were also found for species classified as increasing, declining and vulnerable under IUCN (World Conservation Union) criteria. However, vulnerable species were more strongly negatively affected by urbanization than increasing species. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this observation: (1) that the underlying factors causing declines in vulnerable species (e.g., possibilities include fragmentation, habitat deterioration, agrochemical pollution) across Britain are the same in urban areas, but that these deleterious effects are more intense in urban areas; and/or (2) that urban areas can act as ecological traps for some vulnerable species of

  5. Garden and landscape-scale correlates of moths of differing conservation status: significant effects of urbanization and habitat diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Bates

    Full Text Available Moths are abundant and ubiquitous in vegetated terrestrial environments and are pollinators, important herbivores of wild plants, and food for birds, bats and rodents. In recent years, many once abundant and widespread species have shown sharp declines that have been cited by some as indicative of a widespread insect biodiversity crisis. Likely causes of these declines include agricultural intensification, light pollution, climate change, and urbanization; however, the real underlying cause(s is still open to conjecture. We used data collected from the citizen science Garden Moth Scheme (GMS to explore the spatial association between the abundance of 195 widespread British species of moth, and garden habitat and landscape features, to see if spatial habitat and landscape associations varied for species of differing conservation status. We found that associations with habitat and landscape composition were species-specific, but that there were consistent trends in species richness and total moth abundance. Gardens with more diverse and extensive microhabitats were associated with higher species richness and moth abundance; gardens near to the coast were associated with higher richness and moth abundance; and gardens in more urbanized locations were associated with lower species richness and moth abundance. The same trends were also found for species classified as increasing, declining and vulnerable under IUCN (World Conservation Union criteria. However, vulnerable species were more strongly negatively affected by urbanization than increasing species. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this observation: (1 that the underlying factors causing declines in vulnerable species (e.g., possibilities include fragmentation, habitat deterioration, agrochemical pollution across Britain are the same in urban areas, but that these deleterious effects are more intense in urban areas; and/or (2 that urban areas can act as ecological traps for some

  6. Is there evidence of adaptation to tidal flooding in saplings of baldcypress subjected to different salinity regimes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, K.W.; Doyle, T.W.; Howard, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Plant populations may adapt to environmental conditions over time by developing genetically based morphological or physiological characteristics. For tidal freshwater forested wetlands, we hypothesized that the conditions under which trees developed led to ecotypic difference in response of progeny to hydroperiod. Specifically, we looked for evidence of ecotypic adaptation for tidal flooding at different salinity regimes using growth and ecophysiological characteristics of two tidal and two non-tidal source collections of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) L.C. Rich) from the southeastern United States. Saplings were subjected to treatments of hydrology (permanent versus tidal flooding) and salinity (0 versus ???2 g l-1) for two and a half growing seasons in a greenhouse environment. Saplings from tidal sources maintained 21-41% lower overall growth and biomass accumulation than saplings from non-tidal sources, while saplings from non-tidal sources maintained 14-19% lower overall rates of net photosynthetic assimilation, leaf transpiration, and stomatal conductance than saplings from tidal sources. However, we found no evidence for growth or physiological enhancement of saplings from tidal sources to tide, or of saplings from non-tidal sources to no tide. All saplings growing under permanent flooding exhibited reduced growth and leaf gas exchange regardless of source, with little evidence for consistent salinity effects across hydroperiods. While we reject our original hypothesis, we suggest that adaptations of coastal baldcypress to broad (rather than narrow) environmental conditions may promote ecophysiological and growth enhancements under a range of global-change-induced stressors, perhaps reflecting a natural resilience to environmental change while precluding adaptations for specific flood regimes.

  7. Three different up-titration regimens of ponesimod, an S1P1 receptor modulator, in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherz, Michael W; Brossard, Patrick; D'Ambrosio, Daniele; Ipek, Murat; Dingemanse, Jasper

    2015-06-01

    Ponesimod is a selective S1P1 receptor modulator, and induces dose-dependent reduction of circulating lymphocytes upon oral dosing. Previous studies showed that single doses up to 75 mg or multiple doses up to 40 mg once daily are well tolerated, and heart rate (HR) reduction and atrio-ventricular conduction delays upon treatment initiation are reduced by gradual up-titration to the maintenance dose. This single-center, open-label, randomized, multiple-dose, 3-treatment, 3-way crossover study compared the tolerability, safety, pharmacokinetics, cardiodynamics, and effects on lymphocytes of 3 different up-titration regimens of ponesimod in healthy male and female subjects. Up-titration regimens comprised escalating periods of b.i.d. dosing (2.5 or 5 mg) and q.d. dosing (10 or 20 mg or both). After the third up-titration period a variable-duration washout period of 1-3 days was followed by re-challenge with a single 20-mg dose of ponesimod. Adverse events were transient and mild to moderate in intensity, not different between regimens. HR decrease after the first dose was greater than after all subsequent doses, including up-titration doses. Little or no HR change was observed with morning doses of b.i.d. regimens, suggesting that 2.5 and 5 mg b.i.d. are sufficient to sustain cardiac desensitization for the 12-hours dosing interval. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  8. The effect of intravenous omeprazole on the gastric and duodenal potential difference and pH in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubinstein, E; Højgaard, L

    1993-01-01

    The effect of intravenous omeprazole (40 and 80 mg) on the gastric and duodenal potential difference (PD) and pH was investigated in 9 healthy volunteers. Gastric PD and pH increased significantly (p omeprazole, and the increases were equal following the two doses. No changes were...... found in duodenal PD or pH. It has been claimed that gastric PD changes following acid secretion inhibition with cimetidine and glucagon might be due to changes in the parietal cell surface area. Omeprazole causes no changes in the parietal cell structure, and the changes in gastric PD following...... omeprazole might therefore be ascribed to changes in mucosal electrophysiologic transport or resistance....

  9. Urban-rural differences in social capital in relation to self-rated health and subjective well-being in older residents of six regions in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Zawisza, Katarzyna

    2017-06-12

    The aim of the study was to assess the differences between rural and urban areas as regards the role of social capital and its effect on self-rated health and subjective well-being among older people in Poland. The sample was selected on the basis of multi-stage clustered design from the non-institutionalized adult population. Analysis was based on 1,299 elderly people aged 65 and over from the general Polish population who participated in the COURAGE in Europe project. Six regions of Poland were distinguished according to first level of Nomenclature of Units for Territorial Statistics (NUTS) classification . As an indicator of social capital, the COURAGE Social Network Index, the OSLO-3 Social Support Scale, and the three item UCLA Loneliness scale were used, as well as social participation and trust was assessed. Self-rated health (SRH) was measured by WHO-Europe recommended version (ranging from 'very good' to 'very bad'). Well-being was assessed by the Day Reconstruction Method. Results: The results showed that in urban areas, social network and social participation supported positive self-rated health; in rural, older residents the number of years of education and social support played the same role, while self-rated health decreased with an increasing level of loneliness. Self-rated health decreased in both groups of older people with a growing number of diseases. The multivariate linear regression model of predictors of well-being in older age also confirmed differences between urban and rural elderly residents. In rural residents, subjective well-being significantly increased with the positive effect of the social network. In both urban and rural areas, poor assessment of subjective well-being in older age increased with a higher level of loneliness and growing number of chronic diseases.

  10. Common Needs and Different Agendas: How Trainee Teachers Make Progress in Their Ability to Use ICT in Subject Teaching. Some Lessons from the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydn, Terry Anthony; Barton, Roy

    2007-01-01

    The paper reports on the outcomes of a British Educational Communications and Technology Agency (BECTa) funded study which explored the views of teacher trainees and their mentors in two different school subjects on what strategies, interventions and resources had a positive impact on their ability to use ICT effectively in their subject teaching.…

  11. Cross-sectional geometry of weight-bearing tibia in female athletes subjected to different exercise loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikander, R; Kannus, P; Rantalainen, T; Uusi-Rasi, K; Heinonen, A; Sievänen, H

    2010-10-01

    The association of long-term sport-specific exercise loading with cross-sectional geometry of the weight-bearing tibia was evaluated among 204 female athletes representing five different exercise loadings and 50 referents. All exercises involving ground impacts (e.g., endurance running, ball games, jumping) were associated with thicker cortex at the distal and diaphyseal sites of the tibia and also with large diaphyseal cross-section, whereas the high-magnitude (powerlifting) and non-impact (swimming) exercises were not. Bones adapt to the specific loading to which they are habitually subjected. In this cross-sectional study, the association of long-term sport-specific exercise loading with the geometry of the weight-bearing tibia was evaluated among premenopausal female athletes representing 11 different sports. A total of 204 athletes were divided into five exercise loading groups, and the respective peripheral quantitative computed tomographic data were compared to data obtained from 50 physically active, non-athletic referents. Analysis of covariance was used to estimate the between-group differences. At the distal tibia, the high-impact, odd-impact, and repetitive low-impact exercise loading groups had approximately 30% to 50% (p < 0.05) greater cortical area (CoA) than the referents. At the tibial shaft, these three impact groups had approximately 15% to 20% (p < 0.05) greater total area (ToA) and approximately 15% to 30% (p < 0.05) greater CoA. By contrast, both the high-magnitude and repetitive non-impact groups had similar ToA and CoA values to the reference group at both tibial sites. High-impact, odd-impact, and repetitive low-impact exercise loadings were associated with thicker cortex at the distal tibia. At the tibial shaft, impact loading was not only associated with thicker cortex, but also a larger cross-sectional area. High-magnitude exercise loading did not show such associations at either site but was comparable to repetitive non-impact loading

  12. Growth parameters, behavior, and meat and ham quality of heavy pigs subjected to photoperiods of different duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, G; Nannoni, E; Grandi, M; Bonaldo, A; Zaghini, G; Vitali, M; Biagi, G; Sardi, L

    2015-02-01

    To attain a good level of animal welfare, pigs require a sufficient environmental illumination. Therefore, minimum levels for light duration and light intensity have been set up by the European legislation (Directive 2008/120). An experimental trial was designed to determine whether an increased duration of the photophase (up to 16 h of light per day) could modify the behavior, productive parameters, and meat and ham quality of Italian heavy pigs. Forty crossbred (Large White × Landrace) castrated males pigs (26 kg initial average BW) intended for Protected Designation of Origin (according to European Union Regulation 1151/2012, ) dry-cured ham production were raised according to Parma ham production rules up to the weight of 160 kg. Pigs were homogeneously allotted to 2 experimental groups, each comprising 20 pigs. The short photoperiod (SP) group received the minimum mandatory number of hours of light per day (corresponding to 8 h/d), whereas the long photoperiod (LP) group was subjected 16 h of light per day during the whole production cycle. Light intensity was maintained at 40 lux (i.e., the minimum mandatory level) for both the experimental groups. Growth and slaughtering parameters, carcass traits, fatty acid composition, meat and dry-cured ham quality, and animal behavior were assessed. Pigs in the LP group showed a greater live weight and carcass weight compared to the SP group ( = 0.005 and = 0.007, respectively). Similarly, hams obtained from the LP group were significantly heavier and their weight losses during the dry-curing period were reduced ( ham quality or fatty acid composition of the subcutaneous fat. Pigs in the LP group spent more time resting and less time pseudo-rooting ( ham quality. Therefore, rearing pigs in semidarkness should be considered as a baseless practice, contrary to animal welfare.

  13. Evaluation of resistance of teeth subjected to fracture after endodontic treatment using different root canal sealers: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Bhat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to compare the ex-vivo effects of different root canal sealers on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five freshly extracted human mandibular premolars were used for the study. The length was standardized to 14 mm and all the teeth were biomechanically prepared and divided into five different groups based on the type of root canal sealers used. Group I:- Roeko seal + gutta percha, Group II: AH plus ® root canal sealer + gutta percha, Group III: PULPDENT root canal sealer + gutta percha, Group IV: Zinc oxide-eugenol sealer + gutta percha, Group V: Control (unobturated teeth. The teeth were embedded in acrylic resin blocks and compressive strengths were measured using universal testing machine (Instron. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way ANOVA, unpaired t- test Results: Data obtained were statistically evaluated using one-way ANOVA and unpaired t-test. All groups showed a statistically significant result (P < 0.05. Teeth obturated with Group I and Group II showed higher resistance to fracture than teeth obturated with other three Groups. It was seen that the teeth obturated with group III showed a better fracture resistance than Group IV and there was no statistical significance found between Group and Group V. Conclusions: From this study, it has been concluded that both the resin based sealers that were used in this study were equally effective compared to that of the zinc oxide-based sealers and the control group. However, no significant results were obtained when the comparison was made between zinc oxide-eugenol and gutta-percha and the control group.

  14. Concentration and correlations of perfluoroalkyl substances in whole blood among subjects from three different geographical areas in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chon Rae; Lam, Nguyen Hoang; Cho, Byung Mann; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Cho, Hyeon Seo

    2015-04-15

    Toxicity and persistence of perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) in human have raised considerable concern and several biomonitoring studies throughout the world reported the widespread occurrence of these compounds in human tissues. However, information regarding influence of geographic, lifestyle and demographic factor on PFAS levels in human blood tissues is limited. In this study, whole blood samples collected in 2006-2007 from 319 donors from suburban Seoul (Suwon and Yongin), Busan and Yeosu in Korea were analyzed for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). Blood donors classified into seven age groups with ages ranging from 8 to 82 years, and different lifestyles and socio-economic status. PFOS (median=4.15 ng/mL) was found at the highest concentration with a maximum concentration of 59.1 ng/mL. The concentrations of other PFASs were in the decreasing order of; PFOA (median=1.30 ng/mL)>PFNA (median=0.85 ng/mL)>PFHxS (median=0.47 ng/mL)>PFOSA (median=0.12 ng/mL). Geographical differences in the concentrations of five target PFASs were found. Significant positive relationships between PFAS concentrations and the age of the donors were found. Gender-related differences were found in the concentrations of PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS and PFOSA. No association was found between PFAS levels and several lifestyle factors and socio-economic status which included drinking habit, furniture/carpet in an indoor environment and monthly income. Occupation was an important determinant for PFNA and PFHxS concentrations in the whole blood. Except for PFOSA, significant associations were noted between PFASs concentrations and smoking habit. The results of this study provide information for further public health monitoring and safety management for PFASs in Korea. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Explaining Differences in Subjective Well-Being Across 33 Nations Using Multilevel Models: Universal Personality, Cultural Relativity, and National Income

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cheng, C.; Cheung, M. W.-L.; Montasem, A.; Awang-Hashim, R.; Bačová, V.; Baumane, I.; Chan, R.; Christou, M.; Chun, W. Y.; Clemena, R. M.; Comunian, A.L.; Czapinski, J.; Dayan, N.; Loving, R.D.; Duarte-Silva, M. E.; Falzon, A.; Falzon, R.; Gan, Y.; Golden, D. L.; de Zavala Golec, A.; Guil-Bozal, A.; Hadiyono, J. E. P.; Hadjar, A.; Hertel, J.; Ines Alcalay, S. L.; Jose, P. E.; Dzuka, J.; Kafetsios, K.; Lawal, O. A.; Liu, J.-T.; Neto, F.; Opre, A.; Panayiotou, A.; Raudsepp, M.; Roth, R.; Sheldon, K. M.; Sideridis, G.; Šolcová, Iva; Spyrou, S.; Suhail, K.; Tam, W.-Ch. C.; Tanti-Burlo, E.; Tao, V. Y.; Tonon, G.; Tiliouine, H.; Tsaousis, I.; Uglanova, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 1 (2016), s. 46-58 ISSN 0022-3506 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : life satisfaction * self-esteem * individualism * collectivism * happiness * extroversion Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 3.590, year: 2016

  16. Strain Rate Dependent Deformation of a Polymer Matrix Composite with Different Microstructures Subjected to Off-Axis Loading

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu, Xiaojun; Chen, Xuefeng; Zhai, Zhi; Yang, Zhibo; Li, Xiang; He, Zhengjia

    2014-01-01

    ... are often subjected to complex loadings under extreme circumstances [3, 4] in which the properties of the PMCs exhibit highly nonlinear and rate dependence, so it is necessary for structural design and an...

  17. Age-related different relationships between ectopic adipose tissues and measures of central obesity in sedentary subjects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guglielmi, Valeria; Maresca, Luciano; D'Adamo, Monica; Di Roma, Mauro; Lanzillo, Chiara; Federici, Massimo; Lauro, Davide; Preziosi, Paolo; Bellia, Alfonso; Sbraccia, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    ... (SAT) were simultaneously measured by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and related to waist circumference measurements and age in 32 sedentary subjects without cardiovascular disease (18 men; 14 women; mean age 48.5 ± 14 years...

  18. Patients with chronic peripheral vestibular hypofunction compared to healthy subjects exhibit differences in gaze and gait behaviour when walking on stairs and ramps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanenburg, Jaap; Bäbler, Edith; Adelsberger, Rolf; Straumann, Dominik; de Bruin, Eling D

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare gaze behaviour during stair and ramp walking between patients with chronic peripheral vestibular hypofunction and healthy human subjects. Twenty four (24) patients with chronic peripheral vestibular hypofunction (14 unilateral and 10 bilateral) and 24 healthy subjects performed stair and ramp up and down walks at self-selected speed. The walks were repeated five times. A mobile eye tracker was used to record gaze behaviour (defined as time directed to pre-defined areas) and an insole measurement device assessed gait (speed, step time, step length). During each walk gaze behaviour relative to i) detection of first transition area "First TA", ii) detection of steps of the mid-staircase area and the handrail "Structure", iii) detection of second transition area "Second TA", and iv) looking elsewhere "Elsewhere" was assessed and expressed as a percentage of the walk duration. For all variables, a one-way ANOVA followed by contrast tests was conducted. Patients looked significantly longer at the "Structure" (p<0.001) and "Elsewhere" (p<0.001) while walking upstairs compared to walking downstairs (p<0.013). Patients looked significantly longer at the "Structure" (p<0.001) and "Elsewhere" (p<0.001) while walking upstairs compared to walking downstairs (p<0.013). No differences between groups were observed for the transition areas with exception of stair ascending. Patients were also slower going downstairs (p = 0.002) and presented with an increased step time (p = 0.003). Patients were walking faster up the ramp (p = 0.014) with longer step length (p = 0.008) compared to walking down the ramp (p = 0.050) with shorter step length (p = 0.024). Patients with chronic peripheral vestibular hypofunction differed in time directed to pre-defined areas during stair and ramp walking and looked longer at stair and ramp areas of interest during walking compared to healthy subjects. Patients did not differ in time directed to pre-defined areas

  19. Effects of different segmental spinal stabilization exercise protocols on postural stability in asymptomatic subjects: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Derya Ozer; Ergun, Nevin; Hayran, Mutlu

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to assess and compare the postural stability effects of the "Progressive Dynamic Spine Stabilization Exercise Protocols" (PDSSEP) which were designed for different spinal segments. The asymptomatic, sedentary, and female volunteers (21.26 ± 1.30 years old) were allocated randomly into Cervical (n=22), Lumbar (n=21), Thoracic (n=20), Combined (n=20), and Control (n=21) Groups. All training groups participated into the related PDSSEP for six weeks, 3 days/week. The assessments were carried out at the baseline, after 6(th) week, and on the 12(th) week. "Tetrax Interactive Posturography and Balance System" (Tetrax System, Ramat Gan, Israel) was used to assess the overall postural stability (SI), weight distribution (WDI) and somatosensory reactions. "Kruskal Wallis Test" for the differences of the pre-6th weeks, pre-12(th) weeks within the groups, "Mann-Whitney U Test" for control and inter-group comparisons were used. The differences were observed for eyes closed SI, and WDI in head right rotated position (p< 0.05) between the baseline and after completing the programs. Eyes closed SI in solid surface was shown statistically different in Thoracic group in comparison to controls (p< 0.02). SI on soft surface, SI head left rotated position and somatosensory reactions with head flexed position improved in Thoracic Group at the 12(th) week (p< 0.01). WDI significantly improved in Cervical Group (p< 0.01). Thoracic spine can be considered as a hidden source for improving overall postural stability. It may be appropriate to focus on thoracic region in the kinetic chain for the treatment or training. A prospective randomized controlled trial, Level 1.

  20. The Effects of Different High-Protein Low-Carbohydrates Proprietary Foods on Blood Sugar in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, Alessandra; Karsten, Bettina; Bosco, Gerardo; Gómez-López, Manuel; Brandão, Paula Paraguassú; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects on blood sugar concentrations through the calculation of the glycemic score (GS) of 10 different high-protein low-carbohydrates (CHOs) proprietary foods that are commonly used as meals during very low-CHO ketogenic diets or during low-CHO diets. Fourteen healthy females were tested for their glycemic response curve elicited by 1000 kJ of glucose three times within a 3-week period (one test each week) compared with one of 10 test foods once on separate days twice a week. After determining the GS of each food in each individual, the mean GS of each test food was calculated. All test foods, compared with glucose, produced a significantly lower glycemic response. The GS of all test food resulted in being lower than 25 and the difference between the mean glycemia after the intake of glucose (mean 122 ± 15 mg/dL) and after the intake of the sweet test foods (mean 89 ± 7 mg/dL) was 33 mg/dL (P test foods (mean 91 ± 8 mg/dL) was of 31 mg/dL (P < .001). The reformulation of ultraprocessed ready-to-consume foods in a low-CHO, high-protein version can produce a significantly lower glycemic response whilst maintaining the valued ready-to-use format and high palatability demanded by consumers. The low impact on postprandial glycemia and the nutritional characteristics of these proprietary foods makes them useful in both weight control management strategies and in the care management of diabetes.

  1. Pregnancy per artificial insemination in lactating dairy cows subjected to 2 different intervals from presynchronization to initiation of Ovsynch protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colazo, M G; Ponce-Barajas, P; Ambrose, D J

    2013-01-01

    A protocol for presynchronization of ovarian status with 2 injections of PGF2α given 14 d apart, with the last PGF2α injection given 12 or 14 d before Ovsynch increases pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) in dairy cows. We determined the efficacy of reducing the interval from the last PGF2α injection (500 μg of cloprostenol) of presynchronization to initiation of Ovsynch on response to treatment and P/AI. Lactating dairy cows were assigned to an Ovsynch protocol, with the initial injection of GnRH given either 9 (PRE-9; n=135) or 12d (PRE-12; n=135) after the second PGF2α injection of presynchronization. The Ovsynch protocol consisted of 2 injections of 100 μg of GnRH given 9 d apart and 1 injection of PGF2α given 7 d after the initial GnRH injection, and cows were subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI; 70±3.5 DIM) approximately 16 h after the second GnRH injection. Body condition score (1-5 scale) was recorded at TAI. Blood samples were taken for progesterone determination at the PGF2α injection of Ovsynch, at TAI, and at 11 d after TAI. Ultrasonographic examinations were done in all cows at the second PGF2α injection of presynchronization, initial GnRH injection, PGF2α injection of Ovsynch, at TAI, and 24 h after TAI for cyclicity status and ovarian responses to treatments, and at 32 and 60 d after TAI for confirmation of pregnancy. Overall, 29 cows (10.7%) were determined acyclic or cystic and excluded from the study. The percentage of cows responding to initial GnRH injection (62.2 vs. 61.5%) did not differ between PRE-9 and PRE-12 but more cows in the PRE-9 group failed to respond to PGF2α treatment of Ovsynch compared with PRE-12 (22.7 vs. 10.7%). Body condition score at TAI (2.9±0.02) and mean ovulatory follicle diameter (16.4±0.2 mm) were not different between treatments. Overall P/AI at 32 d was reduced in PRE-9 (33.6%) compared with PRE-12 (44.3%) but pregnancy losses (5.0 vs. 3.7%) did not differ between treatments

  2. Subjective sleep quality in relation to objective sleep estimates: comparison, gender differences and changes between the acute phase and the six-month follow-up after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Linda N; Kim, Hesook Suzie; Finset, Arnstein; Lerdal, Anners

    2014-03-01

    To describe sleep experiences after stroke using subjective and objective indicators and identify possible gender differences in sleep in the acute phase and at 6-month follow-up. Sleep disturbances after stoke are recognized, but poorly described. Gender differences in sleep exist in other populations, but have not been reported after stroke. A longitudinal cohort study. Subjective sleep quality was measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and objective sleep was estimated with actigraphy in 100 patients in the acute phase and six months after stroke, from April 2007-March 2009. Subjective sleep quality was better and objective wake percentage was lower at follow-up than in the acute phase after stroke. Actigraphy estimated low sleep efficiency and many awakenings at both time points. Subjective and objective measures were correlated at the 6-month follow-up, but not in the acute phase. Women's subjective sleep efficiency and total score on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were worse than men's in the acute phase, but actigraphy estimated that women slept more than men in the course of a day. Women's subjective sleep quality was better at follow-up than in the acute phase. Men reported worse subjective sleep quality, but better subjective sleep efficiency at follow-up than in the acute phase, and also had lower objective wake percentage at follow-up. Subjective sleep quality was poor and actigraphy indicated disturbed sleep-wake patterns in the acute phase and at 6-month follow-up. Gender differences existed in subjective and objective sleep in the acute phase, but not at follow-up. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The gut microbiota from lean and obese subjects contribute differently to the fermentation of arabinogalactan and inulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ag