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Sample records for subjects developed all-cause

  1. Subjective memory complaints in primary care patients and death from all causes: a four-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Waldemar, Gunhild; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2013-01-01

    -related quality of life were collected at the enrolment primary care consultation. Dates of death from all causes occurring during the four-year follow-up were retrieved from the national databases. Cox proportional hazard regression models on time to death (censored after four years) were used to examine......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prognostic value of subjective memory complaints for all-cause mortality in order to determine whether elderly persons with subjective memory complaints may be regarded as a group of vulnerable patients who need close follow-up. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study...... the influence of subjective memory complaints on all-cause mortality. RESULTS: 88 patients died during the four-year follow-up. The association between subjective memory complaints and mortality had a statistically not significant hazard ratio (HR) of 0.91, adjusting for known confounders. Statistically...

  2. Development of an Electronic Pediatric All-Cause Harm Measurement Tool Using a Modified Delphi Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, David Christopher; Bisarya, Hema; Classen, David C; Kirkendall, Eric S; Lachman, Peter I; Matlow, Anne G; Tham, Eric; Hyman, Dan; Lehman, Samuel M; Searles, Elizabeth; Muething, Stephen E; Sharek, Paul J

    2016-12-01

    To have impact on reducing harm in pediatric inpatients, an efficient and reliable process for harm detection is needed. This work describes the first step toward the development of a pediatric all-cause harm measurement tool by recognized experts in the field. An international group of leaders in pediatric patient safety and informatics were charged with developing a comprehensive pediatric inpatient all-cause harm measurement tool using a modified Delphi technique. The process was conducted in 5 distinct steps: (1) literature review of triggers (elements from a medical record that assist in identifying patient harm) for inclusion; (2) translation of triggers to likely associated harm, improving the ability for expert prioritization; (3) 2 applications of a modified Delphi selection approach with consensus criteria using severity and frequency of harm as well as detectability of the associated trigger as criteria to rate each trigger and associated harm; (4) developing specific trigger logic and relevant values when applicable; and (5) final vetting of the entire trigger list for pilot testing. Literature and expert panel review identified 108 triggers and associated harms suitable for consideration (steps 1 and 2). This list was pared to 64 triggers and their associated harms after the first of the 2 independent expert reviews. The second independent expert review led to further refinement of the trigger package, resulting in 46 items for inclusion (step 3). Adding in specific trigger logic expanded the list. Final review and voting resulted in a list of 51 triggers (steps 4 and 5). Application of a modified Delphi method on an expert-constructed list of 108 triggers, focusing on severity and frequency of harms as well as detectability of triggers in an electronic medical record, resulted in a final list of 51 pediatric triggers. Pilot testing this list of pediatric triggers to identify all-cause harm for pediatric inpatients is the next step to establish the

  3. Change of Nutritional Status Assessed Using Subjective Global Assessment Is Associated With All-Cause Mortality in Incident Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young Eun; Kee, Youn Kyung; Yoon, Chang-Yun; Han, In Mee; Han, Seung Gyu; Park, Kyoung Sook; Lee, Mi Jung; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung H; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Yon Su; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Nam-Ho; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2016-02-01

    Subjective global assessment (SGA) is associated with mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. However, little is known whether improvement or deterioration of nutritional status after dialysis initiation influences the clinical outcome. We aimed to elucidate the association between changes in nutritional status determined by SGA during the first year of dialysis and all-cause mortality in incident ESRD patients. This was a multicenter, prospective cohort study. Incident dialysis patients with available SGA data at both baseline and 12 months after dialysis commencement (n = 914) were analyzed. Nutritional status was defined as well nourished (WN, SGA A) or malnourished (MN, SGA B or C). The patients were divided into 4 groups according to the change in nutritional status between baseline and 12 months after dialysis commencement: group 1, WN to WN; group 2, MN to WN; group 3, WN to MN; and group 4, MN to MN. Cox proportional hazard analysis was performed to clarify the association between changes in nutritional status and mortality. Being in the MN group at 12 months after dialysis initiation, but not at baseline, was a significant risk factor for mortality. There was a significant difference in the 3-year survival rates among the groups (group 1, 92.2%; group 2, 86.0%; group 3, 78.2%; and group 4, 63.5%; log-rank test, P nutritional status assessed by SGA during the first year of dialysis were associated with all-cause mortality in incident ESRD patients.

  4. Patients Newly Diagnosed with Clinical Type 2 Diabetes during Oral Glucocorticoid Treatment and Observed for 14 Years: All-Cause Mortality and Clinical Developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Siersma, Volkert; Dyring-Andersen, Beatrice

    2010-01-01

    treatment. A population-based sample of 1369 people newly diagnosed with clinical type 2 diabetes underwent a clinical examination at diagnosis, and surviving patients were followed up 6 and 14 years later. Patients receiving oral GC treatment at diagnosis were compared with the other patients. Of 1369...... and sex and to 1.39 (0.92-2.11, p = 0.12, n = 1086) when risk factors, complications and cancer were added to the model. Apart from differences in age and overweight, patients in this relatively small sample of those diagnosed with clinical type 2 diabetes during GC treatment were comparable at diagnosis......  Chronic exposure to glucocorticoids (GCs) has many side effects including glucose intolerance and diabetes and may accelerate the occurrence of cardiovascular disease and increase mortality. We studied the 14-year clinical development of diabetes in patients diagnosed with diabetes during GC...

  5. Patients newly diagnosed with clinical type 2 diabetes during oral glucocorticoid treatment and observed for 14 years: all-cause mortality and clinical developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Dyring-Andersen, B.

    2011-01-01

    treatment. A population-based sample of 1369 people newly diagnosed with clinical type 2 diabetes underwent a clinical examination at diagnosis, and surviving patients were followed up 6 and 14 years later. Patients receiving oral GC treatment at diagnosis were compared with the other patients. Of 1369...... and sex and to 1.39 (0.92-2.11, p = 0.12, n = 1086) when risk factors, complications and cancer were added to the model. Apart from differences in age and overweight, patients in this relatively small sample of those diagnosed with clinical type 2 diabetes during GC treatment were comparable at diagnosis......Chronic exposure to glucocorticoids (GCs) has many side effects including glucose intolerance and diabetes and may accelerate the occurrence of cardiovascular disease and increase mortality. We studied the 14-year clinical development of diabetes in patients diagnosed with diabetes during GC...

  6. National and subnational all-cause and cause-specific child mortality in China, 1996-2015: a systematic analysis with implications for the Sustainable Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunhua; Liu, Li; Chu, Yue; Perin, Jamie; Dai, Li; Li, Xiaohong; Miao, Lei; Kang, Leni; Li, Qi; Scherpbier, Robert; Guo, Sufang; Rudan, Igor; Song, Peige; Chan, Kit Yee; Guo, Yan; Black, Robert E; Wang, Yanping; Zhu, Jun

    2017-02-01

    China has achieved Millennium Development Goal 4 to reduce under-5 mortality rate by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In this study, we estimated the national and subnational levels and causes of child mortality in China annually from 1996 to 2015 to draw implications for achievement of the SDGs for China and other low-income and middle-income countries. In this systematic analysis, we adjusted empirical data on levels and causes of child mortality collected in the China Maternal and Child Health Surveillance System to generate representative estimates at the national and subnational levels. In adjusting the data, we considered the sampling design and probability, applied smoothing techniques to produce stable trends, fitted livebirth and age-specific death estimates to natvional estimates produced by the UN for international comparison, and partitioned national estimates of infrequent causes produced by independent sources to the subnational level. Between 1996 and 2015, the under-5 mortality rate in China declined from 50·8 per 1000 livebirths to 10·7 per 1000 livebirths, at an average annual rate of reduction of 8·2%. However, 181 600 children still died before their fifth birthday, with 93 400 (51·5%) deaths occurring in neonates. Great inequity exists in child mortality across regions and in urban versus rural areas. The leading causes of under-5 mortality in 2015 were congenital abnormalities (35 700 deaths, 95% uncertainty range [UR] 28 400-45 200), preterm birth complications (30 900 deaths, 24 200-40 800), and injuries (26 600 deaths, 21 000-33 400). Pneumonia contributed to a higher proportion of deaths in the western region of China than in the eastern and central regions, and injury was a main cause of death in rural areas. Variations in cause-of-death composition by age were also examined. The contribution of preterm birth complications to mortality decreased after the neonatal period; congenital abnormalities remained an

  7. Determinants of all cause mortality in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genowska, Agnieszka; Jamiołkowski, Jacek; Szpak, Andrzej; Pajak, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The study objective was to evaluate quantitatively the relationship between demographic characteristics, socio-economic status and medical care resources with all cause mortality in Poland. Ecological study was performed using data for the population of 66 subregions of Poland, obtained from the Central Statistical Office of Poland. The information on the determinants of health and all cause mortality covered the period from 1st January 2005 to 31st December 2010. Results for the repeated measures were analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equations GEE model. In the model 16 independent variables describing health determinants were used, including 6 demographic variables, 6 socio-economic variables, 4 medical care variables. The dependent variable, was age standardized all cause mortality rate. There was a large variation in all cause mortality, demographic features, socio-economic characteristics, and medical care resources by subregion. All cause mortality showed weak associations with demographic features, among which only the increased divorce rate was associated with higher mortality rate. Increased education level, salaries, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, local government expenditures per capita and the number of non-governmental organizations per 10 thousand population was associated with decrease in all cause mortality. The increase of unemployment rate was related with a decrease of all cause mortality. Beneficial relationship between employment of medical staff and mortality was observed. Variation in mortality from all causes in Poland was explained partly by variation in socio-economic determinants and health care resources.

  8. Flavonoid intake and all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Kerry L; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Croft, Kevin D; Lewis, Joshua R; Prince, Richard L

    2015-05-01

    Flavonoids are bioactive compounds found in foods such as tea, chocolate, red wine, fruit, and vegetables. Higher intakes of specific flavonoids and flavonoid-rich foods have been linked to reduced mortality from specific vascular diseases and cancers. However, the importance of flavonoids in preventing all-cause mortality remains uncertain. The objective was to explore the association between flavonoid intake and risk of 5-y mortality from all causes by using 2 comprehensive food composition databases to assess flavonoid intake. The study population included 1063 randomly selected women aged >75 y. All-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortalities were assessed over 5 y of follow-up through the Western Australia Data Linkage System. Two estimates of flavonoid intake (total flavonoidUSDA and total flavonoidPE) were determined by using food composition data from the USDA and the Phenol-Explorer (PE) databases, respectively. During the 5-y follow-up period, 129 (12%) deaths were documented. Participants with high total flavonoid intake were at lower risk [multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI)] of 5-y all-cause mortality than those with low total flavonoid consumption [total flavonoidUSDA: 0.37 (0.22, 0.58); total flavonoidPE: 0.36 (0.22, 0.60)]. Similar beneficial relations were observed for both cardiovascular disease mortality [total flavonoidUSDA: 0.34 (0.17, 0.69); flavonoidPE: 0.32 (0.16, 0.61)] and cancer mortality [total flavonoidUSDA: 0.25 (0.10, 0.62); flavonoidPE: 0.26 (0.11, 0.62)]. Using the most comprehensive flavonoid databases, we provide evidence that high consumption of flavonoids is associated with reduced risk of mortality in older women. The benefits of flavonoids may extend to the etiology of cancer and cardiovascular disease. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Waist and hip circumferences and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, J; Frederiksen, K; Tjønneland, A

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether waist and hip circumferences, in addition to body mass index (BMI), are related to all-cause mortality. We studied these associations and tested the usefulness of the waist-to-hip ratio for mortality prediction. DESIGN: A Danish prospective cohort study with data...... collected between 1993 and 1997. SUBJECTS: A total of 27 179 men and 29 875 women born in Denmark and aged 50-64 years were followed for a median of 6.8 years. MEASUREMENTS: BMI, waist and hip circumferences at baseline. RESULTS: The associations between hip circumference and all-cause mortality were...... inverse for both men and women, but only after adjustment for waist circumference, or BMI, or both. The mortality rate ratios of mutually adjusted waist and hip circumferences were 0.63 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.71), and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.79) times higher per 10% larger hip circumference in men and women...

  10. Subjective truths: participatory development assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, T.; Obeng, F.; Obure, J.; Zaal, F.

    2009-01-01

    The starting point for development evaluations should be how the recipients of development assistance experience change, rather than the set perspectives of the evaluators. The participatory development assessment (PDA) methodology is designed to involve recipients in evaluations.

  11. Subject to Form: Research Interviews, Performative Subjectivity, Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, I analyze teacher, literacy coach and researcher subjectivities in a five-year study of on-site professional development with middle-grade Language Arts teachers in a school designated by its district and state as severely underperforming. Interested in the role of research interviews as both research method and cultural…

  12. Low Nonfasting Triglycerides and Reduced All-Cause Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette; Varbo, Anette; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    -cause mortality is unknown. We tested this hypothesis. METHODS: Using individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study in a mendelian randomization design, we first tested whether low concentrations of nonfasting triglycerides were associated with reduced all-cause mortality in observational analyses (n = 13 957......); second, whether genetic variants in the triglyceride-degrading enzyme lipoprotein lipase, resulting in reduced nonfasting triglycerides and remnant cholesterol, were associated with reduced all-cause mortality (n = 10 208). RESULTS: During a median 24 and 17 years of 100% complete follow-up, 9991...... and 4005 individuals died in observational and genetic analyses, respectively. In observational analyses compared to individuals with nonfasting plasma triglycerides of 266-442 mg/dL (3.00-4.99 mmol/L), multivariably adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were 0.89 (95% CI 0.78-1.02) for 177-265 mg...

  13. Plasma urate, cancer incidence, and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobylecki, Camilla J.; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G.

    2017-01-01

    and hazard ratios of 1.07 (1.01-1.14) for cancer incidence and 1.07 (1.02-1.13) for all-cause mortality. In instrumental variable analyses, the odds ratios for a genetically determined 50% higher plasma urate was 1.22 (1.02-1.47) for cancer incidence and 1.49 (1.13-1.93) for all-cause mortality. Conclusions...... of cancer and 3978 died. Observationally, 50% higher plasma urate was associated with multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios of 1.11 (95% CI, 1.05-1.18) for cancer incidence and 1.07 (1.01-1.13) for all-cause mortality. Each A-allele of the SLC2A9 rs7442295 was associated with 9% higher plasma urate......Background: Observationally, high plasma urate is associated with high risk of cancer. We used a Mendelian randomization design to test the hypothesis that high concentrations of plasma urate are associated with high cancer incidence and all-cause mortality observationally and genetically. Methods...

  14. Hyponatremia, all-cause mortality, and risk of cancer diagnoses in the primary care setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Christian; Madsen, Jesper Clausager; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background Hyponatremia has been associated with increased all-cause mortality in hospitalized individuals. In this study we examine the risk of all-cause mortality in primary care subjects with hyponatremia, while also exploring the association with subsequent diagnosis of cancer. Methods Retros...... Retrospective cohort study on subjects who underwent blood tests, consulting their general practitioner 2000–2012 in Copenhagen, Denmark. Reference range for sodium was 135–145 mmol/L, and mild, moderate, and severe hyponatremia were defined as 130–135, 125–129, and...

  15. The association of physical activity with all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortalities among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Yi; Hu, Hsiao-Yun; Chou, Yi-Chang; Huang, Nicole; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Li, Chung-Pin

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the association of physical activity with all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortalities among older adults. A study sample consisting of 77,541 community-dwelling Taipei citizens aged ≥ 65 years was selected based on data obtained from the government-sponsored Annual Geriatric Health Examination Program between 2006 and 2010. Subjects were asked how many times they had physical activity for ≥ 30 min during the past 6 months. Mortality was determined by matching cohort identifications with national death files. Compared to subjects with no physical activity, those who had 1-2 times of physical activity per week had a decreased risk of all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR): 0.77; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.71-0.85). Subjects with 3-5 times of physical activity per week had a further decreased risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.58-0.70). An inverse dose-response relationship was observed between physical activity and all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality. According to stratified analyses, physical activity was associated with a decreased risk of mortality in most subgroups. Physical activity had an inverse association with all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality among older adults. Furthermore, most elderly people can benefit from an active lifestyle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Local Development of Subject Area Item Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Annie W.; Barlow, Gene

    1984-01-01

    It is feasible for school districts to develop and use subject area tests as reliable as those previously available only from commercial publishers. Three projects in local item development in a large school district are described. The first involved only Algebra 1. The second involved life science and career education at the elementary level; and…

  17. Extreme all-cause mortality in JUPITER requires reexamination of vital records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebruany, Victor L

    2011-01-01

    To compare all-cause mortality in JUPITER with other statin trials at 21 months of follow-up. Outcome advantages including all-cause mortality reduction yielded from the JUPITER trial support aggressive use of rosuvastatin and, perhaps by extension, other statins for primary prevention. Despite enrolling apparently healthy subjects and early trial termination at 21 months of mean follow-up, JUPITER revealed very high all-cause mortality in both the placebo (2.8%) and rosuvastatin (2.2%) arms. Comparison of all-cause mortality prorated for 21 months in 10 primary prevention studies and 1 acute coronary syndromes statin trial. The all-cause mortality in JUPITER was more than twice that of the average of primary prevention studies, matching well only with specific trials designed in diabetics (ASPEN or CARDS), early hypertension studies (ALLHAT-LLT) or a trial in patients with acute coronary syndromes (PROVE IT). Since the 'play of chance' is unlikely to explain these discrepancies due to excellent baseline match, excess death rates and all-cause mortality rates in both JUPITER arms must be questioned. It may be important that the study sponsor self-monitored sites. Excess all-cause mortality rates in the apparently relatively healthy JUPITER population are alarming and require independent verification. If, indeed, the surprising outcomes in JUPITER are successfully challenged, and considering established harm of statins with regard to rhabdomyolysis as well as, potentially, diabetes, millions of patients may find better and safer options for primary prevention of vascular events. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Smoking and All-cause Mortality in Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müezzinler, Aysel; Mons, Ute; Gellert, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Smoking is known to be a major cause of death among middle-aged adults, but evidence on its impact and the benefits of smoking cessation among older adults has remained limited. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the influence of smoking and smoking cessation on all-cause mortality......-fold and former smokers had 1.3-fold increased mortality compared with never smokers. These increases in mortality translated to RAPs of 6.4 (95% CI=4.8, 7.9) and 2.4 (95% CI=1.5, 3.4) years, respectively. A clear positive dose-response relationship was observed between number of currently smoked...... cigarettes and mortality. For former smokers, excess mortality and RAPs decreased with time since cessation, with RAPs of 3.9 (95% CI=3.0, 4.7), 2.7 (95% CI=1.8, 3.6), and 0.7 (95% CI=0.2, 1.1) for those who had quit Smoking remains as a strong...

  19. Increased all-cause mortality with psychotropic medication in Parkinson's disease and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rune; Baandrup, Lone; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Use of medication and polypharmacy is common as the population ages and its disease burden increases. We evaluated the association of antidepressants, benzodiazepines, antipsychotics and combinations of psychotropic drugs with all-cause mortality in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD......) and a matched group without PD. METHOD: We identified 5861 PD patients and 31,395 control subjects matched by age, gender and marital status, and obtained register data on medication use and vital status between 1997 and 2007. RESULTS: All-cause mortality was significantly higher with the use of most groups...... of psychotropic medication in PD patients and controls. Hazard ratios were as follows for the medication types: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors, PD HR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.04-1.36; Control HR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.64-1.91; benzodiazepines, PD HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0...

  20. A novel prediction model for all cause emergency department visits in ischemic heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Pishgoo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ischemic heart disease (IHD is the main cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and a considerable part of these patients attend to emergency departments, which increases the burden to these busy departments. The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model enabling prediction of all cause emergency department (ED visits in patients with documented coronary stenosis in a derivation set, and then to determine its accuracy in a validation set. Methods: In a prospective study at outpatient setting of Baqiyatallah hospital, Tehran, Iran, 502 patients with IHD were followed for 6 months for observing the outcome of ED visits for all causes. They were divided in two random groups of derivation set (n = 335 and validation set (n = 167. In the derivation set, to achieve an all cause ED visits prediction model, a prediction model was reached by entering demographic data, clinical variables, somatic comorbidity (Ifudu index, level of anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS questionnaire, and angina grade (WHO Rose Angina to a logistic regression. Then in the validation set, the sensitivity, specificity, and the accuracy of that model was tested. Results: A novel model for prediction of all cause ED visits in IHD patients in six months was presented with gender, anxiety, WHO angina grade and somatic comorbidity as inputs. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the model were 63.0%, 68.6%, and 67.7%, respectively. Conclusions: Testing and using the achieved model is suggested to health care providers in other settings.

  1. Nonfermented milk and other dairy products: associations with all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognon, Gianluca; Nilsson, Lena M; Shungin, Dmitry; Lissner, Lauren; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Renström, Frida; Wennberg, Maria; Winkvist, Anna; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2017-06-01

    Background: A positive association between nonfermented milk intake and increased all-cause mortality was recently reported, but overall, the association between dairy intake and mortality is inconclusive.Objective: We studied associations between intake of dairy products and all-cause mortality with an emphasis on nonfermented milk and fat content.Design: A total of 103,256 adult participants (women: 51.0%) from Northern Sweden were included (7121 deaths; mean follow-up: 13.7 y). Associations between all-cause mortality and reported intakes of nonfermented milk (total or by fat content), fermented milk, cheese, and butter were tested with the use of Cox proportional hazards models that were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, education, energy intake, examination year, and physical activity. To circumvent confounding, Mendelian randomization was applied in a subsample via the lactase LCT-13910 C/T single nucleotide polymorphism that is associated with lactose tolerance and milk intake.Results: High consumers of nonfermented milk (≥2.5 times/d) had a 32% increased hazard (HR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.18, 1.48) for all-cause mortality compared with that of subjects who consumed milk ≤1 time/wk. The corresponding value for butter was 11% (HR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.21). All nonfermented milk-fat types were independently associated with increased HRs, but compared with full-fat milk, HRs were lower in consumers of medium- and low-fat milk. Fermented milk intake (HR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.86, 0.94) and cheese intake (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.91, 0.96) were negatively associated with mortality. Results were slightly attenuated by lifestyle adjustments but were robust in sensitivity analyses. Mortality was not significantly associated with the LCT-13910 C/T genotype in the smaller subsample. The amount and type of milk intake was associated with lifestyle variables.Conclusions: In the present Swedish cohort study, intakes of nonfermented milk and butter are associated

  2. Are psychosocial stressors associated with the relationship of alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown a protective association of moderate alcohol intake with mortality. However, it remains unclear whether this relationship could be due to misclassification confounding. As psychosocial stressors are among those factors that have not been sufficiently controlled for, we assessed whether they may confound the relationship between alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality. Methods Three cross-sectional MONICA surveys (conducted 1984–1995) including 11,282 subjects aged 25–74 years were followed up within the framework of KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg), a population-based cohort, until 2002. The prevalences of diseases as well as of lifestyle, clinical and psychosocial variables were compared in different alcohol consumption categories. To assess all-cause mortality risks, hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models which included lifestyle, clinical and psychosocial variables. Results Diseases were more prevalent among non-drinkers than among drinkers: Moreover, non-drinkers showed a higher percentage of an unfavourable lifestyle and were more affected with psychosocial stressors at baseline. Multivariable-adjusted HRs for moderate alcohol consumption versus no consumption were 0.74 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58-0.94) in men and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.66-1.16) in women. In men, moderate drinkers had a significantly lower all-cause mortality risk than non-drinkers or heavy drinkers (p = 0.002) even after multivariable adjustment. In women, moderate alcohol consumption was not associated with lowered risk of death from all causes. Conclusions The present study confirmed the impact of sick quitters on mortality risk, but failed to show that the association between alcohol consumption and mortality is confounded by psychosocial stressors. PMID:24708657

  3. Epigenetic age acceleration predicts cancer, cardiovascular, and all-cause mortality in a German case cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Laura; Zhang, Yan; Mons, Ute; Holleczek, Bernd; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have developed models predicting methylation age from DNA methylation in blood and other tissues (epigenetic clock) and suggested the difference between DNA methylation and chronological ages as a marker of healthy aging. The goal of this study was to confirm and expand such observations by investigating whether different concepts of the epigenetic clocks in a population-based cohort are associated with cancer, cardiovascular, and all-cause mortality. DNA methylation age was estimated in a cohort of 1863 older people, and the difference between age predicted by DNA methylation and chronological age (Δage) was calculated. A case-cohort design and weighted proportional Cox hazard models were used to estimate associations of Δage with cancer, cardiovascular, and all-cause mortality. Hazard ratios for Δage (per 5 years) calculated using the epigenetic clock developed by Horvath were 1.23 (95 % CI 1.10-1.38) for all-cause mortality, 1.22 (95 % CI 1.03-1.45) for cancer mortality, and 1.19 (95 % CI 0.98-1.43) for cardiovascular mortality after adjustment for batch effects, age, sex, educational level, history of chronic diseases, hypertension, smoking status, body mass index, and leucocyte distribution. Associations were similar but weaker for Δage calculated using the epigenetic clock developed by Hannum. These results show that age acceleration in terms of the difference between age predicted by DNA methylation and chronological age is an independent predictor of all-cause and cause-specific mortality and may be useful as a general marker of healthy aging.

  4. Association of heart-type fatty acid-binding protein with cardiovascular risk factors and all-cause mortality in the general population: the Takahata study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichiro Otaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite many recent advances in medicine, preventing the development of cardiovascular diseases remains a challenge. Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP is a marker of ongoing myocardial damage and has been reported to be a useful indicator for future cardiovascular events. However, it remains to be determined whether H-FABP can predict all-cause and cardiovascular deaths in the general population. METHODS AND RESULTS: This longitudinal cohort study included 3,503 subjects who participated in a community-based health checkup with a 7-year follow-up. Serum H-FABP was measured in registered subjects. The results demonstrated that higher H-FABP levels were associated with increasing numbers of cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. There were 158 deaths during the follow-up period, including 50 cardiovascular deaths. Deceased subjects had higher H-FABP levels compared to surviving subjects. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis revealed that H-FABP is an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular deaths after adjustments for confounding factors. Subjects were divided into four quartiles according to H-FABP level, and Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that the highest H-FABP quartile was associated with the greatest risks for all-cause and cardiovascular deaths. Net reclassification index and integrated discrimination index were significantly increased by addition of H-FABP to cardiovascular risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: H-FABP level was increased in association with greater numbers of cardiovascular risk factors and was an independent risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular deaths. H-FABP could be a useful indicator for the early identification of high-risk subjects in the general population.

  5. Association of TSH Elevation with All-Cause Mortality in Elderly Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Mei-Hsing; Liao, Kuo-Meng; Hung, Yao-Min; Chou, Yi-Chang; Chou, Pesus

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a widespread condition in the global population and is more common in the elderly. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level increases with aging, and hypothyroidism is highly prevalent in CKD patients. However, the relationship between low thyroid function and mortality in CKD patients is unclear. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective cohort study to examine the relationship between TSH elevation and all-cause mortality in elderly patients with CKD. This retrospective cohort study included individuals ≥65 years old with CKD (n = 23,786) in Taipei City. Health examination data from 2005 to 2010 were provided by the Taipei Databank for Public Health Analysis. Subjects were categorized according to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level as follows: low normal (0.34disease (coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, cerebral vascular disease), history of cancer, and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Our results showed that compared to the reference group (middle normal TSH), the risk of all-cause mortality was increased in the elevated I group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.45) and elevated II group (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.00-1.69). We found a significant association between TSH elevation and all-cause mortality in this cohort of elderly persons with CKD. However, determining the benefit of treatment for moderately elevated TSH level (5.2-10 mIU/L) in elderly patients with CKD will require a well-designed randomized controlled trial.

  6. Objective short sleep duration modifies the relationship between hypertension and all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; He, Fan; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Liao, Duanping; Bixler, Edward O

    2017-04-01

    Short sleep duration has been associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, previous studies were limited by using subjective sleep measures and treating sleep duration as a sole, independent predictor. Therefore, the role of sleep duration in predicting mortality is still not well understood. We posit that objective sleep duration is an effect modifier of the relationship between hypertension and all-cause mortality. We addressed this question in the Penn State Adult Cohort, a random, general population sample of 1741 men and women (48.7 ± 13.5 years) who were studied in the sleep laboratory and followed up for 15.5 ± 4.1 years. Hypertension was defined on the basis of SBP and DBP (≥140/≥90 mmHg) or use of antihypertensive medication. Polysomnographic sleep duration was classified into three clinically meaningful categories. We tested the interaction between hypertension and polysomnographic sleep duration on all-cause mortality using multiple logistic regression while controlling for several potential confounders (P value = 0.03). The odds (95% confidence interval) of all-cause mortality associated with hypertension were 1.77 (1.07-2.92), 2.78 (1.47-5.24), and 3.93 (2.22-6.95) for individuals who slept at least 6, 5-6, and 5 h or less, respectively. The risk of mortality associated with hypertension increases in a dose-response manner as a function of shorter sleep duration. Short sleep in hypertensive individuals may be a marker of the degree of central autonomic dysfunction. Future epidemiological studies should examine this effect modification using cause-specific mortality, whereas future clinical trials should examine whether lengthening sleep improves the prognosis of individuals with hypertension.

  7. Mean corpuscular volume levels and all-cause and liver cancer mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Kyaehyung; Nam, You-Seon; Yun, Jae-Moon; Park, Minseon

    2016-07-01

    An elevated mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is associated with aging, nutrition, alcohol abuse and more, and it is known as a survival predictor in chronically ill patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MCV levels and mortality from all-causes, cancer and site-specific cancer in a non-anemic healthy population. A total of 36,260 participants aged 40 years or older who underwent routine check-ups at Seoul National University Hospital Health Promotion Center between 1995 and 2008 were followed-up for mortality until December 31, 2008, retrospectively. During an average follow-up of 8.0 years, 1107 deaths including 547 cancer deaths were observed. The adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of the subjects with the highest quartile of MCV ≥95.8 fL in men and MCV ≥94.2 fL in women for all-cause and cancer mortality were 1.44 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-1.80] and 1.51 (95% CI, 1.10-2.07) for men and 1.55 (95% CI, 1.08-2.22) and 1.25 (95% CI, 0.74-2.11) for women, respectively, compared with those in the reference group (90.5 fL≤MC liver cancer mortality in men (aHR, 3.55; 95% CI, 1.75-7.21). This study suggests that the elevated MCV level in non-anemic cancer-free individuals was associated with increased all-cause mortality in both men and women, and with cancer mortality, in particular liver cancer mortality in men. Future prospective studies are required to consolidate our findings.

  8. Renal hyperfiltration as a novel marker of all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Minseon; Yoon, Eunsil; Lim, Youn-Hee; Kim, Ho; Choi, Jinwook; Yoon, Hyung-Jin

    2015-06-01

    Although renal hyperfiltration (RHF) or an abnormal increase in GFR has been associated with many lifestyles and clinical conditions, including diabetes, its clinical consequence is not clear. RHF is frequently considered to be the result of overestimating true GFR in subjects with muscle wasting. To evaluate the association between RHF and mortality, 43,503 adult Koreans who underwent voluntary health screening at Seoul National University Hospital between March of 1995 and May of 2006 with baseline GFR≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) were followed up for mortality until December 31, 2012. GFR was estimated with the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine equation, and RHF was defined as GFR>95th percentile after adjustment for age, sex, muscle mass, and history of diabetes and/or hypertension medication. Muscle mass was measured with bioimpedance analysis at baseline. During the median follow-up of 12.4 years, 1743 deaths occurred. The odds ratio of RHF in participants with the highest quartile of muscle mass was 1.31 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.11 to 1.54) compared with the lowest quartile after adjusting for confounding factors, including body mass index. The hazard ratio of all-cause mortality for RHF was 1.37 (95% CI, 1.11 to 1.70) by Cox proportional hazards model with adjustment for known risk factors, including smoking. These data suggest RHF may be associated with increased all-cause mortality in an apparently healthy population. The possibility of RHF as a novel marker of all-cause mortality should be confirmed. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  9. All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality Among Koreans: Effects of Obesity and Metabolic Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ki-Chul; Ryu, Seungho; Cheong, Eun Sun; Kim, Bum Soo; Kim, Byung Jin; Kim, Yong-Bum; Chung, Pil-Wook; Wild, Sarah H; Byrne, Christopher D

    2015-07-01

    The effect of obesity on mortality in people with metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors, but without pre-existing diabetes; hypertension; or cardiovascular disease (CVD), is uncertain. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of obesity and MetS risk factors on CVD and all-cause mortality in an Asian cohort. This retrospective study included 275,867 Koreans (56.6% men) who participated in an occupational health program between 2002 and 2009. At baseline, four groups were defined, according to the absence/presence of obesity (defined by BMI obese (MHNO; reference group); metabolically healthy obese (MHO); metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO); and metabolically unhealthy non-obese (MUNO). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for CVD and all-cause mortality at follow-up were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. During follow-up, 1,060 deaths (187 from CVD) occurred. After adjusting for age, sex, alcohol intake, exercise, and educational status, CVD mortality risk was not increased in the MHO group (HR=0.50, 95% CI=0.15, 1.66), whereas risk was increased in the MUO and MUNO groups (HR=1.81, 95% CI=1.12, 2.91; HR=1.84, 95% CI=1.15, 2.92, respectively). HRs for all-cause mortality in both obese groups were not different from the reference group. When subjects with prior diabetes, CVD, and hypertension were excluded, CVD mortality was not significantly different in the MUO and MUNO groups from the reference group. Comorbid diabetes, hypertension, or CVD explain much of the increased risk of CVD mortality in obese individuals. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. All-cause mortality among diabetic foot patients and related risk factors in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almashouq, Mohammad K.; Youssef, Amira M.; Al-Qumaidi, Hamid; Al Derwish, Mohammad; Ouizi, Samir; Al-Shehri, Khalid; Masoodi, Saba N.

    2017-01-01

    Background Although Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region with high rates of diabetic foot complications, there are only limited data concerning mortality among such a high risk group. Therefore, the main aim of the current study was to assess all-cause mortality and its related predictors among diabetic patients with and without diabetic foot complications. Methods Using data from the Saudi National Diabetes Registry (SNDR), a total of 840 patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes aged ≥25 years with current or past history of diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) or diabetes related lower extremity amputation (LEA) were recruited in 2007 from active patients’ files and followed up to 2013. These patients were compared with an equal number of age and gender matched diabetic patients without foot complication recruited at the same period. All patients were subjected to living status verification at 31st December 2013. Results The all-cause mortality rate among patients with DFU was 42.54 per 1000 person-years and among LEA patients was 86.80 per 1000 person-years among LEA patients for a total of 2280 and 1129 person-years of follow up respectively. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) (95% CI) was 4.39 (3.55–5.23) and 7.21 (5.70–8.72) for cases with foot ulcer and LEA respectively. The percentage of deceased patients increased by almost twofold (18.5%) among patients with diabetic foot ulcer and more than threefold (32.2%) among patients with LEA compared with patients without diabetic foot complications (10.7%). The worst survival was among patients with LEA at 0.679 and the presence of diabetic nephropathy was the only significant independent risk factor for all-cause mortality among patients with diabetic foot complications. On the other hand, obese patients have demonstrated significantly reduced all-cause mortality rate. Conclusions Diabetic patients with diabetic foot complications have an excess

  11. Meta-analysis of self-reported daytime napping and risk of cardiovascular or all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaokun; Zhang, Qi; Shang, Xiaoming

    2015-05-04

    Whether self-reported daytime napping is an independent predictor of cardiovascular or all-cause mortality remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate self-reported daytime napping and risk of cardiovascular or all-cause mortality by conducting a meta-analysis. A computerized literature search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library was conducted up to May 2014. Only prospective studies reporting risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) of cardiovascular or all-cause mortality with respect to baseline self-reported daytime napping were included. Seven studies with 98,163 subjects were included. Self-reported daytime napping was associated with a greater risk of all-cause mortality (RR 1.15; 95% CI 1.07-1.24) compared with non-nappers. Risk of all-cause mortality appeared to be more pronounced among persons with nap duration >60 min (RR 1.15; 95% CI 1.04-1.27) than persons with nap duration napping is a mild but statistically significant predictor for all-cause mortality, but not for cardiovascular mortality. However, whether the risk is attributable to excessive sleep duration or napping alone remains controversial. More prospective studies stratified by sleep duration, napping periods, or age are needed.

  12. Body Mass Index (BMI) and All-Cause Mortality Pooling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The BMI and All-Cause Mortality Pooling Project quantified the risk associated with being overweight and the extent to which the relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality varies by certain factors.

  13. The combined effects of healthy lifestyle behaviors on all-cause mortality: The Golestan Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekshah, Akbar Fazel-tabar; Zaroudi, Marsa; Etemadi, Arash; Islami, Farhad; Sepanlou, Sadaf; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Keshtkar, Abbas-Ali; Khademi, Hooman; Poustchi, Hossein; Hekmatdoost, Azita; Pourshams, Akram; Sani, Akbar Feiz; Jafari, Elham; Kamangar, Farin; Dawsey, Sanford M; Abnet, Christian C.; Pharoah, Paul D; Berennan, Paul J; Boffetta, Paolo; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2018-01-01

    Background Most studies that have assessed the association between combined lifestyle factors and mortality outcomes have been conducted in populations of developed countries. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the association between combined lifestyle scores and risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for the first time among Iranian adults. Methods The study population included 50,045 Iranians, 40–75 years of age, who were enrolled in the Golestan Cohort Study, between 2004 and 2008. The lifestyle risk factors used in this study included cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, and Alternative Healthy Eating Index. The lifestyle score ranged from zero (non-healthy) to 3 (most healthy) points. From the study baseline up to analysis, a total of 4691 mortality cases were recorded. Participants with chronic diseases at baseline, outlier reports of calorie intake, missing data, and body mass index of less than 18.5 were excluded from the analyses. Cox regression models were fitted to establish the association between combined lifestyle scores and mortality outcomes. Results After implementing the exclusion criteria, data from 40,708 participants were included in analyses. During 8.08 years of follow-up, 3,039 cases of death due to all causes were recorded. The adjusted hazard ratio of healthy life style score, compared with non-healthy lifestyle score, was 0.68(95% CI: 0.54, 0.86) for all-cause mortality, 0.53(95% CI: 0.37, 0.77) for cardiovascular mortality, and 0.82(95% CI: 0.53; 1.26) for mortality due to cancer. When we excluded the first two years of follow up from the analysis, the protective association between healthy lifestyle score and cardiovascular death did not change much 0.55 (95% CI: 0.36, 0.84), but the inverse association with all-cause mortality became weaker 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.94), and the association with cancer mortality was non-significant 0.92 (95% CI: 0.58, 1.48). In the gender-stratified analysis, we found an inverse

  14. Non-melanoma skin cancer and risk of Alzheimer's disease and all-cause dementia.

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    Sigrun A J Schmidt

    Full Text Available Cancer patients may be at decreased risk of Alzheimer's disease. This hypothesis is best developed for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC, but supportive epidemiological data are sparse. We therefore conducted a nationwide cohort study of the association between NMSC and Alzheimer's disease (main outcome and all-cause dementia. Using Danish medical databases, we identified adults diagnosed with NMSC between 1 January 1980 and 30 November 2013 (n = 216,221 and a comparison cohort of five individuals matched to each NMSC patient by sex and birth year (n = 1,081,097. We followed individuals from the time of diagnosis, or corresponding date for matched comparators, until a dementia diagnosis, death, emigration, or 30 November 2013, whichever came first. We used stratified Cox regression adjusted for comorbidities to compute hazard ratios (HRs associating NMSC with dementia. We computed cumulative risks of dementia, treating death as a competing risk. NMSC was associated with a HR of 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.92-0.98 for Alzheimer's disease and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.90-0.94 for all-cause dementia. HRs were similar for basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma, the two most common forms of NMSC. Estimates of risk reduction were more pronounced in the beginning of follow-up, reaching null after 5-10 years. At the end of follow-up (34 years, cumulative risk of Alzheimer's disease was 4.6% (95% CI: 4.4%-4.8% among patients with NMSC vs. 4.7% (95% CI: 4.6%-4.9% in the comparison cohort. In conclusion, NMSC was associated with 2%-10% reductions in relative risks of Alzheimer's disease and all-cause dementia. However, these small inverse associations may have been caused by ascertainment bias due to decreased awareness of NMSC tumors in persons with undiagnosed early cognitive impairment or by confounding from a more neuroprotective lifestyle among persons with NMSC.

  15. Markers of biological fitness as predictors of all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Johan G; Kajantie, Eero; Lampl, Michelle; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J P

    2013-03-01

    Within the Helsinki Birth Cohort, men who were tall when they were 7 years old lived for 5 years longer than men who were short. In the present analyses we examined two other influences known to be associated with lifespan: having children and educational attainment. We hypothesized that tall stature, the ability to have children, and high educational attainment reflect three aspects of biological fitness that are acquired during development. We examined all-cause mortality in 6975 men and 6370 women born in Helsinki during 1934-1944, whose childhood growth, number of children, and educational attainment were recorded. In contrast to men, tall stature in childhood was not associated with longer lifespan among women. Men and women who had children lived for longer than those who had no children. Among women, having children was only associated with increased lifespan among those whose body mass index increased between 2 and 11 years. High educational attainment was associated with longer lifespan in both sexes. The trends of lower all-cause mortality with higher educational attainment were present in each socio-economic group. The men and women who had children, and attained upper tertiary education, lived for 16 years longer than those who had no children and only basic education. We suggest that the associations between having children, educational attainment, and lifespan reflect two different aspects of biological fitness that are acquired during early development.

  16. Relation of ventilatory impairment and of chronic mucus hypersecretion to mortality from obstructive lung disease and from all causes.

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, P; Nyboe, J; Appleyard, M; Jensen, G; Schnohr, P

    1990-01-01

    The relation of ventilatory impairment and chronic mucus hypersecretion to death from all causes and death from obstructive lung disease (chronic bronchitis, emphysema and asthma) was studied in 13,756 men and women randomly selected from the general population of the City of Copenhagen. During the 10 year follow up 2288 subjects died. In 164 subjects obstructive lung disease was considered to be an underlying or a contributory cause of death (obstructive lung disease related death); in 73 su...

  17. The Cohort Study on Prediction of Incidence of All-Cause Mortality by Metabolic Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixia Li

    Full Text Available The aim was to evaluate the impact of metabolic syndrome (MS, MS individual components and 32 kinds of MS specific component combinations on all-cause mortality risk in a fixed cohort of MJ check-up population.We observed the events of death in a fixed cohort, where the population was composed of 45,542 individuals aged 35-74 who were examined at MJ Health check-up Center in 1997 as baseline examination, and were followed up to 2005. Median duration of follow-up was 7.44 years. MS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Educational Program (the revised NCEP-ATPIII for Asian in 2004, the prevalence of MS was standardized according to China's fifth census data. We constructed common Cox regression model, simultaneously adjusting the classic risk factors (such as age, sex, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, family history, etc. to examine the relationship between MS, MS individual components and 32 kinds of MS specific component combinations on the occurrence of death with the fixed cohort.The standardized prevalence of MS was 29.75% (male: 30.36%, female: 29.51%. There were 1,749 persons who died during the median 7.44-years follow-up, the mortality rate was 46 per 10,000 person years. The mortality rates were 71 and 35 per 10,000 person years for those with and without MS, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex and classical risk factors, compared with subjects without MS, the hazard ratio of all-cause mortality was 1.26 (95% CI: 1.14-1.40. The all-cause mortality were more highly significant than other combinations (P <0.05 when the following combinations exist: "elevated blood pressure", "elevated fasting plasma glucose + low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol", "elevated blood pressure + elevated triglyceride + elevated fasting plasma glucose", "elevated fasting plasma glucose + low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol + elevated blood pressure + elevated triglyceride". After adjusting age, sex and classical risk

  18. Association of TSH Elevation with All-Cause Mortality in Elderly Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

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    Mei-Hsing Chuang

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a widespread condition in the global population and is more common in the elderly. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH level increases with aging, and hypothyroidism is highly prevalent in CKD patients. However, the relationship between low thyroid function and mortality in CKD patients is unclear. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective cohort study to examine the relationship between TSH elevation and all-cause mortality in elderly patients with CKD. This retrospective cohort study included individuals ≥65 years old with CKD (n = 23,786 in Taipei City. Health examination data from 2005 to 2010 were provided by the Taipei Databank for Public Health Analysis. Subjects were categorized according to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH level as follows: low normal (0.34all-cause mortality was increased in the elevated I group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.45 and elevated II group (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.00-1.69. We found a significant association between TSH elevation and all-cause mortality in this cohort of elderly persons with CKD. However, determining the benefit of treatment for moderately elevated TSH level (5.2-10 mIU/L in elderly patients with CKD will require a

  19. Predictive Value of Carotid Distensibility Coefficient for Cardiovascular Diseases and All-Cause Mortality: A Meta-Analysis.

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    Chuang Yuan

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to determine the pooled predictive value of carotid distensibility coefficient (DC for cardiovascular (CV diseases and all-cause mortality.Arterial stiffness is associated with future CV events. Aortic pulse wave velocity is a commonly used predictor for CV diseases and all-cause mortality; however, its assessment requires specific devices and is not always applicable in all patients. In addition to the aortic artery, the carotid artery is also susceptible to atherosclerosis, and is highly accessible because of the surficial property. Thus, carotid DC, which indicates the intrinsic local stiffness of the carotid artery and may be determined using ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, is of interest for the prediction. However, the role of carotid DC in the prediction of CV diseases and all-cause mortality has not been thoroughly characterized, and the pooled predictive value of carotid DC remains unclear.A meta-analysis, which included 11 longitudinal studies with 20361 subjects, was performed.Carotid DC significantly predicted future total CV events, CV mortality and all-cause mortality. The pooled risk ratios (RRs of CV events, CV mortality and all-cause mortality were 1.19 (1.06-1.35, 95%CI, 9 studies with 18993 subjects, 1.09 (1.01-1.18, 95%CI, 2 studies with 2550 subjects and 1.65 (1.15-2.37, 95%CI, 6 studies with 3619 subjects, respectively, for the subjects who had the lowest quartile of DC compared with their counterparts who had higher quartiles. For CV events, CV mortality and all-cause mortality, a decrease in DC of 1 SD increased the risk by 13%, 6% and 41% respectively, whereas a decrease in DC of 1 unit increased the risk by 3%, 1% and 6% respectively.Carotid DC is a significant predictor of future CV diseases and all-cause mortality, which may facilitate the identification of high-risk patients for the early diagnosis and prompt treatment of CV diseases.

  20. Oral health in relation to all-cause mortality: the IPC cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Margaux; Darnaud, Christelle; Thomas, Frédérique; Pannier, Bruno; Danchin, Nicolas; Batty, G David; Bouchard, Philippe

    2017-03-15

    We evaluated the association between oral health and mortality. The study population comprised 76,188 subjects aged 16-89 years at recruitment. The mean follow-up time was 3.4 ± 2.4 years. Subjects with a personal medical history of cancer or cardiovascular disease and death by casualty were excluded from the analysis. A full-mouth clinical examination was performed in order to assess dental plaque, dental calculus and gingival inflammation. The number of teeth and functional masticatory units 10 missing teeth and functional masticatory units 10 missing teeth (HR = 2.31, [95% CI: 1.40-3.82]) and functional masticatory units <5 (HR = 2.40 [95% CI 1.55-3.73]). Moreover, when ≥3 oral diseases were cumulated in the model, the risk increased for all-cause mortality (HR = 3.39, [95% CI: 2.51-5.42]), all-cancer mortality (HR = 3.59, [95% CI: 1.23-10.05]) and non-cardiovascular and non-cancer mortality (HR = 4.71, [95% CI: 1.74-12.7]). The present study indicates a postive linear association between oral health and mortality.

  1. Heat-Related Mortality in India: Excess All-Cause Mortality Associated with the 2010 Ahmedabad Heat Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Mavalankar, Dileep; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Rajiva, Ajit; Dutta, Priya; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Knowlton, Kim; Hess, Jeremy J.; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Deol, Bhaskar; Bhaskar, Priya Shekhar; Hess, Jeremy; Jaiswal, Anjali; Khosla, Radhika; Knowlton, Kim; Mavalankar, Mavalankar; Rajiva, Ajit; Sarma, Amruta; Sheffield, Perry

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the recent past, spells of extreme heat associated with appreciable mortality have been documented in developed countries, including North America and Europe. However, far fewer research reports are available from developing countries or specific cities in South Asia. In May 2010, Ahmedabad, India, faced a heat wave where the temperatures reached a high of 46.8°C with an apparent increase in mortality. The purpose of this study is to characterize the heat wave impact and assess the associated excess mortality. Methods We conducted an analysis of all-cause mortality associated with a May 2010 heat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India, to determine whether extreme heat leads to excess mortality. Counts of all-cause deaths from May 1–31, 2010 were compared with the mean of counts from temporally matched periods in May 2009 and 2011 to calculate excess mortality. Other analyses included a 7-day moving average, mortality rate ratio analysis, and relationship between daily maximum temperature and daily all-cause death counts over the entire year of 2010, using month-wise correlations. Results The May 2010 heat wave was associated with significant excess all-cause mortality. 4,462 all-cause deaths occurred, comprising an excess of 1,344 all-cause deaths, an estimated 43.1% increase when compared to the reference period (3,118 deaths). In monthly pair-wise comparisons for 2010, we found high correlations between mortality and daily maximum temperature during the locally hottest “summer” months of April (r = 0.69, pheat (May 19–25, 2010), mortality rate ratios were 1.76 [95% CI 1.67–1.83, pheat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India had a substantial effect on all-cause excess mortality, even in this city where hot temperatures prevail through much of April-June. PMID:24633076

  2. Subjective dimension in the analysis of human development

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    LÓPEZ NOVAL, Borja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years subjective evaluations about own quality of life, resumed in levels of life satisfactionor happiness, are gaining importance as indicators of development. Some authors state that subjectivewell-being is a necessary and sufficient condition for human development. In this work the arguments ofthese authors are explained and it is discussed the role subjective evaluations must play on developmentstudies. The main conclusion is that although it is necessary to integrate subjective well-being into humandevelopment studies we cannot identify subjective well-being and development.

  3. Annual all-cause mortality rate for patients with diabetic kidney disease in Singapore

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    Yee Gary Ang

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Our study estimated the annual all-cause mortality rate for Singaporean patients with diabetic kidney disease by CKD stages and identified predictors of all-cause mortality. This study has affirmed the poor prognosis of these patients and an urgency to intervene early so as to retard the progression to later stages of CKD.

  4. Body mass index and all-cause mortality among older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To examine the association between baseline body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and all-cause mortality in a well-characterized cohort of older persons. Methods: The association between BMI (both as a categorical and continuous variable) and all-cause mortality was investigated using 4,565 Geisi...

  5. Summer temperature and spatial variability of all-cause mortality in Surat city, India

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    S K Rathi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ample information is available on extreme heat associated mortality for few Indian cities, but scant literature is available on effect of temperature on spatial variability of all-cause mortality for coastal cities. Objective: To assess the effect of daily maximum temperature, relative humidity and heat index on spatial variability of all-cause mortality for summer months (March to May from 2014 to 2015 for the urban population of Surat (coastal city. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of the all-cause mortality data with temperature and humidity was performed on a total of 9,237 deaths for 184 summer days (2014-2015. Climatic and all-cause mortality data were obtained through Tutiempo website and Surat Municipal Corporation respectively. Bivariate analysis performed through SPSS. Observations: Mean daily mortality was estimated at 50.2 ± 8.5 for the study period with a rise of 20% all-cause mortality at temperature ≥ 40°C and rise of 10% deaths per day during extreme danger level (HI: > 54°C days. Spatial (Zone wise analysis revealed rise of 61% all-cause mortality for Southeast and 30% for East zones at temperature ≥ 40°C. Conclusions: All-cause mortality increased on high summer temperature days. Presence of spatial variation in all-cause mortality provided the evidence for high risk zones. Findings may be helpful in designing the interventions at micro level.

  6. Cardiorespiratory optimal point during exercise testing as a predictor of all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Plínio S; Araújo, Claudio Gil S

    2017-04-01

    The cardiorespiratory optimal point (COP) is a novel index, calculated as the minimum oxygen ventilatory equivalent (VE/VO 2 ) obtained during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). In this study we demonstrate the prognostic value of COP both independently and in combination with maximum oxygen consumption (VO 2 max) in community-dwelling adults. Maximal cycle ergometer CPET was performed in 3331 adults (66% men) aged 40-85 years, healthy (18%) or with chronic disease (81%). COP cut-off values of 30 were selected based on the log-rank test. Risk discrimination was assessed using COP as an independent predictor and combined with VO 2 max. Median follow-up was 6.4 years (7.1% mortality). Subjects with COP >30 demonstrated increased mortality compared to those with COP 30 of 3.72 (95% CI 1.98-6.98; p30, either independently or in combination with low VO 2 max, is a good predictor of all-cause mortality in community-dwelling adults (healthy or with chronic disease). COP is a submaximal prognostic index that is simple to obtain and adds to CPET assessment, especially for adults unable or unwilling to achieve maximal exercise. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Residents' Dissatisfaction and All-Cause Mortality. Evidence from 74 European Cities

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    Ana I. Ribeiro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: About 2/3 of the Europeans reside in cities. Thus, we must expand our knowledge on how city characteristics affect health and well-being. Perceptions about cities' resources and functioning might be related with health, as they capture subjective experiences of the residents. We characterized the health status of 74 European cities, using all-cause mortality as indicator, and investigated the association of mortality with residents' dissatisfaction with key domains of urban living.Methods: We considered 74 European cities from 29 countries. Aggregated data on residents' dissatisfaction was obtained from the Flash Eurobarometer, Quality of life in European cities (2004–2015. For each city a global dissatisfaction score and a dissatisfaction score by domain (environment, social, economic, healthcare, and infrastructures/services were calculated. Data on mortality and population was obtained from the Eurostat. Standardized Mortality Ratios, SMR, and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI were calculated. The association between dissatisfaction scores and SMR was estimated using Generalized Linear Models.Results: SMR varied markedly (range: 73.2–146.5, being highest in Eastern Europe and lowest in the South and Western European cities. Residents' dissatisfaction levels also varied greatly. We found a significant association between city SMR and residents' dissatisfaction with healthcare (β = 0.334; IC 95% 0.030–0.639 and social environment (β = 0.239; IC 95% 0.015–0.464. No significant association was found with the dissatisfaction scores related with the physical and economic environment and the infrastructures/services.Conclusions: We found a significant association between city levels of mortality and residents' dissatisfaction with certain urban features, suggesting subjective assessments can be also used to comprehend urban health.

  8. Surface-Based Body Shape Index and Its Relationship with All-Cause Mortality.

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    Syed Ashiqur Rahman

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global public health challenge. In the US, for instance, obesity prevalence remains high at more than one-third of the adult population, while over two-thirds are obese or overweight. Obesity is associated with various health problems, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, depression, some forms of cancer, sleep apnea, osteoarthritis, among others. The body mass index (BMI is one of the best known measures of obesity. The BMI, however, has serious limitations, for instance, its inability to capture the distribution of lean mass and adipose tissue, which is a better predictor of diabetes and CVDs, and its curved ("U-shaped" relationship with mortality hazard. Other anthropometric measures and their relation to obesity have been studied, each with its advantages and limitations. In this work, we introduce a new anthropometric measure (called Surface-based Body Shape Index, SBSI that accounts for both body shape and body size, and evaluate its performance as a predictor of all-cause mortality.We analyzed data on 11,808 subjects (ages 18-85, from the National Health and Human Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004, with 8-year mortality follow up. Based on the analysis, we introduce a new body shape index constructed from four important anthropometric determinants of body shape and body size: body surface area (BSA, vertical trunk circumference (VTC, height (H and waist circumference (WC. The surface-based body shape index (SBSI is defined as follows: SBSI = ((H(7/4(WC(5/6/(BSA VTC (1 SBSI has negative correlation with BMI and weight respectively, no correlation with WC, and shows a generally linear relationship with age. Results on mortality hazard prediction using both the Cox proportionality model, and Kaplan-Meier curves each show that SBSI outperforms currently popular body shape indices (e.g., BMI, WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, A Body Shape Index (ABSI in predicting all-cause

  9. Predictive validity of the total health index for all-cause mortality assessed in the Komo-Ise cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Hiroaki; Takeuchi, Kazuo; Sasazawa, Yosiaki; Otani, Tetsuya; Koyama, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Shosuke

    2008-01-01

    The Total Health Index (THI), a self-administered questionnaire developed in Japan, is used for symptom assessment and stress management of employees and others; however, it has not been reported whether it can predict mortality risk. The THI, with 12 primary and 5 secondary scales, was applied to a cohort consisting of middle-aged residents in Japan. This study, called the Komo-Ise cohort study, was started in 1993. The scale scores were related to 481 deaths from all causes among 10,816 residents over 93 months. The statistics were tested by the Cox hazard model and adjusted for three background variables (sex, age, and district where the subject resided). Five of the scales [depression and aggression (primary scales), and psychosomatics, neurotics, and schizophrenics (secondary scales)] indicated significant hazard ratios for mortality. The lowest quintile group of the aggression scale score had the largest hazard ratio of 2.58, compared with the middle quintile group (95% confidence interval: 1.88-3.52). The psychosomatics, neurotic scales and depression scales also had a minimum hazard ratio in the middle quintile group. One of the secondary scales, T1, which represents a somatoform disorder, had a significant linear relationship with the mortality risk, although its proportionality with the cumulative mortality rates was not satisfactory. Five scales of the THI were significantly related to mortality risk in the Komo-Ise cohort, which could be used for score evaluation and in the personal health advice system of the THI.

  10. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  11. Developing a biomedical expert finding system using medical subject headings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpreet; Singh, Reema; Malhotra, Arjun; Kaur, Manjit

    2013-12-01

    Efficient identification of subject experts or expert communities is vital for the growth of any organization. Most of the available expert finding systems are based on self-nomination, which can be biased, and are unable to rank experts. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a robust and unbiased expert finding system which can quantitatively measure expertise. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a controlled vocabulary developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) for indexing research publications, articles and books. Using the MeSH terms associated with peer-reviewed articles published from India and indexed in PubMed, we developed a Web-based program which can be used to identify subject experts and subjects associated with an expert. We have extensively tested our system to identify experts from India in various subjects. The system provides a ranked list of experts where known experts rank at the top of the list. The system is general; since it uses information available with the PubMed, it can be implemented for any country. The expert finding system is able to successfully identify subject experts in India. Our system is unique because it allows the quantification of subject expertise, thus enabling the ranking of experts. Our system is based on peer-reviewed information. Use of MeSH terms as subjects has standardized the subject terminology. The system matches requirements of an ideal expert finding system.

  12. Subjective age in the academic development of Algerian students

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    S. MERABET

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Subjective age has been studied in various domains (health, consumption, work, but the works which investigated the subjective age that the students give themselves during their academic development are rare (Pavalache & Rioux, 2014. One-hundred-and-twenty-two Algerian students answered a questionnaire comprising (a an identification part (b the subjective age questionnaire by Gana, Alaphilippe and Bailly, (2002 and (c the questionnaire of subjective age in academic development (Pavalache & Rioux, 2014. The results show that the Algerian students have a tendency to rejuvenate themselves, all the more so if they are of male gender. They show the impact of the societal and cultural factors on subjective age in academic development of university students.

  13. Serum Parathyroid Hormone in Relation to All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality: The Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ballegooijen, A.J.; Reinders, I.; Visser, M.; Dekker, J.M.; Nijpels, G.; Stehouwer, C.D.; Pilz, S.; Brouwer, I.A.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Higher PTH concentrations have been associated with fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but data in the general population are scarce. Objective: We investigated whether higher PTH concentrations are prospectively associated with all-cause and CVD mortality. Design, Setting, Participants:

  14. Sleep duration and ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Åse Marie; Holtermann, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to examine if sleep duration is a risk indicator for ischemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality, and how perceived stress during work and leisure time and use of tranquilizers/hypnotics modifies the association.......This prospective study aimed to examine if sleep duration is a risk indicator for ischemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality, and how perceived stress during work and leisure time and use of tranquilizers/hypnotics modifies the association....

  15. Association of BMI with risk of CVD mortality and all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Chee Cheong; Sumarni, Mohd Ghazali; Lim, Kuang Hock; Selvarajah, Sharmini; Haniff, Jamaiyah; Tee, Guat Hiong Helen; Gurpreet, Kaur; Faudzi, Yusoff Ahmad; Amal, Nasir Mustafa

    2017-05-01

    To determine the relationship between BMI and risk of CVD mortality and all-cause mortality among Malaysian adults. Population-based, retrospective cohort study. Participants were followed up for 5 years from 2006 to 2010. Mortality data were obtained via record linkages with the Malaysian National Registration Department. Multiple Cox regression was applied to compare risk of CVD and all-cause mortality between BMI categories adjusting for age, gender and ethnicity. Models were generated for all participants, all participants the first 2 years of follow-up, healthy participants, healthy never smokers, never smokers, current smokers and former smokers. All fourteen states in Malaysia. Malaysian adults (n 32 839) aged 18 years or above from the third National Health and Morbidity Survey. Total follow-up time was 153 814 person-years with 1035 deaths from all causes and 225 deaths from CVD. Underweight (BMI<18·5 kg/m2) was associated with a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality, while obesity (BMI ≥30·0 kg/m2) was associated with a heightened risk of CVD mortality. Overweight (BMI=25·0-29·9 kg/m2) was inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality. Underweight was significantly associated with all-cause mortality in all models except for current smokers. Overweight was inversely associated with all-cause mortality in all participants. Although a positive trend was observed between BMI and CVD mortality in all participants, a significant association was observed only for severe obesity (BMI≥35·0 kg/m2). Underweight was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality and obesity with increased risk of CVD mortality. Therefore, maintaining a normal BMI through leading an active lifestyle and healthy dietary habits should continue to be promoted.

  16. Cheese Consumption and Risk of All-Cause Mortality: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xing; Chen, Guo-Chong; Zhang, Zheng; Wei, Yu-Lu; Xu, Jia-Ying; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2017-01-13

    The association between cheese consumption and risk for major health endpoints has been investigated in many epidemiologic studies, but findings are inconsistent. As all-cause mortality can be viewed as the final net health effect of dietary intakes, we conducted a meta-analysis to examine the long-term association of cheese consumption with all-cause mortality. Relevant studies were identified by a search of the PubMed database through May 2016. Reference lists from retrieved articles were also reviewed. Summary relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using a random-effects model. Pre-specified stratified and dose-response analyses were also performed. The final analysis included nine prospective cohort studies involving 21,365 deaths. The summary RR of all-cause mortality for the highest compared with the lowest cheese consumption was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.06), and little evidence of heterogeneity was observed. The association between cheese consumption and risk of all-cause mortality did not significantly differ by study location, sex, age, number of events, study quality score or baseline diseases excluded. There was no dose-response relationship between cheese consumption and risk of all-cause mortality (RR per 43 g/day = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.99-1.07). No significant publication bias was observed. Our findings suggest that long-term cheese consumption was not associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality.

  17. Red meat and processed meat consumption and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Orsini, Nicola

    2014-02-01

    High consumption of red meat and processed meat has been associated with increased risk of several chronic diseases. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the evidence from prospective studies on red meat and processed meat consumption in relationship to all-cause mortality. Pertinent studies were identified by searching PubMed through May 2013 and by reviewing the reference lists of retrieved articles. Prospective studies that reported relative risks with 95% confidence intervals for the association of red meat or processed meat consumption with all-cause mortality were eligible. Study-specific results were combined by using a random-effects model. Nine prospective studies were included in the meta-analysis. The summary relative risks of all-cause mortality for the highest versus the lowest category of consumption were 1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98, 1.22; n = 6 studies) for unprocessed red meat, 1.23 (95% CI: 1.17, 1.28; n = 6 studies) for processed meat, and 1.29 (95% CI: 1.24, 1.35; n = 5 studies) for total red meat. In a dose-response meta-analysis, consumption of processed meat and total red meat, but not unprocessed red meat, was statistically significantly positively associated with all-cause mortality in a nonlinear fashion. These results indicate that high consumption of red meat, especially processed meat, may increase all-cause mortality.

  18. Habitual Sleep Duration and All-Cause Mortality in a General Community Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurora, R Nisha; Kim, Ji Soo; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; O'Hearn, Daniel; Punjabi, Naresh M

    2016-11-01

    The current study sought to determine whether sleep duration and change in sleep duration are associated with all-cause mortality in a community sample of middle-aged and older adults while accounting for several confounding factors including prevalent sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Habitual sleep duration was assessed using self-report (Sleep Heart Health Study. Techniques of survival analysis were used to relate habitual sleep duration and change in sleep duration to all-cause mortality after adjusting for covariates such as age, sex, race, body mass index, smoking history, prevalent hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, antidepressant medication use, and SDB severity. Compared to a sleep duration of 7-8 h/night, habitually long sleep duration (≥ 9 h/night), but not short sleep duration (sleep duration to long sleep duration had increased risk for all-cause mortality with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.75 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.78) and 1.63 (95% CI: 1.26, 2.13), respectively. Finally, a change from long to short sleep duration was also associated with all-cause mortality. Long sleep duration or a shift from long to short sleep duration are independently associated with all-cause mortality.

  19. Treatment costs of diarrheal disease and all-cause pneumonia among children under-5 years of age in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvis-Guzman, N; Orozco-Africano, J; Paternina-Caicedo, A; Coronell-Rodríguez, W; Alvis-Estrada, L; Jervis-Jálabe, D; De la Hoz-Restrepo, F

    2013-07-02

    We estimate treatment costs associated with diarrheal disease and all-cause pneumonia among children under-5 years of age in Colombia and assess similarities or differences with previous cost estimations in developing countries of the Americas. Macro-costing methods were used to carry out an analysis of diarrhea and all-cause pneumonia costs in Colombia in 2010. The perspective of the health care system was taken. Data were extracted from a health insurer database that includes information on health service utilization among 130,800 children from low-income households. Lengths of stay for hospital admissions and frequencies of cases at all levels of care registered in the database were estimated. There were 1456 diarrheal disease cases among the 130,800 children (aged ≥ 60 months) included in the study. The median cost per case was $27.10 (interquartile range [IQR]: $15.60-77.40). A total of 1545 all-cause pneumonia cases were reported to the insurer in 2010, resulting in a frequency of 1181 cases per 100,000 children (95% confidence interval [CI]=1122, 1240). The overall cost of all-cause pneumonia cases was $858,791, and the median cost per case treated was $263 (IQR: $27-546). Comparisons by level of care showed that costs were significantly different for the two diseases (pCosts for the diseases did not differ by age group (p>.05). Diarrhea and all-cause pneumonia constitute a significant economic and health burden in Colombia. The relatively large size of our sample allowed us to provide reliable national estimates of the costs associated with these diseases. Our results for Colombia are similar to previous estimates from developing countries in the Americas. These data provide valid estimates that may be used decision makers in other countries to make appropriate recommendations on the introduction of rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Heat-related mortality in India: excess all-cause mortality associated with the 2010 Ahmedabad heat wave.

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    Gulrez Shah Azhar

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the recent past, spells of extreme heat associated with appreciable mortality have been documented in developed countries, including North America and Europe. However, far fewer research reports are available from developing countries or specific cities in South Asia. In May 2010, Ahmedabad, India, faced a heat wave where the temperatures reached a high of 46.8 °C with an apparent increase in mortality. The purpose of this study is to characterize the heat wave impact and assess the associated excess mortality. METHODS: We conducted an analysis of all-cause mortality associated with a May 2010 heat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India, to determine whether extreme heat leads to excess mortality. Counts of all-cause deaths from May 1-31, 2010 were compared with the mean of counts from temporally matched periods in May 2009 and 2011 to calculate excess mortality. Other analyses included a 7-day moving average, mortality rate ratio analysis, and relationship between daily maximum temperature and daily all-cause death counts over the entire year of 2010, using month-wise correlations. RESULTS: The May 2010 heat wave was associated with significant excess all-cause mortality. 4,462 all-cause deaths occurred, comprising an excess of 1,344 all-cause deaths, an estimated 43.1% increase when compared to the reference period (3,118 deaths. In monthly pair-wise comparisons for 2010, we found high correlations between mortality and daily maximum temperature during the locally hottest "summer" months of April (r = 0.69, p<0.001, May (r = 0.77, p<0.001, and June (r = 0.39, p<0.05. During a period of more intense heat (May 19-25, 2010, mortality rate ratios were 1.76 [95% CI 1.67-1.83, p<0.001] and 2.12 [95% CI 2.03-2.21] applying reference periods (May 12-18, 2010 from various years. CONCLUSION: The May 2010 heat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India had a substantial effect on all-cause excess mortality, even in this city where hot temperatures

  1. Effects of Running on Chronic Diseases and Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, Carl J; Lee, Duck-chul; Sui, Xuemei; Arena, Ross; O'Keefe, James H; Church, Timothy S; Milani, Richard V; Blair, Steven N

    2015-11-01

    Considerable evidence has established the link between high levels of physical activity (PA) and all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-specific mortality. Running is a popular form of vigorous PA that has been associated with better overall survival, but there is debate about the dose-response relationship between running and CVD and all-cause survival. In this review, we specifically reviewed studies published in PubMed since 2000 that included at least 500 runners and 5-year follow-up so as to analyze the relationship between vigorous aerobic PA, specifically running, and major health consequences, especially CVD and all-cause mortality. We also made recommendations on the optimal dose of running associated with protection against CVD and premature mortality, as well as briefly discuss the potential cardiotoxicity of a high dose of aerobic exercise, including running (eg, marathons). Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hyperprolactinemia and the association with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Selmer, Christian; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia has been suspected to increase mortality risk, but the available data are conflicting. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between hyperprolactinemia and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among patients referred for assessment of prolactin......-cause mortality (95% CI 1.22-2.82) and 2.55 (95% CI 1.43-4.55) for cardiovascular mortality. The IRR for all-cause mortality was reduced to 1.37 (0.90-2.08) when adjusted for the use of antipsychotic medication. The association between hyperprolactinemia and cardiovascular mortality remained after adjusting...... for confounders, for example, chronic renal failure, diabetes, and antipsychotic medication. In females, hyperprolactinemia was not associated with all-cause mortality (IRR 1.45; CI 0.86-2.47) or cardiovascular mortality (IRR 0.58; CI 0.14-2.39). In conclusion, hyperprolactinemia was associated with increased...

  3. Intensity versus duration of cycling, impact on all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, Peter; Marott, Jacob L; Jensen, Jan S

    2012-01-01

    the impact of intensity versus duration of cycling on all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality. Design: Relative intensity and duration of cycling were recorded in 5106 apparently healthy men and women aged 21-90 years drawn from the general population of Copenhagen, and followed for an average of 18...... years. Total number of deaths during follow-up was 1172, of these 146 were coronary heart disease deaths. For both sexes we found a significant inverse association between cycling intensity and risk of all-cause and coronary heart disease death, but only a weak association with cycling duration......: Our findings indicate that the relative intensity, and not the duration of cycling, is of more importance in relation to all-cause and coronary heart disease mortality. Thus our general recommendations to all adults would be that brisk cycling is preferable to slow....

  4. Association of coffee consumption with all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junxiu; Sui, Xuemei; Lavie, Carl J.; Hebert, James R.; Earnest, Conrad; Zhang, Jiajia; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between coffee consumption and mortality from all causes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Patients and Methods Data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS) representing a total of 43,727 participants contributing to 699,632 person-years of follow-up time, were included. Baseline data were collected by an in-person interview based on standardized questionnaires and a medical examination, including fasting blood chemistry analysis, anthropometry, blood pressure, electrocardiography, and a maximal graded exercise test, between February 3, 1971 and December 30, 2002. Cox regression analysis was used to quantify the association between coffee consumption and all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Results During the 17-year median follow-up period, 2512 deaths occurred (32% due to CVD). In multivariate analyses, coffee intake was positively associated with all-cause mortality in men. Men who drank >28 cups coffee per week had higher all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR): 1.21; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04–1.40). However, after stratification based on age, both younger (coffee consumption (>28 cups/week) and all-cause mortality, after adjusting for potential confounders and fitness level (HR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.30–1.87 for men and HR: 2.13; 95% CI: 1.26–3.59 for women, respectively). Conclusion In this large cohort, a positive association between coffee consumption and all-cause mortality was observed among men and both men and women coffee consumption (ie, averaging >4 cups/day). However, this finding should be assessed in future studies from other populations. PMID:23953850

  5. Daytime napping and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Guochao; Wang, Yi; Tao, TieHong; Ying, Jun; Zhao, Yong

    2015-07-01

    The association between daytime napping and mortality remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the associations between daytime napping and the risks of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer. PubMed and Embase databases were searched through 19 September 2014. Prospective cohort studies that provided risk estimates of daytime napping and mortality were eligible for our meta-analysis. Two investigators independently performed study screening and data extraction. A random-effects model was used to estimate the combined effect size. Subgroup analyses were conducted to identify potential effect modifiers. Twelve studies, involving 130,068 subjects, 49,791 nappers, and 19,059 deaths, were included. Our meta-analysis showed that daytime napping was associated with an increased risk of death from all causes [n = 9 studies; hazard ratio (HR), 1.22; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.14-1.31; I(2) = 42.5%]. No significant associations between daytime napping and the risks of death from CVD (n = 6 studies; HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.96-1.50; I(2) = 75.0%) and cancer (n = 4 studies; HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.99-1.15; I(2) = 8.9%) were found. There were no significant differences in risks of all-cause and CVD mortality between subgroups stratified by the prevalence of napping, follow-up duration, outcome assessment, age, and sex. Daytime napping is a predictor of increased all-cause mortality but not of CVD and cancer mortality. However, our findings should be treated with caution because of limited numbers of included studies and potential biases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Relation of ventilatory impairment and of chronic mucus hypersecretion to mortality from obstructive lung disease and from all causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, P; Nyboe, J; Appleyard, M; Jensen, G; Schnohr, P

    1990-08-01

    The relation of ventilatory impairment and chronic mucus hypersecretion to death from all causes and death from obstructive lung disease (chronic bronchitis, emphysema and asthma) was studied in 13,756 men and women randomly selected from the general population of the City of Copenhagen. During the 10 year follow up 2288 subjects died. In 164 subjects obstructive lung disease was considered to be an underlying or a contributory cause of death (obstructive lung disease related death); in 73 subjects it was considered to be the underlying cause of death (obstructive lung disease death). Forced expiratory volume in one second, expressed as a percentage of the predicted value (FEV1% pred), and the presence of chronic phlegm were used to characterise ventilatory function and chronic mucus hypersecretion respectively. For mortality analysis the proportional hazards regression model of Cox was used; it included age, sex, pack years, inhalation habit, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and the presence or absence of asthma, heart disease, and diabetes mellitus as confounding factors. By comparison with subjects with an FEV1 of 80% pred or more, subjects with an FEV1 below 40% pred had increased risk of dying from all causes (relative risk (RR) = 5.0 for women, 2.7 for men), a higher risk of obstructive lung disease related death (RR = 57 for women, 34 for men), and a higher risk of obstructive lung disease death (RR = 101 for women, 77 for men). Chronic mucus hypersecretion was associated with only a slightly higher risk of death from all causes (RR = 1.1 for women, 1.3 for men). The association between chronic mucus hypersecretion and obstructive lung disease death varied with the level of ventilatory function, being weak in subjects with normal ventilatory function (for an FEV1 of 80% pred the RR was 1.2), but more pronounced in subjects with reduced ventilatory function (for an FEV1 of 40% pred the RR was 4.2). A similar though statistically non-significant trend was

  7. Association of flavonoid-rich foods and flavonoids with risk of all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Kerry L; Jensen, Majken K; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Eliassen, A Heather; Cassidy, Aedín; Rimm, Eric B

    2017-05-01

    Flavonoids are bioactive compounds found in foods such as tea, red wine, fruits and vegetables. Higher intakes of specific flavonoids, and flavonoid-rich foods, have been linked to reduced mortality from specific vascular diseases and cancers. However, the importance of flavonoid-rich foods, and flavonoids, in preventing all-cause mortality remains uncertain. As such, we examined the association of intake of flavonoid-rich foods and flavonoids with subsequent mortality among 93 145 young and middle-aged women in the Nurses' Health Study II. During 1 838 946 person-years of follow-up, 1808 participants died. When compared with non-consumers, frequent consumers of red wine, tea, peppers, blueberries and strawberries were at reduced risk of all-cause mortality (Pflavonoid intake were at reduced risk of all-cause mortality in the age-adjusted model; 0·81 (95 % CI 0·71, 0·93). However, this association was attenuated following multivariable adjustment; 0·92 (95 % CI 0·80, 1·06). Similar results were observed for consumption of flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins. Flavonols, flavanones and flavones were not associated with all-cause mortality in any model. Despite null associations at the compound level and select foods, higher consumption of red wine, tea, peppers, blueberries and strawberries, was associated with reduced risk of total and cause-specific mortality. These findings support the rationale for making food-based dietary recommendations.

  8. All-cause and cause-specific mortality of different migrant populations in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikram, Umar Z.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Harding, Seeromanie; Rey, Grégoire; Bhopal, Raj S.; Regidor, Enrique; Rosato, Michael; Juel, Knud; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine differences in all-cause mortality and main causes of death across different migrant and local-born populations living in six European countries. We used data from population and mortality registers from Denmark, England & Wales, France, Netherlands, Scotland, and Spain.

  9. All-cause and cause-specific mortality of different migrant populations in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U.Z. Ikram (Umar Z.); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); S. Harding (Seeromanie); G. Rey (Grégoire); R.S. Bhopal (Raj); E. Regidor (Enrique); A. Rosato (Antonio); K. Juel (Knud); K. Stronks (Karien); A.E. Kunst (Anton)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis study aimed to examine differences in all-cause mortality and main causes of death across different migrant and local-born populations living in six European countries. We used data from population and mortality registers from Denmark, England & Wales, France, Netherlands, Scotland,

  10. The association between income inequality and all-cause mortality across urban communities in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong; Ryu, So-Yeon; Han, Mi-ah; Choi, Seong-Woo

    2015-06-20

    Korea has achieved considerable economic growth more rapidly than most other countries, but disparities in income level have increased. Therefore, we sought to assess the association between income inequality and mortality across Korean cities. Data on household income were obtained from the 2010-2012 Korean Community Health Survey and data on all-cause mortality and other covariates were obtained from the Korean Statistical Information Service. The Gini coefficient, Robin Hood index, and income share ratio between the 80th and 20th percentiles of the distribution were measured for each community. After excluding communities affected by changes in administrative districts between 2010 and 2012, a total of 157 communities and 172,398 urban residents were included in the analysis. When we graphed income inequality measures versus all-cause mortality as scatter plots, the R square values of the regression lines for GC, RHI, and 80/20 ratios relative to mortality were 0.230, 0.238, and 0.152, respectively. After adjusting for other covariates and median household income, mean all-cause mortality increased significantly with increasing GC (P for trend = 0.014) and RHI (P for trend = 0.031), and increased marginally with 80/20 ratio (P for trend = 0.067). Our data demonstrate that income inequality measures are significantly associated with all-cause mortality rate after adjustment for covariates, including median household income across urban communities in Korea.

  11. Statin use is associated with reduced all-cause mortality after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurs, L.J.; Visser, P.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Buth, J.; Harris, P.L.; Blankensteijn, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    It has been shown that preoperative statin therapy reduces all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients undergoing major noncardiac vascular surgery. In this report, we investigated the influence of statin use on early and late outcome following endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

  12. Milk and dairy consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Jing; Astrup, Arne; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2017-01-01

    With a growing number of prospective cohort studies, an updated dose-response meta-analysis of milk and dairy products with all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease (CHD) or cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been conducted. PubMed, Embase and Scopus were searched for articles published up...

  13. Milk and dairy consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Jing; Astrup, Arne; Lovegrove, Julie A.; Gijsbers, Lieke; Givens, David I.; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.

    2017-01-01

    With a growing number of prospective cohort studies, an updated dose–response meta-analysis of milk and dairy products with all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease (CHD) or cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been conducted. PubMed, Embase and Scopus were searched for articles published up to

  14. Body adiposity index and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliner-Urdiales, Diego; Artero, Enrique G; Lee, Duck-chul; España-Romero, Vanesa; Sui, Xuemei; Blair, Steven N

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of body adiposity index (BAI) with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality risk. Design and Methods The current analysis comprised 19 756 adult men who enrolled in the Aerobics Centre Longitudinal Study and completed a baseline examination during 1988-2002. All-cause and CVD mortality was registered till December 31, 2003. Results During an average follow-up of 8.3 years (163 844 man-years), 353 deaths occurred (101 CVD deaths). Age- and examination year-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for all-cause mortality risk were higher for men with high values of BMI (HR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.19–2.23), waist circumference (1.55, 1.22-1.96) and percentage of body fat (%BF) (1.36, 1.04-1.31), but not for men with high values of BAI (1.28, 0.98-1.66). The HRs for CVD mortality risks were higher for men with high values in all adiposity measures (HRs ranged from 1.73 to 2.06). Most of these associations, however, became nonsignificant after adjusting for multiple confounders including cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusion BAI is not a better predictor of all-cause and CVD mortality risk than BMI, waist circumference or %BF. PMID:23512375

  15. Excess of all-cause mortality after a fracture in type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Laguna, D; Nogues, Xavier; Abrahamsen, B

    2017-01-01

    Post-fracture mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients has been poorly studied. We report an absolute and relative excess all-cause mortality following a fracture in these patients compared to non-diabetic patients. INTRODUCTION: T2DM and osteoporotic fractures are independently asso...

  16. Weight change and all-cause mortality in older adults: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This meta-analysis of observational cohort studies examined the association between weight change (weight loss, weight gain, and weight fluctuation) and all-cause mortality among older adults. We used PubMed (MEDLINE), Web of Science, and Cochrane Library to identify prospective studies published in...

  17. Moderate Alcohol Consumption Is Not Associated with Reduced All-cause Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulden, Robert

    2016-02-01

    A large body of research suggests that light or moderate alcohol consumption is associated with reduced all-cause mortality. However, concerns remain that the observed relationship is due to selection bias, misclassification of ex-drinkers, or residual confounding. The association between alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality was analyzed using Cox regression. The analysis was performed using data from the Health and Retirement Study, a longitudinal cohort of 24,029 individuals from a nationally representative sample of US adults aged more than 50 years. Drinking level was based on alcohol consumption measured at 3 points over the 4 years before the start of follow-up. Occasional drinkers-those who reported drinking on at least 1 occasion, but always less than once per week-served as the reference category. There was extensive adjustment for sociodemographic variables, health status, and functional status. During 206,966 person-years of follow up, 7902 individuals died. No level of regular alcohol consumption was associated with reduced all-cause mortality. The hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval in fully adjusted analyses was 1.02 (0.94-1.11) for Moderate alcohol consumption is not associated with reduced all-cause mortality in older adults. The previously observed association may have been due to residual confounding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dietary patterns, biomarkers of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, F.P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary belonging to the thesis entitled ‘Dietary patterns, biomarkers of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality’ The long history of epidemiologic studies on diet and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has traditionally relied on analysis of specific

  19. All-cause mortality among young children in western Kenya. VI: the Asembo Bay Cohort Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McElroy, P. D.; ter Kuile, F. O.; Hightower, A. W.; Hawley, W. A.; Phillips-Howard, P. A.; Oloo, A. J.; Lal, A. A.; Nahlen, B. L.

    2001-01-01

    Although all-cause mortality has been used as an indicator of the health status of childhood populations, such data are sparse for most rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa, particularly community-based estimates of infant mortality rates. The longitudinal follow-up of more than 1,500 children enrolled

  20. Elevated C-reactive protein, depression, somatic diseases, and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Orsted, David Dynnes; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2014-01-01

    for cancer, ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and all-cause mortality. METHODS: We performed prospective and instrumental variable analyses using plasma CRP levels and four CRP genotypes on 78,809 randomly selected 20- to 100-year-old men and women from the Danish general...

  1. Physical activity and 10-year mortality from cardiovascular diseases and all causes: The Zutphen Elderly Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijnen, F C; Caspersen, C J; Feskens, E J; Saris, W H; Mosterd, W L; Kromhout, D

    1998-07-27

    Little is known about physical activity and mortality risk in the elderly. Therefore, we describe the associations between the physical activity pattern of elderly men and the mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), particularly coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke, and all causes. Self-reported physical activity was assessed with a validated questionnaire for retired men in a population-based sample of 802 Dutch men, aged 64 to 84 years at baseline. Relative risks were estimated for 10-year mortality from CVD (199 deaths), CHD (90), stroke (47), and all causes (373) for tertiles of time spent on physical activity (reference, lowest tertile). Adjustments were made for baseline age, relevant major chronic diseases, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption. Mortality risks from CVD and all causes decreased with increasing physical activity (P for trend = .04) with adjusted relative risks of 0.70 (95% confidence interval, 0.48-1.01) and 0.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.59-1.00) in the highest tertile of total physical activity, respectively. Except for CHD, time spent in more intense activities (> or = 4 kcal/kg per hour) was more strongly associated with all mortality outcomes than less intense activities, but no single type of activity was particularly protective. Walking or cycling at least 3 times per week for 20 minutes (our definition of activity based on general health recommendations) was associated with reduced mortality from CVD (adjusted relative risk, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.50-0.88) and all causes (relative risk, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-0.88). Additional adjustment for biological cardiovascular risk factors did not affect the strength of any association. In a general population of elderly men, physical activity may protect against mortality from CVDs and all causes.

  2. Prospective study of coffee consumption and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortality in Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löf, Marie; Sandin, Sven; Yin, Li; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2015-09-01

    We investigated whether coffee consumption was associated with all-cause, cancer, or cardiovascular mortality in a prospective cohort of 49,259 Swedish women. Of the 1576 deaths that occurred in the cohort, 956 were due to cancer and 158 were due to cardiovascular disease. We used Cox proportional hazard models with adjustment for potential confounders to estimate multivariable relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Compared to a coffee consumption of 0-1 cups/day, the RR for all cause-mortality was 0.81 (95 % CI 0.69-0.94) for 2-5 cups/day and 0.88 (95 % CI 0.74-1.05) for >5 cups/day. Coffee consumption was not associated with cancer mortality or cardiovascular mortality when analyzed in the entire cohort. However, in supplementary analyses of women over 50 years of age, the RR for all cause-mortality was 0.74 (95 % CI 0.62-0.89) for 2-5 cups/day and 0.86 (95 % CI 0.70-1.06) for >5 cups/day when compared to 0-1 cups/day. In this same subgroup, the RRs for cancer mortality were 1.06 (95 % CI 0.81-1.38) for 2-5 cups/day and 1.40 (95 % CI 1.05-1.89) for >5 cups/day when compared to 0-1 cups/day. No associations between coffee consumption and all-cause mortality, cancer mortality, or cardiovascular mortality were observed among women below 50 years of age. In conclusion, higher coffee consumption was associated with lower all-cause mortality when compared to a consumption of 0-1 cups/day. Furthermore, coffee may have differential effects on mortality before and after 50 years of age.

  3. Predictive Value of Cumulative Blood Pressure for All-Cause Mortality and Cardiovascular Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan Xiu; Song, Lu; Xing, Ai Jun; Gao, Ming; Zhao, Hai Yan; Li, Chun Hui; Zhao, Hua Ling; Chen, Shuo Hua; Lu, Cheng Zhi; Wu, Shou Ling

    2017-02-01

    The predictive value of cumulative blood pressure (BP) on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (CCE) has hardly been studied. In this prospective cohort study including 52,385 participants from the Kailuan Group who attended three medical examinations and without CCE, the impact of cumulative systolic BP (cumSBP) and cumulative diastolic BP (cumDBP) on all-cause mortality and CCEs was investigated. For the study population, the mean (standard deviation) age was 48.82 (11.77) years of which 40,141 (76.6%) were male. The follow-up for all-cause mortality and CCEs was 3.96 (0.48) and 2.98 (0.41) years, respectively. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis showed that for every 10 mm Hg·year increase in cumSBP and 5 mm Hg·year increase in cumDBP, the hazard ratio for all-cause mortality were 1.013 (1.006, 1.021) and 1.012 (1.006, 1.018); for CCEs, 1.018 (1.010, 1.027) and 1.017 (1.010, 1.024); for stroke, 1.021 (1.011, 1.031) and 1.018 (1.010, 1.026); and for MI, 1.013 (0.996, 1.030) and 1.015 (1.000, 1.029). Using natural spline function analysis, cumSBP and cumDBP showed a J-curve relationship with CCEs; and a U-curve relationship with stroke (ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke). Therefore, increases in cumSBP and cumDBP were predictive for all-cause mortality, CCEs, and stroke.

  4. Risk of all-cause mortality in abdominal obesity phenotypes: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doustmohamadian, S; Serahati, S; Barzin, M; Keihani, S; Azizi, F; Hosseinpanah, F

    2017-03-01

    Long-term health risks in the so-called "healthy obesity" phenotypes remain controversial. Also it is unknown if "metabolically healthy abdominal obese" (MHAO) phenotype is at increased risk of all-cause mortality compared to their non-abdominally obese counterparts. In this study we assessed the risk of all-cause mortality in different abdominal obesity phenotypes. In this large population-based cohort, 8804 participants (aged ≥ 30 years), from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) were enrolled and followed for a median of 12.0 (8.7-12.5) years. Abdominal obesity was defined using national waist circumference (WC) cut-off points of ≥89 cm for men and ≥91 cm for women. Metabolic health was defined as ≤1 components of metabolic syndrome (excluding WC), using the Joint Interim Statement (JIS) definition. Baseline prevalence of MHAO phenotype was 12.8% in the whole population and 23.4% in those with abdominal obesity. A total of 540 all-cause death occurred during the follow-up. After multivariate adjustment, all-cause mortality risk in MHAO phenotype was not significantly increased compared to "metabolically healthy non abdominal obese" (MHNAO) as the reference group (HR: 1.35, CI: 0.89-2.03). Our results indicate that MHAO individuals were not at higher risk for all-cause mortality over a median of 12 years follow-up. However, considering inadequate power of our analysis for fully adjusted model, larger studies with more follow-ups are needed. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Low nonfasting triglycerides and reduced all-cause mortality: a mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Mette; Varbo, Anette; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-05-01

    Increased nonfasting plasma triglycerides marking increased amounts of cholesterol in remnant lipoproteins are important risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but whether lifelong reduced concentrations of triglycerides on a genetic basis ultimately lead to reduced all-cause mortality is unknown. We tested this hypothesis. Using individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study in a mendelian randomization design, we first tested whether low concentrations of nonfasting triglycerides were associated with reduced all-cause mortality in observational analyses (n = 13 957); second, whether genetic variants in the triglyceride-degrading enzyme lipoprotein lipase, resulting in reduced nonfasting triglycerides and remnant cholesterol, were associated with reduced all-cause mortality (n = 10 208). During a median 24 and 17 years of 100% complete follow-up, 9991 and 4005 individuals died in observational and genetic analyses, respectively. In observational analyses compared to individuals with nonfasting plasma triglycerides of 266-442 mg/dL (3.00-4.99 mmol/L), multivariably adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were 0.89 (95% CI 0.78-1.02) for 177-265 mg/dL (2.00-2.99 mmol/L), 0.74 (0.65-0.84) for 89-176 mg/dL (1.00-1.99 mmol/L), and 0.59 (0.51-0.68) for individuals with nonfasting triglycerides triglycerides was 0.50 (0.30-0.82), with a corresponding observational hazard ratio of 0.87 (0.85-0.89). Also, the odds ratio for a genetically derived 50% lower concentration in nonfasting triglycerides was 0.43 (0.23-0.80), with a corresponding observational hazard ratio of 0.73 (0.70-0.77). Genetically reduced concentrations of nonfasting plasma triglycerides are associated with reduced all-cause mortality, likely through reduced amounts of cholesterol in remnant lipoproteins.

  6. Reduction in all-cause otitis media-related outpatient visits in children after PCV10 introduction in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L Sartori

    Full Text Available Few studies have reported the effect of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10 on otitis media (OM in infants. In particular, no population-based study in upper-middle income countries is available. In 2010, Brazil introduced PCV10 into its routine National Immunization Program using a 3+1 schedule. We measured the impact of PCV10 on all-cause OM in children. An interrupted time-series analysis was conducted in Goiânia/Brazil considering monthly rates (per 100,000 of all-cause OM outpatient visits in children aged 2-23 months. We used case-based data from the Outpatient Visits Information System of the Unified Health System coded for ICD-10 diagnosis for the period of August/2008 to July/2015. As a comparator, we used rates of outpatient visits due to all-other causes. The relative reduction of all-cause OM and all-other causes of outpatient visits were calculated as the difference between the predicted and observed cumulative rates of the PCV10 post-vaccination period. We then subtracted the relative reduction of all-other causes of outpatient visits from all-cause OM to obtain the impact of PCV10 on OM. In total, 6,401 OM outpatient visits were recorded in 4,793 children aged 2-23 months. Of these, 922 (19.2% children had more than one OM episode. A significant reduction in all-cause OM visits was observed (50.7%; 95%CI: 42.2-59.2%; p = 0.013, while the reduction in visits due to all-other causes was 7.7% (95% CI 0.8-14.7%; p<0.001. The impact of PCV10 on all-cause OM was thus estimated at 43.0% (95%CI 41.4-44.5. This is the first study to show significant PCV10 impact on OM outpatient visits in infants in a developing country. Our findings corroborate the available evidence from developed countries.

  7. Dairy Food Intake and All-Cause, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer Mortality: The Golestan Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farvid, Maryam S; Malekshah, Akbar F; Pourshams, Akram; Poustchi, Hossein; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Khoshnia, Masoud; Farvid, Mojtaba; Abnet, Christian C; Kamangar, Farin; Dawsey, Sanford M; Brennan, Paul; Pharoah, Paul D; Boffetta, Paolo; Willett, Walter C; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2017-04-15

    We investigated the association between dairy product consumption and all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality in the Golestan Cohort Study, a prospective cohort study launched in January 2004 in Golestan Province, northeastern Iran. A total of 42,403 men and women participated in the study and completed a diet questionnaire at enrollment. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. We documented 3,291 deaths (1,467 from CVD and 859 from cancer) during 11 years of follow-up (2004-2015). The highest quintile of total dairy product consumption (versus the lowest) was associated with 19% lower all-cause mortality risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72, 0.91; Ptrend = 0.006) and 28% lower CVD mortality risk (HR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60, 0.86; Ptrend = 0.005). High consumption of low-fat dairy food was associated with lower risk of all-cause (HR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.73, 0.94; Ptrend = 0.002) and CVD (HR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.61, 0.89; Ptrend = 0.001) mortality. We noted 11% lower all-cause mortality and 16% lower CVD mortality risk with high yogurt intake. Cheese intake was associated with 16% lower all-cause mortality and 26% lower CVD mortality risk. Higher intake of high-fat dairy food and milk was not associated with all-cause or CVD mortality. Neither intake of individual dairy products nor intake of total dairy products was significantly associated with overall cancer mortality. High consumption of dairy products, especially yogurt and cheese, may reduce the risk of overall and CVD mortality. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Self-reported visual impairment, physical activity and all-cause mortality: The HUNT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunes, Audun; Flanders, W Dana; Augestad, Liv Berit

    2017-02-01

    To examine the associations of self-reported visual impairment and physical activity (PA) with all-cause mortality. This prospective cohort study included 65,236 Norwegians aged ⩾20 years who had participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT2, 1995-1997). Of these participants, 11,074 (17.0%) had self-reported visual impairment (SRVI). The participants' data were linked to Norway's Cause of Death Registry and followed throughout 2012. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were assessed using Cox regression analyses with age as the time-scale. The Cox models were fitted for restricted age groups (adults with self-reported no visual impairment, the multivariable hazard ratios among adults with SRVI were 2.47 (95% CI 1.94-3.13) in those aged adults aged Adults with SRVI reporting no PA were associated with an increased all-cause mortality risk. The associations attenuated with age.

  9. Depressive symptoms and all-cause mortality in people with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nefs, Giesje; Pop, Victor J M; Denollet, Johan

    2016-01-01

    . METHOD: A total of 1465 people completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in 2005 and were followed until death or 31 December 2010. Cox regression analyses compared survival time for people with a low v. high baseline dysphoria/anhedonia/anxiety score and identified mediating mechanisms. RESULTS......BACKGROUND: Depression has been associated with increased all-cause mortality in people with type 2 diabetes. AIMS: To test whether anhedonia, dysphoria and anxiety are differentially associated with all-cause mortality and examine symptom-specific behavioural or pathophysiological mechanisms......: After a mean follow-up of 1878 days (s.d. = 306), 139 participants had died. At all time points, people with anhedonia had an almost twofold increased mortality risk compared with those without anhedonia. Physical activity met criteria for mediation. Symptoms of dysphoria and anxiety were not associated...

  10. Plasma Soluble CD163 Level Independently Predicts All-Cause Mortality in HIV-1-Infected Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Troels Bygum; Ertner, Gideon; Petersen, Janne

    2016-01-01

    .35 [95% CI, 1.13-1.63], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Plasma sCD163 was an independent marker of all-cause mortality in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals, suggesting that monocyte/macrophage activation may play a role in HIV pathogenesis and be a target of intervention.......BACKGROUND: CD163, a monocyte- and macrophage-specific scavenger receptor, is shed as soluble CD163 (sCD163) during the proinflammatory response. Here, we assessed the association between plasma sCD163 levels and progression to AIDS and all-cause mortality among individuals infected with human...... immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV). METHODS: Plasma sCD163 levels were measured in 933 HIV-infected individuals. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with mortality were computed by Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: At baseline, 86% were receiving antiretroviral treatment...

  11. Nut consumption and 5-y all-cause mortality in a Mediterranean cohort: the SUN project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Montero, A; Bes-Rastrollo, M; Barrio-López, M T; Fuente-Arrillaga, C de la; Salas-Salvadó, J; Moreno-Galarraga, L; Martínez-González, M A

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between nut consumption and all-cause mortality after 5-y follow-up in a Spanish cohort. The SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra, University of Navarra Follow-up) project is a prospective cohort study, formed by Spanish university graduates. Information is gathered by mailed questionnaires collected biennially. In all, 17 184 participants were followed for up to 5 y. Baseline nut consumption was collected by self-reported data, using a validated 136-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Information on mortality was collected by permanent contact with the SUN participants and their families, postal authorities, and the National Death Index. The association between baseline nut consumption and all-cause mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards models to adjust for potential confounding. Baseline nut consumption was categorized in two ways. In a first analysis energy-adjusted quintiles of nut consumption (measured in g/d) were used. To adjust for total energy intake the residuals method was used. In a second analysis, participants were categorized into four groups according to pre-established categories of nut consumption (servings/d or servings/wk). Both analyses were adjusted for potential confounding factors. Participants who consumed nuts ≥2/wk had a 56% lower risk for all-cause mortality than those who never or almost never consumed nuts (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence intervals, 0.23-0.86). Nut consumption was significantly associated with a reduced risk for all-cause mortality after the first 5 y of follow-up in the SUN project. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. T1-Mapping and Outcome in Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy: All-Cause Mortality and Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puntmann, Valentina O; Carr-White, Gerry; Jabbour, Andrew; Yu, Chung-Yao; Gebker, Rolf; Kelle, Sebastian; Hinojar, Rocio; Doltra, Adelina; Varma, Niharika; Child, Nicholas; Rogers, Toby; Suna, Gonca; Arroyo Ucar, Eduardo; Goodman, Ben; Khan, Sitara; Dabir, Darius; Herrmann, Eva; Zeiher, Andreas M; Nagel, Eike

    2016-01-01

    The study sought to examine prognostic relevance of T1 mapping parameters (based on a T1 mapping method) in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) and compare them with conventional markers of adverse outcome. NIDCM is a recognized cause of poor clinical outcome. NIDCM is characterized by intrinsic myocardial remodeling due to complex pathophysiological processes affecting myocardium diffusely. Lack of accurate and noninvasive characterization of diffuse myocardial disease limits recognition of early cardiomyopathy and effective clinical management in NIDCM. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) supports detection of diffuse myocardial disease by T1 mapping. This is a prospective observational multicenter longitudinal study in 637 consecutive patients with dilated NIDCM (mean age 50 years [interquartile range: 37 to 76 years]; 395 males [62%]) undergoing CMR with T1 mapping and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) at 1.5-T and 3.0-T. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. A composite of heart failure (HF) mortality and hospitalization was a secondary endpoint. During a median follow-up period of 22 months (interquartile range: 19 to 25 months), we observed a total of 28 deaths (22 cardiac) and 68 composite HF events. T1 mapping indices (native T1 and extracellular volume fraction), as well as the presence and extent of LGE, were predictive of all-cause mortality and HF endpoint (p T1 was the sole independent predictor of all-cause and HF composite endpoints (hazard ratio: 1.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.06 to 1.15; hazard ratio: 1.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.05 to 1.1; p T1 mapping are significantly predictive of all-cause mortality and HF events in NIDCM. We provide a basis for a novel algorithm of risk stratification in NIDCM using a complementary assessment of diffuse and regional disease by T1 mapping and LGE, respectively. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Too much sitting and all-cause mortality: is there a causal link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart J. H. Biddle

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behaviours (time spent sitting, with low energy expenditure are associated with deleterious health outcomes, including all-cause mortality. Whether this association can be considered causal has yet to be established. Using systematic reviews and primary studies from those reviews, we drew upon Bradford Hill’s criteria to consider the likelihood that sedentary behaviour in epidemiological studies is likely to be causally related to all-cause (premature mortality. Methods Searches for systematic reviews on sedentary behaviours and all-cause mortality yielded 386 records which, when judged against eligibility criteria, left eight reviews (addressing 17 primary studies for analysis. Exposure measures included self-reported total sitting time, TV viewing time, and screen time. Studies included comparisons of a low-sedentary reference group with several higher sedentary categories, or compared the highest versus lowest sedentary behaviour groups. We employed four Bradford Hill criteria: strength of association, consistency, temporality, and dose–response. Evidence supporting causality at the level of each systematic review and primary study was judged using a traffic light system depicting green for causal evidence, amber for mixed or inconclusive evidence, and red for no evidence for causality (either evidence of no effect or no evidence reported. Results The eight systematic reviews showed evidence for consistency (7 green and temporality (6 green, and some evidence for strength of association (4 green. There was no evidence for a dose–response relationship (5 red. Five reviews were rated green overall. Twelve (67 % of the primary studies were rated green, with evidence for strength and temporality. Conclusions There is reasonable evidence for a likely causal relationship between sedentary behaviour and all-cause mortality based on the epidemiological criteria of strength of association, consistency of effect

  14. The predictive value of fatigue for nonfatal ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Anette; Osler, Merete; Avlund, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether fatigue predicts nonfatal ischemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality in middle-aged men. Methods The study population consisted of 5216 middle-aged men born in the Copenhagen metropolitan area in 1953. At baseline, men free of angina pectoris and previou...... is a potential risk indicator for IHD and mortality. Further research is needed to establish the role of smoking and other life-style characteristics....

  15. Severe Hypoglycemia and Cardiovascular or All-Cause Mortality in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Ah Cha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe investigated the association between severe hypoglycemia (SH and the risk of cardiovascular (CV or all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes.MethodsThe study included 1,260 patients aged 25 to 75 years with type 2 diabetes from the Vincent Type 2 Diabetes Resgistry (VDR, who consecutively enrolled (n=1,260 from January 2000 to December 2010 and were followed up until May 2015 with a median follow-up time of 10.4 years. Primary outcomes were death from any cause or CV death. We investigated the association between the CV or all-cause mortality and various covariates using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis.ResultsAmong the 906 participants (71.9% who completed follow-up, 85 patients (9.4% had at least one episode of SH, and 86 patients (9.5% died (9.1 per 1,000 patient-years. Patients who had died were older, had a longer duration of diabetes and hypertension, received more insulin, and had more diabetic microvascular complications at baseline, as compared with surviving patients. The experience of SH was significantly associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 2.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39 to 5.02; P=0.003 and CV mortality (HR, 6.34; 95% CI, 2.02 to 19.87; P=0.002 after adjusting for sex, age, diabetic duration, hypertension, mean glycosylated hemoglobin levels, diabetic nephropathy, lipid profiles, and insulin use.ConclusionWe found a strong association between SH and increased risk of all-cause and CV mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  16. Association between domains of physical activity and all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Autenrieth, Christine S.; Baumert, Jens; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Fischer, Beate; Peters, Annette; Döring, Angela; Thorand, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Few studies have investigated the independent effects of domain-specific physical activity on mortality. We sought to investigate the association of physical activity performed in different domains of daily living on all-cause, cardiovascular (CVD) and cancer mortality. Using a prospective cohort design, 4,672 men and women, aged 25?74 years, who participated in the baseline examination of the MONICA/KORA Augsburg Survey 1989/1990 were classified according to their activit...

  17. Association of body mass index with all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in the elderly.

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    Chen-Yi Wu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the associations of body mass index (BMI with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD, and expanded CVD mortality in the elderly. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Annual physical examination program for the elderly from 2006 to 2010. PARTICIPANTS: We included 77,541 Taipei residents aged ≥ 65 years (39,365 men and 38,176 women. MEASUREMENTS: BMI was categorized as underweight (BMI<18.5, normal weight (18.5 ≤ BMI<25, overweight (25 ≤ BMI<30, grade 1 obesity (30 ≤ BMI<35, or grade 2-3 obesity (BMI ≥ 35. Mortality was ascertained by national death files. RESULTS: Underweight (hazard ratios [HRs] of all-cause, CVD, and expanded CVD mortality: 1.92, 1.74, and 1.77, respectively, grade 2-3 obesity (HRs: 1.59, 2.36, and 2.22, respectively, older age, male sex, smoking, and high fasting blood sugar were significant predictors of mortality. Meanwhile, being married/cohabitating, higher education, alcohol consumption, more regular exercise, and high total cholesterol were inversely associated with mortality. Multivariate stratified subgroup analyses verified smokers (HRs of all-cause, CVD, and expanded CVD mortality: 3.25, 10.71, and 7.86, respectively, for grade 2-3 obesity, the high triglyceride group (HRs: 5.82, 10.99, and 14.22, respectively for underweight, and patients with 3-4 factors related to metabolic syndrome (HRs: 4.86, 12.72, and 11.42, respectively, for underweight were associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: The associations of BMI with all-cause, CVD, expanded CVD mortality in the elderly are represented by U-shaped curves, suggesting unilateral promotions or interventions in weight reduction in the elderly may be inappropriate. Heterogeneous effects of grades 1 and 2-3 obesity on mortality were observed and should be treated as different levels of obesity.

  18. Renal Function and All-Cause Mortality Risk Among Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Li, Hui-Yan; Zhou, Qian; Peng, Zhen-Wei; An, Xin; Li, Wei; Xiong, Li-Ping; Yu, Xue-Qing; Jiang, Wen-Qi; Mao, Hai-Ping

    2016-05-01

    Renal dysfunction predicts all-cause mortality in general population. However, the prevalence of renal insufficiency and its relationship with mortality in cancer patients are unclear.We retrospectively studied 9465 patients with newly diagnosed cancer from January 2010 to December 2010. Renal insufficiency was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) cancer stage in the entire cohort, the corresponding hazard ratios were 1.87 (95% CI, 1.41-2.47) and 1.28 (95% CI, 1.01-1.62) for stage I to III and stage IV, respectively. However, this relationship was not observed after multivariate adjustment. Subgroup analysis found that eGFR cancer (adjusted HR 2.82, 95% CI [1.19-6.70]), but not in those with other cancer. Five hundred fifty-seven patients (6%) had proteinuria. When controlled for potential confounding factors, proteinuria was a risk factor for all-cause mortality among patients in the entire cohort, regardless of cancer stage and eGFR values. When patients were categorized by specific cancer type, the risk of all-cause death was only significant in patients with digestive system cancer (adjusted HR, 1.85 [1.48-2.32]).The prevalence of renal dysfunction was common in patients with newly diagnosed cancer. Patients with eGFR cancer site.

  19. Association of Animal and Plant Protein Intake With All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality.

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    Song, Mingyang; Fung, Teresa T; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Longo, Valter D; Chan, Andrew T; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-10-01

    Defining what represents a macronutritionally balanced diet remains an open question and a high priority in nutrition research. Although the amount of protein may have specific effects, from a broader dietary perspective, the choice of protein sources will inevitably influence other components of diet and may be a critical determinant for the health outcome. To examine the associations of animal and plant protein intake with the risk for mortality. This prospective cohort study of US health care professionals included 131 342 participants from the Nurses' Health Study (1980 to end of follow-up on June 1, 2012) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986 to end of follow-up on January 31, 2012). Animal and plant protein intake was assessed by regularly updated validated food frequency questionnaires. Data were analyzed from June 20, 2014, to January 18, 2016. Hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Of the 131 342 participants, 85 013 were women (64.7%) and 46 329 were men (35.3%) (mean [SD] age, 49 [9] years). The median protein intake, as assessed by percentage of energy, was 14% for animal protein (5th-95th percentile, 9%-22%) and 4% for plant protein (5th-95th percentile, 2%-6%). After adjusting for major lifestyle and dietary risk factors, animal protein intake was not associated with all-cause mortality (HR, 1.02 per 10% energy increment; 95% CI, 0.98-1.05; P for trend = .33) but was associated with higher cardiovascular mortality (HR, 1.08 per 10% energy increment; 95% CI, 1.01-1.16; P for trend = .04). Plant protein was associated with lower all-cause mortality (HR, 0.90 per 3% energy increment; 95% CI, 0.86-0.95; P for trend animal protein of various origins with plant protein was associated with lower mortality. In particular, the HRs for all-cause mortality were 0.66 (95% CI, 0.59-0.75) when 3% of energy from plant protein was substituted for an equivalent amount of protein from processed red meat, 0.88 (95% CI

  20. Race, depressive symptoms, and all-cause mortality in the United States

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    Shervin eAssari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Despite the well-established association between baseline depressive symptoms and risk of all cause-mortality, limited information exists on racial differences in the residual effects of baseline depressive symptoms above and beyond socio-economic status (SES and physical health on this link. The current study compared Blacks and Whites for the residual effects of depressive symptoms over SES and health on risk of long-term all-cause mortality in the United States. Methods: Data came from the Americans’ Changing Lives Study, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort of U.S. adults with up to 25 years of follow up. The study followed 3,361 Blacks or Whites for all-cause mortality between 1986 and 2011. The main predictor of interest was baseline depressive symptoms measured at 1986 using an 11- item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D. Covariates included baseline demographics (age and gender, SES (education and income, and health [chronic medical conditions (CMC, self-rated health, and body mass index (BMI] measured at 1986. Race (Black versus White was the focal moderator. We ran a series of Cox proportional hazard models, in the pooled sample and also stratified by race. Results: In the pooled sample, higher depressive symptoms at baseline were associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality except when the CMC, SRH, and BMI were added to the model. In this later model, race interacted with baseline depressive symptoms, suggesting a larger effect of depressive symptoms on mortality among Whites compared to Blacks. Among Whites, depressive symptoms were associated with increased risk of mortality, after controlling for SES, but not after controlling for health (CMC, SRH and BMI as well. Among Blacks, depressive symptoms were not associated with mortality before that health was introduced to the model. After controlling for health, baseline depressive symptoms showed an inverse association with all-cause

  1. Daily sitting time and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis.

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    Josephine Y Chau

    Full Text Available To quantify the association between daily total sitting and all-cause mortality risk and to examine dose-response relationships with and without adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.Studies published from 1989 to January 2013 were identified via searches of multiple databases, reference lists of systematic reviews on sitting and health, and from authors' personal literature databases. We included prospective cohort studies that had total daily sitting time as a quantitative exposure variable, all-cause mortality as the outcome and reported estimates of relative risk, or odds ratios or hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Two authors independently extracted the data and summary estimates of associations were computed using random effects models.Six studies were included, involving data from 595,086 adults and 29,162 deaths over 3,565,569 person-years of follow-up. Study participants were mainly female, middle-aged or older adults from high-income countries; mean study quality score was 12/15 points. Associations between daily total sitting time and all-cause mortality were not linear. With physical activity adjustment, the spline model of best fit had dose-response HRs of 1.00 (95% CI: 0.98-1.03, 1.02 (95% CI: 0.99-1.05 and 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02-1.08 for every 1-hour increase in sitting time in intervals between 0-3, >3-7 and >7 h/day total sitting, respectively. This model estimated a 34% higher mortality risk for adults sitting 10 h/day, after taking physical activity into account. The overall weighted population attributable fraction for all-cause mortality for total daily sitting time was 5.9%, after adjusting for physical activity.Higher amounts of daily total sitting time are associated with greater risk of all-cause mortality and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity appears to attenuate the hazardous association. These findings provide a starting point for identifying a threshold on which to base clinical and public

  2. The Diagnostic Method Features of Communication Subject Development (ORSO

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    Lioznova E.V.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is familiarization with the development of questionnaire "Features of communication subject development" (ORSO. This new psychodiagnostic tool assesses communicative personality traits, its characteristics as the subject of communication. We present the theoretical foundation of the approach to the personality as a subject of communication, propose a structure of such subject, including two levels of properties: generic and specific. The latter include the responsibility in communication, unconditional acceptance of self, attitude to the partner as an absolute value. The questionnaire comprises five scales and measures the level of these features, as well as integrated communication success rate. The accuracy of responses is controlled by the scale of the adequacy of self-esteem. We describe communication styles, revealed by the ratio of the generic properties. The test is intended for men and women older than 12 years and allows to predict the success of communication with different partners in different situations and features of communicative behavior, attitudes, experiences of the respondent. We presented satisfactory performance criteria of test quality: reliability, validity and representativeness of the ORSO technique, provide examples of its application in scientific and applied purposes and prospects for future work.

  3. Chewing betel quid and the risk of metabolic disease, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis.

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    Tomohide Yamada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Betel nut (Areca nut is the fruit of the Areca catechu tree. Approximately 700 million individuals regularly chew betel nut (or betel quid worldwide and it is a known risk factor for oral cancer and esophageal cancer. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the influence of chewing betel quid on metabolic diseases, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We searched Medline, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Science Direct for pertinent articles (including the references published between 1951 and 2013. The adjusted relative risk (RR and 95% confidence interval were calculated using the random effect model. Sex was used as an independent category for comparison. RESULTS: Of 580 potentially relevant studies, 17 studies from Asia (5 cohort studies and 12 case-control studies covering 388,134 subjects (range: 94 to 97,244 were selected. Seven studies (N = 121,585 showed significant dose-response relationships between betel quid consumption and the risk of events. According to pooled analysis, the adjusted RR of betel quid chewers vs. non-chewers was 1.47 (P<0.001 for obesity (N = 30,623, 1.51 (P = 0.01 for metabolic syndrome (N = 23,291, 1.47 (P<0.001 for diabetes (N = 51,412, 1.45 (P = 0.06 for hypertension (N = 89,051, 1.2 (P = 0.02 for cardiovascular disease (N = 201,488, and 1.21 (P = 0.02 for all-cause mortality (N = 179,582. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Betel quid chewing is associated with an increased risk of metabolic disease, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. Thus, in addition to preventing oral cancer, stopping betel quid use could be a valuable public health measure for metabolic diseases that are showing a rapid increase in South-East Asia and the Western Pacific.

  4. Cancer incidence and mortality for all causes in HIV-infected patients over a quarter century: a multicentre cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffetti, Elena; Albini, Laura; Gotti, Daria; Segala, Daniela; Maggiolo, Franco; di Filippo, Elisa; Saracino, Annalisa; Ladisa, Nicoletta; Lapadula, Giuseppe; Fornabaio, Chiara; Castelnuovo, Filippo; Casari, Salvatore; Fabbiani, Massimiliano; Pierotti, Piera; Donato, Francesco; Quiros-Roldan, Eugenia

    2015-03-12

    We aimed to assess cancer incidence and mortality for all-causes and factors related to risk of death in an Italian cohort of HIV infected unselected patients as compared to the general population. We conducted a retrospective (1986-2012) cohort study on 16 268 HIV infected patients enrolled in the MASTER cohort. The standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed using cancer incidence rates of Italian Cancer Registries and official national data for overall mortality. The risk factors for death from all causes were assessed using Poisson regression models. 1,195 cancer cases were diagnosed from 1986 to 2012: 700 AIDS-defining-cancers (ADCs) and 495 non-AIDS-defining-cancers (NADCs). ADC incidence was much higher than the Italian population (SIR = 30.8, 95% confidence interval 27.9-34.0) whereas NADC incidence was similar to the general population (SIR = 0.9, 95% CI 0.8-1.1). The SMR for all causes was 11.6 (11.1-12.0) in the period, and it decreased over time, mainly after 1996, up to 3.53 (2.5-4.8) in 2012. Male gender, year of enrolment before 1993, older age at enrolment, intravenous drug use, low CD4 cell count, AIDS event, cancer occurrence and the absence of antiretroviral therapy were all associated independently with risk of death. In HIV infected patients, ADC but not NADC incidence rates were higher than the general population. Although overall mortality in HIV infected subjects decreased over time, it is about three-fold higher than the general population at present.

  5. Television viewing time independently predicts all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: the EPIC Norfolk study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijndaele, Katrien; Brage, Søren; Besson, Hervé; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Sharp, Stephen J; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nicholas J; Ekelund, Ulf

    2011-02-01

    Television viewing (TV), a highly prevalent behaviour, is associated with higher cardiovascular risk independently of physical activity. The relationship with mortality, however, is relatively unknown. We examined the prospective relationship between TV time and all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality in a population-based cohort [The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), Norfolk] of 13 197 men and women {age [SD (standard deviation)]: 61.5 ± 9.0 years}. Participants were free from stroke, myocardial infarction and cancer at baseline in 1998-2000 and were followed up for death ascertainment until 2009 (9.5 ± 1.6 years). TV time, total physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE), education level, smoking status, alcohol consumption, anti-hypertensive and lipid-lowering medication use, participant and family history of disease and total energy intake were self-reported; height and weight were measured by standardized procedures. Hazard ratios (HRs) [95% confidence interval (CI)] for mortality were estimated per 1-h/day increase in TV. Each 1-h/day increase in TV time was associated with increased hazard of all-cause (HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.01-1.09; 1270 deaths) and cardiovascular (HR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.01-1.15; 373 deaths), but not cancer mortality (HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.98-1.10; 570 deaths). This was independent of gender, age, education, smoking, alcohol, medication, diabetes history, family history of cardiovascular disease and cancer, body mass index (BMI) and PAEE. They were similar when stratified by gender, age, education, BMI and PAEE. The population-attributable fraction for all-cause mortality comparing the highest TV tertile (>3.6 h/day) with the lowest (time, a predominant leisure activity in modern society, in addition to advocating physical activity.

  6. Loneliness and all-cause mortality in community-dwelling elderly Singaporeans

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    Angelique Chan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Loneliness is a significant risk factor for mortality among older adults. There are several pathways through which loneliness may operate to increase mortality risk, ranging from biological responses and individual perceptions to social interactions and environmental factors. The proportion of single older (65+ person households has doubled in the last ten years in Singapore. Yet little is understood about the relationship between loneliness, social isolation, and mortality risk among older adults, in Singapore and in Asian contexts in general. Objective: To assess the impact of loneliness and social isolation on the risk of all-cause mortality over a four-year period, controlling for demographic characteristics and health status at baseline. Methods: We used data from a longitudinal survey of community-dwelling Singaporean elderly (N=4,522. Loneliness was assessed using the UCLA three-item loneliness scale. Unadjusted and adjusted Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to estimate mortality risk. Results: In the final adjusted model, living arrangements and social networks outside the household were not associated with all-cause mortality. Loneliness increased the risk of all-cause mortality; those sometimes lonely and mostly lonely were 44.0Š (p=0.005 and 39.0Š (p=0.059 more likely to die compared to those not lonely. Conclusions: Loneliness is associated with higher mortality risks among Singaporean elderly. Mental health among the older population is a major public health concern and community interventions are needed to more efficiently identify, raise awareness of, and increase care for the lonely elderly in the community.

  7. All-Cause Mortality Risk of Metabolically Healthy Obese Individuals in NHANES III

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    C. M. Durward

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mortality risk across metabolic health-by-BMI categories in NHANES-III was examined. Metabolic health was defined as: (1 homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR <2.5; (2 ≤2 Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III metabolic syndrome criteria; (3 combined definition using ≤1 of the following: HOMA-IR ≥1.95 (or diabetes medications, triglycerides ≥1.7 mmol/L, HDL-C <1.04 mmol/L (males or <1.30 mmol/L (females, LDL-C ≥2.6 mmol/L, and total cholesterol ≥5.2 mmol/L (or cholesterol-lowering medications. Hazard ratios (HR for all-cause mortality were estimated with Cox regression models. Nonpregnant women and men were included (n=4373, mean ± SD, age 37.1±10.9 years, BMI 27.3±5.8 kg/m2, 49.4% female. Only 40 of 1160 obese individuals were identified as MHO by all definitions. MHO groups had superior levels of clinical risk factors compared to unhealthy individuals but inferior levels compared to healthy lean groups. There was increased risk of all-cause mortality in metabolically unhealthy obese participants regardless of definition (HOMA-IR HR 2.07 (CI 1.3–3.4, P<0.01; ATP-III HR 1.98 (CI 1.4–2.9, P<0.001; combined definition HR 2.19 (CI 1.3–3.8, P<0.01. MHO participants were not significantly different from healthy lean individuals by any definition. While MHO individuals are not at significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality, their clinical risk profile is worse than that of metabolically healthy lean individuals.

  8. All-cause and cause-specific mortality of different migrant populations in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Umar Z; Mackenbach, Johan P; Harding, Seeromanie; Rey, Grégoire; Bhopal, Raj S; Regidor, Enrique; Rosato, Michael; Juel, Knud; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to examine differences in all-cause mortality and main causes of death across different migrant and local-born populations living in six European countries. We used data from population and mortality registers from Denmark, England & Wales, France, Netherlands, Scotland, and Spain. We calculated age-standardized mortality rates for men and women aged 0-69 years. Country-specific data were pooled to assess weighted mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using Poisson regression. Analyses were stratified by age group, country of destination, and main cause of death. In six countries combined, all-cause mortality was lower for men and women from East Asia (MRRs 0.66; 95 % confidence interval 0.62-0.71 and 0.76; 0.69-0.82, respectively), and Other Latin America (0.44; 0.42-0.46 and 0.56; 0.54-0.59, respectively) than local-born populations. Mortality rates were similar for those from Turkey. All-cause mortality was higher in men and women from North Africa (1.09; 1.08-1.11 and 1.19; 1.17-1.22, respectively) and Eastern Europe (1.30; 1.27-1.33 and 1.05; 1.01-1.08, respectively), and women from Sub-Saharan Africa (1.34; 1.30-1.38). The pattern differed by age group and country of destination. Most migrants had higher mortality due to infectious diseases and homicide while cancer mortality and suicide were lower. CVD mortality differed by migrant population. To conclude, mortality patterns varied across migrant populations in European countries. Future research should focus both on migrant populations with favourable and less favourable mortality pattern, in order to understand this heterogeneity and to drive policy at the European level.

  9. Statin Intolerance and Risk of Coronary Heart Events and All-Cause Mortality Following Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serban, Maria-Corina; Colantonio, Lisandro D; Manthripragada, Angelika D; Monda, Keri L; Bittner, Vera A; Banach, Maciej; Chen, Ligong; Huang, Lei; Dent, Ricardo; Kent, Shia T; Muntner, Paul; Rosenson, Robert S

    2017-03-21

    Many patients report adverse reactions to, and may not tolerate, statin therapy. These patients may be at increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) events and mortality. This study evaluated the risk for recurrent myocardial infarction (MI), CHD events, and all-cause mortality in Medicare beneficiaries with statin intolerance and in those with high adherence to statin therapy. We studied 105,329 Medicare beneficiaries who began a moderate- or high-intensity statin dosage after hospitalization for MI between 2007 and 2013. Statin intolerance was defined as down-titrating statins and initiating ezetimibe therapy, switching from statins to ezetimibe monotherapy, having International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, diagnostic codes for rhabdomyolysis or an antihyperlipidemic adverse event, followed by statin down-titration or discontinuation, or switching between ≥3 types of statins within 1 year after initiation. High statin adherence over the year following hospital discharge was defined as proportion of days covered ≥80%. Recurrent MI, CHD events (recurrent MI or a coronary revascularization procedure), and mortality were identified from 1 year after hospital discharge through December 2014. Overall, 1,741 patients (1.65%) had statin intolerance, and 55,567 patients (52.8%) had high statin adherence. Over a median of 1.9 to 2.3 years of follow-up, there were 4,450 recurrent MIs, 6,250 CHD events, and 14,311 deaths. Compared to beneficiaries with high statin adherence, statin intolerance was associated with a 36% higher rate of recurrent MI (41.1 vs. 30.1 per 1,000 person-years, respectively), a 43% higher rate of CHD events (62.5 vs. 43.8 per 1,000 person-years, respectively), and a 15% lower rate of all-cause mortality (79.9 vs. 94.2 per 1,000 person-years, respectively). The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) comparing beneficiaries with statin intolerance versus those with high statin adherence were 1.50 (95% confidence interval [CI

  10. Body fat and fat-free mass and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, Janne; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-01-01

    . The mortality rate ratios in the upper part of body fat mass were 1.12 per kg/m2 (95% confidence interval: 1.07, 1.18) in men and 1.06 per kg/m2 (95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.10) in women. Reversed J-shaped associations were found between FFM index and mortality with a tendency to level off for high values...... of FFM. DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest that BMI represents joint but opposite associations of body fat and FFM with mortality. Both high body fat and low FFM are independent predictors of all-cause mortality....

  11. Risk of Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events and All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Gislason, Gunnar H; Hansen, Peter R

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a common inflammatory skin disease. The disease has been associated with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, but the risk of CV disease in patients with HS is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate CV risk in patients with HS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS....... CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Hidradenitis suppurativa was associated with a significantly increased risk of adverse CV outcomes and all-cause mortality independent of measured confounders. The risk of CV-associated death was higher in patients with HS compared with the risk in those with severe psoriasis...

  12. High dietary phosphorus intake is associated with all-cause mortality: results from NHANES III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alex R; Lazo, Mariana; Appel, Lawrence J; Gutiérrez, Orlando M; Grams, Morgan E

    2014-02-01

    Elevated serum phosphorus is associated with all-cause mortality, but little is known about risk associated with dietary phosphorus intake. We investigated the association between phosphorus intake and mortality in a prospective cohort of healthy US adults (NHANES III; 1998-1994). Study participants were 9686 nonpregnant adults aged 20-80 y without diabetes, cancer, or kidney or cardiovascular disease. Exposure to dietary phosphorus, which was assessed by using a 24-h dietary recall, was expressed as the absolute intake and phosphorus density (phosphorus intake divided by energy intake). All-cause and cardiovascular mortality was assessed through 31 December 2006. Median phosphorus intake was 1166 mg/d (IQR: 823-1610 mg/d); median phosphorus density was 0.58 mg/kcal (0.48-0.70 mg/kcal). Individuals who consumed more phosphorus-dense diets were older, were less often African American, and led healthier lifestyles (smoking, physical activity, and Healthy Eating Index). In analyses adjusted for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, kidney function, and energy intake, higher phosphorus intake was associated with higher all-cause mortality in individuals who consumed >1400 mg/d [adjusted HR (95% CI): 2.23 (1.09, 4.5) per 1-unit increase in ln(phosphorus intake); P = 0.03]. At phosphorus density and all-cause mortality at a phosphorus density amount >0.35 mg/kcal [adjusted HR (95% CI): 2.27 (1.19, 4.33) per 0.1-mg/kcal increase in phosphorus density; P = 0.01]. At phosphorus density was associated with increased mortality risk. Phosphorus density was associated with cardiovascular mortality [adjusted HR (95% CI): 3.39 (1.43, 8.02) per 0.1 mg/kcal at >0.35 mg/kcal; P = 0.01], whereas no association was shown in analyses with phosphorus intake. Results were similar by subgroups of diet quality and in analyses adjusted for sodium and saturated fat intakes. High phosphorus intake is associated with increased mortality in a healthy US population. Because of current

  13. High dietary phosphorus intake is associated with all-cause mortality: results from NHANES III123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alex R; Lazo, Mariana; Appel, Lawrence J; Gutiérrez, Orlando M; Grams, Morgan E

    2014-01-01

    Background: Elevated serum phosphorus is associated with all-cause mortality, but little is known about risk associated with dietary phosphorus intake. Objective: We investigated the association between phosphorus intake and mortality in a prospective cohort of healthy US adults (NHANES III; 1998–1994). Design: Study participants were 9686 nonpregnant adults aged 20–80 y without diabetes, cancer, or kidney or cardiovascular disease. Exposure to dietary phosphorus, which was assessed by using a 24-h dietary recall, was expressed as the absolute intake and phosphorus density (phosphorus intake divided by energy intake). All-cause and cardiovascular mortality was assessed through 31 December 2006. Results: Median phosphorus intake was 1166 mg/d (IQR: 823–1610 mg/d); median phosphorus density was 0.58 mg/kcal (0.48–0.70 mg/kcal). Individuals who consumed more phosphorus-dense diets were older, were less often African American, and led healthier lifestyles (smoking, physical activity, and Healthy Eating Index). In analyses adjusted for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, kidney function, and energy intake, higher phosphorus intake was associated with higher all-cause mortality in individuals who consumed >1400 mg/d [adjusted HR (95% CI): 2.23 (1.09, 4.5) per 1-unit increase in ln(phosphorus intake); P = 0.03]. At phosphorus density and all-cause mortality at a phosphorus density amount >0.35 mg/kcal [adjusted HR (95% CI): 2.27 (1.19, 4.33) per 0.1-mg/kcal increase in phosphorus density; P = 0.01]. At phosphorus density was associated with increased mortality risk. Phosphorus density was associated with cardiovascular mortality [adjusted HR (95% CI): 3.39 (1.43, 8.02) per 0.1 mg/kcal at >0.35 mg/kcal; P = 0.01], whereas no association was shown in analyses with phosphorus intake. Results were similar by subgroups of diet quality and in analyses adjusted for sodium and saturated fat intakes. Conclusions: High phosphorus intake is associated with increased

  14. Occupational heavy lifting and risk of ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Eriksen, Louise; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2012-01-01

    -cause mortality, and the influence of occupational and leisure time physical activity on this association. METHODS: Data were analyzed from 1987, 1994, and 2000 from the Danish National Health Interview Surveys providing a sample of 6,692 working men and 5,921 working women aged 16--85 years without...... cardiovascular disease at baseline. Conventional risk factors for the outcomes IHD and all-cause mortality were controlled for in Cox analyses. RESULTS: Among men, heavy lifting was associated with increased risk for IHD (hazard ratio (HR): 1.52, 95 % Confidence interval (95 % CI): 1.15, 2.02), while a decreased...

  15. All-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk estimation using different definitions of metabolic syndrome in Lithuanian urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksiene, Dalia; Baceviciene, Migle; Jureniene, Kristina; Bernotiene, Gailute; Reklaitiene, Regina; Radisauskas, Ricardas; Tamosiunas, Abdonas

    2012-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess mortality risk in the subjects with diagnosed metabolic syndrome (MS) using National Cholesterol Educational Program (NCEP-ATPIII), American Heart Association and National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Joint Interim Societies (JIS) definitions. Two random samples aged 35-64 years were examined in 1992-2002 in the framework within the Multinational Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease (MONICA) study (N=2455). The follow-up was carried out in terms of the end points reached from the baseline health examinations until December 31, 2009. Cox regressions demonstrated that MS defined by IDF and JIS definitions remained the only significant determinants for all-cause mortality (RR=1.48 and RR=1.41; pATPIII definition had increased mortality risk from CVD (RR=1.98; p=0.012), than in men with identified MS by the IDF and the new JIS definition. In women the MS was not associated with risk of mortality from CVD. The MS definitions according to the IDF and JIS criteria appear to be a slightly better predictor of all-cause mortality and mortality from CVD; MS according to the NCEP-ATPIII criteria appears to be a better predictor of mortality from CVD in men. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Association between PM2.5 and all-cause and specific-cause mortality in 27 US communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Meredith; Zeka, Ariana; Schwartz, Joel

    2007-05-01

    While fine mode particulate matter (PM(2.5)) forms the basis for regulating particles in the US and other countries, there is a serious paucity of large population-based studies of its acute effect on mortality. To address this issue, we examined the association between PM(2.5) and both all-cause and specific-cause mortality using over 1.3 million deaths in 27 US communities between 1997 and 2002. A two-stage approach was used. First, the association between PM(2.5) and mortality in each community was quantified using a case-crossover design. Second, meta-analysis was used to estimate a summary effect over all 27 communities. Effect modification of age and gender was examined using interaction terms in the case-crossover model, while effect modification of community-specific characteristics including geographic location, annual PM(2.5) concentration above 15 microg/m(3) and central air conditioning prevalence was examined using meta-regression. We observed a 1.21% (95% CI 0.29, 2.14%) increase in all-cause mortality, a 1.78% (95% CI 0.20, 3.36%) increase in respiratory related mortality and a 1.03% (95% CI 0.02, 2.04%) increase in stroke related mortality with a 10 microg/m(3) increase in previous day's PM(2.5). The magnitude of these associations is more than triple that recently reported for PM(10), suggesting that combustion and traffic related particles are more toxic than larger sized particles. Effect modification occurred in all-cause and specific-cause deaths with greater effects in subjects >or=75 years of age. There was suggestive evidence that women may be more susceptible to PM(2.5) effects than men, and that effects were larger in the East than in the West. Increased prevalence of central air conditioning was associated with a decreased effect of PM(2.5). Our findings describe the magnitude of the effect on all-cause and specific-cause mortality, the modifiers of this association, and suggest that PM(2.5) may pose a public health risk even at or below

  17. Ankle-brachial blood pressure index predicts all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Kumeo; Tsuchida, Akiyasu; Kawai, Hironobu; Matsuo, Hidenori; Wakamatsu, Ryouji; Maezawa, Akira; Yano, Shintarou; Kawada, Tomoyuki; Nojima, Yoshihisa

    2003-06-01

    A reduction in ankle-brachial BP index (ABPI) is associated with generalized atherosclerotic diseases and predicts cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in several patient populations. However, a large-scale analysis of ABPI is lacking for hemodialysis (HD) patients, and its use in this population is not fully validated. A cohort of 1010 Japanese patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis was studied between November 1999 and May 2002. Mean age at entry was 60.6 +/- 12.5 yr, and duration of follow-up was 22.3 +/- 5.6 mo. Patients were stratified into five groups ( or = 0.9 to or = 1.0 to or = 1.1 to or = 1.3) by ABPI measured at entry by an oscillometric method. The frequency distribution of ABPI was 16.5% of patients or = 0.9 to or = to or 1.1 to or = 1.3). The relative risk of a history of diabetes mellitus (DM), cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular disease was significantly higher in patients with lower ABPI than those with ABPI > or = 1.1 to or = 0.9 to or = 1.3) also had poor prognosis (HR, 2.33 [1.11 to 4.89] and 3.04 [1.14 to 8.12] for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, respectively). Thus, the present findings validate ABPI as a powerful and independent predictor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among hemodialysis patients.

  18. All-cause and cause-specific mortality of different migrant populations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikram, Umar Z; Mackenbach, Johan P; Harding, Seeromanie

    2015-01-01

    combined, all-cause mortality was lower for men and women from East Asia (MRRs 0.66; 95 % confidence interval 0.62-0.71 and 0.76; 0.69-0.82, respectively), and Other Latin America (0.44; 0.42-0.46 and 0.56; 0.54-0.59, respectively) than local-born populations. Mortality rates were similar for those from......This study aimed to examine differences in all-cause mortality and main causes of death across different migrant and local-born populations living in six European countries. We used data from population and mortality registers from Denmark, England & Wales, France, Netherlands, Scotland, and Spain....... We calculated age-standardized mortality rates for men and women aged 0-69 years. Country-specific data were pooled to assess weighted mortality rate ratios (MRRs) using Poisson regression. Analyses were stratified by age group, country of destination, and main cause of death. In six countries...

  19. Alcohol, cardiovascular diseases and all causes of death: a review of the epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaglehole, R; Jackson, R

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the epidemiological evidence on the association of alcohol consumption with the major cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, stroke and coronary heart disease), and all causes of death. The focus is on light and moderate consumption and several important methodological issues are apparent with the epidemiological evidence on alcohol and mortality. The epidemiological data justify the following recommendations on alcohol consumption. The evidence does not support the unqualified claim that light and moderate drinking confers overall health benefits. However, in persons over 35 years of age, there is no consistent evidence that daily consumption of up to 2-3 drinks in men or up to 1-2 drinks in women increases the risk of dying. Non-drinkers should not be encouraged to change their drinking status. The consumption of more than 2-3 drinks per day in men and more than 1-2 drinks per day in women should be actively discouraged. Further research on the effects of light and moderate alcohol consumption on cardiovascular disease and all causes of death are required, particularly in young people, women and the elderly.

  20. To flourish or not: positive mental health and all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Corey L M; Simoes, Eduardo J

    2012-11-01

    We investigated whether positive mental health predicts all-cause mortality. Data were from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study (n = 3032), which at baseline in 1995 measured positive mental health (flourishing and not) and past-year mental illness (major depressive episode, panic attacks, and generalized anxiety disorders), and linked respondents with National Death Index records in a 10-year follow-up ending in 2005. Covariates were age, gender, race, education, any past-year mental illness, smoking, physical inactivity, physical diseases, and physical disease risk factors. A total of 6.3% of participants died during the study period. The final and fully adjusted odds ratio of mortality was 1.62 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00, 2.62; P = .05) for adults who were not flourishing, relative to participants with flourishing mental health. Age, gender, race, education, smoking, physical inactivity, cardiovascular disease, and HIV/AIDS were significant predictors of death during the study period. The absence of positive mental health increased the probability of all-cause mortality for men and women at all ages after adjustment for known causes of death.

  1. Diet quality is associated with all-cause mortality in adults aged 65 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Sarah A; Bates, Chris J; Mishra, Gita D

    2012-02-01

    Diet quality indices assess compliance with dietary guidelines and represent a measure of healthy dietary patterns. Few studies have compared different approaches to assessing diet quality in the same cohort. Our analysis was based on 972 participants of the British Diet and Nutrition Survey of people aged 65 y and older in 1994/1995 and who were followed-up for mortality status until 2008. Dietary intake was measured via a 4-d weighed food record. Three measures of diet quality were used: the Healthy Diet Score (HDS), the Recommended Food Score (RFS), and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS). HR for all-cause mortality were obtained using Cox regression adjusted for age, sex, energy intake, social class, region, smoking, physical activity, and BMI. After adjustment for confounders, the MDS was significantly associated with mortality [highest vs. lowest quartile; HR = 0.78 (95% CI = 0.62-0.98)]. Similarly, the RFS was also associated with mortality [HR = 0.67 (95 % CI = 0.52-0.86)]; however, there were no significant associations for the HDS [HR = 0.99 (95% CI = 0.79-1.24)]. The HDS was not a predictor of mortality is this population, whereas the RFS and the MDS were both associated with all-cause mortality. Simple measures of diet quality using food-based indicators can be useful predictors of longevity.

  2. All-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a consecutive series of patients with diabetic foot osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Lucia; Scatena, Alessia; Tacconi, Danilo; Ventoruzzo, Giorgio; Liistro, Francesco; Bolognese, Leonardo; Monami, Matteo; Mannucci, Edoardo

    2017-09-01

    Mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO) have been explored in few small studies with a short follow-up. Aim of the present study is to assess all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and predictors of mortality in a consecutive series of patients with DFO. Patients with a diagnosis of DFO, attending the Diabetic Foot Unit of San Donato Hospital in Arezzo between January 1st, 2012 and December 31st, 2013, were included in this retrospective study. Information on all-cause mortality up to December 1st, 2016, was obtained from the registry of the Local Health Unit of Arezzo, which contains updated records of all persons living in Tuscany. One hundred ninety-four patients were included in the study. During a mean period of observation of 2.8±1.4years, 73 (37.6%) died, with a yearly rate of 13.2%. Of the 73 deaths, 59 were attributable to cardiovascular causes. After adjusting for possible confounders in a Cox analysis, site of osteomyelitis (hindfoot vs mid/forefoot) was associated with a higher mortality, and surgical treatment with a lower mortality. Mortality in patients with DFO appears to be much higher than that reported in clinical series of patients with diabetic foot ulcers, particularly when hindfoot is affected. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Alcohol Consumption and Risk of All-Cause and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K. Howie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between consumption of alcoholic beverages and all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality in a cohort of men (n=31,367. In the Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for age, year of examination, body mass index (BMI, smoking, family history of CVD, and aerobic fitness, there were no significant differences in risk of all-cause mortality across alcohol intake groups. Risk of CVD mortality was reduced 29% in quartile 1 (HR = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.53, 0.95 and 25% in quartile 2 (HR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.58, 0.98. The amount of alcohol consumed to achieve this risk reduction was <6 drinks/week; less than the amount currently recommended. The addition of other potential confounders and effect modifiers including blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, lipid levels, and psychological variables did not affect the magnitude of association. Future research is needed to validate the current public health recommendations for alcohol consumption.

  4. Traffic air pollution and mortality from cardiovascular disease and all causes: a Danish cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raaschou-Nielsen Ole

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traffic air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular mortality, which might be due to co-exposure to road traffic noise. Further, personal and lifestyle characteristics might modify any association. Methods We followed up 52 061 participants in a Danish cohort for mortality in the nationwide Register of Causes of Death, from enrollment in 1993–1997 through 2009, and traced their residential addresses from 1971 onwards in the Central Population Registry. We used dispersion-modelled concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 since 1971 as indicator of traffic air pollution and used Cox regression models to estimate mortality rate ratios (MRRs with adjustment for potential confounders. Results Mean levels of NO2 at the residence since 1971 were significantly associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease (MRR, 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06–1.51, per doubling of NO2 concentration and all causes (MRR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04–1.23, per doubling of NO2 concentration after adjustment for potential confounders. For participants who ate  Conclusions Traffic air pollution is associated with mortality from cardiovascular diseases and all causes, after adjustment for traffic noise. The association was strongest for people with a low fruit and vegetable intake.

  5. Traffic air pollution and mortality from cardiovascular disease and all causes: a Danish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Sørensen, Mette; Hansen, Johnni; Loft, Steffen; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim

    2012-09-05

    Traffic air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular mortality, which might be due to co-exposure to road traffic noise. Further, personal and lifestyle characteristics might modify any association. We followed up 52 061 participants in a Danish cohort for mortality in the nationwide Register of Causes of Death, from enrollment in 1993-1997 through 2009, and traced their residential addresses from 1971 onwards in the Central Population Registry. We used dispersion-modelled concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) since 1971 as indicator of traffic air pollution and used Cox regression models to estimate mortality rate ratios (MRRs) with adjustment for potential confounders. Mean levels of NO₂ at the residence since 1971 were significantly associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease (MRR, 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.51, per doubling of NO₂ concentration) and all causes (MRR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04-1.23, per doubling of NO₂ concentration) after adjustment for potential confounders. For participants who ate causes. Traffic air pollution is associated with mortality from cardiovascular diseases and all causes, after adjustment for traffic noise. The association was strongest for people with a low fruit and vegetable intake.

  6. Developing the Immunology Book for Animal and Human Physiology Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuni Mitasari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available he objective of the study was to develop an immunology book for Animal and Human Physiology subject. This book was developed based on the Thiagarajan development model which was modified of: Define, Design, Develop, dan Disseminate (4D. The data expert validation instrument was questionnaire using Likert scales, comments, and recommendation sheets. Expert appraisal was done by material expert and media and design learning expert. The developmental testing was conducted using questionnaire to test the readibility. The expert validation was conducted by material expert as well as design and media learning expert validator; meanwhile, the field test was done to measure the readability. The validity test results were: the material expert state that the material is valid (97.14%, as well as the design and learning media expert (84.88% and field test by students (88.17%.

  7. Abdominal obesity in Japanese-Brazilians: which measure is best for predicting all-cause and cardiovascular mortality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marselle Rodrigues Bevilacqua

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify which anthropometric measure of abdominal obesity was the best predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in Japanese-Brazilians. The study followed 1,581 subjects for 14 years. Socio-demographic, lifestyle, metabolic, and anthropometric data were collected. The dependent variable was vital status (alive or dead at the end of the study, and the independent variable was presence of abdominal obesity according to different baseline measures. The mortality rate was estimated, and Poisson regression was used to obtain mortality rate ratios with abdominal obesity, adjusted simultaneously for the other variables. The mortality rate was 10.68/thousand person-years. Male gender, age > 60 years, and arterial hypertension were independent risk factors for mortality. The results indicate that prevalence of abdominal obesity was high among Japanese-Brazilians, and that waist/hip ratio was the measure with the greatest capacity to predict mortality (especially cardiovascular mortality in this group.

  8. A reverse J-shaped association of all-cause mortality with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durup, Darshana Tiffany; Jørgensen, Henrik Løvendahl; Christensen, J.

    2012-01-01

    .07 yr), 15,198 (6.1%) subjects died. A reverse J-shaped association between serum level of 25(OH)D and mortality was observed. A serum 25(OH)D level of 50-60 nmol/liter was associated with the lowest mortality risk. Compared to 50 nmol/liter, the hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of all......-cause mortality at very low (10 nmol/liter) and high (140 nmol/liter) serum levels of 25(OH)D were 2.13 (2.02-2.24) and 1.42 (1.31-1.53), respectively. Similarly, both high and low levels of albumin-adjusted serum calcium and serum PTH were associated with an increased mortality, and secondary hyperparathyroidism...... was associated with higher mortality (P liter...

  9. Benzodiazepines and risk of all cause mortality in adults: cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patorno, Elisabetta; Glynn, Robert J; Levin, Raisa; Lee, Moa P; Huybrechts, Krista F

    2017-07-06

    Objectives To evaluate the risk of all cause mortality associated with initiating compared with not initiating benzodiazepines in adults, and to address potential treatment barriers and confounding related to the use of a non-active comparator group.Design Retrospective cohort study.Setting Large de-identified US commercial healthcare database (Optum Clinformatics Datamart).Participants 1:1 high dimensional propensity score matched cohort of benzodiazepine initiators, and randomly selected benzodiazepine non-initiators with a medical visit within 14 days of the start of benzodiazepine treatment (n=1 252 988), between July 2004 and December 2013. To address treatment barriers and confounding, patients were required to have filled one or more prescriptions for any medication in the 90 days and 91-180 days before the index date (ie, the date of starting benzodiazepine treatment for initiators and the date of the selected medical visit for benzodiazepine non-initiators) and the high dimensional propensity score was estimated on the basis of more than 300 covariates.Main outcome measure All cause mortality, determined by linkage with the Social Security Administration Death Master File.Results Over a six month follow-up period, 5061 and 4691 deaths occurred among high dimensional propensity score matched benzodiazepine initiators versus non-initiators (9.3 v 9.4 events per 1000 person years; hazard ratio 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 1.04). A 4% (95% confidence interval 1% to 8%) to 9% (2% to 7%) increase in mortality risk was observed associated with the start of benzodiazepine treatment for follow-ups of 12 and 48 months and in subgroups of younger patients and patients initiating short acting agents. In secondary analyses comparing 1:1 high dimensional propensity score matched patients initiating benzodiazepines with an active comparator, ie, patients starting treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants, benzodiazepine use

  10. Joint associations of alcohol consumption and physical activity with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; De Neve, Melissa; Shelton, Nicola J; Tielemans, Susanne M A J; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2013-08-01

    Individual associations of alcohol consumption and physical activity with cardiovascular disease are relatively established, but the joint associations are not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine prospectively the joint associations between alcohol consumption and physical activity with cardiovascular mortality (CVM) and all-cause mortality. Four population-based studies in the United Kingdom were included, the 1997 and 1998 Health Surveys for England and the 1998 and 2003 Scottish Health Surveys. In men and women, respectively, low physical activity was defined as 0.1 to 5 and 0.1 to 4 MET-hours/week and high physical activity as ≥5 and ≥4 MET-hours/week. Moderate or moderately high alcohol intake was defined as >0 to 35 and >0 to 21 units/week and high levels of alcohol intake as >35 and >21 units/week. In total, there were 17,410 adults without prevalent cardiovascular diseases and complete data on alcohol and physical activity (43% men, median age 55 years). During a median follow-up period of 9.7 years, 2,204 adults (12.7%) died, 638 (3.7%) with CVM. Cox proportional-hazards models were adjusted for potential confounders such as marital status, social class, education, ethnicity, and longstanding illness. In the joint associations analysis, low activity combined with high levels of alcohol (CVM: hazard ratio [HR] 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28 to 2.96, p = 0.002; all-cause mortality: HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.03, p activity combined with no alcohol (CVM: HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.35 to 2.76, p physical activity. Within each given alcohol group, low activity was linked to increased CVM risk (e.g., HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.03, p = 0.014, for the moderate drinking group), but in the presence of high physical activity, high alcohol intake was not linked to increased CVM risk (HR 1.32, 95% CI 0.52 to 3.34, p = 0.555). In conclusion, high levels of drinking and low physical activity appear to increase the risk for cardiovascular and all-cause

  11. All-Cause, 30-Day Readmissions Among Persons With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Robert; Lin, Elizabeth; Dobranowski, Kristin; Selick, Avra; Wilton, Andrew S; Lunsky, Yona

    2017-11-15

    Early hospital readmissions within 30 days of discharge are common and costly. This research describes predictors of all-cause, 30-day hospital readmissions among persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), a group known to experience high rates of hospitalization. A cohort of 66,484 adults with IDD from Ontario, Canada, was used to create two subgroups: individuals with IDD only and those with IDD and mental illness. The rates of hospital readmission were determined and contrasted with a comparison subgroup of people without IDD who have mental illness. Compared with those with mental illness only, individuals with IDD and mental illness were 1.7 times more likely to experience a hospital readmission within 30 days. Predictors of their readmission rates included being a young adult and having high morbidity levels. The high rate of hospital readmission suggests that individuals with IDD and mental illness need attention regarding discharge planning and outpatient follow-up.

  12. Wound healing and all-cause mortality in 958 wound patients treated in home care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarchi, Kian; Martinussen, Torben; Jemec, Gregor B. E.

    2015-01-01

    Skin wounds are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Data are, however, not readily available for benchmarking, to allow prognostic evaluation, and to suggest when involvement of wound-healing experts is indicated. We, therefore, conducted an observational cohort study...... to investigate wound healing and all-cause mortality associated with different types of skin wounds. Consecutive skin wound patients who received wound care by home-care nurses from January 2010 to December 2011 in a district in Eastern Denmark were included in this study. Patients were followed until wound...... healing, death, or the end of follow-up on December 2012. In total, 958 consecutive patients received wound care by home-care nurses, corresponding to a 1-year prevalence of 1.2% of the total population in the district. During the study, wound healing was achieved in 511 (53.3%), whereas 90 (9.4%) died...

  13. Relationship between lower extremity muscle strength and all-cause mortality in Japanese patients undergoing dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzawa, Ryota; Matsunaga, Atsuhiko; Wang, Guoqin; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Kutsuna, Toshiki; Ishii, Akira; Abe, Yoshifumi; Yoneki, Kei; Yoshida, Atsushi; Takahira, Naonobu

    2014-07-01

    Skeletal muscle wasting is common and insidious in patients who are undergoing hemodialysis. However, the association between lower extremity muscle strength and all-cause mortality remains unclear in this population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of lower extremity muscle strength on 7-year survival in a cohort of patients who were clinically stable and undergoing hemodialysis. A prospective cohort study was conducted. A total of 190 Japanese outpatients who were undergoing maintenance hemodialysis 3 times per week at a hemodialysis center were followed for up to 7 years. Lower extremity muscle strength was evaluated using a handheld dynamometer at the time of patient enrollment in the study. Muscle strength data were divided by dry weight and expressed as a percentage. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to assess the contribution of lower extremity muscle strength to all-cause mortality. The median age (25th and 75th percentiles) of this study population was 64 years (57 and 72 years), 53.2% of the patients were women, and the time on hemodialysis was 39.0 months (15.9 and 110.5 months) at baseline. During a median follow-up of 36.0 months, there were 30 deaths. With a multivariate Cox model, the hazard ratio in the group with a knee extensor strength of muscle strength undergoing hemodialysis than in other patients undergoing hemodialysis remain to be elucidated. Decreased lower extremity muscle strength was strongly associated with increased mortality risk in patients undergoing hemodialysis. © 2014 American Physical Therapy Association.

  14. Racial-ethnic differences in all-cause and HIV mortality, Florida, 2000–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Fennie, Kristopher P.; Sheehan, Diana M.; Niyonsenga, Theophile; Lieb, Spencer; Maddox, Lorene M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We compared all-cause and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mortality in a population-based, HIV-infected cohort. Methods Using records of people diagnosed with HIV during 2000–2009 from the Florida Enhanced HIV/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Reporting System, we conducted a proportional hazards analysis for all-cause mortality and a competing risk analysis for HIV mortality through 2011 controlling for individual level factors, neighborhood poverty, and rural/urban status and stratifying by concurrent AIDS status (AIDS within 3 months of HIV diagnosis). Results Of 59,880 HIV-infected people, 32.2% had concurrent AIDS, and 19.3% died. Adjusting for period of diagnosis, age group, sex, country of birth, HIV transmission mode, area level poverty and rural/urban status, non-Hispanic Black (NHB) and Hispanic people had an elevated adjusted hazards ratio (aHR) for HIV mortality relative to non-Hispanic whites (NHB concurrent AIDS: aHR 1.34, 95% CI 1.23–1.47; NHB without concurrent AIDS: aHR 1.41, 95% CI 1.26–1.57; Hispanic concurrent AIDS: aHR 1.18, 95% CI 1.05–1.32; Hispanic without concurrent AIDS: aHR 1.18, 95% CI 1.03–1.36). Conclusions Considering competing causes of death, NHB and Hispanic people had a higher risk of HIV mortality even among those without concurrent AIDS, indicating a need to identify and address barriers to HIV care in these populations. PMID:26948103

  15. Worsening calcification propensity precedes all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in haemodialyzed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Georg; Steubl, Dominik; Kemmner, Stephan; Pasch, Andreas; Koch-Sembdner, Wilhelm; Pham, Dang; Haller, Bernhard; Bachmann, Quirin; Mayer, Christopher C; Wassertheurer, Siegfried; Angermann, Susanne; Lech, Maciej; Moog, Philipp; Bauer, Axel; Heemann, Uwe; Schmaderer, Christoph

    2017-10-17

    A novel in-vitro test (T 50 -test) assesses ex-vivo serum calcification propensity which predicts mortality in HD patients. The association of longitudinal changes of T 50 with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality has not been investigated. We assessed T 50 in paired sera collected at baseline and at 24 months in 188 prevalent European HD patients from the ISAR cohort, most of whom were Caucasians. Patients were followed for another 19 [interquartile range: 11-37] months. Serum T 50 exhibited a significant decline between baseline and 24 months (246 ± 64 to 190 ± 68 minutes; p < 0.001). With serum Δ-phosphate showing the strongest independent association with declining T 50 (r = -0.39; p < 0.001) in multivariable linear regression. The rate of decline of T 50 over 24 months was a significant predictor of all-cause (HR = 1.51 per 1SD decline, 95% CI: 1.04 to 2.2; p = 0.03) and cardiovascular mortality (HR = 2.15; 95% CI: 1.15 to 3.97; p = 0.02) in Kaplan Meier and multivariable Cox-regression analysis, while cross-sectional T 50 at inclusion and 24 months were not. Worsening serum calcification propensity was an independent predictor of mortality in this small cohort of prevalent HD patients. Prospective larger scaled studies are needed to assess the value of calcification propensity as a longitudinal parameter for risk stratification and monitoring of therapeutic interventions.

  16. Alcohol, drinking pattern and all-cause, cardiovascular and alcohol-related mortality in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobak, Martin; Malyutina, Sofia; Horvat, Pia; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Kubinova, Ruzena; Simonova, Galina; Topor-Madry, Roman; Peasey, Anne; Pikhart, Hynek; Marmot, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol has been implicated in the high mortality in Central and Eastern Europe but the magnitude of its effect, and whether it is due to regular high intake or episodic binge drinking remain unclear. The aim of this paper was to estimate the contribution of alcohol to mortality in four Central and Eastern European countries. We used data from the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe is a prospective multi-centre cohort study in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania) and six Czech towns. Random population samples of 34,304 men and women aged 45-69 years in 2002-2005 were followed up for a median 7 years. Drinking volume, frequency and pattern were estimated from the graduated frequency questionnaire. Deaths were ascertained using mortality registers. In 230,246 person-years of follow-up, 2895 participants died from all causes, 1222 from cardiovascular diseases (CVD), 672 from coronary heart disease (CHD) and 489 from pre-defined alcohol-related causes (ARD). In fully-adjusted models, abstainers had 30-50% increased mortality risk compared to light-to-moderate drinkers. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) in men drinking on average ≥60 g of ethanol/day (3% of men) were 1.23 (95% CI 0.95-1.59) for all-cause, 1.38 (0.95-2.02) for CVD, 1.64 (1.02-2.64) for CHD and 2.03 (1.28-3.23) for ARD mortality. Corresponding HRs in women drinking on average ≥20 g/day (2% of women) were 1.92 (1.25-2.93), 1.74 (0.76-3.99), 1.39 (0.34-5.76) and 3.00 (1.26-7.10). Binge drinking increased ARD mortality in men only. Mortality was associated with high average alcohol intake but not binge drinking, except for ARD in men.

  17. Functional status and all-cause mortality in serious mental illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D Hayes

    Full Text Available Serious mental illness can affect many aspects of an individual's ability to function in daily life. The aim of this investigation was to determine if the environmental and functional status of people with serious mental illness contribute to the high mortality risk observed in this patient group.We identified cases of schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar disorder aged ≥ 15 years in a large secondary mental healthcare case register linked to national mortality tracing. We modelled the effect of activities of daily living (ADLs, living conditions, occupational and recreational activities and relationship factors (Health of the Nation Outcome Scale [HoNOS] subscales on all-cause mortality over a 4-year observation period (2007-10 using Cox regression.We identified 6,880 SMI cases (242 deaths in the observation period. ADL impairment was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 1.9; 95% CI 1.3-2.8; p = 0.001, p for trend across ADL categories = 0.001 after controlling for a broad range of covariates (including demographic factors, physical health, mental health symptoms and behaviours, socio-economic status and mental health service contact. No associations were found for the other three exposures. Stratification by age indicated that ADLs were most strongly associated with mortality in the youngest (15 to <35 years and oldest (≥ 55 years groups.Functional impairment in people with serious mental illness diagnoses is a marker of increased mortality risk, possibly in younger age groups as a marker of negative symptomatology.

  18. Comparative Analysis of All-cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in Moscow and Irkutsk

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    F. I. Belyalov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study standardized all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality (or deaths due to diseases of the circulatory system in Irkutsk and Moscow including assessment in gender and age subgroups.Material and methods. To compare mortality in the two cities data of Federal State Statistics Service were used with calculation of coefficients of mortality adjusted for European age pattern.Results: Age-standardized indices of mortality per 100,000 of population were significantly lowerin Moscow as compared to Irkutsk in the entire sample (697.6 vs 1157.8; p<0.00001, in men (904.0 vs 1364.3; p<0.00001 and in women (535.1 vs 822.7; p<0.00001, and also in all age subgroups above 25 years. Cardiovascular diseases were dominated in the mortality patterns of the compared cities: 47% in Irkutsk, 64% in Moscow. Chronic forms of ischemic heart disease (47.9% in Irkutsk and 45.9% in Moscow and cerebrovascular diseases (15.9% in Irkutsk and 16.7% in Moscow were prevalent. There were significant distinctions in death rates encoded in such headings as: “Otherforms of acute ischemic heart disease”, “Atherosclerotic heart disease”, “Cerebral atherosclerosis”, “Hypertensive encephalopathy”, and “Unspecified cardiomyopathy”.Conclusion. Irkutsk had higher standardized coefficients of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality as compared to Moscow in the total population, in men and in women and in majority of age subgroups. This can be explained by economic, social and climatic factors.

  19. Geographic inequalities in all-cause mortality in Japan: compositional or contextual?

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    Etsuji Suzuki

    Full Text Available A recent study from Japan suggested that geographic inequalities in all-cause premature adult mortality have increased since 1995 in both sexes even after adjusting for individual age and occupation in 47 prefectures. Such variations can arise from compositional effects as well as contextual effects. In this study, we sought to further examine the emerging geographic inequalities in all-cause mortality, by exploring the relative contribution of composition and context in each prefecture.We used the 2005 vital statistics and census data among those aged 25 or older. The total number of decedents was 524,785 men and 455,863 women. We estimated gender-specific two-level logistic regression to model mortality risk as a function of age, occupation, and residence in 47 prefectures. Prefecture-level variance was used as an estimate of geographic inequalities in mortality, and prefectures were ranked by odds ratios (ORs, with the reference being the grand mean of all prefectures (value = 1.Overall, the degree of geographic inequalities was more pronounced when we did not account for the composition (i.e., age and occupation in each prefecture. Even after adjusting for the composition, however, substantial differences remained in mortality risk across prefectures with ORs ranging from 0.870 (Okinawa to 1.190 (Aomori for men and from 0.864 (Shimane to 1.132 (Aichi for women. In some prefectures (e.g., Aomori, adjustment for composition showed little change in ORs, while we observed substantial attenuation in ORs in other prefectures (e.g., Akita. We also observed qualitative changes in some prefectures (e.g., Tokyo. No clear associations were observed between prefecture-level socioeconomic status variables and the risk of mortality in either sex.Geographic disparities in mortality across prefectures are quite substantial and cannot be fully explained by differences in population composition. The relative contribution of composition and context to health

  20. Geographic inequalities in all-cause mortality in Japan: compositional or contextual?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Etsuji; Kashima, Saori; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V

    2012-01-01

    A recent study from Japan suggested that geographic inequalities in all-cause premature adult mortality have increased since 1995 in both sexes even after adjusting for individual age and occupation in 47 prefectures. Such variations can arise from compositional effects as well as contextual effects. In this study, we sought to further examine the emerging geographic inequalities in all-cause mortality, by exploring the relative contribution of composition and context in each prefecture. We used the 2005 vital statistics and census data among those aged 25 or older. The total number of decedents was 524,785 men and 455,863 women. We estimated gender-specific two-level logistic regression to model mortality risk as a function of age, occupation, and residence in 47 prefectures. Prefecture-level variance was used as an estimate of geographic inequalities in mortality, and prefectures were ranked by odds ratios (ORs), with the reference being the grand mean of all prefectures (value = 1). Overall, the degree of geographic inequalities was more pronounced when we did not account for the composition (i.e., age and occupation) in each prefecture. Even after adjusting for the composition, however, substantial differences remained in mortality risk across prefectures with ORs ranging from 0.870 (Okinawa) to 1.190 (Aomori) for men and from 0.864 (Shimane) to 1.132 (Aichi) for women. In some prefectures (e.g., Aomori), adjustment for composition showed little change in ORs, while we observed substantial attenuation in ORs in other prefectures (e.g., Akita). We also observed qualitative changes in some prefectures (e.g., Tokyo). No clear associations were observed between prefecture-level socioeconomic status variables and the risk of mortality in either sex. Geographic disparities in mortality across prefectures are quite substantial and cannot be fully explained by differences in population composition. The relative contribution of composition and context to health

  1. Statin use and all-cause and cancer mortality: BioBank Japan cohort

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    Hiroshi Yokomichi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Statins are the first-line agents used to treat patients with high serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, thus reducing the risk of death from arterial sclerotic cardiovascular disease; however, little is known about the effects of non-statin pharmacological interventions on mortality as well as about the potential protective effects of statin use against cancer death. This work aimed to compare all-cause and cancer mortality among patients with hyperlipidaemia who did and did not receive statin treatment. Methods: Between 2003 and 2007 fiscal years, we recruited Japanese patients diagnosed with hyperlipidaemia from 66 hospitals. Patients in our cohort were followed up for a maximum of 12 years to observe the causes of death. Kaplan–Meier estimates from the baseline were used to compare the mortality of patients based on the administered medicine. All-cause mortality were compared among patients with/without administration of statins and other agents; any-organ and colorectal cancer mortality were compared between patients with/without administration of statins. Results: Our cohort included 41,930 patients with mean ages of 64–66 years and mean body mass indices of 24–25 kg/m2. Patients who received statin monotherapy and were treated with lifestyle modification exhibited nearly identical survival curves, whereas statin use represented a non-significant but potentially protective effect against colorectal cancer-related mortality. The lowest mortality in this cohort was associated with resin monotherapy. Conclusions: Mortality rate has been similar for patients treated with statin monotherapy and lifestyle modification. Statin monotherapy could potentially reduce any-organ- and colorectal cancer-related mortality.

  2. Dipstick proteinuria as a predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in Bangladesh: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesola, Gene R; Argos, Maria; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Ahmed, Alauddin; Hasan, Rabiul; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Islam, Tariqul; Eunus, Mahbubul; Sarwar, Golam; Chinchilli, Vernon M; Neugut, Alfred I; Ahsan, Habibul

    2015-09-01

    Baseline, persistent, incident, and remittent dipstick proteinuria have never been tested as predictors of mortality in an undeveloped country. The goal of this study was to determine which of these four types of proteinuria (if any) predict mortality. Baseline data was collected from 2000 to 2002 in Bangladesh from 11,121 adults. Vital status was ascertained over 11-12years. Cox models were used to evaluate proteinuria in relation to all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. CVD mortality was evaluated only in those with baseline proteinuria. Persistent, remittent, and incident proteinuria were determined at the 2-year exam. Baseline proteinuria of 1+ or greater was significantly associated with all-cause (hazard ratio (HR) 2.87; 95% C.I., 1.71-4.80) and CVD mortality (HR: 3.55; 95% C.I., 1.81-6.95) compared to no proteinuria, adjusted for age, gender, arsenic well water concentration, education, hypertension, BMI, smoking, and diabetes mellitus. Persistent 1+ proteinuria had a stronger risk of death, 3.49 (1.64-7.41)-fold greater, than no proteinuria. Incident 1+ proteinuria had a 1.87 (0.92-3.78)-fold greater mortality over 9-10years. Remittent proteinuria revealed no increased mortality. Baseline, persistent, and incident dipstick proteinuria were predictors of all-cause mortality with persistent proteinuria having the greatest risk. In developing countries, those with 1+ dipstick proteinuria, particularly if persistent, should be targeted for definitive diagnosis and treatment. The two most common causes of proteinuria to search for are diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. DEVELOPING STUDENTS’ ENTREPRENEURIAL SPIRIT THROUGH THE SUBJECT ILMU HITUNG KEUANGAN

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    Retno Subekti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article was written to share the experiences of teaching 'trading or doing business' in the subject of Ilmu Hitung Keuangan in 2010. This Article also share about the phenomenon of appeared ‘kantin kejujuran’ or the honesty canteen in Mathematics and Natural Sciences Faculty of Yogyakarta State University in early 2011. Based on the syllabus of the subject, there is a topic of trading that makes lecturer is motivated to participate in developing the entrepreneurial spirit of students. The way taken by the lecturer was giving big trust to the students to manage funds for trading. Before trading begins, students should discuss about what are the things that can be bought cheaply and then sold with ease so that will give them the advantage. The result is that all groups got benefit. 4 groups formed are the group of ‘donuts’, ‘accessories’, ‘snacks’, and ‘stickers’. Then groups of food division that are donuts group and snack’s one were part of the pioneers of honesty canteen. This method is in line with lecturers expectancy to participate and develop entrepreneurship on campus.

  4. Cancer-Specific and All-Cause Mortality in Kidney Transplant Recipients With and Without Previous Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viecelli, Andrea K; Lim, Wai H; Macaskill, Petra; Chapman, Jeremy R; Craig, Jonathan C; Clayton, Philip; Cohney, Solomon; Carroll, Robert; Wong, Germaine

    2015-12-01

    For dialysis patients with a cancer history, a period of surveillance is generally recommended before listing for transplantation. However, the outcomes of patients with cancer recurrence and/or a second primary cancer after transplantation are unknown. To determine the prognosis of kidney transplant recipients who developed cancer after transplantation and whether this varied with cancer types (first cancer, recurrence, second primary cancer). Using data from the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry, we compared the cancer-specific and all-cause mortality among recipients with different cancer types using adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. Of the 21,415 recipients transplanted between 1965 and 2012, 3% (651 of 21,415) had a previous cancer history. A total of 2840 (13%) recipients developed cancer after the first transplant, of whom 2760 (97.2%) developed a first cancer, 23 (0.8%) experienced cancer recurrence, and 57 (2%) developed a second primary cancer. There were no significant differences in the risks of cancer-specific and all-cause mortality between recipients who developed their first cancer after transplant, those with cancer recurrence (adjusted hazard ratios [aHRs], 0.79; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.38-1.67; P = 0.54 and aHRs, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.45-1.66; P = 0.66, respectively) and recipients who developed a second primary cancer after transplantation (aHRs, 1.01; 95%CI, 0.63-1.62; P = 0.95 and aHRs, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.79-1.69; P = 0.45, respectively). Among patients with a previous history of malignancy, recurrent and second primary cancers are infrequent after renal transplantation. A history of previous malignancy does not have an additive effect on the cancer-specific and overall survival of kidney transplant recipients who develop cancer.

  5. Changes in physical activity and all-cause mortality in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaes, Anouk W; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Marott, Jacob L; Benet, Marta; Groenen, Miriam T J; Schnohr, Peter; Franssen, Frits M E; Vestbo, Jørgen; Wouters, Emiel F M; Lange, Peter; Spruit, Martijn A

    2014-11-01

    Little is known about changes in physical activity in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its impact on mortality. Therefore, we aimed to study changes in physical activity in subjects with and without COPD and the impact of physical activity on mortality risk. Subjects from the Copenhagen City Heart Study with at least two consecutive examinations were selected. Each examination included a self-administered questionnaire and clinical examination. 1270 COPD subjects and 8734 subjects without COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 s 67±18 and 91±15% predicted, respectively) were included. COPD subjects with moderate or high baseline physical activity who reported low physical activity level at follow-up had the highest hazard ratios of mortality (1.73 and 2.35, respectively; both pphysical activity, no differences were found in survival between unchanged or increased physical activity at follow-up. In addition, subjects without COPD with low physical activity at follow-up had the highest hazard ratio of mortality, irrespective of baseline physical activity level (p≤0.05). A decline to low physical activity at follow-up was associated with an increased mortality risk in subjects with and without COPD. These observational data suggest that it is important to assess and encourage physical activity in the earliest stages of COPD in order to maintain a physical activity level that is as high as possible, as this is associated with better prognosis. ©ERS 2014.

  6. Subclinical and overt thyroid dysfunction and risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Christian; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Hansen, Morten Lock

    2014-01-01

    cardiovascular events (MACEs), and cause-specific events in subjects with overt and subclinical thyroid dysfunction. DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Participants in the study were subjects who underwent thyroid blood tests, without prior thyroid disease, consulting...

  7. Changes in physical activity and all-cause mortality in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaes, Anouk W; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Marott, Jacob L

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about changes in physical activity in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its impact on mortality. Therefore, we aimed to study changes in physical activity in subjects with and without COPD and the impact of physical activity on mortality risk. Subjects......, respectively) were included. COPD subjects with moderate or high baseline physical activity who reported low physical activity level at follow-up had the highest hazard ratios of mortality (1.73 and 2.35, respectively; both pphysical activity, no differences were...... found in survival between unchanged or increased physical activity at follow-up. In addition, subjects without COPD with low physical activity at follow-up had the highest hazard ratio of mortality, irrespective of baseline physical activity level (p≤0.05). A decline to low physical activity at follow...

  8. Assessing the association between all-cause mortality and multiple aspects of individual social capital among the older Japanese

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    Kondo Naoki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few prospective cohort studies have assessed the association between social capital and mortality. The studies were conducted only in Western countries and did not use the same social capital indicators. The present prospective cohort study aimed to examine the relationships between various forms of individual social capital and all-cause mortality in Japan. Methods Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to subjects in the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES Project in 2003. Mortality data from 2003 to 2008 were analyzed for 14,668 respondents. Both cognitive and structural components of individual social capital were collected: 8 for cognitive social capital (trust, 3; social support, 3; reciprocity, 2 and 9 for structural social capital (social network. Cox proportional hazard models stratified by sex with multiple imputation were used. Age, body mass index, self-rated health, current illness, smoking history, alcohol consumption, exercise, equivalent income and education were used as covariates. Results During 27,571 person-years of follow-up for men and 29,561 person-years of follow-up for women, 790 deaths in men and 424 in women were observed. In the univariate analyses for men, lower social capital was significantly related to higher mortality in one general trust variable, all generalised reciprocity variables and four social network variables. For women, lower social capital was significantly related to higher mortality in all generalised reciprocity and four social network variables. After adjusting for covariates, lower friendship network was significantly associated with higher all-cause mortality among men (meet friends rarely; HR = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.10-1.53 and women (having no friends; HR = 1.81, 95%CI = 1.02-3.23. Among women, lower general trust was significantly related to lower mortality (most people cannot be trusted; HR = 0.65, 95%CI = 0.45-0.96. Conclusions Friendship network was a good

  9. Scoring life insurance applicants' laboratory results, blood pressure and build to predict all-cause mortality risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulks, Michael; Stout, Robert L; Dolan, Vera F

    2012-01-01

    Evaluate the degree of medium to longer term mortality prediction possible from a scoring system covering all laboratory testing used for life insurance applicants, as well as blood pressure and build measurements. Using the results of testing for life insurance applicants who reported a Social Security number in conjunction with the Social Security Death Master File, the mortality associated with each test result was defined by age and sex. The individual mortality scores for each test were combined for each individual and a composite mortality risk score was developed. This score was then tested against the insurance applicant dataset to evaluate its ability to discriminate risk across age and sex. The composite risk score was highly predictive of all-cause mortality risk in a linear manner from the best to worst quintile of scores in a nearly identical fashion for each sex and decade of age. Laboratory studies, blood pressure and build from life insurance applicants can be used to create scoring that predicts all-cause mortality across age and sex. Such an approach may hold promise for preventative health screening as well.

  10. Situational versus chronic loneliness as risk factors for all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon; Ayalon, Liat

    2010-05-01

    Several international studies have substantiated the role of loneliness as a risk factor for mortality. Although both theoretical and empirical research has supported the classification of loneliness as either situational or chronic, research to date has not evaluated whether this classification has a differential impact upon mortality. To establish the definition of situational vs. chronic loneliness, we used three waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a nationally representative sample of Americans over the age of 50 years. Baseline data for the present study were collected in the years 1996, 1998, and 2000. The present study concerns the 7,638 individuals who completed all three waves; their loneliness was classified as either not lonely, situational loneliness or chronic loneliness. Mortality data were available through to the year 2004. Those identified as "situationally lonely" (HR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.52-1.62) as well as those identified as "chronically lonely" (HR = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.71-1.87) had a greater risk for all cause mortality net of the effect of possible demographic and health confounders. Nonetheless, relative to those classified as "situationally lonely," individuals classified as "chronically lonely" had a slightly greater mortality risk. The current study emphasizes the important role loneliness plays in older adults' health. The study further supports current division into situational vs. chronic loneliness, yet suggests that both types serve as substantial mortality risks.

  11. Racial disparities in all-cause mortality among veterans with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Cheryl P; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Echols, Carrae; Gilbert, Gregory E; Zhao, Yumin; Egede, Leonard E

    2010-10-01

    Racial differences in mortality among veterans with diabetes are less well characterized than those in the general population. To examine racial differences in all-cause mortality in a large sample of veterans with diabetes. A retrospective cohort. Participants comprised 8,812 veterans with type 2 diabetes. The main outcome measure was time to death. The main predictor was race/ethnicity. Other risk factors (or covariates) included age, gender, marital status, employment, glycosylated hemoglobin (HgbA1c), and several ICD-9 coded physical and mental health comorbidities. Average follow-up was 4.5 years; 64% of veterans were non-Hispanic whites (NHW), 97% male, and 84% at least 50 years old. The overall mortality rate was 15% and was significantly lower for non-Hispanic blacks (NHB). Baseline HgbA1c values also differed for NHW (mean = 7.05) and NHB (mean = 7.65) (p age, not being employed or retired, poor glycemic control, cancer, Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), and anxiety disorder; while a lower risk was associated with being female and ever being married. The risk of death among NHB veterans with diabetes remained significantly lower than that of NHW after controlling for important confounding variables. Future studies in the VA need to examine detailed contributions of patient, provider and system-level factors on racial differences in mortality in adults with diabetes, especially if the findings of this study are replicated at other sites or using national VA data.

  12. Discontinuation of antiplatelet treatment and risk of recurrent stroke and all-cause death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Kamilla; Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    use and followed them up for stroke recurrence, or all-cause death. Person-time was classified by antiplatelet drug use into current use, recent use (≤150 days after last use), and non-use (>150 days after last use). Lipid-lowering drug (LLD) use was classified by the same rules. We used Cox...... proportional hazard models to calculate the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of recurrent stroke or death associated with discontinuation of antiplatelet or LLD drugs. RESULTS: Among 4,670 stroke patients followed up for up a median of 1.5 years, 237...... experienced a second stroke and 600 died. Compared with current antiplatelet drug use, both recent use (1.3 (0.8-2.0)), and non-use (1.3 (0.8-1.9)) were associated with increased recurrent stroke risk. The corresponding HRs of death were 1.9 (1.4-2.5) for recent and 1.8 (1.4-2.3) for non-use of antiplatelet...

  13. Vitamin C Depletion and All-Cause Mortality in Renal Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor, Camilo G; Eisenga, Michele F; Gomes Neto, Antonio W; Ozyilmaz, Akin; Gans, Rijk O B; Jong, Wilhelmina H A de; Zelle, Dorien M; Berger, Stefan P; Gaillard, Carlo A J M; Navis, Gerjan J; Bakker, Stephan J L

    2017-06-02

    Vitamin C may reduce inflammation and is inversely associated with mortality in the general population. We investigated the association of plasma vitamin C with all-cause mortality in renal transplant recipients (RTR); and whether this association would be mediated by inflammatory biomarkers. Vitamin C, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1) were measured in a cohort of 598 RTR. Cox regression analyses were used to analyze the association between vitamin C depletion (≤28 µmol/L; 22% of RTR) and mortality. Mediation analyses were performed according to Preacher and Hayes's procedure. At a median follow-up of 7.0 (6.2-7.5) years, 131 (21%) patients died. Vitamin C depletion was univariately associated with almost two-fold higher risk of mortality (Hazard ratio (HR) 1.95; 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 1.35-2.81, p C depletion is frequent and independently associated with almost two-fold higher risk of mortality in RTR. It may be hypothesized that the beneficial effect of vitamin C at least partly occurs through decreasing inflammation.

  14. Heart rate turbulence predicts all-cause mortality and sudden death in congestive heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Zareba, Wojciech; Vazquez, Rafael; Vallverdu, Montserrat; Gonzalez-Juanatey, Jose R; Valdes, Mariano; Almendral, Jesus; Cinca, Juan; Caminal, Pere; de Luna, Antoni Bayes

    2008-08-01

    Abnormal heart rate turbulence (HRT) has been documented as a strong predictor of total mortality and sudden death in postinfarction patients, but data in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of HRT for predicting mortality in CHF patients in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II-III. In 651 CHF patients with sinus rhythm enrolled into the MUSIC (Muerte Subita en Insuficiencia Cardiaca) study, the standard HRT parameters turbulence onset (TO) and slope (TS), as well as HRT categories, were assessed for predicting total mortality and sudden death. HRT was analyzable in 607 patients, mean age 63 years (434 male), 50% of ischemic etiology. During a median follow up of 44 months, 129 patients died, 52 from sudden death. Abnormal TS and HRT category 2 (HRT2) were independently associated with increased all-cause mortality (HR: 2.10, CI: 1.41 to 3.12, P 120 ms. HRT is a potent risk predictor for both heart failure and arrhythmic death in patients with class II and III CHF.

  15. Social isolation, loneliness, and all-cause mortality in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; Shankar, Aparna; Demakakos, Panayotes; Wardle, Jane

    2013-04-09

    Both social isolation and loneliness are associated with increased mortality, but it is uncertain whether their effects are independent or whether loneliness represents the emotional pathway through which social isolation impairs health. We therefore assessed the extent to which the association between social isolation and mortality is mediated by loneliness. We assessed social isolation in terms of contact with family and friends and participation in civic organizations in 6,500 men and women aged 52 and older who took part in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing in 2004-2005. A standard questionnaire measure of loneliness was administered also. We monitored all-cause mortality up to March 2012 (mean follow-up 7.25 y) and analyzed results using Cox proportional hazards regression. We found that mortality was higher among more socially isolated and more lonely participants. However, after adjusting statistically for demographic factors and baseline health, social isolation remained significantly associated with mortality (hazard ratio 1.26, 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.48 for the top quintile of isolation), but loneliness did not (hazard ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval, 0.78-1.09). The association of social isolation with mortality was unchanged when loneliness was included in the model. Both social isolation and loneliness were associated with increased mortality. However, the effect of loneliness was not independent of demographic characteristics or health problems and did not contribute to the risk associated with social isolation. Although both isolation and loneliness impair quality of life and well-being, efforts to reduce isolation are likely to be more relevant to mortality.

  16. Discordance between physician and patient self-rated health and all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desalvo, Karen B; Muntner, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Self-assessments of health are a strong predictor of mortality. Whether self-assessment of health provides additional information beyond a physician's assessment is unclear. We analyzed data on 14,530 US adults from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. General self-rated health (GSRH)-"In general, would you say your health is Excellent, Very Good, Good, Fair, or Poor?"-and a single question to physician examiners following a medical examination rating participants' health, both on a 5-point scale of Excellent, Very Good, Good, Fair, or Poor were assessed for the period 1988-1994. All-cause mortality was assessed through December 31, 2006 (n  =  3,460 deaths). Agreement between participant GSRH and physician-assessed health was 53.8% (42.1% Excellent/Very Good, 8.7% Good, and 3.0% Fair/Poor; weighted Kappa statistic  =  0.20). After adjustment, participants who reported better GSRH compared to the physician assessment of their health experienced lower mortality (hazard ratio  =  0.76, 95% CI: 0.66-0.87). Also, participants reporting worse health than the physician assessment experienced higher mortality (hazard ratio  =  1.45, 95% CI 1.24-1.70). Individuals who reported worse health than was assessed by a physician had increased mortality. These results warrant evaluation of whether GSRH collection in the clinical setting improves outcomes.

  17. The association between primary language spoken and all-cause mortality in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendu, Mallika L; Zager, Sam; Moromizato, Takuhiro; McKane, Caitlin K; Gibbons, Fiona K; Christopher, Kenneth B

    2013-12-01

    The study objective was to investigate the association between primary language spoken and all-cause mortality in critically ill patients. We performed a cohort study on 48 581 patients 18 years or older who received critical care between 1997 and 2007 in 2 Boston hospitals. The exposure of interest was primary language spoken determined by the patient or family members who interacted with administrative staff during hospital registration. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. Associations between language and mortality were estimated by bivariable and multivariable logistic regression models with inclusion of covariate terms thought to plausibly interact with both language and mortality. Adjustment included age, race, sex, Deyo-Charlson index, patient type (medical vs surgical), sepsis, creatinine, hematocrit, white blood count, and number of organs with acute failure. Validation showed that primary language spoken was highly accurate for a statement in the medical record noting the language spoken that matched the assigned language. Patients whose primary language spoken was not English had improved outcomes (odds ratio 30-day mortality, 0.69 [95% confidence interval, 0.60-0.81; P language spoken, fully adjusted. Similar significant associations are seen with death by days 90 and 365 as well as in-hospital mortality. The improved survival in patients with a non-English primary language spoken is not confounded by indicators of severity of disease and is independent of the specific language spoken and neighborhood poverty rate, a proxy for socioeconomic status. There are significant limitations inherent to large database studies that we have acknowledged and addressed with controlling for measured confounding and evaluation of effect modification. In a regional cohort, not speaking English as a primary language is associated with improved outcomes after critical care. Our observations may have clinical relevance and illustrate the intersection of several

  18. Effects of habitual coffee consumption on cardiometabolic disease, cardiovascular health, and all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, James H; Bhatti, Salman K; Patil, Harshal R; DiNicolantonio, James J; Lucan, Sean C; Lavie, Carl J

    2013-09-17

    Coffee, after water, is the most widely consumed beverage in the United States, and is the principal source of caffeine intake among adults. The biological effects of coffee may be substantial and are not limited to the actions of caffeine. Coffee is a complex beverage containing hundreds of biologically active compounds, and the health effects of chronic coffee intake are wide ranging. From a cardiovascular (CV) standpoint, coffee consumption may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension, as well as other conditions associated with CV risk such as obesity and depression; but it may adversely affect lipid profiles depending on how the beverage is prepared. Regardless, a growing body of data suggests that habitual coffee consumption is neutral to beneficial regarding the risks of a variety of adverse CV outcomes including coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, and stroke. Moreover, large epidemiological studies suggest that regular coffee drinkers have reduced risks of mortality, both CV and all-cause. The potential benefits also include protection against neurodegenerative diseases, improved asthma control, and lower risk of select gastrointestinal diseases. A daily intake of ∼2 to 3 cups of coffee appears to be safe and is associated with neutral to beneficial effects for most of the studied health outcomes. However, most of the data on coffee's health effects are based on observational data, with very few randomized, controlled studies, and association does not prove causation. Additionally, the possible advantages of regular coffee consumption have to be weighed against potential risks (which are mostly related to its high caffeine content) including anxiety, insomnia, tremulousness, and palpitations, as well as bone loss and possibly increased risk of fractures. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Smoking and All-cause Mortality in Older Adults: Results From the CHANCES Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müezzinler, Aysel; Mons, Ute; Gellert, Carolin; Schöttker, Ben; Jansen, Eugène; Kee, Frank; O'Doherty, Mark G; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Freedman, Neal D; Abnet, Christian C; Wolk, Alicja; Håkansson, Niclas; Orsini, Nicola; Wilsgaard, Tom; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Peeters, Petra H M; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Peters, Annette; Orfanos, Philippos; Linneberg, Allan; Pisinger, Charlotta; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Baceviciene, Migle; Luksiene, Dalia; Bernotiene, Gailute; Jousilahti, Pekka; Petterson-Kymmer, Ulrika; Jansson, Jan Håkan; Söderberg, Stefan; Eriksson, Sture; Jankovic, Nicole; Sánchez, María-José; Veronesi, Giovanni; Sans, Susana; Drygas, Wojciech; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Boffetta, Paolo; Brenner, Hermann

    2015-11-01

    Smoking is known to be a major cause of death among middle-aged adults, but evidence on its impact and the benefits of smoking cessation among older adults has remained limited. Therefore, we aimed to estimate the influence of smoking and smoking cessation on all-cause mortality in people aged ≥60 years. Relative mortality and mortality rate advancement periods (RAPs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models for the population-based prospective cohort studies from Europe and the U.S. (CHANCES [Consortium on Health and Ageing: Network of Cohorts in Europe and the U.S.]), and subsequently pooled by individual participant meta-analysis. Statistical analyses were performed from June 2013 to March 2014. A total of 489,056 participants aged ≥60 years at baseline from 22 population-based cohort studies were included. Overall, 99,298 deaths were recorded. Current smokers had 2-fold and former smokers had 1.3-fold increased mortality compared with never smokers. These increases in mortality translated to RAPs of 6.4 (95% CI=4.8, 7.9) and 2.4 (95% CI=1.5, 3.4) years, respectively. A clear positive dose-response relationship was observed between number of currently smoked cigarettes and mortality. For former smokers, excess mortality and RAPs decreased with time since cessation, with RAPs of 3.9 (95% CI=3.0, 4.7), 2.7 (95% CI=1.8, 3.6), and 0.7 (95% CI=0.2, 1.1) for those who had quit <10, 10 to 19, and ≥20 years ago, respectively. Smoking remains as a strong risk factor for premature mortality in older individuals and cessation remains beneficial even at advanced ages. Efforts to support smoking abstinence at all ages should be a public health priority. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Oxidative Stress Predicts All-Cause Mortality in HIV-Infected Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Masiá

    Full Text Available We aimed to assess whether oxidative stress is a predictor of mortality in HIV-infected patients.We conducted a nested case-control study in CoRIS, a contemporary, multicentre cohort of HIV-infected patients, antiretroviral-naïve at entry, launched in 2004. Cases were patients who died with available stored plasma samples collected. Two age and sex-matched controls for each case were selected. We measured F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs and malondialdehyde (MDA plasma levels in the first blood sample obtained after cohort engagement.54 cases and 93 controls were included. Median F2-IsoPs and MDA levels were significantly higher in cases than in controls. When adjustment was performed for age, HIV-transmission category, CD4 cell count and HIV viral load at cohort entry, and subclinical inflammation measured with highly-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP, the association of F2-IsoPs with mortality remained significant (adjusted OR per 1 log10 increase, 2.34 [1.23-4.47], P = 0.009. The association of MDA with mortality was attenuated after adjustment: adjusted OR (95% CI per 1 log10 increase, 2.05 [0.91-4.59], P = 0.080. Median hsCRP was also higher in cases, and it also proved to be an independent predictor of mortality in the adjusted analysis: OR (95% CI per 1 log10 increase, 1.39 (1.01-1.91, P = 0.043; and OR (95% CI per 1 log10 increase, 1.46 (1.07-1.99, P = 0.014, respectively, when adjustment included F2-IsoPs and MDA.Oxidative stress is a predictor of all-cause mortality in HIV-infected patients. For plasma F2-IsoPs, this association is independent of HIV-related factors and subclinical inflammation.

  1. Wound healing and all-cause mortality in 958 wound patients treated in home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarchi, Kian; Martinussen, Torben; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2015-09-01

    Skin wounds are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Data are, however, not readily available for benchmarking, to allow prognostic evaluation, and to suggest when involvement of wound-healing experts is indicated. We, therefore, conducted an observational cohort study to investigate wound healing and all-cause mortality associated with different types of skin wounds. Consecutive skin wound patients who received wound care by home-care nurses from January 2010 to December 2011 in a district in Eastern Denmark were included in this study. Patients were followed until wound healing, death, or the end of follow-up on December 2012. In total, 958 consecutive patients received wound care by home-care nurses, corresponding to a 1-year prevalence of 1.2% of the total population in the district. During the study, wound healing was achieved in 511 (53.3%), whereas 90 (9.4%) died. During the first 3 weeks of therapy, healing was most likely to occur in surgical wounds (surgical vs. other wounds: adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 2.21, 95% confidence interval 1.50-3.23), while from 3 weeks to 3 months of therapy, cancer wounds, and pressure ulcers were least likely to heal (cancer vs. other wounds: AHR 0.12, 0.03-0.50; pressure vs. other wounds: AHR 0.44, 0.27-0.74). Cancer wounds and pressure ulcers were further associated with a three times increased probability of mortality compared with other wounds (cancer vs. other wounds: AHR 3.19, 1.35-7.50; pressure vs. other wounds: AHR 2.91, 1.56-5.42). In summary, the wound type was found to be a significant predictor of healing and mortality with cancer wounds and pressure ulcers being associated with poor prognosis. © 2015 by the Wound Healing Society.

  2. Educational level as a contextual and proximate determinant of all cause mortality in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Prescott, E

    2003-01-01

    , exercise, alcohol use, and body mass index) and contextual factors (local area unemployment, income share, and household composition) were included in the Cox model. CONCLUSION: In this study the educational level of an area influenced subject's mortality, but first after adjustment for behavioural......): 0.87 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.98) and individual level (HR: 0.76 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.88) were inversely associated with mortality, when comparing the higest educated groups with the least educated. However, at parish level the effect was only present, when information on subject's income, behaviour (smoking...

  3. Systemic inflammation-based scores and mortality for all causes in HIV-infected patients: a MASTER cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffetti, Elena; Donato, Francesco; Casari, Salvatore; Castelnuovo, Filippo; Sighinolfi, Laura; Bandera, Alessandra; Maggiolo, Franco; Ladisa, Nicoletta; di Pietro, Massimo; Fornabaio, Chiara; Digiambenedetto, Simona; Quiros-Roldan, Eugenia

    2017-03-07

    Two biomarkers, the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), have been shown to be indicative of systemic inflammation and predictive of mortality in general population. We aimed to assess the association of NLR and PLR, with risk of death in HIV-infected subjects when also taking account of HIV-related factors. We conducted a multicenter Italian cohort study from 2000 to 2012 including HIV-infected subjects naïve at antiretroviral treatment. The associations of NLR and PLR with all-cause mortality were tested by univariate and multivariate analyses using both time independent and dependent Cox proportional hazard models. We also fitted models with a cubic-spline for PLR and NLR to evaluate the possible non-linear relationship between biomarkers values and risk of death. Eight-thousand and two hundred thirty patients (73.1% males) with a mean age of 38.4 years (SD 10.1) were enrolled. During a median follow-up of 3.9 years, 539 patients died. PLR death at both univariate and multivariate analyses. Using multivariate models with restricted cubic-splines, we found a linear relationship of increasing risk of death with increasing values for NRL over 1.1, and an U-shape curve for PLR, with higher mortality risk for values higher or lower than 120. Our data suggest that NLR and PLR can reflect the severity of the underlying systemic disturbance of the inflammatory process and coagulation leading to augmented mortality in HIV positive subjects.

  4. Early life origins of all-cause and cause-specific disability pension: findings from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bondorff, Mikaela B; Törmäkangas, Timo; Salonen, Minna; von Bonsdorff, Monika E; Osmond, Clive; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G

    2015-01-01

    There is some evidence linking sub-optimal prenatal development to an increased risk of disability pension (DP). Our aim was to investigate whether body size at birth was associated with transitioning into all-cause and cause-specific DP during the adult work career. 10 682 people born in 1934-44 belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study had data on birth weight extracted from birth records, and on time, type and reason of retirement between 1971 and 2011 extracted from the Finnish Centre for Pensions. Altogether 21.3% transitioned into DP during the 40-year follow-up, mainly due to mental disorders, musculoskeletal disorders and cardiovascular disease. Average age of transitioning into DP was 51.3 (SD 8.4) for men and 52.2 (SD 7.6) for women. Cohort members who did not transition into DP retired 10 years later on average. Among men, higher birth weight was associated with a lower hazard of transitioning into DP, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) being 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-0.99 for 1 SD increase in birth weight). For DP due to mental disorders the adjusted HR was 0.90, 95% CI 0.81, 0.99. A similar but non-significant trend was found for DP due to cardiovascular disease. Among women there were no associations between body size at birth and all-cause DP (p for interaction gender*birth weight on DP p = 0.007). Among men disability pension, particularly due to mental disorders, may have its origins in prenatal development. Given that those who retire due to mental health problems are relatively young, the loss to the workforce is substantial.

  5. All-Cause Mortality for Life Insurance Applicants with a History of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Stephen A; MacKenzie, Ross; Wylde, David N; Roudebush, Bradley T; Bergstrom, Richard L; Holowaty, J Carl; Hart, Anna; Rigatti, Steven J; Gill, Stacy

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide. Breast cancer is also the second leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States after lung cancer with over 40,000 breast cancer deaths occurring each year. The purpose of this research was to determine the all-cause mortality of applicants diagnosed with breast cancer currently or at some time in the past. Life insurance applicants with reported breast cancer were extracted from data covering United States residents between November 2007 and November 2014. Information about these applicants was matched to the Social Security Death Master (SSDMF) file for deaths occurring from 2007 to 2011 and to another commercially available death source file (Other Death Source, ODS) for deaths occurring from 2007 to 2014 to determine vital status. If there was a death from the other death source, then the SSDMF was searched to verify the death. The study had approximately 561,000 person-years of exposure. Actual-to-expected (A/E) mortality ratios were calculated using the Society of Actuaries 2008 Valuation Basic Table (2008VBT), select and ultimate table (age last birthday) and the 2010 US population as expected mortality ratios. Since the A/Es presented in this paper were known to be an underestimate due to the exclusion of the recent SSDMF deaths, comparative analysis of the mortality ratios was done. Since there was no smoking status information in this study, all expected bases were not smoker distinct. Overall, the 35-44 age group had 6.3 times the relative mortality ratio than those in the 65-75 age group. The relative mortality ratio for the 35-44 age group applicants, when cancer severity was accounted for in combination with 3 or more nodes of cancer involvement, was 29.3 times that when compared to those in the 65-75 age group having localized cancer, where no nodes are involved. The 35-44 age group applicants who were diagnosed with cancer within the last year had over 10-fold increase in

  6. Metabolic syndrome in Russian adults: associated factors and mortality from cardiovascular diseases and all causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grjibovski Andrej M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a cluster of four major obesity-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. Russia has one of the highest CVD mortality in the world, but its association with MetS remains unknown. Also little is known about factors associated with MetS and its components in Russia. Methods Data on 3555 adults aged 18-90 years were collected in a cross-sectional study in 2000. MetS was defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF and National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP criteria. Sex-specific associations between the IDF-defined MetS, its components, and life-style, socio-economic factors and laboratory indicators, were analysed using multivariable Poisson regression. Vital status of the study participants was identified by July 2009. Sex-specific associations between MetS and stroke, Coronary Heart Disease (CHD, CVD and all-cause death, were studied by Poisson regression adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol and history of CVDs. Results After adjustment for all studied factors except BMI, age, serum GGT, C-reactive protein and AST-to-ALT ratio were associated with MetS in both genders. Additionally, MetS was associated with sedentary lifestyle in women and with smoking in men. In the same regression model drinking alcohol 2-4 times a month and consumption of five or more alcohol units at one occasion in men, and drinking alcohol 5 times or more a month in women were inversely associated with MetS. After a 9-year follow-up, MetS was associated with higher risk of death from stroke (RR = 3.76, 95% CI:1.35-10.46 and from either stroke or myocardial infarction (MI, RR = 2.87, 95% CI:1.32-6.23 in men. No associations between MetS and any of the studied causes of death were observed in women. Conclusion Factors associated with MetS in both genders were age, GGT, C-reactive protein, and AST-to-ALT ratio. Moderate frequency of alcohol consumption and binge drinking in men and higher leisure time

  7. All-Cause Mortality After Fertility-Sparing Surgery for Stage I Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, Alexander; Rizzo, Anthony E; Nitecki, Roni; Gockley, Allison A; Bregar, Amy J; Schorge, John O; Del Carmen, Marcela G; Rauh-Hain, J Alejandro

    2017-07-01

    To compare all-cause mortality between women who underwent fertility-sparing surgery with those who underwent conventional surgery for stage I ovarian cancer. In a cohort study using the National Cancer Database, we identified women younger than 40 years diagnosed with stage IA and unilateral IC epithelial ovarian cancer between 2004 and 2012. Fertility-sparing surgery was defined as conservation of one ovary and the uterus. The primary outcome was time from diagnosis to death. We used propensity score methods to assemble a cohort of women who underwent fertility-sparing or conventional surgery but were otherwise similar on observed covariates and conducted survival analyses using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard models. We identified 1,726 women with stage IA and unilateral IC epithelial ovarian cancer of whom 825 (47.8%) underwent fertility-sparing surgery. Fertility-sparing surgery was associated with younger age, residence in the northeastern and western United States, and serous or mucinous histology (Pfertility-sparing surgery and 37 deaths among propensity-matched women who underwent conventional surgery after a median follow-up of 63 months. Fertility-sparing surgery was not associated with hazard of death (hazard ratio 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-1.29, P=.36). The probability of survival 10 years after diagnosis was 88.5% (95% CI 82.4-92.6) in the fertility-sparing group and 88.9% (95% CI 84.9-92.0) in the conventional surgery group. In patients with high-risk features such as clear cell histology, grade 3, or stage IC, 10-year survival was 80.5% (95% CI 68.5-88.3) among women who underwent fertility-sparing surgery and 83.4% (95% 76.0-88.7) among those who had conventional surgery (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% CI 0.49-1.53, P=.61). Compared with conventional surgery, fertility-sparing surgery was not associated with increased risk of death in young women with stage I epithelial ovarian cancer.

  8. Increased all-cause mortality with use of psychotropic medication in dementia patients and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Baandrup, Lone; Ibsen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    compared with 44,286 control subjects with a minimum follow-up of four years and matched on age, gender, marital status, and community location. Information about psychotropic medication use (benzodiazepines, antidepressants, antipsychotics) was obtained from the Danish Medicinal Product Statistics. All.......004 (0.046), P=0.925; HR=1.406 (0.061), Pgeneration antipsychotics (HR=1.183 (0.074), P=0.022; HR=2.026 (0.114), Pgeneration...

  9. Depressive symptoms and all-cause mortality in people with type 2 diabetes : A focus on potential mechanisms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nefs, G.M.; Pop, V.J.M.; Denollet, J.; Pouwer, F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression has been associated with increased all-cause mortality in people with type 2 diabetes. Aims To test whether anhedonia, dysphoria and anxiety are differentially associated with all-cause mortality and examine symptom-specific behavioural or pathophysiological mechanisms. Method

  10. Measuring Subjective Happiness by Newly Developed Scale in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Abachizadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Happiness as one of the main positive health indicators has drawn more attention in recent years among policy makers and health system managers. There are few studies performed to measure happiness in population-based settings in Iran. In response to this need, our study tends to assess Iranians subjective happiness in Tehran, Capital city of Iran.Materials and Methods: Present study was conducted in Tehran, Capital of Iran, with more than 7 Million populations in January 2013, using a two-step approach. In first step c conceptual framework of Iranians’ happiness was developed. In the second phase of study, a survey recruiting 700 participants was conducted. Stratified cluster sampling method was employed. Participants were recruited from all the 22 municipal divisions of Tehran as strata, proportional to the population size and its gender and age distribution. Happiness was measure by a 40-item questionnaire with scores ranged among 40 to 200.Results: Conceptual framework of Iranians’ happiness based on reviewed documents and consensus building process was the product of first step. At second step, from a pool of 700 persons, 696 (97% agreed to participate and filled out the questionnaire completely.  The mean of happiness score was 143.9 (95% confidence interval, 142.5 to 145.4. The results show that the happiness score of jobless people (135.1, 95%CI: 128.1-142.0 and widowed singles (126.6, 95%CI: 113.0-140.2 were significantly lower than other corresponding groups. There was no significant association between gender, age group, educational level as determinants and happiness.Conclusion: Happiness level of Tehranians is somewhat higher than the moderate level. This finding is consistent with findings of other conducted studies in country. However, it is not consistent with some of international reports of happiness, For instance, Happy Planet Index. Due to inadequate information, it is necessary to conduct more research to

  11. Impact of smoking: all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a cohort of 55-year-old Swedes and Estonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen-Urstad, Mats; Viigimaa, Margus; Sammul, Sirje; Lenhoff, Hanna; Johansson, Jan

    2014-12-01

    In the 1990s, several studies noted a large gap in life expectancy between Western and Eastern European countries. It was speculated that this could be explained by environmental pollution, socioeconomic factors, lifestyle and psychosocial stress. A weakness in addressing the issue has been the lack of prospective studies with mortality as end point. We used the national population registries (between 1996 and 1998) to screen a cohort of 269 55-year-old subjects in Sweden and Estonia. We assessed conventional risk factors, lifestyle and socio-economic factors. A 13-year follow-up regarding all-cause and cardiovascular mortality was done. Smoking and, to a lesser extent, plasma levels of interleukin-6 were significant predictors for CVD and non-CVD mortality in men, but none of the other conventional risk factors reached statistical significance. During the follow-up period, 22 of the 52 male smokers died compared to 8 of the 85 male non-smokers (p<0.01). Ten of the smokers died of CVD compared to three of the non-smokers (p<0.002). In total, only two women died. These data emphasize that smoking prevention is extremely important in preventing premature death. Although smoking prevalence is diminishing, it is still the most important risk factor to treat. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  12. Exposure to out-of-home care in childhood and adult all-cause mortality: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Menghan; Brännström, Lars; Almquist, Ylva B

    2017-06-01

    Children placed in out-of-home care (OHC) have exceedingly high rates of health problems. Their poor health tends to persist across adolescence and into young adulthood, resulting in increased risks of mortality. Yet, very little is known about this group's mortality risks later in life. The aim of this study was to investigate whether OHC was associated with the risk of all-cause mortality across adulthood, and whether these risks varied across different placement characteristics. Moreover, the study addressed potential confounding by including two comparison groups with children who grew up under similarly adverse living conditions but did not experience placement. Data were derived from a 60-year follow-up of a Stockholm cohort born in 1953 ( n = 15 048), of whom around 9% have had experiences of OHC. The associations between OHC and subsequent all-cause mortality were analysed by means of Cox's proportional hazards regression models. Individuals who were placed in OHC at any point during their formative years had increased mortality risks across ages 20 to 56 years. Elevated risk of mortality was particularly pronounced among those who were placed in adolescence and/or because of their own behaviours. Children who were exposed to OHC had increased risks of mortality also when compared with those who grew up under similar living conditions but did not experience placement. Children in OHC constitute a high-risk group for subsequent mortality. In order to narrow the mortality gap, interventions may need to monitor not only health aspects but also to target the cognitive and social development of these children.

  13. Therapeutic patient education and all-cause mortality in patients with chronic heart failure: a propensity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juillière, Yves; Jourdain, Patrick; Suty-Selton, Christine; Béard, Thierry; Berder, Véronique; Maître, Brigitte; Trochu, Jean-Noël; Drouet, Elodie; Pace, Benoît; Mulak, Geneviève; Danchin, Nicolas

    2013-09-20

    Meta-analyses of disease management programs have shown favorable effects in chronic heart failure. Therapeutic patient education forms an integral part of these programs and may influence mortality per se. We aimed to determine the relationship between therapeutic patient education applied in routine clinical practice and long-term mortality in chronic heart failure. From 2007 to 2010 (median follow-up: 27.2 months), heart failure patients were prospectively enrolled in a multicenter, 'real-world', French cohort by centers previously trained in therapeutic patient education. As educated and non-educated patient profiles were expected to differ, mortality was assessed using conventional multivariate analyses and analyses made on propensity-matched cohorts for the application of therapeutic patient education. Of the 3237 patients who participated in the study (67.5 years; 69.5% men), 2347 were educated (72.5%) and 890 were not educated (27.5%). Non-educated patients were older, more often female, and more severely diseased than educated patients. All-cause mortality was 17.3% in the educated group vs. 31.0% in the non-educated group (adjusted HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.58-0.84, Pcardiovascular medications and propensity score (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.58-0.90, P=.003; HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.59-0.90, P=.004, respectively). In chronic heart failure, therapeutic patient education by trained healthcare professionals appears associated with lower all-cause mortality. These data may have important implications in terms of healthcare organization, because they suggest that therapeutic patient education should be developed in all types of cardiology centers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Insomnia predicts long-term all-cause mortality after acute myocardial infarction: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condén, Emelie; Rosenblad, Andreas

    2016-07-15

    Sleep impairment such as insomnia is an established risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aim of the current study was to examine the association between insomnia and all-cause mortality among AMI patients. This prospective cohort study used data on n=732 patients recruited from September 2006 to May 2011 as part of the Västmanland Myocardial Infarction Study (VaMIS), a prospective cohort study of AMI patients living in Västmanland County, Sweden. Participants were followed up for all-cause mortality until December 9, 2015. The outcome of interest was time-to-death (TTD), with the presence of insomnia being the risk factor of main interest. Data were analyzed using a piecewise Cox regression model with change point for insomnia at two years of follow-up, adjusted for socioeconomic, lifestyle and clinical risk factors. In total, n=175 (23.9%) of the participants suffered from insomnia. During a mean (SD) follow-up time of 6.0 (2.5) years (4392person-years), a total of n=231 (31.6%) participants died, n=77 (44.0%) in the insomnia group and n=154 (27.6%) in the non-insomnia group (log-rank test p<0.001). In a multiple adjusted piecewise Cox regression model, insomnia did not imply a higher risk of death during the first two years after AMI (HR 0.849; 95% CI 0.508-1.421; p=0.534). During the period after the first two years, however, insomnia implied a 1.6 times higher risk of death (HR 1.597; 95% CI 1.090-2.341; p=0.016). Insomnia implies a higher risk of death among AMI patients in the long term. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Observed versus predicted cardiovascular events and all-cause death in HIV infection: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Socio, Giuseppe Vittorio; Pucci, Giacomo; Baldelli, Franco; Schillaci, Giuseppe

    2017-06-12

    The aim of the study was to assess the applicability of an algorithm predicting 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) generated in the setting of the Framingham Heart Study to a real-life, contemporary Italian cohort of HIV-positive subjects. The study was an observational longitudinal cohort study. The probability for 10-year CVD events according to the Framingham algorithm was assessed in 369 consecutive HIV-positive participants free from overt CVD enrolled in 2004, who were followed for a median of 10.0 years (interquartile range, 9.1-10.1). Cardiovascular events included myocardial infarction, hospitalized heart failure, revascularized angina, sudden cardiac death, stroke, peripheral arterial disease. Over 3097 person-years of observation, we observed a total of 34 CVD events, whereas Framingham algorithm predicted the occurrence of 34.3 CVD events. CVD event rate was 11.0/1000 person-years of follow-up. In a receiver operating characteristics curve analysis, Framingham risk equation showed an excellent predictive value for incident CVD events (c-statistics, 0.83; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.90). In a multivariable Cox analysis, age, smoking and diabetes were independent predictors of CVD events. All-cause death rate was 20.0/1000 person-years of follow-up (n = 62 deaths). Causes of death included liver diseases (18), malignancies (14), AIDS-related (11); cardiovascular (9) and others (10). In a Cox analysis, age, AIDS diagnosis and chronic hepatitis were independent predictors of death. Observed CVD events in HIV-infected patients were well predicted by Framingham algorithm. Established major CVD risk factors are the strongest determinants of CVD morbidity in an Italian contemporary cohort of HIV-positive subjects. Interventions to modify traditional risk factors are urgently needed in HIV people.

  16. IGF1 as predictor of all cause mortality and cardiovascular disease in an elderly population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mikkel; Raymond, Ilan; Kistorp, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: IGF1 is believed to influence ageing and development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) through complex mechanisms. Reduced IGF1 levels might be causally associated with conditions accompanying ageing including development of CVD. However, in animal models reduced GH-IGF1 signalling...

  17. Effect of Urate-lowering Therapy on the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and All-cause Mortality in Patients with Gout: A Case-matched Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiunn-Horng; Lan, Joung-Liang; Cheng, Chi-Fung; Liang, Wen-Miin; Lin, Hsiao-Yi; Tsay, Gregory J; Yeh, Wen-Ting; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2015-09-01

    To examine (1) the risk of death from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and from all causes in patients with gout who do not undergo urate-lowering therapy (ULT), and (2) the effect of ULT on mortality risk in patients with gout. In this prospective case-matched cohort study, 40,623 Taiwanese individuals aged ≥ 17 years were followed for 6.5 years. Mortality rate was compared between 1189 patients with gout who did not receive ULT and reference subjects (no gout, no ULT) matched for age, sex, and the index date of gout diagnosis (1:3 patients with gout/reference subjects), and between 764 patients with gout who received ULT and 764 patients with gout who did not receive ULT matched 1-to-1 based on their propensity score and the index date of ULT prescription. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to estimate the respective risk of CVD (International Classification of Diseases, 9th ed. code 390-459) and all-cause mortality. After adjustment, patients with gout not treated with ULT had an increased risk of CVD mortality (HR 2.43, 95% CI 1.33-4.45) and all-cause mortality (1.45, 1.05-2.00) relative to the matched reference subjects (no gout, no ULT). Patients with gout treated with ULT had a lower risk of CVD (0.29, 0.11-0.80) and all-cause mortality (0.47, 0.29-0.79) relative to patients with gout not treated with ULT. This survival benefit persisted for users of either allopurinol or benzbromarone. Patients with gout who received ULT had significantly better survival rates than those who did not. Thus, undertreatment of gout has serious negative consequences.

  18. Beyond human subjects: risk, ethics, and clinical development of nanomedicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmelman, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Clinical testing of nanomedicines presents two challenges to prevailing, human subject-centered frameworks governing research ethics. First, some nanomedical applications may present risk to persons other than research subjects. Second, pressures encountered in testing nanomedicines may present threats to the kinds of collaborations and collective activities needed for supporting clinical translation and redeeming research risk. In this article, I describe how similar challenges were encountered and addressed in gene transfer, and sketch policy options that might be explored in the nanomedicine translation arena. © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  19. All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality among US Youth: Socioeconomic and Rural–Urban Disparities and International Patterns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Gopal K; Azuine, Romuladus E; Siahpush, Mohammad; Kogan, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed international patterns and socioeconomic and rural–urban disparities in all-cause mortality and mortality from homicide, suicide, unintentional injuries, and HIV/AIDS among US youth aged 15–24 years...

  20. Average volume of alcohol consumed, type of beverage, drinking pattern and the risk of death from all causes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baglietto, Laura; English, Dallas R; Hopper, John L; Powles, John; Giles, Graham G

    2006-01-01

    The objective was to investigate associations between average volume of alcohol consumption, type of beverage and drinking pattern and all-cause mortality in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study...

  1. Ideal cardiovascular health and mortality from all causes and diseases of the circulatory system among adults in the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ford, Earl S; Greenlund, Kurt J; Hong, Yuling

    2012-01-01

    .... The objective of the present study was to examine how well these metrics predicted mortality from all causes and diseases of the circulatory system in a national sample of adults in the United States...

  2. Milk Consumption and Mortality from All Causes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larsson, Susanna C; Crippa, Alessio; Orsini, Nicola; Wolk, Alicja; Michaëlsson, Karl

    2015-01-01

    .... We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies assessing the association of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer...

  3. Dietary phosphatidylcholine and risk of all-cause and cardiovascular-specific mortality among US women and men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zheng, Yan; Li, Yanping; Rimm, Eric B; Hu, Frank B; Albert, Christine M; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Manson, JoAnn E; Qi, Lu

    2016-01-01

    .... We aimed to examine whether dietary consumption of phosphatidylcholine, which is mainly derived from eggs, red meat, and fish, is related to all-cause and CVD mortality in 2 cohorts of US women and men...

  4. ESHOL study reanalysis: All-cause mortality considered by competing risks and time-dependent covariates for renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Maduell

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The results of this analysis of the ESHOL trial confirm that post-dilution OL-HDF reduces all-cause mortality versus hemodialysis in prevalent patients. The original results of the ESHOL study, which censored patients discontinuing the study for any reason, were confirmed in the present ITT population without censures and when all-cause mortality was considered by time-dependent and competing risks for transplantation.

  5. A Population-Based Cohort Study of All-Cause and Site-Specific Cancer Incidence Among Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pei-Chun; Lin, Wei-Hung; Kuo, Te-Hui; Lee, Hui-Mei; Kuo, Chieh; Li, Chung-Yi

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and cancer incidence remains unclear. We sought to assess the all-cause and site-specific cancer incidence in patients with T1DM. A retrospective cohort study design was employed, in which 14 619 patients with T1DM were retrieved from Taiwan's National Health Insurance medical claims between 2000 and 2007. The study subjects were followed to the end of 2008, and cancer incidence was assessed. We calculated age-, sex-, and calendar year-standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of all-cause cancer incidence and site-specific neoplasm incidence, with reference to the general population. Seven hundred and sixty patients were identified for all-cause cancer over 86,610 person-years, representing an incidence rate of 87.75 cases per 10,000 person-years. The incidence rate was higher in males than in female patients (109.86 vs 69.75 cases per 10,000 person-years). T1DM was associated with a significantly increased SIR of all-cause cancer (1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.22). The sex-specific SIR was significantly elevated in female patients (1.19; 95% CI, 1.07-1.33), but the SIR for male patients was insignificantly elevated (1.09; 95% CI, 0.99-1.20). Pancreatic cancer showed the greatest increase in SIR among both male and female patients with T1DM. Male patients experienced significantly increased SIRs for kidney, rectum, liver, and colon neoplasm, and significantly increased SIRs were noted for ovarian, bladder, and colon cancer in female patients. T1DM was associated with a 13% increase in risk of all-cause cancer incidence. Patients with T1DM should be advised to undergo cancer screening for certain types of cancer.

  6. Habitual sleep duration and insomnia and the risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause death: report from a community-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Kuo-Liong; Chen, Pei-Chung; Hsu, Hsiu-Ching; Su, Ta-Chen; Sung, Fung-Chang; Chen, Ming-Fong; Lee, Yuan-Teh

    2010-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between sleep duration and insomnia severity and the risk of all-cause death and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Prospective cohort study. Community-based. A total of 3,430 adults aged 35 years or older. None. During a median 15.9 year (interquartile range, 13.1 to 16.9) follow-up period, 420 cases developed cardiovascular disease and 901 cases died. A U-shape association between sleep duration and all-cause death was found: the age and gender-adjusted relative risks (95% confidence interval [CI]) of all-cause death (with 7 h of daily sleep being considered for the reference group) for individuals reporting or = 9 h were 1.15 (0.91-1.45), 1.02 (0.85-1.25), 1.05 (0.88-1.27), and 1.43 (1.16-1.75); P for trend, 0.019. However, the relationship between sleep duration and risk of CVD were linear. The multivariate-adjusted relative risk (95% CI) for all-cause death (using individuals without insomnia) were 1.02 (0.86-1.20) for occasional insomnia, 1.15 (0.92-1.42) for frequent insomnia, and 1.70 (1.16-2.49) for nearly everyday insomnia (P for trend, 0.028). The multivariate adjusted relative risk (95% CI) was 2.53 (1.71-3.76) for all-cause death and 2.07 (1.11-3.85) for CVD rate in participants sleeping > or = 9 h and for those with frequent insomnia. Sleep duration and insomnia severity were associated with all-cause death and CVD events among ethnic Chinese in Taiwan. Our data indicate that an optimal sleep duration (7-8 h) predicted fewer deaths.

  7. Wine intake, ABO phenotype, and risk of ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality: the Copenhagen Male Study-a 16-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, P.; Hein, H.O.; Gyntelberg, F.

    2008-01-01

    The association of alcohol intake with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality may depend on ABO phenotype. We tested this hypothesis in a 16-year follow-up of 3,022 Caucasian men aged 53-74 years without overt cardiovascular disease. Potential risk factors and confounders included...... were ABO phenotypes, alcohol intake (wine, beer, and spirits), tobacco smoking history, leisure-time, physical activity, social class, and age. During 16 years, 1985-1986 to end of 2001, 197 subjects (6.5%) died due to IHD, and 1,204 (39.8%) from all causes. Among non-O phenotypes (A, B, and AB......) significantly fewer men who died due to IHD were wine consumers, 43.9% versus 55.7%, P alcohol abstainers, in Cox...

  8. Impact of persistence and non-persistence in leisure time physical activity on coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, Peter; O'Keefe, James H.; Lange, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of persistence and non-persistence in leisure time physical activity on coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality. Methods and results: In the Copenhagen City Heart Study, we prospectively followed 12,314 healthy subjects for 33 years...... of maximum follow-up with at least two repeated measures of physical activity. The association between persistence and non-persistence in leisure time physical activity, coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality were assessed by multivariable Cox regression analyses. Coronary heart disease mortality.......5 years for moderate and 5.5 years for high physical activity. A substantial increase in physical activity was associated with lower coronary heart disease mortality (HR 0.75; 95% CI 0.52–1.08) corresponding to 2.4 years longer life, whereas a substantial decrease in physical activity was associated...

  9. β-Blockers and All-Cause Mortality in Adults with Episodes of Acute Bronchitis: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Frans H; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Sachs, Alfred P E; Grobbee, Diederick E; Hoes, Arno W

    2013-01-01

    Recent observational studies suggest that β-blockers may improve long-term prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We assessed whether β-blocker use improves all-cause mortality in patients with episodes of acute bronchitis. An observational cohort study using data from the electronic medical records of 23 general practices in the Netherlands. The data included standardized information about daily patient contacts, diagnoses, and drug prescriptions. Cox regression was applied with time-varying treatment and covariates. The study included 4,493 patients aged 45 years and older, with at least one episode of acute bronchitis between 1996 and 2006. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 66.9 (11.7) years, and 41.9% were male. During a mean (SD) follow up period of 7.7 (2.5) years, 20.4% developed COPD. In total, 22.7% had cardiovascular comorbidities, resulting in significant higher mortality rates than those without (51.7% vs. 12.0%, pacute bronchitis. Cardioselective β-blockers, but also calcium channel blockers and statins may reduce mortality, possibly as a result of cardiovascular protective properties.

  10. Prolonged QT interval is linked to all-cause and cardiac mortality in chronic peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Huey-Liang; Liu, Yao-Lung; Liang, Chih-Chia; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Wang, Su-Ming; Liu, Jiung-Hsiun; Lin, Hsin-Hung; Wang, I-Kuan; Yang, Ya-Fei; Chou, Che-Yi; Huang, Chiu-Ching

    2017-06-01

    Prolonged QT interval is related to changes of electrolytes in haemodialysis (HD) and is associated with all-cause mortality in HD patients. It is unknown if prolonged QT interval is associated with all-cause mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients as the electrolytes were relatively stable in PD. We therefore investigated the association of prolonged QT interval and all-cause mortality in chronic PD patients. The QT intervals were measured in 2003 and all patients were followed to December 2012. A prolonged QT interval was defined as a QT interval > 450 ms. The association of prolonged QT interval with all-cause and cardiac-specific mortality was analyzed using Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Of 306 patients, 196 (64%) patients had prolonged QT interval. The incidence density rate was 9.7 per 100 persons-years for all-cause mortality and 5.6 for cardiac specific mortality in patients with prolonged QT interval. Prolonged QT interval was associated with all-cause mortality with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.59 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-2.39, P = 0.03] and cardiac mortality (HR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.00-2.78, P = 0.05) with adjustments for age, gender, diabetes, and vintage of dialysis. Longer QT interval (>500 ms, 450-500 ms, and QT interval was associated with all-cause and cardiac mortality in patients on peritoneal dialysis. The association is independent of patient's age and diabetes. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  11. Aggressive regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis decrease all-cause mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole D Mitnick

    Full Text Available A better understanding of the composition of optimal treatment regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is essential for expanding universal access to effective treatment and for developing new therapies for MDR-TB. Analysis of observational data may inform the definition of an optimized regimen.This study assessed the impact of an aggressive regimen-one containing at least five likely effective drugs, including a fluoroquinolone and injectable-on treatment outcomes in a large MDR-TB patient cohort.This was a retrospective cohort study of patients treated in a national outpatient program in Peru between 1999 and 2002. We examined the association between receiving an aggressive regimen and the rate of death.In total, 669 patients were treated with individualized regimens for laboratory-confirmed MDR-TB. Isolates were resistant to a mean of 5.4 (SD 1.7 drugs. Cure or completion was achieved in 66.1% (442 of patients; death occurred in 20.8% (139. Patients who received an aggressive regimen were less likely to die (crude hazard ratio [HR]: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.44,0.89, compared to those who did not receive such a regimen. This association held in analyses adjusted for comorbidities and indicators of severity (adjusted HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.43,0.93.The aggressive regimen is a robust predictor of MDR-TB treatment outcome. TB policy makers and program directors should consider this standard as they design and implement regimens for patients with drug-resistant disease. Furthermore, the aggressive regimen should be considered the standard background regimen when designing randomized trials of treatment for drug-resistant TB.

  12. Aggressive Regimens for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Decrease All-Cause Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitnick, Carole D.; Franke, Molly F.; Rich, Michael L.; Alcantara Viru, Felix A.; Appleton, Sasha C.; Atwood, Sidney S.; Bayona, Jaime N.; Bonilla, Cesar A.; Chalco, Katiuska; Fraser, Hamish S. F.; Furin, Jennifer J.; Guerra, Dalia; Hurtado, Rocio M.; Joseph, Keith; Llaro, Karim; Mestanza, Lorena; Mukherjee, Joia S.; Muñoz, Maribel; Palacios, Eda; Sanchez, Epifanio; Seung, Kwonjune J.; Shin, Sonya S.; Sloutsky, Alexander; Tolman, Arielle W.; Becerra, Mercedes C.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale A better understanding of the composition of optimal treatment regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is essential for expanding universal access to effective treatment and for developing new therapies for MDR-TB. Analysis of observational data may inform the definition of an optimized regimen. Objectives This study assessed the impact of an aggressive regimen–one containing at least five likely effective drugs, including a fluoroquinolone and injectable–on treatment outcomes in a large MDR-TB patient cohort. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of patients treated in a national outpatient program in Peru between 1999 and 2002. We examined the association between receiving an aggressive regimen and the rate of death. Measurements and Main Results In total, 669 patients were treated with individualized regimens for laboratory-confirmed MDR-TB. Isolates were resistant to a mean of 5.4 (SD 1.7) drugs. Cure or completion was achieved in 66.1% (442) of patients; death occurred in 20.8% (139). Patients who received an aggressive regimen were less likely to die (crude hazard ratio [HR]: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.44,0.89), compared to those who did not receive such a regimen. This association held in analyses adjusted for comorbidities and indicators of severity (adjusted HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.43,0.93). Conclusions The aggressive regimen is a robust predictor of MDR-TB treatment outcome. TB policy makers and program directors should consider this standard as they design and implement regimens for patients with drug-resistant disease. Furthermore, the aggressive regimen should be considered the standard background regimen when designing randomized trials of treatment for drug-resistant TB. PMID:23516529

  13. Subject Knowledge Development by Science Student Teachers: The Role of University Tutors and School-Based Subject Mentors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youens, Bernadette; McCarthy, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Following the introduction of a National Curriculum for Science, all secondary science teachers in England need to be prepared to teach all aspects of a broad and balanced science curriculum. This is the second paper in which we explore science student teachers' subject knowledge development during a one-year postgraduate teacher preparation…

  14. How Achieving the Millennium Development Goals Increases Subjective Well-Being in Developing Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizuki Fukuda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The target date in 2015 for the United Nation’s Millennium Development Goals (MDGs was reached, and a new period of global goals for the post-2015 is dawning. To assess whether and how regional progress towards achieving the MDGs has contributed to better quality of life in developing nations, we formulated a correlation between various aspects of human development, indicated by MDG indicators, and subjective well-being (SWB, a response to the question of how much people feel happy or satisfied. We demonstrated that national levels of SWB can be explained by the degree of development; poverty reduction is the strongest determinant, and achieving the MDGs is associated with higher SWB levels. Scenario assessment of SWB allowed which domain of development should be improved preferentially in each region to be determined, hence the SWB approach is expected to offer an innovative proxy of human development for the assessment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs.

  15. The Relation of Ambulatory Heart Rate with All-Cause Mortality among Middle-Aged Men: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshøj, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Kittel, France; Van Herck, Koen; De Backer, Guy; De Bacquer, Dirk; Holtermann, Andreas; Clays, Els

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between average 24-hour ambulatory heart rate and all-cause mortality, while adjusting for resting clinical heart rate, cardiorespiratory fitness, occupational and leisure time physical activity as well as classical risk factors. A group of 439 middle-aged male workers free of baseline coronary heart disease from the Belgian Physical Fitness Study was included in the analysis. Data were collected by questionnaires and clinical examinations from 1976 to 1978. All-cause mortality was collected from the national mortality registration with a mean follow-up period of 16.5 years, with a total of 48 events. After adjustment for all before mentioned confounders in a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, a significant increased risk for all-cause mortality was found among the tertile of workers with highest average ambulatory heart rate compared to the tertile with lowest ambulatory heart rate (Hazard ratio = 3.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.22–8.44). No significant independent association was found between resting clinic heart rate and all-cause mortality. The study indicates that average 24-hour ambulatory heart rate is a strong predictor of all-cause mortality independent from resting clinic heart rate, cardiorespiratory fitness, occupational and leisure time physical activity and other classical risk factors among healthy middle-aged workers. PMID:25811891

  16. A Retrospective Study of the Clinical Burden of Hospitalized All-Cause and Pneumococcal Pneumonia in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly A. McNeil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Routine vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae is recommended in Canada for infants, the elderly, and individuals with chronic comorbidity. National incidence and burden of all-cause and pneumococcal pneumonia in Canada (excluding Quebec were assessed. Methods. Incidence, length of stay, and case-fatality rates of hospitalized all-cause and pneumococcal pneumonia were determined for 2004–2010 using ICD-10 discharge data from the Canadian Institutes for Health Information Discharge Abstract Database. Population-at-risk data were obtained from the Statistics Canada census. Temporal changes in pneumococcal and all-cause pneumonia rates in adults ≥65 years were analyzed by logistic regression. Results. Hospitalization for all-cause pneumonia was highest in children 70 years and declined significantly from 1766/100,000 to 1537/100,000 per year in individuals aged ≥65 years (P<0.001. Overall hospitalization for pneumococcal pneumonia also declined from 6.40/100,000 to 5.08/100,000 per year. Case-fatality rates were stable (11.6% to 12.3%. Elderly individuals had longer length of stay and higher case-fatality rates than younger groups. Conclusions. All-cause and pneumococcal pneumonia hospitalization rates declined between 2004 and 2010 in Canada (excluding Quebec. Direct and indirect effects from pediatric pneumococcal immunization may partly explain some of this decline. Nevertheless, the burden of disease from pneumonia remains high.

  17. Impact of statin therapy on all-cause mortality and ICD interventions in heart failure patients - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazoukis, George; Papadatos, Stamatis S; Letsas, Konstantinos P; Pagkalidou, Eirini; Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis

    2017-10-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) have a unique role for the primary and secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD). The aim of our systematic review is to present the existing data about the impact of statins on all-cause mortality and ICD interventions in heart failure (HF) patients who had an ICD implanted either for primary or for secondary prevention of SCD. We searched PubMed database and the reference list of the relevant studies for retrieving studies evaluating the effect of statins on all-cause mortality and ICD interventions in HF patients. We finally included 17 relevant studies in our systematic review. Of them, nine studies included data about the impact of statins on all-cause mortality, eight studies about the impact of statins on appropriate ICD interventions and three studies about the impact of statins on inappropriate ICD interventions in HF patients. These data showed that statins seem to have a beneficial role in the reduction of all-cause mortality and ICD interventions in HF patients. Statins seem to have a beneficial role in the reduction of all-cause mortality and ICD interventions in HF patients. However, further research about pleiotropic effects of statins is needed as well randomized control trials to elucidate the exact role of statin therapy in ICD outcomes.

  18. γ-Glutamyl Transferase as a Risk Factor for All-Cause or Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Among 5912 Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wen-Jun; Liu, Qiang; Cao, Jian-Lei; Zhao, Sheng-Jie; Zeng, Xian-Wei; Deng, Ai-Jun

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of the measurement of serum γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) concentrations at admission with 1-year all-cause or cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in patients with acute ischemic stroke. This prospective, multicenter cohort study was conducted in 4 stroke centers in China. Baseline GGT measurements were tested. The relationship of GGT to the risk of death from all-cause or CVD was examined among 1-year follow-up patients. We recorded results from 5912 patients with stroke. In those patients, 51.0% were men, and the median age was 61 years. In both men and women, high GGT was significantly associated with total mortality from all-cause or CVD ( P Stroke Scale score (area under the curve of the combined model, 0.75 [95% confidence interval, 0.73-0.78]; P stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor as a prognostic marker of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a black population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botha, Shani; Fourie, Carla M T; Schutte, Rudolph

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are well-known risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. The less familiar marker, soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), is known to predict cancer, infections and all......-cause mortality. We determined whether suPAR, CRP and IL-6 are predictive of both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a black population, highly burdened by cardiovascular disease and HIV infection. METHODS: We included 1425 black South Africans, of which 208 died within five years after baseline data...... collection. EDTA plasma biomarker levels were determined, while all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were used as endpoints. RESULTS: At baseline suPAR, CRP and IL-6 were higher in non-survivors than in survivors (PCRP (HR 1...

  20. Waist circumference and body composition in relation to all-cause mortality in middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, J; Frederiksen, K; Tjønneland, A

    2005-01-01

    of cancer at the time of invitation. MEASUREMENTS: Waist circumference and body composition estimated from impedance measurements. Cox's regression models were used to estimate the mortality rate ratios (RR). RESULTS: Waist circumference was strongly associated with all-cause mortality after adjustment...... index (BFMI) and all-cause mortality. The association between fat-free mass index (FFMI) and mortality remained unaltered. CONCLUSION: Waist circumference accounted for the mortality risk associated with excess body fat and not fat-free mass. Waist circumference remained strongly and directly associated...... with all-cause mortality when adjusted for total body fat in middle-aged men and women, suggesting that the increased mortality risk related to excess body fat is mainly due to abdominal adiposity....

  1. Betel nut chewing is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in Taiwanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Yuan; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Lee, Long-Teng; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Huang, Chih-Yang; Huang, Kuo-Chin

    2008-05-01

    Betel nut chewing is related to several kinds of cancer, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. Whether it is associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality, however, remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between betel nut chewing and CVD and all-cause mortality. A baseline cohort of 56,116 male participants > or = 20 y old were recruited from 4 nationwide health screening centers in Taiwan in 1998 and 1999. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) of CVD and all-cause mortality for betel nut chewers during an 8-y follow-up period. There were 1549 deaths during the follow-up period, 309 of which were due to CVD. After adjustment for age, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, lipids, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, income, and education level, the RRs (95% CI) of CVD and all-cause mortality among the former betel nut chewers were 1.56 (1.02, 2.38) and 1.40 (1.17, 1.68), respectively, and those among current chewers were 2.02 (1.31, 3.13) and 1.40 (1.16, 1.70), respectively, compared with persons who had never chewed betel quid. Current and former betel nut chewers had a higher risk of CVD mortality (RR: 2.10; P betel nut chewing was associated with greater CVD and all-cause mortality. Betel nut chewing was independently associated with a greater risk of CVD and all-cause mortality in Taiwanese men. Regular screening for betel nut chewing history may help prevent excess deaths in the future. An anti-betel nut chewing program is urgently warranted for current chewers.

  2. Prediction of all-cause mortality with copeptin in cardio-cerebrovascular patients: A meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Sun, Ting; Ma, Bing; Yang, Bo-wen; Zhang, Yao; Huang, Dong-hui; Shi, Jing-pu

    2015-07-01

    Measurement of the biomarker copeptin may help identify disease severity and risk of mortality for a various diseases. This study sought to determine the relationship between copeptin and all-cause mortality of patients with cardio-cerebrovascular disease. Database of Medline and Web of Science were searched for studies with data involving the baseline copeptin levels and subsequent all-cause mortality outcomes. The pooled HRs of all-cause mortality were calculated and presented with 95%CIs. Subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis were conducted to explore the possible sources of heterogeneity. Data from 14,395 participants were derived from 28 prospective studies. Higher copeptin significantly increased the risk of all-cause mortality (per unit copeptin: HR=1.020, 95%CI=1.004-1.036; log unit copeptin: HR=2.884, 95%CI=1.844-4.512; categorical copeptin: HR=3.371, 95%CI=2.077-5.472). Subgroup analysis indicated that the risk of all-cause death was higher in cerebrovascular patients (per unit copeptin: HR=2.537, 95%CI=0.956-6.731; log unit copeptin: HR=3.419, 95%CI=2.391-4.888) than cardiovascular patients (per unit copeptin: HR=1.011, 95%CI=1.002-1.020; log unit copeptin: HR=2.009, 95%CI=1.119-3.608). Copeptin is associated with all-cause mortality of patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Our study suggests that copeptin seems to be a promising novel biomarker for prediction of mortality in cardio-cerebrovascular patients, especially for cerebrovascular patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vitamin/mineral supplementation and cancer, cardiovascular, and all-cause mortality in a German prospective cohort (EPIC-Heidelberg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine

    2012-06-01

    To prospectively evaluate the association of vitamin/mineral supplementation with cancer, cardiovascular, and all-cause mortality. In the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Heidelberg), which was recruited in 1994-1998, 23,943 participants without pre-existing cancer and myocardial infarction/stroke at baseline were included in the analyses. Vitamin/mineral supplementation was assessed at baseline and during follow-up. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After an average follow-up time of 11 years, 1,101 deaths were documented (cancer deaths = 513 and cardiovascular deaths = 264). After adjustment for potential confounders, neither any vitamin/mineral supplementation nor multivitamin supplementation at baseline was statistically significantly associated with cancer, cardiovascular, or all-cause mortality. However, baseline users of antioxidant vitamin supplements had a significantly reduced risk of cancer mortality (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.97) and all-cause mortality (HR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.88). In comparison with never users, baseline non-users who started taking vitamin/mineral supplements during follow-up had significantly increased risks of cancer mortality (HR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.77) and all-cause mortality (HR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.17, 2.14). Based on limited numbers of users and cases, this cohort study suggests that supplementation of antioxidant vitamins might possibly reduce cancer and all-cause mortality. The significantly increased risks of cancer and all-cause mortality among baseline non-users who started taking supplements during follow-up may suggest a "sick-user effect," which researchers should be cautious of in future observational studies.

  4. Subject of research on effects of tourism on population development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devedžić Mirjana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of tourism in the context of economic and demographic recovery of certain regions has created an image of tourism as a development catalyst. Thus strategies of revitalization in depopulated and passive regions often consider tourism as an activity that can speed up the development and successfully valorize existing natural, cultural and demographic potentials. This "key" is used mainly in the absence of other development resources since tourism valorizes issues that other industries ignore (landscape features, ethnical heritage, authentic folk architecture, etc. In addition it is more difficult to recommend the right forms of tourism to be developed in depopulated regions, as well as to estimate the resulting economic and demographic effects. To this end, there are success stories, but there is also evidence of non-rational initiatives and projects that were never completed. This paper attempts to discover the most logical links between population development and tourism development, based on some important characteristics of population development. The characteristics used are overall population increase, population migrations, population structures and changes in households. They were selected because they best reflect not only direct, but also indirect multiplicative effects of tourism. Along with the theoretical and methodological background, the research is also supported by selected examples, interviews, and demographic analyzes. The effects are not universal. They depend on the region, the kind of tourism and the degree of its development, the demographic situation as it is, and the research approach, since global and local effects need not necessarily be unidirectional. Population increase initiated by tourism development is achieved due to the migration component, but the effects are most obvious at the level of tourist regions and their tourist centers. One can also note counter processes in some places that have tourist

  5. The inflammatory biomarker YKL-40 as a new prognostic marker for all-cause mortality in patients with heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harutyunyan, Marina; Christiansen, Michael; Johansen, Julia S

    2011-01-01

    peptide (NT-proBNP) could be a new prognostic biomarker for all-cause mortality in patients with HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 717 of the 1000 patients with severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction included in the EchoCardiography and Heart Outcome Study were included in Denmark and had blood......-CRP, and renal function). CONCLUSION: Serum YKL-40 is significantly associated with all-cause mortality in patients with HF and could potentially be a new prognostic biomarker in these patients....

  6. Predicting 7-day, 30-day and 60-day all-cause unplanned readmission: a case study of a Sydney hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maali, Yashar; Perez-Concha, Oscar; Coiera, Enrico; Roffe, David; Day, Richard O; Gallego, Blanca

    2018-01-04

    The identification of patients at high risk of unplanned readmission is an important component of discharge planning strategies aimed at preventing unwanted returns to hospital. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with unplanned readmission in a Sydney hospital. We developed and compared validated readmission risk scores using routinely collected hospital data to predict 7-day, 30-day and 60-day all-cause unplanned readmission. A combination of gradient boosted tree algorithms for variable selection and logistic regression models was used to build and validate readmission risk scores using medical records from 62,235 live discharges from a metropolitan hospital in Sydney, Australia. The scores had good calibration and fair discriminative performance with c-statistic of 0.71 for 7-day and for 30-day readmission, and 0.74 for 60-day. Previous history of healthcare utilization, urgency of the index admission, old age, comorbidities related to cancer, psychosis, and drug-abuse, abnormal pathology results at discharge, and being unmarried and a public patient were found to be important predictors in all models. Unplanned readmissions beyond 7 days were more strongly associated with longer hospital stays and older patients with higher number of comorbidities and higher use of acute care in the past year. This study demonstrates similar predictors and performance to previous risk scores of 30-day unplanned readmission. Shorter-term readmissions may have different causal pathways than 30-day readmission, and may, therefore, require different screening tools and interventions. This study also re-iterates the need to include more informative data elements to ensure the appropriateness of these risk scores in clinical practice.

  7. β-Blockers and All-Cause Mortality in Adults with Episodes of Acute Bronchitis: An Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans H Rutten

    Full Text Available Recent observational studies suggest that β-blockers may improve long-term prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We assessed whether β-blocker use improves all-cause mortality in patients with episodes of acute bronchitis.An observational cohort study using data from the electronic medical records of 23 general practices in the Netherlands. The data included standardized information about daily patient contacts, diagnoses, and drug prescriptions. Cox regression was applied with time-varying treatment and covariates.The study included 4,493 patients aged 45 years and older, with at least one episode of acute bronchitis between 1996 and 2006. The mean (SD age of the patients was 66.9 (11.7 years, and 41.9% were male. During a mean (SD follow up period of 7.7 (2.5 years, 20.4% developed COPD. In total, 22.7% had cardiovascular comorbidities, resulting in significant higher mortality rates than those without (51.7% vs. 12.0%, p<0.001. The adjusted hazard ratio of cardioselective β-blocker use for mortality was 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50-0.77, and 1.01 (95% CI 0.75-1.36 for non-selective ones. Some other cardiovascular drugs also reduced the risk of mortality, with adjusted HRs of 0.60 (95% CI 0.46-0.79 for calcium channel blockers, 0.88 (95% CI 0.73-1.06 for ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, and 0.42 (95% CI 0.31-0.57 for statins, respectively.Cardiovascular comorbidities are common and increase the risk of mortality in adults with episodes of acute bronchitis. Cardioselective β-blockers, but also calcium channel blockers and statins may reduce mortality, possibly as a result of cardiovascular protective properties.

  8. Incidence and Influence of Hospitalization for Recurrent Syncope and Its Effect on Short- and Long-Term All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin H; Numé, Anna-Karin; Lamberts, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Recurrence of syncope is a common event, but the influence of recurrent syncope on the risk of death has not previously been investigated on a large scale. We examined the prognostic impact of recurrent syncope in a nationwide cohort of patients with syncope. All patients (n = 70,819) hospitalized...... is independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality across all age groups exhibiting a high prognostic influence. Increased awareness on high short- and long-term risk of adverse events in subjects with recurrent syncope is warranted for future risk stratification....

  9. Osteoporosis markers on low-dose lung cancer screening chest computed tomography scans predict all-cause mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buckens, C. F.; van der Graaf, Y.; Verkooijen, H. M.; Mali, W. P.; Isgum, I.; Mol, C. P.; Verhaar, H. J.; Vliegenthart, R.; Oudkerk, M.; van Aalst, C. M.; de Koning, H. J.; de Jong, P.A.

    Objectives Further survival benefits may be gained from low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) by assessing vertebral fractures and bone density. We sought to assess the association between CT-measured vertebral fractures and bone density with all-cause mortality in lung cancer screening

  10. Mental health symptoms as prognostic risk markers of all-cause and psychiatric sickness absence in office workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Rhenen, van W.; Hoedeman, R.; Groothoff, J.W.; Klink, van der J.J.L.; Bültmann, U.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate mental health symptoms as prognostic risk markers of all-cause and psychiatric sickness absence (SA). Methods: Mental health symptoms were measured in 1137 office workers with the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ), including scales for distress, depression, anxiety and

  11. Mental health symptoms as prognostic risk markers of all-cause and psychiatric sickness absence in office workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; Hoedeman, Rob; van Rhenen, Willem; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Bultmann, Ute

    Background: To investigate mental health symptoms as prognostic risk markers of all-cause and psychiatric sickness absence (SA). Methods: Mental health symptoms were measured in 1137 office workers with the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ), including scales for distress, depression,

  12. Coffee consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippa, Alessio; Discacciati, Andrea; Larsson, Susanna C; Wolk, Alicja; Orsini, Nicola

    2014-10-15

    Several studies have analyzed the relationship between coffee consumption and mortality, but the shape of the association remains unclear. We conducted a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies to examine the dose-response associations between coffee consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and all cancers. Pertinent studies, published between 1966 and 2013, were identified by searching PubMed and by reviewing the reference lists of the selected articles. Prospective studies in which investigators reported relative risks of mortality from all causes, CVD, and all cancers for 3 or more categories of coffee consumption were eligible. Results from individual studies were pooled using a random-effects model. Twenty-one prospective studies, with 121,915 deaths and 997,464 participants, met the inclusion criteria. There was strong evidence of nonlinear associations between coffee consumption and mortality for all causes and CVD (P for nonlinearity Coffee consumption was not associated with cancer mortality. Findings from this meta-analysis indicate that coffee consumption is inversely associated with all-cause and CVD mortality. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. ACE genotype, phenotype and all-cause mortality in different cohorts of patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færch, Louise H; Sejling, Anne-Sophie; Lajer, Maria

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Carrying the D-allele of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D polymorphism and high ACE activity are prognostic factors in diabetic nephropathy, which predicts mortality in type 1 diabetes. We studied the association between the ACE D-allele and ACE phenotype and long-term all-cause ...

  14. High serum YKL-40 level in a cohort of octogenarians is associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J. S.; Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Schroll, M.

    2007-01-01

    of serum YKL-40 (logarithmically transformed and divided by tertiles) showed significant association with all-cause mortality [tertile 3: hazard ratio (HR) = 2.38, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-4.78, P = 0.02]. The effect persisted after adjusting for potential confounders (sex, smoking, body mass...

  15. Association between sustained virological response and all-cause mortality among patients with chronic hepatitis C and advanced hepatic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.P. van der Meer (Adriaan); B.J. Veldt (Bart); J.J. Feld (Jordan J.); H. Wedemeyer (Heiner); J.F. Dufour (Jean-François); F. Lammert (Frank); A. Duarte-Rojo (Andres); E.J. Heathcote (Jenny); M.P. Manns (Michael); L. Kuske (Lorenz); S. Zeuzem (Stefan); W.P. Hofmann (Peter); R.J. de Knegt (Robert); B.E. Hansen (Bettina); H.L.A. Janssen (Harry)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstract_Context:_ Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection outcomes include liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and liver-related death. _Objective:_ To assess the association between sustained virological response (SVR) and all-cause mortality in patients with chronic HCV

  16. Purpose in Life and Its Relationship to All-Cause Mortality and Cardiovascular Events: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Randy; Bavishi, Chirag; Rozanski, Alan

    2016-01-01

    To assess the net impact of purpose in life on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events. The electronic databases PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO were systematically searched through June 2015 to identify all studies investigating the relationship between purpose in life, mortality, and cardiovascular events. Articles were selected for inclusion if, a) they were prospective, b) evaluated the association between some measure of purpose in life and all-cause mortality and/or cardiovascular events, and c) unadjusted and/or adjusted risk estimates and confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Ten prospective studies with a total of 136,265 participants were included in the analysis. A significant association was observed between having a higher purpose in life and reduced all-cause mortality (adjusted pooled relative risk = 0.83 [CI = 0.75-0.91], p purpose in life, age, and whether or not participants with baseline cardiovascular disease were included in the study all yielded similar results. Possessing a high sense of purpose in life is associated with a reduced risk for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events. Future research should focus on mechanisms linking purpose in life to health outcomes, as well as interventions to assist individuals identified as having a low sense of purpose in life.

  17. Somatic versus cognitive symptoms of depression as predictors of all-cause mortality and health status in chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Angélique A; Pelle, Aline J; Smith, Otto R F

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a predictor of adverse health outcomes in chronic heart failure (CHF), but it is not known whether specific symptoms drive this relationship. We examined the impact of somatic/affective, cognitive/affective, and total depressive symptoms on all-cause mortality and health status in CHF....

  18. Fiber consumption and all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortalities: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihua; Wang, Shan; Liu, Jianchao

    2015-01-01

    The present meta-analysis aimed to investigate fiber consumption and all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality. MEDLINE and web of science database were searched for cohort studies published from inception to August 2014. Studies were included if they provided a hazard ratio (HR) and corresponding 95% CI for mortality in relation to fiber consumption.We found that, compared with those who consumed lowest fiber, for individuals who ate highest fiber, mortality rate was lower by 23% (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.72-0.81) for CVD, by 17% (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74-0.91) for cancer, by 23% (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.73-0.81) for all-cause mortality. For each 10 g/day increase in fiber intake, the pooled HR was estimated to be 0.89 (95% CI, 0.86-0.93) for all-cause mortality, 0.80 (95% CI, 0.72-0.88) for CHD mortality, and 0.66 (95% CI, 0.40-0.92) for IHD mortality, 0.91 (95% CI, 0.88-0.94) for cancer. Dietary fiber and CVD mortality showed a strong dose-response relation. Apparently, fiber consumption is inversely associated with all-cause mortality and CVD, IHD, cancer mortality. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Milk Consumption and Mortality from All Causes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna C. Larsson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Results from epidemiological studies of milk consumption and mortality are inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies assessing the association of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. PubMed was searched until August 2015. A two-stage, random-effects, dose-response meta-analysis was used to combine study-specific results. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed with the I2 statistic. During follow-up periods ranging from 4.1 to 25 years, 70,743 deaths occurred among 367,505 participants. The range of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption and the shape of the associations between milk consumption and mortality differed considerably between studies. There was substantial heterogeneity among studies of non-fermented milk consumption in relation to mortality from all causes (12 studies; I2 = 94%, cardiovascular disease (five studies; I2 = 93%, and cancer (four studies; I2 = 75% as well as among studies of fermented milk consumption and all-cause mortality (seven studies; I2 = 88%. Thus, estimating pooled hazard ratios was not appropriate. Heterogeneity among studies was observed in most subgroups defined by sex, country, and study quality. In conclusion, we observed no consistent association between milk consumption and all-cause or cause-specific mortality.

  20. Waist circumference and waist/hip ratio in relation to all-cause mortality, cancer and sleep apnea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, J C

    Abdominal obesity assessed by waist or waist/hip ratio are both related to increased risk of all-cause mortality throughout the range of body mass index (BMI). The relative risks (RRs) seem to be relatively stronger in younger than in older adults and in those with relatively low BMI compared with

  1. Dietary fiber intake in relation to coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality over 40 y: the Zutphen Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streppel, M.T.; Ocke, M.C.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Kok, F.J.; Kromhout, D.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the effects of dietary fiber intake on long-term mortality. Objective: We aimed to study recent and long-term dietary fiber intake in relation to coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality. Design: The effects of recent and long-term dietary fiber intakes on

  2. Global Longitudinal Strain Is a Superior Predictor of All-Cause Mortality in Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, Morten; Jørgensen, Peter Godsk; Jensen, Jan Skov

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of global longitudinal strain (GLS) in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) patients in relation to all-cause mortality. Background: Measurement of myocardial deformation by 2-dimensional speckle trackin...

  3. Extreme nonfasting remnant cholesterol vs extreme LDL cholesterol as contributors to cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in 90000 individuals from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased nonfasting remnant cholesterol, like increased LDL cholesterol, is causally associated with increased risk for ischemic heart disease (IHD). We tested the hypothesis that extreme concentrations of nonfasting remnant and LDL cholesterol are equal contributors to the risk of IHD......, myocardial infarction (MI), and all-cause mortality. METHODS: We compared stepwise increasing concentrations of nonfasting remnant and LDL cholesterol for association with risk of IHD, MI, and all-cause mortality in approximately 90 000 individuals from the Danish general population. During up to 22 years...... of complete follow-up, 4435 participants developed IHD, 1722 developed MI, and 8121 died. RESULTS: Compared with participants with nonfasting remnant cholesterol cholesterol of 0.5-0.99 mmol/L (19.3-38.2 mg/dL) to 2...

  4. Dietary phosphatidylcholine and risk of all-cause and cardiovascular-specific mortality among US women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan; Li, Yanping; Rimm, Eric B; Hu, Frank B; Albert, Christine M; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Manson, JoAnn E; Qi, Lu

    2016-07-01

    The trimethylamine-containing nutrient phosphatidylcholine is the major dietary source for the gut microbiota metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), which has been related to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and mortality. Previous research suggested that the relation of TMAO with CVD risk might be stronger in diabetic than in nondiabetic populations. However, the evidence for an association of dietary phosphatidylcholine with CVD and mortality is limited. We aimed to examine whether dietary consumption of phosphatidylcholine, which is mainly derived from eggs, red meat, and fish, is related to all-cause and CVD mortality in 2 cohorts of US women and men. In particular, we also tested if such an association was modified by diabetes status. We followed 80,978 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1980-2012) and 39,434 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2012), who were free of cancer and CVD at baseline, for mortality. Dietary intakes and potential confounders were assessed with regularly administered questionnaires. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate HRs and 95% CIs. We documented 17,829 all-cause and 4359 CVD deaths during follow-up. After multivariate adjustment for potential confounders, including demographic factors, disease status, lifestyle, and dietary intakes, higher phosphatidylcholine intakes were associated with an increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality. HRs (95% CIs) comparing the top and bottom quintiles of phosphatidylcholine intake were 1.11 (1.06, 1.17; P-trend across quintiles phosphatidylcholine with all-cause and CVD mortality were stronger in diabetic than in nondiabetic participants (P-interaction = 0.0002 and 0.001, respectively). These data suggest that higher phosphatidylcholine consumption is associated with increased all-cause and CVD mortality in the US population, especially in patients with diabetes, independent of traditional risk factors. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Delayed effects of obese and overweight population conditions on all-cause adult mortality rate in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert A Okunade

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there are few studies separating the linkage of pathological obese and overweight body mass indices (BMI to the all-cause mortality rate in adults. Consequently, this paper, using annual Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS data of the 50 US states and the District of Columbia (DC estimates empirical regression models linking the US adult population overweight and obesity rates separately to the all-cause mortality rate. The biochemistry of multi-period cumulative adiposity (saturated fatty acid from unexpended caloric intakes (net energy storage provides the natural theoretical foundation for tracing unhealthy BMI to all-cause mortality. Cross-sectional and panel data regression models are separately estimated for the delayed effects of obese and overweight BMIs on the all-cause mortality rate. Controlling for the independent effects of economic, socio-demographic and other factors on the all-cause mortality rate, our findings confirm that the estimated panel data models are more appropriate. The panel data regression results reveal that the obesity-mortality link strengthens significantly after multiple years in the condition. The faster mortality response to obesity detected here is conjectured to arise from the significantly more obese. Compared with past studies postulating a static (rather than delayed effects, the statistically significant lagged effects of adult population BMI pathology in this study are novel and insightful. And, as expected, these lagged effects are more severe in the obese than overweight population segment. Public health policy implications of this social science study findings agree with those of the clinical sciences literature advocating timely lifestyle modification interventions (e.g., smoking cessation to slow premature mortality linked to unhealthy BMIs.

  6. Associations of marital status with mortality from all causes and mortality from cardiovascular disease in Japanese haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanno, Kozo; Ohsawa, Masaki; Itai, Kazuyoshi; Kato, Karen; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Sakata, Kiyomi; Okayama, Akira; Fujioka, Tomoaki

    2013-04-01

    Marital status is an important social factor associated with increased mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all causes. However, there has been no study on the association of marital status with mortality in haemodialysis patients. We analysed data from a 5-year prospective cohort study of 1064 Japanese haemodialysis patients aged 30 years or older. Marital status was classified into three groups: married, single and divorced/widowed. Cox's regression was used to estimate multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] for all-cause mortality and CVD mortality according to marital status after adjusting for age, sex, duration of haemodialysis, cause of renal failure, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, albumin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, co-morbid conditions, smoking, alcohol consumption, education levels and job status. Single patients had higher risks than married patients for mortality from all causes (HR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.06-2.16) and mortality from CVD (HR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.03-2.76), and divorced/widowed patients had a higher risk than married patients for mortality from CVD (HR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.15-2.60). After stratification by age, single patients aged 30-59 years had significantly higher risks for all-cause mortality and CVD mortality. The findings suggest that single status is a significant predictor for all-cause mortality and CVD mortality and that divorced/widowed status is a significant predictor for CVD mortality in haemodialysis patients.

  7. Student feedback on a pioneer subject on leadership and intrapersonal development in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu; Xie, Qiu Zhi

    2017-02-01

    To promote leadership and intrapersonal development in university students, a subject entitled "Tomorrow's Leaders" was developed and offered at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. To assess the perceived effectiveness of this subject, 647 students completed the student feedback questionnaire (SFQ). Results showed that the feedback questionnaire had very good psychometric properties, including internal consistency reliability and construct validity. Regarding students' views of the subject, results showed that students generally had good evaluation of the content of the subject, teaching quality, and perceived benefits of the subject. The present findings have implications for the teaching of general education regarding leadership development.

  8. Sites of peripheral artery occlusive disease as a predictor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in chronic hemodialysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsien Tsai

    Full Text Available The ankle-brachial blood pressure (BP index (ABI not only indicates the presence of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD but predicts mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD. However, whether the site of PAOD can provide additional contribution to predicting mortality have not been investigated yet. Our primary objective was to determine the associations between the site of PAOD and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in chronic HD (CHD patients.A retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate 444 Taiwanese CHD patients between December 2006 and June 2013. The site of PAOD together with other explanatory variables such as demographic data, body mass index, a history of cardiovascular diseases, HD vintage, biochemical data, and cardiothoracic ratio (CTR were assessed by the Cox proportional hazards regression model.The frequency of PAOD was 14.6% in both legs, 4.9% in the right side only, and 5.1% in the left side only. During the study period, 127 all-cause and 93 cardiovascular deaths occurred. PAOD site was found to have significant predictive power for all-cause mortality with the order of 3.04 (95% CI: 1.56-5.90 hazard ratio on the right side, 2.48 (95% CI: 1.27-4.82 on the left side, and 4.11 (95% CI: 2.76-6.13 on both sides. The corresponding figures for cardiovascular mortality were 3.81 (95% CI: 1.87-7.76 on the right side, 2.76 (95% CI: 1.30-5.82 on the left side, and 3.95 (95% CI: 2.45-6.36 on both sides. After adjustment for other explanatory variables, only right-sided PAOD still remained to have significant predictive power for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and bilateral PAOD kept the significant association with all-cause mortality.The site of PAOD revealed various predictive powers for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in CHD patients and only right-sided PAOD remained an independent predictor for both types of mortality making allowance for relevant confounding factors.

  9. Sites of peripheral artery occlusive disease as a predictor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in chronic hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Hsien; Liou, Hung-Hsiang; Leu, Jyh-Gang; Yen, Ming-Fang; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi

    2015-01-01

    The ankle-brachial blood pressure (BP) index (ABI) not only indicates the presence of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) but predicts mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). However, whether the site of PAOD can provide additional contribution to predicting mortality have not been investigated yet. Our primary objective was to determine the associations between the site of PAOD and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in chronic HD (CHD) patients. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate 444 Taiwanese CHD patients between December 2006 and June 2013. The site of PAOD together with other explanatory variables such as demographic data, body mass index, a history of cardiovascular diseases, HD vintage, biochemical data, and cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) were assessed by the Cox proportional hazards regression model. The frequency of PAOD was 14.6% in both legs, 4.9% in the right side only, and 5.1% in the left side only. During the study period, 127 all-cause and 93 cardiovascular deaths occurred. PAOD site was found to have significant predictive power for all-cause mortality with the order of 3.04 (95% CI: 1.56-5.90) hazard ratio on the right side, 2.48 (95% CI: 1.27-4.82) on the left side, and 4.11 (95% CI: 2.76-6.13) on both sides. The corresponding figures for cardiovascular mortality were 3.81 (95% CI: 1.87-7.76) on the right side, 2.76 (95% CI: 1.30-5.82) on the left side, and 3.95 (95% CI: 2.45-6.36) on both sides. After adjustment for other explanatory variables, only right-sided PAOD still remained to have significant predictive power for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and bilateral PAOD kept the significant association with all-cause mortality. The site of PAOD revealed various predictive powers for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in CHD patients and only right-sided PAOD remained an independent predictor for both types of mortality making allowance for relevant confounding factors.

  10. Dietary phosphatidylcholine and risk of all-cause and cardiovascular-specific mortality among US women and men12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan; Li, Yanping; Rimm, Eric B; Hu, Frank B; Albert, Christine M; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Manson, JoAnn E; Qi, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Background: The trimethylamine-containing nutrient phosphatidylcholine is the major dietary source for the gut microbiota metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), which has been related to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and mortality. Previous research suggested that the relation of TMAO with CVD risk might be stronger in diabetic than in nondiabetic populations. However, the evidence for an association of dietary phosphatidylcholine with CVD and mortality is limited. Objectives: We aimed to examine whether dietary consumption of phosphatidylcholine, which is mainly derived from eggs, red meat, and fish, is related to all-cause and CVD mortality in 2 cohorts of US women and men. In particular, we also tested if such an association was modified by diabetes status. Design: We followed 80,978 women from the Nurses’ Health Study (1980–2012) and 39,434 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986–2012), who were free of cancer and CVD at baseline, for mortality. Dietary intakes and potential confounders were assessed with regularly administered questionnaires. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate HRs and 95% CIs. Results: We documented 17,829 all-cause and 4359 CVD deaths during follow-up. After multivariate adjustment for potential confounders, including demographic factors, disease status, lifestyle, and dietary intakes, higher phosphatidylcholine intakes were associated with an increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality. HRs (95% CIs) comparing the top and bottom quintiles of phosphatidylcholine intake were 1.11 (1.06, 1.17; P-trend across quintiles < 0.0001) for all-cause mortality and 1.26 (1.15, 1.39; P-trend < 0.0001) for CVD mortality in the combined data of both cohorts. The associations of phosphatidylcholine with all-cause and CVD mortality were stronger in diabetic than in nondiabetic participants (P-interaction = 0.0002 and 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: These data suggest that higher phosphatidylcholine consumption is

  11. Protective effect of coffee consumption on all-cause mortality of French HIV-HCV co-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrieri, Maria Patrizia; Protopopescu, Camelia; Marcellin, Fabienne; Rosellini, Silvia; Wittkop, Linda; Esterle, Laure; Zucman, David; Raffi, François; Rosenthal, Eric; Poizot-Martin, Isabelle; Salmon-Ceron, Dominique; Dabis, François; Spire, Bruno

    2017-12-01

    Coffee has anti-inflammatory and hepato-protective properties. In the general population, drinking ≥3cups of coffee/day has been associated with a 14% reduction in the risk of all-cause mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between coffee consumption and the risk of all-cause mortality in patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH is an ongoing French nationwide prospective cohort of patients co-infected with HIV-HCV collecting both medical and psychosocial/behavioural data (annual self-administered questionnaires). We used a Cox proportional hazards model to estimate the effect of elevated coffee consumption (≥3cups/day) at baseline on all-cause mortality during the cohort's five-year follow-up. Over a median [interquartile range] follow-up of 5.0 [3.9-5.9] years, 77 deaths occurred among 1,028 eligible patients (mortality rate 1.64/100 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31-2.05). Leading causes of death were HCV-related diseases (n=33, 43%), cancers unrelated to AIDS/HCV (n=9, 12%), and AIDS (n=8, 10%). At the first available visit, 26.6% of patients reported elevated coffee consumption. Elevated coffee consumption at baseline was associated with a 50% reduced risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 0.5; CI 0.3-0.9; p=0.032), after adjustment for gender and psychosocial, behavioral and clinical time-varying factors. Drinking three or more cups of coffee per day halves all-cause mortality risk in patients co-infected with HIV-HCV. The benefits of coffee extracts and supplementing dietary intake with other anti-inflammatory compounds need to be evaluated in this population. Coffee has anti-inflammatory and hepato-protective properties but its effect on mortality risk has never been investigated in patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). This study shows that elevated coffee consumption (≥3cups

  12. Is the adiposity-associated FTO gene variant related to all-cause mortality independent of adiposity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, E; Ängquist, L H; Mirza, S S

    2015-01-01

    Previously, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs9939609, in the FTO gene showed a much stronger association with all-cause mortality than expected from its association with body mass index (BMI), body fat mass index (FMI) and waist circumference (WC). This finding implies that the SNP has...... strong pleiotropic effects on adiposity and adiposity-independent pathological pathways that leads to increased mortality. To investigate this further, we conducted a meta-analysis of similar data from 34 longitudinal studies including 169,551 adult Caucasians among whom 27,100 died during follow.......932). In conclusion, this study does not support that the FTO SNP is associated with all-cause mortality independently of the adiposity phenotypes....

  13. Prospective associations between household-, work-, and leisure-based physical activity and all-cause mortality among older Taiwanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Jung; Fox, Kenneth R; Ku, Po-Wen; Sun, Wen-Jung; Chou, Pesus

    2012-09-01

    Most studies on the health effects of leisure time physical activity have focused on mortality. There has been limited research regarding physical activity undertaken at work or around the home and mortality. This study assessed the associations between leisure, work, and household physical activity and subsequent all-cause mortality among older adults aged 65 years and older (n = 2133) in Taiwan, over 8 years. Physical activity was evaluated with the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the association of physical activity with the risk of mortality. This study demonstrated that a low level of total physical activity is predictive of increased all-cause mortality in both men and women in an East Asian population. It also indicates that leisure- and household-related but not work-related activity are significant contributors to this relationship.

  14. Genetically high plasma vitamin C, intake of fruit and vegetables, and risk of ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobylecki, Camilla J; Afzal, Shoaib; Davey Smith, George

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High intake of fruit and vegetables as well as high plasma vitamin C concentrations have been associated with low risk of ischemic heart disease in prospective studies, but results from randomized clinical trials have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis...... that genetically high concentrations of plasma vitamin C, such as with high intake of fruit and vegetables, are associated with low risk of ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality. DESIGN: We used a Mendelian randomization approach and genotyped for solute carrier family 23 member 1 (SLC23A1) rs33972313...... in the sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 1 in 97,203 white individuals of whom 10,123 subjects had ischemic heart disease, and 8477 subjects died. We measured plasma vitamin C in 3512 individuals and included dietary information on 83,256 individuals. RESULTS: The SLC23A1 rs33972313 G allele was associated...

  15. The prognostic value of the QT interval and QT interval dispersion in all-cause and cardiac mortality and morbidity in a population of Danish citizens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elming, H; Holm, E; Jun, L

    1998-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the prognostic value of the QT interval and QT interval dispersion in total and in cardiovascular mortality, as well as in cardiac morbidity, in a general population. METHODS AND RESULTS: The QT interval was measured in all leads from a standard 12-lead ECG in a random sample...... of 1658 women and 1797 men aged 30-60 years. QT interval dispersion was calculated from the maximal difference between QT intervals in any two leads. All cause mortality over 13 years, and cardiovascular mortality as well as cardiac morbidity over 11 years, were the main outcome parameters. Subjects...... with a prolonged QT interval (430 ms or more) or prolonged QT interval dispersion (80 ms or more) were at higher risk of cardiovascular death and cardiac morbidity than subjects whose QT interval was less than 360 ms, or whose QT interval dispersion was less than 30 ms. Cardiovascular death relative risk ratios...

  16. Prognostic role of copeptin with all-cause mortality after heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang P

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Peng Zhang, Xiaomei Wu, Guangxiao Li, Hao Sun, Jingpu Shi Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Center of Evidence-Based Medicine, Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Background: As the C-terminal section of vasopressin precursor, copeptin has been recently suggested as a new prognostic biomarker after heart failure (HF. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of plasma copeptin level with all-cause mortality in patients with HF.Methods: Comprehensive strategies were used to search relevant studies from electronic databases. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs and standardized mean differences (SMDs together with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. Subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis were performed to find the potential sources of heterogeneity.Results: A total of 5,989 participants from 17 prospective studies were included in this meta-analysis. A significant association was observed between circulating copeptin levels and risk of all-cause mortality in patients with HF (categorical copeptin: HR =1.69, 95% CI =1.42–2.01; per unit copeptin: HR =1.03, 95% CI =1.00–1.07; log unit copeptin: HR =3.26, 95% CI =0.95–11.25. Pooled SMD showed that copeptin levels were significantly higher in patients with HF who died during the follow-up period than in survivors (SMD =1.19, 95% CI =0.81–1.57. Subgroup analyses also confirmed this significant association, while sensitivity analyses indicated that the overall results were stable.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that circulating copeptin seemed to be a novel biomarker to provide better prediction of all-cause mortality in patients with HF. Keywords: heart failure, copeptin, all-cause mortality, meta-analysis

  17. Risk of all-cause hospitalization in COPD patients initiating long-acting or short-acting beta agonist therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollu, Vamsi; Ejzykowicz, Flavia; Rajagopalan, Krithika; Karafilidis, John; Hay, Joel W

    2013-08-01

    This retrospective claims study investigated the rates of all-cause hospitalization among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients initiating treatment with short-acting beta agonists (SABA) or long-acting beta agonists (LABA). Data from the 5% national sample of Medicare enrollees for 2006-2008 were used. Patients initiating COPD therapy were identified as those with no COPD therapy for ≥ 6-months prior to initiating SABA or LABA (administered via dry-powder inhalers, metered-dose inhalers, or nebulizer) treatment. All patients were continuously eligible for Medicare Parts A, B, and D for 18 months. Those enrolled in Medicare Advantage, who had asthma, or were < 65 years old were excluded. Differences in the rates of all-cause hospitalizations and time to all-cause hospitalization during the 6-month follow-up period were examined, while adjusting for demographics, clinical indicators, and health service use. Among 3017 COPD patients who met the inclusion criteria, 883 (30%) were LABA users and 2134 (70%) were SABA users. Overall, 21% of patients (16% [144/883] of LABA and 23% [492/2134] of SABA) had a hospitalization during the follow-up period. Mean time to hospitalization was 86 days for LABA vs 64 days for SABA patients (p < 0.05). The adjusted hazard ratio for hospitalization in a Cox proportional hazards model was 0.74 (95% CI = 0.62-0.90) for patients treated with LABA vs. SABA. The analysis was adjusted for multiple background characteristics, but important measures of severity in COPD, such as measures of lung functioning, were not available and may have differed between patients treated with LABA or SABA. The results of this analysis indicate COPD patients initiating LABA treatment had a longer time to all-cause hospitalization and a 26% lower risk of hospitalization during the 6-months follow-up period compared to those initiating SABA therapy.

  18. Socioeconomic differences in alcohol-attributable mortality compared with all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Charlotte; Roerecke, Michael; Behrendt, Silke; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-08-01

    Factors underlying socioeconomic inequalities in mortality are not well understood. This study contributes to our understanding of potential pathways to result in socioeconomic inequalities, by examining alcohol consumption as one potential explanation via comparing socioeconomic inequalities in alcohol-attributable mortality and all-cause mortality. Web of Science, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and ETOH were searched systematically from their inception to second week of February 2013 for articles reporting alcohol-attributable mortality by socioeconomic status, operationalized by using information on education, occupation, employment status or income. The sex-specific ratios of relative risks (RRRs) of alcohol-attributable mortality to all-cause mortality were pooled for different operationalizations of socioeconomic status using inverse-variance weighted random effects models. These RRRs were then combined to a single estimate. We identified 15 unique papers suitable for a meta-analysis; capturing about 133 million people, 3 741 334 deaths from all causes and 167 652 alcohol-attributable deaths. The overall RRRs amounted to RRR = 1.78 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43 to 2.22) and RRR = 1.66 (95% CI 1.20 to 2.31), for women and men, respectively. In other words: lower socioeconomic status leads to 1.5-2-fold higher mortality for alcohol-attributable causes compared with all causes. Alcohol was identified as a factor underlying higher mortality risks in more disadvantaged populations. All alcohol-attributable mortality is in principle avoidable, and future alcohol policies must take into consideration any differential effect on socioeconomic groups. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  19. Apple intake is inversely associated with all-cause and disease-specific mortality in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jonathan M; Prince, Richard L; Woodman, Richard J; Bondonno, Catherine P; Ivey, Kerry L; Bondonno, Nicola; Rimm, Eric B; Ward, Natalie C; Croft, Kevin D; Lewis, Joshua R

    2016-03-14

    Higher fruit intake is associated with lower risk of all-cause and disease-specific mortality. However, data on individual fruits are limited, and the generalisability of these findings to the elderly remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to examine the association of apple intake with all-cause and disease-specific mortality over 15 years in a cohort of women aged over 70 years. Secondary analyses explored relationships of other fruits with mortality outcomes. Usual fruit intake was assessed in 1456 women using a FFQ. Incidence of all-cause and disease-specific mortality over 15 years was determined through the Western Australian Hospital Morbidity Data system. Cox regression was used to determine the hazard ratios (HR) for mortality. During 15 years of follow-up, 607 (41·7%) women died from any cause. In the multivariable-adjusted analysis, the HR for all-cause mortality was 0·89 (95% CI 0·81, 0·97) per sd (53 g/d) increase in apple intake, HR 0·80 (95% CI 0·65, 0·98) for consumption of 5-100 g/d and HR 0·65 (95% CI 0·48, 0·89) for consumption of >100 g/d (an apple a day), compared with apple intake of apple intake was associated with lower risk for cancer mortality, and that higher total fruit and banana intakes were associated lower risk of CVD mortality (Papple consumption may contribute to lower risk of mortality.

  20. No association between loss-of-function mutations in filaggrin and diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Lotte N Husemoen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Common loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG are a major predisposing risk factor for atopic disease due to reduced epidermal filaggrin protein levels. We previously observed an association between these mutations and type 2 diabetes and hypothesized that an inherited impairment of skin barrier functions could facilitate low-grade inflammation and hence increase the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We examined the association between loss-of-function mutations in FLG and diabetes, stroke, ischemic heart disease (IHD, and all-cause mortality in the general population. METHODS: The R501X and 2282del4 loss-of function mutations in FLG were genotyped in four Danish study populations including a total of 13373 adults aged 15-77 years. Two of the studies also genotyped the R2447X mutation. By linkage to Danish national central registers we obtained information for all participants on dates of diagnoses of diabetes, stroke, and IHD, as well as all-cause mortality. Data were analyzed by Cox proportional hazard models and combined by fixed effect meta-analyses. RESULTS: In meta-analyses combining the results from the four individual studies, carriage of loss-of-function mutations in FLG was not associated with incident diabetes (hazard ratio (HR (95% confidence intervals (CI = 0.95 (0.73, 1.23, stroke (HR (95% CI = 1.27 (0.97, 1.65, ischemic heart disease (HR (95%CI = 0.92 (0.71, 1.19, and all-cause mortality (HR (95%CI = 1.02 (0.83, 1.25. Similar results were obtained when including prevalent cases in logistic regression models. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that loss-of-function mutations in FLG are not associated with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. However, larger studies with longer follow-up are needed to exclude any associations.

  1. Association Between Television Viewing Time and All-Cause Mortality: A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiang-Wei; Zhao, Long-Gang; Yang, Yang; Ma, Xiao; Wang, Ying-Ying; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2015-12-01

    Findings on the association between television (TV) viewing and all-cause mortality in epidemiologic studies have been inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of data from prospective cohort studies to quantify this association. Relevant articles were identified by searching MEDLINE (PubMed; National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland) and EMBASE (Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam, the Netherlands) from inception to March 1, 2015, and reviewing the reference lists of retrieved articles. Study-specific results were pooled using a random-effects model. Of 2,578 citations identified by the search strategy, 10 cohort studies (61,494 deaths among 647,475 individuals) met the inclusion criteria. The summary relative risk of all-cause mortality for the highest category of TV viewing time versus the lowest was 1.33 (95% confidence interval: 1.20, 1.47), with heterogeneity among studies (I(2) = 66.7%, P(heterogeneity) = 0.001). In dose-response meta-analysis, TV viewing time was statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality risk in a J-shaped fashion (P(nonlinearity) = 0.001). These results indicate that prolonged TV viewing time might increase the risk of all-cause mortality. Given the high prevalence of excessive TV viewing, public health recommendations or interventions aimed at decreasing the amount of TV viewing time in modern societies are warranted. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Syndecan-4 Is an Independent Predictor of All-Cause as Well as Cardiovascular Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej J Jaroszyński

    Full Text Available Left ventricular hypertrophy is associated withincreased mortality in hemodialysis (HD patients.Syndecan-4 plays a role in many processes that are involved in the heart fibrosis and hypertrophy.We designed this study to prospectively determine whether syndecan-4 was predictive of mortality in a group of HD patients.In total, 191 HD patients were included. Clinical, biochemical and echocardiographic parameters were recorded. HD patients were followed-up for 23.18 ± 4.02 months.Syndecan-4 levels correlated strongly with geometrical echocardiographic parameters and ejection fraction. Relations with pressure-related parameters were weak and only marginally significant. Using the receiver operating characteristics the optimal cut-off points in predicting all-cause as well as cardiovascular (CV mortality were evaluated and patients were divided into low and high syndecan-4 groups. A Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the cumulative incidences of all-cause as well as CV mortality were higher in high serum syndecan-4 group compared with those with low serum syndecan-4 (p<0.001 in both cases.A multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed syndecan-4 concentration to be an independent and significant predictor of all-cause (hazard ratio, 2.99; confidence interval, 2.34 to 3.113; p<0.001as well as CV mortality (hazard ratio, 2.81;confidence interval, 2.28to3.02; p<0.001.Serum syndecan-4 concentration reflects predominantly geometrical echocardiographic parameters. In HD patients serum syndecan-4 concentration is independently associated with all-cause as well as CV mortality.

  3. A prospective study of water intake and subsequent risk of all-cause mortality in a national cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ashima K; Graubard, Barry I

    2017-01-01

    Water, an essential nutrient, is believed to be related to a variety of health outcomes. Published studies have examined the association of fluid or beverage intake with risk of mortality from coronary diseases, diabetes, or cancer, but few studies have examined the association of total water intake with all-cause mortality. We examined prospective risk of mortality from all causes in relation to intakes of total water and each of the 3 water sources. We used public-domain, mortality-linked water intake data from the NHANES conducted in 1988-1994 and 1999-2004 for this prospective cohort study (n = 12,660 women and 12,050 men; aged ≥25 y). Mortality follow-up was completed through 31 December 2011. We used sex-specific Cox proportional hazards regression methods that were appropriate for complex surveys to examine the independent associations of plain water, beverage water, water in foods, and total water with multiple covariate-adjusted risk of mortality from all causes. Over a median of 11.4 y of follow-up, 3504 men and 3032 women died of any cause in this cohort. In men, neither total water intake nor each of the individual water source variables (plain water, water in beverages, and water in foods) was independently related with risk of all-cause mortality. In women, risk of mortality increased slightly in the highest quartile of total or plain water intake but did not approach the Bonferroni-corrected level of significance of P < 0.002. There was no survival advantage in association with higher total or plain water intake in men or women in this national cohort. The slight increase in risk of mortality noted in women with higher total and plain water intakes may be spurious and requires further investigation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Incremental benefit of coronary artery calcium score above traditional risk factors for all-cause mortality in asymptomatic Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Donghee; Ó Hartaigh, Bríain; Gransar, Heidi; Yoon, Ji Hyun; Kim, Kwang-Joon; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Choi, Su-Yeon; Sung, Jidong; Chang, Hyuk-Jae

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) is a well-recognized marker for subclinical coronary atherosclerosis, particularly in asymptomatic populations. To date, however, the added prognostic benefit of CACS compared with traditional risk factors in an Asian population remains unknown. This study therefore investigated the benefit of CACS over traditional risk factors for all-cause mortality in a large multicenter registry of asymptomatic Korean adults. A total of 34,386 individuals were retrospectively enrolled to participate in a general health examination. The Framingham 10-year risk score (FRS) was calculated according to the traditional risk stratification algorithm and CACS was calculated in log(CACS+1) for continuous data and categorized as 0, 1-100, 101-400 and >400. During a median follow-up of 4.9 years (IQR, 3.0-7.1), there were 303 all-cause deaths (0.9%). Following adjustment, CACS was independently associated with all-cause death (hazard ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05-1.17; P<0.001). Notably, CACS added further prognostic value above and beyond FRS (likelihood ratio, χ(2)=75.42, P<0.001; continuous net reclassification improvement=0.40, 95% CI: 0.29-0.51, P≤0.001; improving C-statistic from 0.64, 95% CI: 0.61-0.67 to 0.68, 95% CI: 0.64-0.71; ∆C=0.04, 95% CI: 0.01-0.06, P=0.002). In an asymptomatic Korean population, CACS improved prediction of all-cause mortality over and above that of a conventional risk tool.

  5. Association Between Metformin Adherence and All-Cause Mortality Among New Users of Metformin: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Patrice; Presse, Nancy; Roy, Louise; Dorais, Marc; White-Guay, Brian; Räkel, Agnès; Perreault, Sylvie

    2017-11-01

    Metformin presents better survival rates than other oral antidiabetics in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, these benefits may be dampened by inadequate treatment adherence. We aimed to investigate the relationship between adherence level to metformin therapy and all-cause mortality over 10 years in incident metformin users. A nested case-control study was conducted using a large cohort of beneficiaries of the Quebec public drug insurance plan, aged 45 to 85 years, who initiated metformin between 2000 and 2009. Each case of all-cause death during follow-up was matched with up to 10 controls. Adherence to metformin was measured using the medication possession ratio (MPR). Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate rate ratios (RRs) for mortality between adherent (MPR ≥ 80%) and nonadherent patients (MPR < 80%). Subgroup analyses were conducted according to age (45-64 and 65-85 years) and comedication use (antihypertensive/cardiovascular drugs and statins). The cohort included 82 720 incident metformin users, followed up for 2.4 [0.8-4.4] years (median [interquartile range]) and 4747 cases of all-cause deaths. Analyses revealed decreased mortality risks after long-term adherence to metformin. Specifically, RRs were 0.84 (95% CI = [0.71-0.98]) and 0.69 [0.57-0.85] after 4 to 6 and ≥6 years of adherence to metformin, respectively. Survival benefits of long-term adherence (≥4 years) were also observed across most subgroups and particularly in patients using neither antihypertensive/cardiovascular drugs nor statins (0.57 [0.41-0.77]). Long-term adherence to metformin is associated with decreased risks of all-cause mortality in incident metformin users. Further research should investigate whether survival benefits vary according to the comorbidity burden of patients.

  6. Prognostic role of copeptin with all-cause mortality after heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Wu, Xiaomei; Li, Guangxiao; Sun, Hao; Shi, Jingpu

    2017-01-01

    As the C-terminal section of vasopressin precursor, copeptin has been recently suggested as a new prognostic biomarker after heart failure (HF). Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of plasma copeptin level with all-cause mortality in patients with HF. Comprehensive strategies were used to search relevant studies from electronic databases. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and standardized mean differences (SMDs) together with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis were performed to find the potential sources of heterogeneity. A total of 5,989 participants from 17 prospective studies were included in this meta-analysis. A significant association was observed between circulating copeptin levels and risk of all-cause mortality in patients with HF (categorical copeptin: HR =1.69, 95% CI =1.42-2.01; per unit copeptin: HR =1.03, 95% CI =1.00-1.07; log unit copeptin: HR =3.26, 95% CI =0.95-11.25). Pooled SMD showed that copeptin levels were significantly higher in patients with HF who died during the follow-up period than in survivors (SMD =1.19, 95% CI =0.81-1.57). Subgroup analyses also confirmed this significant association, while sensitivity analyses indicated that the overall results were stable. This study demonstrated that circulating copeptin seemed to be a novel biomarker to provide better prediction of all-cause mortality in patients with HF.

  7. Statin treatment prevents increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality associated with clarithromycin in patients with stable coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Gorm B; Hilden, Jørgen; Als-Nielsen, Bodil

    2010-01-01

    In the CLARICOR trial, significantly increased cardiovascular (CV) and all-cause mortality in stable patients with coronary heart disease were observed after a short course of clarithromycin. We report on the impact of statin treatment at entry on the CV and all-cause mortality. The multicenter...... CLARICOR trial randomized patients to oral clarithromycin (500 mg daily; n = 2172) versus matching placebo (daily; n = 2201) for 2 weeks. Patients were followed through public databases. In the 41% patients on statin treatment at entry, no significant effect of clarithromycin was observed on CV (hazard...... ratio [HR], 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38-1.22; P = 0.20) or all-cause mortality (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.71-1.65; P = 0.72) at 2.6-year follow up. In the patients not on statin treatment at entry, clarithromycin was associated with a significant increase in CV (HR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.34-2.67; P = 0...

  8. Relation of Periodontitis to Risk of Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality (from a Danish Nationwide Cohort Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gorm Mørk; Egeberg, Alexander; Holmstrup, Palle; Hansen, Peter Riis

    2016-08-15

    Periodontitis and atherosclerosis are highly prevalent chronic inflammatory diseases, and it has been suggested that periodontitis is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and that a causal link may exist between the 2 diseases. Using Danish national registers, we identified a nationwide cohort of 17,691 patients who received a hospital diagnosis of periodontitis within a 15-year period and matched them with 83,003 controls from the general population. We performed Poisson regression analysis to determine crude and adjusted incidence rate ratios of myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, cardiovascular death, major adverse cardiovascular events, and all-cause mortality. The results showed that patients with periodontitis were at higher risk of all examined end points. The findings remained significant after adjustment for increased baseline co-morbidity in periodontitis patients compared with controls, for example, with adjusted incidence rate ratio 2.02 (95% CI 1.87 to 2.18) for cardiovascular death and 2.70 (95% CI 2.60 to 2.81) for all-cause mortality. Patients with a hospital diagnosis of periodontitis have a high burden of co-morbidity and an increased risk of CVD and all-cause mortality. In conclusion, our results support that periodontitis may be an independent risk factor for CVD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A prospective study of low fasting glucose with cardiovascular disease events and all-cause mortality: The Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongraw-Chaffin, Morgana; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Sears, Dorothy D; Garcia, Lorena; Phillips, Lawrence S; Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Anderson, Cheryl A M

    2017-05-01

    While there is increasing recognition of the risks associated with hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes, few studies have investigated incident cause-specific cardiovascular outcomes with regard to low fasting glucose in the general population. We hypothesized that low fasting glucose would be associated with cardiovascular disease risk and all-cause mortality in postmenopausal women. To test our hypothesis, we used both continuous incidence rates and Cox proportional hazards models in 17,287 participants from the Women's Health Initiative with fasting glucose measured at baseline. Participants were separated into groups based on fasting glucose level: low (fasting glucose distribution exhibited evidence of a weak J-shaped association with heart failure and mortality that was predominantly due to participants with treated diabetes. Impaired and diabetic fasting glucose were positively associated with all outcomes. Associations for low fasting glucose differed, with coronary heart disease (HR=0.64 (0.42, 0.98)) significantly inverse; stroke (0.73 (0.48, 1.13)), combined cardiovascular disease (0.91 (0.73, 1.14)), and all-cause mortality (0.97 (0.79, 1.20)) null or inverse and not significant; and heart failure (1.27 (0.80, 2.02)) positive and not significant. Fasting glucose at the upper range, but not the lower range, was significantly associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Increased risk of all-cause mortality and renal graft loss in stable renal transplant recipients with hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlstrøm, Hege; Dahle, Dag Olav; Mjøen, Geir; Pilz, Stefan; März, Winfried; Abedini, Sadollah; Holme, Ingar; Fellström, Bengt; Jardine, Alan G; Holdaas, Hallvard

    2015-02-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is reported in 10% to 66% of renal transplant recipients (RTR). The influence of persisting hyperparathyroidism on long-term clinical outcomes in RTR has not been examined in a large prospective study. We investigated the association between baseline parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and major cardiovascular events, renal graft loss, and all-cause mortality by Cox Proportional Hazard survival analyses in 1840 stable RTR derived from the Assessment of LEscol in Renal Transplantation trial. Patients were recruited in a mean of 5.1 years after transplantation, and follow-up time was 6 to 7 years. Significant associations between PTH and all 3 outcomes were found in univariate analyses. When adjusting for a range of plausible confounders, including measures of renal function and serum mineral levels, PTH remained significantly associated with all-cause mortality (4% increased risk per 10 units; P=0.004), and with graft loss (6% increased risk per 10 units; PHyperparathyroidism is an independent, potentially remediable, risk factor for renal graft loss and all-cause mortality in RTR.

  11. Paleolithic and Mediterranean Diet Pattern Scores Are Inversely Associated with All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Kristine A; Judd, Suzanne; McCullough, Marjorie L; Flanders, W Dana; Hartman, Terryl J; Bostick, Roberd M

    2017-04-01

    Background: Poor diet quality is associated with a higher risk of many chronic diseases that are among the leading causes of death in the United States. It has been hypothesized that evolutionary discordance may account for some of the higher incidence and mortality from these diseases.Objective: We investigated associations of 2 diet pattern scores, the Paleolithic and the Mediterranean, with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the REGARDS (REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) study, a longitudinal cohort of black and white men and women ≥45 y of age.Methods: Participants completed questionnaires, including a Block food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ), at baseline and were contacted every 6 mo to determine their health status. Of the analytic cohort (n = 21,423), a total of 2513 participants died during a median follow-up of 6.25 y. We created diet scores from FFQ responses and assessed their associations with mortality using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusting for major risk factors.Results: For those in the highest relative to the lowest quintiles of the Paleolithic and Mediterranean diet scores, the multivariable adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality were, respectively, 0.77 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.89; P-trend diets closer to Paleolithic or Mediterranean diet patterns may be inversely associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. The combined impact of adherence to five lifestyle factors on all-cause, cancer and cardiovascular mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kristina E N; Johnsen, Nina F; Olsen, Anja

    2015-01-01

    guidelines into account. The objective of the present prospective cohort study was to investigate the combined impact of adherence to five lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, waist circumference and diet) on all-cause, cancer and cardiovascular mortality based on international......Individual lifestyle factors have been associated with lifestyle diseases and premature mortality by an accumulating body of evidence. The impact of a combination of lifestyle factors on mortality has been investigated in several studies, but few have applied a simple index taking national......·71, 0·75) for all-cause mortality, 0·74 (95 % CI 0·71, 0·78) for cancer mortality and 0·70 (95 % CI 0·65, 0·75) for cardiovascular mortality. Among women, the corresponding HR was 0·72 (95 % CI 0·70, 0·75) for all-cause mortality, 0·76 (95 % CI 0·73, 0·80) for cancer mortality and 0·63 (95 % CI 0·57, 0...

  13. Health factors and risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and coronary heart disease mortality: findings from the MONICA and HAPIEE studies in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Luksiene, Dalia; Baceviciene, Migle; Bernotiene, Gailute; Radisauskas, Ricardas; Malinauskiene, Vilija; Kranciukaite-Butylkiniene, Daina; Virviciute, Dalia; Peasey, Anne; Bobak, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the trends and levels of the prevalence of health factors, and the association of all-cause and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality with healthy levels of combined risk factors among Lithuanian urban population. Data from five general population surveys in Kaunas, Lithuania, conducted between 1983 and 2008 were used. Healthy factors measured at baseline include non-smoking, normal weight, normal arterial blood pressure, normal level of total serum cholesterol, normal physical activity and normal level of fasting glucose. Among 9,209 men and women aged 45-64 (7,648 were free from coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke at baseline), 1,219 death cases from any cause, 589 deaths from CVD, and 342 deaths from CHD occurred during follow up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the association between health factors and mortality from all causes, CVD and CHD. Between 1983 and 2008, the proportion of subjects with 6 healthy levels of risk factors was higher in 2006-2008 than in 1983-1984 (0.6% vs. 0.2%; p = 0.09), although there was a significant increase in fasting glucose and a decline in intermediate physical activity. Men and women with normal or intermediate levels of risk factors had significantly lower all-cause, CVD and CHD mortality risk than persons with high levels of risk factors. Subjects with 5-6 healthy factors had hazard ratio (HR) of CVD mortality 0.35 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15-0.83) compared to average risk in the whole population. The hazard ratio for CVD mortality risk was significant in men (HR 0.34, 95% CI 0.12-0.97) but not in women (HR 0.38, 95% CI 0.09-1.67). An inverse association of most healthy levels of cardiovascular risk factors with risk of all-cause and CVD mortality was observed in this urban population-based cohort. A greater number of cardiovascular health factors were related with significantly lower risk of CVD mortality, particularly among men.

  14. Mid-arm muscle circumference as a significant predictor of all-cause mortality in male individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Wei Wu

    Full Text Available Emerging evidences indicate that mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC is one of the anthropometric indicators that reflect health and nutritional status, but its correlative effectiveness in all-cause mortality prediction of United States individuals remains uncertain.We investigated the joint association between MAMC and all-cause mortality in the US general population. A population-based longitudinal study of 6,769 participants aged 40 to 90 years in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. All participants were divided into two groups based on the gender: male and female group; each group was then divided into three subgroups depending on their MAMC level. The tertiles were as follows: T1 (18<27.3, T2 (27.3<29.6, T3 (29.6≤40.0 cm in the male group and T1 (15<22.3, T2 (22.3<24.6, T3 (24.6≤44.0 cm in the female group. Multivariable Cox regression analyses and Kaplan-Meier survival probabilities were utilized to jointly relate all-cause mortality risk to different MAMC level. For all-cause mortality in male participants, multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HRs were 0.83 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.69-0.98; p = 0.033 for MAMC of 27.3-29.6 cm compared with 18-27.3 cm, and 0.76 (95% CI: 0.61-0.95; p = 0.018 for MAMC of 29.6-40 cm compared with 18-27.3 cm. For all-cause mortality in female participants, multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HRs were 0.84 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.69-1.02; p = 0.075 for MAMC of 22.3-24.6 cm compared with 15-22.3 cm, and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.75-1.17; p = 0.583 for MAMC of 24.6-44 cm compared with 15-22.3 cm.Results support a lower MAMC is associated with a higher mortality risk in male individuals.

  15. Association of Different Physical Activity Domains on All-Cause Mortality in Adults Participating in Primary Care in the Brazilian National Health System: 4-Year Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turi, Bruna C; Codogno, Jamile S; Fernandes, Romulo A; Sui, Xuemei; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N; Monteiro, Henrique L

    2017-01-01

    Evidence has shown that physical activity (PA) is associated with low mortality risk. However, data about reduced mortality due to PA are scarce in developing countries and the dose-response relationship between PA from different domains and all-cause mortality remains unclear. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the association of PA from different domains on all-cause mortality among Brazilian adults. 679 males and females composed the study sample. Participants were divided into quartile groups according to PA from different domains (occupational, sports, and leisure-time). Medical records were used to identify the cause of the death. Cox regression analysis was performed to determine the independent associations of PA from different domains and all-cause mortality. During the follow-up period, 59 participants died. The most prevalent cause of death was circulatory system diseases (n = 20; 33.9% [21.8%-45.9%]). Higher scores of occupational (HR= 0.45 [95% CI: 0.20-0.97]), sports (HR= 0.44 [95% CI: 0.20-0.95]) and overall PA (HR= 0.40 [95% CI: 0.17-0.90]) were associated with lower mortality, even after adjustment for confounders. The findings in this study showed the importance of being active in different domains to reduce mortality risk.

  16. The impact of asthma, chronic bronchitis and allergic rhinitis on all-cause hospitalizations and limitations in daily activities: a population-based observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accordini, Simone; Corsico, Angelo Guido; Calciano, Lucia; Bono, Roberto; Cerveri, Isa; Fois, Alessandro; Pirina, Pietro; Tassinari, Roberta; Verlato, Giuseppe; de Marco, Roberto

    2015-02-12

    Chronic respiratory diseases are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We sought to evaluate the impact of asthma, chronic bronchitis and allergic rhinitis on all-cause hospitalizations and limitations in daily activities in adults. In the Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases study (2007/2010), a screening questionnaire was mailed to 9,739 subjects aged 20-44 (response rate: 53.0%) and to 3,480 subjects aged 45-64 (response rate: 62.3%), who were randomly selected from the general population in Italy. The questionnaire was used to: identify the responders who had asthma, chronic bronchitis, allergic rhinitis or asthma-like symptoms/dyspnoea/other nasal problems; evaluate the total burden [use of hospital services (at least one ED visit and/or one hospital admission) and number of days with reduced activities (lost working days and days with limited, not work related activities) due to any health problems (apart from accidents and injuries) in the past three months]; evaluate the contribution of breathing problems to the total burden (hospitalizations and number of days with reduced activities specifically due to breathing problems). At any age, the all-cause hospitalization risk was about 6% among the subjects without any respiratory conditions, it increased to about 9-12% among the individuals with allergic rhinitis or with asthma-like symptoms/dyspnoea/other nasal problems, and it peaked at about 15-18% among the asthmatics with chronic bronchitis aged 20-44 and 45-64, respectively. The expected number of days with reduced activities due to any health problems increased from 1.5 among the subjects with no respiratory conditions in both the age classes, to 6.3 and 4.6 among the asthmatics with chronic bronchitis aged 20-44 and 45-64, respectively. The contribution of breathing problems to the total burden was the highest among the asthmatics with chronic bronchitis (23-29% of the hospitalization risk and 39-50% of the days with

  17. How Does That Work? Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge from Subject Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The development of subject knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge has been the focus of much educational research and debate in recent years. Of particular interest is the process by which preservice science teachers develop pedagogical content knowledge from their subject knowledge. In the study presented here, a process of writing narrative…

  18. The malnutrition-inflammation-depression-arteriosclerosis complex is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause death in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Myung-Jin; Seo, Jang-Won; Yoon, Jong-Woo; Lee, Sang-Kyu; Kim, Soo-Jin; Lee, Young-Ki; Noh, Jung-Woo; Koo, Ja-Ryong

    2012-01-01

    In chronic hemodialysis patients, malnutrition, inflammation, depression and arteriosclerosis are pathogenetically associated suggesting the presence of malnutrition-inflammation-depression-arteriosclerosis (MIDA) complex acting as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Nutritional status was assessed by serum albumin, subjective global assessment and normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR). Inflammation was assessed by serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Depression was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory and DSM-IV criteria. The severity of arteriosclerosis was measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV). Among 81 hemodialysis patients, 44 (54.3%) had malnutrition (albumin 1 mg/l). The prevalence of depression was 50.6% (n = 41). Fifty-nine (73.8%) had arteriosclerosis (measured PWV > expected PWV based on age/blood pressure/gender adjustment). The severity of the all four individual MIDA components correlated well with each other. The average number of the MIDA complication (MIDA score) was 2.27 ± 1.33. -During the 5-year follow-up, 40 cases of CVD and 26 cases of all-cause death occurred. In Cox analysis adjusted for -previous CVD, age, diabetes, blood pressure, pulse pressure, intradialytic hypotension, B-type natriuretic peptide, -hemoglobin and hemodialysis incompliance, the MIDA score was an independent predictor of CVD and all-cause death: hazard ratio (95% confidence interval); 1.89 (1.13-3.17) and 3.48 (1.32-9.21) for an increase of 1 MIDA score. This study suggests the presence of MIDA complex, which is composed of malnutrition, inflammation, depression and arteriosclerosis. The MIDA complex syndrome was an independent risk factor for CVD and all-cause death in chronic hemodialysis patients. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Blood lead concentration correlates with all cause, all cancer and lung cancer mortality in adults: a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Min Rex

    2013-01-01

    This study used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III to study the relationship between blood lead concentration and all cause, all cancer and lung cancer mortality in adults. Public use National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) data were used. NHANES III uses stratified, multistage probabilistic methods to sample nationally representative samples. Household adult, laboratory and mortality data were merged. Sample persons who were available to be examined in aMobile Examination Center (MEC) were included in this study. Specialized survey analysis software was used. A total of 3,482 sample participants with complete information for all variables were included in this analysis. For all cause death, the odds ratios (S.E.) for statistically significant variables were body mass index, 1.03 (1.01- 1.06); age 1.01 (1.01-1.01); blood lead concentration, 1.05 (1.01-1.08); poverty income ratio, 0.823 (0.76-0 .89); and drinking hard liquor, 1.01 (1.00-1.02). For all cancer mortality, the odds ratios (S.E.) of the statistically significant variables were: age, 1.01 (1.01-1.01); blood lead concentration, 1.07 (1.04-1.12), black race, using non-Hispanic white as reference, 1.69 (1.12-2.56); and smoking, 1.02 (1.01-1.04). For lung cancer mortality, the odds ratios (S.E.) of the statistically significant variables were: age, 1.01 (1.01-1.01); blood lead concentration, 1.09 (1.05-1.13); Mexican Americans, using non-Hispanic white as reference, 0.33 (0.129-0.850); other races, 1.80 (0.53-6.18); and smoking, 1.03 (1.02-1.05). Blood lead concentration correlated with all cause, all cancer, and lung cancer mortality in adults.

  20. Associations of objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary time with all-cause mortality in US adults: the NHANES study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Daniela; Ricci, Cristian; Leitzmann, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary behavior is related to increased mortality risk. Whether such elevated risk can be offset by enhanced physical activity has not been examined using accelerometry data. We examined the relations of sedentary time and physical activity to mortality from any cause using accelerometry data among 1,677 women and men aged 50 years or older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004 cycle with follow-up through December 31, 2006. During an average follow-up of 34.67 months and 4,845.42 person-years, 112 deaths occurred. In multivariate Cox proportional hazard models, greater sedentary time (≥ median of 8.60 hours/day) was associated with increased risk of mortality from any cause (relative risk (RR) = 2.03; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.09-3.81). Low level of moderate to vigorous physical activity (physical activity predicted a substantially elevated all-cause mortality risk. As compared with the combination of a low sedentary level and a high level of moderate to vigorous physical activity, the risks of mortality from all causes were 4.38 (95% CI = 1.26-15.16) for low levels of both sedentary time and physical activity, 2.79 (95% CI = 0.77-10.12) for greater time spent sedentary and high physical activity level, and 7.79 (95% CI = 2.26-26.82) for greater time spent sedentary and low physical activity level. The interaction term between sedentary time and moderate to vigorous physical activity was not statistically significant (p = 0.508). Both high levels of sedentary time and low levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity are strong and independent predictors of early death from any cause. Whether a high physical activity level removes the increased risk of all-cause mortality related to sedentariness requires further investigation.

  1. Diet Quality Scores and Prediction of All-Cause, Cardiovascular and Cancer Mortality in a Pan-European Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassale, Camille; Gunter, Marc J; Romaguera, Dora; Peelen, Linda M; Van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Beulens, Joline W J; Freisling, Heinz; Muller, David C; Ferrari, Pietro; Huybrechts, Inge; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Affret, Aurélie; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C; Olsen, Anja; Roswall, Nina; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Katzke, Verena A; Kühn, Tilman; Buijsse, Brian; Quirós, José-Ramón; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Etxezarreta, Nerea; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Bonet, Catalina; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Timothy J; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Fasanelli, Francesca; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Boer, Jolanda M A; Sonestedt, Emily; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Renström, Frida; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Moons, Karel G M; Riboli, Elio; Tzoulaki, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    Scores of overall diet quality have received increasing attention in relation to disease aetiology; however, their value in risk prediction has been little examined. The objective was to assess and compare the association and predictive performance of 10 diet quality scores on 10-year risk of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality in 451,256 healthy participants to the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, followed-up for a median of 12.8y. All dietary scores studied showed significant inverse associations with all outcomes. The range of HRs (95% CI) in the top vs. lowest quartile of dietary scores in a composite model including non-invasive factors (age, sex, smoking, body mass index, education, physical activity and study centre) was 0.75 (0.72-0.79) to 0.88 (0.84-0.92) for all-cause, 0.76 (0.69-0.83) to 0.84 (0.76-0.92) for CVD and 0.78 (0.73-0.83) to 0.91 (0.85-0.97) for cancer mortality. Models with dietary scores alone showed low discrimination, but composite models also including age, sex and other non-invasive factors showed good discrimination and calibration, which varied little between different diet scores examined. Mean C-statistic of full models was 0.73, 0.80 and 0.71 for all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality. Dietary scores have poor predictive performance for 10-year mortality risk when used in isolation but display good predictive ability in combination with other non-invasive common risk factors.

  2. Global risk scores and exercise testing for predicting all-cause mortality in a preventive medicine program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Mehmet K; Ozduran, Volkan; Pothier, Claire E; Lang, Richard; Lauer, Michael S

    2004-09-22

    The usefulness of exercise stress test results and global cardiovascular risk systems for predicting all-cause mortality in asymptomatic individuals seen in clinical settings is unclear. To determine the validity for prediction of all-cause mortality of the Framingham Risk Score and of a recently described European global scoring system Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) for cardiovascular mortality among asymptomatic individuals evaluated in a clinical setting and to determine the potential prognostic value of exercise stress testing once these baseline risks are known. Prospective cohort study of 3554 asymptomatic adults between the ages of 50 and 75 years who underwent exercise stress testing as part of an executive health program between October 1990 and December 2002; participants were followed up for a mean of 8 years. Global risk based on the Framingham Risk Score and the European SCORE. Prospectively recorded exercise stress test result abnormalities included impaired physical fitness, abnormal heart rate recovery, ventricular ectopy, and ST-segment abnormalities. The primary end point was all-cause mortality. There were 114 deaths. The c-index, which corresponds to receiver operating characteristic curve values, and the Akaike Information Criteria found that the European SCORE was superior to the Framingham Risk Score in estimating global mortality risk. In a multivariable model, independent predictors of death were a higher SCORE (for 1% predicted increase in absolute risk, relative risk [RR], 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.09; Pmortality. Among patients in the highest tertile from the SCORE, an abnormal exercise stress test result, defined as either impaired functional capacity or an abnormal heart rate recovery, identified a mortality risk of more than 1% per year. Exercise stress testing when combined with the European global risk SCORE may be useful for stratifying risk in asymptomatic individuals in a comprehensive executive

  3. Nonmelanoma skin cancer and risk of all-cause and cancer-related mortality: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Virginia; Armeson, Kent; Hampras, Shalaka; Ferris, Laura K; Visvanathan, Kala; Rollison, Dana; Alberg, Anthony J

    2017-05-01

    Some reports suggest that a history of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) may be associated with increased mortality. NMSCs have very low fatality rates, but the high prevalence of NMSC elevates the importance of the possibility of associated subsequent mortality from other causes. The variable methods and findings of existing studies leave the significance of these results uncertain. To provide clarity, we conducted a systematic review to characterize the evidence on the associations of NMSC with: (1) all-cause mortality, (2) cancer-specific mortality, and (3) cancer survival. Bibliographic databases were searched through February 2016. Cohort studies published in English were included if adequate data were provided to estimate mortality ratios in patients with-versus-without NMSC. Data were abstracted from the total of eight studies from independent data sources that met inclusion criteria (n = 3 for all-cause mortality, n = 2 for cancer-specific mortality, and n = 5 for cancer survival). For all-cause mortality, a significant increased risk was observed for patients with a history of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (mortality ratio estimates (MR) 1.25 and 1.30), whereas no increased risk was observed for patients with a history of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) (MRs 0.96 and 0.97). Based on one study, the association with cancer-specific mortality was stronger for SCC (MR 2.17) than BCC (MR 1.15). Across multiple types of cancer both SCC and BCC tended to be associated with poorer survival from second primary malignancies. Multiple studies support an association between NMSC and fatal outcomes; the associations tend to be more potent for SCC than BCC. Additional investigation is needed to more precisely characterize these associations and elucidate potential underlying mechanisms.

  4. Diet Quality Scores and Prediction of All-Cause, Cardiovascular and Cancer Mortality in a Pan-European Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Lassale

    Full Text Available Scores of overall diet quality have received increasing attention in relation to disease aetiology; however, their value in risk prediction has been little examined. The objective was to assess and compare the association and predictive performance of 10 diet quality scores on 10-year risk of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality in 451,256 healthy participants to the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, followed-up for a median of 12.8y. All dietary scores studied showed significant inverse associations with all outcomes. The range of HRs (95% CI in the top vs. lowest quartile of dietary scores in a composite model including non-invasive factors (age, sex, smoking, body mass index, education, physical activity and study centre was 0.75 (0.72-0.79 to 0.88 (0.84-0.92 for all-cause, 0.76 (0.69-0.83 to 0.84 (0.76-0.92 for CVD and 0.78 (0.73-0.83 to 0.91 (0.85-0.97 for cancer mortality. Models with dietary scores alone showed low discrimination, but composite models also including age, sex and other non-invasive factors showed good discrimination and calibration, which varied little between different diet scores examined. Mean C-statistic of full models was 0.73, 0.80 and 0.71 for all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality. Dietary scores have poor predictive performance for 10-year mortality risk when used in isolation but display good predictive ability in combination with other non-invasive common risk factors.

  5. Electrocardiographic predictors of incident congestive heart failure and all-cause mortality in postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautaharju, Pentti M; Kooperberg, Charles; Larson, Joseph C; LaCroix, Andrea

    2006-01-31

    Information is limited about ECG predictors of the risk of incident congestive heart failure (CHF), particularly in women without overt manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We evaluated hazard ratios for incident CHF and all-cause mortality using Cox regression in 38,283 participants of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) during a 9-year follow-up. All risk models were adjusted for demographic and available clinical and therapeutic variables (multivariable-adjusted models). A backward selection procedure was used to identify dominant predictors among those that were significant as individual ECG predictors. Eleven ECG variables were significant predictors of incident CHF, with none of them having a significant interaction with baseline CVD status. From 6 dominant ECG predictors, wide QRS/T angle had a nearly 3-fold increased risk in multivariable-adjusted single ECG variable models. Two other repolarization variables, STV5 depression and high TV1 amplitude, and 2 QRS-related variables, QRS non-dipolar voltage and myocardial infarction (MI) by ECG, were all associated with &2-fold increase of incident CHF risk. Overall, 11 of the 12 ECG variables were significant predictors of all-cause mortality. Four variables had a significant interaction with CVD status requiring stratification. Three among these 4 were strong, dominant predictors in the CVD group: ECG MI, wide QRS/T angle, and low TV5 amplitude had risk increase from >2-fold to 3-fold, with considerably lower risks in the CVD-free group. Several repolarization variables in postmenopausal women are predictors of the risk of incident CHF and all-cause mortality as important as old ECG MI.

  6. Association between dietary fiber and lower risk of all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhao, Long-Gang; Wu, Qi-Jun; Ma, Xiao; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2015-01-15

    Although in vitro and in vivo experiments have suggested that dietary fiber might have beneficial effects on health, results on the association between fiber intake and all-cause mortality in epidemiologic studies have been inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to quantitatively assess this association. Pertinent studies were identified by searching articles in PubMed and Web of Knowledge through May 2014 and reviewing the reference lists of the retrieved articles. Study-specific risk estimates were combined using random-effects models. Seventeen prospective studies (1997-2014) that had a total of 67,260 deaths and 982,411 cohort members were included. When comparing persons with dietary fiber intakes in the top tertile with persons whose intakes were in the bottom tertile, we found a statistically significant inverse association between fiber intake and all-cause mortality, with an overall relative risk of 0.84 (95% confidence interval: 0.80, 0.87; I(2) = 41.2%). There was a 10% reduction in risk for per each 10-g/day increase in fiber intake (relative risk = 0.90; 95% confidence interval: 0.86, 0.94; I(2) = 77.2%). The combined estimate was robust across subgroup and sensitivity analyses. No publication bias was detected. A higher dietary fiber intake was associated with a reduced risk of death. These findings suggest that fiber intake may offer a potential public health benefit in reducing all-cause mortality. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Red Cell Distribution Width Is Associated with All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in Patients with Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeer G. Al-Kindi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Methods. Red cell distribution width (RDW has emerged as a prognostic marker in patients with cardiovascular diseases. We investigated mortality in patients with diabetes included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, in relation to baseline RDW. RDW was divided into 4 quartiles (Q1: ≤12.4%, Q2: 12.5%–12.9%, Q3: 13.0%–13.7%, and Q4: >13.7%. Results. A total of 3,061 patients were included: mean age 61±14 years, 50% male, 39% White. Mean RDW was 13.2%±1.4%. Compared with first quartile (Q1 of RDW, patients in Q4 were more likely to be older, female, and African-American, have had history of stroke, myocardial infarction, and heart failure, and have chronic kidney disease. After a median follow-up of 6 years, 628 patient died (29% of cardiovascular disease. Compared with Q1, patients in Q4 were at increased risk for all-cause mortality (HR 3.44 [2.74–4.32], P<.001 and cardiovascular mortality (HR 3.34 [2.16–5.17], P<.001. After adjusting for 17 covariates, RDW in Q4 remained significantly associated with all-cause mortality (HR 2.39 [1.30–4.38], P=0.005 and cardiovascular mortality (HR 1.99 [1.17–3.37], P=0.011. Conclusion. RDW is a powerful and an independent marker for prediction of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality in patients with diabetes.

  8. Dietary patterns and risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all causes in a prospective cohort of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Christin; Schulze, Matthias B; Franco, Oscar H; van Dam, Rob M; Mantzoros, Christos S; Hu, Frank B

    2008-07-15

    The impact of overall dietary patterns that reflect actual eating behaviors on mortality caused by cardiovascular or other chronic diseases is largely unknown. We prospectively evaluated the relation between dietary patterns and risk of cardiovascular, cancer, and all-cause mortality among 72,113 women who were free of myocardial infarction, angina, coronary artery surgery, stroke, diabetes mellitus, or cancer and were followed up from 1984 to 2002. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis based on validated food frequency questionnaires administered every 2 to 4 years. Two major dietary patterns were identified: High prudent pattern scores represented high intakes of vegetables, fruit, legumes, fish, poultry, and whole grains, whereas high Western pattern scores reflected high intakes of red meat, processed meat, refined grains, french fries, and sweets/desserts. During 18 years of follow-up, 6011 deaths occurred, including 1154 cardiovascular deaths and 3139 cancer deaths. After multivariable adjustment, the prudent diet was associated with a 28% lower risk of cardiovascular mortality (95% confidence interval [CI], 13 to 40) and a 17% lower risk of all-cause mortality (95% CI, 10 to 24) when the highest quintile was compared with the lowest quintile. In contrast, the Western pattern was associated with a higher risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease (22%; 95% CI, 1 to 48), cancer (16%; 95% CI, 3 to 30), and all causes (21%; 95% CI, 12 to 32). Greater adherence to the prudent pattern may reduce the risk of cardiovascular and total mortality, whereas greater adherence to the Western pattern may increase the risk among initially healthy women.

  9. Estimated glomerular filtration rate, all-cause mortality and cardiovascular diseases incidence in a low risk population: the MATISS study.

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    Chiara Donfrancesco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD independently increases the risk of death and cardiovascular disease (CVD in the general population. However, the relationship between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and CVD/death risk in a general population at low risk of CVD has not been explored so far. DESIGN: Baseline and longitudinal data of 1465 men and 1459 women aged 35-74 years participating to the MATISS study, an Italian general population cohort, were used to evaluate the role of eGFR in the prediction of all-cause mortality and incident CVD. METHODS: Bio-bank stored sera were used to evaluate eGFR at baseline. Serum creatinine was measured on thawed samples by means of an IDMS-calibrated enzymatic method. eGFR was calculated by the CKD-EPI formula. RESULTS: At baseline, less than 2% of enrolled persons had eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2 and more than 70% had a 10-year cardiovascular risk score < 10%. In people 60 or more years old, the first and the last eGFR quintiles (<90 and ≥109 mL/min/1.73 m(2, respectively were associated to an increased risk for both all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.2-2.1 and 4.3, 1.6-11.7, respectively and incident CVD (1.6, 1.0-2.4 and 7.0, 2.2-22.9, respectively, even if adjusted for classical risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: These findings strongly suggest that in an elderly, general population at low risk of CVD and low prevalence of reduced renal filtration, even a modest eGFR reduction is related to all-cause mortality and CVD incidence, underlying the potential benefit to this population of considering eGFR for their risk prediction.

  10. Investigation of methodological factors potentially underlying the apparently paradoxical findings on body mass index and all-cause mortality.

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    Grace Joshy

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Findings regarding the association between overweight and all-cause mortality range from significantly lower to higher risk, compared with body-mass-index (BMI within the "normal" range. METHODS: We examined empirically potential methodological explanations for these apparently conflicting results using questionnaire and linked mortality data from 246,314 individuals aged ≥45 years in the Australian 45 and Up Study (11,127 deaths; median follow-up 3.9 years. Hazard ratios (HR for all-cause mortality associated with BMI were modelled according to different methods of accounting for illness at baseline, finer versus broader gradations of BMI and choice of reference group, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: In analyses using the broad World Health Organization (WHO categories, the all-cause mortality HR was significantly lower in the overweight category (25.0-29.99 kg/m², than the normal weight (18.5-24.99 kg/m² category. However, in analyses accounting for baseline illness, which excluded those with pre-existing illness at baseline, ever-smokers and the first 2 years of follow up, absolute age-standardised mortality rates varied up to two-fold between finer BMI categories within the WHO normal weight category; rates were lowest at 22.5-24.99 kg/m² and mortality HRs increased steadily for BMI above (p(trend<0.02 and below (p(trend<0.003 this reference category. Hence, the breadth of the BMI categories used and whether or not baseline illness is accounted for explain the apparent discrepancies between reported BMI-mortality associations. CONCLUSION: Using fine BMI categories and the category with the lowest absolute rates as the reference group and accounting for the potential confounding effects of baseline illness is likely to yield the most reliable risk estimates for establishing the independent relationship of BMI to all-cause mortality. These results and those of other studies indicate that a BMI of 22.5-24.99 kg

  11. Effects of β-blockers on all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Sugiyama, Takehiro; Kajio, Hiroshi

    2017-06-01

    To assess whether the use of beta-blockers influences mortality and the incidence of major cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD). Using data from the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes trial, we performed Cox proportional hazards analysis to assess the effects of β-blockers on all-cause mortality in 2244 patients with type 2 diabetes who had stable CHD with and without a history of myocardial infarction (MI)/heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF). All-cause mortality in patients with MI/HFrEF was significantly lower in those receiving β-blockers than in those not receiving β-blockers (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-0.98; P  = .04), whereas that in patients without MI/HFrEF did not significantly differ (adjusted HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.76-1.32; P  = .64). Among patients with MI/HFrEF, all-cause mortality in those who received intensive medical therapy alone for CHD was significantly lower in those on β-blockers than in those not on β-blockers (adjusted HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.23-0.88; P  = .02); however, mortality in patients who received early revascularization for CHD was not significantly lower in those on β-blockers (adjusted HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.40-1.65; P  = .57). The risk of major cardiovascular events in patients without MI/HFrEF was not significantly different between those on and those not on β-blocker treatment. In patients with diabetes and CHD, the use of β-blockers was effective in reducing all-cause mortality in those with MI/HFrEF but not in those without MI/HFrEF. © 2017 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. No Association between Loss-of-Function Mutations in filaggrin and Diabetes, Cardiovascular Disease, and All-Cause Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Skaaby, Tea; Jørgensen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    of skin barrier functions could facilitate low-grade inflammation and hence increase the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We examined the association between loss-of-function mutations in FLG and diabetes, stroke, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and all-cause mortality in the general population.......Common loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) are a major predisposing risk factor for atopic disease due to reduced epidermal filaggrin protein levels. We previously observed an association between these mutations and type 2 diabetes and hypothesized that an inherited impairment...

  13. High Rates of All-cause and Gastroenteritis-related Hospitalization Morbidity and Mortality among HIV-exposed Indian Infants

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    Tripathy Srikanth

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-infected and HIV-exposed, uninfected infants experience a high burden of infectious morbidity and mortality. Hospitalization is an important metric for morbidity and is associated with high mortality, yet, little is known about rates and causes of hospitalization among these infants in the first 12 months of life. Methods Using data from a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT trial (India SWEN, where HIV-exposed breastfed infants were given extended nevirapine, we measured 12-month infant all-cause and cause-specific hospitalization rates and hospitalization risk factors. Results Among 737 HIV-exposed Indian infants, 93 (13% were HIV-infected, 15 (16% were on HAART, and 260 (35% were hospitalized 381 times by 12 months of life. Fifty-six percent of the hospitalizations were attributed to infections; gastroenteritis was most common accounting for 31% of infectious hospitalizations. Gastrointestinal-related hospitalizations steadily increased over time, peaking around 9 months. The 12-month all-cause hospitalization, gastroenteritis-related hospitalization, and in-hospital mortality rates were 906/1000 PY, 229/1000 PY, and 35/1000 PY respectively among HIV-infected infants and 497/1000 PY, 107/1000 PY, and 3/1000 PY respectively among HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. Advanced maternal age, infant HIV infection, gestational age, and male sex were associated with higher all-cause hospitalization risk while shorter duration of breastfeeding and abrupt weaning were associated with gastroenteritis-related hospitalization. Conclusions HIV-exposed Indian infants experience high rates of all-cause and infectious hospitalization (particularly gastroenteritis and in-hospital mortality. HIV-infected infants are nearly 2-fold more likely to experience hospitalization and 10-fold more likely to die compared to HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. The combination of scaling up HIV PMTCT programs and implementing proven health

  14. Wine intake, ABO phenotype, and risk of ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality: the Copenhagen Male Study--a 16-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suadicani, Poul; Hein, Hans Ole; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2008-11-01

    The association of alcohol intake with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality may depend on ABO phenotype. We tested this hypothesis in a 16-year follow-up of 3,022 Caucasian men aged 53-74 years without overt cardiovascular disease. Potential risk factors and confounders included were ABO phenotypes, alcohol intake (wine, beer, and spirits), tobacco smoking history, leisure-time physical activity, social class, and age. During 16 years, 1985-1986 to end of 2001, 197 subjects (6.5%) died due to IHD, and 1,204 (39.8%) from all causes. Among non-O phenotypes (A, B, and AB) significantly fewer men who died due to IHD were wine consumers, 43.9% versus 55.7%, Plimit) for men drinking up to 8 beverages/wk was 0.5 (0.3-1.02), and among men consuming >8 beverages/wk (the highest quintile) the HR was 0.3 (0.2-0.8), Paged and elderly men may depend on ABO phenotypes.

  15. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity predicts all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes: the Kyushu Prevention Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yasutaka; Inoguchi, Toyoshi; Etoh, Erina; Kodama, Yoshimi; Sasaki, Shuji; Sonoda, Noriyuki; Nawata, Hajime; Shimabukuro, Michio; Takayanagi, Ryoichi

    2014-08-01

    Whether brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a noninvasive marker for arterial stiffness, is a useful predictive maker for cardiovascular events in subjects with diabetes is not established. In the present cohort study, we evaluated the benefit of baPWV for the prediction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in subjects with diabetes. A total of 4,272 outpatients with diabetes were enrolled in the Kyushu Prevention Study of Atherosclerosis. Of these, 3,628 subjects, excluding those with an ankle-brachial index of mortality. RP revealed baPWVs of 14 and 24 m/s as statistically adequate cutoff points for cardiovascular events and mortality, respectively. High-baPWV classes showed significantly low event-free ratios in Kaplan-Meier curves for all end points and remained independent risks for all-cause mortality and cerebrovascular events, but not for coronary artery events after adjustments for age, sex, BMI, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, and hemoglobin A1c by Cox proportional hazards models. This large-scale cohort study provided evidence that high baPWV is a useful independent predictor of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in subjects with diabetes. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  16. Remote indigenous peritoneal dialysis patients have higher risk of peritonitis, technique failure, all-cause and peritonitis-related mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai H; Boudville, Neil; McDonald, Stephen P; Gorham, Gillian; Johnson, David W; Jose, Matthew

    2011-10-01

    The number of indigenous patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is increasing in Australia, reflecting a similar trend in other countries. Because many indigenous patients live in remote areas, peritoneal dialysis (PD) is often preferred. Compared to non-indigenous PD patients, indigenous patients have increased complication rates but the effect of residential locations on outcomes remains unclear. The aim of this study is to examine the association between race and PD outcomes stratified by location. Using the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant (ANZDATA) Registry, all adult ESKD patients commencing PD in Australia between 1995 and 2008 were included. Patients were stratified as non-indigenous or indigenous race and were grouped according to their residential location, the latter stratified into metropolitan, regional and remote areas. Outcomes evaluated included peritonitis, technique failure, peritonitis-related and all-cause mortality. Regional and/or remote PD patients generally have a greater risk peritonitis-related complications and/or mortality compared to metropolitan patients. However, remote indigenous PD patients had the greatest risk of all PD-related complications, including all-cause and peritonitis-related mortality. This registry analysis demonstrates that non-metropolitan PD patients, especially remote indigenous patients, have higher complication rates, suggesting that environmental factors are important in determining PD outcomes.

  17. The Association of Reproductive Hormone Levels and All-Cause, Cancer, and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard Holmboe, Stine; Vradi, Eleni; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Testosterone levels (T) have been associated with mortality, but controversy exists. OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between serum levels of total testosterone, SHBG, free testosterone, estradiol, LH and FSH, and subsequent mortality with up to 30 years of follow-up. DESIGN...... an increased all-cause mortality compared to lowest quartile (HR=1.32, 95%CI: 1.14 to 1.53). Likewise, increased quartiles of LH/T and estradiol increased the risk of all-cause mortality (HR=1.23, 95%CI: 1.06 to 1.43, HR=1.23, 95%CI: 1.06 to 1.43). No association to testosterone levels was found. Higher LH...... levels were associated with increased cancer mortality (HR=1.42, 95%CI: 1.10 to 1.84) independently of smoking status. Lower CVD mortality was seen for men with testosterone in the highest quartile compared to lowest (HR=0.72, 95%CI: 0.53 to 0.98). Furthermore, negative trends were seen for SHBG and free...

  18. Average volume of alcohol consumed, type of beverage, drinking pattern and the risk of death from all causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglietto, Laura; English, Dallas R; Hopper, John L; Powles, John; Giles, Graham G

    2006-01-01

    The objective was to investigate associations between average volume of alcohol consumption, type of beverage and drinking pattern and all-cause mortality in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Average consumption, including type of beverage, was estimated from beverage-specific questions on quantity and frequency of consumption. Pattern of consumption was estimated from a 7-day diary. During an average of 10.5 years of follow-up of 36 984 participants, 1971 deaths occurred. For both men and women, mortality curves were J-shaped (nadir at 9-12 g/day of alcohol consumption; upper protective dose of 42-76 g/day). Wine consumption was associated with lower mortality (for men, minimum hazard ratio (HR) at 20-39 g/day of wine consumption: 0.69; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.54-0.87; for women, minimum HR at 1-19 g/day: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.70-0.98). Beer was associated with an increased risk for men (test for trend, P = 0.05), but not for women. After adjustment for total amount of alcohol consumed, the number of drinking-days was inversely associated with the risk of dying in men (P-trend = 0.04). These results confirm previous findings about the effect of average volume of alcohol and type of beverage and suggest that drinking pattern is an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality.

  19. The number of years lived with obesity and the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdullah, Asnawi; Wolfe, Rory; Stoelwinder, Johannes U

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of the duration of obesity as an independent risk factor for mortality has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between the duration of obesity and the risk of mortality. METHODS: A total of 5036 participants (aged 28-62 years......) of the Framingham Cohort Study were followed up every 2 years from 1948 for up to 48 years. The association between obesity duration and all-cause and cause-specific mortality was analysed using time-dependent Cox models adjusted for body mass index. The role of biological intermediates and chronic diseases...... was also explored. RESULTS: The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for mortality increased as the number of years lived with obesity increased. For those who were obese for 1-4.9, 5-14.9, 15-24.9 and =25 years of the study follow-up period, adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality were 1.51 [95% confidence interval...

  20. Osteoporosis markers on low-dose lung cancer screening chest computed tomography scans predict all-cause mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckens, C.F. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Radiology Department, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); Graaf, Y. van der [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); Verkooijen, H.M.; Mali, W.P.; Jong, P.A. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Radiology Department, Utrecht (Netherlands); Isgum, I.; Mol, C.P. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Verhaar, H.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Vliegenthart, R.; Oudkerk, M. [Medical Center Groningen, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Aalst, C.M. van; Koning, H.J. de [Erasmus MC Rotterdam, Department of Public Health, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    Further survival benefits may be gained from low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) by assessing vertebral fractures and bone density. We sought to assess the association between CT-measured vertebral fractures and bone density with all-cause mortality in lung cancer screening participants. Following a case-cohort design, lung cancer screening trial participants (N = 3,673) who died (N = 196) during a median follow-up of 6 years (inter-quartile range: 5.7-6.3) were identified and added to a random sample of N = 383 from the trial. We assessed vertebral fractures using Genant and acute;s semiquantative method on sagittal reconstructions and measured bone density (Hounsfield Units (HU)) in vertebrae. Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to determine if vertebral fractures or bone density were independently predictive of mortality. The prevalence of vertebral fractures was 35 % (95 % confidence interval 30-40 %) among survivors and 51 % (44-58 %) amongst cases. After adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, pack years smoked, coronary and aortic calcium volume and pulmonary emphysema, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for vertebral fracture was 2.04 (1.43-2.92). For each 10 HU decline in trabecular bone density, the adjusted HR was 1.08 (1.02-1.15). Vertebral fractures and bone density are independently associated with all-cause mortality. (orig.)

  1. A systematic review and meta-analysis of nut consumption and incident risk of CVD and all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Alexandra J; de Souza, Russell J; Meyre, David; Anand, Sonia S; Mente, Andrew

    2016-01-28

    Dietary patterns containing nuts are associated with a lower risk of CVD mortality, and increased nut consumption has been shown to have beneficial effects on CVD risk factors including serum lipid levels. Recent studies have reported on the relationship between nut intake and CVD outcomes and mortality. Our objective was to systematically review the literature and quantify associations between nut consumption and CVD outcomes and all-cause mortality. Five electronic databases (through July 2015), previous reviews and bibliographies of qualifying articles were searched. In the twenty included prospective cohort studies (n 467 389), nut consumption was significantly associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (ten studies; risk ratio (RR) 0·81; 95 % CI 0·77, 0·85 for highest v. lowest quantile of intake, P het=0·04, I 2=43 %), CVD mortality (five studies; RR 0·73; 95 % CI 0·68, 0·78; P het=0·31, I 2=16 %), all CHD (three studies; RR 0·66; 95 % CI 0·48, 0·91; P het=0·0002, I 2=88 %) and CHD mortality (seven studies; RR 0·70; 95 % CI 0·64, 0·76; P het=0·65, I 2=0 %), as well as a statistically non-significant reduction in the risk of non-fatal CHD (three studies; RR 0·71; 95 % CI 0·49, 1·03; P het=0·03, I 2=72 %) and stroke mortality (three studies; RR 0·83; 95 % CI 0·69, 1·00; P het=0·54, I 2=0 %). No evidence of association was found for total stroke (two studies; RR 1·05; 95 % CI 0·69, 1·61; P het=0·04, I 2=77 %). Data on total CVD and sudden cardiac death were available from one cohort study, and they were significantly inversely associated with nut consumption. In conclusion, we found that higher nut consumption is associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality, total CVD, CVD mortality, total CHD, CHD mortality and sudden cardiac death.

  2. Higher diet quality is associated with decreased risk of all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, Jill; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Miller, Paige E; Liese, Angela D; Kahle, Lisa L; Park, Yikyung; Subar, Amy F

    2014-06-01

    Increased attention in dietary research and guidance has been focused on dietary patterns, rather than on single nutrients or food groups, because dietary components are consumed in combination and correlated with one another. However, the collective body of research on the topic has been hampered by the lack of consistency in methods used. We examined the relationships between 4 indices--the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), the Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), the alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED), and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)--and all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (n = 492,823). Data from a 124-item food-frequency questionnaire were used to calculate scores; adjusted HRs and 95% CIs were estimated. We documented 86,419 deaths, including 23,502 CVD- and 29,415 cancer-specific deaths, during 15 y of follow-up. Higher index scores were associated with a 12-28% decreased risk of all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality. Specifically, comparing the highest with the lowest quintile scores, adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality for men were as follows: HEI-2010 HR: 0.78 (95% CI: 0.76, 0.80), AHEI-2010 HR: 0.76 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.78), aMED HR: 0.77 (95% CI: 0.75, 0.79), and DASH HR: 0.83 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.85); for women, these were HEI-2010 HR: 0.77 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.80), AHEI-2010 HR: 0.76 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.79), aMED HR: 0.76 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.79), and DASH HR: 0.78 (95% CI: 0.75, 0.81). Similarly, high adherence on each index was protective for CVD and cancer mortality examined separately. These findings indicate that multiple scores reflect core tenets of a healthy diet that may lower the risk of mortality outcomes, including federal guidance as operationalized in the HEI-2010, Harvard's Healthy Eating Plate as captured in the AHEI-2010, a Mediterranean diet as adapted in an Americanized aMED, and the DASH Eating Plan as included in the DASH score. © 2014 American

  3. High diet quality is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Janice L; Whincup, Peter H; Morris, Richard W; Lennon, Lucy T; Papacosta, Olia; Wannamethee, S Goya

    2014-05-01

    Although diet quality is implicated in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, few studies have investigated the relation between diet quality and the risks of CVD and mortality in older adults. This study examined the prospective associations between dietary scores and risk of CVD and all-cause mortality in older British men. A total of 3328 men (aged 60-79 y) from the British Regional Heart Study, free from CVD at baseline, were followed up for 11.3 y for CVD and mortality. Baseline food-frequency questionnaire data were used to generate 2 dietary scores: the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), based on WHO dietary guidelines, and the Elderly Dietary Index (EDI), based on a Mediterranean-style dietary intake, with higher scores indicating greater compliance with dietary recommendations. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses assessed associations between quartiles of HDI and EDI and risk of all-cause mortality, CVD mortality, CVD events, and coronary heart disease (CHD) events. During follow-up, 933 deaths, 327 CVD deaths, 582 CVD events, and 307 CHD events occurred. Men in the highest compared with the lowest EDI quartile had significantly lower risks of all-cause mortality (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.94; P-trend = 0.03), CVD mortality (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.94; P-trend = 0.03), and CHD events (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.97; P-trend = 0.05) but not CVD events (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.60, 1.05; P-trend = 0.16) after adjustment for sociodemographic, behavioral, and cardiovascular risk factors. The HDI was not significantly associated with any of the outcomes. The EDI appears to be more useful than the HDI for assessing diet quality in relation to CVD and morality risk in older men. Encouraging older adults to adhere to the guidelines inherent in the EDI criteria may have public health benefits.

  4. All-cause mortality and serious cardiovascular events in people with hip and knee osteoarthritis: a population based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian A Hawker

    Full Text Available Because individuals with osteoarthritis (OA avoid physical activities that exacerbate symptoms, potentially increasing risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD and death, we assessed the relationship between OA disability and these outcomes.In a population cohort aged 55+ years with at least moderately severe symptomatic hip and/or knee OA, OA disability (Western Ontario McMaster Universities (WOMAC OA scores; Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ walking score; use of walking aids and other covariates were assessed by questionnaire. Survey data were linked to health administrative data to determine the relationship between baseline OA symptom severity to all-cause mortality and occurrence of a composite CVD outcome (acute myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, heart failure, stroke or transient ischemic attack over a median follow-up of 13.2 and 9.2 years, respectively.Of 2156 participants, 1,236 (57.3% died and 822 (38.1% experienced a CVD outcome during follow-up. Higher (worse baseline WOMAC function scores and walking disability were independently associated with a higher all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, aHR, per 10-point increase in WOMAC function score 1.04, 95% confidence interval, CI 1.01-1.07, p = 0.004; aHR per unit increase in HAQ walking score 1.30, 95% CI 1.22-1.39, p<0.001; and aHR for those using versus not using a walking aid 1.51, 95% CI 1.34-1.70, p<0.001. In survival analysis, censoring on death, risk of our composite CVD outcome was also significantly and independently associated with greater baseline walking disability ((aHR for use of a walking aid = 1.27, 95% CI 1.10-1.47, p = 0.001; aHR per unit increase in HAQ walking score = 1.17, 95% CI 1.08-1.27, p<0.001.Among individuals with hip and/or knee OA, severity of OA disability was associated with a significant increase in all-cause mortality and serious CVD events after controlling for multiple confounders. Research is needed to elucidate modifiable

  5. High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and the Risk of All-Cause Mortality among U.S. Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Benjamin; Xie, Yan; Xian, Hong; Balasubramanian, Sumitra; Zayed, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives The relationship between HDL cholesterol and all-cause mortality in patients with kidney disease is not clear. We sought to characterize the relationship of HDL cholesterol and risk of death and examine the association by eGFR levels. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We built a cohort of 1,764,986 men who were United States veterans with at least one eGFR between October of 2003 and September of 2004 and followed them until September of 2013 or death. Results Patients with low HDL cholesterol and low eGFR had a higher burden of comorbid illnesses. Over a median of 9.1 years (interquartile range, 7.7–9.4 years), 26,247 (40.1%), 109,222 (32.3%), 152,625 (29.2%), 113,785 (28.5%), and 139,803 (31.8%) participants with HDL cholesterol ≤25, >25 to 42 to 25 to 42 to <50 mg/dl) were associated with lower risk of death across all levels of eGFR. The lower risk was partially abrogated in those with high HDL cholesterol (≥50 mg/dl), and the risk of death was similar to the referent category among those with eGFR<30 or ≥90 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Analysis by HDL cholesterol deciles and spline analyses suggest that the relationship between HDL cholesterol and death follows a U-shaped curve. There was a significant interaction between eGFR and HDL cholesterol in that lower eGFR attenuated the salutary association of HDL cholesterol and risk of death (P for interaction <0.01). Presence of coronary artery disease attenuated the lower risk of high HDL cholesterol and all-cause mortality in those with eGFR≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (P for interaction <0.05). Conclusions Our results show a U-shaped relationship between HDL cholesterol and risk of all-cause mortality across all eGFR categories. The risk is modified by eGFR and cardiovascular disease. PMID:27515591

  6. Fresh fruit consumption and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: findings from the China Kadoorie Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huaidong; Li, Liming; Bennett, Derrick; Yang, Ling; Guo, Yu; Key, Timothy J; Bian, Zheng; Chen, Yiping; Walters, Robin G; Millwood, Iona Y; Chen, Junshi; Wang, Junzheng; Zhou, Xue; Fang, Le; Li, Yijun; Li, Xianzhi; Collins, Rory; Peto, Richard; Chen, Zhengming

    2017-10-01

    Higher fruit consumption is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Substantial uncertainties remain, however, about the associations of fruit consumption with all-cause mortality and mortality from subtypes of CVD and major non-vascular diseases, especially in China. In 2004-08, the nationwide China Kadoorie Biobank Study recruited > 0.5 million adults aged 30-79 years from 10 diverse localities in China. Fresh fruit consumption was estimated using an interviewer-administered electronic questionnaire, and mortality data were collected from death registries. Among the 462 342 participants who were free of major chronic diseases at baseline, 17 894 deaths were recorded during ∼ 7 years of follow-up. Cox regression yielded adjusted rate ratios (RRs) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality associated with fruit consumption. At baseline, 28% of participants reported consuming fruit ≥ 4 days/week (regular consumers) and 6% reported never/rarely consuming fruit (non-consumers). Compared with non-consumers, regular consumers had 27% [RR = 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-0.76] lower all-cause mortality, 34% lower CVD mortality (n = 6166; RR = 0.66, 0.61-0.71), 17% lower cancer mortality (n = 6796; RR = 0.83, 0.78-0.89) and 42% lower mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 1119; RR = 0.58, 0.47-0.71). For each of the above, there was an approximately log-linear dose-response relationship with amount consumed. For mortality from site-specific cancers, fruit consumption was inversely associated with digestive tract cancer (n = 2265; RR = 0.72, 0.64-0.81), particularly oesophageal cancer (n = 801; RR = 0.65, 0.50-0.83), but not with cancer of lung or liver. Among Chinese adults, higher fresh fruit consumption was associated with significantly lower mortality from several major vascular and non-vascular diseases. Given the current low population level of fruit

  7. Association Between Caffeine Intake and All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality: A Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Kajio, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Takehiro

    2017-08-01

    To assess whether caffeine intake is associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. We conducted a prospective cohort study using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of participants with a caffeine intake of 10 to 99, 100 to 199, and 200 mg/d or more with those of participants with a caffeine intake of less than 10 mg/d. In total, 17,594 participants were included, and the mean ± SD and median (interquartile range) follow-up was 6.5±2.8 years and 6.4 (3.6-9.5) years, respectively; 17,568 participants (99.8%) completed the follow-up, and 1310 died. Compared with those who had a caffeine intake of less than 10 mg/d, HRs and 95% CIs for all-cause mortality were significantly lower in participants with a caffeine intake of 10 to 99 mg/d (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66-1.00; P=.05), 100 to 199 mg/d (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.51-0.78; Pcaffeine intake of 100 to 199 mg/d (HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.22-0.93). There was no association between caffeine intake and cardiovascular mortality, whereas the HRs for noncardiovascular mortality were significantly lower in those with a caffeine intake of 10 to 99 mg/d (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.57-0.95; P=.01), 100 to 199 mg/d (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.46-0.77; Pcaffeine intake was associated with a decreased risk of all-cause mortality, regardless of the presence or absence of coffee consumption. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of Subjective Recollection: Understanding of and Introspection on Memory States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, Simona; Mirandola, Chiara; Angelini, Laura; Cornoldi, Cesare; Ciaramelli, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    The development of subjective recollection was investigated in participants aged 6-18 years. In Experiment 1 (N = 90), age-related improvements were found in understanding of the subjective experience of recollection, although robust levels of understanding were observed even in the youngest group. In Experiment 2 (N = 100), age-related…

  9. Assessing Adolescents' Positive Psychological Functioning at School: Development and Validation of the Student Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Tyler L.; Long, Anna C. J.; Cook, Clayton R.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the initial development and validation of the Student Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire (SSWQ) with a sample of 1,002 students in Grades 6-8. The SSWQ is a 16-item self-report instrument for assessing youths' subjective wellbeing at school, which is operationalized via 4 subscales measuring school connectedness, academic…

  10. The inflammatory biomarker YKL-40 as a new prognostic marker for all-cause mortality in patients with heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harutyunyan, Marina; Christiansen, Michael; Johansen, Julia S

    2011-01-01

    YKL-40 II to IV quartiles, respectively following multivariable adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors (age, left ventricular ejection fraction, gender, history of heart failure, ischemic heart disease, chronic pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, stroke, hypertension, NT-proBNP, hs......BACKGROUND: Despite progress in management of patients with heart failure (HF) these patients still have a poor prognosis. We tested the hypothesis whether the inflammatory biomarker YKL-40 alone or in combination with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and/or N-terminal-pro-B natriuretic...... peptide (NT-proBNP) could be a new prognostic biomarker for all-cause mortality in patients with HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 717 of the 1000 patients with severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction included in the EchoCardiography and Heart Outcome Study were included in Denmark and had blood...

  11. Socio-economic inequalities in all-cause mortality in Europe: an exploration of the role of heightened social mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Audrey M W; Groffen, Daniëlle A I; Bosma, Hans

    2013-12-01

    The larger than expected socio-economic inequalities in health in more egalitarian countries might be explained by a heightened social mobility in these countries. Therefore, the aim of this explorative study was to examine the associations between country-level social mobility, income inequality and socio-economic differences in all-cause mortality, using country-level secondary data from 12 European countries. Both income equality and social mobility were found to be associated with larger socio-economic differences in mortality, particularly in women. These findings suggest that social mobility and income equality, beside their shiny side of improving population health, might have a shady side of increasing socio-economic health inequalities.

  12. Plasma matrix metalloproteinases are associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peeters, S A; Engelen, Lian; Buijs, J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Altered regulation of extracellular matrix remodeling by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) may contribute to vascular complications in type 1 diabetes. We investigated associations between plasma MMP-1, -2, -3, -9, -10 and TIMP-1......, and cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetic patients. METHODS: We prospectively followed 337 type 1 diabetic patients [mean age 41.4 years (9.6), 39% female], 170 with and 167 without diabetic nephropathy, with median follow-up of 12.3 years. Survival analyses were applied to investigate...... differences in plasma MMP-1, -2, -3, -9, -10, and TIMP-1-levels in patients with and without a cardiovascular event and in those who died vs survivors. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, duration of diabetes, HbA1c, nephropathy and for other conventional cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: After...

  13. Relation of Periodontitis to Risk of Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality (from a Danish Nationwide Cohort Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gorm Mørk; Egeberg, Alexander; Holmstrup, Palle

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis and atherosclerosis are highly prevalent chronic inflammatory diseases, and it has been suggested that periodontitis is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and that a causal link may exist between the 2 diseases. Using Danish national registers, we identified...... a nationwide cohort of 17,691 patients who received a hospital diagnosis of periodontitis within a 15-year period and matched them with 83,003 controls from the general population. We performed Poisson regression analysis to determine crude and adjusted incidence rate ratios of myocardial infarction, ischemic...... stroke, cardiovascular death, major adverse cardiovascular events, and all-cause mortality. The results showed that patients with periodontitis were at higher risk of all examined end points. The findings remained significant after adjustment for increased baseline co-morbidity in periodontitis patients...

  14. Increased All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes and High-Expression Mannan-Binding Lectin Genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jakob A; Thiel, Steffen; Lajer, Maria

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a complement-activating carbohydrate-recognizing molecule associated with diabetic nephropathy. MBL is associated with all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes, but whether MBL is associated with mortality in type 1 diabetes remains unknown. We therefore...... aimed to investigate this. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied an existing 12-year prospective cohort with type 1 diabetes with 198 patients with diabetic nephropathy (121 men, age 41 years [95% CI 40-42], estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 67 mL/min/1.73 m(2) [95% CI 63-70]) and 174...... are both associated with increased mortality rates in type 1 diabetes compared with low MBL expression genotypes and low MBL concentrations....

  15. Osteoporosis markers on low-dose lung cancer screening chest computed tomography scans predict all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckens, C F; van der Graaf, Y; Verkooijen, H M; Mali, W P; Isgum, I; Mol, C P; Verhaar, H J; Vliegenthart, R; Oudkerk, M; van Aalst, C M; de Koning, H J; de Jong, P A

    2015-01-01

    Further survival benefits may be gained from low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) by assessing vertebral fractures and bone density. We sought to assess the association between CT-measured vertebral fractures and bone density with all-cause mortality in lung cancer screening participants. Following a case-cohort design, lung cancer screening trial participants (N = 3,673) who died (N = 196) during a median follow-up of 6 years (inter-quartile range: 5.7-6.3) were identified and added to a random sample of N = 383 from the trial. We assessed vertebral fractures using Genant's semiquantative method on sagittal reconstructions and measured bone density (Hounsfield Units (HU)) in vertebrae. Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to determine if vertebral fractures or bone density were independently predictive of mortality. The prevalence of vertebral fractures was 35% (95% confidence interval 30-40%) among survivors and 51% (44-58%) amongst cases. After adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, pack years smoked, coronary and aortic calcium volume and pulmonary emphysema, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for vertebral fracture was 2.04 (1.43-2.92). For each 10 HU decline in trabecular bone density, the adjusted HR was 1.08 (1.02-1.15). Vertebral fractures and bone density are independently associated with all-cause mortality. • Lung cancer screening chest computed tomography contains additional, potentially useful information. • Vertebral fractures and bone density are independently predictive of mortality. • This finding has implications for screening and management decisions.

  16. Mediterranean diet, physical activity and their combined effect on all-cause mortality: The Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Alvarez, Ismael; Zazpe, Itziar; Pérez de Rojas, Javier; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Fernandez-Montero, Alejandro; Hidalgo-Santamaría, María; Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2018-01-01

    The health benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and of physical activity (PA) have been widely documented. However, no longitudinal studies have investigated their combined effect on mortality. We assessed the individual and combined effects of adherence to the MedDiet and PA on all-cause mortality. We used data from 19,467 participants from a prospective cohort of Spanish university graduates, the SUN cohort, followed-up between December 1999 and February 2016. Adherence to the MedDiet was assessed using four different dietary scores, categorizing the quantitative scores into tertiles of adherence. To assess multiple dimensions of PA, an 8-item score was built. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to study the individual and combined relationship of adherence to the MedDiet and PA with all-cause mortality. During a median follow-up of 10.3years, we registered 305 deaths. Compared with the lowest adherence to the MedDiet (<20 in the modified Mediterranean diet score), better adherence (23-30 points) was associated with lower mortality (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio [HR]=0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.46-0.96). Engaging in moderate or high levels of PA (versus lower levels) was associated with 44% and 52% relative reductions in mortality, respectively. High adherence to the MedDiet combined with engaging in higher amounts of PA showed a HR=0.36 (95% CI: 0.19-0.67). We documented that the combined effect of better adherence to the MedDiet and increased PA had multiplicative effects on mortality risk reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. What is the effect of unemployment on all-cause mortality? A cohort study using propensity score matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Tom; Popham, Frank; Boyle, Paul

    2015-02-01

    There is a strong association between unemployment and mortality, but whether this relationship is causal remains debated. This study utilizes population-level administrative data from Scotland within a propensity score framework to explore whether the association between unemployment and mortality may be causal. The study examined a sample of working men and women aged 25-54 in 1991. Subsequent employment status in 2001 was observed (in work or unemployed) and the relative all-cause mortality risk of unemployment between 2001 and 2010 was estimated. To account for potential selection into unemployment of those in poor health, a propensity score matching approach was used. Matching variables were observed prior to unemployment and included health status up to the year of unemployment (hospital admissions and self-reported limiting long-term illness), as well as measures of socioeconomic position. Unemployment was associated with a significant all-cause mortality risk relative to employment for men (hazard ratio [HR] 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33-2.55). This effect was robust to controlling for prior health and sociodemographic characteristics. Effects for women were smaller and statistically insignificant (HR 1.51; 95% CI 0.68-3.37). For men, the findings support the notion that the often-observed association between unemployment and mortality may contain a significant causal component; although for women, there is less support for this conclusion. However, female employment status, as recorded in the census, is more complex than for men and may have served to underestimate any mortality effect of unemployment. Future work should examine this issue further. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  18. TV viewing time is associated with increased all-cause mortality in Brazilian adults independent of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turi, B C; Monteiro, H L; Lemes, Í R; Codogno, J S; Lynch, K R; Asahi Mesquita, C A; Fernandes, R A

    2017-03-22

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between television (TV) viewing and all-cause mortality among Brazilian adults after 6 years of follow-up. This longitudinal study started in 2010 in the city of Bauru, SP, Brazil, and involved 970 adults aged ≥50 years. Mortality was reported by relatives and confirmed in medical records of the Brazilian National Health System. Physical activity (PA) and TV viewing were assessed by the Baecke questionnaire. Health status, sociodemographic and behavioral covariates were considered as potential confounders. After 6 years of follow-up, 89 deaths were registered (9.2% [95% CI=7.4%-11%]). Type 2 diabetes mellitus was associated with higher risk of mortality (P-value=.012). Deaths correlated significantly with age (ρ=.188; P-value=.001), overall PA score (ρ=-.128; P-value=.001) and TV viewing (ρ=.086; P-value=.007). Lower percentage of participants reported TV viewing time as often (16%) and very often (5.7%), but there was an association between higher TV viewing time ("often" and "very often" grouped together) and increased mortality after 6 years of follow-up (P-value=.006). The higher TV viewing time was associated with a 44.7% increase in all-cause mortality (HR=1.447 [1.019-2.055]), independently of other potential confounders. In conclusion, the findings from this cohort study identified increased risk of mortality among adults with higher TV viewing time, independently of PA and other variables. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Serum T3 level can predict cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality rates in CKD patients with proteinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jae Won; Han, Seung Tae; Song, Shin Han; Kim, Min Keun; Kim, Jae Seok; Choi, Seung Ok; Han, Byoung-Geun

    2012-01-01

    Patients with proteinuria frequently show changes in thyroid hormone levels. Serum T3 depression predicts a negative outcome in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and may be associated with cardiovascular complications or chronic inflammation. Few studies have explored the relationship between thyroid hormone dysregulation and clinical outcome in patients with proteinuria. We reviewed thyroid function test results obtained from 211 patients with 24 h urinary protein excretion greater than 150 mg/day and found a correlation of thyroid hormone level with cardiovascular events and mortality. T3 decreased with age (p = 0.001) and 24 h urine albumin (p = 0.028). Free T4 decreased in accordance with 24 h urine protein and serum creatinine (p = 0.034 and p = 0.033, respectively). In the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, lower cumulative survival, higher cardiovascular events, and mortality were found in the low T3 group compared with the normal T3 group (p = 0.000, p = 0.013, and p = 0.001, respectively). In Cox regression analysis, we observed that, with low T3, decreased sodium, and old age, the incidence of cardiovascular complications (p = 0.000, p = 0.016, and p = 0.000, respectively), cardiovascular mortality (p = 0.000, p = 0.048, and p = 0.001, respectively), and all-cause mortality (p = 0.000, p = 0.017, and p = 0.000, respectively) increased. In CKD patients with proteinuria, low T3 concentration predicted all-cause mortality and cardiovascular event independently of the severity of proteinuria.

  20. Copeptin predicts 10-year all-cause mortality in community patients: a 10-year prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odermatt, Jonas; Bolliger, Rebekka; Hersberger, Lara; Ottiger, Manuel; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Briel, Matthias; Bucher, Heiner C; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2016-10-01

    Copeptin, the C-terminal part of the arginine vasopressin (AVP) precursor peptide, is secreted in response to stress and correlates with adverse clinical outcomes in the acute-care hospital setting. There are no comprehensive data regarding its prognostic value in the community. We evaluated associations of copeptin levels with 10-year mortality in patients visiting their general practitioner (GP) for a respiratory infection included in a previous trial. This is a post hoc analysis including data from 359 patients included in the PARTI trial. Copeptin was measured in batch-analysis on admission and after 7 days. We calculated Cox regression models and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) to assess an association of copeptin with mortality and adverse outcome. Follow-up data were collected by GP, patient and relative tracing through phone interviews 10 years after trial inclusion. After a median follow-up of 10.0 years, mortality was 9.8%. Median admission copeptin levels (pmol/L) were significantly elevated in non-survivors compared to survivors (13.8, IQR 5.9-27.8; vs. 6.3 IQR 4.1-11.5; pcopeptin levels were associated with 10-year all-cause mortality [age-adjusted hazard ratio 1.7 (95% CI, 1.2-2.5); pcopeptin levels. Copeptin also predicted adverse outcomes defined as death, pulmonary embolism and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events. In a sample of community-dwelling patients visiting their GP for a respiratory infection, copeptin levels were associated with 10-year all-cause mortality. In conjunction with traditional risk factors, this marker may help to better direct preventive measures in this population.

  1. The association of clinical indication for exercise stress testing with all-cause mortality: the FIT Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joonseok; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Juraschek, Stephen P; Brawner, Clinton; Keteyian, Steve J; Nasir, Khurram; Dardari, Zeina A; Blumenthal, Roger S; Blaha, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    We hypothesized that the indication for stress testing provided by the referring physician would be an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. We studied 48,914 patients from The Henry Ford Exercise Testing Project (The FIT Project) without known congestive heart failure who were referred for a clinical treadmill stress test and followed for 11 ±4.7 years. The reason for stress test referral was abstracted from the clinical test order, and should be considered the primary concerning symptom or indication as stated by the ordering clinician. Hierarchical multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was performed, after controlling for potential confounders including demographics, risk factors, and medication use as well as additional adjustment for exercise capacity in the final model. A total of 67% of the patients were referred for chest pain, 12% for shortness of breath (SOB), 4% for palpitations, 3% for pre-operative evaluation, 6% for abnormal prior testing, and 7% for risk factors only. There were 6,211 total deaths during follow-up. Compared to chest pain, those referred for palpitations (HR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60-0.86) and risk factors only (HR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.63-0.82) had a lower risk of all-cause mortality, whereas those referred for SOB (HR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.07-1.23) and pre-operative evaluation (HR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.94-2.30) had an increased risk. In subgroup analysis, referral for palpitations was protective only in those without coronary artery disease (CAD) (HR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.62-0.90), while SOB increased mortality risk only in those with established CAD (HR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.10-1.44). The indication for stress testing is an independent predictor of mortality, showing an interaction with CAD status. Importantly, SOB may be associated with higher mortality risk than chest pain, particularly in patients with CAD.

  2. Diabetic ketosis during hyperglycemic crisis is associated with decreased all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruljac, Ivan; Ćaćić, Miroslav; Ćaćić, Petra; Ostojić, Vedran; Štefanović, Mario; Šikić, Aljoša; Vrkljan, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have impaired ketogenesis due to high serum insulin and low growth hormone levels. Evidence exists that ketone bodies might improve kidney and cardiac function. In theory, improved ketogenesis in diabetics may have positive effects. We aimed to assess the impact of diabetic ketosis on all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus presenting with hyperglycemic crisis. We analyzed 486 patients with diabetic ketosis and 486 age and sex-matched patients with non-ketotic hyperglycemia presenting to the emergency department. Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyze the link between patient characteristics and mortality. During an observation time of 33.4 months, death of any cause occurred in 40.9 % of the non-ketotic hyperglycemia group and 30.2 % of the DK group (hazard ratio in the diabetic ketosis group, 0.63; 95 % confidence interval 0.48-0.82; P = 0.0005). Patients with diabetic ketosis had a lower incidence of symptomatic heart failure and had improved renal function. They used less furosemide and antihypertensive drugs, more metformin and lower insulin doses, all of which was independently associated with decreased mortality. Plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels were similar in both groups. Patients with hyperglycemic crisis and diabetic ketosis have decreased all-cause mortality when compared to those with non-ketotic hyperglycemia. diabetic ketosis might be a compensatory mechanism rather than a complication in patients with hyperglycemic crises, but further prospective studies are warranted.

  3. Cancer risk and all-cause mortality among Norwegian military United Nations peacekeepers deployed to Kosovo between 1999 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Leif Aage; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Borud, Einar Kristian

    2014-08-01

    Media reports of leukaemia and other cancers among European United Nations (UN) peacekeepers who served in the Balkans, and a scientific finding of excess Hodgkin lymphoma among Italian UN peacekeepers who served in Bosnia, suggested a link between cancer incidence and depleted uranium (DU) exposure. This spurred several studies on cancer risk among UN peacekeepers who served in the Balkans. Although these studies turned out to be negative, the debate about possible cancers and other health risks caused by DU exposure continues. The aim of the present study was to investigate cancer incidence and all-cause mortality in a cohort of 6076 (4.4% women) Norwegian military UN peacekeepers deployed to Kosovo between 1999 and 2011. The cohort was followed for cancer incidence and mortality from 1999 to 2011. Standardised incidence ratios for cancer (SIR) and mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated from national rates. Sixty-nine cancer cases and 38 deaths were observed during follow-up. Cancer incidence in the cohort was similar to that in the general Norwegian population. No cancers in the overall cohort significantly exceeded incidence rates in the general Norwegian population, but there was an elevated SIR for melanoma of skin in men of 1.90 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95-3.40). A fivefold increased incidence of bladder cancer was observed among men who served in Kosovo for ≥ 1 year, based on 2 excess cases (SIR=5.27; 95% CI 1.09-15.4). All-cause mortality was half the expected rate (SMR=0.49; 95% CI 0.35-0.67). Our study did not support the suggestion that UN peacekeeping service in Kosovo is associated with increased cancer risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural brain changes and all-cause mortality in the elderly population-the mediating role of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanning, Uta; Roesler, Andreas; Peters, Annette; Berger, Klaus; Baune, Bernhard T

    2016-12-01

    While MRI brain changes have been related to mortality during ageing, the role of inflammation in this relationship remains poorly understood. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the impact of MRI changes on all-cause mortality and the mediating role of cytokines. All-cause mortality was evaluated in 268 community dwelling elderly (age 65-83 years) in the MEMO study (Memory and Morbidity in Augsburg elderly). MRI markers of brain atrophy and cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), C-reactive protein (CRP) and a panel of cytokines in serum were assessed. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the association of MRI changes with survival over 9 years. Regression models were used to assess the hypothesis that inflammation is mediating the relationship between MRI-brain changes and mortality. In total, 77 (29 %) deaths occurred during a mean follow up of 9 years. After adjusting for confounders, the degree of global cortical atrophy and the level of the cytokines CRP, TNF-α and IL-8 were of higher significance in study participants who had died at follow-up in comparison to survivors. In Cox proportional hazard models, higher degrees of global cortical atrophy (HR 1.56, p = 0.003) and regional atrophy of the temporal lobe (HR 1.38, p = 0.011) were associated with a significantly increased risk of mortality. Mediation analyses revealed a partial mediation by IL-6 and IL-8 of the effects of global cortical atrophy on mortality. Global cortical brain atrophy is a significant indicator of survival in the elderly. Our study supports a possible role for inflammation in the atrophy pathogenesis. If replicated in other samples, IL-6 and IL-8 level assessment may improve risk prognosis for mortality.

  5. Acute cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality in patients with hyperthyroidism: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, Olaf M; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet; Cannegieter, Suzanne C; Vandenbroucke, Jan P; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Jørgensen, Jens Otto L

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have shown an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in hyperthyroidism, but most studies have been too small to address the effect of hyperthyroidism on individual cardiovascular endpoints. Our main aim was to assess the association among hyperthyroidism, acute cardiovascular events and mortality. It is a nationwide population-based cohort study. Data were obtained from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish National Patient Registry, which covers all Danish hospitals. We compared the rate of all-cause mortality as well as venous thromboembolism (VTE), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), ischemic and non-ischemic stroke, arterial embolism, atrial fibrillation (AF) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the two cohorts. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated. The study included 85 856 hyperthyroid patients and 847 057 matched population-based controls. Mean follow-up time was 9.2 years. The HR for mortality was highest in the first 3 months after diagnosis of hyperthyroidism: 4.62, 95% CI: 4.40-4.85, and remained elevated during long-term follow-up (>3 years) (HR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.33-1.37). The risk for all examined cardiovascular events was increased, with the highest risk in the first 3 months after hyperthyroidism diagnosis. The 3-month post-diagnosis risk was highest for atrial fibrillation (HR: 7.32, 95% CI: 6.58-8.14) and arterial embolism (HR: 6.08, 95% CI: 4.30-8.61), but the risks of VTE, AMI, ischemic and non-ischemic stroke and PCI were increased also 2- to 3-fold. We found an increased risk for all-cause mortality and acute cardiovascular events in patients with hyperthyroidism. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  6. Circulating renalase predicts all-cause mortality and renal outcomes in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seon Ha; Cha, Ran-Hui; Kang, Shin Wook; Park, Cheol Whee; Cha, Dae Ryong; Kim, Sung Gyun; Yoon, Sun Ae; Kim, Sejoong; Han, Sang-Youb; Park, Jung Hwan; Chang, Jae Hyun; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Yon Su; Na, Ki Young

    2017-11-29

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been found to show markedly increased rates of end-stage renal disease, major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs), and mortality. Therefore, new biomarkers are required for the early detection of such clinical outcomes in patients with CKD. We aimed to determine whether the level of circulating renalase was associated with CKD progression, MACCEs, and all-cause mortality, using data from a prospective randomized controlled study, Kremezin STudy Against Renal disease progression in Korea (K-STAR; NCT 00860431). A retrospective analysis of the K-STAR data was performed including 383 patients with CKD (mean age, 56.4 years; male/female, 252/131). We measured circulating renalase levels and examined the effects of these levels on clinical outcomes. The mean level of serum renalase was 75.8 ± 34.8 μg/mL. In the multivariable analysis, lower hemoglobin levels, higher serum creatinine levels, and diabetes mellitus were significantly associated with a higher renalase levels. Over the course of a mean follow-up period of 56 months, 25 deaths and 61 MACCEs occurred. Among 322 patients in whom these outcomes were assessed, 137 adverse renal outcomes occurred after a mean follow-up period of 27.8 months. Each 10- μg/mL increase in serum renalase was associated with significantly greater hazards of all-cause mortality and adverse renal outcomes (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.112, p = 0.049; HR = 1.052, p = 0.045). However, serum renalase level was not associated with the rate of MACCEs in patients with CKD. Our results indicated that circulating renalase might be a predictor of mortality and adverse renal outcomes in patients with CKD.

  7. Decoding development in the XXI century: subjectivity, complexity, sinapsis, sinergy, recursivity, lidership and territorial dependency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sergio Boisier

    2010-01-01

      BOISIER, Sergio. Decoding development in the XXI century: subjectivity, complexity, sinapsis, sinergy, recursivity, lidership and territorial dependency. Semest. Econ. [online]. 2010, vol.13, n.27, pp. 11-37. ISSN 0120-6346...

  8. THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROFESSIONAL SUBJECTIVE POSITION OF MANAGEMENT HUMAN RESOURCES FOR HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol'ga L. Zadvornaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of development of professional-subjective position of managerial staff of health care in the system of continuous professional education in the conditions of optimization of activities of the health system. Professional and subject position reflects the position of individual managers in a professional environment, its relationship to the quality of professional activity, to himself, to patients and colleagues to level their skills.Purpose/objectives: analysis of core competencies, forming the professional and subject position of heads of medical organizations; identify possible ways of development of professional-subjective position of managerial staff of the public health based on the use of modern technologies and active methods of training in system of continuous professional education. Methodology. In conducting the present study used data from official sources, literature review, scientific methods of analysis and synthesis, comparative analysis and modeling. The results of the study indicate the necessity of actualization of the subject position of heads of medical organizations. Conclusions /Significance. The necessity of formation and development of professional subjective position of the heads due to the needs of society and the health care system with modern requirements for quality management training of health. Professional and subject position is a characteristic feature of a highly qualified specialist in the area of governance, reflecting its active attitude toward self and professional activity, factor of efficiency of activity of medical organizations. The real practice of activity of medical organizations requires improved approaches in the preparation of healthcare managers. Most of the leaders are having difficulties, associated not only with necessity of development of universal and professional competences, but also the necessity of development of professional-subjective position

  9. Towards Development of Robotic Aid for Rehabilitation of Locomotion-Impaired Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejczy, Antal K.

    2000-01-01

    Manual assistance of therapists to help movement of legs of spinal cord injured (SCI) subjects during stepping on a treadmill for locomotion rehabilitation has severe economic and technical limitations. Scientists at the Department of Physiological Science at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) and roboticists at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) initiated a joint effort to develop a robotic mechanism capable of performing controlled motions equivalent to the arm and hand motions of therapists assisting the stepping of locomotion impaired subjects on a treadmill, while the subjects' body weight is partially supported by an overhead harness. A first necessary technical step towards this development is to measure and understand the kinematics and dynamics of the therapists' arm and hand motions as they are reflected on the subjects' leg movement. This paper describes an initial measurement system developed for this purpose together with the related measurement results, and outlines the planned future technical work.

  10. Warfarin Treatment and All-Cause Mortality in Community-Dwelling Older Adults with Atrial Fibrillation: A Retrospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotto, Alberto; Gallina, Pietro; Copetti, Massimiliano; Pilotto, Andrea; Marcato, Francesco; Mello, Anna M; Simonato, Matteo; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Padovani, Alessandro; Ferrucci, Luigi; Panza, Francesco

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between warfarin treatment and different strata of all-cause mortality risk assessed using the Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI) based on information collected using the Standardized Multidimensional Assessment Schedule for Adults and Aged Persons (SVaMA) in community-dwelling older adults with atrial fibrillation (AF). Retrospective observational study. Older community-dwelling adults who underwent a SVaMA evaluation establishing accessibility to homecare services and nursing home admission from 2005 to 2013 in the Padova Health District, Italy. Community-dwelling individuals with AF aged 65 and older (N = 1,827). Participants were classified as being at mild (MPI-SVaMA-1), moderate (MPI-SVaMA-2), or severe (MPI-SVaMA-3) risk of mortality using the MPI-SVaMA, a validated prognostic tool based on age, sex, comorbidity, cognitive status, mobility and functional disability, pressure sore risk, and social support. The association between warfarin treatment and mortality was tested using multivariate- and propensity score-adjusted Cox regression models, controlling for age, sex, all SVaMA domains, concomitant diseases, and drug treatments. Higher MPI-SVaMA scores were associated with lower rates of warfarin treatment and higher 3-year mortality. After adjustment for propensity score quintiles, warfarin treatment was significantly associated with lower 2-year mortality in individuals with MPI-SVaMA-1 (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.50-0.82), MPI-SVaMA-2 (HR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.55-0.85), and MPI-SVaMA-3 (HR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.44-0.67). Heterogeneity analyses confirmed that the effect of warfarin treatment was not different between MPI-SVaMA groups (P for heterogeneity = .48). Community-dwelling older adults with AF benefitted from anticoagulation in terms of lower all-cause mortality over a mean follow-up of 2 years, regardless of poor health and functional condition. Although this benefit can be ascribed

  11. Renal impairment and all-cause mortality in cardiovascular disease: effect modification by type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajah, Sharmini; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Haniff, Jamaiyah; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Visseren, Frank L J; Bots, Michiel L

    2013-02-01

    Renal impairment and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are well-known independent risk factors for mortality. The evidence of their combined effects on mortality is unclear, but of importance because it may determine aggressiveness of treatment. This study sought to assess and quantify the effect modification of diabetes on renal impairment in its association with mortality. Patients with cardiovascular disease or at high risk, recruited in the Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease cohort study, were selected. A total of 7135 patients were enrolled with 33 198 person-years of follow-up. Renal impairment was defined by albuminuria status and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Outcome was all-cause mortality. Mortality increased progressively with each stage of renal impairment, for both albuminuria status and eGFR, for diabetics and non-diabetics. There was no effect modification by diabetes on mortality risk due to renal impairment. The relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) for DM and microalbuminuria was 0·21 (-0·11, 0·52), for overt proteinuria -1·12 (-2·83, 0·59) and for end-stage renal failure (ESRF) 0·32 (-3·65, 4·29). The RERI for DM with eGFR of 60-89 mL/min/1·73 m(2) was -0·31(-0·92, 0·32), for eGFR of 30-59 mL/min/1·73 m(2) -0·07 (-0·76, 0·62) and for eGFR of < 30 mL/min/1·73 m(2) 0·38 (-0·85, 1·61). Type 2 diabetes mellitus does not modify nor increase the risk relation between all-cause mortality and renal impairment. These findings suggest that the hallmark for survival is the prevention and delay in progression of renal impairment in patients with cardiovascular disease. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2012 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  12. Racial disparities in adult all-cause and cause-specific mortality among us adults: mediating and moderating factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Beydoun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies uncovering factors beyond socio-economic status (SES that would explain racial and ethnic disparities in mortality are scarce. Methods Using prospective cohort data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, we examined all-cause and cause-specific mortality disparities by race, mediation through key factors and moderation by age (20–49 vs. 50+, sex and poverty status. Cox proportional hazards, discrete-time hazards and competing risk regression models were conducted (N = 16,573 participants, n = 4207 deaths, Median time = 170 months (1–217 months. Results Age, sex and poverty income ratio-adjusted hazard rates were higher among Non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs vs. Non-Hispanic Whites (NHW. Within the above-poverty young men stratum where this association was the strongest, the socio-demographic-adjusted HR = 2.59, p < 0.001 was only partially attenuated by SES and other factors (full model HR = 2.08, p = 0.003. Income, education, diet quality, allostatic load and self-rated health, were among key mediators explaining NHB vs. NHW disparity in mortality. The Hispanic paradox was observed consistently among women above poverty (young and old. NHBs had higher CVD-related mortality risk compared to NHW which was explained by factors beyond SES. Those factors did not explain excess risk among NHB for neoplasm-related death (fully adjusted HR = 1.41, 95 % CI: 1.02–2.75, p = 0.044. Moreover, those factors explained the lower risk of neoplasm-related death among MA compared to NHW, while CVD-related mortality risk became lower among MA compared to NHW upon multivariate adjustment. Conclusions In sum, racial/ethnic disparities in all-cause and cause-specific mortality (particularly cardiovascular and neoplasms were partly explained by socio-demographic, SES, health-related and dietary factors, and differentially by age, sex and poverty strata.

  13. Relation of Adiponectin to All-Cause Mortality, Cardiovascular Mortality, and Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events (from the Dallas Heart Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witberg, Guy; Ayers, Colby R; Turer, Aslan T; Lev, Eli; Kornowski, Ran; de Lemos, James; Neeland, Ian J

    2016-02-15

    Adiponectin is a key component in multiple metabolic pathways. Studies evaluating associations of adiponectin with clinical outcomes in older adults have reported conflicting results. We investigated the association of adiponectin with mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity in a young, multiethnic adult population. We analyzed data from participants in the Dallas Heart Study without baseline CVD who underwent assessment of total adiponectin from 2000 to 2002. The primary outcome of all-cause mortality was assessed over median 10.4 years of follow-up using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. Secondary outcomes included CVD mortality, major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), and heart failure (HF). The study cohort included 3,263 participants, mean age 43.4 years, 44% women, and 50% black. There were 184 deaths (63 CVD), 207 MACCE, and 46 HF events. In multivariable models adjusted for age, gender, race, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol-C, hyperlipidemia, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and body mass index, increasing adiponectin quartiles were positively associated with all-cause mortality Q4 versus Q1 (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.27; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.47, 3.50); CVD mortality Q4 versus Q1 (HR = 2.43; 95% CI 1.15, 5.15); MACCE Q4 versus Q1 (HR = 1.71; 95% CI 1.13, 2.60); and HF Q4 versus Q1 (HR = 2.95; 95% CI 1.14, 7.67). Findings were similar with adiponectin as a continuous variable and consistent across subgroups defined by age, gender, race, obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, or elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. In conclusion, higher adiponectin was associated with increased mortality and CVD morbidity in a young, multiethnic population. These findings may have implications for strategies aimed at lowering adiponectin to prevent adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Incidence and influence of hospitalization for recurrent syncope and its effect on short- and long-term all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruwald, Martin H; Numé, Anna-Karin; Lamberts, Morten; Hansen, Carolina M; Hansen, Morten L; Vinther, Michael; Kober, Lars; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Hansen, Jim; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2014-05-15

    Recurrence of syncope is a common event, but the influence of recurrent syncope on the risk of death has not previously been investigated on a large scale. We examined the prognostic impact of recurrent syncope in a nationwide cohort of patients with syncope. All patients (n = 70,819) hospitalized from 2001 to 2009 in Denmark with a first-time diagnosis of syncope aged from 15 to 90 years were identified from national registries. Recurrence of syncope was incorporated as a time-dependent variable in multivariable-adjusted Cox models on the outcomes of 30-day, 1-year, and long-term all-cause mortality and cardiovascular death. During a mean follow-up of 3.9 ± 2.6 years, a total of 11,621 patients (16.4%) had at least 1 hospitalization for recurrent syncope, with a median time to recurrence of 251 days (33 to 364). A total of 14,270 patients died, and 3,204 deaths were preceded by a hospitalization for recurrent syncope. The long-term risk of all-cause death was significantly associated with recurrent syncope (hazard ratio 2.64, 95% confidence interval 2.54 to 2.75) compared with those with no recurrence. On 1-year mortality, recurrent syncope was associated with a 3.2-fold increase in risk and on 30-day mortality associated with a threefold increase. The increased mortality risk was consistent over age groups 15 to 39, 40 to 59, and 60 to 89 years, and a similar pattern of increase in both long-term and short-term risk of cardiovascular death was evident. In conclusion, recurrent syncope is independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality across all age groups exhibiting a high prognostic influence. Increased awareness on high short- and long-term risk of adverse events in subjects with recurrent syncope is warranted for future risk stratification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Inflammatory potential of diet and all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivappa, Nitin; Steck, Susan E; Hussey, James R; Ma, Yunsheng; Hebert, James R

    2017-03-01

    Various dietary components have been studied in relation to overall mortality; however, little is known about the relationship between the inflammatory potential of overall diet and mortality. We examined the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII) and mortality in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III follow-up study. The DII was computed from baseline dietary intake assessed using 24-h dietary recalls (1988-1994). Mortality was determined from the National Death Index records through 2006. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI). During the follow-up, 2795 deaths were identified, including 1233 due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), and 615 due to cancer, 158 of which were due to digestive-tract cancers. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses, adjusting for age, race, diabetes status, hypertension, physical activity, body mass index, poverty index, and smoking, revealed positive associations between higher DII scores and mortality. Comparing subjects in DII tertile 3 versus tertile 1, significant associations were noted for all-cause mortality (HRTertile3vs1 1.34; 95 % CI 1.19-1.51, P trend cancer mortality (HRTertile3vs1 1.46; 95 % CI 1.10-1.96, P trend = 0.01), and digestive-tract cancer mortality (HRTertile3vs1 2.10; 95 % CI 1.15-3.84, P trend = 0.03). These results indicate that a pro-inflammatory diet, as indicated by higher DII scores, was associated with higher risk of all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality.

  16. Proximal Aortic Distensibility is an Independent Predictor of All-cause Mortality and Incident Cardiovascular Events in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redheuil, Alban; Wu, Colin O.; Kachenoura, Nadjia; Ohyama, Yoshiaki; Yan, Raymond T.; Bertoni, Alain G.; Hundley, Gregory W.; Duprez, Daniel A.; Jacobs, David R.; Daniels, Lori B.; Darwin, Christine; Sibley, Christopher; Bluemke, David A.; Lima, Joao A.C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The predictive value of ascending aortic distensibility (AAD) for mortality and hard cardiovascular disease (CVD) events is not fully established. OBJECTIVES We sought to assess the utility of AAD to predict mortality and incident CVD events beyond conventional risk factors in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). METHODS AAD was measured with magnetic resonance imaging at baseline in 3,675 MESA participants free of overt CVD. Cox proportional-hazards regression was used to evaluate risk of death, heart failure (HF), and incident CVD in relation to AAD, CVD risk factors, indices of subclinical atherosclerosis, and Framingham risk score. RESULTS There were 246 deaths and 171 hard CVD (myocardial infarction, resuscitated cardiac arrest, stroke and cardiovascular [CV] death) and 88 HF events over a median 8.5-year follow-up. Decreased AAD was associated with increased all-cause mortality with a hazard ratio (HR) for the first verus fifth quintile of AAD of 2.7 (p = 0.008) independent of age, sex, ethnicity, other CVD risk factors, and indices of subclinical atherosclerosis. Overall, subjects with lowest AAD had an independent 2-fold risk of hard CVD events. Decreased AAD was associated with CV events in low-to-intermediate CVD risk individuals with an HR for the first quintile of AAD of 5.3 (p = 0.03) as well as with incident HF but not after full adjustment. CONCLUSIONS Decreased proximal aorta distensibility significantly predicts all-cause mortality and hard CV events among individuals without overt CVD. AAD may help refine risk stratification, especially among asymptomatic, low-to-intermediate risk individuals. PMID:25524341

  17. Association between total, processed, red and white meat consumption and all-cause, CVD and IHD mortality: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abete, Itziar; Romaguera, Dora; Vieira, Ana Rita; Lopez de Munain, Adolfo; Norat, Teresa

    2014-09-14

    An association between processed and red meat consumption and total mortality has been reported by epidemiological studies; however, there are many controversial reports regarding the association between meat consumption and CVD and IHD mortality. The present meta-analysis was carried out to summarise the evidence from prospective cohort studies on the association between consumption of meat (total, red, white and processed) and all-cause, CVD and IHD mortality. Cohort studies were identified by searching the PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge databases. Risk estimates for the highest v. the lowest consumption category and dose-response meta-analysis were calculated using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity among the studies was also evaluated. A total of thirteen cohort studies were identified (1 674 272 individuals). Subjects in the highest category of processed meat consumption had 22 and 18 % higher risk of mortality from any cause and CVD, respectively. Red meat consumption was found to be associated with a 16 % higher risk of CVD mortality, while no association was found for total and white meat consumption. In the dose-response meta-analysis, an increase of 50 g/d in processed meat intake was found to be positively associated with all-cause and CVD mortality, while an increase of 100 g/d in red meat intake was found to be positively associated with CVD mortality. No significant associations were observed between consumption of any type of meat and IHD mortality. The results of the present meta-analysis indicate that processed meat consumption could increase the risk of mortality from any cause and CVD, while red meat consumption is positively but weakly associated with CVD mortality. These results should be interpreted with caution due to the high heterogeneity observed in most of the analyses as well as the possibility of residual confounding.

  18. Losing Life and Livelihood: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Unemployment and All-Cause Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfs, David J.; Shor, Eran; Davidson, Karina W.; Schwartz, Joseph E.

    2011-01-01

    Unemployment rates in the United States remain near a 25-year high and global unemployment is rising. Previous studies have shown that unemployed persons have an increased risk of death, but the magnitude of the risk and moderating factors have not been explored. The study is a random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression designed to assess the association between unemployment and all-cause mortality among working-age persons. We extracted 235 mortality risk estimates from 42 studies, providing data on more than 20 million persons. The mean hazard ratio (HR) for mortality was 1.63 among HRs adjusted for age and additional covariates. The mean effect was higher for men than for women. Unemployment was associated with an increased mortality risk for those in their early and middle careers, but less for those in their late-career. The risk of death was highest during the first 10 years of follow up, but decreased subsequently. The mean HR was 24% lower among the subset of studies controlling for health-related behaviors. Public health initiatives could target unemployed persons for more aggressive cardiovascular screening and interventions aimed at reducing risk-taking behaviors. PMID:21330027

  19. Intra-individual reaction time variability and all-cause mortality over 17 years: a community-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterham, Philip J; Bunce, David; Mackinnon, Andrew J; Christensen, Helen

    2014-01-01

    very few studies have examined the association between intra-individual reaction time variability and subsequent mortality. Furthermore, the ability of simple measures of variability to predict mortality has not been compared with more complex measures. a prospective cohort study of 896 community-based Australian adults aged 70+ were interviewed up to four times from 1990 to 2002, with vital status assessed until June 2007. From this cohort, 770-790 participants were included in Cox proportional hazards regression models of survival. Vital status and time in study were used to conduct survival analyses. The mean reaction time and three measures of intra-individual reaction time variability were calculated separately across 20 trials of simple and choice reaction time tasks. Models were adjusted for a range of demographic, physical health and mental health measures. greater intra-individual simple reaction time variability, as assessed by the raw standard deviation (raw SD), coefficient of variation (CV) or the intra-individual standard deviation (ISD), was strongly associated with an increased hazard of all-cause mortality in adjusted Cox regression models. The mean reaction time had no significant association with mortality. intra-individual variability in simple reaction time appears to have a robust association with mortality over 17 years. Health professionals such as neuropsychologists may benefit in their detection of neuropathology by supplementing neuropsychiatric testing with the straightforward process of testing simple reaction time and calculating raw SD or CV.

  20. Physical activity is the strongest predictor of all-cause mortality in patients with COPD: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waschki, Benjamin; Kirsten, Anne; Holz, Olaf; Müller, Kai-Christian; Meyer, Thorsten; Watz, Henrik; Magnussen, Helgo

    2011-08-01

    Systemic effects of COPD are incompletely reflected by established prognostic assessments. We determined the prognostic value of objectively measured physical activity in comparison with established predictors of mortality and evaluated the prognostic value of noninvasive assessments of cardiovascular status, biomarkers of systemic inflammation, and adipokines. In a prospective cohort study of 170 outpatients with stable COPD (mean FEV(1), 56% predicted), we assessed lung function by spirometry and body plethysmography; physical activity level (PAL) by a multisensory armband; exercise capacity by 6-min walk distance test; cardiovascular status by echocardiography, vascular Doppler sonography (ankle-brachial index [ABI]), and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level; nutritional and muscular status by BMI and fat-free mass index; biomarkers by levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, IL-6, fibrinogen, adiponectin, and leptin; and health status, dyspnea, and depressive symptoms by questionnaire. Established prognostic indices were calculated. The median follow-up was 48 months (range, 10-53 months). All-cause mortality was 15.4%. After adjustments, each 0.14 increase in PAL was associated with a lower risk of death (hazard ratio [HR], 0.46; 95% CI, 0.33-0.64; P leptin level (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.65-0.99; P = .042), right ventricular function (Tei-index) (HR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.04-1.54; P = .020), and ABI COPD. In addition, adiponectin level and vascular status provide independent prognostic information in our cohort.

  1. The combined association of psychological distress and socioeconomic status with all-cause mortality: a national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarino, Antonio Ivan; Hamer, Mark; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Steptoe, Andrew

    2013-01-14

    Psychological distress and low socioeconomic status (SES) are recognized risk factors for mortality. The aim of this study was to test whether lower SES amplifies the effect of psychological distress on all-cause mortality. We selected 66 518 participants from the Health Survey for England who were 35 years or older, free of cancer and cardiovascular disease at baseline, and living in private households in England from 1994 to 2004. Selection used stratified random sampling, and participants were linked prospectively to mortality records from the Office of National Statistics (mean follow-up, 8.2 years). Psychological distress was measured using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, and SES was indexed by occupational class. The crude incidence rate of death was 14.49 (95% CI, 14.17-14.81) per 1000 person-years. After adjustment for age and sex, psychological distress and low SES category were associated with increased mortality rates. In a stratified analysis, the association of psychological distress with mortality differed with SES (likelihood ratio test-adjusted P < .001), with the strongest associations being observed in the lowest SES categories. The detrimental effect of psychological distress on mortality is amplified by low SES category. People in higher SES categories have lower mortality rates even when they report high levels of psychological distress.

  2. Gender differences in education effects on all-cause mortality for white and black adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajacova, Anna; Hummer, Robert A

    2009-08-01

    The existence of education differentials in adult mortality has been well established. The issue of gender differences in the education-mortality association, however, remains an open question, despite its importance for understanding of causal pathways through which education affects health outcomes. The goal of this paper is to analyze gender differences in education gradients in mortality among non-Hispanic white and black U.S. adults born between 1906 and 1965. The analysis is based on data from the 1986-2000 National Health Interview Surveys linked to the National Death Index through 2002 (NHIS-LMF) with over 700,000 respondents. Full-sample and cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazard models of all-cause mortality were estimated. Results indicate a great deal of similarity between men and women in the education-mortality association, with some exceptions. The most notable difference is the steeper educational gradient at high schooling levels for white men compared to white women. This difference was fully explained by marital status. No systematic gender differences in the relationship between education and adult mortality were observed among black adults in any birth cohorts. The findings suggest that men do not benefit from educational attainment uniformly more than women.

  3. The Value of Geriatric Assessments in Predicting Treatment Tolerance and All-Cause Mortality in Older Patients With Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Alinda G.; Smorenburg, Carolien H.; de Rooij, Sophia E.; van Munster, Barbara C.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Awareness of the use of geriatric assessments for older patients with cancer is increasing. The aim of this review is to summarize all available evidence on the association between geriatric assessments and relevant oncologic outcomes. Method. A systematic search was conducted in Medline and Embase of studies on geriatric assessment in oncology, focusing on the association between baseline assessment and outcome. Results. The literature search identified 2008 reports; 51 publications from 37 studies were selected for inclusion in the review. The quality of studies was heterogeneous and generally poor. A median of five geriatric conditions were assessed per study (interquartile range: 4–8). Little consistency was found in the results of the studies. Furthermore, different tools appear to be predictive depending on the outcome measure: frailty, nutritional status, and comorbidity assessed by the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics were predictive for all-cause mortality; frailty was predictive for toxicity of chemotherapy; cognitive impairment and activities of daily living impairment were predictive for chemotherapy completion; and instrumental activities of daily living impairment was predictive for perioperative complications. Conclusion. Although various geriatric conditions appear to be of some value in predicting outcome in elderly patients with cancer, the results are too inconsistent to guide treatment decisions. Further research is needed to elucidate the role of geriatric assessments in the oncologic decision-making process for these patients. PMID:22941970

  4. ACE genotype, phenotype and all-cause mortality in different cohorts of patients with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Færch, Louise H; Sejling, Anne-Sophie; Lajer, Maria; Tarnow, Lise; Thorsteinsson, Birger; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik

    2015-06-01

    Carrying the D-allele of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D polymorphism and high ACE activity are prognostic factors in diabetic nephropathy, which predicts mortality in type 1 diabetes. We studied the association between the ACE D-allele and ACE phenotype and long-term all-cause mortality in three single-institution outpatient cohorts. Genotype-based analyses were performed in 269 patients from Hillerød Hospital (HIH) (follow-up: 12 years) and in 439 patients with diabetic nephropathy and 437 patients with persistent normoalbuminuria from the Steno Diabetes Center (SDC) (follow-up: 9.5 years). Patients not on renin-angiotensin system (RAS)-blocking treatment were included in analyses of serum ACE activity (HIH: n = 208) and plasma ACE concentration (SDC: n=269). In the HIH cohort, carrying a D-allele was associated with excess mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 4.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-16)), but not in the SDC cohorts. At HIH, serum ACE activity was associated with excess mortality (HR=1.04 (95% CI 1.0-1.1 per unit increase)), but in the SDC cohort plasma ACE concentration was not. In unselected patients with type 1 diabetes, carrying the ACE D-allele and high spontaneous serum ACE activity were associated with 12-year excess mortality. These findings could not be reproduced in two other cohorts with persistent normoalbuminuria or diabetic nephropathy. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Plasma insulin-like growth factor I as predictor of progression and all cause mortality in chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mikkel; Kistorp, Caroline; Raymond, Ilan

    2009-01-01

    , renal function and LVEF) IGF-I levels did not influence the overall mortality risk or the admission rate to hospital, hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence intervals) 1.05 (0.75-1.47) (P=0.77) and 1.00 (0.80-1.26) (P=0.96), respectively per each SD increase in log IGF-I levels. CONCLUSIONS: IGF-I levels......OBJECTIVES: Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is an anabolic growth factor that seems to increase cardiac contractility. Reduced levels of IGF-I may be implicated in progression of CHF. The objective was to compare plasma IGF-I in CHF patients with healthy controls, and to examine...... the associations between baseline IGF-I levels, cardiac contractility and the prognosis as judged by all cause mortality and progression of CHF requiring admission to hospital. METHODS: A prospective study comprising 194 CHF outpatients, and 169 matched controls. All patients and controls underwent...

  6. Subjective wellbeing and income: Empirical patterns in the rural developing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-García, Victoria; Babigumira, Ronnie; Pyhälä, Aili; Wunder, Sven; Zorondo-Rodríguez, Francisco; Angelsen, Arild

    2016-01-01

    A commonality in the economics of happiness literature is that absolute income matters more for the subjective wellbeing of people at low income levels. In this article, we use a large sample of people in rural areas of developing countries with relatively low income levels to test whether subjective wellbeing an increasing function of absolute income in our sample, and to analyze the existence of adaptation and social comparison effects on subjective wellbeing. Our sample includes 6973 rural households in 23 countries throughout Asia, Africa, and Latin America. The average total income per adult equivalent in our sample was US$1555, whereas levels of subjective wellbeing resembled levels found in previous research using cross-country data. We find that, despite low levels of absolute income, levels of subjective wellbeing of our respondents resemble levels found in previous research using cross-country data. We also find remarkable similarities in many of the determinants of subjective wellbeing previously tested. Our data show that absolute income covariates with subjective wellbeing, but -as for richer samples- the magnitude of the association is lower once we control for adaptation and social comparison. Finally, our results suggest that social comparison has a stronger effect than adaptation in explaining the subjective wellbeing of our sample. Our findings highlight the importance of adaptation and social comparison even at low levels of absolute income. PMID:27642259

  7. Social existence: between subjective and objective conditions. Impact on the theoretical discussion on development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura González Serna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to instill reflections on the theoretical debate around the development. The premise for fixing the analysis is to consider the impact of modes of apprehending social existence, since it is demarcated between subjectivities and objective conditions. Different conceptions appear to interpret and represent the individual and collective imagination. Fragmentation between subjectivity and objectivity, constitute an impediment to understanding the generic nature of being that builds and permanently transformed the social existence.

  8. Erectile dysfunction severity as a risk marker for cardiovascular disease hospitalisation and all-cause mortality: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Banks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Erectile dysfunction is an emerging risk marker for future cardiovascular disease (CVD events; however, evidence on dose response and specific CVD outcomes is limited. This study investigates the relationship between severity of erectile dysfunction and specific CVD outcomes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a prospective population-based Australian study (the 45 and Up Study linking questionnaire data from 2006-2009 with hospitalisation and death data to 30 June and 31 Dec 2010 respectively for 95,038 men aged ≥45 y. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the relationship of reported severity of erectile dysfunction to all-cause mortality and first CVD-related hospitalisation since baseline in men with and without previous CVD, adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol consumption, marital status, income, education, physical activity, body mass index, diabetes, and hypertension and/or hypercholesterolaemia treatment. There were 7,855 incident admissions for CVD and 2,304 deaths during follow-up (mean time from recruitment, 2.2 y for CVD admission and 2.8 y for mortality. Risks of CVD and death increased steadily with severity of erectile dysfunction. Among men without previous CVD, those with severe versus no erectile dysfunction had significantly increased risks of ischaemic heart disease (adjusted relative risk [RR] = 1.60, 95% CI 1.31-1.95, heart failure (8.00, 2.64-24.2, peripheral vascular disease (1.92, 1.12-3.29, "other" CVD (1.26, 1.05-1.51, all CVD combined (1.35, 1.19-1.53, and all-cause mortality (1.93, 1.52-2.44. For men with previous CVD, corresponding RRs (95% CI were 1.70 (1.46-1.98, 4.40 (2.64-7.33, 2.46 (1.63-3.70, 1.40 (1.21-1.63, 1.64 (1.48-1.81, and 2.37 (1.87-3.01, respectively. Among men without previous CVD, RRs of more specific CVDs increased significantly with severe versus no erectile dysfunction, including acute myocardial infarction (1.66, 1.22-2.26, atrioventricular and left bundle branch

  9. Disability and all-cause mortality in the older population: evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongiglione, Benedetta; De Stavola, Bianca L; Kuper, Hannah; Ploubidis, George B

    2016-08-01

    Despite the vast body of literature studying disability and mortality, evidence to support their association is scarce. This work investigates the role of disability in explaining all-cause mortality among individuals aged 50+ who participated in the English Longitudinal Study of Aging. The aim is to explain the gender paradox in health and mortality by analysing whether the association of disability with mortality differs between women and men. Disability was conceived following the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), proposed by the WHO, that conceptualizes disability as a combination of three components: impairment, activity limitation and participation restriction. Latent variable models were used to identify domain-specific factors and general disability. The association of the latter with mortality up to 10 years after enrolment was estimated using discrete-time survival analysis. Our work confirms the validity of the ICF framework and finds that disability is strongly associated with mortality, with a time-varying effect among men, and a smaller constant effect for women. Adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic and behavioural factors attenuated the association for both sexes, but overall the effects remained high and significant. These findings confirm the existence of gender paradox by showing that, when affected by disability, women survive longer than men, although if men survive the first years they appear to become more resilient to disability. Sensitivity analyses suggested that the gender paradox cannot be solely explained by gender-specific health conditions: there must be other mechanisms acting within the pathway between disability and mortality that need to be explored.

  10. Domain and facet personality predictors of all-cause mortality among Medicare patients aged 65 to 100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Alexander; Costa, Paul T

    2005-01-01

    Our objectives were to test whether Conscientiousness, the other 4 domains of the Five-Factor Model, and their facets predicted mortality in older, frail individuals. Controlling for demographic and health measures, we used Cox regression to test whether the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness domains predicted all-cause mortality over 5 years in 1076 65- to 100-year-old participants who took part in a Medicare Demonstration study. Supplementary analyses on 597 participants aged 66 to 102 who were reassessed 2 years later were conducted to determine whether any of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) facets were related to mortality. When personality domains were treated as continuous variables, NEO-FFI Neuroticism and Agreeableness were significant protective factors. When personality domains were trichotomized, NEO-FFI Conscientiousness was a protective factor. In a third analysis, Agreeableness was not a significant predictor in a model that included the continuous Neuroticism and trichotomized Conscientiousness variables. Analysis of the NEO-PI-R Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness factors showed that Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were protective and that there was a trend for a similar effect of Neuroticism. Facet-level analyses revealed that the Impulsiveness, Straightforwardness, and Self-Discipline facets of Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness, respectively, were prospectively related to greater survival over a 3-year interval. The effects of Neuroticism and Agreeableness on mortality are inconsistent across previous studies. This study indicates that, in a sample of older, frail participants, high Neuroticism and Agreeableness scores are protective and that more specific effects are primarily the result of the Impulsiveness and Straightforwardness facet scales. The Conscientiousness findings are consistent with those in

  11. Sex Differences in Cardiorespiratory Fitness and All-Cause Mortality: The Henry Ford ExercIse Testing (FIT) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Juraschek, Stephen P; Whelton, Seamus; Dardari, Zeina A; Ehrman, Jonathan K; Michos, Erin D; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram; Qureshi, Waqas T; Brawner, Clinton A; Keteyian, Steven J; Blaha, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    To determine whether sex modifies the relationship between fitness and mortality. We included 57,284 patients without coronary artery disease or heart failure who completed a routine treadmill exercise test between 1991 and 2009. We determined metabolic equivalent tasks (METs) and linked patient records with mortality data via the Social Security Death Index. Multivariable Cox regression was used to determine the association between sex, fitness, and all-cause mortality. There were 29,470 men (51.4%) and 27,814 women (48.6%) with mean ages of 53 and 54 years, respectively. Overall, men achieved 1.7 METs higher than women (Pmortality rate for men in each MET group was similar to that for women, who achieved an average of 2.6 METs lower (P=.004). Fitness was inversely associated with mortality in both men (hazard ratio [HR], 0.84 per 1 MET; 95% CI, 0.83-0.85) and women (HR, 0.83 per 1 MET; 95% CI, 0.81-0.84). This relationship did not plateau at high or low MET values. Although men demonstrated 1.7 METs higher than women, their survival was equivalent to that of women demonstrating 2.6 METs lower. Furthermore, higher MET values were associated with lower mortality for both men and women across the range of MET values. These findings are useful for tailoring prognostic information and lifestyle guidance to men and women undergoing stress testing. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Predictors of all-cause mortality among 514,866 participants from the Korean National Health Screening Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Choonghyun; Park, Sue K.

    2017-01-01

    Background There is not enough evidence regarding how information obtained from general health check-ups can predict individual mortality based on long-term follow-ups and large sample sizes. This study evaluated the applicability of various health information and measurements, consisting of self-reported data, anthropometric measurements and laboratory test results, in predicting individual mortality. Methods The National Health Screening Cohort included 514,866 participants (aged 40–79 years) who were randomly selected from the overall database of the national health screening program in 2002–2003. Death was determined from causes of death statistics provided by Statistics Korea. We assessed variables that were collected at baseline and repeatedly measured for two consecutive years using traditional and time-variant Cox proportional hazards models in addition to random forest and boosting algorithms to identify predictors of 10-year all-cause mortality. Participants’ age at enrollment, lifestyle factors, anthropometric measurements and laboratory test results were included in the prediction models. We used c-statistics to assess the discriminatory ability of the models, their external validity and the ratio of expected to observed numbers to evaluate model calibration. Eligibility of Medicaid and household income levels were used as inequality indexes. Results After the follow-up by 2013, 38,031 deaths were identified. The risk score based on the selected health information and measurements achieved a higher discriminatory ability for mortality prediction (c-statistics = 0.832, 0.841, 0.893, and 0.712 for Cox model, time-variant Cox model, random forest and boosting, respectively) than that of the previous studies. The results were externally validated using the community-based cohort data (c-statistics = 0.814). Conclusions Individuals’ health information and measurements based on health screening can provide early indicators of their 10-year death risk

  13. Differences in all-cause mortality: A comparison between immigrants and the host population in Norway 1990-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astri Syse

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Differences in all-cause mortality between immigrants and host populations may provide insight into health inequities that could be reduced. Objective: Death risks of adult immigrants were compared to those of the host population to assess effects of country of origin, duration of residence, calendar period, and sociodemographic characteristics, i.e., sex, education, and marital and parental status. Methods: Registry data encompassing the entire Norwegian population age 25-79 in 1990-2012 were used to compare death risks in various immigrant groups and the host population, using discrete-time hazard regression models with time-varying covariates. Results: Over 451,000 deaths occurred in around 4.4 million individuals. After adjusting for sex, age, and calendar period, immigrants had an 8Š survival advantage (odds ratio (OR 0.92. Death-risk estimates for immigrants were lowered pronouncedly by further adjustment of sociodemographic factors (OR 0.81. The greatest survival advantage was observed among immigrants with a short duration of residence. With increasing lengths of stay, immigrants' risk of death became similar to that of the host population. The survival advantage was most pronounced for younger, unmarried, and childless immigrants. Although the survival of Central and Eastern European immigrants improved over time, none of the groups had a higher adjusted death risk than the host population. Conclusions: Immigrants have a 20Š survival advantage compared to the host population. The convergence in mortality with increasing duration of residence suggests that 'healthy migrant' and 'acculturation' effects counteract each other, and warrants further research on the health and welfare of long-term immigrants.

  14. Declines in Malaria Burden and All-Cause Child Mortality following Increases in Control Interventions in Senegal, 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwing, Julie; Eckert, Erin; Dione, Demba Anta; Tine, Roger; Faye, Adama; Yé, Yazoume; Ndiop, Medoune; Cisse, Moustapha; Ndione, Jacques Andre; Diouf, Mame Birame; Ba, Mady

    2017-09-01

    Malaria is endemic in Senegal. The national malaria control strategy focuses on achieving universal coverage for major interventions, with a goal of reaching preelimination status by 2018. Senegal began distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and introduced artemisinin-based combination therapy in 2006, then introduced rapid diagnostic tests in 2007. We evaluated the impact of these efforts using a plausibility design based on malaria's contribution to all-cause under-five mortality (ACCM) and considering other contextual factors which may influence ACCM. Between 2005 and 2010, household ownership of ITNs increased from 20% to 63%, and the proportion of people sleeping under an ITN the night prior to the survey increased from 6% to 29%. Malaria parasite prevalence declined from 6% to 3% from 2008 to 2010 among children under five. Some nonmalaria indicators of child health improved, for example, increase of complete vaccination coverage from 58% to 64%; however, nutritional indicators deteriorated, with an increase in stunting from 16% to 26%. Although economic indicators improved, environmental conditions favored an increase in malaria transmission. ACCM decreased 40% between 2005 and 2010, from 121 (95% confidence interval [CI] 113-129) to 72 (95% CI 66-77) per 1,000, and declines were greater among age groups, epidemiologic zones, and wealth quintiles most at risk for malaria. After considering coverage of malaria interventions, trends in malaria morbidity, effects of contextual factors, and trends in ACCM, it is plausible that malaria control interventions contributed to a reduction in malaria mortality and to the impressive gains in child survival in Senegal.

  15. Neighbourhood Characteristics and Long-Term Air Pollution Levels Modify the Association between the Short-Term Nitrogen Dioxide Concentrations and All-Cause Mortality in Paris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Deguen

    Full Text Available While a great number of papers have been published on the short-term effects of air pollution on mortality, few have tried to assess whether this association varies according to the neighbourhood socioeconomic level and long-term ambient air concentrations measured at the place of residence. We explored the effect modification of 1 socioeconomic status, 2 long-term NO2 ambient air concentrations, and 3 both combined, on the association between short-term exposure to NO2 and all-cause mortality in Paris (France.A time-stratified case-crossover analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of short-term NO2 variations on mortality, based on 79,107 deaths having occurred among subjects aged over 35 years, from 2004 to 2009, in the city of Paris. Simple and double interactions were statistically tested in order to analyse effect modification by neighbourhood characteristics on the association between mortality and short-term NO2 exposure. The data was estimated at the census block scale (n=866.The mean of the NO2 concentrations during the five days prior to deaths were associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality: overall Excess Risk (ER was 0.94% (95%CI=[0.08;1.80]. A higher risk was revealed for subjects living in the most deprived census blocks in comparison with higher socioeconomic level areas (ER=3.14% (95%CI=[1.41-4.90], p<0.001. Among these deprived census blocks, excess risk was even higher where long-term average NO2 concentrations were above 55.8 μg/m3 (the top tercile of distribution: ER=4.84% (95%CI=[1.56;8.24], p for interaction=0.02.Our results show that people living in census blocks characterized by low socioeconomic status are more vulnerable to air pollution episodes. There is also an indication that people living in these disadvantaged census blocks might experience even higher risk following short-term air pollution episodes, when they are also chronically exposed to higher NO2 levels.

  16. Synergistic effects of cognitive impairment on physical disability in all-cause mortality among men aged 80 years and over: Results from longitudinal older veterans study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Chen Yu

    is a major risk factor for all-cause mortality among men aged 80 years and older, and risk increased synergistically when cognitive impairment was present. Cognitive impairment alone without physical disability did not increase mortality risk in this population.

  17. Dispositional optimism and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a prospective cohort of elderly dutch men and women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, E.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Zitman, F.G.; Hoekstra, T.; Schouten, E.G.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Major depression is known to be related to higher cardiovascular mortality. However, epidemiological data regarding dispositional optimism in relation to mortality are scanty. Objective: To test whether subjects who are optimistic live longer than those who are pessimistic. Design: Our

  18. Predicted postoperative lung function is associated with all-cause long-term mortality after major lung resection for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Mark K; Watson, Sydeaka; Johnson, Elizabeth; Vigneswaran, Wickii T

    2014-04-01

    Preoperative lung function is an independent predictor of long-term survival after lung resection for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The extent of resection has an impact on operative mortality, determines postoperative lung function and may influence both overall- and cancer-specific survival. We sought to determine the impact of predicted postoperative (ppo) lung function on long-term survival after lung cancer resection. We previously reported long-term survival analyses for patients who underwent major lung resection for NSCLC 1980-2006. For this study, we calculated ppo spirometry (forced expiratory volume in the first second, FEV1) and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) in the same cohort using the functional segment technique or quantitative perfusion scans when available, and updated survival data; missing data were imputed. We assessed the relationship of ppoFEV1 and ppoDLCO to long-term survival using Cox regression. Of 854 patients, 471 (55%) were men, the mean age was 63 years and median survival was 42 months. At the time of analysis, 70% of patients had died. On regression analysis, all-cause mortality was related to age, stage, performance status, renal function and prior myocardial infarction. Preoperative lung function was marginally associated with mortality [DLCO (10-percentage point decrease): HR (hazard ratio) 1.04, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.00-1.08, P = 0.056; FEV1 (10-percentage point decrease): HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.09, P = 0.067]. In contrast, ppo lung function was strongly associated with mortality (ppoDLCO: HR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01-1.12, P = 0.024; ppoFEV1: HR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01-1.12, P = 0.031). Ppo lung function is strongly associated with long-term survival after major lung resection and is more strongly related to survival than preoperative lung function. Surgeons struggle with challenging decisions about the appropriate extent of resection for early-stage cancer, balancing factors such as operative

  19. Does context matter for the relationship between deprivation and all-cause mortality? The West vs. the rest of Scotland

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    Koschinsky Julia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of research emphasizes the importance of contextual factors on health outcomes. Using postcode sector data for Scotland (UK, this study tests the hypothesis of spatial heterogeneity in the relationship between area-level deprivation and mortality to determine if contextual differences in the West vs. the rest of Scotland influence this relationship. Research into health inequalities frequently fails to recognise spatial heterogeneity in the deprivation-health relationship, assuming that global relationships apply uniformly across geographical areas. In this study, exploratory spatial data analysis methods are used to assess local patterns in deprivation and mortality. Spatial regression models are then implemented to examine the relationship between deprivation and mortality more formally. Results The initial exploratory spatial data analysis reveals concentrations of high standardized mortality ratios (SMR and deprivation (hotspots in the West of Scotland and concentrations of low values (coldspots for both variables in the rest of the country. The main spatial regression result is that deprivation is the only variable that is highly significantly correlated with all-cause mortality in all models. However, in contrast to the expected spatial heterogeneity in the deprivation-mortality relationship, this relation does not vary between regions in any of the models. This result is robust to a number of specifications, including weighting for population size, controlling for spatial autocorrelation and heteroskedasticity, assuming a non-linear relationship between mortality and socio-economic deprivation, separating the dependent variable into male and female SMRs, and distinguishing between West, North and Southeast regions. The rejection of the hypothesis of spatial heterogeneity in the relationship between socio-economic deprivation and mortality complements prior research on the stability of the deprivation

  20. External validation and comparison of two variants of the Elixhauser comorbidity measures for all-cause mortality.

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    Yannick Fortin

    Full Text Available Assessing prevalent comorbidities is a common approach in health research for identifying clinical differences between individuals. The objective of this study was to validate and compare the predictive performance of two variants of the Elixhauser comorbidity measures (ECM for inhospital mortality at index and at 1-year in the Cerner Health Facts® (HF U.S.We estimated the prevalence of select comorbidities for individuals 18 to 89 years of age who received care at Cerner contributing health facilities between 2002 and 2011 using the AHRQ (version 3.7 and the Quan Enhanced ICD-9-CM ECMs. External validation of the ECMs was assessed with measures of discrimination [c-statistics], calibration [Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test, Brier Score, calibration curves], added predictive ability [Net Reclassification Improvement], and overall model performance [R2]. Of 3,273,298 patients with a mean age of 43.9 years and a female composition of 53.8%, 1.0% died during their index encounter and 1.5% were deceased at 1-year. Calibration measures were equivalent between the two ECMs. Calibration performance was acceptable when predicting inhospital mortality at index, although recalibration is recommended for predicting inhospital mortality at 1 year. Discrimination was marginally better with the Quan ECM compared the AHRQ ECM when predicting inhospital mortality at index (cQuan = 0.887, 95% CI: 0.885-0.889 vs. cAHRQ = 0.880, 95% CI: 0.878-0.882; p < .0001 and at 1-year (cQuan = 0.884, 95% CI: 0.883-0.886 vs. cAHRQ = 0.880, 95% CI: 0.878-0.881, p < .0001. Both the Quan and the AHRQ ECMs demonstrated excellent discrimination for inhospital mortality of all-causes in Cerner Health Facts®, a HIPAA compliant observational research and privacy-protected data warehouse. While differences in discrimination performance between the ECMs were statistically significant, they are not likely clinically meaningful.

  1. The combined influence of leisure-time physical activity and weekly alcohol intake on fatal ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jane Østergaard; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Schnohr, Peter

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the combined influence of leisure-time physical activity and weekly alcohol intake on the risk of subsequent fatal ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: Prospective cohort study of 11 914 Danes aged 20 years or older and without pre......-existing IHD. During approximately 20 years of follow-up, 1242 cases of fatal IHD occurred and 5901 died from all causes. Within both genders, being physically active was associated with lower hazard ratios (HR) of both fatal IHD and all-cause mortality than being physically inactive. Further, weekly alcohol...... had the highest HR of both fatal IHD and all-cause mortality within each category of weekly alcohol intake. Thus, the HR of both fatal IHD and all-cause mortality were low among the physically active who had a moderate alcohol intake. Conclusion Leisure-time physical activity and a moderate weekly...

  2. Relation of resting heart rate to risk for all-cause mortality by gender after considering exercise capacity (the Henry Ford exercise testing project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladin, Amer I; Whelton, Seamus P; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Blaha, Michael J; Keteyian, Steven J; Juraschek, Stephen P; Rubin, Jonathan; Brawner, Clinton A; Michos, Erin D

    2014-12-01

    Whether resting heart rate (RHR) predicts mortality independent of fitness is not well established, particularly among women. We analyzed data from 56,634 subjects (49% women) without known coronary artery disease or atrial fibrillation who underwent a clinically indicated exercise stress test. Baseline RHR was divided into 5 groups with mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events, myocardial infarction, or revascularization after sequential adjustment for demographics, cardiovascular disease risk factors, medications, and fitness (metabolic equivalents). The mean age was 53 ± 12 years and mean RHR was 73 ± 12 beats/min. More than half of the participants were referred for chest pain; 81% completed an adequate stress test and mean metabolic equivalents achieved was 9.2 ± 3. There were 6,255 deaths over 11.0-year mean follow-up. There was an increased risk of all-cause mortality with increasing RHR (p trend mortality even after adjustment for fitness (hazard ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.10 to 1.35). This relationship remained significant for men, but not significant for women after adjustment for fitness (p interaction mortality in men but not women, suggesting gender differences in the utility of RHR for risk stratification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Subject- and Experience-Bound Differences in Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, C.; Gericke, N.; Höglund, H.-O.; Bergman, E.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the results of a nationwide questionnaire study of 3229 Swedish upper secondary school teachers' conceptual understanding of sustainable development in relation to their subject discipline and teaching experience. Previous research has shown that teachers have difficulties understanding the complex concept of sustainable…

  4. "Biosphere Reserve"--The Actual Research Subject of the Sustainable Development Process"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasaev, Gabibulla R.; Sadovenko, Marina Yu.; Isaev, Roman O.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the analyzed issue is caused by the growing slippage of research funds of sustainable development in its practice. The purpose of the article is the theoretical basis of the biosphere reserve as a scientific research subject that is relevant to rules of the scientific activity. The leading approach to the study of this issue is…

  5. Satisfaction with travel and subjective well-being: development and test of a measurement tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, D.F.; Gärling, T.; Eriksson, L.; Friman, M.; Olsson, L.E.; Fujii, S.

    2011-01-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB) that includes individuals’ cognitive and affective evaluations of life in general is proposed to be a more appropriate measure capturing the benefits individuals derive from travel improvements. We develop and testa measure of travel-related SWB, the nine item self-report

  6. 86Rubidium uptake in mononuclear leucocytes from young subjects at increased risk of developing essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J R; Johansen, Torben; Pedersen, K E

    1988-01-01

    parents. 86Rubidium uptake was significantly increased in the borderline hypertensive subjects, especially in the borderline hypertensive offspring of hypertensive patients. Our results indicate that the sodium-potassium pump is activated in mononuclear leucocytes from borderline hypertensives......, and especially in those borderline hypertensives with at least one hypertensive parent. The latter group was also the group at greatest risk of developing essential hypertension....

  7. Association between diet-related inflammation, all-cause, all-cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality, with special focus on prediabetics: findings from NHANES III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Fang Emily; Shivappa, Nitin; Tang, YiFan; Mann, Joshua R; Hebert, James R

    2017-04-01

    associated with an increased risk of all-cause, CVD, all-cancer, and digestive-tract cancer mortality among prediabetic subjects.

  8. Lung function and breathing pattern in subjects developing high altitude pulmonary edema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian F Clarenbach

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to comprehensively evaluate physiologic changes associated with development of high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE. We tested whether changes in pulmonary function and breathing pattern would herald clinically overt HAPE at an early stage. METHODS: In 18 mountaineers, spirometry, diffusing capacity, nitrogen washout, nocturnal ventilation and pulse oximetry were recorded at 490 m and during 3 days after rapid ascent to 4559 m. Findings were compared among subjects developing HAPE and those remaining well (controls. RESULTS: In 8 subjects subsequently developing radiographically documented HAPE at 4559 m, median FVC declined to 82% of low altitude baseline while closing volume increased to 164% of baseline (P<0.05, both instances. In 10 controls, FVC decreased slightly (to 93% baseline, P<0.05 but significantly less than in subjects with HAPE and closing volume remained unchanged. Sniff nasal pressure was reduced in both subjects with and without subsequent HAPE. During nights at 4559 m, mean nocturnal oxygen saturation dropped to lower values while minute ventilation, the number of periodic breathing cycles and heart rate were higher (60%; 8.6 L/min; 97 cycles/h; 94 beats/min, respectively in subjects subsequently developing HAPE than in controls (73%; 5.1 L/min; 48 cycles/h; 79 beats/min; P<0.05 vs. HAPE, all instances. CONCLUSION: The results comprehensively represent the pattern of physiologic alterations that precede overt HAPE. The changes in lung function are consistent with reduced lung compliance and impaired gas exchange. Pronounced nocturnal hypoxemia, ventilatory control instability and sympathetic stimulation are further signs of subsequent overt HAPE.

  9. Predicting risk of coronary events and all-cause mortality: role of B-type natriuretic peptide above traditional risk factors and coronary artery calcium scoring in the general population: the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Kaffer; Mahabadi, Amir A; Berg, Marie H; Lehmann, Nils; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Kälsch, Hagen; Bauer, Marcus; Moebus, Susanne; Dragano, Nico; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Neumann, Till; Erbel, Raimund

    2014-09-01

    Several biomarkers including B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) have been suggested to improve prediction of coronary events and all-cause mortality. Moreover, coronary artery calcium (CAC) as marker of subclinical atherosclerosis is a strong predictor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We aimed to evaluate the predictive ability of BNP and CAC for all-cause mortality and coronary events above traditional cardiovascular risk factors (TRF) in the general population. We followed 3782 participants of the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall cohort study without coronary artery disease at baseline for 7.3 ± 1.3 years. Associations of BNP and CAC with incident coronary events and all-cause mortality were assessed using Cox regression, Harrell's c, and time-dependent integrated discrimination improvement (IDI(t), increase in explained variance). Subjects with high BNP levels had increased frequency of coronary events and death (coronary events/mortality: 14.1/28.2% for BNP ≥100 pg/ml vs. 2.7/5.5% for BNP < 100 pg/ml, respectively). Subjects with a BNP ≥100 pg/ml had increased incidence of hard endpoints sustaining adjustment for CAC and TRF (for coronary events: hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) 3.41(1.78-6.53); for all-cause mortality: HR 3.35(2.15-5.23)). Adding BNP to TRF and CAC increased measures of predictive ability: coronary events (Harrell's c, for coronary events, 0.775-0.784, p = 0.09; for all-cause mortality 0.733-0.740, p = 0.04; and IDI(t) (95% CI), for coronary events: 2.79% (0.33-5.65%) and for all-cause mortality 1.78% (0.73-3.10%). Elevated levels of BNP are associated with excess incident coronary events and all-cause mortality rates, with BNP and CAC significantly and complementary improving prediction of risk in the general population above TRF. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Development of Web Based Learning Material in Physics Subject for Kalor and Temperature Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatwa Aji Kurniawan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been done, the research which aims to develop a web-based teaching materials on the subjects of physics subject with subject mater of temperature and heat. This study using a modified model of the 4D development by eliminating the deployment phase. The validation of product development conducted by validator media experts and experts matter of physics, whereas small-scale trials conducted by physics teacher and 10 students. Validator review results stating that the quality of the product development were included in the category very well with the average percentage rating of 83.93%. The percentage value assigned by media expert by 75% in the good category and the percentage of the value provided by a matter expert 92.85% were in the very good category. Experiments by physics teacher to obtain result of equal to 94.44% were in the very good category and the average percentage of the test results by the students of 90.5% were in the very good category. The characteristics of the products developed include material composition using the curriculum in 2013, there was a recording facility and the results of evaluation of students' activities, there were feedback evaluation results were immediately known by the students and there were some links related to the material either youtube or other learning website.

  11. Association between renal function and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in the community-based elderly population: results from the Specific Health Check and Guidance Program in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Soichiro; Konta, Tsuneo; Ichikawa, Kazunobu; Asahi, Koichi; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Fujimoto, Shouichi; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Narita, Ichiei; Kasahara, Masato; Shibagaki, Yugo; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Moriyama, Toshiki; Kondo, Masahide; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2017-07-25

    Chronic kidney disease is a significant risk factor for end-stage kidney disease, cardiovascular events, and premature death. However, the prognostic value of low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in the elderly is debatable. We determined eGFR using the Japanese equation in 132,160 elderly subjects (65-75 years) who attended the special health checkup (Tokutei-Kenshin) in 2008 and investigated the association between baseline eGFR and 5-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. The median (SD) eGFR was 70.5 ± 15.3 mL/min/1.73 m(2). During follow-up, we noted 2045 all-cause deaths including 408 from cardiovascular events. A J-shaped curve was obtained when all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates were compared with decreases in eGFR, with the highest mortality observed for eGFR cardiovascular mortality than those with eGFR >90 mL/min/1.73 m(2) [hazard ratio (HR) 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.91 for all-cause mortality, HR 2.28, 95% CI 1.28-4.03 for cardiovascular mortality]. Sex-based subgroup analyses showed similar results for both men and women. We conclude that eGFR cardiovascular mortality in the elderly population.

  12. Training-related brain plasticity in subjects at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belleville, Sylvie; Clément, Francis; Mellah, Samira; Gilbert, Brigitte; Fontaine, Francine; Gauthier, Serge

    2011-06-01

    Subjects with mild cognitive impairment are at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Cognitive stimulation is an emerging intervention in the field of neurology and allied sciences, having already been shown to improve cognition in subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Yet no studies have attempted to unravel the brain mechanisms that support such improvement. This study uses functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure the effect of memory training on brain activation in older adults with mild cognitive impairment and to assess whether it can reverse the brain changes associated with mild cognitive impairment. Brain activation associated with verbal encoding and retrieval was recorded twice prior to training and once after training. In subjects with mild cognitive impairment, increased activation was found after training within a large network that included the frontal, temporal and parietal areas. Healthy controls showed mostly areas of decreased activation following training. Comparison with pre-training indicated that subjects with mild cognitive impairment used a combination of specialized areas; that is, areas activated prior to training and new alternative areas activated following training. However, only activation of the right inferior parietal lobule, a new area of activation, correlated with performance. Furthermore, the differences between the brain activation patterns of subjects with mild cognitive impairment and those of healthy controls were attenuated by training in a number of brain regions. These results indicate that memory training can result in significant neural changes that are measurable with brain imaging. They also show that the brains of people with mild cognitive impairment remain highly plastic.

  13. Ten-year all-cause mortality in hospitalized non-surgical patients based on nutritional status screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissova, Viera; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Goboova, Maria; Kiss, Adrian

    2015-10-01

    Malnutrition is common in patients admitted to hospital due to acute illness and contributes to negative patient outcomes. In Slovakia there is a lack of relevant data on malnutrition in hospitalized patients, particularly based on chronic co-morbidity and survival. The aim of the present study was to explore the prevalence of malnutrition in hospitalized chronic patients, its relationship to co-morbidity and its impact on 10-year survival. Retrospective cohort study. Nutritional status was estimated by Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), BMI and serum albumin level. Survival was assessed from the National Insurance Registry over a 10-year period. The association between nutritional status measured by SGA and 10-year survival controlling for age, gender, BMI and serum albumin was analysed using Cox regression. Data were taken from the medical records of 202 consecutively admitted chronic patients. Results Median age was 63·5 years; 55·4 % were males; median BMI was 25·9 kg/m2; median serum albumin level was 39·0 g/l. Based on SGA evaluation, 38·1 % did not have sufficient nutritional status (SGA classification B and C). Malnutrition was more common in patients who were older (P=0·023), with lower BMI (Pnutrition could thus reduce mortality.

  14. Development of a credit-bearing service leadership subject for university students in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu; Ma, Cecilia M S; Sun, Rachel C F; Liu, Ting Ting

    2013-01-01

    Given that service industries contribute to 93% of Hong Kong's GDP, an important question that should be asked is whether the education system can promote the development of service leadership among young people in Hong Kong. Unfortunately, service leadership programs specifically designed for university students are lacking in Hong Kong. In this paper, the basic tenets of the Service Leadership and Management framework are presented. Based on the fundamental postulation that effective service leadership is a function of moral character, competence and care (E=MC(2)), a subject called "Service Leadership" has recently been developed at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. This paper outlines the objectives, intended learning outcomes, syllabus, assessment, and references of the subject. The proposed evaluation strategies are also described.

  15. Biomarkers for insulin resistance and inflammation and the risk for all-cause dementia and Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our aim was to investigate the contribution of biomarkers of glucose homeostasis (adiponectin, glucose, glycated albumin, and insulin levels) and inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) levels) to the risk of developing Alzheimer disease (AD) a...

  16. Measures of anticholinergic drug exposure, serum anticholinergic activity, and all-cause postdischarge mortality in older hospitalized patients with hip fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangoni, Arduino A.; van Munster, Barbara C.; Woodman, Richard J.; de Rooij, Sophia E.

    Objectives: To assess possible associations between anticholinergic drug exposure and serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) and their capacities to predict all-cause mortality in older hospitalized patients. Setting: Academic medical center. Participants and Measurements: Data on clinical

  17. Measures of anticholinergic drug exposure, serum anticholinergic activity, and all-cause postdischarge mortality in older hospitalized patients with hip fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangoni, Arduino A.; van Munster, Barbara C.; Woodman, Richard J.; de Rooij, Sophia E.

    2013-01-01

    To assess possible associations between anticholinergic drug exposure and serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) and their capacities to predict all-cause mortality in older hospitalized patients. Academic medical center. Data on clinical characteristics, full medication exposure, SAA, and 4

  18. Pre-Dialysis Systolic Blood Pressure-Variability Is Independently Associated with All-Cause Mortality in Incident Haemodialysis Patients: e86514

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Viknesh Selvarajah; Laura Pasea; Sanjay Ojha; Ian B Wilkinson; Laurie A Tomlinson

    2014-01-01

    .... The main exposure was variability independent of the mean (VIM) of systolic blood pressure from short-gap, pre-dialysis blood pressure readings between 3 and 6 months after commencing haemodialysis, and the outcome was all-cause mortality...

  19. Recognition and development of "educational technology" as a scientific field and school subject

    OpenAIRE

    Danilović Mirčeta S.

    2004-01-01

    The paper explores the process of development, establishment and recognition of "educational technology" as an independent scientific field and a separate teaching subject at universities. The paper points to: (a) the problems that this field deals with or should deal with, (b) knowledge needed for the profession of "educational technologist", (c) various scientific institutions across the world involved in educational technology, (d) scientific journals treating issues of modern educational ...

  20. Fitness, work, and leisure-time physical activity and ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality among men with pre-existing cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Our aim was to study the relative impact of physical fitness, physical demands at work, and physical activity during leisure time on ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality among employed men with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD).......Our aim was to study the relative impact of physical fitness, physical demands at work, and physical activity during leisure time on ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality among employed men with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD)....

  1. Higher plasma high-mobility group box 1 levels are associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nin, J W M; Ferreira, I; Schalkwijk, C G

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the associations of plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes.......This study aimed to investigate the associations of plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes....

  2. Elevated levels of plasma osteoprotegerin are associated with all-cause mortality risk and atherosclerosis in patients with stages 3 to 5 chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Nascimento

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Osteoprotegerin (OPG regulates bone mass by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and activation, and plays a role in vascular calcification. We evaluated the relationship between osteoprotegerin levels and inflammatory markers, atherosclerosis, and mortality in patients with stages 3-5 chronic kidney disease. A total of 145 subjects (median age 61 years, 61% men; 36 patients on hemodialysis, 55 patients on peritoneal dialysis, and 54 patients with stages 3-5 chronic kidney disease were studied. Clinical characteristics, markers of mineral metabolism (including fibroblast growth factor-23 [FGF-23] and inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP] and interleukin-6 [IL-6], and the intima-media thickness (IMT in the common carotid arteries were measured at baseline. Cardiac function was assessed by color tissue Doppler echocardiography. After 36 months follow-up, the survival rate by Kaplan-Meier analysis was significantly different according to OPG levels (χ 2=14.33; P=0.002. Increased OPG levels were positively associated with IL-6 (r=0.38, P<0.001, FGF-23 (r=0.26, P<0.001 and hsCRP (r=0.0.24, P=0.003. In addition, OPG was positively associated with troponin I (r=0.54, P<0.001 and IMT (r=0.39, P<0.0001. Finally, in Cox analysis, only OPG (HR=1.07, 95%CI=1.02-1.13 and hsCRP (HR=1.02, 95%CI=1.01-1.04 were independently associated with increased risk of death. These results suggested that elevated levels of serum OPG might be associated with atherosclerosis and all-cause mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease.

  3. Dose-response relationship of physical activity to premature and total all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in walkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Williams

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the dose-response relationships between cause-specific mortality and exercise energy expenditure in a prospective epidemiological cohort of walkers. METHODS: The sample consisted of the 8,436 male and 33,586 female participants of the National Walkers' Health Study. Walking energy expenditure was calculated in metabolic equivalents (METs, 1 MET = 3.5 ml O2/kg/min, which were used to divide the cohort into four exercise categories: category 1 (≤ 1.07 MET-hours/d, category 2 (1.07 to 1.8 MET-hours/d, category 3 (1.8 to 3.6 MET-hours/d, and category 4 (≥ 3.6 MET-hours/d. Competing risk regression analyses were use to calculate the risk of mortality for categories 2, 3 and 4 relative to category 1. RESULTS: 22.9% of the subjects were in category 1, 16.1% in category 2, 33.3% in category 3, and 27.7% in category 4. There were 2,448 deaths during the 9.6 average years of follow-up. Total mortality was 11.2% lower in category 2 (P = 0.04, 32.4% lower in category 3 (P<10(-12 and 32.9% lower in category 4 (P = 10(-11 than in category 1. For underlying causes of death, the respective risk reductions for categories 2, 3 and 4 were 23.6% (P = 0.008, 35.2% (P<10(-5, and 34.9% (P = 0.0001 for cardiovascular disease mortality; 27.8% (P = 0.18, 20.6% (P = 0.07, and 31.4% (P = 0.009 for ischemic heart disease mortality; and 39.4% (P = 0.18, 63.8% (P = 0.005, and 90.6% (P = 0.002 for diabetes mortality when compared to category 1. For all related mortality (i.e., underlying and contributing causes of death combined, the respective risk reductions for categories 2, 3 and 4 were 18.7% (P = 0.22, 42.5% (P = 0.001, and 57.5% (P = 0.0001 for heart failure; 9.4% (P = 0.56, 44.3% (P = 0.0004, and 33.5% (P = 0.02 for hypertensive diseases; 11.5% (P = 0.38, 41.0% (P<10(-4, and 35.5% (P = 0.001 for dysrhythmias: and 23.2% (P = 0.13, 45.8% (P = 0.0002, and 41.1% (P

  4. Therapeutic misconception in research subjects: development and validation of a measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S; Anatchkova, Milena; Albert, Karen; Dunn, Laura B; Lidz, Charles W

    2012-12-01

    Therapeutic misconception (TM), which occurs when research subjects fail to appreciate the distinction between the imperatives of clinical research and ordinary treatment, may undercut the process of obtaining meaningful consent to clinical research participation. Previous studies have found that TM is widespread, but progress in addressing TM has been stymied by the absence of a validated method for assessing its presence. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a theoretically grounded measure of TM, assess its diagnostic accuracy, and test previous findings regarding TM's prevalence. A total of 220 participants were recruited from clinical trials at four academic medical centers in the United States. Participants completed a 28-item Likert-type questionnaire to assess the presence of beliefs associated with TM, and a semistructured TM interview designed to elicit their perceptions of the nature of the clinical trial in which they were participating. Data from the questionnaires were subjected to factor analysis, and items with poor factor loadings were excluded. This resulted in a 10-item scale, with three strongly correlated factors and excellent internal consistency; the fit indices of the model across 10 training sets were consistent with the original results, suggesting a stable factor solution. The scale was validated against the TM interview, with significantly higher scores among subjects coded as displaying evidence of TM. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis based on a 10-fold internal cross-validation yielded area under the ROC (AUC) = 0.682 for any evidence of TM. When sensitivity (0.72) and specificity (0.61) were both optimized, positive predictive value was 0.65 and negative predictive value was 0.68, with a positive likelihood ratio of 1.89 and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.47. In all, 50.5% (n = 101) of the participants manifested evidence of TM on the TM interview, a somewhat lower rate than in most previous studies. The

  5. Recognition and development of "educational technology" as a scientific field and school subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Mirčeta S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the process of development, establishment and recognition of "educational technology" as an independent scientific field and a separate teaching subject at universities. The paper points to: (a the problems that this field deals with or should deal with, (b knowledge needed for the profession of "educational technologist", (c various scientific institutions across the world involved in educational technology, (d scientific journals treating issues of modern educational technology, (e the authors i.e. psychologists and educators who developed and formulated the basic principles of this scientific field, (f educational features and potentials of educational technologies. Emphasis is placed on the role and importance of AV technology in developing, establishing and recognition of educational technology, and it is also pointed out that AV technology i.e. AV teaching aids and a movement for visualization of teaching were its forerunners and crucial factors for its establishing and developing into an independent area of teaching i.e. school subject. In summary it is stressed that educational technology provides for the execution of instruction through emission transmission, selection, coding, decoding, reception, memorization transformation of all types of pieces of information in teaching.

  6. Abnormal ankle-brachial index and risk of cardiovascular or all-cause mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Yan; Wei, Fang; Wang, Li-Hua; Wang, Zhe; Meng, Jia; Yu, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Rui-Ning; Sun, Gui-Jiang; Jiang, Ai-Li; Wang, Lin

    2017-08-01

    Prognostic role of ankle-brachial index (ABI) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is controversial. We aimed to evaluate whether abnormal ABI was an independent predictor of cardiovascular or all-cause mortality in CKD patients with or without hemodialysis by conducting a meta-analysis. We systematically searched Pubmed and Embase databases for prospective observational studies that investigated baseline abnormal ABI and subsequent cardiovascular or all-cause mortality risk in CKD patients with or without hemodialysis. An ABI value of 0.9 to 1.3 was defined as normal. Pooled hazard risk (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated for the abnormal vs. normal ABI category. Six studies enrolling 5820 patients were identified and analyzed. Overall, abnormal ABI was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR 2.26; 95% CI 1.60-3.18) and cardiovascular mortality (HR 3.58; 95% CI 2.53-5.06). Subgroup analysis indicated that patients with abnormally low ABI increased by 2.45-fold all-cause mortality and 5.18-fold cardiovascular mortality. Similarly, an abnormally high ABI increased by 1.94-fold all-cause mortality and 4.04-fold cardiovascular mortality. In addition, the effect of abnormal ABI on all-cause mortality was more pronounced among hemodialysis patients (HR 3.06; 95% CI 2.30-4.07) but not in CKD patients (HR 1.42; 95% CI 0.98-2.05). Abnormally low and high ABI are independently associated with cardiovascular or all-cause mortality risk in maintenance hemodialysis patients. This meta-analysis highlighted an U-shaped relationship between ABI and mortality risk in CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis. However, findings of this meta-analysis were undermined by the small number of included studies.

  7. Association Between Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and All-cause Mortality in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Jing; Lin, Yan; Yang, Hongtao; Cao, Shili

    2017-05-01

    Considering results among previous studies regarding the relationship of red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and all-cause mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, we aimed to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis to evaluate the potential association between RDW and all-cause mortality in CKD patients. We conducted a systematic literature using electronic databases (PubMed, Ovid, Embase and Web of Science) to identify the studies reporting the association between RDW and all-cause mortality in CKD patients. We searched the literatures published December 2016 or earlier. We used both fix-effects and random-effects models to calculate the overall effect estimate. A sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis were performed to find the origin of heterogeneity. We retrieved 9 studies with a total of 117,047 patients. For every 1% increase in RDW, the risk of all-cause mortality increased by 47% (HR 1.47, 95% CI 1.35-1.61) with no statistical heterogeneity among the studies (I2 = 44.5%, p = 0.094). When RDW was entered as a categorical variable, mortality risk was significantly increased (HR 1.84, 95% CI 1.21-2.81). Heterogeneity among the studies was observed for all-cause mortality (I2 = 82.3%, p = 0.001). We also performed a predefined subgroup analyses according to study population. We found that for every 1% increase in RDW, the risk of all-cause mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients increased by 36% (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.20-1.53). Our meta-analysis suggests that high levels of RDW probably increase the risk of all-cause mortality in CKD patients. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Longitudinal DRG-based survey of all-cause and pneumococcal pneumonia and meningitis for inpatients in France (2005-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casez, P; Fauconnier, J; Jorgensen, L; Gutterman, E M; Gray, S; Munson, S; Dartois, N; Gaillat, J

    2015-01-01

    This population-based retrospective study quantified the burden of all-cause and pneumococcal pneumonia and meningitis in the Rhône-Alpes region of France from 2005 to 2010, when the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine uptake increased from 50 to>90% in children. Hospital admission data was obtained from the French Diagnosis Related Groups program database (French acronym PMSI). Patients were residents of the Rhône-Alpes region hospitalized for the diseases of interest during 2005-2010. Hospitalization and in-hospital mortality rates were calculated by age, sex, and year on the basis of the Rhône-Alpes region population. Hospitalization and in-hospital mortality rates were compared using Chi(2) tests with statistical significance adjusted for multiple comparisons. The highest hospitalization rates by age group were: all-cause pneumonia, oldest group (>65 years); all-cause and pneumococcal meningitis, youngest group (0-4 years), and pneumococcal pneumonia, youngest and oldest groups. Hospitalization rates significantly decreased for all-cause pneumonia (5-19 years: -12.71%) and all-cause meningitis (20-49 years: -29.22%). Pneumococcal disease rates did not significantly change in any age group. Mortality rates from all-cause pneumonia and meningitis were highest in the oldest age groups. The burden of all-cause and pneumococcal pneumonia and meningitis remains substantial. Significant changes (decreases) between 2005 and 2010 in hospitalization rates were limited and varied among age groups, most likely because this study began 2 years after PCV7 was first introduced in France for children at broadly-defined high risk. Further research is needed on the relationship between serotype epidemiology and clinical patterns of disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Labour market trajectories following sickness absence due to self-reported all cause morbidity—a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille Pedersen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate differences in return to work (RTW and employment trajectories in individuals on sick leave for either mental health reasons or other health related reasons. Methods This study was based on 2036 new sickness absence cases who completed a questionnaire on social characteristics, expectations for RTW and reasons for sickness absence. They were divided into two exposure groups according to their self-reported sickness absence reason: mental health reasons or other health reasons. The outcome was employment status during the following 51 weeks and was measured both as time-to-event analysis and with sequence analysis. Results Individuals with mental health reasons for sickness absence had a higher risk of not having returned to work (RR 0.87 (0.80;0.93. Adjusting for gender, age, education and employment did not change the estimate, however, after adding RTW expectations to the model, the excess risk was no longer present (RR 1.01 (0.95;1.08. In relation to the sequence analysis, individuals with mental health related absence had significantly higher odds of being in the sickness absence cluster and significantly lower odds for being in the fast RTW cluster, but when adjusting for RTW expectations, the odds were somewhat attenuated and no longer significant. Conclusions Employees on sick leave due to self-reported mental health problems spent more weeks in sickness absence and temporary benefits and had a higher risk of not having returned to work within a year compared to employees on sick leave due to other health reasons. The difference could be explained by their lower RTW expectations at baseline. This emphasises the need to develop suitable and specific interventions to facilitate RTW for this group of sickness absentees.

  10. The Subject and the Setting: Re-Imagining Opportunities for Primary Teachers' Subject Knowledge Development on School-Based Teacher Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Rupert

    2017-01-01

    The landscape of teacher education is undergoing significant change in many countries and this is often associated with a move towards greater school involvement in the preparation of teachers. One aspect of teaching expertise that is particularly challenging for primary student-teachers is the development of subject knowledge across a wide range…

  11. Development of ICT competences in the environmental studies subject in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Husa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital literacy is one of eight key competences that were defined by the European Parliament and Council as those that member states should develop as a part of their strategies for lifelong learning (Official Journal of the European Union, 2006, p.11. It would contribute to a more successful life in a knowledge society. The purpose of this paper is to Npresent the results of empirical research on the use of ICT in the lessons of the environmental studies subject in the first triennium of primary schools in the Republic of Slovenia. Data were collected through a questionnaire and according to the protocol. We found that among all of the ICT tools, teachers mostly use the computer. The majority of the teachers use the computer once a week, most often in mathematics and environmental studies subject. In the observed lessons of the environmental studies subject, less than half of teachers use the computer in the lessons. This was followed by the use of computer and the LCD projector, and the interactive whiteboard. Among the obstacles that teachers indicate when they try to include ICT in the learning process are insufficient, out of date equipment, lack of time and lack of their own competence.

  12. Empirical Model Development for Predicting Shock Response on Composite Materials Subjected to Pyroshock Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Ordway, David O; Parsons, David S.; Garrison, Craig M.; Rodgers, C. Steven; Collins, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request to develop an analysis model based on both frequency response and wave propagation analyses for predicting shock response spectrum (SRS) on composite materials subjected to pyroshock loading. The model would account for near-field environment (approx. 9 inches from the source) dominated by direct wave propagation, mid-field environment (approx. 2 feet from the source) characterized by wave propagation and structural resonances, and far-field environment dominated by lower frequency bending waves in the structure. This report documents the outcome of the assessment.

  13. Empirical Model Development for Predicting Shock Response on Composite Materials Subjected to Pyroshock Loading: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Ordway, David O.; Parsons, David S.; Garrison, Craig M.; Rodgers, C. Steven; Collins, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request to develop an analysis model based on both frequency response and wave propagation analyses for predicting shock response spectrum (SRS) on composite materials subjected to pyroshock loading. The model would account for near-field environment (approx. 9 inches from the source) dominated by direct wave propagation, mid-field environment (approx. 2 feet from the source) characterized by wave propagation and structural resonances, and far-field environment dominated by lower frequency bending waves in the structure. This document contains appendices to the Volume I report.

  14. Empirical Model Development for Predicting Shock Response on Composite Materials Subjected to Pyroshock Loading. [Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Ordway, David O.; Parsons, David S.; Garrison, Craig M.; Rodgers, C. Steven; Collins, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request to develop an analysis model based on both frequency response and wave propagation analyses for predicting shock response spectrum (SRS) on composite materials subjected to pyroshock loading. The model would account for near-field environment (9 inches from the source) dominated by direct wave propagation, mid-field environment (approximately 2 feet from the source) characterized by wave propagation and structural resonances, and far-field environment dominated by lower frequency bending waves in the structure. This document contains appendices to the Volume I report.

  15. Development, Validity and Reliability of the Londrina Activities of Daily Living Protocol for Subjects With COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, Thaís; Donária, Leila; Furlanetto, Karina C; Morakami, Fernanda; Rodrigues, Antenor; Grosskreutz, Talita; Hernandes, Nidia A; Gosselink, Rik; Pitta, Fabio

    2017-03-01

    To avoid symptoms, patients with COPD may reduce the amount of activities of daily living (ADL). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop a standardized protocol to evaluate ADL performance in subjects with COPD (Londrina ADL protocol) and to assess the validity and reliability of the protocol in this population. The Londrina ADL protocol was created based on activities included in previous studies aimed at investigating outcomes from ADL. Activities were included in the protocol because they could represent other activities of similar patterns and because they could be actually performed, not simulated. Twenty subjects with COPD (12 men, 70 ± 7 y old, FEV1 = 54 ± 15% predicted) wore 2 motion sensors while performing the protocol 4 times, 2 of them wearing a portable gas analyzer. Subjects were also submitted to assessments of lung function, functional exercise capacity, functional status, impact on health status, and physical activity in daily life. The Londrina ADL protocol comprised of 5 activities representing ADL, involving upper limbs, lower limbs, and trunk movements. Londrina ADL protocol duration presented high values of intraclass correlation coefficient, even using a mask for gas analysis (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.90, P < .001). Intensity of movement during the protocol performance was highly correlated to intensity of movement in daily life (r = 0.71). The protocol duration was correlated with functional status and impact on health status variables from questionnaires (0.36 ≤ r ≤ 0.59). There was also correlation between functional exercise capacity and the protocol duration (r = -0.64). The Londrina ADL protocol was a valid and reliable protocol to evaluate ADL performance in subjects with COPD. It is a protocol that can be used in clinical practice and in future studies to investigate ADL outcomes, including those studies that require gas analysis and the wearing of a mask. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  16. Changes in physical activity in leisure time and the risk of myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Grønbæk, Morten; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2012-01-01

    activity and blood pressure was observed. Findings from this prospective study suggest that changes in physical activity affect the risk of MI, IHD and all-cause mortality. A decrease in physical activity was associated to a higher risk of coronary heart disease....... and the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic heart disease (IHD), and all-cause mortality as well as changes in blood pressure in 4,487 men and 5,956 women in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Physical activity was measured in 1976-1978 and 1981-1983 and participants were followed in nation......Physical activity is associated to a lower risk of mortality from all-causes and from coronary heart disease. The long-term effects of changes in physical activity on coronary heart disease are, however, less known. We examined the association between changes in leisure time physical activity...

  17. Glucose patterns during an oral glucose tolerance test and associations with future diabetes, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulman, Adam; Vistisen, Dorte; Glümer, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    heterogeneity of glycaemic patterns based on three time points during an OGTT. Second, we compared the incidences of diabetes and CVD and all-cause mortality rates among those with different patterns. Methods: Our cohort study included 5861 participants without diabetes at baseline from the Danish Inter99 study....... At baseline, all participants underwent an OGTT with measurements of plasma glucose levels at 0, 30 and 120 min. Latent class mixed-effects models were fitted to identify distinct patterns of glycaemic response during the OGTT. Information regarding incident diabetes, CVD and all-cause mortality rates during...... a median follow-up time of 11, 12 and 13 years, respectively, was extracted from national registers. Cox proportional hazard models with adjustment for several cardiometabolic risk factors were used to compare the risk of diabetes, CVD and all-cause mortality among individuals in the different latent...

  18. Alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and all-cause mortality: results from a population-based Danish twins study alanine aminotransferase, GGT and mortality in elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fraser, Abigail; Thinggaard, Mikael; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background/Aims: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) are widely used markers of liver disease. Several population-based cohort studies have found associations of these liver enzymes with all-cause mortality. None of these studies controlled for genetic...... variation as well as fetal and early life exposure, whether environmental or genetic. Methods: We studied the associations of ALT and GGT with all-cause mortality using data for 686 twins (73-94 years old) included in the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins. Results: An increase in 1 logged U/L of GGT...... was associated with a 15% increase in the hazard ratio (HR) for mortality [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99, 1.32] but there was no strong evidence of an association of ALT with all-cause mortality (HR=1.07, 95% CI 0.82, 1.40) when controlling for potential confounders. In this analysis, the study population...

  19. Dietary patterns and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality in Japanese men and women: The Japan public health center-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanri, Akiko; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Shimazu, Taichi; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Sawada, Norie; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-01-01

    A meta-analysis showed an inverse association of a prudent/healthy dietary pattern with all-cause mortality and no association of a western/unhealthy dietary pattern. However, the association of distinctive dietary patterns of Japanese population with mortality remains unclear. We prospectively investigated the association between dietary patterns and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality among Japanese adults. Participants were 36,737 men and 44,983 women aged 45-74 years who participated in the second survey of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (1995-1998) and who had no history of serious disease. Dietary patterns were derived from principal component analysis of the consumption of 134 food and beverage items ascertained by a food frequency questionnaire. Hazard ratios of death from the second survey to December 2012 were estimated using cox proportional hazard regression analysis. A prudent dietary pattern, which was characterized by high intake of vegetables, fruit, soy products, potatoes, seaweed, mushrooms, and fish, was significantly associated with decreased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality for the highest versus lowest quartile of the prudent dietary pattern score were 0.82 (0.77 to 0.86) and 0.72 (0.64 to 0.79), respectively (P for trend <0.001 in both). A Westernized dietary pattern, characterized by high intake of meat, processed meat, bread, and dairy products, was also inversely associated with risk of all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality. A traditional Japanese dietary pattern was not associated with these risks. The prudent and Westernized dietary patterns were associated with a decreased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in Japanese adults.

  20. Daytime Napping and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality: A Prospective Study and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tomohide; Hara, Kazuo; Shojima, Nobuhiro; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    To summarize evidence about the association between daytime napping and the risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, and to quantify the potential dose-response relation. Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Electronic databases were searched for articles published up to December 2014 using the terms nap, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. We selected well-adjusted prospective cohort studies reporting risk estimates for cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality related to napping. Eleven prospective cohort studies were identified with 151,588 participants (1,625,012 person-years) and a mean follow-up period of 11 years (60% women, 5,276 cardiovascular events, and 18,966 all-cause deaths). Pooled analysis showed that a long daytime nap (≥ 60 min/day) was associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (rate ratio [RR]: 1.82 [1.22-2.71], P = 0.003, I(2) = 37%) compared with not napping. All-cause mortality was associated with napping for ≥ 60 min/day (RR: 1.27 [1.11-1.45], P napping. In contrast, napping for nap time and cardiovascular disease (P for nonlinearity = 0.01). The RR initially decreased from 0 to 30 min/day. Then it increased slightly until about 45 min/day, followed by a sharp increase at longer nap times. There was also a positive linear relation between nap time and all-cause mortality (P for non-linearity = 0.97). Nap time and cardiovascular disease may be associated via a J-curve relation. Further studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of a short nap. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  1. Serum Anion Gap Predicts All-Cause Mortality in Patients with Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease: A Retrospective Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Woo Lee

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular outcomes and mortality rates are poor in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD patients. Novel risk factors related to clinical outcomes should be identified.A retrospective analysis of data from a randomized controlled study was performed in 440 CKD patients aged > 18 years, with estimated glomerular filtration rate 15-60 mL/min/1.73m2. Clinical data were available, and the albumin-adjusted serum anion gap (A-SAG could be calculated. The outcome analyzed was all-cause mortality.Of 440 participants, the median (interquartile range, IQR follow-up duration was 5.1 (3.0-5.5 years. During the follow-up duration, 29 participants died (all-cause mortality 6.6%. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of A-SAG for all-cause mortality was 0.616 (95% CI 0.520-0.712, P = 0.037. The best threshold of A-SAG for all-cause mortality was 9.48 mmol/L, with sensitivity 0.793 and specificity 0.431. After adjusting for confounders, A-SAG above 9.48 mmol/L was independently associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality, with hazard ratio 2.968 (95% CI 1.143-7.708, P = 0.025. In our study, serum levels of beta-2 microglobulin and blood urea nitrogen (BUN were positively associated with A-SAG.A-SAG is an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality in advanced CKD patients. The positive correlation between A-SAG and serum beta-2 microglobulin or BUN might be a potential reason. Future study is needed.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT 00860431.

  2. Cardiovascular health metrics and all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality among middle-aged men in Korea: the Seoul male cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Young; Ko, Young-Jin; Rhee, Chul Woo; Park, Byung-Joo; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Bae, Jong-Myon; Shin, Myung-Hee; Lee, Moo-Song; Li, Zhong Min; Ahn, Yoon-Ok

    2013-11-01

    This study estimated the association of cardiovascular health behaviors with the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in middle-aged men in Korea. In total, 12 538 men aged 40 to 59 years were enrolled in 1993 and followed up through 2011. Cardiovascular health metrics defined the following lifestyle behaviors proposed by the American Heart Association: smoking, physical activity, body mass index, diet habit score, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose. The cardiovascular health metrics score was calculated as a single categorical variable, by assigning 1 point to each ideal healthy behavior. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratio of cardiovascular health behavior. Population attributable risks (PARs) were calculated from the significant cardiovascular health metrics. There were 1054 total and 171 CVD deaths over 230 690 person-years of follow-up. The prevalence of meeting all 7 cardiovascular health metrics was 0.67%. Current smoking, elevated blood pressure, and high fasting blood glucose were significantly associated with all-cause and CVD mortality. The adjusted PARs for the 3 significant metrics combined were 35.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.7 to 47.4) and 52.8% (95% CI, 22.0 to 74.0) for all-cause and CVD mortality, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratios of the groups with a 6-7 vs. 0-2 cardiovascular health metrics score were 0.42 (95% CI, 0.31 to 0.59) for all-cause mortality and 0.10 (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.29) for CVD mortality. Among cardiovascular health behaviors, not smoking, normal blood pressure, and recommended fasting blood glucose levels were associated with reduced risks of all-cause and CVD mortality. Meeting a greater number of cardiovascular health metrics was associated with a lower risk of all-cause and CVD mortality.

  3. Temporal changes in occupational sitting time in the Danish workforce and associations with all-cause mortality: results from the Danish work environment cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Møller, Simone Visbjerg; Hannerz, Harald; van der Beek, Allard J; Holtermann, Andreas

    2015-06-02

    Prolonged sitting has been negatively associated with a range of non-communicably diseases. However, the role of occupational sitting is less clear, and little is known on the changes of occupational sitting in a working population over time. The present study aimed to determine 1) temporal changes in occupational sitting time between 1990 and 2010 in the Danish workforce; 2) the association and possible dose-response relationship between occupational sitting time and all-cause mortality. This study analysed data from the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study (DWECS), which is a cohort study of the Danish working population conducted in five yearly intervals between 1990 and 2010. Occupational sitting time is self-reported in the DWECS. To determine the association with all-cause mortality, the DWECS was linked to the Danish Register of Causes of Death via the Central Person Register. Between 1990 and 2010 the proportion of the Danish workforce who sat for at least three quarters of their work time gradually increased from 33.1 to 39.1%. All-cause mortality analyses were performed with 149,773 person-years of observation and an average follow-up of 12.61 years, during which 533 deaths were registered. None of the presented analyses found a statistically significant association between occupational sitting time and all-cause mortality. The hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.79; 1.18) when ≥24 hr/wk occupational sitting time was compared to associations between total sitting time and mortality. The current study was inconclusive on the specific role that occupational sitting might play in the increased all-cause mortality risk associated with the total volume of sitting.

  4. Dietary patterns and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality in Japanese men and women: The Japan public health center-based prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Nanri

    Full Text Available A meta-analysis showed an inverse association of a prudent/healthy dietary pattern with all-cause mortality and no association of a western/unhealthy dietary pattern. However, the association of distinctive dietary patterns of Japanese population with mortality remains unclear. We prospectively investigated the association between dietary patterns and all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality among Japanese adults.Participants were 36,737 men and 44,983 women aged 45-74 years who participated in the second survey of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (1995-1998 and who had no history of serious disease. Dietary patterns were derived from principal component analysis of the consumption of 134 food and beverage items ascertained by a food frequency questionnaire. Hazard ratios of death from the second survey to December 2012 were estimated using cox proportional hazard regression analysis.A prudent dietary pattern, which was characterized by high intake of vegetables, fruit, soy products, potatoes, seaweed, mushrooms, and fish, was significantly associated with decreased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality for the highest versus lowest quartile of the prudent dietary pattern score were 0.82 (0.77 to 0.86 and 0.72 (0.64 to 0.79, respectively (P for trend <0.001 in both. A Westernized dietary pattern, characterized by high intake of meat, processed meat, bread, and dairy products, was also inversely associated with risk of all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality. A traditional Japanese dietary pattern was not associated with these risks.The prudent and Westernized dietary patterns were associated with a decreased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in Japanese adults.

  5. Dose-dependent association between muscle-strengthening activities and all-cause mortality: Prospective cohort study among a national sample of adults in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankel, Scott J; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2016-11-01

    We have a limited understanding of the association between behavioural participation in muscle-strengthening activities (MSA) and all-cause mortality. To determine the effect of MSA on all-cause mortality, and examine a potential dose-response relationship between the frequency with which MSA are performed and the incidence of all-cause mortality. Individuals (8772 adults aged≥20years) from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey were evaluated for baseline characteristics, then followed for an average of 6.7years. MSA were assessed at baseline as the number of self-reported sessions completed within the past 30days. Analyses were performed in 2015. Only 18.6% of individuals met MSA guidelines (2-3 MSA sessions/week) at baseline, while those performing any form of MSA had a 23% reduced risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.77; 95% confidence interval: 0.60-0.98; P=0.04). Additionally, we created a five-category variable to determine whether a dose-response relationship existed between MSA and premature mortality; only individuals performing 8-14 sessions over a 30-day period (current MSA guidelines) had a reduced risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 0.70; P=0.02). Results were similar for CVD-specific mortality. The national recommendations that 2-3 MSA sessions be performed per week appear to be most effective at reducing the risk of premature all-cause mortality; however, despite these recommendations, the majority of the adult population in the USA still fails to perform any MSA. Future studies should determine strategies for increasing adherence to these established guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Physical activity and risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in diabetic adults from Great Britain: pooled analysis of 10 population-based cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadarangani, Kabir P; Hamer, Mark; Mindell, Jenny S; Coombs, Ngaire A; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2014-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine associations between specific types of physical activity and all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in a large nationally representative sample of adults with diabetes from Great Britain. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS There were a total of 3,038 participants (675 deaths) with diabetes in the Health Survey for England and the Scottish Health Surveys conducted between 1997 and 2008. Participants aged ≥50 years at baseline were followed up for an average of 75.2 months for all-cause and CVD mortality. Data were collected on self-reported frequency, duration, and intensity of participation in sports and exercise, walking, and domestic physical activity, from which the number of MET-hours/week were derived. Sex-specific medians of time spent in each type of physical activity (for those physically active) were calculated, and Cox proportional hazards regression conducted to examine type-specific associations between the level of physical activity and all-cause and CVD mortality risk. RESULTS Inverse associations with all-cause and CVD mortality were observed for overall physical activity in a dose-response manner after adjusting for covariates. Compared with those who individuals were inactive, participants who reported some activity, but below the recommended amount, or who met the physical activity recommendations had a 26% (95% CI 39-11) and 35% (95% CI 47-21) lower all-cause mortality, respectively. Similar results were found for below/above median physical activity levels. Sports and exercise participation was inversely associated with all-cause (but not CVD) mortality, as were above average levels of walking. Domestic physical activity was not associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS Moderate physical activity levels were associated with better prognosis in diabetic adults.

  7. Predictors of hospitalization for heart failure and of all-cause mortality after atrioventricular nodal ablation and right ventricular pacing for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkenheim, Anna; Brandes, Axel; Andersson, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Atrioventricular junction ablation (AVJA) is a highly effective treatment in patients with therapy refractory atrial fibrillation (AF) but renders the patient pacemaker dependent. We aimed to analyse the long-term incidence of hospitalization for heart failure (HF) and all-cause mortality...... hypertension and previous HF were independent predictors of death. CONCLUSION: The long-term hospitalization rate for HF and all-cause mortality was low, which implies that long-term ventricular pacing was not harmful in this patient population, including patients with unsuccessful repeated PVI....

  8. Higher plasma soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (sRAGE) levels are associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nin, Johanna W M; Jorsal, Anders; Ferreira, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the associations of plasma levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes and the extent to which any such associations could be explained by endothelial and renal dysfunct......To investigate the associations of plasma levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes and the extent to which any such associations could be explained by endothelial and renal...

  9. Development and optimization of a noncontact optical device for online monitoring of jaundice in human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polley, Nabarun; Saha, Srimoyee; Singh, Soumendra; Adhikari, Aniruddha; Das, Sukhen; Choudhury, Bhaskar Roy; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Jaundice is one of the notable markers of liver malfunction in our body, revealing a significant rise in the concentration of an endogenous yellow pigment bilirubin. We have described a method for measuring the optical spectrum of our conjunctiva and derived pigment concentration by using diffused reflection measurement. The method uses no prior model and is expected to work across the races (skin color) encompassing a wide range of age groups. An optical fiber-based setup capable of measuring the conjunctival absorption spectrum from 400 to 800 nm is used to monitor the level of bilirubin and is calibrated with the value measured from blood serum of the same human subject. We have also developed software in the LabVIEW platform for use in online monitoring of bilirubin levels in human subjects by nonexperts. The results demonstrate that relative absorption at 460 and 600 nm has a distinct correlation with that of the bilirubin concentration measured from blood serum. Statistical analysis revealed that our proposed method is in agreement with the conventional biochemical method. The innovative noncontact, low-cost technique is expected to have importance in monitoring jaundice in developing/underdeveloped countries, where the inexpensive diagnosis of jaundice with minimally trained manpower is obligatory.

  10. The pharmaceutical industry's responsibility for protecting human subjects of clinical trials in developing nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Finnuala

    2004-01-01

    Pharmaceutical companies increasingly perform clinical trials in developing nations. Governments of host nations see the trials as a way to provide otherwise unaffordable medical care, while trial sponsors are drawn to those countries by lower costs, the prevalence of diseases rare in developed nations, and large numbers of impoverished patients. Local governments, however, fail to police trials, and the FDA does not monitor trials in foreign countries, resulting in the routine violation of international standards for the protection of human subjects. This Note proposes independent accreditation of those institutions involved in clinical trials--the institutional review boards which oversee trial protocol; the organizations, such as pharmaceutical companies, which sponsor the trials; and the research organizations that conduct the trials. Accreditation, similar to that used in the footwear and apparel industries, would increase the transparency of pharmaceutical trials and would enable the United States government and consumers to hold trial sponsors accountable for their actions.

  11. Abrupt Decline in Kidney Function Before Initiating Hemodialysis and All-Cause Mortality: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Raymond K; Chai, Boyang; Roy, Jason A; Anderson, Amanda H; Bansal, Nisha; Feldman, Harold I; Go, Alan S; He, Jiang; Horwitz, Edward J; Kusek, John W; Lash, James P; Ojo, Akinlolu; Sondheimer, James H; Townsend, Raymond R; Zhan, Min; Hsu, Chi-Yuan

    2016-08-01

    It is not clear whether the pattern of kidney function decline in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may relate to outcomes after reaching end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We hypothesize that an abrupt decline in kidney function prior to ESRD predicts early death after initiating maintenance hemodialysis therapy. Prospective cohort study. The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study enrolled men and women with mild to moderate CKD. For this study, we studied 661 individuals who developed chronic kidney failure that required hemodialysis therapy initiation. The primary predictor was the presence of an abrupt decline in kidney function prior to ESRD. We incorporated annual estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) into a mixed-effects model to estimate patient-specific eGFRs at 3 months prior to initiation of hemodialysis therapy. Abrupt decline was defined as having an extrapolated eGFR≥30mL/min/1.73m(2) at that time point. All-cause mortality within 1 year after initiating hemodialysis therapy. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards. Among 661 patients with CKD initiating hemodialysis therapy, 56 (8.5%) had an abrupt predialysis decline in kidney function and 69 died within 1 year after initiating hemodialysis therapy. After adjustment for demographics, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer, abrupt decline in kidney function was associated with a 3-fold higher risk for death within the first year of ESRD (adjusted HR, 3.09; 95% CI, 1.65-5.76). Relatively small number of outcomes; infrequent (yearly) eGFR determinations; lack of more granular clinical data. Abrupt decline in kidney function prior to ESRD occurred in a significant minority of incident hemodialysis patients and predicted early death in ESRD. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of a new connection for precast concrete walls subjected to cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghei, Ramin; Hejazi, Farzad; Taheri, Hafez; Jaafar, Mohd Saleh; Aziz, Farah Nora Aznieta Abdul

    2017-01-01

    The Industrialized Building System (IBS) was recently introduced to minimize the time and cost of project construction. Accordingly, ensuring the integration of the connection of precast components in IBS structures is an important factor that ensures stability of buildings subjected to dynamic loads from earthquakes, vehicles, and machineries. However, structural engineers still lack knowledge on the proper connection and detailed joints of IBS structure construction. Therefore, this study proposes a special precast concrete wall-to-wall connection system for dynamic loads that resists multidirectional imposed loads and reduces vibration effects (PI2014701723). This system is designed to connect two adjacent precast wall panels by using two steel U-shaped channels (i.e., male and female joints). During casting, each joint is adapted for incorporation into a respective wall panel after considering the following conditions: one side of the steel channel opens into the thickness face of the panel; a U-shaped rubber is implemented between the two channels to dissipate the vibration effect; and bolts and nuts are used to create an extension between the two U-shaped male and female steel channels. The developed finite element model of the precast wall is subjected to cyclic loads to evaluate the performance of the proposed connection during an imposed dynamic load. Connection performance is then compared with conventional connections based on the energy dissipation, stress, deformation, and concrete damage in the plastic range. The proposed precast connection is capable of exceeding the energy absorption of precast walls subjected to dynamic load, thereby improving its resistance behavior in all principal directions.

  13. Positive youth development programs for adolescents with greater psychosocial needs: subjective outcome evaluation over 3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Sun, Rachel C F

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the views of 153,761 students participating in a positive youth development program designed for participants with greater psychosocial needs (the Tier 2 Program) in the context of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong. The program was implemented in the extension phase of the project from 2009/10 to 2011/12 school years. A validated subjective outcome evaluation scale was used to assess the views of the program participants toward the program qualities, implementer qualities, and program effectiveness after completion of the program. Nine datasets were used which were derived from the aggregated reports submitted by social service providers designing the Tier 2 Program. Participants generally held favorable views of program qualities, implementer qualities, as well as program effectiveness of the Tier 2 Program. Some small grade and program differences on subjective outcome evaluation were also found. Both program qualities and implementer qualities were significant predictors of program effectiveness in different grades. Consistent with the findings of the initial phase of the Project P.A.T.H.S., the present study suggests that the Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong is perceived favorably by program participants and its perceived effectiveness was high. Significant but small grade and program approach differences on subjective outcome evaluation were found. Both program and implementer qualities were predictive of perceived program effectiveness in different grades. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary total flavonoids intake and risk of mortality from all causes and cardiovascular disease in the general population: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue-Ming; Liu, Yu-Jian; Huang, Yao; Yu, Hong-Jie; Yuan, Shuai; Tang, Bo-Wen; Wang, Pei-Gang; He, Qi-Qiang

    2017-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies assessing the association between dietary total flavonoids intake and the risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all causes have yielded inconsistent results. Therefore, we conducted a dose-response meta-analysis to investigate this association. We searched PubMed and Embase databases from January 1966 through May 2016 and examined the references of retrieved articles to identify relevant prospective cohort studies. The random-effect model was used to calculate the summary risk estimates and dose-response analysis was performed. Ten studies were included in the present meta-analysis. The relative risk (RR) of all-cause mortality for the highest versus lowest category of total flavonoids intake was 0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72-0.92). Dose-response analysis showed that those consuming 200 mg/day of total flavonoids had the lowest risk of all-cause mortality. Furthermore, a marginally significant association was found between dietary total flavonoids consumption and risk of death from CVD (summary RR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.70-1.03; P = 0.099) and coronary heart diseases (summary RR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.54-1.02; P = 0.069), respectively. The meta-analysis provides strong evidence for the recommendation of consuming flavonoids-rich food to reduce risks of mortality from all causes as part of a healthy diet among general adults. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The reverse J-shaped association between serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D and all-cause mortality: the impact of assay standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of standardizing the originally measured serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] values from Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994) on the association between 25(OH)D and rate of all-cause mortality was evaluated. Values were standardized to gold ...

  16. Global, regional, and national age–sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleijnse, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background

    Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188

  17. Cancer incidence and all-cause mortality in HIV-positive patients in Northeastern Algeria before and during the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Chaabna

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Since 1998, the proportion of HIV-positive patients treated with HAART increased, reaching 84% in 2010, all-cause mortality decreased, and cancer remained rare. However, almost all patients who died during the study seemed to be diagnosed at a late stage of the disease, emphasizing the need for earlier diagnosis of HIV in Algeria.

  18. Elevated Circulating Osteoprotegerin and Renal Dysfunction Predict 15-Year Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality: A Prospective Study of Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Joshua R; Lim, Wai H; Ueland, Thor; Wong, Germaine; Zhu, Kun; Lim, Ee M; Bollerslev, Jens; Prince, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Data on the predictive role of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) for cardiovascular (CVD) and all-cause mortality risk have been presented by our group and others. We now present data on the interactions between OPG with stage I to III chronic kidney disease (CKD) for all-cause and CVD mortality. The setting was a 15-year study of 1,292 women over 70 years of age initially randomized to a 5-year controlled trial of 1.2 g of calcium daily. Serum OPG and creatinine levels with complete mortality records obtained from the Western Australian Data Linkage System were available. Interactions were detected between OPG levels and eGFR for both CVD and all-cause mortality (P disease, renal failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease deaths (P elderly women with poorer renal function. Assessment of OPG in the context of renal function may be important in studies investigating its relationship with all-cause and CVD mortality.

  19. High-sensitive troponin T is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in stable outpatients with type 2 diabetes (ZODIAC-37)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Steven H; van Dijk, Peter R; van Hateren, Kornelis J J; van Pelt, Joost L; Groenier, Klaas H; Bilo, Henk J G; Bakker, Stephan J L; Landman, Gijs W D; Kleefstra, Nanne

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate whether high-sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in stable type 2 diabetes (T2D) outpatients treated in primary care. METHODS: Cardiac troponin T was measured with a high-sensitive assay at baseline in

  20. Milk and dairy consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality: dose–response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Jing; Astrup, Arne; Lovegrove, Julie A.; Gijsbers, Lieke; Givens, David I.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.

    2017-01-01

    With a growing number of prospective cohort studies, an updated dose–response meta-analysis of milk and dairy products with all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease (CHD) or cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been conducted. PubMed, Embase and Scopus were searched for articles published up to

  1. Generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, and their comorbidity as predictors of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: the Vietnam experience study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anna C; Batty, G David; Gale, Catharine R; Deary, Ian J; Osborn, David; MacIntyre, Kate; Carroll, Douglas

    2009-05-01

    To examine whether the 1-year prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and their comorbidity were associated with subsequent all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality during 15 years in Vietnam veterans. Participants (N = 4256) were from the Vietnam Experience Study. Service, sociodemographic, and health data were collected from service files, telephone interviews, and a medical examination. One-year prevalence of MDD and GAD was determined through a diagnostic interview schedule based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (version IV) criteria. Mortality over the subsequent 15 years was gathered from US army records. MDD and GAD were positively and significantly associated with all-cause and CVD mortality. The relationships between MDD and GAD and CVD mortality were no longer significant after adjustment for sociodemograhics, health status at entry, health behaviors, and other risk markers. Income was the covariate with the strongest impact on this association. In analyses comparing comorbidity and GAD and MDD alone, with neither diagnosis, comorbidity proved to be the strongest predictor of both all-cause and CVD mortality. GAD and MDD predict all-cause mortality in a veteran population after adjusting for a range of covariates. However, those with both GAD and MDD were at greatest risk of subsequent death, and it would seem that these disorders may interact synergistically to affect mortality. Future research on mental disorders and health outcomes, as well as future clinical interventions, should pay more attention to comorbidity.

  2. Markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are associated with incident cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality, and progression of coronary calcification in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Scholten, Bernt Johan; Reinhard, Henrik; Hansen, Tine Willum

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We evaluated markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction and their associations with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), all-cause mortality and progression of coronary artery calcium (CAC) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and microalbuminuria but without known coronary...

  3. Traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors associated with one-year all-cause mortality among those with coronary artery calcium scores ≥400.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rifai, Mahmoud; McEvoy, John W; Nasir, Khurram; Rumberger, Jon; Feldman, David; Budoff, Matthew J; Blaha, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Coronary artery calcium (CAC) reflects coronary plaque burden and independently predicts all-cause mortality. There is marked heterogeneity in the prognosis of individuals with a high burden of subclinical atherosclerosis, yet little research has focused on the proximate determinants of poor outcomes in this subgroup. Among 4234 persons with baseline CAC ≥400, multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to study the association of traditional cardiovascular risk factors with 1-year all-cause mortality. The mean age was 64 ± 10 years, with 56% male and a median CAC score of 809 (IQR 761). In multivariable models, diabetes, cigarette smoking, age (per SD), CAC (per SD) and dyslipidemia were significantly associated with all-cause mortality at 1 year: HR (95% confidence interval) = 2.62 (1.55-4.43), 2.42 (1.41-4.15), 1.52 (1.16-1.99), 1.33 (CAC 1.11-1.56) and 0.58 (0.34-0.98) respectively. There was no association with hypertension [HR (95% confidence interval) = 0.90 (0.55-1.47)]. Smoking and diabetes are strongly associated with one-year all-cause mortality among persons with extensive CAC, perhaps suggesting that these risk factors serve as triggers of acute events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Baseline fatty acids, food groups, a diet score and 50-year all-cause mortality rates. An ecological analysis of the Seven Countries Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menotti, Alessandro; Kromhout, Daan; Puddu, Paolo Emilio; Alberti-Fidanza, Adalberta; Hollman, Peter; Kafatos, Anthony; Tolonen, Hanna; Adachi, Hisashi; Jacobs, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This analysis deals with the ecologic relationships of dietary fatty acids, food groups and the Mediterranean Adequacy Index (MAI, derived from 15 food groups) with 50-year all-cause mortality rates in 16 cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. Material and methods: A dietary survey was

  5. Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in current and former smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus T; Marott, Jacob L; Jensen, Gorm B

    2010-01-01

    . Current and former smokers had, irrespective of tobacco consumption, greater relative risk of elevated RHR compared to never smokers. The relative risk of all-cause mortality per 10bpm increase in RHR was (95% CI): 1.06 (1.01-1.10) in never smokers, 1.11 (1.07-1.15) in former smokers, 1.13 (1...

  6. Adherence to a healthy diet according to the world health organization guidelines and all-cause mortality in elderly adults from europe and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jankovic, N.; Geelen, A.; Streppel, M.T.; Groot, L.C.P.G.M. de; Orfanos, P.; Hooven, E.H. van den; Pikhart, H.; Boffetta, P.; Trichopoulou, A.; Bobak, M.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Kee, F.; Franco, O.H.; Park, Y.; Hallmans, G.; Tjonneland, A.; May, A.M.; Pajak, A.; Malyutina, S.; Kubinova, R.; Amiano, P.; Kampman, E.; Feskens, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has formulated guidelines for a healthy diet to prevent chronic diseases and postpone death worldwide. Our objective was to investigate the association between the WHO guidelines, measured using the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), and all-cause mortality in elderly

  7. Clarithromycin for stable coronary heart disease increases all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and cerebrovascular morbidity over 10years in the CLARICOR randomised, blinded clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Per; Hilden, Jørgen; Hansen, Jørgen Fischer

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The CLARICOR trial reported that clarithromycin compared with placebo increased all-cause mortality in patients with stable coronary heart disease. This study investigates the effects of clarithromycin versus placebo during 10years follow up. METHODS: The CLARICOR trial is a randomise...

  8. Fresh and Processed Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Risk of Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality in a Dutch Population-Based Follow-up Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Griep, L.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Kromhout, D.; Verschuren, W.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Intake of fruit and vegetables has been shown to protect against CVD and all-cause mortality. Whether fresh and processed fruits have similar health effects remains unclear. Objective: We examined the association of total, fresh and processed fruit and vegetable intake with CVD and

  9. Risk of all-cause mortality associated with nonfatal AIDS and serious non-AIDS events among adults infected with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Angus, Brian; Kowalska, Justyna D

    2010-01-01

    Among patients with HIV, the risk of death associated with different AIDS events has been quantified, but the risk of death associated with non-AIDS events has not been examined. We compared the risk of all-cause mortality following AIDS versus serious non-AIDS (SNA) events in the Strategies...

  10. Fitness, work, and leisure-time physical activity and ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality among men with pre-existing cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Our aim was to study the relative impact of physical fitness, physical demands at work, and physical activity during leisure time on ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality among employed men with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD)....

  11. Informed consent for inclusion into clinical trials: a serious subject to note in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Morteza; Fazel, Mozhgan; Nasiri-Vanashi, Taha; Saadat, Seyed Hasan; Taheri, Saeed

    2012-05-01

    Informed consent is a critical issue especially in conducting clinical trials that expose human life to medical or surgical interventions. It necessitates a long and complex process through which the participant is presented with all potential favorable and non-favorable consequences upon getting enrolled in the study. The process of taking informed consent is well-understood in developed countries, with every effort taken to enhance and maintain the autonomy of patients and their right to make an informed choice of whether to participate or not. This may not be the case in the developing world.The information given to patients before the trial might not be properly developed and presented, an issue that can result in serious threat to the decision-making process. On the other hand, investigators should remember that enrolling people into a trial with no potential benefit for themselves cannot be considered ethical. In the current debate, we aim to address the issue of how respectfully and ethically clinical research trials can be done on human subjects and what we can do to enhance the practice in an ethical context. Development of a system through which we could warrant all rights of study participants in all cases around the world seems far from view. However, if we are in doubt about the ethics of a clinical trial, we can ask ourselves: "what would we do, if we were in the same position our patients are in now?"

  12. Postdiagnostic physical activity, sleep duration, and TV watching and all-cause mortality among long-term colorectal cancer survivors: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratjen, Ilka; Schafmayer, Clemens; di Giuseppe, Romina; Waniek, Sabina; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Koch, Manja; Burmeister, Greta; Nöthlings, Ute; Hampe, Jochen; Schlesinger, Sabrina; Lieb, Wolfgang

    2017-10-25

    Lifestyle recommendations for cancer survivors are warranted to improve survival. In this study, we aimed to examine the association of total physical activity, different types of physical activity, hours of sleeping at day and night, and hours spent watching television (TV) with all-cause mortality in long-term colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. We assessed physical activity in 1376 CRC survivors (44% women; median age, 69 years) at median 6 years after CRC diagnosis using a validated questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause mortality according to categories of physical activities, sleep duration, and TV watching. During a median follow-up time of 7 years, 200 participants had died. Higher total physical activity was significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality (HR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.36-0.80, 4th vs. 1st quartile). Specifically, sports, walking, and gardening showed a significant inverse association with all-cause mortality (HR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.20-0.59, HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.43-1.00, and HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.42-0.91, respectively for highest versus lowest category). Individuals with ≥2 h of sleep during the day had a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality compared to individuals with no sleep at day (HR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.43-3.44). TV viewing of ≥4 h per day displayed a significant 45% (95% CI: 1.02-2.06) higher risk of dying compared to ≤2 h per day of watching TV. Physical activity was inversely related to all-cause mortality; specific activity types might be primarily responsible for this association. More hours of sleep during the day and a higher amount of TV viewing were each associated with higher all-cause mortality. Based on available evidence, it is reasonable to recommend CRC survivors to engage in regular physical activity.

  13. Late-career unemployment and all-cause mortality, functional disability and depression among the older adults in Taiwan: A 12-year population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wei-Min; Liao, Wen-Chun; Li, Chi-Rong; Lee, Shu-Hsin; Tang, Yih-Jing; Ho, Hsin-En; Lee, Meng-Chih

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate whether late-career unemployment is associated with increased all-cause mortality, functional disability, and depression among older adults in Taiwan. In this long-term prospective cohort study, data were retrieved from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging. This study was conducted from 1996 to 2007. The complete data from 716 men and 327 women aged 50-64 years were retrieved. Participants were categorized as normally employed or unemployed depending on their employment status in 1996. The cumulative number of unemployment after age 50 was also calculated. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the effect of the association between late-career unemployment and cumulative number of late-career unemployment on all-cause mortality, functional disability, and depression in 2007. The average age of the participants in 1996 was 56.3 years [interquartile range (IQR)=7.0]. A total of 871 participants were in the normally employed group, and 172 participants were in the unemployed group. After adjustment of gender, age, level of education, income, self-rated health and major comorbidities, late-career unemployment was associated with increased all-cause mortality [Odds ratio (OR)=2.79; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.74-4.47] and functional disability [OR=2.33; 95% CI=1.54-3.55]. The cumulative number of late-career unemployment was also associated with increased all-cause mortality [OR=1.91; 95% CI=1.35-2.70] and functional disability [OR=2.35; 95% CI=1.55-3.55]. Late-career unemployment and cumulative number of late-career unemployment are associated with increased all-cause mortality and functional disability. Older adults should be encouraged to maintain normal employment during the later stage of their career before retirement. Employers should routinely examine the fitness for work of older employees to prevent future unemployment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Vegetarian diet and all-cause mortality: Evidence from a large population-based Australian cohort - the 45 and Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihrshahi, Seema; Ding, Ding; Gale, Joanne; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Banks, Emily; Bauman, Adrian E

    2017-04-01

    The vegetarian diet is thought to have health benefits including reductions in type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. Evidence to date suggests that vegetarians tend to have lower mortality rates when compared with non-vegetarians, but most studies are not population-based and other healthy lifestyle factors may have confounded apparent protective effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between categories of vegetarian diet (including complete, semi and pesco-vegetarian) and all-cause mortality in a large population-based Australian cohort. The 45 and Up Study is a cohort study of 267,180 men and women aged ≥45years in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Vegetarian diet status was assessed by baseline questionnaire and participants were categorized into complete vegetarians, semi-vegetarians (eat meat≤once/week), pesco-vegetarians and regular meat eaters. All-cause mortality was determined by linked registry data to mid-2014. Cox proportional hazards models quantified the association between vegetarian diet and all-cause mortality adjusting for a range of potential confounding factors. Among 243,096 participants (mean age: 62.3years, 46.7% men) there were 16,836 deaths over a mean 6.1years of follow-up. Following extensive adjustment for potential confounding factors there was no significant difference in all-cause mortality for vegetarians versus non-vegetarians [HR=1.16 (95% CI 0.93-1.45)]. There was also no significant difference in mortality risk between pesco-vegetarians [HR=0.79 (95% CI 0.59-1.06)] or semi-vegetarians [HR=1.12 (95% CI 0.96-1.31)] versus regular meat eaters. We found no evidence that following a vegetarian diet, semi-vegetarian diet or a pesco-vegetarian diet has an independent protective effect on all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Different impacts of hypertension and diabetes mellitus on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in community-dwelling older adults: the Rancho Bernardo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jee-Young; Allison, Matthew A; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Although the prevalence rates of hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus are slowing in some high-income countries, HTN and diabetes mellitus remain as the two major risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death in the United States and worldwide. We aimed to observe the association of HTN and diabetes mellitus with all-cause and CVD mortality in older white adults. All community-dwelling Rancho Bernardo Study participants who were at least 55 years old and had carefully measured blood pressure and plasma glucose from 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at the baseline visit (1984-1987, n = 2186) were followed up until death or the last clinic visit in 2013 (median 14.3 years, interquartile range 8.4-21.3). In unadjusted analyses, diabetes mellitus was associated with all-cause mortality [hazard ratio 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-1.60] and CVD mortality (hazard ratio 1.67, 95% CI 1.39-2.00); HTN with all-cause mortality [hazard ratio 1.93 (1.73-2.15)] and CVD mortality [hazard ratio 2.45 (2.10-2.93)]. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, including age, BMI, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, smoking, exercise, and alcohol consumption, diabetes mellitus was associated with CVD mortality only (hazard ratio 1.25, P = 0.0213). Conversely, HTN was associated with both all-cause (hazard ratio 1.34, P diabetes mellitus and HTN was associated with all-cause (hazard ratio 1.38, P = 0.0002) and CVD mortality (hazard ratio 1.70, P diabetes mellitus. Having both confers a modest increase in the hazards for these types of mortality.

  16. High red meat intake and all-cause cardiovascular and cancer mortality: is the risk modified by fruit and vegetable intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellavia, Andrea; Stilling, Frej; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-10-01

    High red meat consumption is associated with a shorter survival and higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and all-cause mortality. Fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption is associated with a longer survival and lower mortality risk. Whether high FV consumption can counterbalance the negative impact of high red meat consumption is unknown. We evaluated 2 large prospective cohorts of Swedish men and women (the Swedish Mammography Cohort and the Cohort of Swedish Men) to determine whether the association between red meat consumption and the risk of all-cause, CVD, and cancer-specific mortality differs across amounts of FV intake. The study population included 74,645 Swedish men and women. Red meat and FV consumption were assessed through a self-administered questionnaire. We estimated HRs of all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality according to quintiles of total red meat consumption. We next investigated possible interactions between red meat and FV consumption and evaluated the dose-response associations at low, medium, and high FV intake. Compared with participants in the lowest quintile of total red meat consumption, those in the highest quintile had a 21% increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.29), a 29% increased risk of CVD mortality (HR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.46), and no increase in the risk of cancer mortality (HR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.43). Results were remarkably similar across amounts of FV consumption, and no interaction between red meat and FV consumption was detected. High intakes of red meat were associated with a higher risk of all-cause and CVD mortality. The increased risks were consistently observed in participants with low, medium, and high FV consumption. The Swedish Mammography Cohort and the Cohort of Swedish Men were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01127698 and NCT01127711, respectively. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Are sitting occupations associated with increased all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality risk? A pooled analysis of seven British population cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Stamatakis

    Full Text Available There is mounting evidence for associations between sedentary behaviours and adverse health outcomes, although the data on occupational sitting and mortality risk remain equivocal. The aim of this study was to determine the association between occupational sitting and cardiovascular, cancer and all-cause mortality in a pooled sample of seven British general population cohorts.The sample comprised 5380 women and 5788 men in employment who were drawn from five Health Survey for England and two Scottish Health Survey cohorts. Participants were classified as reporting standing, walking or sitting in their work time and followed up over 12.9 years for mortality. Data were modelled using Cox proportional hazard regression adjusted for age, waist circumference, self-reported general health, frequency of alcohol intake, cigarette smoking, non-occupational physical activity, prevalent cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline, psychological health, social class, and education.In total there were 754 all-cause deaths. In women, a standing/walking occupation was associated with lower risk of all-cause (fully adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.68, 95% CI 0.52-0.89 and cancer (HR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.43-0.85 mortality, compared to sitting occupations. There were no associations in men. In analyses with combined occupational type and leisure-time physical activity, the risk of all-cause mortality was lowest in participants with non-sitting occupations and high leisure-time activity.Sitting occupations are linked to increased risk for all-cause and cancer mortality in women only, but no such associations exist for cardiovascular mortality in men or women.

  18. Independent and joint associations of grip strength and adiposity with all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in 403,199 adults: the UK Biobank study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngwon; Wijndaele, Katrien; Lee, Duck-Chul; Sharp, Stephen J; Wareham, Nick; Brage, Soren

    2017-09-01

    Background: Higher grip strength (GS) is associated with lower mortality risk. However, whether this association is independent of adiposity is uncertain.Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between GS, adiposity, and mortality.Design: The UK Biobank study is an ongoing prospective cohort of >0.5 million UK adults aged 40-69 y. Baseline data collection (2006-2010) included measurements of GS and adiposity indicators, including body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)). Age- and sex-specific GS quintiles were used. BMI was classified according to clinical cutoffs.Results: Data from 403,199 participants were included in analyses. Over a median 7.0-y of follow-up, 8287 all-cause deaths occurred. The highest GS quintile had 32% (95% CI: 26%, 38%) and 25% (95% CI: 16%, 33%) lower all-cause mortality risks for men and women, respectively, compared with the lowest GS quintile, after adjustment for confounders and BMI. Obesity class II (BMI ≥35) was associated with a greater all-cause mortality risk. The highest GS quintile and obesity class II category showed relatively higher all-cause mortality hazards (not statistically significant in men) than the highest GS quintile and the normal weight category; however, the increased risk was relatively lower than the risk for the lowest GS quintile and obesity class II category. All-cause mortality risks were generally lower for obese but stronger individuals than for nonobese but weaker individuals. Similar patterns of associations were observed for cardiovascular mortality.Conclusions: Lower grip strength and excess adiposity are both independent predictors of higher mortality risk. The higher mortality risk associated with excess adiposity is attenuated, although not completely attenuated, by greater GS. Interventions and policies should focus on improving the muscular strength of the population regardless of their degree of adiposity. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Occupational class inequalities in all-cause and cause-specific mortality among middle-aged men in 14 European populations during the early 2000s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Toch-Marquardt

    Full Text Available This study analyses occupational class inequalities in all-cause mortality and four specific causes of death among men, in Europe in the early 2000s, and is the most extensive comparative analysis of occupational class inequalities in mortality in Europe so far. Longitudinal data, obtained from population censuses and mortality registries in 14 European populations, from around the period 2000-2005, were used. Analyses concerned men aged 30-59 years and included all-cause mortality and mortality from all cancers, all cardiovascular diseases (CVD, all external, and all other causes. Occupational class was analysed according to five categories: upper and lower non-manual workers, skilled and unskilled manual workers, and farmers and self-employed combined. Inequalities were quantified with mortality rate ratios, rate differences, and population attributable fractions (PAF. Relative and absolute inequalities in all-cause mortality were more pronounced in Finland, Denmark, France, and Lithuania than in other populations, and the same countries (except France also had the highest PAF values for all-cause mortality. The main contributing causes to these larger inequalities differed strongly between countries (e.g., cancer in France, all other causes in Denmark. Relative and absolute inequalities in CVD mortality were markedly lower in Southern European populations. We conclude that relative and absolute occupational class differences in all-cause and cause specific mortality have persisted into the early 2000's, although the magnitude differs strongly between populations. Comparisons with previous studies suggest that the relative gap in mortality between occupational classes has further widened in some Northern and Western European populations.

  20. The PPARγ2 P12A polymorphism is not associated with all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacilli, Antonio; Prudente, Sabrina; Copetti, Massimiliano; Fontana, Andrea; Mercuri, Luana; Bacci, Simonetta; Marucci, Antonella; Alberico, Federica; Viti, Raffaella; Palena, Antonio; Lamacchia, Olga; Cignarelli, Mauro; De Cosmo, Salvatore; Trischitta, Vincenzo

    2016-10-01

    The high mortality risk of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus may well be explained by the several comorbidities and/or complications. Also the intrinsic genetic component predisposing to diabetes might have a role in shaping the risk of diabetes-related mortality. Among type 2 diabetes mellitus SNPs, rs1801282 is of particular interest because (i) it is harbored by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ2 (PPARγ2), which is the target for thiazolidinediones which are used as antidiabetic drugs, decreasing all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus, and (ii) it is associated with insulin resistance and related traits, risk factors for overall mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We investigated the role of PPARγ2 P12A, according to a dominant model (PA + AA vs. PP individuals) on incident all-cause mortality in three cohorts of type 2 diabetes mellitus, comprising a total of 1672 patients (462 deaths) and then performed a meta-analysis of ours and all available published data. In the three cohorts pooled and analyzed together, no association between PPARγ2 P12A and all-cause mortality was observed (HR 1.02, 95 % CI 0.79-1.33). Similar results were observed after adjusting for age, sex, smoking habits, and BMI (HR 1.09, 95 % CI 0.83-1.43). In a meta-analysis of ours and all studies previously published (n = 3241 individuals; 666 events), no association was observed between PPARγ2 P12A and all-cause mortality (HR 1.07, 95 % CI 0.85-1.33). Results from our individual samples as well as from our meta-analysis suggest that the PPARγ2 P12A does not significantly affect all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  1. Intake of trans fat and all-cause mortality in the Reasons for Geographical and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiage, James N; Merrill, Peter D; Robinson, Cody J; Cao, Yue; Malik, Talha A; Hundley, Barrett C; Lao, Ping; Judd, Suzanne E; Cushman, Mary; Howard, Virginia J; Kabagambe, Edmond K

    2013-05-01

    A high intake of trans fatty acids decreases HDL cholesterol and is associated with increased LDL cholesterol, inflammation, diabetes, cancer, and mortality from cardiovascular disease. The relation between trans fat intake and all-cause mortality has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between trans fat intake and all-cause mortality. We used data from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study-a prospective cohort study of white and black men and women residing in the continental United States. Energy-adjusted trans fat intake was categorized into quintiles, and Cox-regression was used to evaluate the association between trans fat intake and all-cause mortality. During 7 y of follow-up, there were 1572 deaths in 18,513 participants included in REGARDS. From the first to the fifth quintile of trans fat intake, the mortality rates per 1000 person-years of follow-up (95% CIs) were 12.8 (11.3, 14.5), 14.3 (12.7, 16.2), 14.6 (13.0, 16.5), 19.0 (17.1, 21.1), and 23.6 (21.5, 25.9), respectively. After adjustment for demographic factors, education, and risk factors for mortality, the HRs (95% CIs) for all-cause mortality were 1.00, 1.03 (0.86, 1.23), 0.98 (0.82, 1.17), 1.25 (1.05, 1.48), and 1.24 (1.05, 1.48), respectively (P-trend = 0.004). The population attributable risk due to trans fat intake was 7% (95% CI: 5%, 8%). Higher trans fat intake is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality.

  2. No modifying effect of nutritional status on statins therapy in relation to all-cause death in older patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bao-Tao; Huang, Fang-Yang; Pu, Xiao-Bo; Xia, Tian-Li; Peng, Yong; Chen, Fei; Yang, Yong; Liao, Yan-Biao; Chen, Mao

    2017-12-19

    Statins therapy in the secondary prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with a lower risk of adverse cardiovascular events. However, little is known regarding the association of elderly patients with nutritional risk on statin therapy. To investigate whether older patients with CAD who were at nutritional risk gain similar survival benefit from statins therapy as their counterparts without nutritional risk. We conducted a retrospective hospital-based cohort study among 1705 patients with CAD who were older than 65 years of age, using coronary heart disease database from 2008 to 2012. Nutritional status of included patients was gauged using the geriatric nutritional risk index. After stratification by nutritional status, the hazard of all-cause death was compared between those with or without statins therapy. Of the 1705 patients included in the study (mean age 72 years; 73% male), all-cause death occurred in 146 (9.2%) patients with statins use and in 33 (26.2%) patients without statins use. The rate of all-cause death was higher in patients not receiving statins irrespective of nutritional status. After adjustments for potential confounders, the HR with statins use was 0.33 (95% CI 0.20-0.55) in patients without nutritional risk and 0.47 (95% CI 0.22-1.00) in patients with nutritional risk. No interaction effect was detected between nutritional status and statins use in relation to all-cause death (P value for interaction effect 0.516). Despite of the patient's nutritional status, statins therapy as a secondary prevention in elderly CAD patients was associated with decreased risk of all-cause death.

  3. Developing Buoyancy Driven Flow of a Nanofluid in a Vertical Channel Subject to Heat Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal C. Sacheti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The developing natural convective flow of a nanofluid in an infinite vertical channel with impermeable bounding walls has been investigated. It is assumed that the nanofluid is dominated by two specific slip mechanisms and that the channel walls are subject to constant heat flux and isothermal temperature, respectively. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations coupling different transport processes have been solved numerically. The variations of velocity, temperature, and nanoparticles concentration have been discussed in relation to a number of physical parameters. It is seen that the approach to the steady-state profiles of velocity and temperature in the present work is different from the ones reported in a previous study corresponding to isothermal wall conditions.

  4. Some recent developments in the international guidelines on the ethics of research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, R J

    2000-11-01

    We are in a period of reconsideration and revision of international ethical guidelines for the conduct of biomedical research involving human subjects. The proximate cause of much of this activity is the recent controversy over the ethics of the use of a placebo control in the clinical trials of the short-duration regimen of zidovudine for prevention of perinatal transmission of HIV infection, trials that were carried out in several so-called technologically developing countries. Critics of these trials claimed that they were in violation of Article II.3 of the Declaration of Helsinki, which states: "In any medical study, every patient--including those of a control group, if any--should be assured of the best proven diagnostic and therapeutic method. This does not exclude the use of inert placebo in studies where no proven diagnostic or therapeutic method exists." The critics claimed that since the "best proven ... method" is the 076 regimen, this is what must be provided to members of the control groups. Failure to do so, they asserted, was a serious breach of ethics. In response to this allegation, several major international and national agencies convened multidisciplinary groups to consider the ethics of multinational clinical research. The first thing they realized was that Article II.3 was in error in that it did not reflect contemporary ethical thinking. Moreover, it was routinely violated in research conducted in developed as well as in developing countries. What replaces this standard? The 1993 CIOMS International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects include several criteria for justification of research carried out in developing countries. Most importantly, the research must be responsive to the health needs and priorities of the host country. They also require that any therapeutic products developed in such research must be made "reasonably available" to residents of the host country. A new standard is emerging for

  5. Mechanical Anisotropy Development of a Two-Phase Composite Subject to Large Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowski, M.; Schmid, D. W.; Yu, Podladchikov, Yu,

    2009-04-01

    Evolution of overall mechanical properties has been demonstrated in large strain deformation experiments. Strain softening is frequently employed in geodynamic simulations. In this paper, we quantify the structural and mechanical evolution of a two-phase composite rock subject to pure and simple shear. An inclusion-host type of geometry is assumed, we focus on the weak inclusion scenario and both materials obey a linear viscous behavior. Finite deformation leads to a shape preferred orientation development that results in an overall mechanical anisotropy. We derive the shape evolution model based on an analytical solution for an isolated elliptical inclusion embedded in an anisotropic host and subject to a uniform far field load. The presence of a strong anisotropy in the host leads to an enhanced inclusion stretching. A differential effective medium type of scheme predicting an overall anisotropic viscosity of a composite consisting of aligned elliptical inclusions is proposed and validated by finite element modeling. A comparison with an existing self-consistent averaging scheme is given and the new scheme is shown to provide an improved estimate of the effective normal and shear viscosity for high inclusion concentrations. The two models are combined into a final set of equations describing evolution of a two-phase rock under a shear. Hardening is predicted in pure shear. In simple shear, the hardening phase is followed by a pronounced softening after a shear strain of one, irrespective of inclusion concentration. Numerical simulations resolving evolution of inclusion-host systems under pure and simple shear demonstrate the high accuracy of our model prediction. The shape evolution model provides a sufficient approximation to the shape preferred orientation developing in an aggregate of interacting inclusions. Both in pure and simple shear, deformation localizes into conjugate trails of inclusions leading to formation of complex sigmoidal inclusion shapes.

  6. Evaluation of Sustainable Development Indicators With Fuzzy TOPSIS Based on Subjective and Objective Weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nang Idayu Nik Zahari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Sustainable development aims at improving and maintaining the well-being of people and the ecology. However, this paper focuses only on the ecological aspects. The selection of the proper ecological protection determinant plays a very important role in improving the environment of Malaysia. This paper will propose a method from Wang and Lee (2009, and Yong (2006 which applies a fuzzy TOPSIS method -- based on subjective and objective weights – to make the required selection. Four alternatives will be tested which are: prevent pollution (A1, conservation (A2, well-manage (A3, and public awareness (A4. Along with these, four criteria need to be considered: water quality factor (C1, land integrity factor (C2, air quality factor (C3, and biodiversity factor (C4. Finally, a numerical example of ecological protection determinant selection is used to illustrate the proposed method. ABSTRAK: Pembangunan lestari bermatlamat memperbaiki dan mengekalkan kesejahteraan rakyat serta ekologi. Walau bagaimanapun, kertas kajian ini hanya memberi tumpuan kepada aspek-aspek ekologi. Pemilihan penentu perlindungan serta keselamatan bagi aspek ekologi memainkan peranan yang amat penting dalam meningkatkan kualiti alam sekitar di Malaysia. Kertas kajian ini telah menggunakan kaedah Wang dan Lee (2009 dan Yong (2006 yang mengaplikasikan kaedah TOPSIS kabur berdasarkan pemberat subjektif dan objektif. Terdapat empat alternatif yang akan diuji iaitu: pencegahan pencemaran (A1, pemuliharaan (A2, pengurusan yang baik (A3, kesedaran orang awam (A4. Selain itu, terdapat empat kriteria yang perlu dipertimbangkan: faktor kualiti air (C1, faktor kualiti tanah (C2, faktor kualiti udara (C3, faktor kepelbagaian biologi (C4. Kesimpulannya, contoh pengiraan untuk memperoleh penentu pemilihan perlindungan ekologi telah digunakan bagi menunjukkan kaedah yang dicadangkan.KEYWORDS: sustainable development; ecological factors; subjective and objective weight; fuzzy TOPSIS

  7. Breast cancer development in transsexual subjects receiving cross-sex hormone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooren, Louis J; van Trotsenburg, Michael A A; Giltay, Erik J; van Diest, Paul J

    2013-12-01

    Transsexual people receive cross-sex hormones as part of their treatment, potentially inducing hormone-sensitive malignancies. To examine the occurrence of breast cancer in a large cohort of Dutch male and female transsexual persons, also evaluating whether the epidemiology accords with the natal sex or the new sex. Number of people with breast cancer between 1975 and 2011. We researched the occurrence of breast cancer among transsexual persons 18-80 years with an exposure to cross-sex hormones between 5 to >30 years. Our study included 2,307 male-to-female (MtF) transsexual persons undergoing androgen deprivation and estrogen administration (52,370 person-years of exposure), and 795 female-to-male (FtM) subjects receiving testosterone (15,974 total years of exposure). Among MtF individuals one case was encountered, as well as a probable but not proven second case. The estimated rate of 4.1 per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.8-13.0) was lower than expected if these two cases are regarded as female breast cancer, but within expectations if viewed as male breast cancer. In FtM subjects, who were younger and had shorter exposure to cross-sex hormones compared with the MtF group, one breast cancer case occurred. This translated into a rate of 5.9 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI: 0.5-27.4), again lower than expected for female breast cancer but within expected norms for male breast cancer. The number of people studied and duration of hormone exposure are limited but it would appear that cross-sex hormone administration does not increase the risk of breast cancer development, in either MtF or FtM transsexual individuals. Breast carcinoma incidences in both groups are comparable to male breast cancers. Cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual subjects does not seem to be associated with an increased risk of malignant breast development. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  8. Agreement and Null Subjects in German L2 Development: New Evidence from Reaction-Time Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clahsen, Harald; Hong, Upyong

    1995-01-01

    Reports on reaction time experiments investigating subject-verb agreement and null subjects in 33 Korean learners of German and a control group of 20 German native speakers. Results found that the two phenomena do not covary in the Korean learners, indicating that properties of agreement and null subjects are acquired separately from one another.…

  9. The development of multiple drug use among anabolic-androgenic steroid users: six subjective case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyberg Fred

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inappropriate use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS was originally a problem among athletes but AAS are now often used in nonsport situations and by patients attending regular addiction clinics. The aim of this study was to improve understanding of the development of multiple drug use in patients seeking treatment at an addiction clinic for AAS-related problems. Methods We interviewed six patients (four men and two women with experience of AAS use who were attending an addiction clinic for what they believed were AAS-related problems. The patients were interviewed in-depth about their life stories, with special emphasis on social background, substance use, the development of total drug use and subjective experienced psychological and physical side effects. Results There was significant variation in the development of drug use in relation to social background, onset of drug use, relationship to AAS use and experience of AAS effects. All patients had initially experienced positive effects from AAS but, over time, the negative experiences had outweighed the positive effects. All patients were dedicated to excess training and took AAS in combination with gym training, indicating that the use of these drugs is closely related to this form of training. Use of multiple drugs was common either in parallel with AAS use or serially. Conclusion The study shows the importance of understanding how AAS use can develop either with or without the concomitant use of other drugs of abuse. The use of AAS can, however, progress to the use of other drugs. The study also indicates the importance of obtaining accurate, comprehensive information about the development of AAS use in designing treatment programmes and prevention strategies in this area.

  10. DEVELOPING OF ELECTRONIC TEACHING MATERIAL BASED ON MOBILE LEARNING IN THE WAVE SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Rif’ati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the advanced and modern era, technological sophistication led to learning which initially runs, in which teachers and students meet each other and communicate in the classroom, can be implemented through of information technology. Along with the development of information, where books and teachers who initially as a primary source of learning, are now beginning to experience growth from the internet. Mobile learning defined as mobile devices that are used in the learning process. The wave course is one of subject that must be taken by students of physics education in the third semester. This course emphasizes the concepts of wave were reviewed mathematically and the phenomenon that occurs in everyday life. Mobile learning developed in this study in the form of electronic teaching materials on subjects of waves. The aim of this study was to develop electronic teaching material in the form of mobile learning. The sample of this study is 80 students in the third semester students who are taking waves courses. The results show that mobile learning that has been developed has score 3.8 and included valid criteria. Pada era yang serba maju dan modern, kecanggihan teknologi menyebabkan pembelajaran yang awalnya berjalan satu arah, dimana guru dan siswa saling bertemu dan berkomunikasi di dalam kelas, dapat dilaksanakan melalui bantuan teknologi.informasi. Seiring dengan perkembangan informasi, buku dan guru yang awalnya sebagai sumber belajar utama, saat ini sudah mulai mengalami perkembangan dimana sumber belajar yang berasal dari internet sudah mulai sering dimanfaatkan dalam proses pembelajaran. Mobile larning didefinisikan sebagai perangkat mobile yang dipergunakan dalam proses belajar mengajar. Mata kuliah gelombang sendiri merupakan salah satu mata kuliah yang wajib ditempuh oleh mahasiswa program studi pendidikan fisika semester 3. Mata kuliah ini menekankan pada konsep gelombang yang ditinjau secara matematis dan fenomenanya yang terjadi

  11. Sarcopenia as a predictor of all-cause mortality among community-dwelling older people: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Hao, Qiukui; Hai, Shan; Wang, Hui; Cao, Li; Dong, Birong

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the association between sarcopenia and all-cause mortality among community-dwelling older people. A systematic review was performed using three electronic databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library) to identify prospective cohort studies from January 2009 to February 2017 examining sarcopenia as a predictor of all-cause mortality among community-dwelling older people. We conducted a pooled analysis of mortality associated with sarcopenia, and subgroup analyses based on measurements of muscle mass and length of follow-up by employing a random-effects model. Sensitivity analyses were performed evaluate the cause of high heterogeneity. In addition, methodological quality, heterogeneity and publication bias were evaluated. Of 1703 studies identified, 6 studies incorporating 7367 individuals were included in the meta-analysis for all-cause mortality. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause mortality from the combination of included studies suggested participants with sarcopenia had a significantly higher rate of mortality (pooled HR 1.60, 95%CI 1.24-2.06, I 2 =27.8%, p=0.216) than participants without sarcopenia. The subgroup analysis for length of follow-up suggested studies with a follow-up period of less than 5 years found a higher risk of all-cause mortality (pooled HR 2.09, 95%CI 1.21-3.60) than studies with a follow-up period of 5 years or more (pooled HR 1.52, 95%CI 1.14-2.01). A subgroup of anthropometric measures was found to identify higher mortality risks (pooled HR 2.26, 95%CI 1.30-3.92) than a subgroup of dual-energy x-ray (DXA) absorptiometry (pooled HR 1.82, 95%CI 1.04-3.18) factors or a subgroup of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) factors (pooled HR 1.31, 95%CI 1.15-1.49). Sarcopenia is a predictor of all-cause mortality among community-dwelling older people. Therefore, it is important to diagnose sarcopenia and to intervene, in order to reduce mortality rates in the

  12. Midregional fragment of proadrenomedullin, new-onset albuminuria, and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes (ZODIAC-30).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Gijs W D; van Dijk, Peter R; Drion, Iefke; van Hateren, Kornelis J J; Struck, Joachim; Groenier, Klaas H; Gans, Rijk O B; Bilo, Henk J G; Bakker, Stephan J L; Kleefstra, Nanne

    2014-01-01

    The midregional fragment of proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) is a marker of endothelial dysfunction and has been associated with a variety of diseases. Our aim was to investigate whether MR-proADM is associated with new-onset albuminuria and cardiovascular (CV) and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes treated in primary care. Patients with type 2 diabetes participating in the observational Zwolle Outpatient Diabetes Project Integrating Available Care (ZODIAC) study were included. Cox regression analyses were used to assess the relation of baseline MR-proADM with new-onset albuminuria and CV and all-cause mortality. Risk prediction capabilities of MR-proADM for new-onset albuminuria and CV and all-cause mortality were assessed with Harrell's C and the integrated discrimination improvement. In 1,243 patients (mean age 67 [±12] years), the median follow-up was 5.6 years (interquartile range 3.1-10.1); 388 (31%) patients died, with 168 (12%) CV deaths. Log2 MR-proADM was associated with CV (hazard ratio 1.96 [95% CI 1.27-3.01]) and all-cause mortality (1.78 [1.34-2.36]) after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, smoking, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol-to-HDL ratio, duration of diabetes, HbA1c, ACE inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker, history of CV diseases, log serum creatinine, and log albumin-to-creatinine ratio. MR-proADM slightly improved mortality risk prediction. The age- and sex-adjusted, but not multivariate-adjusted, MR-proADM levels were associated with new-onset albuminuria. MR-proADM was associated with CV and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes after a median follow-up of 5.6 years. There was no independent relationship with new-onset albuminuria. In the availability of an extensive set of risk factors, there was little added effect of MR-proADM in risk prediction of CV and all-cause mortality.

  13. E-MODULE DEVELOPMENT FOR THE SUBJECT OF MEASURING INSTRUMENTS AND MEASUREMENT IN ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuryake Fajaryati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop an e-module as a medium of learning for the practice course of Measuring Instruments and Measurement in the Department of Electronics Engineering Education of Yogyakarta State University and to determine the feasibility of the e-module. This study employed a method of research and development. The development process was conducted through four phases by using the model of Lee and Owens which consisted of analysis phase, design phase, developing and implementation phase, as well as evaluation phase.The evaluation was conducted in several stages. Firstly, an alpha test for product validation was conducted by the experts on material and media. After that, a beta test was conducted by testing the product in small group users. The subjects of this study were the students of Electronics Engineering. The instruments used to collect the data were a validation sheet and questionnaires. The results of qualitative data were then modified into quantitative data with a range of 1 to 5, then they were converted with a rating scale to determine the feasibility of the medium. The results showed that based on the alpha test, the medium was in a very high quality. Meanwhile, in the beta test of the instructional aspect, in terms of material and evaluation and the multimedia aspect the e-module was respectively considered feasible and quite feasible. The four indicators namely text, image, animation and video were all generally considered feasible. In terms of usage aspect, the e-module was considered feasible where its two indicators, namely instructions and navigation, were generally regarded as very feasible by all respondents.

  14. Seventy Years of Biochemical Subjects' Development in Pharmacy Curricula: Experience from Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Andrijana Milošević; Krajnović, Dušanka; Manojlović, Jelena; Ignjatović, Svetlana; Majkić Singh, Nada

    2016-01-01

    The pharmacists played an important role in the development of biochemistry as applied chemistry in Serbia. What is more, the first seven state chemists in Serbia were pharmacists. State chemists performed the chemical-toxicological analysis as well as some medical and biochemical ones. When it comes to the education of medical biochemists as health workers, the period after the beginning of the second half of the twentieth century should be taken into account because that is when the training of pharmaceutical staff of the Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, begins on the territory of Serbia. This paper presents the development of medical biochemistry through the development of curriculum, personnel and literature since the foundation of the Faculty of Pharmacy in Serbia until today. The aim of this paper is to present the historical development of biochemistry at the Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, through analysis of three indicators: undergraduate and postgraduate education of medical biochemists, teaching literature and professional associations and trade associations. The method of direct data was applied in this paper. Also, desktop analysis was used for analyzing of secondary data, regulations, curricula, documents and bibliographic material. Desktop research was conducted and based on the following sources: Archives of the University of Belgrade-Faculty of Pharmacy, Museum of the History of Pharmacy at the University of Belgrade-Faculty of Pharmacy, the Society of Medical Biochemists of Serbia and the Serbian Chamber of Biochemists. The curricula, the Bologna process of improving education, the expansion of the range of subjects, the number of students, professional literature for teaching biochemistry, as well as professional associations and trade associations are presented through the results.

  15. Insulin resistance is associated with the development of albuminuria in Korean subjects without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Cheol Min; Hyun, Young Youl; Lee, Kyu Beck; Kim, Hyang

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that insulin resistance is associated with the development of albuminuria. However, most studies are done on a background of diabetes or metabolic syndrome and there is little data from general population. The aim of this study is to define the effect of insulin resistance on the development of albuminuria in healthy individuals without diabetes. We analyzed 60,047 participants without baseline diabetes or chronic kidney disease, who underwent at least two health maintenance visits at a 2-year interval between 2002 and 2009 at a tertiary hospital in Korea. We measured the incidence of albuminuria at the second examination and calculated the odds ratio for the development of albuminuria according to the quintile of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). After 2 years, 880 cases of incident albuminuria were observed. The cumulative incidences of albuminuria were 1.08, 1.50, 1.35, 1.47, and 1.92% for the 1st to 5th quintiles of HOMA-IR. On multivariate logistic analysis, the odds ratios for incident albuminuria compared to those in the 1st quintile were 1.38 (95% CI 1.10-1.73; P=0.006), 1.23 (95% CI 0.97-1.55; P=0.087), 1.32 (95% CI 1.04-1.67; P=0.020), and 1.66 (95% CI 1.31-2.09; Palbuminuria in relatively healthy subjects without diabetes. Further research is needed to verify the role of insulin resistance in the development of albuminuria and renal injury.

  16. Research Project "Subject Developing Environment of Preschool Education" for Russian Preschool Bilinguals (By the Example of Textile Educational Materials)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latipova, Liliya A.; Krapotkina, Irene E.; Koudrjavtseva, Ekaterina L.

    2016-01-01

    The problem's relevance stated in the article is determined by the following: forming preschool bilinguals' subject developing environment is connected with their active education and development, as well as with flexible preparation for studying at school. The purpose of this article is to develop methodology of textile developing materials' use…

  17. Quadrantal macular retinal thickness changes in strabismus subjects with abnormal binocular vision development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Mayumi; Yamashita, Tsutomu; Ono, Shizuka; Kubo, Ikumi; Tabuchi, Akio

    2013-03-01

    To investigate retinal morphological changes in strabismus patients with abnormal binocular vision development by comparing differences in quadrantal macular retinal thickness. Six strabismus patients (6 dominant and 5 non-dominant eyes) with abnormal binocular vision (mean age 22 years), and 11 control subjects (11 dominant and 11 non-dominant eyes) (mean age 21 years) were enrolled. Macular retinal thickness measurements were performed by optical coherence tomography, with total macular retinal (TMR) and ganglion cell complex (GCC) thicknesses measured in 3- and 6-mm regions in each quadrant. Measurement values were then used to determine quadrant ratios. Compared to the dominant eyes of the controls, the superior/inferior (S/I) ratio of the TMR thickness and GCC thickness in the 3-mm region was significantly lower in the dominant eyes of the strabismus group (P binocular vision development exhibited thinner superior temporal GCC thicknesses in the 3-mm region. Retinal ganglion cells in this region might be affected by efferent neural degeneration that originates in the visual pathway responsible for adaptations to the visual experience.

  18. Research and Development on Automatic Information Organization and Subject Analysis in Recent Decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen-Hsien Tseng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Information organization and subject analysis (IOSA is an important issue in the field of library and information science(LIS.As the fast advance in information technology, more and more digital documents are emerging in a pace such that automated IOSA become inevitable. This article firstly introduces the development of related automatic techniques in recent decades and promotes a tranditional viewpoint based on the workflow of:(1 data collection and aggregation, (2 cataloguing, (3 regulation, (4 archving, and (5 usage,to regulate the whole process when applying automated techniques to any IOSA task.Some application examples are then described to let the readers have a feel of the feasibility of these techniques; specifically the applications of keyword extraction, association analysis, document clustering, and topic categorization are mentioned.We conclude that the related techniques and applications are still developing in a quick pace such that only a few percentages of them can be mentioned.This article is intended to promote the mutual cooperation among the LIS and other fields.

  19. Higher plasma levels of advanced glycation end products are associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nin, Johanna W; Jorsal, Anders; Ferreira, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    or endothelial dysfunction, low-grade inflammation, or arterial stiffness. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of AGEs are associated with incident fatal and nonfatal CVD as well as all-cause mortality in individuals with type 1 diabetes, independently of other risk factors and of several potential AGEs-related......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations of plasma levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes and the extent to which any such associations could be explained by endothelial and renal dysfunction, low-grade...... inflammation, and arterial stiffness. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We prospectively followed 169 individuals with diabetic nephropathy and 170 individuals with persistent normoalbuminuria who were free of CVD at study entry and in whom levels of N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine, N...

  20. Global, regional, and national age–sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard Iburg, Kim

    2015-01-01

    disorders, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and sickle-cell anaemias. Diarrhoeal diseases, lower respiratory infections, neonatal causes, and malaria are still in the top five causes of death in children younger than 5 years. The most important pathogens are rotavirus for diarrhoea and pneumococcus......Background Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries...... between 1990, and 2013. We used the results to assess whether there is epidemiological convergence across countries. Methods We estimated age-sex-specific all-cause mortality using the GBD 2010 methods with some refinements to improve accuracy applied to an updated database of vital registration, survey...

  1. Global, regional, and national age–sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Carrie Beth

    2015-01-01

    disorders, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and sickle-cell anaemias. Diarrhoeal diseases, lower respiratory infections, neonatal causes, and malaria are still in the top five causes of death in children younger than 5 years. The most important pathogens are rotavirus for diarrhoea and pneumococcus......BACKGROUND: Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries...... between 1990, and 2013. We used the results to assess whether there is epidemiological convergence across countries. METHODS: We estimated age-sex-specific all-cause mortality using the GBD 2010 methods with some refinements to improve accuracy applied to an updated database of vital registration, survey...

  2. Sleep duration and risk of all-cause mortality: A flexible, non-linear, meta-regression of 40 prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong-Zu; Xu, Chang; Rota, Matteo; Cai, Hui; Zhang, Chao; Shi, Ming-Jun; Yuan, Rui-Xia; Weng, Hong; Meng, Xiang-Yu; Kwong, Joey S W; Sun, Xin

    2017-04-01

    Approximately 27-37% of the general population experience prolonged sleep duration and 12-16% report shortened sleep duration. However, prolonged or shortened sleep duration may be associated with serious health problems. A comprehensive, flexible, non-linear meta-regression with restricted cubic spline (RCS) was used to investigate the dose-response relationship between sleep duration and all-cause mortality in adults. Medline (Ovid), Embase, EBSCOhost-PsycINFO, and EBSCOhost-CINAHL Plus databases, reference lists of relevant review articles, and included studies were searched up to Nov. 29, 2015. Prospective cohort studies investigating the association between sleep duration and all-cause mortality in adults with at least three categories of sleep duration were eligible for inclusion. We eventually included in our study 40 cohort studies enrolling 2,200,425 participants with 271,507 deaths. A J-shaped association between sleep duration and all-cause mortality was present: compared with 7 h of sleep (reference for 24-h sleep duration), both shortened and prolonged sleep durations were associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (4 h: relative risk [RR] = 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-1.07; 5 h: RR = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.03-1.09; 6 h: RR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.03-1.06; 8 h: RR = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.02-1.05; 9 h: RR = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.10-1.16; 10 h: RR = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.22-1.28; 11 h: RR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.33-1.44; n = 29; P < 0.01 for non-linear test). With regard to the night-sleep duration, prolonged night-sleep duration was associated with increased all-cause mortality (8 h: RR = 1.01; 95% CI = 0.99-1.02; 9 h: RR = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.05-1.11; 10 h: RR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.21-1.28; n = 13; P < 0.01 for non-linear test). Subgroup analysis showed females with short sleep duration a day (<7 h) were at high risk of all-cause mortality (4 h: RR = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.02-1.13; 5 h: RR = 1.08; 95

  3. Population density, socioeconomic environment and all-cause mortality: a multilevel survival analysis of 2.7 million individuals in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Mathias; Kejs, Anne Mette; Stock, Christiane; Bloomfield, Kim; Ejstrud, Bo; Schlattmann, Peter

    2012-03-01

    This study examines the relative effects of population density and area-level SES on all-cause mortality in Denmark. A shared frailty model was fitted with 2.7 million persons aged 30-81 years in 2,121 parishes. Residence in areas with high population density increased all-cause mortality for all age groups. For older age groups, residence in areas with higher proportions of unemployed persons had an additional effect. Area-level factors explained considerably more variation in mortality among the elderly than among younger generations. Overall this study suggests that structural prevention efforts in neighborhoods could help reduce mortality when mediating processes between area-level socioeconomic status, population density and mortality are found. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Symmetric and Asymmetric Dimethylarginine as Risk Markers of Cardiovascular Disease, All-Cause Mortality, and Deterioration in Kidney Function in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Frederik; Zobel, Emilie Hein; von Scholten, Bernt Johan

    risk factors (sex, age, systolic blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, smoking, HbA1c, creatinine and urinary albumin excretion rate). To assess if SDMA or ADMA improved risk prediction beyond traditional risk factors we calculated c-statistics and relative integrated discrimination improvement (r......Background To evaluate symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) as risk markers of cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality and deterioration in renal function in a well characterised type 2 diabetic population with microalbuminuria and without symptoms...... of coronary artery disease. Methods 200 participants followed for 6.1 years. SDMA and ADMA were measured at baseline. Endpoints included 1) composite cardiovascular endpoint (n=40); 2) all-cause mortality (n=26); and 3) decline in eGFR of >30% (n=42). Cox models were unadjusted and adjusted for traditional...

  5. Symmetric and asymmetric dimethylarginine as risk markers of cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality and deterioration in kidney function in persons with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zobel, Emilie H; von Scholten, Bernt Johan; Reinhard, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    for traditional risk factors (sex, age, systolic blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol, smoking, HbA1c, creatinine and urinary albumin excretion rate). To assess if SDMA or ADMA improved risk prediction beyond traditional risk factors we calculated c statistics and relative integrated discrimination improvement (r......BACKGROUND: To evaluate symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) as risk markers of cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality and deterioration in renal function in a well characterised type 2 diabetic population with microalbuminuria and without symptoms...... of coronary artery disease. METHODS: 200 participants followed for 6.1 years. SDMA and ADMA were measured at baseline. Endpoints included (1) composite cardiovascular endpoint (n = 40); (2) all-cause mortality (n = 26); and (3) decline in eGFR of >30% (n = 42). Cox models were unadjusted and adjusted...

  6. Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in current and former smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus T; Marott, Jacob L; Jensen, Gorm B

    2010-01-01

    . Current and former smokers had, irrespective of tobacco consumption, greater relative risk of elevated RHR compared to never smokers. The relative risk of all-cause mortality per 10bpm increase in RHR was (95% CI): 1.06 (1.01-1.10) in never smokers, 1.11 (1.07-1.15) in former smokers, 1.13 (1.......09-1.16) in moderate smokers, and 1.13 (1.10-1.16) in heavy smokers. There was no gender difference. The risk estimates for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality were essentially similar. In univariate analyses, the difference in survival between a RHR in the highest (>80bpm) vs lowest quartile (...

  7. The Predictors of Subjective Career Success: An Empirical Study of Employee Development in a Korean Financial Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongho

    2010-01-01

    Subjective career success has recently been discussed widely in the academic field of career development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictors of subjective career success. It examined the effects of the calling work orientation, the individual's career-enhancing strategy and the organizational learning climate on the…

  8. Pattern of all-causes and cause-specific mortality in an area with progressively declining malaria burden in Korogwe district, north-eastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challe, Daniel P; Kamugisha, Mathias L; Mmbando, Bruno P; Francis, Filbert; Chiduo, Mercy G; Mandara, Celine I; Gesase, Samuel; Abdul, Omari; Lemnge, Martha M; Ishengoma, Deus S

    2018-02-27

    Although death records are useful for planning and monitoring health interventions, such information is limited in most developing countries. Verbal autopsy (VA) interviews are alternatively used to determine causes of death in places without or with incomplete hospital records. This study was conducted to determine all causes and cause-specific mortality in Korogwe health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) undertaken in Korogwe district, northeastern Tanzania. The study was conducted from January 2006 to December 2012 in 14 villages under Korogwe HDSS. Vital events such as births, deaths and migrations were routinely updated quarterly. A standard VA questionnaire was administered to parents/close relatives of the deceased to determine cause of death. Overall, 1325 deaths of individuals with median age of 46 years were recorded in a population with 170,471.4 person years observed (PY). Crude mortality rate was 7.8 per 1000 PY (95% CI 7.2-8.4) and the highest rate was observed in infants (77.9 per 1000 PY; 95% CI 67.4-90.0). The overall mortality increased between 2006 and 2007, followed by a slight decline up to 2011, with the highest decrease observed in 2012. Causes of deaths were established in 942 (71.1%) deaths and malaria (198 deaths, 21.0%) was the leading cause of death in all age groups except adults (15-59 years). HIV/AIDS (17.6%, n = 365) was the leading cause of death in individuals aged 15-59 years followed by malaria (13.9%) and tuberculosis. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) including stroke, hypertension, cancer, and cardiac failure caused majority of deaths in elderly (60 years and above) accounting for 37.1% (n = 348) of all deaths, although malaria was the single leading cause of death in this group (16.6%). The study showed a significant decline of deaths in the Korogwe HDSS site and malaria was the main cause of death in all age groups (except adults, aged 15-59 years) while HIV/AIDS and NCDs were the main causes in adults and

  9. Plasma growth differentiation factor-15 independently predicts all-cause and cardiovascular mortality as well as deterioration of kidney function in type 1 diabetic patients with nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajer, Maria Stenkil; Jorsal, Anders; Tarnow, Lise

    2010-01-01

    Growth deferentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is involved in inflammation and apoptosis. Expression is induced in the heart in response to ischemia and in atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of this study was to investigate GDF-15 levels in relation to all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and mo...... and morbidity, decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and progression toward end-stage renal disease (ESRD)....

  10. Gender differences in all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality during long-term follow-up after acute myocardial infarction; a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvakkestad, Kristin Marie; Wang Fagerland, Morten; Eritsland, Jan; Halvorsen, Sigrun

    2017-03-14

    Gender differences in short-term mortality in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have been studied extensively, whereas gender differences in long-term mortality and cause of death largely remain unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term risk of all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer death after AMI in women compared to men. Consecutive AMI patients were enrolled in a prospective registry between 2005 and 2011. Date and cause of death were obtained by linkage with the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry, with censoring date 31 December 2012. AMI patients with ST-segment elevation (STEMI, n = 5159) and without (NSTEMI, n = 4899) were analysed separately. The 5-years all-cause mortality rates in STEMI were 29% in women vs. 17% in men, and 42% vs. 29% in NSTEMI, respectively. After adjustment for age and other confounders, women with STEMI had similar (HR 1.13 [95% CI: 0.98-1.32]) and women with NSTEMI lower (HR 0.82 [95% CI: 0.73-0.92]) risk of long-term all-cause mortality compared to men. Competing-risks analysis showed no significant gender differences in age-adjusted risk of cardiovascular death nor of cancer death. In both genders, the annual risk of cardiovascular death was low after 1 year, but exceeded annual risk of cancer death throughout follow-up. During long-term follow-up, women with STEMI had similar and women with NSTEMI lower adjusted risk of all-cause mortality compared to men. Age-adjusted risk of death due to cardiovascular disease was similar in both genders and higher than risk of death due to cancer throughout the follow-up period.

  11. Effect of intensive glucose lowering treatment on all cause mortality, cardiovascular death, and microvascular events in type 2 diabetes: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    Boussageon, Rémy; Bejan-Angoulvant, Theodora; Saadatian-Elahi, Mitra; Lafont, Sandrine; Bergeonneau, Claire; Kassaï, Behrouz; Erpeldinger, Sylvie; Wright, James M; Gueyffier, François; Cornu, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine all cause mortality and deaths from cardiovascular events related to intensive glucose lowering treatment in people with type 2 diabetes. Design Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Data sources Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews. Study selection Randomised controlled trials that assessed the effect of intensive glucose lowering treatment on cardiovascular events and microvascular complications in adults (≥18 years) with type 2 di...

  12. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate, Proteinuria, and Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases and All-cause Mortality in Diabetic Population: a Community-based Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Anxin; Chen, Guojuan; Cao, Yibin; Liu, Xiaoxue; Su, Zhaoping; Luo, Yanxia; Zhao, Zhan; Li, Xia; Chen, Shuohua; Wu, Shouling; Guo, Xiuhua

    2017-01-01

    Data about associations between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and proteinuria with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and all-cause mortality among diabetic population is less described. We aimed to describe these associations in Chinese diabetic population, and investigate the difference between sexes. The study was based on 8,301 diabetic participants in the Kailuan study, who was free of CVDs at baseline. We used Cox proportional hazard models to examine the associations of eGFR ...

  13. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and increased risk of 1-year all-cause and cardiac hospital readmissions in elderly patients admitted for acute heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbusa, Filippo; Bonapace, Stefano; Agnoletti, Davide; Scala, Luca; Grillo, Cristina; Arduini, Pietro; Turcato, Emanuela; Mantovani, Alessandro; Zoppini, Giacomo; Arcaro, Guido; Byrne, Christopher; Targher, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging risk factor for heart failure (HF). Although some progress has been made in improving survival among patients admitted for HF, the rates of hospital readmissions and the related costs continue to rise dramatically. We sought to examine whether NAFLD and its severity (diagnosed at hospital admission) was independently associated with a higher risk of 1-year all-cause and cardiac re-hospitalization in patients admitted for acute HF. We studied 212 elderly patients who were consecutively admitted with acute HF to the Hospital of Negrar (Verona) over a 1-year period. Diagnosis of NAFLD was based on ultrasonography, whereas the severity of advanced NAFLD fibrosis was based on the fibrosis (FIB)-4 score and other non-invasive fibrosis scores. Patients with acute myocardial infarction, severe valvular heart diseases, end-stage renal disease, cancer, known liver diseases or decompensated cirrhosis were excluded. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for the associations between NAFLD and the outcome(s) of interest. The cumulative rate of 1-year all-cause re-hospitalizations was 46.7% (n = 99, mainly due to cardiac causes). Patients with NAFLD (n = 109; 51.4%) had remarkably higher 1-year all-cause and cardiac re-hospitalization rates compared with their counterparts without NAFLD. Both event rates were particularly increased in those with advanced NAFLD fibrosis. NAFLD was associated with a 5-fold increased risk of 1-year all-cause re-hospitalization (adjusted-hazard ratio 5.05, 95% confidence intervals 2.78-9.10, pacute HF.

  14. Association of physical activity with all-cause mortality and incident and prevalent cardiovascular disease among patients with type 1 diabetes: the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielemans, S M A J; Soedamah-Muthu, S S; De Neve, M; Toeller, M; Chaturvedi, N; Fuller, J H; Stamatakis, E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of physical activity (PA) with all-cause mortality and incident and prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) among patients with type 1 diabetes. The EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study is a cohort including 3,250 male and female patients with type 1 diabetes (mean age 32.7 ± 10.2 years) from 16 European countries, of whom 1,880 participated in follow-up examinations. In analysis 1 (longitudinal), the association of baseline PA (based on the reported number of hours per week spent in mild, moderate and vigorous PA) with all-cause mortality and incident CVD was examined by performing survival analysis. In analysis 2 (cross-sectional), we focused on the association between PA at follow-up (data on sports, walking distance and regular bicycling) and prevalent CVD by performing logistic regression analysis. Adjustments were made for age, sex, BMI, smoking, consumption of alcohol, consumption of certain nutrients and diabetic complications. Analysis 1 (longitudinal): participation in moderate or vigorous PA once a week or more was borderline inversely associated with all-cause mortality (men and women combined) (HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.42, 1.03) and incident CVD (women only) (HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.40, 1.08). No association was found in men. Analysis 2 (cross-sectional): total PA (indexed by sports, walking, bicycling) and distance walked were inversely associated with prevalent CVD (OR(totalPA) 0.66, 95% CI 0.45, 0.97; and OR(walking) 0.61, 95% CI 0.42, 0.89). PA showed a borderline inverse association with both all-cause mortality (both sexes) and incident CVD (women only) in patients with type 1 diabetes. Since this is an under-researched clinical population, future longitudinal studies with objective PA measurements are needed to expand on these results.

  15. Sickness absence due to specific mental diagnoses and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a cohort study of 4.9 million inhabitants of Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellenor Mittendorfer-Rutz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the magnitude and increase of sickness absence due to mental diagnoses, little is known regarding long-term health outcomes. The aim of this nationwide population-based, prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between sickness absence due to specific mental diagnoses and the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. METHODS: A cohort of all 4 857 943 individuals living in Sweden on 31.12.2004 (aged 16-64 years, not sickness absent, or on retirement or disability pension, was followed from 01.01.2005 through 31.12.2008 for all-cause and cause-specific mortality (suicide, cancer, circulatory disease through linkage of individual register data. Individuals with at least one new sick-leave spell with a mental diagnosis in 2005 were compared to individuals with no sickness absence. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated by Cox regression, adjusting for age, sex, education, country of birth, family situation, area of residence, and pre-existing morbidity (diagnosis-specific hospital inpatient (2000-2005 and outpatient (2001-2005 care. RESULTS: In the multivariate analyses, mental sickness absence in 2005 was associated with an increased risk for all-cause mortality: HR: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.47-1.86 in women and in men: 1.73, 1.57-1.91; for suicide, cancer (both smoking and non-smoking related as well as mortality due to circulatory disease only in men. Estimates for cause-specific mortality ranged from 1.48 to 3.37. Associations with all-cause mortality were found for all mental sickness absence diagnostic groups studied. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge about the prognosis of patients sickness absent with specific mental diagnoses is of crucial clinical importance in health care. Sickness absence due to specific mental diagnoses may here be used as a risk indictor for subsequent mortality.

  16. Sickness absence due to specific mental diagnoses and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a cohort study of 4.9 million inhabitants of Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Kjeldgård, Linnea; Runeson, Bo; Perski, Aleksander; Melchior, Maria; Head, Jenny; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Despite the magnitude and increase of sickness absence due to mental diagnoses, little is known regarding long-term health outcomes. The aim of this nationwide population-based, prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between sickness absence due to specific mental diagnoses and the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. A cohort of all 4 857 943 individuals living in Sweden on 31.12.2004 (aged 16-64 years, not sickness absent, or on retirement or disability pension), was followed from 01.01.2005 through 31.12.2008 for all-cause and cause-specific mortality (suicide, cancer, circulatory disease) through linkage of individual register data. Individuals with at least one new sick-leave spell with a mental diagnosis in 2005 were compared to individuals with no sickness absence. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox regression, adjusting for age, sex, education, country of birth, family situation, area of residence, and pre-existing morbidity (diagnosis-specific hospital inpatient (2000-2005) and outpatient (2001-2005) care). In the multivariate analyses, mental sickness absence in 2005 was associated with an increased risk for all-cause mortality: HR: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.47-1.86 in women and in men: 1.73, 1.57-1.91; for suicide, cancer (both smoking and non-smoking related) as well as mortality due to circulatory disease only in men. Estimates for cause-specific mortality ranged from 1.48 to 3.37. Associations with all-cause mortality were found for all mental sickness absence diagnostic groups studied. Knowledge about the prognosis of patients sickness absent with specific mental diagnoses is of crucial clinical importance in health care. Sickness absence due to specific mental diagnoses may here be used as a risk indictor for subsequent mortality.

  17. Diabetes mellitus increased all-cause mortality rate among newly-diagnosed tuberculosis patients in an Asian population: A nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Po-Yen; Lin, Shi-Dou; Hsieh, Ming-Chia; Chen, Yu-Cheng

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) on all-cause mortality among patients with newly-diagnosed tuberculosis (TB) in an Asian population. We also identified risk factors for mortality in these patients. The data were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database and included 9831 newly-diagnosed TB individuals and 1627 TB mortality cases in the period of 2000-2010. The mortality data were divided into a DM group and a non-DM group. We measured the incidence density of mortality and identified the risk factors of mortality. The all-cause mortality of newly-diagnosed TB patients progressively increased with an average rate of 16.5% during 2000-2010. DM is an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality with HRs 1.17-1.27 by various models. TB patients with ages above 75years had the highest risk of mortality (HR=11.93) compared with those under 45 years. TB patients with heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, ischemic heart disease, cerebral vascular disease, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, pulmonary disease, liver disease, cancer, peptic ulcer disease, gout, and autoimmune disease had higher mortality compared to those without the aforementioned factors. The one-year all-cause mortality after TB diagnosis was high among TB patients in Taiwan and it tended to increase in the past decade. While treating these newly-diagnosed TB patients, it is crucial to detect the factors predisposing to death, such as old age, male gender, certain kinds of aforementioned factors and diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The association of co-morbid symptoms of depression and anxiety with all-cause mortality and cardiac rehospitalization in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhurani, Abdullah S; Dekker, Rebecca L; Abed, Mona A; Khalil, Amani; Al Zaghal, Marwa H; Lee, Kyoung Suk; Mudd-Martin, Gia; Biddle, Martha J; Lennie, Terry A; Moser, Debra K

    2015-01-01

    Patients with heart failure (HF) experience multiple psychologic symptoms. Depression and anxiety are independently associated with survival. Whether co-morbid symptoms of anxiety and depression are associated with outcomes in patients with HF is unknown. To determine whether co-morbid symptoms of depression and anxiety are associated with all-cause mortality or rehospitalization for cardiac causes in patients with HF. A total of 1260 patients with HF participated in this study. Cox regression analysis was used to determine whether co-morbid symptoms of depression and anxiety independently predicted all-cause mortality and cardiac rehospitalization. Anxiety and depression were treated first as continuous-level variables, then as categorical variables using standard published cut points. Patients were then divided into 4 groups based on the presence of anxiety and depression symptoms. When entered as a continuous variable, the interaction between anxiety and depression (hazard ratio = 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01-1.03; p = 0.002) was a significant predictor of all-cause mortality in patients with HF. When entered as a categorical variable, co-morbid symptoms of depression and anxiety (vs no symptoms or symptoms of anxiety or depression alone) independently predicted all-cause mortality (hazard ratio = 2.59; 95% CI: 1.49-4.49; p = 0.001). None of the psychologic variables was a predictor of cardiac rehospitalization in patients with HF whether using the continuous or categorical level of measurement. To improve mortality outcomes in patients with HF, attention must be paid by health care providers to the assessment and management of co-morbid symptoms of depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2015 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Meta-analysis: low-dose intake of vitamin E combined with other vitamins or minerals may decrease all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Pan, Zhenyu; Li, Hui; Li, Fenglan; Song, Yanyan; Qiu, Yu

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that vitamin E alone or combined with other vitamins or minerals can prevent oxidative stress and slow oxidative injury-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. A comprehensive search of PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library was performed. Relative risk was used as an effect measure to compare the intervention and control groups. A total of 33 trials were included in the meta-analysis. Neither vitamin E intake alone (RR=1.01; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.04; p=0.77) nor vitamin E intake combined with other agents (RR=0.97; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.06; p=0.55) was correlated with all-cause mortality. Subgroup analyses revealed that low-dose vitamin E supplementation combined with other agents is associated with a statistically significant reduction in all-cause mortality (RR=0.92; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.98; p=0.01), and vitamin E intake combined with other agents is associated with a statistically significant reduction in mortality rates among individuals without probable or confirmed diseases (RR=0.92; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.99; p=0.02). Neither vitamin E intake alone nor combined with other agents is associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality. But a low dose (vitamin E combined with other agents is correlated with a reduction in all-cause mortality, and vitamin E intake combined with other agents is correlated with a reduction in the mortality rate among individuals without probable or confirmed diseases.

  20. The Association Between Body Mass Index and All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A 5.5-Year Prospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Jeng-Fu; Hsieh, Yi-Ting; Mao, I-Chieh; Lin, Shi-Dou; Tu, Shih-Te; Hsieh, Ming-Chia

    2015-08-01

    Abundances of study in different population have noted that obese cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients have a better prognosis than leaner patients, which refer to the phenomenon of obesity paradox. However, data on the association between body mass index (BMI) and mortality among Asian patients are limited, especially in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We investigate the association between BMI and all-cause mortality in Taiwanese patients with T2DM to define the optimal body weight for health.We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of 2161 T2DM patients with a mean follow-up period of 66.7 ± 7.5 months. Using Cox regression models, BMI was related to the risk of all-cause mortality after adjusting all confounding factors.A U-shaped association between BMI and all-cause mortality was observed among all participants. Those with BMIs 30.0 kg/m (BMIs 30.0-32.5 kg/m: hazard ratio 1.670, P < 0.001; BMIs 32.5-35.0 kg/m: hazard ratio, 2.632, P < 0.001). This U-shaped association remained when we examined the data by sex, age, smoking, and kidney function.Our study found a U-shaped relationship between all-cause mortality and BMI in Asian patients with T2DM, irrespective of age, sex, smoking, and kidney function. BMI <30 kg/m should be regarded as a potentially important target in the weight management of T2DM.

  1. Physical and mental health functioning after all-cause and diagnosis-specific sickness absence: a register-linkage follow-up study among ageing employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mänty, Minna; Lallukka, Tea; Lahti, Jouni; Pietiläinen, Olli; Laaksonen, Mikko; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2017-01-25

    Sickness absence has been shown to be a risk marker for severe future health outcomes, such as disability retirement and premature death. However, it is poorly understood how all-cause and diagnosis-specific sickness absence is reflected in subsequent physical and mental health functioning over time. The aim of this study was to examine the association of all-cause and diagnosis-specific sickness absence with subsequent changes in physical and mental health functioning among ageing municipal employees. Prospective survey and register data from the Finnish Helsinki Health Study and the Social Insurance Institution of Finland were used. Register based records for medically certified all-cause and diagnostic-specific sickness absence spells (>14 consecutive calendar days) in 2004-2007 were examined in relation to subsequent physical and mental health functioning measured by Short-Form 36 questionnaire in 2007 and 2012. In total, 3079 respondents who were continuously employed over the sickness absence follow-up were included in the analyses. Repeated-measures analysis was used to examine the associations. During the 3-year follow-up, 30% of the participants had at least one spell of medically certified sickness absence. All-cause sickness absence was associated with lower subsequent physical and mental health functioning in a stepwise manner: the more absence days, the poorer the subsequent physical and mental health functioning. These differences remained but narrowed slightly during the follow-up. Furthermore, the adverse association for physical health functioning was strongest among those with sickness absence due to diseases of musculoskeletal or respiratory systems, and on mental functioning among those with sickness absence due to mental disorders. Sickness absence showed a persistent adverse stepwise association with subsequent physical and mental health functioning. Evidence on health-related outcomes after long-term sickness absence may provide useful

  2. Physical and mental health functioning after all-cause and diagnosis-specific sickness absence: a register-linkage follow-up study among ageing employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Mänty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickness absence has been shown to be a risk marker for severe future health outcomes, such as disability retirement and premature death. However, it is poorly understood how all-cause and diagnosis-specific sickness absence is reflected in subsequent physical and mental health functioning over time. The aim of this study was to examine the association of all-cause and diagnosis-specific sickness absence with subsequent changes in physical and mental health functioning among ageing municipal employees. Methods Prospective survey and register data from the Finnish Helsinki Health Study and the Social Insurance Institution of Finland were used. Register based records for medically certified all-cause and diagnostic-specific sickness absence spells (>14 consecutive calendar days in 2004–2007 were examined in relation to subsequent physical and mental health functioning measured by Short-Form 36 questionnaire in 2007 and 2012. In total, 3079 respondents who were continuously employed over the sickness absence follow-up were included in the analyses. Repeated-measures analysis was used to examine the associations. Results During the 3-year follow-up, 30% of the participants had at least one spell of medically certified sickness absence. All-cause sickness absence was associated with lower subsequent physical and mental health functioning in a stepwise manner: the more absence days, the poorer the subsequent physical and mental health functioning. These differences remained but narrowed slightly during the follow-up. Furthermore, the adverse association for physical health functioning was strongest among those with sickness absence due to diseases of musculoskeletal or respiratory systems, and on mental functioning among those with sickness absence due to mental disorders. Conclusions Sickness absence showed a persistent adverse stepwise association with subsequent physical and mental health functioning. Evidence on health

  3. Effects of increased alcohol availability during adolescence on the risk of all-cause and cause-specific disability pension: a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thern, Emelie; de Munter, Jeroen; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Davey Smith, George; Ramstedt, Mats; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn

    2017-06-01

    To test if being exposed to increased alcohol availability during adolescence is associated with an increased risk of receiving disability pension due to all-cause, alcohol use disorders and mental disorders. Register-based population-based study using a natural experiment setting, the alcohol policy change in Sweden (1967-68), with increased access to strong beer in a narrow time window and geographical area. The individuals exposed to the policy change were compared with non-exposed individuals living in the rest of Sweden, excluding a border area. Sweden. A total of 518 810 individuals (70 761 in the intervention group; 448 049 in the control group) born 1948-1953, aged 14-20 years during the policy change. Date and diagnosis of the outcome variable of disability pension due to all-cause, alcohol use disorders and mental disorders were obtained from the Swedish National Social Insurance Agency database from 1971 to 2013. Individual and family level socio-demographic and health-related covariates, as well as a regional level covariate, were included. Compared with the control group, adolescents exposed to the alcohol policy change were at an increased risk of receiving disability pension due to all-causes [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07-1.11], alcohol use disorders (HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.05-1.30) and mental disorders (HR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.15-1.23). In Sweden, a natural experiment with a 43-year follow-up suggests that exposure to increased alcohol availability during adolescence is associated with an increased risk of receiving a disability pension due to all-cause, alcohol use disorder and mental disorder diagnoses. © 2017 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Thoracic aortic calcium, cardiovascular disease events, and all-cause mortality in asymptomatic individuals with zero coronary calcium: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joonseok; Budoff, Matthew J; Nasir, Khurram; Wong, Nathan D; Yeboah, Joseph; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Shea, Steve; Dardari, Zeina A; Blumenthal, Roger S; Blaha, Michael J; Cainzos-Achirica, Miguel

    2017-02-01

    TAC is associated with incident CVD and all-cause mortality. Nevertheless, the independent 10-year prognostic value of TAC in individuals with CAC = 0 beyond traditional risk factors is not well established. 3415 MESA participants with baseline CAC = 0 were followed for CHD, CVD events and all-cause mortality. TAC was measured in the ascending and descending aorta in all participants and quantified using Agatston's score. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to study the associations between TAC and incident CHD, CVD events and all-cause mortality. Likelihood ratio tests were used to compare prediction models including traditional risk factors plus TAC versus risk factors alone. 406 participants (11.9%) had TAC>0 at baseline. Over a median follow-up of 11.3 years, unadjusted event rates per 1000 person-years were higher in TAC>0 than in TAC = 0 participants: CHD 2.18 vs. 2.03; CVD 6.85 vs. 3.42; all-cause mortality 12.84 vs. 4.96. However, in multivariable Cox regression analyses adjusting for CVD risk factors, neither TAC>0, TAC>100 nor log(TAC+1) were independently associated with any of the study outcomes, nor improved their prediction compared to traditional risk factors alone (p value of likelihood ratio tests >0.05). In a multi-ethnic, modern US population of asymptomatic individuals with CAC = 0 at baseline, the prevalence of TAC>0 was low, and TAC did not improve 10-year estimation of prognosis beyond traditional risk factors. In the presence of CAC = 0, measurement of TAC is unlikely to provide sufficient additional prognostic information to further improve risk assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of National Health Checkup Service on Hard Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Events and All-Cause Mortality in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Yongsung; Lee, Chan Joo; Cho, Deok-Kyu; Cho, Yun-Hyeong; Shin, Dong-Ho; Ahn, Chul-Min; Kim, Jung-Sun; Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Ko, Young-Guk; Choi, Donghoon; Jang, Yangsoo; Hong, Myeong-Ki

    2017-11-15

    Whether health checkups favorably impact the occurrence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and all-cause mortality in the general population remains in debate. We investigated further the impact of health checkups on hard ASCVD events and all-cause mortality. We compared the occurrence of hard ASCVD events and all-cause deaths for 4 years starting in 2010 between participants who used the National Health Checkup Service (NHCS) more than twice and nonparticipants who never used the NHCS from 2006 to 2009. From the 342,594 survivors aged 40 to 69 years old in 2006 listed in the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort, a total of 55,275 pairs were selected by propensity matching. Hard ASCVD events were defined as the composite of myocardial infarction and stroke. In the 55,275 matched pairs, we found a significant association between the use of the NHCS and the reduction in hard ASCVD events (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.84, 95% confidence interval 0.76 to 0.92, p medical care, including outpatient care and hospitalizations, and took more hypertension and dyslipidemia medications, whereas hospitalizations for more than 60 days were significantly more frequent in the nonparticipants. In the subgroup analysis, the reduction in hard ASCVD events for NHCS participants was significantly greater in patients without a previous history of dyslipidemia or who did not have outpatient care. In conclusion, the use of the NHCS was significantly associated with reduced hard ASCVD events and all-cause mortality in the general population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Obesity and the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladhani, Maleeka; Craig, Jonathan C; Irving, Michelle; Clayton, Philip A; Wong, Germaine

    2017-03-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death in people without chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the effect of obesity in people with CKD is uncertain. Medline and Embase (from inception to January 2015) were searched for cohort studies measuring obesity by body mass index (BMI), waist:hip ratio (WHR) and/or waist circumference (WC) and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality or events in patients with any stage of CKD. Data were summarized using random effects models. Meta-regression was conducted to assess sources of heterogeneity. Of 4065 potentially eligible citations, 165 studies ( n = 1 534 845 participants) were analyzed. In studies that found a nonlinear relationship, underweight people with CKD (3-5) on hemodialysis experienced an increased risk of death compared with those with normal weight. In transplant recipients, excess risk was observed at levels of morbid obesity (>35 kg/m 2 ). Of studies that found the relationship to be linear, a 1 kg/m 2 increase in BMI was associated with a 3 and 4% reduction in all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients on hemodialysis, respectively {adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.97 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96-0.98] and adjusted HR 0.96 (95% CI 0.92-1.00)}. In CKD Stages 3-5, for every 1 kg/m 2 increase in BMI there was a 1% reduction in all-cause mortality [HR 0.99 (95% CI 0.0.97-1.00)]. There was no apparent association between obesity and mortality in transplanted patients or those on peritoneal dialysis. Sparse data for WHR and WC did not allow further analyses. Being obese may be protective for all-cause mortality in the predialysis and hemodialysis populations, while being underweight suggests increased risk, but not in transplant recipients.

  7. Impact of Hospital Population Case-Mix, Including Poverty, on Hospital All-Cause and Infection-Related 30-Day Readmission Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohil, Shruti K; Datta, Rupak; Cao, Chenghua; Phelan, Michael J; Nguyen, Vinh; Rowther, Armaan A; Huang, Susan S

    2015-10-15

    Reducing hospital readmissions, including preventable healthcare-associated infections, is a national priority. The proportion of readmissions due to infections is not well-understood. Better understanding of hospital risk factors for readmissions and infection-related readmissions may help optimize interventions to prevent readmissions. Retrospective cohort study of California acute care hospitals and their patient populations discharged between 2009 and 2011. Demographics, comorbidities, and socioeconomic status were entered into a hierarchical generalized linear mixed model predicting all-cause and infection-related readmissions. Crude verses adjusted hospital rankings were compared using Cohen's kappa. We assessed 30-day readmission rates from 323 hospitals, accounting for 213 879 194 post-discharge person-days of follow-up. Infection-related readmissions represented 28% of all readmissions and were associated with discharging a high proportion of patients to skilled nursing facilities. Hospitals serving populations with high proportions of males, comorbidities, prolonged length of stay, and populations living in a federal poverty area, had higher all-cause and infection-related readmission rates. Academic hospitals had higher all-cause and infection-related readmission rates (odds ratio 1.24 and 1.15, respectively). When comparing adjusted vs crude hospital rankings for infection-related readmission rates, adjustment revealed 31% of hospitals changed performance category for infection-related readmissions. Infection-related readmissions accounted for nearly 30% of all-cause readmissions. High hospital infection-related readmissions were associated with serving a high proportion of patients with comorbidities, long lengths of stay, discharge to skilled nursing facility, and those living in federal poverty areas. Preventability of these infections needs to be assessed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases

  8. Are Sitting Occupations Associated with Increased All-Cause, Cancer, and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Risk? A Pooled Analysis of Seven British Population Cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Stamatakis; Chau, Josephine Y.; Zeljko Pedisic; Adrian Baum