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Sample records for subjects blood samples

  1. Perfluoroalkyl Acid Concentrations in Blood Samples Subjected to Transportation and Processing Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Cathrine Carlsen; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bossi, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In studies of perfluoroalkyl acids, the validity and comparability of measured concentrations may be affected by differences in the handling of biospecimens. We aimed to investigate whether measured plasma levels of perfluoroalkyl acids differed between blood samples subjected to delay...... and transportation prior to processing and samples with immediate processing and freezing. METHODS: Pregnant women recruited at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, (n = 88) provided paired blood samples. For each pair of samples, one was immediately processed and plasma was frozen, and the other was delayed...... and transported as whole blood before processing and freezing of plasma (similar to the Danish National Birth Cohort). We measured 12 perfluoroalkyl acids and present results for compounds with more than 50% of samples above the lower limit of quantification. RESULTS: For samples taken in the winter, relative...

  2. Manual versus automated blood sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, A C; Kalliokoski, Otto; Sørensen, Dorte B

    2014-01-01

    Facial vein (cheek blood) and caudal vein (tail blood) phlebotomy are two commonly used techniques for obtaining blood samples from laboratory mice, while automated blood sampling through a permanent catheter is a relatively new technique in mice. The present study compared physiological parameters......, glucocorticoid dynamics as well as the behavior of mice sampled repeatedly for 24 h by cheek blood, tail blood or automated blood sampling from the carotid artery. Mice subjected to cheek blood sampling lost significantly more body weight, had elevated levels of plasma corticosterone, excreted more fecal...... corticosterone metabolites, and expressed more anxious behavior than did the mice of the other groups. Plasma corticosterone levels of mice subjected to tail blood sampling were also elevated, although less significantly. Mice subjected to automated blood sampling were less affected with regard to the parameters...

  3. Microdialysis combined blood sampling technique for the determination of rosiglitazone and glucose in brain and blood of gerbils subjected to cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Wayne H-H; Chuang, Hsiu-Chun; Cheng, Shiu-Min; Lee, Maw-Rong; Chou, Chi-Chi; Cheng, Fu-Chou

    2011-03-25

    Rosiglitazone is a potent synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) agonist which improves glucose control in the plasma and reduces ischemic brain injury. However, the pharmacokinetics of rosiglitazone in the brain is still unclear. In this study, a method using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with microdialysis and an auto-blood sampling system was developed to determine rosiglitazone and glucose concentration in the brain and blood of gerbils subjected to treatment with rosiglitazone (3.0 mg kg(-1), i.p.). The results showed the limit of detection was 0.04 μg L(-1) and the correlation coefficient was 0.9997 for the determination of rosiglitazone in the brain. The mean parameters, maximum drug concentration (C(max)) and the area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to time infinity (AUC(inf)), following rosiglitazone administration were 1.06±0.28 μg L(-1) and 296.82±44.67 μg min L(-1), respectively. The time to peak concentration (C(max) or T(max)) of rosiglitazone occurred at 105±17.10 min, and the mean elimination half-life (t(1/2)) from brain was 190.81±85.18 min after administration of rosiglitazone. The brain glucose levels decreased to 71% of the basal levels in the rosiglitazone-treated group when compared with those in the control (pglucose levels to 80% at 1h after pretreatment of rosiglitazone (pdetermination of rosiglitazone and glucose concentrations in brain and plasma. Rosiglitazone was effective at penetrating the blood-brain barrier as evidenced by the rapid appearance of rosiglitazone in the brain, and rosiglitazone may contribute to a reduction in the extent of injuries related to cerebral ischemic stroke via its hypoglycemic effect. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Neonatal blood gas sampling methods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood gas sampling is part of everyday practice in the care of babies admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, particularly for those receiving respiratory support. There is little published guidance that systematically evaluates the different methods of neonatal blood gas sampling, where each method has its individual ...

  5. Non-dipping pattern in ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is associated with metabolic abnormalities in a random sample of middle-aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukkola, Olavi; Vasunta, Riitta-Liisa; Kesäniemi, Y Antero

    2009-11-01

    A reduction in the blood pressure decline at night (pattern') is associated with cardiovascular morbidity. Our aim was to evaluate whether ABPM characteristics are associated with metabolic abnormalities in subjects without known hypertension or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This is a cross-sectional population-based study on middle-aged subjects (n=462). Two distinct definitions of metabolic syndrome (MetS) were used: National Cholesterol Education Program-Third Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATPIII) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Results suggested that subjects characterized by non-dipping in 24 h ABPM were more obese (P=0.014). After adjustment for body mass index, age and sex, non-dippers had higher very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol (P=0.003), total (P=0.029)-and VLDL-triglycerides (P=0.026) and oral glucose tolerance test 2 h blood glucose (P=0.027) compared with dippers. Non-dipping status was more common among subjects with MetS (Ppattern. The percentage decline in blood pressure from day to night decreased with the number of metabolic abnormalities (P=0.012). In conclusion, ABPM non-dipping status is an independent predictor of glucose intolerance. It is also associated with several other metabolic abnormalities. Whether non-dipping pattern is causally related to these metabolic aberrations remains to be explored in a future prospective follow-up of this cohort.

  6. Relations between a novel, reliable, and rapid index of arterial compliance (PP-HDI) and well-established inidices of arterial blood pressure (ABP) in a sample of hypertensive elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamini, L; Finelli, M E; Bendini, C; Ferrari, E; Veschi, M; Neviani, F; Manni, B; Pelosi, A; Rioli, G; Neri, M

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor for a long-lasting arterial wall-remodelling leading to stiffness. The rapid method measuring the pulse pressure (PP) by means of the tool of Hypertension Diagnostic Instruments (HDI) called PP-HDI, overcomes some of the problems arising with more-time consuming methods, like ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), and give information about the elasticity of the arterial walls. We studied the relationship between the PP-HDI, the large artery compliance (LA-C) and small artery compliance (SA-C) and few well-established indices of arterial blood pressure (ABP) in a sample of 75 hypertensive subjects, aged 65 years and over. Significant correlations between LA-C and heart rate (HR), PP-ABPM and PP-HDI were found. SA-C relates with HR and systolic blood pressure (SBP) measured in lying and standing positions. Applying a stepwise regression analysis, we found that LA-C variance stems from PP-HDI and HR, while SA-C variance stems from SBP in lying position. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves for thresholds of PP showed that PP-HDI reached levels of sensitivity/specificity similar to PP-ABPM. In conclusion, surveillance of ABP through hemo-dynamic indices, in particular of SBP, is essential, nevertheless the advantage of this control is not known in an elderly population where the organ damage is already evident. PP needs necessarily an instrumental measurement. The PP-HDI result is similar in reliability with respect to PPABPM, but is more rapid and well applicable in an elderly population.

  7. Fetal scalp blood sampling during labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandraharan, Edwin; Wiberg, Nana

    2014-01-01

    Fetal cardiotocography is characterized by low specificity; therefore, in an attempt to ensure fetal well-being, fetal scalp blood sampling has been recommended by most obstetric societies in the case of a non-reassuring cardiotocography. The scientific agreement on the evidence for using fetal...... scalp blood sampling to decrease the rate of operative delivery for fetal distress is ambiguous. Based on the same studies, a Cochrane review states that fetal scalp blood sampling increases the rate of instrumental delivery while decreasing neonatal acidosis, whereas the National Institute of Health...... and Clinical Excellence guideline considers that fetal scalp blood sampling decreases instrumental delivery without differences in other outcome variables. The fetal scalp is supplied by vessels outside the skull below the level of the cranial vault, which is likely to be compressed during contractions...

  8. ABO Blood Type and Personality Traits in Healthy Japanese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchimine, Shoko; Saruwatari, Junji; Kaneda, Ayako; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2015-01-01

    There is no scientific consensus that a relationship exists between the ABO blood group and personality traits. However, a recent study hypothesized that the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene is in linkage with the ABO gene. The sample population consisted of 1,427 healthy Japanese subjects who completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Each subject's ABO blood type was determined by genotyping the rs8176719 and rs8176746 ABO gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using a TaqMan genotyping assay. The relationships between the six ABO genotypes or four ABO phenotypes and personality traits were examined using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), controlling for age and sex. The MANCOVA data showed a significant difference in TCI scores among the ABO genotype groups (F [7, 1393] = 3.354, p = 0.001). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference in the mean scores for Persistence among the genotype groups (F = 2.680, partial η2 = 0.010, p = 0.020). Similarly, dividing the ABO blood type into four phenotypes revealed a significant difference among the phenotype groups (F [7, 1397] = 2.529, p = 0.014). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference among the phenotype groups in the mean scores for Persistence (F = 2.952, partial η2= 0.006, p = 0.032). We observed a significant association between ABO blood group genotypes and personality traits in a large number of healthy Japanese subjects. However, these results should be regarded as preliminary and should be interpreted with caution because it is possible that the association between ABO blood group genotype and the Persistence trait is relatively weak.

  9. The pathology of facial vein blood sampling in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ket; Harslund, Jakob le Fèvre; Bollen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    vein blood sampling. Therefore, we investigated if this technique was associated with pathological changes of the jaw region. Methods: 43 NMRI mice were subjected to facial vein blood sampling by using the lancet method during 12 months, starting at the age of 8 weeks. The mice were restrained manually......, and the tissue of the jaw was evaluated. Results: In the 23 mice, from which blood samples had been taken 2 days previously, 5 mice had no signs of gross pathological changes, whereas 12 mice had signs of minimal local subcutaneous bleeding and 6 mice had moderate local subcutaneous bleeding. No additional gross...... pathological changes were observed. In the 23 mice, from which blood samples had been taken 4 weeks earlier, no hemorrhage or signs of scar tissue formation could be observed. Histological slides are currently being processed (HE staining) and will be evaluated and discussed....

  10. Blood and urinary concentrations of salbutamol in asthmatic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Henninge, John

    2010-01-01

    Data on blood and urinary concentrations of salbutamol after inhalation and oral administration in healthy subjects are scarce. Accordingly, we examined the pharmacokinetics of inhaled and oral salbutamol in asthmatic subjects....

  11. Blood Sample Transportation by Pneumatic Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Lund, Merete E; Titlestad, Kjell

    2018-01-01

    in blood samples. Studies were extracted from PubMed and Embase. The search period ended November 2016. RESULTS: A total of 39 studies were retrieved. Of these, only 12 studies were conducted on inpatients, mainly intensive care unit patients. Blood gases, hematology, and clinical chemistry were well...... investigated, whereas coagulation, rotational thromboelastometry, and platelet function in acutely ill patients were addressed by only 1 study each. Only a few parameters were affected in a clinically significant way (clotting time parameter in extrinsic system thromboelastometry, pO2 in blood gas, multiplate...

  12. Automated system for fractionation of blood samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, N. E.; Genung, R. K.; Johnson, W. F.; Mrochek, J. E.; Scott, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    A prototype system for preparing multiple fractions of blood components (plasma, washed red cells, and hemolysates) using automated techniques has been developed. The procedure is based on centrifugal separation and differential pressure-induced transfer in a rotor that has been designed to process numerous samples simultaneously. Red cells are sedimented against the outer walls of the sample chamber, and plasma is syphoned, by imposition of eithr a slight positive or negative pressure, into individual reservoirs in a collection ring. Washing of cells is performed in situ; samples of washed cells, either packed or in saline solution, can be recovered. Cellular hemolysates are prepared and automatically transferred to individual, commercially available collection vials ready for storage in liquid nitrogen or immediate analysis. The system has potential application in any biomedical area which requires high sample throughput and in which one or more of the blood fractions will be used. A separate unit has been designed and developed for the semiautomated cleaning of the blood processing vessel.

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis antibody detection in home-collected blood samples for use in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenderboom, B M; van Ess, E F; van den Broek, I V F; van Loo, I H M; Hoebe, C J P A; Ouburg, S; Morré, S A

    2018-01-01

    Capillary blood collected in serum tubes was subjected to centrifugation delay while stored at room temperature. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) IgG concentrations in aliquoted serum of these blood samples remained stable for seven days after collection. CT IgG concentrations can reliably be measured in mailed blood samples in epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Extensive monitoring through multiple blood samples in professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterberg, Mette F; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Krustrup, Peter; Storskov, Anders; Kjær, Michael; Andersen, Jesper L

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to make a comprehensive gathering of consecutive detailed blood samples from professional soccer players and to analyze different blood parameters in relation to seasonal changes in training and match exposure. Blood samples were collected 5 times during a 6-month period and analyzed for 37 variables in 27 professional soccer players from the best Danish league. Additionally, the players were tested for body composition, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and physical performance by the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance submax test (IE2). Multiple variations in blood parameters occurred during the observation period, including a decrease in hemoglobin and an increase in hematocrit as the competitive season progressed. Iron and transferrin were stable, whereas ferritin showed a decrease at the end of the season. The immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgM increased in the period with basal physical training and at the end of the season. Leucocytes decreased with increased physical training. Lymphocytes decreased at the end of the season. The V[Combining Dot Above]O2max decreased toward the end of the season, whereas no significant changes were observed in the IE2 test. The regular blood samples from elite soccer players reveal significant changes that may be related to changes in training pattern, match exposure, or length of the match season. Especially the end of the preparation season and at the end of the competitive season seem to be time points were the blood-derived values indicate that the players are under excessive physical strain and might be more subjected to a possible overreaching-overtraining conditions. We suggest that regular analyses of blood samples could be an important initiative to optimize training adaptation, training load, and game participation, but sampling has to be regular, and a database has to be built for each individual player.

  15. Improving blood sample logistics using simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Pelle Morten Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Using simulation as an approach to display and improve internal logistics and handling at hospitals has great potential. This research will show how a simulation model can be used to evaluate changes made to two different cases of transportation of blood samples at a hospital, by evaluating diffe...... different scenarios against the current situation. The simulation showed that big potential could be obtained by changing the current approach, implementing a pneumatic tube system showed that a reduction in transportation of up to 35 % could be obtained....

  16. Blood donors and factors impacting the blood donation decision: motives for donating blood in Turkish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, Eda; Cengiz Seval, Guldane; Aktan, Zeynep; Ayli, Meltem; Palabiyikoglu, Refia

    2013-12-01

    Donations in Turkey are insufficient to cover the high transfusion needs arising from large numbers of thalassemia and sickle cell anemia patients and increasing demands for blood due to advanced surgery and cancer treatment. The most acceptable means to get blood is voluntary blood donation and the blood donor system in Turkey mostly depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The main aim of this study is to explore the motivations of Turkish voluntary blood donors toward blood donation and to determine predictors of blood donation motivation. A cross-sectional sample survey of active blood donors in Ankara, Turkey was conducted. The sample consisted of 189 male volunteer blood donor adults. Donors filled in a self-administered questionnaire including the measures of demographic information, empathetic concern, altruism, social responsibility and blood donation motivation questionnaire during donation. Factor analysis of Blood Donation Motivation Measure with varimax rotation revealed a three-factor solution named as "values and moral duty", "positive feelings and esteem" and "self-benefit and external reasons". The results with regression analyses showed that only social responsibility had an significant effect independent of age, income, and education on blood donation motivation. These result reflects that blood donation motivation not only linked to a high degree of altruistic reasons, but also to a combination of some self-regarding motives. Additionally, feelings of empathy or altruism may be less strong at the time the decision to help, other factors may have a larger influence on helping decisions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Congener Production in Blood Samples During Preparation and Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Søren; Nielsen, Erik

    1995-01-01

    Retsmedicin, congener production, preparation, head space GC, acetone, isobutanol, storage, blood samples, n-propanol, methanol, methylethylketone......Retsmedicin, congener production, preparation, head space GC, acetone, isobutanol, storage, blood samples, n-propanol, methanol, methylethylketone...

  18. Home readings of blood pressure in assessment of hypertensive subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.E.; Myschetzky, P; Andersen, A R

    1986-01-01

    Out-patient clinic blood pressure (OPC-BP) was compared to home blood pressure (Home-BP) measured three times daily during a two week period in 122 consecutively referred hypertensive subjects. A semi-automatic device (TM-101) including a microphone for detection of Korotkoff-sounds, self......-deflation of cuff pressure and digital display of blood pressure was used. Mean difference between OPC-BP and Home-BP was systolic +13 mm Hg (range -21 - +100 mg Hg) and diastolic +5 mm Hg (range -27 - +36 mm Hg). Although a significant correlation could be demonstrated between Home-BP and OPC-BP, the inter......-individual scatter was pronounced and unpredictable from the hypertensive organ damages. It is argued, that home readings should be used to greater extent in the evaluation of patients with hypertension....

  19. Multidrug resistant Salmonellae isolated from blood culture samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the prevalence of R-plasmids in Salmonella sp. isolated from blood samples of suspected typhoid patients in Warri, Nigeria. A total of 136 blood samples were collected between May and December,2009 and screened for the presence of Salmonellae using standard blood culture techniques of which ...

  20. Postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses to pre-germinated brown rice in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yukihiko; Mizukuchi, Aya; Kise, Mitsuo; Aoto, Hiromichi; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Yoshihara, Rie; Yokoyama, Jyunichi

    2005-08-01

    Effects of pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) on postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations were compared with brown rice (BR) and white rice (WR) in two studies. In the first study, we investigated the time course of postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations after ingesting 25% (W/V) glucose solution, PGBR, BR or WR in 19 healthy young subjects. In the second study, dose-dependent effect of PGBR on the time course of postprandial blood glucose concentrations was compared among 4 different mixtures of PGBR and WR in 13 healthy young subjects. They were solely PGBR, 2/3 PGBR (PGBR: WR = 2 : 1), 1/3 PGBR (PGBR : WR = 1 : 2) and solely WR. Each sample was studied on a different day. The samples were selected randomly by the subjects. All the rice samples contained 50 g of available carbohydrates. The previous day the subjects ate the assigned dinner by 9:00 pm and then were allowed only water until the examination. The next morning, they ingested each test rice sample with 150 ml of water in 5-10 min. Blood was collected into capillary tubes from finger at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after the ingestion. The incremental areas under the curve (IAUC) of blood glucose concentrations (IAUC-Glc) for 120 min after the administration of PGBR and BR were lower than those after WR. In contrast the IAUC-Glc of BR and PGBR were not different (Study 1). The higher the ratio of PGBR/WR, the lower the glycemic index became (Study 2). These results suggest that intake of PGBR instead of WR is effective for the control of postprandial blood glucose concentration without increasing the insulin secretion.

  1. Neonatal blood gas sampling methods | Goenka | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is little published guidance that systematically evaluates the different methods of neonatal blood gas sampling, where each method has its individual benefits and risks. This review critically surveys the available evidence to generate a comparison between arterial and capillary blood gas sampling, focusing on their ...

  2. Effects of post-sampling analysis time, type of blood samples and collection tubes on values of blood gas testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smajić, Jasmina; Kadić, Damira; Hasić, Sabaheta; Serdarević, Nafija

    2015-08-01

    To investigate effects of post-sampling analysis time, a type of blood samples and collection tubes on blood gas testing. This study included 100 patients at the Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases, Clinical Centre Sarajevo. The partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) and carbon dioxide (pCO2), and the oxygen saturation level of hemoglobin (sO2) were analyzed in the arterial blood samples (ABS) and capillary blood samples (CBS) by a potentiometric method using a blood gas analyzer ABL 555 (Radiometer, Copenhagen, Denmark). Paired measurements of ABS were performed within 15 minutes and after 60 minutes from sampling and compared. The results of CBS obtained within 15 minutes were compared with matching ABS results, as well as the results obtained from CBS within 15 minutes taken into glass and plastic tubes. pO2 and sO2 values were significantly lower after 60 minutes compared to those within 15 minutes in ABS (9.20±1.89 vs. 9.51±1.95 and 91.25±5.03 vs. 92.40±4.5; pblood values were not influenced significantly (p>0.05). The length of post-sampling analysis time, a type of blood samples and collection tubes have significant impact on blood oxygen parameters. Analysis within 15 minutes after blood sampling is considered as appropriate. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  3. Non-terminal blood sampling techniques in Guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken Marie

    2014-01-01

    of guinea pigs are slightly different from other rodent models, hence modulation of sampling techniques to accommodate for species-specific differences, e.g., compared to mice and rats, are necessary to obtain sufficient and high quality samples. As both long and short term in vivo studies often require...... repeated blood sampling the choice of technique should be well considered in order to reduce stress and discomfort in the animals but also to ensure survival as well as compliance with requirements of sample size and accessibility. Venous blood samples can be obtained at a number of sites in guinea pigs e.......g., the saphenous and jugular veins, each technique containing both advantages and disadvantages(4,5). Here, we present four different blood sampling techniques for either conscious or anaesthetized guinea pigs. The procedures are all non-terminal procedures provided that sample volumes and number of samples do...

  4. Intensive blood pressure lowering increases cerebral blood flow in older subjects with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryambake, Dinesh; He, Jiabao; Firbank, Michael J; O'Brien, John T; Blamire, Andrew M; Ford, Gary A

    2013-06-01

    Hypertension is associated with reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF). Intensive (blood pressure (BP) lowering in older people might give greater reduction in cardiovascular risk, but there are concerns that this might produce hypoperfusion which may precipitate falls and possibly stroke. We determined the effect of intensive compared with usual BP lowering on CBF in hypertensive older subjects. Individuals aged >70 years with a history of systolic hypertension on 1 or no BP lowering drugs were recruited from primary care (n=37; age, 75±4 years; systolic BP, >150 mm Hg) and randomized to receive intensive (target BP, hypertension increases CBF, compared with BP lowering to usual target. These findings suggest hypertension in older people shifts the autoregulatory CBF curve rightward and downward and is reversible with BP lowering.

  5. Blood pressure variations in Subjects with different Haemoglobin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye Samuel

    variations in blood pressures as well as relating the blood pressures in different haemoglobin. (HB) genotypes to each other. Blood pressures in 20 steady and crisis states SCD patients respectively with 40 apparently healthy heterozygous HB AS and HB AA genotype (age and sex –matched). They were aged between 20 ...

  6. Blood pressure variations in Subjects with different Haemoglobin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous studies on low blood pressure in patients with homozygous sickle cell disease (SCD) have sought various hypotheses on the mechanism of their low blood pressure. However, these studies have not compared the role of the single inheritance of the s-gene in the variations in blood pressures as well as relating the ...

  7. Can we rely on out-of-hospital blood samples? A prospective interventional study on the pre-analytical stability of blood samples under prehospital emergency medicine conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prottengeier, Johannes; Jess, Nicola; Harig, Frank; Gall, Christine; Schmidt, Joachim; Birkholz, Torsten

    2017-03-04

    Prehospital intravenous access provides the opportunity to sample blood from an emergency patient at the earliest possible moment in the course of acute illness and in a state prior to therapeutic interventions. Our study investigates the pre-analytical stability of biomarkers in prehospital emergency medicine and will answer the question whether an approach of blood sampling out in the field will deliver valid laboratory results. We prepared pairs of blood samples from healthy volunteers and volunteering patients post cardio-thoracic surgery. While one sample set was analysed immediately, the other one was subjected to a worse-than-reality treatment of 60 min time-lapse and standardized mechanical forces outside of the hospital through actual ambulance transport. We investigated 21 parameters comprising blood cells, coagulation tests, electrolytes, markers of haemolysis and markers of cardiac ischemia. Bland-Altman analysis was used to investigate differences between test groups. Differences between test groups were set against the official margins of test accuracy as given by the German Requirements for Quality Assurance of Medical Laboratory Examinations. Agreement between immediate analysis and our prehospital treatment is high as demonstrated by Bland-Altman plotting. Mechanical stress and time delay do not produce a systematic bias but only random inaccuracy. The limits of agreement for the tested parameters are generally within clinically acceptable ranges of variation and within the official margins as set by the German Requirements for Quality Assurance of Medical Laboratory Examinations. We subjected blood samples to a standardized treatment marking a worse-than-reality scenario of prehospital time delay and transport. Biomarkers including indicators of myocardial ischemia showed high pre-analytical stability. We conclude the validity of blood samples from a prehospital environment.

  8. Effects of Blood Sample Collection Pre- and Post- Slaughter, Edta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The samples were immediately subjected to Wet mount (WM), Haemotocrit centrifugation test (HCT) and Thin smear (TS) tests. The results revealed that, of the 100 samples examined, 19 (19%) were positive for the presence of Microfilaria spp while 6(6%) yielded Trypanosome spp. Of the 19 samples detected having ...

  9. Extensive monitoring through multiple blood samples in professional soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Mette F; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to make a comprehensive gathering of consecutive detailed blood samples from professional soccer players, and to analyze different blood parameters in relation to seasonal changes in training and match exposure.Blood samples were collected five times during a six...... months period and analyzed for 37 variables in 27 professional soccer players from the best Danish league. Additionally, players were tested for body composition, VO2max and physical performance by the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance sub-max test (IE2).Multiple variations in blood parameters occurred during...... the observation period, including a decrease in hemoglobin and an increase in hematocrit as the competitive season progressed. Iron and transferrin was stabile, whereas ferritin showed a decrease at the end of the season. IgA and IgM increased in the period with basal physical training and at the end...

  10. Automated blood-sample handling in the clinical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godolphin, W; Bodtker, K; Uyeno, D; Goh, L O

    1990-09-01

    The only significant advances in blood-taking in 25 years have been the disposable needle and evacuated blood-drawing tube. With the exception of a few isolated barcode experiments, most sample-tracking is performed through handwritten or computer-printed labels. Attempts to reduce the hazards of centrifugation have resulted in air-tight lids or chambers, the use of which is time-consuming and cumbersome. Most commonly used clinical analyzers require serum or plasma, distributed into specialized containers, unique to that analyzer. Aliquots for different tests are prepared by handpouring or pipetting. Moderate to large clinical laboratories perform so many different tests that even multi-analyzers performing multiple analyses on a single sample may account for only a portion of all tests ordered for a patient. Thus several aliquots of each specimen are usually required. We have developed a proprietary serial centrifuge and blood-collection tube suitable for incorporation into an automated or robotic sample-handling system. The system we propose is (a) safe--avoids or prevents biological danger to the many "handlers" of blood; (b) small--minimizes the amount of sample taken and space required to adapt to the needs of satellite and mobile testing, and direct interfacing with analyzers; (c) serial--permits each sample to be treated according to its own "merits," optimizes throughput, and facilitates flexible automation; and (d) smart--ensures quality results through monitoring and intelligent control of patient identification, sample characteristics, and separation process.

  11. Two samples for blood transfusion: single centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, W; Davies, J; Asamoah, A; Scott-Molloy, C; Sansom, V; Kerr, J

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the introduction of two-sample policy for transfusion at our hospital and reduction of the risk of ABO incompatible transfusion. ABO incompatible transfusion can be a fatal but avoidable event. Wrong blood in tube is a cause of ABO incompatible transfusion and there are various strategies available to try and expunge this event. Survey of policy/practice before and after the introduction of a two-sample policy. Staff training is inadequate in reducing the risk of ABO incompatible transfusion. A two-sample policy was introduced and does not significantly increase workload or use of group O blood and does not compromise patient safety by causing delay in blood provision. Post hoc analysis confirms good understanding of the policy by medical staff. Observation of medical staff taking transfusion samples demonstrated consistent deviation from policy, enforcing the need for confirmatory samples. A two-sample policy adds an extra layer of safety to transfusion practice and can be introduced without creating new problems. © 2014 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2014 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  12. The effects of storage temperature and duration of blood samples on DNA and RNA qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lien-Hung; Lin, Pei-Hsien; Tsai, Kuo-Wang; Wang, Liang-Jen; Huang, Ying-Hsien; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Li, Sung-Chou

    2017-01-01

    DNA and RNA samples from blood are the common examination target for non-invasive physical tests and/or biomedical studies. Since high-quality DNA and RNA samples guarantee the correctness of these tests and/or studies, we investigated the effects of storage temperature and storage duration of whole blood on DNA and RNA qualities. Subjects were enrolled to donate blood samples which were stored for different durations and at different temperatures, followed by the examinations on RNA quality, qPCR, DNA quality and DNA methylation. For RNA, we observed obvious quality decline with storage duration longer than 24 hours. Storage at low temperature does not keep RNA samples from degradation. And, storing whole blood samples in freezer dramatically damage RNA. For DNA, quality decline was not observed even with storage duration for 15 days. However, DNA methylation significantly altered with storage duration longer than three days. Storage duration within 24 hours is critical for collecting high-quality RNA samples for next-generation sequencing (NGS) assays (RIN≧8). If microarray assays are expected (RIN≧7), storage duration within 32 hours is acceptable. Although DNA is resistant within 15 days when kept in whole blood, DNA quantity dramatically decreases owing to WBC lysis. In addition, duration for more than three days significantly alter DNA methylation status, globally and locally. Our result provides a reference for dealing with blood samples.

  13. Single versus duplicate blood samples in ACTH stimulated adrenal vein sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, T.; Arntz, M.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Schultze Kool, L.J.; Sweep, F.C.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Deinum, J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is the preferred test for subtyping primary aldosteronism. However, the procedure is technically demanding and costly. In AVS it is common practice to take duplicate blood samples at each location. In this paper we explore whether a single sample procedure

  14. Effects of blood sample handling procedures on measurable inflammatory markers in plasma, serum and dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogstrand, K.; Thorsen, P.; Vogel, I.

    2008-01-01

    , and 30 days at the same temperatures. 27 inflammatory markers in serum and plasma and 25 markers in DBSS were measured by a previously validated multiplex sandwich immunoassay using Luminex xMAP technology. The measurable concentrations of several cytokines in serum and plasma were significantly......The interests in monitoring inflammation by immunoassay determination of blood inflammatory markers call for information on the stability of these markers in relation to the handling of blood samples. The increasing use of stored biobank samples for such ventures that may have been collected...... increased when blood samples were stored for a period of time before the centrifugation, for certain cytokines more than 1000 fold compared to serum and plasma isolated and frozen immediately after venepuncture. The concentrations in serum generally increased more than in plasma. The measurable...

  15. Ambulatory blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Peter Vilhelm; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1998-01-01

    UAER. Because 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure is a superior predictor of hypertensive target organ involvement, we aimed to investigate blood pressure profile in clinically healthy subjects with elevated UAER. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed with a portable recorder in 27 subjects...... with an elevated UAER (>6.6 microg/min, overnight urine collection) and 46 normoalbuminuric control subjects. Mean+/-SD systolic and diastolic ambulatory blood pressures (24-hour) were significantly higher in subjects with elevated UAER than in normoalbuminuric controls (134+/-12 versus 128+/-11 mm Hg and 78...

  16. Estimations of cholesterol, triglycerides and fractionation of lipoproteins in serum samples of some Nigerian female subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Adeyeye

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples (serum were collected to determine some biochemical parameters: total glycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C in 53 female subjects in Warri, Delta State, Nigeria using the Reflotron® (an auto analyser, supported with the use of questionnaire to get information on age and sex. Age range of the subjects was 18–80 years. The TG levels in all the subjects were < 200 mg/dL; only one subject (1.89% had TC < 200 mg/dL; nine subjects (17.0% had HDL-C ≤ 35 mg/dL; for LDL-C only one subject (1.89% had a desirable level of < 130 mg/dL; for VLDL-C 29 subjects (54.7% had values 17.2 mg/dL and above. For therapeutic decision-making, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C, were calculated. In TC/HDL-C, three subjects (5.66% had values < 4.4 and in LDL-C/HDL-C, 41 subjects (77.4% had values < 4.5. Hence, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, TC/HDL-C and slightly LDL-C/HDL-C and VLDL-C in the subjects could lead to increase coronary heart diseases. Results were matched for the age and sex of subjects.

  17. Whole blood rotation thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) profiles in subjects with non-neoplastic portal vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Valeria; Spiezia, Luca; Senzolo, Marco; Rodriguez-Castro, Kryssia I; Maggiolo, Sara; Simioni, Paolo

    2013-08-01

    The coagulation pattern and the determinants of portal vein thrombosis (PVT), both in patients with and without cirrhosis, are still largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate whole blood thromboelastometry profile, performed by ROTEM®, of both cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic subjects with PVT. Two different groups were considered: i) 14 non-cirrhotic PVT patients, ii) 35 cirrhotic patients with PVT. Controls were sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers and cirrhotic subjects without PVT, respectively. ROTEM® assays (i.e. INTEM, EXTEM, NATEM, and FIBTEM) and traditional coagulative parameters (i.e. platelet count, PT/INR, aPTT, and fibrinogen) were performed on blood samples from each subject. There were no significant differences in ROTEM® profile, as for INTEM, EXTEM, and NATEM assays, and in traditional coagulative parameters, between PVT patients, both with and without cirrhosis, and control groups. Interestingly, Maximum Clot Firmness (MCF) in FIBTEM was significantly higher in non-cirrhotic PVT patients (19 mm) than in healthy volunteers (11 mm, p<0.05). The amplitude of MCF in FIBTEM revealed to be a useful tool to discriminate non-cirrhotic subjects with PVT from those without thrombotic events. Larger prospective studies are needed to evaluate the relevance of the association between the alterations of ROTEM® profiles and PVT in cirrhotic patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficiency of Extraction of Trace metals from Blood samples using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    Efficiency of Extraction of Trace metals from Blood samples using Wet Digestion and. Microwave Digestion Techniques. *1M. I. YAHAYA; A. SHEHU; F.G. DABAI. Department of Applied Chemistry, Federal University Dutsin – Ma, Katsina State, Nigeria. Biology Department, Kebbi State College of Basic and Advanced Studies ...

  19. Neonatal blood gas sampling methods | Goenka | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indwelling arterial catheters are a practical, reliable and accurate method of measuring acid-base parameters, provided they are inserted and maintained with the proper care. Capillary blood gas sampling is accurate, and a good substitute for radial 'stab' arterial puncture, avoiding many of the complications of repeated ...

  20. Fetal scalp blood sampling in labor - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Stener; Weber, Tom

    2014-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s, electronic fetal monitoring and fetal scalp blood sampling (FBS) were introduced without robust evidence. With a methodical review of the published literature, and using one randomized controlled trial, seven controlled studies, nine randomized studies of various surve...

  1. Validation of a Blood Stability Score as an easy-to-use blood sample quality index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, N; Kirchbichler, A; Banuls, O; Mader, M; Aikin, R; Sottas, P-E; D'Onofrio, G

    2016-12-01

    The athlete biological passport (ABP) was implemented based on conservative requirements on sample storage and transport to ensure blood integrity. Blood remains stable over periods longer than the currently employed time limits. We investigated whether time and temperature requirements for sample storage can be used in a flexible model rather than based on fixed limits. A literature review was performed analyzing the stability blood variables. A Blood Stability Score (BSS) was derived to integrate the direct dependence of the degradation rate on temperature. A validation study was then carried out in real testing conditions with antidoping blood samples. Upon sample reception, a full blood count was obtained, and then again after refrigeration for an extended period. A BSS formula integrating storage temperature (T) and collection to analysis time (CAT) was developed: BSS = CAT + 3 × T. In real testing conditions, negligible differences were observed for some variable as BSS values approached a score of 95, while no difference was observed in HGB and RET%. This study confirms that samples can be transported for longer periods and that the adaptive time and temperature approach as formalized in a rule that the BSS should not exceed 85 guarantees the stability of RBC variables used in the ABP. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. [Verification of complete blood cell count (CBC) data from heparinized blood gas samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoguchi, Takafumi; Fujii, Seiji; Inuzumi, Koji; Kaminoh, Yoshiroh; Hirose, Munetaka; Masaki, Mitsuru; Koshiba, Masahiro

    2014-02-01

    Complete blood cell count (CBC) data from heparinized blood gas (H-Gas) samples were verified with primary focus on the platelet count (PLT). When a part of H-Gas sample was taken to a separation tube from the blood collection syringe and CBC of the sample in the separation tube was repeatedly measured (Procedure 1), the PLT from 5 samples relative to that obtained immediately after the separation was gradually reduced to 72.6-94.2% during serial measurements (every 5 minutes, up to 30 minutes). The change in the scattergram pattern suggested that this PLT decrease was due to the formation of platelet clumps. The white blood cell count (WBC), red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Ht) values did not significantly change during the repeated measurements. On the other hand, PLT was significantly improved to 96.8-99.8% when the H-Gas sample was kept in the blood collection syringe so as to minimizing the exposure to the air, and the sample for the measurement from H-Gas was taken every time to separation tube from the syringe, followed by CBC measurement without delay (Procedure 2). In addition, while there were significant variations (CV: 11.8-18.2%) in PLT reproducibility among H-Gas samples by Procedure 1, measurements utilizing the Procedure 2 resulted in much smaller variations (CV: 2.2-3.7%). Thus the CBC data obtained from H-Gas samples were equivalent to those from EDTA samples when the Procedure 2 was applied. These data suggest that H-Gas samples can be used for the accurate CBC measurement, including PLT, by applying the Procedure 2.

  3. Quantification of multiple elements in dried blood spot samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Lise; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Hollergaard, Mads; Nybo, Mads

    2017-08-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) is a unique matrix that offers advantages compared to conventional blood collection making it increasingly popular in large population studies. We here describe development and validation of a method to determine multiple elements in DBS. Elements were extracted from punches and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method was evaluated with quality controls with defined element concentration and blood spiked with elements to assess accuracy and imprecision. DBS element concentrations were compared with concentrations in venous blood. Samples with different hematocrit were spotted onto filter paper to assess hematocrit effect. The established method was precise and accurate for measurement of most elements in DBS. There was a significant but relatively weak correlation between measurement of the elements Mg, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, As and Se in DBS and venous whole blood. Hematocrit influenced the DBS element measurement, especially for K, Fe and Zn. Trace elements can be measured with high accuracy and low imprecision in DBS, but contribution of signal from the filter paper influences measurement of some elements present at low concentrations. Simultaneous measurement of K and Fe in DBS extracts may be used to estimate sample hematocrit. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Markers infectious agent in the cord blood samples public register of donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Smoljaninov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the distribution of markers of infectious agents in umbilical cord blood samples Pokrovskij public stem cell bank donor registry for five years (2009 – 2013.Materials and Methods. 3533 plasma samples were investigatedafter selection during cord blood processing procedure for allogeneic use in Pokrovskij stem cell bank. All plasma samples were investigated in accordance with the Order of the Ministry of Health № 325 – 2003 by enzymelinked immunoassay method. In addition, during the period from November 2011 to December 2013 1030 plasma samples of umbilical cord blood were examined for the presence of HCV RNA, the RNA of HIV and HBV DNA.Results. Markers of the agents above have not been found in the plasma of 481 samples (13.6%. During the described period, no significant change in the share of samples containing antibodies to cytomegalovirus and toxoplasmosis (cytomegalovirus – 1978 samples (56%, Toxoplasma gondii – 112 samples (3.2%, 825 samples (23.4% cytomegalovirus and Toxoplasma gondii simultaneously were registered. 137 samples (3.9% were subjected to utilization in connection with detection of antibodies to HbcorAg – 116 samples (3.3%, antibodies to HCV – five samples (0.14%, and antibodies to Treponema pallidum – 16 samples (0.45%.Conclusion. The introduction of an additional method of polymerase chain reaction for the detection of nucleic acids of hepatitis viruses B, C, human immunodeficiency virus, along with study of cord blood samples by enzyme-linked immunoassay improve the quality of the control of the transmission of blood-borne infections.

  5. Blood sampling and hemolysis affect concentration of plasma metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to reveal and quantify plasma metabolites that are sensitive to hemolysis and animal stress due to the blood sampling procedure (vein puncture vs. catheter). In Exp. 1, 48 sows were fed 4 diets either once (0800 h) or twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) in a crossover...... design and blood was collected after restraint via vein puncture 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding. Plasma samples were categorized as without or with minor or major hemolysis [clear (n = 218), yellow (n = 97), or red (n = 37)] upon centrifugation. Plasma NEFA (P ... samples but plasma propionate, caproate, isovalerate (P hemolysis. Interactions with hemolysis and other fixed effects were not found (P > 0.05). In Exp. 2...

  6. Codeine to morphine concentration ratios in samples from living subjects and autopsy cases after incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg-Pedersen, Riikka Mari; Ripel, Ase; Karinen, Ritva; Vevelstad, Merete; Bachs, Liliana; Vindenes, Vigdis

    2014-03-01

    The codeine to morphine concentration ratio is used in forensic toxicology to assess if codeine has been ingested alone or if morphine and/or heroin have been ingested in addition. In our experience, this interpretation is more difficult in autopsy cases compared with samples from living persons, since high morphine concentrations are observed in cases where only codeine is assumed to have been ingested. We have investigated if codeine and morphine glucuronides are subject to cleavage to the same extent in living and autopsy cases in vitro. We included whole blood samples from eight living subjects and nine forensic autopsy cases, where only codeine ingestion was suspected. All samples were incubated for 2 weeks at 37°C and analyzed for codeine and six codeine metabolites using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A reduction in the codeine to morphine concentration ratio was found, both in samples from living subjects (mean 33%, range 22-50%) and autopsy cases (mean 37%, range 13-54%). The increase in the morphine concentrations was greater in the autopsy cases (mean 85%, max 200%) compared with that of the living cases (mean 51%, max 87%). No changes were seen for codeine or codeine-6-glucuronide concentrations. The altered ratios might mislead the forensic toxicologist to suspect morphine or heroin consumption in cases where only codeine has been ingested.

  7. Lactate influx into red blood cells from trained and untrained human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, M S; Kremer, D E; Smith, E W; Gladden, L B

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the fractional contributions of the three pathways of lactate transport (band 3 system, nonionic diffusion, and monocarboxylate pathway) into red blood cells (RBC) from trained and untrained humans. Blood samples were obtained from 19 male subjects: 5 untrained, 5 aerobically-trained, 5 competitive collegiate cross-country runners, and 4 competitive collegiate sprinters. The influx of lactate into the RBC was measured by a radioactive tracer technique using [14C]lactate. Discrimination of each pathway of lactate transport was achieved by using PCMBS (1 mM) to block the monocarboxylate pathway and DIDS (0.2 mM) to block the band 3 system. Nonionic diffusion was calculated as the difference between total lactate influx and the sum of band 3 and monocarboxylate lactate influx. Total lactate influx into the RBC from the more aerobic individuals (trained subjects and cross-country runners) was significantly faster at 1.6 mM lactate concentration ([La]) as compared with the influx into RBC of the untrained subjects. Total influx of lactate was significantly higher (P untrained subjects at 41 mM [La]. There were no significant differences among the four groups with regard to the total influx of lactate at 4.1, 8.1, and 20 mM [La]. In general, the percentage of total lactate influx accounted for by each of the three parallel pathways at 1.6, 8.1, and 41.0 mM [La] was not different among the four groups of subjects. Overall, the groups were more similar than different with regard to RBC lactate influx.

  8. Molecular recognition of HER-1 in whole-blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldoveanu, Iuliana; Stanciu Gavan, Camelia; Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana

    2014-11-01

    Multimode sensing was proposed for molecular screening and recognition of HER-1 in whole blood. The tools used for molecular recognition were platforms based on nanostructured materials such as the complex of Mn(III) with meso-tetra (4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin, and maltodextrin (dextrose equivalence between 4 and 7), immobilized in diamond paste, graphite paste or C60 fullerene paste. The identification of HER-1 in whole-blood samples, at molecular level, is performed using stochastic mode and is followed by the quantification of it using stochastic and differential pulse voltammetry modes. HER-1 can be identified in the concentration range between 280 fg/ml and 4.86 ng/ml using stochastic mode, this making possible the early detection of cancers such as gastrointestinal, pancreatic and lung cancers. The recovery tests performed using whole-blood samples proved that the platforms can be used for identification and quantification of HER-1 with high sensitivity and reliability in such samples, these making them good molecular screening tools. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Appropriate timing of blood sampling for blood gas analysis in the ventilated rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sei, Kiguna; Fujita, Masanori; Okawa, Shinpei; Hirasawa, Takeshi; Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Sasa, Hidenori; Furuya, Kenichi; Ishihara, Miya

    2016-12-01

    Arterial and venous blood gas analyses (BGAs) are essential to evaluate devices that measure biological oxygenation. The appropriate timing of blood sampling for BGA after respiratory rate (RR) change in animal experiments has not been reported. This study investigated the appropriate timing of blood sampling for BGA in ventilated rabbits and whether venous samples are an alternative to arterial samples. Under general anesthesia, 14 rabbits (body weight, 3.02 ± 0.09 kg) were ventilated and their RR was changed (40/min, 30/min, and 20/min). Blood was sampled through cervical arterial and venous catheters. Experiment 1: in seven rabbits, arterial BGA was measured at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 min after the RR change. Experiment 2: in seven different rabbits, simultaneous arterial and venous BGA were measured at 0, 2, 5, 10, 15, and 20 min after the RR change. Oxygen partial pressure (PO2) and saturation (SO2) of the arterial blood stabilized 0.5 min after the RR changed. In venous BGA, no index stabilized during observation. The arterial and venous values of the carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) and pH had significant correlations (arterial PCO2 = 0.9316 × venous PCO2-4.4425 [r = 0.9178]; arterial pH = 1.0835 × venous pH-0.5795 [r = 0.9453]). In ventilated rabbits, arterial PO2 and SO2 stabilized in 0.5 min. No venous value stabilized after the RR change. Only the PCO2 and pH of venous samples may be an alternative to arterial samples under the defined formula. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Low prevalence of connexin-40 gene variants in atrial tissues and blood from atrial fibrillation subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchou Gregory D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The atrial gap junction protein connexin-40 (Cx40 has been implicated to play an important role in atrial conduction and development of atrial fibrillation (AF. However, the frequency of Cx40 mutations in AF populations and their impact on Cx40 expression remains unclear. In this study, we sought to identify polymorphisms in the Cx40 gene GJA5, investigate the potential functional role of these polymorphisms, and determine their allelic frequencies. The prevalence of nonsynonymous Cx40 mutations in blood and atrial tissue was also compared to mutation frequencies reported in prior studies. Methods We conducted direct sequencing of the GJA5 coding and 3′ UTR regions in blood samples from 91 lone AF subjects and 67 atrial tissue-derived samples from a lone cohort, a mixed AF cohort, and several transplant donors. Reporter gene transfection and tissue allelic expression imbalance assays were used to assess the effects of a common insertion/deletion polymorphism on Cx40 mRNA stability and expression. Results We identified one novel synonymous SNP in blood-derived DNA from a lone AF subject. In atrial tissue-derived DNA from lone and mixed AF subjects, we observed one novel nonsynonymous SNP, one rare previously reported synonymous SNP, and one novel 3′ UTR SNP. A previously noted 25 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the 3′ UTR was found to be common (minor allele frequency = 0.45 but had no effect on Cx40 mRNA stability and expression. The observed prevalence of nonsynonymous Cx40 mutations in atrial tissues derived from lone AF subjects differed significantly (p = 0.03 from a prior atrial tissue study reporting a high mutation frequency in a group of highly selected young lone AF subjects. Conclusions Our results suggest that Cx40 coding SNPs are uncommon in AF populations, although rare mutations in this gene may certainly lead to AF pathogenesis. Furthermore, a common insertion/deletion polymorphism in the Cx40 3

  11. Physiological and Pathological Impact of Blood Sampling by Retro-Bulbar Sinus Puncture and Facial Vein Phlebotomy in Laboratory Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Anne Charlotte; Nygaard Madsen, Andreas; Holst, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    time points, and the samples were analyzed for plasma corticosterone. Body weights were measured at the day of blood sampling and the day after blood sampling, and the food consumption was recorded automatically during the 24 hours post-procedure. At the end of study, cheeks and orbital regions were...... weight following blood sampling, but the body weight loss was higher in mice subjected to facial vein phlebotomy. The food consumption was not significantly different between the two groups. At gross necropsy, subcutaneous hematomas were found in both groups and the histopathological analyses revealed...

  12. Intrapartum fetal surveillance : Monitoring fetal oxygenation with fetal blood sampling and umbilical cord blood analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, P; Slager, E; Fauser, B; VanGeijn, H; Brolmann, H; Vervest, H

    2005-01-01

    Although electronic fetal heart rate monitoring remains the most popular technique for fetal surveillance during labour, there is much concern about the ever rising Caesarean section rate, probably partly due to this practice. Fetal blood sampling is still the gold standard when it comes to

  13. High plasma corticosterone levels persist during frequent automatic blood sampling in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Adem, Bashir; Royo, Felix

    2005-01-01

    the importance of considering the frequency of blood withdrawal during automated blood sampling. This parameter may have an impact on the experimental results when using blood corticosterone levels as a stress marker, but also during any in vivo study where blood is collected, since high corticosterone levels......Corticosterone levels in blood may be used as a marker of stress in rodents, provided that the blood sampling procedure itself is non-stressful. Automated blood sampling equipment (Accusampler) allows blood sampling without any interference with the animal and might be useful as a tool for an on......-line measurement of stress markers in blood. However, the impact of the blood sampling itself on the corticosterone levels in blood is unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate whether the frequency of blood sampling influences the plasma corticosterone levels in male and female rats. During anaesthesia...

  14. Impact of blood sampling in very preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, L P; Rasmussen, M K; Bjerregaard, L L

    2000-01-01

    In a prospective investigation, 99 very preterm infants (gestational age (GA) 24 32 weeks, birthweight 560-2,255 g) were studied during the first 4 weeks of life. The infants were divided into two groups: infants born extremely early (GA <28 weeks, n = 20) and infants of GA 28 - 32 weeks; the gro......In a prospective investigation, 99 very preterm infants (gestational age (GA) 24 32 weeks, birthweight 560-2,255 g) were studied during the first 4 weeks of life. The infants were divided into two groups: infants born extremely early (GA .../kg. For the extremely preterm infants a significant correlation between sampled and transfused blood volume was found (mean 37.1 and 33.3 ml/kg, respectively, r = + 0.71, p = 0.0003). The most frequently requested analyses were glucose, sodium and potassium. Few blood gas analyses were requested (1.9/ infant). No blood...... in extremely preterm, critically ill infants. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Apr...

  15. Sustained improvement in blood lipids, coagulation, and fibrinolysis after major weight loss in obese subjects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marckmann, P; Toubro, S; Astrup, A

    1998-01-01

    To study whether major weight loss causes sustained improvement in blood lipids and haemostatic profile in obese subjects, and to compare the influence of two different slimming and maintenance regimens...

  16. Isoflavonoids do not inhibit in vivo lipid peroxidation in subjects with high-normal blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, J M; Puddey, I B; Croft, K D; Mori, T A; Rivera, J; Beilin, L J

    1999-07-01

    The isoflavonoids genistein and daidzein have been shown to have antioxidant activity in vitro, but their effects on in vivo oxidation have not been assessed. The newly described F2-isoprostanes are believed to currently represent the best available marker of in vivo lipid peroxidation. Therefore we have assessed the effects of a 55 mg daily isoflavonoid supplement on urinary F2-isoprostane concentrations in subjects with high-normal blood pressure (BP). A total of 59 subjects completed an 8-week parallel design, randomized, double blind, and placebo-controlled study. F2-isoprostanes, isoflavonoids and creatinine were measured in 24-h urine samples taken at baseline and at the end of the intervention. There were significant increases in urinary excretion of genistein (5.22+/-0.75 mg/day, P genistein and daidzein excretion were not significantly correlated with changes in F2-isoprostanes in the isoflavonoid treatment group. These results are not consistent with the suggestion that the two soy derived isoflavonoids have in vivo antioxidant activity at a level of intake achievable by dietary means and in subjects with high-normal BP.

  17. Prognostic value of the morning blood pressure surge in 5645 subjects from 8 populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yan; Thijs, Lutgarde; Hansen, Tine W

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies on the prognostic significance of the morning blood pressure surge (MS) produced inconsistent results. Using the International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcome, we analyzed 5645 subjects (mean age: 53.0 years; 54.0% women) randomly...

  18. Sources of variability of resting cerebral blood flow in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Otto Mølby; Kruuse, Christina Rostrup; Olesen, Jes

    2013-01-01

    measurements acquired in 152 healthy, young subjects using (133)Xe single-photon emission computed tomography. Cerebral blood flow was correlated positively with both end-tidal expiratory PCO2 (PETCO2) and female gender and inversely with hematocrit (Hct). Between- and within-subject CO2 reactivity......Measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) show large variability among healthy subjects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relative effect of established factors influencing CBF on the variability of resting CBF. We retrospectively analyzed spontaneous variability in 430 CBF...... was not significantly different. Including PETCO2, Hct and gender in the model reduced between-subject and within-subject variance by 14% and 13.5%, respectively. Within-subject variability was mainly influenced by PETCO2 and between-subject variability mostly by Hct, whereas gender appeared to be of little added value...

  19. Comparison of fingertip to arterial blood samples at rest and during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavorsky, Gerald S; Lands, Larry C; Schneider, Wolfgang; Carli, Franco

    2005-07-01

    The purpose was to determine whether arterialized fingertip blood-gas samples are comparable to arterial samples at rest and at exercise. Repeated measures, with subjects serving as their own controls. Department of Anesthesia, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, (January to April 2004). Fifteen healthy men (age = 25 +/- 4 y; weight = 76.4 +/- 11.4 kg; height = 180.7 +/- 8.0 cm; peak oxygen uptake or VO2peak = 46.0 +/- 9.0 mL . kg . min). Arterial blood gases, metabolites, electrolytes. Blood sampled simultaneously from the radial artery and warmed fingertip at rest and during 2 levels of exercise (vigorous 181 W or 70% VO2peak; maximal 261 W or 100% VO2peak) on a electronically braked ergometer. Arterial partial pressure of oxygen in blood combining rest and the 2 exercise levels was on average 13.6 +/- 9.0 mm Hg higher than arterialized fingertip samples, with the largest difference occurring at rest (18.8 +/- 6.5 mm Hg; 95% CI = 15.5, 22.1) and the smallest difference occurring at the highest level of exercise (8.3 +/- 9.2 mm Hg; 95% CI = 3.6, 13.0; P arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation or arterial oxygen pressure.

  20. Forensic Identification of Human Blood: comparison of two one-step presumptive tests for blood screening of crime scene samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Flávia Belchior Andrade; Maria Emília Cambria Guimaro Siqueira; Luciano Chaves Arantes; Larissa Silva Queiroz; Rayane Luiza Viegas Silva; Eduardo Dias Ramalho

    2014-01-01

    Blood is the most common body fluid found at crime scenes. One-step presumptive tests have been designed as a rapid immunological test for the qualitative detection of human hemoglobin in stool samples (faecal occult blood) their usefulness for forensic purposes has been demonstrated before. In this study we compare Hexagon OBTI kit and FOB One-step Bioeasy kit sensitivity in the analysis of diluted blood samples. With Hexagon OBTI, positive test results are achieved in whole blood dilutions ...

  1. Anxiety and cerebral blood flow during behavioral challenge. Dissociation of central from peripheral and subjective measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zohar, J.; Insel, T.R.; Berman, K.F.; Foa, E.B.; Hill, J.L.; Weinberger, D.R.

    1989-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between anxiety and regional cerebral blood flow, we administered behavioral challenges to 10 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder while measuring regional cerebral blood flow with the xenon 133 inhalation technique. Each patient was studied under three conditions: relaxation, imaginal flooding, and in vivo (actual) exposure to the phobic stimulus. Subjective anxiety, obsessive-compulsive ratings, and autonomic measures (heart rate, blood pressure) increased significantly, but respiratory rate and PCO/sub 2/ did not change across the three conditions. Regional cerebral blood flow increased slightly (in the temporal region) during imaginal flooding, but decreased markedly in several cortical regions during in vivo exposure, when anxiety was highest by subjective and peripheral autonomic measures. These results demonstrate that intense anxiety can be associated with decreased rather than increased cortical perfusion and that ostensibly related states of anxiety (eg, anticipatory and obsessional anxiety) may be associated with opposite effects on regional cerebral blood flow.

  2. Effect of whey on blood glucose and insulin responses to composite breakfast and lunch meals in type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frid, Anders H; Nilsson, Mikael; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whey proteins have insulinotropic effects and reduce the postprandial glycemia in healthy subjects. The mechanism is not known, but insulinogenic amino acids and the incretin hormones seem to be involved. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate whether supplementation of meals with a high ...... insulin release and reduces postprandial blood glucose excursion after a lunch meal consisting of mashed potatoes and meatballs in type 2 diabetic subjects....... glycemic index (GI) with whey proteins may increase insulin secretion and improve blood glucose control in type 2 diabetic subjects. DESIGN: Fourteen diet-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes were served a high-GI breakfast (white bread) and subsequent high-GI lunch (mashed potatoes with meatballs......). The breakfast and lunch meals were supplemented with whey on one day; whey was exchanged for lean ham and lactose on another day. Venous blood samples were drawn before and during 4 h after breakfast and 3 h after lunch for the measurement of blood glucose, serum insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic...

  3. Natural Antioxidants Improve Red Blood Cell “Survival” in Non-Leukoreduced Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya V Kucherenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood collected in an anticoagulant can be kept refrigerated in an unmodified state within 5 - 6 weeks. Oxidative damage is considered to be a one of the major factors contributing to the development of storage lesions. Lipid and membrane proteins oxidation results in changes in cation gradients that affect the cell survival. Aim: In the present study we used the natural antioxidants and ion channels blockers (L-carnosine, spermine, phloretin and their mixtures to prolong “survival” of red blood cells (RBCs, measured as the lack of PS exposure and cell hemolysis, in the Alsever's preservative solution upon hypothermic storage. Results: We show that the mixture of carnosine (20 mM, spermine (20 µM and phloretin (100 µM effectively blunted phosphatidylserine (PS exposure, Ca2+ accumulation and RBCs hemolysis in non-leukoreduced low (∼2% hematocrit samples after 36 days of storage as well as after 1 day of post-storage incubation of the stored cells in physiological saline solution. In addition, a slight but significant decrease in PS exposure was observed in non-leukoreduced high (∼20% hematocrit samples after 36 days of storage with the mixture of substances. Conclusion: We conclude that the use of the mixture of natural antioxidants (carnosine, spermine, and phloretin as an additive to blood preservative solution provides better RBCs storage and “survival”.

  4. The influence of blood sample storage time on the propofol concentration in plasma and solid blood elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, A L; Fijalkowska, A; Nestorowicz, A; Fornal, E

    2001-10-01

    In order to describe the changes of propofol concentration in whole blood and in its components during the blood storage we examined venous blood samples collected from patients anaesthetized either with or without propofol. Blood samples from patients anaesthetized without propofol were spike with propofol 45 min before analysis. Propofol concentration was examined in whole blood, plasma, rinsed formed elements and rinsed and lysed formed blood elements by means of HPLC after 1, 4, 7, 13, 21, 25 and 28 days of storage. There was significant decrease in plasma concentration of propofol during the first few days of sample storage followed by its increase during subsequent days. The opposite phenomenon was observed for formed blood elements. The findings support the hypothesis that propofol distribution between blood components changes in time. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Sample collection guidelines for trace elements in blood and urine. IUPAC Commission of Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, R; Heinzow, B; Herber, R F; Christensen, J M; Poulsen, O M; Sabbioni, E; Templeton, D M; Thomassen, Y; Vahter, M; Vesterberg, O

    1996-06-01

    This paper presents an organized system for element-specific sample collection and handling of human blood (whole blood, serum or plasma, packed cells or erythrocytes) and urine also indicating a proper definition of the subject and sample. Harmonized procedures for collection, preparation, analysis and quality control are suggested. The aim is to assist scientists worldwide to produce comparable data which will be useful on a regional, national and international scale. The guidelines are directed to the elements aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, lithium, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium and zinc. These include the most important elements measured for their occupational or clinical significance, and serve as examples of principles that will guide development of methods for other elements in the future.

  6. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megumi Kido

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m2 consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into

  7. Acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on blood glucose and polysomnography levels in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Megumi; Asakawa, Akihiro; Koyama, Ken-Ichiro K; Takaoka, Toshio; Tajima, Aya; Takaoka, Shigeru; Yoshizaki, Yumiko; Okutsu, Kayu; Takamine, Kazunori T; Sameshima, Yoshihiro; Inui, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Background. Alcohol consumption is a lifestyle factor associated with type 2 diabetes. This relationship is reportedly different depending on the type of alcohol beverage. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of traditional Japanese alcohol beverages on biochemical parameters, physical and emotional state, and sleep patterns. Methods. Six healthy subjects (three men and three women; age, 28.8 ± 9.5 years; body mass index, 21.4 ± 1.6 kg/m(2)) consumed three different types of alcohol beverages (beer, shochu, and sake, each with 40 g ethanol) or mineral water with dinner on different days in the hospital. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, and 12 h after drinking each beverage, and assessments of physical and emotional state were administered at the same time. In addition, sleep patterns and brain waves were examined using polysomnography. Results. Blood glucose levels at 1 h and the 12-h area under the curve (AUC) value after drinking shochu were significantly lower than that with water and beer. The 12-h blood insulin AUC value after drinking shochu was significantly lower than that with beer. Blood glucose × insulin level at 1 h and the 2-h blood glucose × insulin AUC value with shochu were significantly lower than that with beer. The insulinogenic indexes at 2 h with beer and sake, but not shochu, were significantly higher than that with water. The visual analogue scale scores of physical and emotional state showed that the tipsiness levels with beer, shochu, and sake at 1 h were significantly higher than that with water. These tipsiness levels were maintained at 2 h. The polysomnography showed that the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency with shochu and sake were shorter than that with water and beer. Conclusions. Acute consumption of alcohol beverages with a meal resulted in different responses in postprandial glucose and insulin levels as well as REM sleep latency. Alcohol beverage type should be taken into consideration

  8. Identification of a suitable internal control for fluorescence analysis on canine peripheral blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riondato, F; Martini, V; Poggi, A; Rota, A; Comazzi, S; Sulce, M; Bruno, B; Borrelli, A; Miniscalco, B

    2016-04-01

    Reliable detection of fluorescence intensity (FI) by flow cytometry (FC) is fundamental. FI depends on instrument settings and sample processing procedures: thus, measurements should be done using internal controls with known FI. Commercially available beads-based standards are expensive, thus reducing their usability in the veterinary practice. Cell subsets with stable mean FI (MFI) within the population have been proposed as acceptable surrogates in human medicine. In veterinary medicine, no data exist about stability of antigen expression among different subjects or upon sample storage. The aim of the present study was to evaluate MFI variability of main lymphocytes antigens among the lymphoid cells within each subject, among different subjects, and upon 24-h storage, in order to identify the antigen most suitable as stable internal control in MFI analyses. Peripheral blood samples from 18 healthy dogs were analysed by FC within 3h from sampling to assess the expression of CD3, CD5, CD4, CD8, CD21 and cyCD79b using conjugated monoclonal antibodies. Analyses were restricted to the lymphoid population. Fluorescent microbeads were added to each tube, and antigen MFI was calculated as Relative Fluorescence Intensity RFI (CD/beads). Fluorescence histogram CV (fhCV) for each CD was regarded as an index of the variability of expression among lymphocytes within each subject (cell-to-cell variability); whereas the CV of RFI was regarded as an index of inter-subjects variability (dog-to-dog variability). In 11 cases, FC analyses were repeated after 24h storage at 4°C and RFI and CVs of fresh and stored samples were compared to assess variability linked to storage. CD4 was identified as the best antigen to be used as an internal control for MFI analyses in canine peripheral blood samples because of low cell-to-cell and dog-to-dog variability, and optimal stability upon 24-h storage. Blood samples from a second group of 21 healthy dogs were labelled only with CD4, in order

  9. Determination of hematocrit interference in blood samples derived from patients with different blood glucose concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas; Schipper, Christina; Ramljak, Sanja; Flacke, Frank; Sieber, Jochen; Forst, Thomas; Musholt, Petra B

    2013-01-01

    We performed a blood glucose meter hematocrit (HCT) interference test with lower sample manipulation requirements by using blood samples from patients with different blood glucose (BG) levels. Blood from five patients with different BG levels (2.8, 5.6, 8.3, 13.9, 19.4 mmol/liter) was manipulated to contain five different HCT concentrations (35/40/45/50/55%). Each sample was measured three times in parallel with 14 BG testing devices (reference method: YSI 2300 STAT Plus™ Glucose Analyzer). The largest mean deviations in both directions from the reference method (normalized to 100% at 45% HCT) were added as a measure for hematocrit interference factor (HIF). A HIF >10% was considered to represent clinically relevant HCT interference. Few devices showed no clinically relevant HCT interference at high/low BG levels: BGStar® (7.2%, 7.3%), iBGStar® (9.0%, 8.6%), Contour® (10.0%, 4.6%), OneTouch® Verio™ 2 (10.0%, 5.2%), and GlucoMen® LX (7.2%, 5.1%). Other devices showed interference at one or both glucose ranges: ACCU-CHEK® Aviva (12.6%, 10.7%), Aviva Nano (7.2%, 10.5%), Breeze2 (3.6%, 30.2%), GlucoCard G+ (12.6%, 7.0%), OneTouch® Ultra®2 (12.6%, 25.6%), FreeStyle Freedom Lite® (9.0%, 11.0%), Precision Xceed (16.2%, 15.3%), and MediTouch® (19.8%, 28.0%). The deviations in all devices were less pronounced in the HCT range of 35-50%. The results of this trial with less sample manipulation (HCT only) confirmed previous examinations with HCT and glucose manipulation. The same devices showed HCT stability as previously observed. Artificial sample manipulation may be less crucial than expected when evaluating HCT interference. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  10. Controlled vaporized cannabis, with and without alcohol: subjective effects and oral fluid-blood cannabinoid relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Rebecca L; Brown, Timothy L; Milavetz, Gary; Spurgin, Andrew; Gorelick, David A; Gaffney, Gary; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-07-01

    Vaporized cannabis and concurrent cannabis and alcohol intake are commonplace. We evaluated the subjective effects of cannabis, with and without alcohol, relative to blood and oral fluid (OF, advantageous for cannabis exposure screening) cannabinoid concentrations and OF/blood and OF/plasma vaporized-cannabinoid relationships. Healthy adult occasional-to-moderate cannabis smokers received a vaporized placebo or active cannabis (2.9% and 6.7% Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol, THC) with or without oral low-dose alcohol (~0.065g/210L peak breath alcohol concentration [BrAC]) in a within-subjects design. Blood and OF were collected up to 8.3 h post-dose and subjective effects measured at matched time points with visual-analogue scales and 5-point Likert scales. Linear mixed models evaluated subjective effects by THC concentration, BrAC, and interactions. Effects by time point were evaluated by dose-wise analysis of variance (ANOVA). OF versus blood or plasma cannabinoid ratios and correlations were evaluated in paired-positive specimens. Nineteen participants (13 men) completed the study. Blood THC concentration or BrAC significantly associated with subjective effects including 'high', while OF contamination prevented significant OF concentration associations Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Automatic collection of bovine blood samples | Hale | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A technique is described which allows automatic collection of jugular venous blood from tethered cows. In this system, blood is pumped continuously from an intravenous cannula which has a double lumen while an anticoagulant is pumped through the second opening. Diluted blood is collected in a fraction collector which ...

  12. Circadian rhythm of blood and urinary copper in presumably healthy subjects of vegetarian food habit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, R.D.

    Circadian rhythm of blood and urinary copper has been studied in presumably healthy subjects of a particular ethnic group in India who are vegetarians. A definite 24-hr variation has been observed for both blood and urinary copper. The peak for blood copper was 1500 hr and the lowest value was 0600 hr, with values of 0.185 mg/100 ml and 0.160 mg/100 ml respectively. The urinary peak and trough occurred at 0600 and 0300 hr, respectively. Remarkably higher 24-hr copper excretion values were noted (64.49 ..mu..g/day) with a range of 15-100 ..mu..g/day. The blood level of copper (0.134 mg/100 ml) remained within the range reported. One subject out of 25 deviated from the group with respect to circadian phasing and amplitude to urinary copper excretion. 20 references.

  13. Thigh and calf blood flows after isometric contraction in untrained and trained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, K; Shimaoka, M; Matsui, H; Miyamura, M

    1983-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine whether or not there were any differences between untrained and trained subjects in the changes of blood flow in the ipsilateral and contralateral lower limbs after isometric exercise. Blood flow of the thigh and calf in both right and left legs were measured simultaneously before and after isometric contraction with mercury-in-silastic strain gauge venous occlusion plethysmography. In the present study, the main pattern of blood flow responses in the active and non-active limbs was strikingly similar in all subjects: a significant fall in blood flow immediately after isometric contraction at a force of about 50% of maximal muscle strength for 15 sec was observed in the non-active lower limbs. Peak blood flow of the exercised thigh in the trained group was significantly higher than that in the untrained ones. From these results, it was suggested that higher blood flow after isometric exercise in the trained subjects may be due to the improvement of degree of vasodilation in the lower limb as a result of physical training.

  14. High blood acetaldehyde levels after ethanol administration. Difference between alcoholic and nonalcoholic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsten, M A; Matsuzaki, S; Feinman, L; Lieber, C S

    1975-02-20

    Blood actaldehyde and ethanol levels were measured in 11 subjects, six with chronic alcholoism and five nonalcholic controls, after alcohol had been given intravenously. Despite a progressive fall in blood ethanol over a range of 54 to 33 mM/acetaldehyde did not decrease in any of the 11 subjects. The mean acetaldehyde plateau level was significantly (p less than 0.001) higher in alcoholic (42.7 plus or minus 1.2 mum) than in nonalcoholic (26.5 plus or minus 1.5 mum) subjects. When the mean blood ethanol concentration reached 24 mM,the acetaldehyde plateau ended abruptly in each subject. The ethanol concentration at which this fall of blood acetaldehyde occurred suggests desaturation of an ethanol oxidizing system other than alcohol dehydrogenase and indicates that at high ethanol blood levels, such a system contributes to ethanol oxidation. The highet acetaldehyde levels in alcholism may result from both greater activity of this system and mitochondrial damage, and could contribut to the neurologic, hepatic and cardiac complications of alcoholism.

  15. A comprehensive compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahidi, O; Kwok, K E; Gopaluni, R B

    2016-01-01

    We have expanded a former compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. The former model was a detailed physiological model which considered the interactions of three substances, glucose, insulin and glucagon on regulating the blood sugar. The main...... obtained during oral glucose tolerance test and isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion test from both type 2 diabetic and healthy subjects to estimate the model parameters and to validate the model results. The estimation of model parameters is accomplished through solving a nonlinear optimization...

  16. Development of common metrics for donation attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention for the blood donation context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Janis L; Kowalsky, Jennifer M; France, Christopher R; McGlone, Sarah T; Himawan, Lina K; Kessler, Debra A; Shaz, Beth H

    2014-03-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior has been widely used in blood donation research, but the lack of uniform, psychometrically sound measures makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions or compare results across studies. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to develop such measures of donation attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were conducted on survey responses collected from college students (n = 1080). The resulting scales were then administered to an independent sample of experienced donors (n = 433) for additional CFAs and to test whether the Theory of Planned Behavior model provided a good fit to the data. CFAs conducted on both samples support the use of six-item scales, with two factors each, to measure donation attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control and a single-factor three-item scale to measure donation intention. Further, structural equation modeling of these measures revealed that the Theory of Planned Behavior provided a strong fit to the data (comparative fit index, 0.976; root mean square error of approximation, 0.041; standardized root mean square residual, 0.055) and accounted for 73.7% of the variance in donation intention. The present findings confirm the applicability of the Theory of Planned Behavior to the blood donation context and more importantly provide psychometric support for the future use of four brief measures of donation attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  17. Blood flow in the forearm in patients with Rheumatoid arthritis and healthy subjects under local thermotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mucha

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Muscle blood flow in the forearm of patients with rheuma-toid arthritis and healthy volunteers following treatment with temperature increasingarm baths, mudpacks and short- or decimeter-wave diathermy was studied in thisinvestigation. The aim of the study was to find out the difference of reactive hyperemia between the different temperature methods as well as the influence on theconsensual reaction. Subjects: Eighty patients with rheumatoid arthritis, stage 3 according toSteinbrocker, as well as 80 healthy human subjects had been assigned numerically in the four therapy- and controlgroups. Patients with diseases influencing the peripheral blood flow were excluded. Design: Blood flow was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography in both forearms with the subjects lyingsupine. The application of the local heat therapies had been excluded on the left forearm. The forearm blood flow wasmonitored before heat therapy, directly after as well as in two further 10 minutes intervals. An analysis of variancewas used to determine the influence on blood flow of the response to the heat therapies in patients with rheumatoidarthritis and healthy subjects.Results: Under homogeneous starting conditions and a statistically uniformed high blood flow in rest the reactive values of blood flow on the left-hand side of application and the right consensual side showed high significant differencesbetween all methods of therapy. Differences between the patients and the healthy subjects only showed tendencies withpartially lower reactions, concerning the patients with rheumatoid arthritis. All methods of heat therapy caused a statistically provable consensual reaction that turned out smaller after diathermic methods. Here the post therapeuticreaction of the blood flow on the side of application was also lower or rather shorter. Conclusion: Greater differences of the blood flow in rest between the patients with rheumatoid arthritis and healthysubjects

  18. Effect of whey on blood glucose and insulin responses to composite breakfast and lunch meals in type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Anders H; Nilsson, Mikael; Holst, Jens Juul; Björck, Inger M E

    2005-07-01

    Whey proteins have insulinotropic effects and reduce the postprandial glycemia in healthy subjects. The mechanism is not known, but insulinogenic amino acids and the incretin hormones seem to be involved. The aim was to evaluate whether supplementation of meals with a high glycemic index (GI) with whey proteins may increase insulin secretion and improve blood glucose control in type 2 diabetic subjects. Fourteen diet-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes were served a high-GI breakfast (white bread) and subsequent high-GI lunch (mashed potatoes with meatballs). The breakfast and lunch meals were supplemented with whey on one day; whey was exchanged for lean ham and lactose on another day. Venous blood samples were drawn before and during 4 h after breakfast and 3 h after lunch for the measurement of blood glucose, serum insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). The insulin responses were higher after both breakfast (31%) and lunch (57%) when whey was included in the meal than when whey was not included. After lunch, the blood glucose response was significantly reduced [-21%; 120 min area under the curve (AUC)] after whey ingestion. Postprandial GIP responses were higher after whey ingestion, whereas no differences were found in GLP-1 between the reference and test meals. It can be concluded that the addition of whey to meals with rapidly digested and absorbed carbohydrates stimulates insulin release and reduces postprandial blood glucose excursion after a lunch meal consisting of mashed potatoes and meatballs in type 2 diabetic subjects.

  19. Bacterial Isolates from Blood Samples of Patients in University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1ml of venous blood was aseptically inoculated into two blood culture bottles, brain heart infusion broth and thioglycollate broth while giving great attention to sterile process. They were incubated overnight at 37 C and were examined daily for growth. Growth is usually characterized by gas bubbles or turbidity. If there was ...

  20. Bacterial Isolates from Blood Samples of Patients in University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thioglychollate broth was sub cultured onto blood agar plate for anaerobic incubation, while the brain heart infusion broth was sub cultured onto chocolate, blood agar and McConkey agar for aerobic incubation. The anaerobic incubation was done by putting the culture plates into an anaerobic jar and filling it with ...

  1. Nocturnal variations in subcutaneous blood flow rate in lower leg of normal human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Jørgensen, B

    1991-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate was measured in the lower leg of 22 normal human subjects over 12- to 20-h ambulatory conditions. The 133Xe washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage unit were used. The tracer depot was applied on the medial aspect...

  2. Effects of sample storage time, temperature and syringe type on blood gas tensions in samples with high oxygen partial pressures.

    OpenAIRE

    Pretto, J. J.; Rochford, P D

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Although plastic arterial sampling syringes are now commonly used, the effects of sample storage time and temperature on blood gas tensions are poorly described for samples with a high oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) taken with these high density polypropylene syringes. METHODS--Two ml samples of tonometered whole blood (PaO2 86.7 kPa, PaCO2 4.27 kPa) were placed in glass syringes and in three brands of plastic blood gas syringes. The syringes were placed either at room temperature...

  3. Performance of an app measuring spot quality in dried blood spot sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The Dried Blood Spot sampling (DBS) method gives patients and health care workers the opportunity for remote sampling using a drop of blood from a fingerprick on a sampling card which can be send to the laboratory by mail. Laboratory analysts frequently reject DBS samples because of

  4. Association between mercury concentrations in blood and hair in methylmercury-exposed subjects at different ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Grandjean, Philippe; Jørgensen, Poul J

    2004-01-01

    Mercury concentrations were measured in paired hair and blood samples from a cohort of about 1000 children examined at birth and at 7 and 14 years of age. The ratio between concentrations in maternal hair (in microg/g) and in cord blood (microg/L) was approximately 200, but samples from...... the children at age 14 years showed a ratio of about 250. These findings are in accordance with previous data from smaller studies. However, an even higher ratio of about 360 was seen at 7 years of age, suggesting that hair strands at this age retain more mercury. The 95th percentile of the hair-to-blood ratio...... mercury concentrations, a tendency that could not be explained by potential confounders, such as alcohol intake or number of amalgam fillings. The total imprecision (coefficient of variation) for the blood determinations averaged about 30%, thereby substantially exceeding normal laboratory imprecision...

  5. Effects of Mirtogenol® on ocular blood flow and intraocular hypertension in asymptomatic subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigerwalt, Robert D.; Gianni, Belcaro; Paolo, Morazzoni; Bombardelli, Ezio; Burki, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The most important variable risk factor for developing glaucoma is intraocular hypertension. Timely lowering of high intraocular pressure (IOP) significantly lowers the likelihood of developing glaucoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the food supplement Mirtogenol® (Mirtoselect® and Pycnogenol®) on IOP and ocular blood flow in a product evaluation study. Methods Thirty-eight asymptomatic subjects with intraocular hypertension were either given Mirtogenol® (20 subjects) or were not treated (18 subjects). The visual acuity, IOP, and ocular blood flow were measured at two, three, and six months. Results After two months of supplementation with Mirtogenol®, the mean IOP decreased from a baseline of 25.2 mmHg to 22.2 mmHg. After three months of treatment with Mirtogenol®, the IOP was significantly lowered compared to that of untreated controls (p<0.05) to 22.0 mmHg. No further improvement was found after six months. Nineteen of the twenty patients taking Mirtogenol had a decreased IOP after three months. Only marginal effects on the IOP were found in the 18 control subjects. No side effects were observed. Ocular blood flow (central retinal, ophthalmic, and posterior ciliary arteries) improved both in the systolic and diastolic components as measured by Color Doppler imaging. After three months of treatment, the improvement of ocular blood flow was significant as compared to both baseline and control group (p<0.05). Conclusions An improved ocular blood flow may contribute to the prevention of glaucoma. The results of this study indicate that Mirtogenol® may represent a safe preventative intervention for lowering the risk for developing symptomatic glaucoma by controlling IOP and improving ocular blood flow. PMID:18618008

  6. Quantification of multiple elements in dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lise; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Hollergaard, Mads

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dried blood spots (DBS) is a unique matrix that offers advantages compared to conventional blood collection making it increasingly popular in large population studies. We here describe development and validation of a method to determine multiple elements in DBS. METHODS: Elements were...... extracted from punches and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method was evaluated with quality controls with defined element concentration and blood spiked with elements to assess accuracy and imprecision. DBS element concentrations were compared with concentrations...

  7. Development of a statistical model for predicting the ethanol content of blood from measurements on saliva or breath samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruz, J; Linares, P; Luque de Castro, M D; Caridad, J M; Valcarcel, M

    1989-01-01

    Blood, saliva and breath samples from a population of males and females subjected to the intake of preselected amounts of ethanol, whilst in different physical conditions (at rest, after physical exertion, on an empty stomach and after eating), were analysed by automatic methods employing immobilized (blood) or dissolved (saliva) enzymes and a breathanalyser. Treatment of the results obtained enabled the development of a statistical model for prediction of the ethanol concentration in blood at a given time from the ethanol concentration in saliva or breath obtained at a later time.

  8. Sensitivity of PCR assays for murine gammaretroviruses and mouse contamination in human blood samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ling Lee

    Full Text Available Gammaretroviruses related to murine leukemia virus (MLV have variously been reported to be present or absent in blood from chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME patients and healthy controls. Using subjects from New York State, we have investigated by PCR methods whether MLV-related sequences can be identified in nucleic acids isolated from whole blood or from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs or following PBMC culture. We have also passaged the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP following incubation with plasma from patients and controls and assayed nucleic acids for viral sequences. We have used 15 sets of primers that can effectively amplify conserved regions of murine endogenous and exogenous retrovirus sequences. We demonstrate that our PCR assays for MLV-related gag sequences and for mouse DNA contamination are extremely sensitive. While we have identified MLV-like gag sequences following PCR on human DNA preparations, we are unable to conclude that these sequences originated in the blood samples.

  9. Dendritic cells in blood and urine samples from bladder cancer patients undergoing BCG immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Rossi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Immunotherapy with BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin after transurethral resection of the bladder tumor represents a highly effective primary treatment for intermediate and high-risk superficial bladder cancer. The effectiveness of this therapy has been documented, but its mechanism of action is not clear yet. In the present study, we investigated the changes of dendritic cells (DC numbers in peripheral blood and urine of patients with superficial bladder cancer undergoing BCG intravescical therapy Material and method: We have enumerated plasmacytoid and myeloid DCs in the peripheral blood and in the urine of patients with bladder cancer in order to clarify the role of these cells in the evolution of the disease and the effect of therapy. DCs in blood and urine samples were assessed using the single-platform TruCOUNT assay with monoclonal antibodies. The study population included 37 healthy donors and 13 patients with diagnosis of primitive superficial bladder cancer. Results: At the time of diagnosis a reduction of blood DCs was found in patients as opposed to healthy donors, while DCs were not found in the urine in the same way as in healthy subjects. Six of these patients were followed before and after weekly and monthly instillations of BCG. In the peripheral blood, we observed an immunological recovery of DCs from the third weekly instillation up to the sixth. In the urine of patients, we didn’t find mDCs or pDCs at T0, but we found a statistically significant change from the third instillation up to the sixth. On the contrary, we didn’t find mDCs in urine during monthly instillation. Conclusions: DC Count could be used in the monitoring of patients undergoing BCG therapy. Immunological restoration of mDC numbers in peripheral blood and the efflux in urine could be important for confirming the effectiveness of BCG instillation.

  10. Detecting type 2 diabetes by a single post-challenge blood sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeckel, Rainer; Wosniok, Werner; Raber, Rüdiger; Janka, Hans-Uwe

    2003-09-01

    In the recent American Diabetes Association (ADA)/WHO recommendations, the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was replaced by the measurement of a single fasting glucose concentration with a decision limit for the detection of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) reduced. This proposal, however, misses all cases of isolated post-prandial hyperglycaemia. Therefore, a study was undertaken to develop a post-challenge, one-sample mode of diagnosis. OGTT was performed in 240 high-risk subjects who were suspected to suffer from type 2 DM. Glucose concentrations were determined at 30 min intervals in the capillary blood, venous blood and plasma, and insulin was determined in venous plasma only. The test results were classified in non-disease and disease group according to the decision limits recommended by ADA/WHO. Furthermore, the early insulin response and an insulin sensitivity index were used to determine new cut-off values. These were identified as the concentrations demonstrating the highest diagnostic efficiency and were lower than the WHO limits. The 2 h post-load plasma concentration led to higher efficiency at a cut-off value of 9.0 mmol/l glucose (162 mg/dl) compared to concentrations of samples taken in the fasting state, at an earlier time of the OGTT, or in venous and capillary blood. Under this condition, 72 diabetic patients (35%) were detected in the study group (n = 207), whereas only 36 (17%) were found with one sample in the fasting state and 53 (26%) with two samples using the ADA/WHO criteria. Therefore, a single venous plasma sample taken after 2 h post-glucose challenge appeared to be most efficient for the early detection of DM.

  11. Evaluation of different sized blood sampling tubes for thromboelastometry, platelet function, and platelet count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jo Bønding; Pistor-Riebold, Thea Unger; Knudsen, Ingrid Hell

    2014-01-01

    Background: To minimise the volume of blood used for diagnostic procedures, especially in children, we investigated whether the size of sample tubes affected whole blood coagulation analyses. Methods: We included 20 healthy individuals for rotational thromboelastometry (RoTEM®) analyses and compa......Background: To minimise the volume of blood used for diagnostic procedures, especially in children, we investigated whether the size of sample tubes affected whole blood coagulation analyses. Methods: We included 20 healthy individuals for rotational thromboelastometry (RoTEM®) analyses...

  12. The impact of different blood sampling methods on laboratory rats under different types of anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Martin Fitzner; Petersen, Mikke Haxø; Dragsted, Nils

    2006-01-01

    and that it might take an extra hour to recover from it. CO2 anaesthesia seemed unable to prevent the increase in blood pressure and the fluctuations in body temperature induced by blood sampling, and up to 10 h after sampling, the rats were still affected by CO2 anaesthesia. Rats anaesthetized with isoflurane......Rats with implanted telemetry transponders were blood sampled by jugular puncture, periorbital puncture or tail vein puncture, or sampled by jugular puncture in carbon dioxide (CO?), isoflurane or without anaesthesia in a crossover design. Heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature were...... registered for three days after sampling. Initially blood pressure increased, but shortly after sampling it decreased, which led to increased heart rate. Sampling induced rapid fluctuations in body temperature, and an increase in body temperature. Generally, rats recovered from sampling within 2-3 h, except...

  13. Blood biomonitoring of metals in subjects living near abandoned mining and active industrial areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeddu, Roberto; Tolu, Paola; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice

    2013-07-01

    A human blood biomonitoring campaign to detect the environmental exposure to metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb and Zn) in 265 subjects was performed in the South-Western part of Sardinia (an Italian island) that is a particular area with a great history of coal and metal mining (Pb/Zn mainly) activities and large industrial structures (as metallurgy). Subjects living near the industrial plant area had geometric means (GM) of blood Cd (0.79 μg/l), Cu (971 μg/l), Mn (12.2 μg/l), and Pb (55.7 μg/l) significantly higher than controls (Cd, 0.47 μg/l; Cu, 900 μg/l; Mn 9.98 μg/l; Pb, 26.5 μg/l) and than people living nearby the past mining sites. Subjects living next to one dismissed mine were statistically higher in blood Cu (GM, 1,022 μg/l) and Pb (GM, 41.4 μg/l) concentrations than controls. No differences were observed in people living in the different mining sites, and this might be related to the decennial disclosure of mines and the adoption of environmental remediation programmes. Some interindividual variables influenced blood biomonitoring data, as smoke and age for Cd, gender for Cu, age, sex and alcohol for Pb, and age for Zn. Moreover, blood metal levels of the whole population were similar to reference values representative of the Sardinian population and acceptably safe according to currently available health guidelines.

  14. Forensic Identification of Human Blood: comparison of two one-step presumptive tests for blood screening of crime scene samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Belchior Andrade

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood is the most common body fluid found at crime scenes. One-step presumptive tests have been designed as a rapid immunological test for the qualitative detection of human hemoglobin in stool samples (faecal occult blood their usefulness for forensic purposes has been demonstrated before. In this study we compare Hexagon OBTI kit and FOB One-step Bioeasy kit sensitivity in the analysis of diluted blood samples. With Hexagon OBTI, positive test results are achieved in whole blood dilutions up to 1:1.000. Sensitivity decreased with aged samples, if samples were not stored under low temperatures regardless of which presumptive test is used. Whole blood tests must take into consideration that “hook” effect may interfere. Comparing both tests, OBTI Hexagon Kit is more sensible to detect diluted blood, showing a wider detection window in all conditions. This is interesting when analyzing forensic samples as forensic analysts usually do not know about the history of the analyzed sample before its collection.

  15. Numerical simulation of solitary blood waves in an elastic tube subjected to a localised deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntchantcho, R.; Noubissie, S.; Woafo, P.

    2007-12-01

    In order to well apprehend what really happens in a locally deformed elastic tube, a numerical analysis of the liquid flow in such a media has been undertaken. A cylindrical tube with constant rigidity subjected to a localised dilatation is first considered and results obtained help to understand the behaviour and the developing process of aneurysm. The analysis of the effects of stenoses on blood flow is also done.

  16. Right here, right now: the impact of the blood donation context on anxiety, attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and intention to donate blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clowes, Rebekah; Masser, Barbara M

    2012-07-01

    While research has established the role of anticipated emotions in augmented Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) models of donor behavior, research has yet to consider the impact of immediate emotions that may be triggered by the blood donor context on respondents' intentions to donate blood. This study explored the impact of blood donor paraphernalia on respondents' positivity toward blood donation and on the interrelationships typically observed in TPB blood donation studies. Seventy-six participants were randomly allocated to complete TPB questionnaires assessing attitudes, subjective norm, and self-efficacy along with intention to donate blood in either an affectively "hot" (blood donation paraphernalia) or a cold (control) condition. Anxiety about donating blood was also assessed. Respondents in the affectively hot condition reported significantly greater anxiety about donating blood along with less positive attitudes, weaker subjective norms, lower self-efficacy, and lower intention to donate than respondents in the cold control condition. In support of extant TPB research, correlational analyses indicated that the relationships between attitudes, self-efficacy, and intention were not impacted upon by condition. Blood donation paraphernalia induces anxiety in donors and results in diminished positivity toward donating. An awareness of what donors experience as a function of the context of blood donation may allow blood services to effectively intervene to bolster donors' positivity toward blood donation at the point where donation can take place. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  17. Long-term facial artery catheter implantation for serial arterial blood sampling and invasive arterial blood pressure measurement in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Deborah Penteado Martins; Teixeira, Luisa Gouvêa; Canola, Paulo Aléscio; Albernaz, Raquel Mincarelli; Marques, José Antônio; Neto, José Corrêa de Lacerda

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate surgical catheter implantation in the facial artery of horses and the long-term maintenance of such arteries using heparin and ascorbic acid as filling solution. Nine horses were implanted with a polyurethane catheter. The catheters were flushed with a heparin/ascorbic acid solution every 8h and remained patent for 25 days. Arterial blood samples were collected twice a day, and one exercise test that included serial blood samples and arterial pressure recordings was performed on a treadmill. Polyurethane catheters surgically implanted in the facial artery can be kept patent by filling with a heparin/ascorbic acid solution and provide convenient invasive arterial access in horses which is suitable for use for serial blood sampling and blood pressure recordings, even during exercise on treadmill. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Unaltered blood coagulation and platelet function in healthy subjects exposed to acute hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntysaari, Matti; Joutsi-Korhonen, Lotta; Siimes, Martti A; Siitonen, Simo; Parkkola, Kai; Lemponen, Marja; Lassila, Riitta

    2011-07-01

    Acute hypoxia has been suspected to cause blood coagulation and platelet activation. Our aim was to study blood coagulation and platelet function during a short hypoxic exposure. Healthy nonsmoking men (N = 10) inhaled a normobaric hypoxic gas mixture containing 8% of oxygen (92% nitrogen) for 7 min via a face mask. Venous blood was collected 5 min before and during the 5 to 7 min of hypoxia exposure (i.e., pretest and hypoxia samples, respectively) while monitoring arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) with pulse oximetry. Blood sampling was completed in 2 min and the face mask was removed. Venous epinephrine and norepinephrine, complete blood counts, and a panel of coagulation markers were analyzed. Platelet aggregation induced by ristocetin, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid, and thrombin receptor activating peptide was studied with Multiplate and shear force-dependent functions with PFA-100R (collagen/epinephrine and collagen/ADP cartridges), both assays in whole blood. During hypoxia, SaO2 declined from 98 to 58% (ranges 97-99% vs. 42-85%), while heart rate increased from 69/min to 94/min (SD 11 vs. SD 13). Venous epinephrine and norepinephrine levels also increased. This short hypoxia induced minor but uniform increases in red cells, reticulocytes, and leukocytes and decreases in platelet counts. Plateletfunctions and prothrombin time, APTT, thrombin time, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels or von Willebrand factor (VWF), antithrombin, factor V (FV) or FVIII activities did not change. Profound acute hypoxia failed to affect blood coagulation or platelet functions in healthy individuals.

  19. Detection of Salmonella typhi by nested polymerase chain reaction in blood, urine, and stool samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatta, Mochammad; Smits, Henk L.

    2007-01-01

    A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was used for the detection of the pathogen in blood, urine, and stool samples from 131 patients with clinical suspicion of typhoid fever. The sensitivity of blood culture, the PCRs with blood, urine, and feces,

  20. A Computational Framework to Optimize Subject-Specific Hemodialysis Blood Flow Rate to Prevent Intimal Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudzadeh, Javid; Wlodarczyk, Marta; Cassel, Kevin

    2017-11-01

    Development of excessive intimal hyperplasia (IH) in the cephalic vein of renal failure patients who receive chronic hemodialysis treatment results in vascular access failure and multiple treatment complications. Specifically, cephalic arch stenosis (CAS) is known to exacerbate hypertensive blood pressure, thrombosis, and subsequent cardiovascular incidents that would necessitate costly interventional procedures with low success rates. It has been hypothesized that excessive blood flow rate post access maturation which strongly violates the venous homeostasis is the main hemodynamic factor that orchestrates the onset and development of CAS. In this article, a computational framework based on a strong coupling of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and shape optimization is proposed that aims to identify the effective blood flow rate on a patient-specific basis that avoids the onset of CAS while providing the adequate blood flow rate required to facilitate hemodialysis. This effective flow rate can be achieved through implementation of Miller's surgical banding method after the maturation of the arteriovenous fistula and is rooted in the relaxation of wall stresses back to a homeostatic target value. The results are indicative that this optimized hemodialysis blood flow rate is, in fact, a subject-specific value that can be assessed post vascular access maturation and prior to the initiation of chronic hemodialysis treatment as a mitigative action against CAS-related access failure. This computational technology can be employed for individualized dialysis treatment.

  1. Nationwide survey of policies and practices related to capillary blood sampling in medical laboratories in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krleza, Jasna Lenicek

    2014-01-01

    Capillary sampling is increasingly used to obtain blood for laboratory tests in volumes as small as necessary and as non-invasively as possible. Whether capillary blood sampling is also frequent in Croatia, and whether it is performed according to international laboratory standards is unclear. All medical laboratories that participate in the Croatian National External Quality Assessment Program (N = 204) were surveyed on-line to collect information about the laboratory's parent institution, patient population, types and frequencies of laboratory tests based on capillary blood samples, choice of reference intervals, and policies and procedures specifically related to capillary sampling. Sampling practices were compared with guidelines from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Of the 204 laboratories surveyed, 174 (85%) responded with complete questionnaires. Among the 174 respondents, 155 (89%) reported that they routinely perform capillary sampling, which is carried out by laboratory staff in 118 laboratories (76%). Nearly half of respondent laboratories (48%) do not have a written protocol including order of draw for multiple sampling. A single puncture site is used to provide capillary blood for up to two samples at 43% of laboratories that occasionally or regularly perform such sampling. Most respondents (88%) never perform arterialisation prior to capillary blood sampling. Capillary blood sampling is highly prevalent in Croatia across different types of clinical facilities and patient populations. Capillary sampling procedures are not standardised in the country, and the rate of laboratory compliance with CLSI and WHO guidelines is low.

  2. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  3. White Matter Hyperintensity Associations with Cerebral Blood Flow in Elderly Subjects Stratified by Cerebrovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Ahmed A; Powell, David K; Yu, Guoquiang; Johnson, Eleanor S; Jicha, Gregory A; Smith, Charles D

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to add clarity to the relationship between deep and periventricular brain white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebrovascular risk in older persons. Deep white matter hyperintensity (dWMH) and periventricular white matter hyperintensity (pWMH) and regional gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) blood flow from arterial spin labeling were quantified from magnetic resonance imaging scans of 26 cognitively normal elderly subjects stratified by cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images were acquired using a high-resolution 3-dimensional (3-D) sequence that reduced partial volume effects seen with slice-based techniques. dWMHs but not pWMHs were increased in patients at high risk of CVD; pWMHs but not dWMHs were associated with decreased regional cortical (GM) blood flow. We also found that blood flow in WM is decreased in regions of both pWMH and dWMH, with a greater degree of decrease in pWMH areas. WMHs are usefully divided into dWMH and pWMH regions because they demonstrate differential effects. 3-D regional WMH volume is a potentially valuable marker for CVD based on associations with cortical CBF and WM CBF. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Predictive value of testing random urine sample to detect microalbuminuria in diabetic subjects during outpatient visit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhanick, B; Berrut, G; Chameau, A M; Hallar, M; Bled, F; Chevet, B; Vergely, J; Rohmer, V; Fressinaud, P; Marre, M

    1992-01-01

    The predictive value of random urine sample during outpatient visit to predict persistent microalbuminuria was studied in 76 Type 1, insulin-dependent diabetic subjects, 61 Type 2, non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects, and 72 Type 2, insulin-treated diabetic subjects. Seventy-six patients attended outpatient clinic during morning, and 133 during afternoon. Microalbuminuria was suspected if Urinary Albumin Excretion (UAE) exceeded 20 mg/l. All patients were hospitalized within 6 months following outpatient visit, and persistent microalbuminuria was assessed then if UAE was between 30 and 300 mg/24 h on 2-3 occasions in 3 urines samples. Of these 209 subjects eighty-three were also screened with Microbumintest (Ames-Bayer), a semi-quantitative method. Among the 209 subjects, 71 were positive both for microalbuminuria during outpatient visit and a persistent microalbuminuria during hospitalization: sensitivity 91.0%, specificity 83.2%, concordance 86.1%, and positive predictive value 76.3% (chi-squared test: 191; p less than 10(-4)). Data were not different for subjects examined on morning, or on afternoon. Among the 83 subjects also screened with Microbumintest, 22 displayed both a positive reaction and a persistent microalbuminuria: sensitivity 76%, specificity 81%, concordance 80%, and positive predictive value 69% (chi-squared test: 126; p less than 10(-4)). Both types of screening appeared equally effective during outpatient visit. Hence, a persistent microalbuminuria can be predicted during an outpatient visit in a diabetic clinic.

  5. Basal blood parameters of horses subjected to aerobic activity fed with lipidic concentrated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia de Oliveira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The feeding diets were evaluated containing low and high levels of soybean oil for horses athletes subjected to two protocols of aerobic training on the response of basal blood biochemical parameters. Four horses were used in latin square design with treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted levels of 5 and 15% oil concentrates and two aerobic training, 40' and 60' minutes. Plasmatic parameters were monitored, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, glucose (GLU and lactate (LAC, during basal metabolism. The TG, TC, GLU and LAC from horses at rest were not affected (P> 0.05 neither of diet and physical activity, 0.21, 3.79, 4.18, 0.93 mmol L-1, respectively. It can be concluded that offer concentrate with high content of soybean oil to athletic horses in aerobic activities can be performed without altering the blood biochemical profile of basal metabolism.

  6. Vessel Sampling and Blood Flow Velocity Distribution With Vessel Diameter for Characterizing the Human Bulbar Conjunctival Microvasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Yuan, Jin; Jiang, Hong; Yan, Wentao; Cintrón-Colón, Hector R; Perez, Victor L; DeBuc, Delia C; Feuer, William J; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-03-01

    This study determined (1) how many vessels (i.e., the vessel sampling) are needed to reliably characterize the bulbar conjunctival microvasculature and (2) if characteristic information can be obtained from the distribution histogram of the blood flow velocity and vessel diameter. Functional slitlamp biomicroscope was used to image hundreds of venules per subject. The bulbar conjunctiva in five healthy human subjects was imaged on six different locations in the temporal bulbar conjunctiva. The histograms of the diameter and velocity were plotted to examine whether the distribution was normal. Standard errors were calculated from the standard deviation and vessel sample size. The ratio of the standard error of the mean over the population mean was used to determine the sample size cutoff. The velocity was plotted as a function of the vessel diameter to display the distribution of the diameter and velocity. The results showed that the sampling size was approximately 15 vessels, which generated a standard error equivalent to 15% of the population mean from the total vessel population. The distributions of the diameter and velocity were not only unimodal, but also somewhat positively skewed and not normal. The blood flow velocity was related to the vessel diameter (r=0.23, P<0.05). This was the first study to determine the sampling size of the vessels and the distribution histogram of the blood flow velocity and vessel diameter, which may lead to a better understanding of the human microvascular system of the bulbar conjunctiva.

  7. The effect of hyperoxia on central blood pressure in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siński, Maciej; Dobosiewicz, Anna; Przybylski, Jacek; Abramczyk, Piotr; Gaciong, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hyperoxia increases total peripheral resistance by acting locally but also inhibits the activity of carotid body chemoreceptors. We studied the effect of hyperoxia on central pressure in normotensive subjects. Material and methods Medical air followed by 100% oxygen was provided to 19 subjects (12/7 female/male, age 28.2 ±1.1 years) for 15 min through a non-rebreather mask. Central blood pressure was then measured using applanation tonometry. Results After the first 2 min of hyperoxia, heart rate decreased significantly (65 ±2.6 beats/min vs. 61 ±2.1 beats/min, p = 0.0002). Peripheral and central blood pressure remained unchanged, while hemoglobin oxygen saturation and subendocardial viability ratio index increased (97 ±0.4% vs. 99 ±0.2%, p = 0.03; 168 ±8.4% vs. 180 ±8.2%, p = 0.009). After 15 min of 100% oxygen ventilation, heart rate and peripheral and central blood pressures remained unchanged from the first 2 min. The augmentation index, augmentation pressure and ejection duration increased as compared to baseline values and those obtained at 2 min (–5.1 ±2.9% vs. –1.2 ±2.6%, p = 0.005 and –4.6 ±2.7% vs. –1.2 ±2.6%, p = 0.0015; –1.3 ±0.7 mm Hg vs. –0.2 ±1.2 mm Hg, p = 0.003 and –1.1 ±0.7 mm Hg vs. –0.2 ±1.2 mm Hg, p = 0.012; 323 ±3.6 ms vs. 330 ±3.5 ms, p = 0.0002 and 326 ±3.5 ms vs. 330 ±3.5 ms, p = 0.021, respectively). Conclusions The present study shows that hyperoxia does not affect central blood pressure in young healthy subjects and may improve myocardial blood supply estimated indirectly from applanation tonometry. PMID:27695489

  8. The use of heparin in preparing samples for blood-gas analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Chris

    2007-10-01

    Heparin is the only anticoagulant used to prepare samples for blood-gas analysis. There are two ways in which heparin can interfere with results. The first is high heparin concentration in blood, and the second is heparin dilution of blood if liquid rather than dried (lyophilized) heparin is used. Traditional blood-gas analytes (pH, pCO2, and pO2) are less affected than electrolytes (particularly ionized calcium), also measured on modern blood-gas analyzers. The sample requirements as far as heparin is concerned are thus less exacting if only pH, pCO2, and pO2 are to be measured. For these analytes, it is still essential that the heparin (either sodium or lithium) concentration is less than 200 IU/mL blood and that the blood is not diluted more than 5%. The inclusion of electrolytes in the test repertoire excludes the use of sodium heparin in favor of lithium heparin. The inclusion of ionized calcium in the test repertoire demands that the heparin should be lyophilized, and the concentration should not exceed 10 IU/mL blood, unless a specialized heparin that eliminates the effect of calcium binding by heparin is used. Whatever the heparin formulation, it is essential for accurate results that the correct volume of blood is sampled to achieve a correct heparin concentration (and dilution, if liquid heparin is used), and that blood and anticoagulant are well mixed immediately after sampling. One of the most common practical problems associated with blood-gas analysis is inadequate anticoagulation and the formation of small blood clots that can block the sample pathway of blood-gas analyzers and invalidate results. Inadequate mixing of specimen with heparin is usually the problem. Clearly, the lower the heparin concentration the greater is the risk that poor mixing technique will give rise to inadequate anticoagulation and the associated problems.

  9. Microcapillary blood sampling for serological examinations by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme immunoassay (ELISA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodak, L.; Smid, B.; Valicek, L.; Jurak, E. (Vyzkumny Ustav Veterinarniho Lekarstvi, Brno-Medlanky (Czechoslovakia))

    1984-01-01

    Methods were tested of sampling blood and blood serum for serological examinations on filtration paper and into heparinized glass capillaries with transfer into the dilution solution of the given composition. Samples were also examined for ACH virus antibodies. The suitability of the sampling was verified by an examination of samples using ELISA and RIA methods. The results showed the suitability of sampling using microcapillaries. The titres of virus antibodies found using the ELISA and RIA methods were identical and the sensitivity of antibody detection was not reduced even after the sample had been stored for 60 days at a temperature of 20 degC.

  10. Identifying the potential of changes to blood sample logistics using simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Pelle Morten Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter; Poulsen, Jørgen Hjelm

    2013-01-01

    Using simulation as an approach to display and improve internal logistics at hospitals has great potential. This study shows how a simulation model displaying the morning blood-taking round at a Danish public hospital can be developed and utilized with the aim of improving the logistics. The focus...... of the simulation was to evaluate changes made to the transportation of blood samples between wards and the laboratory. The average- (AWT) and maximum waiting time (MWT) from a blood sample was drawn at the ward until it was received at the laboratory, and the distribution of arrivals of blood samples......, each of the scenarios was tested in terms of what amount of resources would give the optimal result. The simulations showed a big improvement potential in implementing a new technology/mean for transporting the blood samples. The pneumatic tube system showed the biggest potential lowering the AWT...

  11. Effects of soy supplementation on blood lipids and arterial function in hypercholesterolaemic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, K; Hansen, B; Jacobsen, R

    2005-01-01

    : Subjects were randomly assigned to 24 weeks of daily intake of either a soy supplement, Abalon (30 g soy protein, 9 g cotyledon fibre and 100 mg isoflavones) or placebo (30 g of casein). The soy supplement and placebo were provided in two sachets daily that were stirred in water. Fasting plasma lipids, TNF......-alpha, homocysteine, insulin sensitivity, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), serum insulin, serum glucose, blood pressure as well as Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and plasma lipids to a fat-rich meal were recorded before and after the intervention. In a sub study...... in 32 subjects, arterial dilatory capacity, compliance, and distensibility were recorded before and after the intervention. RESULTS: In the main study, no difference in fasting plasma lipid levels or insulin sensitivity was found between soy-based supplement and placebo. A significant postprandial...

  12. Single blood-Hg samples can result in exposure misclassification: temporal monitoring within the Japanese community (United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuchiya Ami

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most prominent non-occupational source of exposure to methylmercury is the consumption of fish. In this study we examine a fish consuming population to determine the extent of temporal exposure and investigate the extent to which single time estimates of methylmercury exposure based on blood-Hg concentration can provide reliable estimates of longer-term average exposure. Methods Blood-mercury levels were obtained from a portion of the Arsenic Mercury Intake Biometric Study (AMIBS cohort. Specifically, 56 Japanese women residing in the Puget Sound area of Washington State, US were sampled on three occasions across a one-year period. Results An average of 135 days separated samples, with mean blood-mercury levels for the visits being 5.1, 6.6 and 5.0 μg/l and geometric means being 2.7, 4.5 and 3.1 μg/l. The blood-mercury levels in this group exceed national averages with geometric means for two of the visits being between the 90th and 95th percentiles of nationally observed levels and the lowest geometric mean being between the 75th and 90th percentile. Group means were not significantly different across sampling periods suggesting that exposure of combined subjects remained relatively constant. Comparing intra-individual results over time did not reveal a strong correlation among visits (r = 0.19, 0.50, 0.63 between 1st and 2nd, 2nd and 3rd, and 1st and 3rd sample results, respectively. In comparing blood-mercury levels across two sampling interval combinations (1st and 2nd, 2nd and 3rd, and 1st and 3rd visits, respectively, 58% (n = 34, 53% (n = 31 and 29% (n = 17 of the individuals had at least a 100% difference in blood-Hg levels. Conclusions Point estimates of blood-mercury, when compared with three sample averages, may not reflect temporal variability and individual exposures estimated on the basis of single blood samples should be treated with caution as indicators of long-term exposure

  13. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of Wuchereria bancrofti from human blood samples in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Shafi, Iman R; Shoieb, Eman Y; Attia, Samar S; Rubio, José M; Ta-Tang, Thuy-Huong; El-Badry, Ayman A

    2017-03-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a serious vector-borne health problem, and Wuchereria bancrofti (W.b) is the major cause of LF worldwide and is focally endemic in Egypt. Identification of filarial infection using traditional morphologic and immunological criteria can be difficult and lead to misdiagnosis. The aim of the present study was molecular detection of W.b in residents in endemic areas in Egypt, sequence variance analysis, and phylogenetic analysis of W.b DNA. Collected blood samples from residents in filariasis endemic areas in five governorates were subjected to semi-nested PCR targeting repeated DNA sequence, for detection of W.b DNA. PCR products were sequenced; subsequently, a phylogenetic analysis of the obtained sequences was performed. Out of 300 blood samples, W.b DNA was identified in 48 (16%). Sequencing analysis confirmed PCR results identifying only W.b species. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicated genetically distinct clusters of W.b among the study population. Study results demonstrated that the semi-nested PCR proved to be an effective diagnostic tool for accurate and rapid detection of W.b infections in nano-epidemics and is applicable for samples collected in the daytime as well as the night time. PCR products sequencing and phylogenitic analysis revealed three different nucleotide sequences variants. Further genetic studies of W.b in Egypt and other endemic areas are needed to distinguish related strains and the various ecological as well as drug effects exerted on them to support W.b elimination.

  14. Levels of PCBs, DDT, DDE and DDD in Italian human blood samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocca, C. La; Abate, V.; Alivernini, S.; Iacovella, N.; Mantovani, A.; Turrio-Baldassarri, L. [Ist. Superiore di Sanita, Roma (Italy); Silvestroni, L.; Spera, G. [Dept. of Medical Pathophysiology, Univ. (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    The environmental contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is effecting the exposure of the general population in a direct way through air inhalation, ingestion of particulate matter and dermal absorption and, most of all, in an indirect way through diet. Diet represents, in fact, the main way of human exposure to PCBs. PCBs have potential teratogenic, carcinogenic, hormonal and immunological effects. An association between endometriosis and high levels of PCB in plasma has also been reported3. Moreover, some congeners (PCB 105, PCB 118, PCB 153) have effects on thyroid hormones in animal models, although the PCB dose used in these experiments was an order of magnitude higher than the estimated human exposure. Humans are, however, exposed to a complex mixtures of PCB congeners. In this study identification and quantification of 60 PCB congeners and 3 chlorinated pesticides in human whole blood samples are presented. The subjects examined in this pilot study were a small group of patients with possible endocrine-related problems and unknown specific exposure. The aim of this study was to increase the present understanding about the distribution of the PCBs in human whole blood. The levels of DDT and metabolites were measured as well, since these compounds are consistently reported to contribute to the whole body burden of persistent chlorinated compounds, together with PCBs.

  15. Preliminary Blood Pressure Screening in a Representative Sample of Extremely Obese Kuwaiti Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Abdul Razzak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A relationship between blood pressure (BP and obesity has been found in young adults, but no data are available for adolescents in Kuwait. 257 adolescent (11–19 years participants were categorized into two groups according to their BMI; 48 nonobese (21 males: 43.7% and 27 females: 56.3% with mean age of years and 209 obese (128 males: 61.25% and 81 females: 38.75% with mean age of years. The mean BMI was  kg/m2 for the nonobese group and  kg/m3 for the obese group. Most BP measures based on a single screening were significantly higher in the obese group. The prevalence of elevated BP was significantly higher in the obese subjects (nonobese: 13%; obese: 63%; . In the obese group, there was a significant positive correlation between total sample BMI and all BP measures except the pulse pressure. There was a similar rate of elevated blood pressure between males and females (64% versus 60%; . For both isolated systolic elevated BP and isolated diastolic elevated BP, the prevalences were comparable between the males (systolic: 42%; diastolic: 5% and females (systolic: 34%; diastolic: 14%. Only systolic BP was positively correlated with BMI in obese adolescent males (Spearman ; , with a significant correlation between BMI with diastolic (Spearman ; and mean BP (Spearman ; in females.

  16. Microwave Blood Thawing: Biochemical Analysis of Small Samples of Thawed Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    lactate + NAD+ ( Lehninger , 1977) The large increase in pyruvate observed at 6 hours post-wash was most likely due to the large lactate concentrations at...Storage of Blood. London: Academic Press. Lehninger , A.L. 1977. Biochemistry. New York: Worth Publishers, Inc. Lewis, G.P. 1965. Method using o-tolidine

  17. Correlation of glucose level among venous, gingival and finger-prick blood samples in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Chopra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is essential for a dental surgeon or a periodontist to detect blood glucose level for patients whose signs and symptoms are suggestive of diabetes. Seventy patients in the age group of 40 to 80 years of either sex were selected for the study. The study population included patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Venous blood was used as a control group, whereas gingival blood and finger-prick blood constituted the study groups I and II, respectively. The percentage deviations of gingival blood glucose level measurements and finger-prick blood glucose level measurements from the standard venous blood glucose level measurements were recorded, which showed that 72.86% of gingival and 68.57% of finger-prick blood glucose level measurements were found to be within ΁15% of the standard venous blood glucose level measurements. All values exhibited significant correlations among each other, but correlations between glucose values obtained using venous and gingival blood samples were higher than the correlations between glucose values obtained using venous and finger-prick blood samples.

  18. Obtaining Coagulation Blood Samples From Central Venous Access Devices: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Kerri A; Aucoin, Julia; Meyer, Britt

    2015-08-01

    Central venous access devices are used for chemotherapy and other medication administration, blood product administration, parenteral nutrition, and for obtaining blood samples in patients where the vasculature is difficult to access. Patients may need additional blood samples prior to invasive procedures and when clinical situations arise during cancer care. In addition, monitoring coagulability through ongoing blood testing is common in patients with cancer and requires repeated sampling to adjust anticoagulant medications. The purpose of this review of the literature is to determine the best practices for collecting coagulation test samples from central venous access devices. The authors conducted a systematic review of the literature. The only method for obtaining reliable coagulation test results from central venous access devices is the flush then waste/discard method. This method has only been studied with peripherally inserted central catheters. Additional randomized, controlled trials with larger sample sizes are needed to determine the most appropriate method for drawing coagulation test results from central venous access devices.

  19. Characterization at the individual cell level and in whole blood samples of shear stress preventing red blood cells aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K; Kinnunen, M; Danilina, A V; Ustinov, V D; Shin, S; Meglinski, I; Priezzhev, A V

    2016-05-03

    The aggregation of red blood cells (RBC) is an intrinsic feature of blood that has a strong impact on its microcirculation. For a number of years it has been attracting a great attention in basic research and clinical studies. Here, we study a relationship between the RBC aggregation parameters measured at the individual cell level and in a whole blood sample. The home made optical tweezers were used to measure the aggregating and disaggregating forces for a pair of interacting RBCs, at the individual cell level, in order to evaluate the corresponding shear stresses. The RheoScan aggregometer was used for the measurements of critical shear stress (CSS) in whole blood samples. The correlation between CSS and the shear stress required to stop an RBC pair from aggregating was found. The shear stress required to disaggregate a pair of RBCs using the double channel optical tweezers appeared to be about 10 times higher than CSS. The correlation between shear stresses required to prevent RBCs from aggregation at the individual cell level and in whole blood samples was estimated and assessed quantitatively. The experimental approach developed has a high potential for advancing hemorheological studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Duplex Color Doppler Evaluation of Retinal Arterial Blood Flow in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects without Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashah Binte Amin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic retinopathy is a vascular disorder affecting the microvasculature of retina. It is caused by changes in the blood vessels of retina. If untreated, it may lead to blindness which is usually preventable if retinopathy is diagnosed early and treated promptly. In ophthalmology, color Doppler imaging is a new method that enables us to assess the orbital vasculature. It allows for simultaneous two dimensional anatomical and Doppler evaluations of hemodynamic characteristics of retinal artery. Objective: To observe the difference between Doppler flow velocity indices (peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity and resistive index of retinal artery in type 2 diabetic subjects without retinopathy and those of normal controls. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was carried out in the department of Radiology and Imaging, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM in collaboration with Ophthalmology Outpatient Department, BIRDEM, Dhaka from July 2011 to June 2013. Eighty diabetic patients without retinopathy aged 27–68 years were enrolled as cases and age and sex matched 80 healthy subjects were selected as controls. Type 1 diabetic patients, type 2 diabetics with retinopathy, hypertensive and dyslipidemic subjects were excluded from the study. All the selected subjects underwent duplex Doppler ultrasonography of both eyes using 5 to 7.5 MHZ linear phase transducer. Duplex color Doppler findings including spectral analysis (PSV, EDV and RI were recorded. Unpaired t test was done to compare blood flow velocity indices of retinal artery in type 2 diabetic patients without retinopathy and that of healthy control subjects. p value <0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Majority (42.5% and 47.5% of subjects were in 4th decade of life in both groups with predominance of males. The mean duration of diabetes was 4.56 ± 2.1 years. Mean peak systolic

  1. Human blood RNA stabilization in samples collected and transported for a large biobank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duale Nur

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa is a nation-wide population-based pregnancy cohort initiated in 1999, comprising more than 108.000 pregnancies recruited between 1999 and 2008. In this study we evaluated the feasibility of integrating RNA analyses into existing MoBa protocols. We compared two different blood RNA collection tube systems – the PAXgene™ Blood RNA system and the Tempus™ Blood RNA system - and assessed the effects of suboptimal blood volumes in collection tubes and of transportation of blood samples by standard mail. Endpoints to characterize the samples were RNA quality and yield, and the RNA transcript stability of selected genes. Findings High-quality RNA could be extracted from blood samples stabilized with both PAXgene and Tempus tubes. The RNA yields obtained from the blood samples collected in Tempus tubes were consistently higher than from PAXgene tubes. Higher RNA yields were obtained from cord blood (3 – 4 times compared to adult blood with both types of tubes. Transportation of samples by standard mail had moderate effects on RNA quality and RNA transcript stability; the overall RNA quality of the transported samples was high. Some unexplained changes in gene expression were noted, which seemed to correlate with suboptimal blood volumes collected in the tubes. Temperature variations during transportation may also be of some importance. Conclusions Our results strongly suggest that special collection tubes are necessary for RNA stabilization and they should be used for establishing new biobanks. We also show that the 50,000 samples collected in the MoBa biobank provide RNA of high quality and in sufficient amounts to allow gene expression analyses for studying the association of disease with altered patterns of gene expression.

  2. Evaluation of the analytical performances of a portable, 18-parameter hemometric system using capillary blood samples for blood donor enrolment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierelli, L; Zennaro, F; Patti, D; Miceli, M; Iudicone, P; Mannella, E

    2010-02-01

    Blood donor enrolment process is frequently based on the sole capillary haemoglobin (Hb) evaluation while platelet donors by apheresis also requires platelet (Plt) count. The 'sole Hb' approach prevents a complete donor evaluation and does not allow Plt donor enrolment. To extend blood counts before donations, we evaluated the performances of a multiparametric counter using capillary blood. The ABX Micros 60 (Micros 60) blood analyzer was employed on capillary blood and compared with venous counts by a reference counter (Coulter AcT 5diff) in a first series of 416 donors and in a second series of 136, after a 3-month period of routine use of this study counter. An average of 50 microl of capillary blood was collected whose 10 microl had been aspirated by Micros 60. High correlations were found between capillary counts using Micros 60 and venous counts using the reference counter. Mean Plt counts differed of 37 x 10(9)/l less for capillary approach in the first series of comparisons, but decreased to 10 x 10(9)/l less in the second series due to a greater expertise of operators in capillary sampling. All other parameters were accurate and never reached clinical relevance albeit they showed statistically significant differences. Data on Micros 60 demonstrated that capillary predonation counts may represent a feasible and effective approach to realize an accurate enrolment process of blood and Plt donors.

  3. Evaluation of a new handheld point-of-care blood gas analyser using 100 equine blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardell, David; West, Eleanor; Mark Senior, J

    2017-02-22

    To determine whether the Enterprise point-of-care blood analysis system (EPOC) produces results in agreement with two other blood gas analysers in regular clinical use (i-STAT and Radiometer ABL77) and to investigate the precision of the new machine when used with equine whole blood. Prospective, randomized, non-blinded, comparative laboratory analyser study. Horses admitted to a university teaching hospital requiring arterial or venous blood gas analysis as part of their routine clinical management. One hundred equine blood samples were run immediately, consecutively and in randomized order on three blood gas analysers. Results of variables common to all three analysers were tested for agreement and compared with guidelines used in human medicine. These require 80% of results from the test analyser to fall within a defined range or percentage of results from the comparator devices to achieve acceptability. Additionally, 21 samples were run twice in quick succession on the EPOC analyser to investigate precision. Agreement targets were not met for haematocrit, haemoglobin and base excess for either i-STAT or ABL77 analysers. EPOC precision targets were not met for partial pressure of carbon dioxide, ionized calcium, haematocrit and haemoglobin. Overall comparative performance of the EPOC was good to excellent for pH, oxygen tension, potassium, bicarbonate and oxygen saturation of haemoglobin, but marginal to poor for other parameters. The EPOC may be useful in performing analysis of equine whole blood, but trend analysis of carbon dioxide tension, ionized calcium, haematocrit and haemoglobin should be interpreted with caution. The EPOC should not be used interchangeably with other blood gas analysers. Copyright © 2016 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Extracellular DNA in cord blood plasma and applications in cord blood banking for sample identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Maria S; Scaradavou, Andromachi; Stevens, Cladd E; Rubinstein, Pablo

    2009-08-01

    Human cord blood (CB) units donated for transplantation require testing for various markers in blood and plasma aliquots. Although the identity link between the CB unit and the labeled aliquots with the same identifiers can be confirmed by HLA-DNA assays, these methods have not been used for CB plasma. We have previously reported that viral DNA sequences are present in the CB plasma of carrier babies and now hypothesize that human genomic DNA may also be present in CB plasma. The aim of the study was to determine whether human genomic DNA is also present in CB plasma in quality and quantity able to support human genetic identification by short tandem repeat analysis (STR). The presence of extracellular DNA (EC-DNA) in CB and adult peripheral blood plasma was confirmed by HLA-DR polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR of Alu (SB2) genes. High concentrations were seen in CB plasma (0.131 ng/mL vs. adult 0.005 ng/mL; p plasma aliquots could be established. This study demonstrates that infant-derived EC-DNA is present in CB plasma and provides a useful tool for the unambiguous confirmation of plasma aliquot identity, as routinely used in CB banking, by the use of a sensitive and highly accurate DNA assay.

  5. Evaluation of some toxic metals in blood samples of smokers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine some toxic elements in the blood of cigarette and tobacco pipe smokers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study setting was Riyadh, the capital city of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh City. Male volunteers, aged 20 - 58 year, whose blood samples were collected, were classified into three groups of ...

  6. Continuous quality control of the blood sampling procedure using a structured observation scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seemann, Tine Lindberg; Nybo, Mads

    2016-01-01

    blood drawings by 39 phlebotomists were observed in the pilot study, while 84 blood drawings by 34 phlebotomists were observed in the follow-up study. In the pilot study, the three major error items were hand hygiene (42% error), mixing of samples (22%), and order of draw (21%). Minor significant...

  7. Leukocyte count affects expression of reference genes in canine whole blood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piek, C.J.; Brinkhof, B.; Rothuizen, J.; Dekker, A.; Penning, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background The dog is frequently used as a model for hematologic human diseases. In this study the suitability of nine potential reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in canine whole blood was investigated. Findings The expression of these genes was measured in whole blood samples of 263

  8. Dried blood spots on carboxymethyl cellulose sheets: Rapid sample preparation based on dissolution and precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skoglund Ask, Kristine; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    This short communication describes the use of carboxymethyl cellulose sheets as sampling material for dried blood spots. Whole blood, spiked with quetiapine, a hydrophobic and basic small molecule drug substance, was spotted on the sheet and subsequently dried. The dried spot was then almost...

  9. Clinical evaluation of Statstrip(R) Lactate for use in fetal scalp blood sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinis, A.M.F.; Dillen, J. van; Oosting, J.D.; Rhose, S.; Vandenbussche, F.P.; Drongelen, J. van

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Point-of-care testing of fetal scalp blood lactate is used as an alternative to pH analysis in fetal scalp blood sampling (FBS) during labor. Lactate measurements are not standardized and values vary with each device used. The aim of this study was to evaluate StatStrip(R) Lactate

  10. The applying of multisensory system to assessment of blood samples by composition of equilibrium gaseous phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kuchmenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article discussed the possibility of blood sample’s assessment with the following diagnostic characteristics: "endometriosis", "fibroids", "uterine body cancer" by the signals of multisensor system. It has been found that blood samples can be reliably ranking into groups according to their diagnostic characteristics using the geometry, square of "visual prints" and the sorption effectiveness parameters max ij А.

  11. Comparison of physical parameter measurements between peripheral and portal blood samples in patients with portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lei; Sun, Longci; Xu, Qing; Zhou, Hong; Gu, Lei; Jiang, Chunhui; Zhang, Chihao; Zhu, Yiming; Lin, Jiayun; Luo, Meng

    2017-09-15

    Measuring portal venous pressure is necessary to examine, diagnose, and treat portal hypertension, but current methods are invasive. This study aimed to determine whether a noninvasive peripheral blood measurement could be used to estimate portal venous pressure by investigating correlations between certain physical parameter measurements in the peripheral blood with those obtained in portal blood samples. A total of 128 peripheral and portal blood samples from patients (n= 128) were analyzed for blood rheology and routine blood parameters. The mean peripheral and portal whole blood viscosities under the shear rates of 200 s-1 (BV 200 s-1) were 2.97 ± 0.50 mPa.s and 3.06 ± 0.39 mPa.s. The mean peripheral and portal BV 30 s-1 values were 3.96 ± 0.79 mPa.s and 4.16 ± 0.64 mPa.s. We observed strong correlations between peripheral and portal blood measurements of BV 200 s-1 (r2= 0.9649), BV 30 s-1 (r2= 0.9622), BV 5 s-1 (r2= 0.9610), and BV 1 s-1 (r2= 0.9623). Our results indicate that peripheral blood can be used to evaluate certain parameters in portal blood for use in biofluid mechanics studies, and to provide noninvasive measurement of portal venous pressure.

  12. [Characteristics of blood aggregation in human subjects of different age categories during normobaric interval hypo-oxytraining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotina, L A; Stepanov, V K; Dvornikov, M V

    2006-01-01

    Blood aggregation was studied in human subjects of different age groups given normobaric hypooxytraining. The experiment was performed with participation of two groups of volunteers: experienced human subjects well-adapted to hypoxia and young non-adapted subjects. NOT protocol included 7 min of breathing hypoxic mixture (90% N2 and 10% O2) and 3 min of breathing atmospheric air at room temperature, 6 cycles every other day during one month. Blood aggregation was assessed by 26 parameters with the use of a multifunctional diagnostic system that permitted biophysical (rheologic), biochemical (coagulative) and mathematic (systemic) diagnostics. Two groups of the human subjects displayed significantly different reactions to of blood aggregation to the extreme factor (NOT). There was a marked dependence of the blood aggregation reaction to the hypoxic factor on the body protective-adaptive potential. Our data substantiate the need to develop NOT protocols for pilots of specific ages.

  13. A single-blood-sample method using inulin for estimating feline glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, M; Saito, J; Katayama, R; Yamagishi, N; Murayama, I; Miyano, A; Furuhama, K

    2013-01-01

    Application of a multisample method using inulin to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in cats is cumbersome. To establish a simplified procedure to estimate GFR in cats, a single-blood-sample method using inulin was compared with a conventional 3-sample method. Nine cats including 6 clinically healthy cats and 3 cats with spontaneous chronic kidney disease. Retrospective study. Inulin was administered as an intravenous bolus at 50 mg/kg to cats, and blood was collected at 60, 90, and 120 minutes later for the 3-sample method. Serum inulin concentrations were colorimetrically determined by an autoanalyzer method. The GFR in the single-blood-sample method was calculated from the dose injected, serum concentration, sampling time, and estimated volume of distribution on the basis of the data of the 3-sample method. An excellent correlation was observed (r = 0.99, P = .0001) between GFR values estimated by the single-blood-sample and 3-sample methods. The single-blood-sample method using inulin provides a practicable and ethical alternative for estimating glomerular filtration rate in cats. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. An automated discontinuous venous blood sampling system for ex vivo glucose determination in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Roland; Feichtner, Franz; Köhler, Hans; Bodenlenz, Manfred; Plank, Johannes; Wutte, Andrea; Mader, Julia K; Ellmerer, Martin; Hainisch, Reinhard; Pieber, Thomas R; Schaupp, Lukas

    2009-01-01

    Intensive insulin therapy reduces mortality and morbidity in critically ill patients but places great demands on medical staff who must take frequent blood samples for the determination of glucose levels. A cost-effective solution to this resourcing problem could be provided by an effective and reliable automated blood sampling (ABS) system suitable for ex vivo glucose determination. The primary study aim was to compare the performance of a prototype ABS system with a manual reference system over a 30 h sampling period under controlled conditions in humans. Two venous cannulae were inserted to connect the ABS system and the reference system. Blood samples were taken with both systems at 15, 30, and 60 min intervals and analyzed using a Beckman glucose analyzer. During the study, blood glucose levels were altered through four meal ingestions. The median Pearson coefficient of correlation between manually and automatically withdrawn blood samples was 0.976 (0.953-0.996). The system error was -3.327 ± 5.546% (-6.03-0.49). Through Clark error grid analysis, 420 data pairs were analyzed, showing that 98.6% of the data were in zone A and 1.4% were in zone B. Insulin titration error grid analysis revealed an acceptable treatment in 100% of cases. A 17.5-fold reduction in the occurrence of blood-withdrawal failures through occluded catheters was moreover achieved by the added implementation in the ABS system of a "keep vein open" saline infusion. Our study showed that the ABS system described provides a user-friendly, reliable automated means for reproducible and accurate blood sampling from a peripheral vein for blood glucose determination and thus represents a promising alternative to frequent manual blood sampling. © Diabetes Technology Society

  15. Effects of Transport and Storage Conditions on Gene Expression in Blood Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malentacchi, Francesca; Pizzamiglio, Sara; Wyrich, Ralf; Verderio, Paolo; Ciniselli, Chiara; Pazzagli, Mario; Gelmini, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    Inappropriate handling of blood samples might induce or repress gene expression and/or lead to RNA degradation affecting downstream analysis. In particular, sample transport is a critical step for biobanking or multicenter studies because of uncontrolled variables (i.e., unstable temperature). We report the results of a pilot study implemented within the EC funded SPIDIA project, aimed to investigate the role of transport and storage of blood samples containing and not containing an RNA stabilizer. Blood was collected from a single donor both in EDTA and in PAXgene Blood RNA tubes. Half of the samples were sent to a second laboratory both at room temperature and at 4°C, whereas the remaining samples were stored at room temperature and at 4°C. Gene expression of selected genes (c-FOS, IL-1β, IL-8, and GAPDH) known to be induced or repressed by ex vivo blood handling and of blood-mRNA quality biomarkers identified and validated within the SPIDIA project, which allow for monitoring changes in unstabilized blood samples after collection and during transport and storage, were analyzed by RT-qPCR. If the shipment of blood in tubes not containing RNA stabilizer is not performed under a stable condition, gene profile studies can be affected by the effects of transport. Moreover, also controlled temperature shipment (4°C) can influence the expression of specific genes if blood is collected in tubes not containing a stabilizer. The use of dedicated biomarkers or time course experiments should be performed in order to verify potential bias on gene expression analysis due to sample shipment and storage conditions. Alternatively, the use of RNA stabilizer containing tubes can represent a reliable option to avoid ex vivo RNA changes.

  16. Automated dried blood spots standard and QC sample preparation using a robotic liquid handler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Long; Zhang, Duxi; Aubry, Anne-Francoise; Arnold, Mark E

    2012-12-01

    A dried blood spot (DBS) bioanalysis assay involves many steps, such as the preparation of standard (STD) and QC samples in blood, the spotting onto DBS cards, and the cutting-out of the spots. These steps are labor intensive and time consuming if done manually, which, therefore, makes automation very desirable in DBS bioanalysis. A robotic liquid handler was successfully applied to the preparation of STD and QC samples in blood and to spot the blood samples onto DBS cards using buspirone as the model compound. This automated preparation was demonstrated to be accurate and consistent. However the accuracy and precision of automated preparation were similar to those from manual preparation. The effect of spotting volume on accuracy was evaluated and a trend of increasing concentrations of buspirone with increasing spotting volumes was observed. The automated STD and QC sample preparation process significantly improved the efficiency, robustness and safety of DBS bioanalysis.

  17. Standardised Resting Time Prior to Blood Sampling and Diurnal Variation Associated with Risk of Patient Misclassification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh Andersen, Ida; Brasen, Claus L.; Christensen, Henry

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: According to current recommendations, blood samples should be taken in the morning after 15 minutes' resting time. Some components exhibit diurnal variation and in response to pressures to expand opening hours and reduce waiting time, the aims of this study were to investigate...... the impact of resting time prior to blood sampling and diurnal variation on biochemical components, including albumin, thyrotropin (TSH), total calcium and sodium in plasma. METHODS: All patients referred to an outpatient clinic for blood sampling were included in the period Nov 2011 until June 2014 (opening...... hours: 7am-3pm). Each patient's arrival time and time of blood sampling were registered. The impact of resting time and the time of day for all components was analysed using simple linear regression. The "maximum allowable bias" was used as quality indicator for the change in reference interval. RESULTS...

  18. A duplex PCR for rapid and simultaneous detection of Brucella spp. in human blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirnejad, Reza; Mohamadi, Mozafar; Piranfar, Vahbeh; Mortazavi, Seied Mojtaba; Kachuei, Reza

    2013-06-01

    To design a duplex PCR for rapid and simultaneous detection of Brucella species. in human blood samples. Fifty-two peripheral bloods samples were collected from suspicious patients with brucellosis. Following DNA extraction, PCR assay were performed, using three primers that could simultaneously identify and differentiate three major species of pathogenic Brucella in humans and animals. Of the 52 peripheral bloods samples tested, 25 sample (48%) showed positive reactions in PCR. Twelve samples were positive for Brucella abortus 39 (B. abortus 39) (23%), 13 for Brucella melitensis 39 (B. melitensis 39) (25%) and 0 for Brucella ovis 39 (B. ovis 39) (0%). This work demonstrates that in case where specific primers were utilized, duplex PCR has proved to be a simple, fast, and relatively inexpensive method for simultaneous detection of important species of Brucella in clinical samples. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effective prevention of pseudothrombocytopenia in feline blood samples with the prostaglandin I2 analogue Iloprost

    OpenAIRE

    Riond, Barbara; Waßmuth, Andrea Katharina; Hartnack, Sonja; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In vitro platelet aggregation in feline blood samples is a well-known phenomenon in veterinary clinical laboratories resulting in high numbers of pseudothrombocytopenia. Several attempts have been made to prevent or dissolve platelet aggregates in feline blood samples and to increase the reliability of feline platelet counts. Prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) is the most powerful endogenous inhibitor of platelet aggregation but unstable. Iloprost is a stable PGI2 analogue. The aims of the p...

  20. Detection of α-thalassaemia in neonates on cord blood and dried blood spot samples by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alauddin, H; Langa, M; Mohd Yusoff, M; Raja Sabudin, R Z A; Ithnin, A; Abdul Razak, N F; Sardi, N H; Hussin, N H

    2017-04-01

    Haemoglobin Bart's (Hb Bart's) level is associated with α-thalassaemia traits in neonates, enabling early diagnosis of α-thalassaemia. The study aimed to detect and quantify the Hb Bart's using Cord Blood (CB) and CE Neonat Fast Hb (NF) progammes on fresh and dried blood spot (DBS) specimen respectively by capillary electrophoresis (CE). Capillarys Hemoglobin (E) Kit (for CB) and Capillarys Neonat Hb Kit (for NF) were used to detect and quantify Hb Bart's by CE in fresh cord blood and dried blood spot (DBS) specimens respectively. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using the β-Thal Short Programme was also performed concurrently with CE analysis. Confirmation was obtained by multiplex ARMS Gap PCR. This study was performed on 600 neonates. 32/600 (5.3%) samples showed presence of Hb Bart's peak using the NF programme while 33/600 (5.5%) were positive with CB programme and HPLC methods. The range of Hb Bart's using NF programme and CB programme were (0.5-4.1%) and (0.5-7.1%), respectively. Molecular analysis confirmed all positive samples possessed α-thalassaemia genetic mutations, with 23/33 cases being αα/--SEA, four -α3.7/-α3.7, two αα/-α3.7 and three αα/ααCS. Fifty Hb Bart's negative samples were randomly tested for α-genotypes, three were also found to be positive for α-globin gene mutations. Thus, resulting in sensitivity of 91.7% and 88.9% and specificity of 100% for the Capillarys Cord Blood programme and Capillarys Neonat Fast programme respectively. Both CE programmes using fresh or dried cord blood were useful as a screening tool for α-thalassaemia in newborns. All methods show the same specificity (100%) with variable, but acceptable sensitivities in the detection of Hb Bart.

  1. The effect of sampling and storage on the fecal microbiota composition in healthy and diseased subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyta I Tedjo

    Full Text Available Large-scale cohort studies are currently being designed to investigate the human microbiome in health and disease. Adequate sampling strategies are required to limit bias due to shifts in microbial communities during sampling and storage. Therefore, we examined the impact of different sampling and storage conditions on the stability of fecal microbial communities in healthy and diseased subjects. Fecal samples from 10 healthy controls, 10 irritable bowel syndrome and 8 inflammatory bowel disease patients were collected on site, aliquoted immediately after defecation and stored at -80 °C, -20 °C for 1 week, at +4°C or room temperature for 24 hours. Fecal transport swabs (FecalSwab, Copan were collected and stored for 48-72 hours at room temperature. We used pyrosequencing of the 16S gene to investigate the stability of microbial communities. Alpha diversity did not differ between all storage methods and -80 °C, except for the fecal swabs. UPGMA clustering and principal coordinate analysis showed significant clustering by test subject (p < 0.001 but not by storage method. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and (unweighted UniFrac showed a significant higher distance between fecal swabs and -80 °C versus the other methods and -80 °C samples (p < 0.009. The relative abundance of Ruminococcus and Enterobacteriaceae did not differ between the storage methods versus -80 °C, but was higher in fecal swabs (p < 0.05. Storage up to 24 hours (at +4 °C or room temperature or freezing at -20 °C did not significantly alter the fecal microbial community structure compared to direct freezing of samples from healthy subjects and patients with gastrointestinal disorders.

  2. Effect of Stress-free Therapy on Cerebral Blood Flow: Comparisons among patients with metabolic cardiovascular disease, healthy subjects and placebo-treated subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryotokuji, Kenji; Ishimaru, Keisou; Kihara, Kazuhiko; Namiki, Yoshihisa; Nakashima, Takuma; Otani, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: We have developed a Stress-free Therapy® device wherein “Pinpoint Plantar Long-wavelength Infrared Light Irradiation (PP-LILI)” increases peripheral-deep body temperature and blood flow volume and stabilizes blood pressure as well as significantly reduces stress hormones such as adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol without using drugs. Moreover, we have found this therapy to significantly improve blood glucose and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Based on this background of clinical efficacy, we validated changes in cerebral blood flow in patients with metabolic cardiovascular disease and examined the efficacy of Stress-free Therapy® on cerebral blood flow as compared to that in healthy control subjects and placebo-treated patients. Results: The change in cerebral blood flow volume during 15-minute PP-LILI was 5.1 ± 1.8 mL/min in patients with metabolic cardiovascular disease, showing a significant increase (P<0.05) of 3.1 mL/min as compared with the mean blood flow value after resting for 15 minutes. Conclusions: Our results suggested Stress-free Therapy® to significantly increase cerebral blood flow, possibly leading to the prevention of metabolic cardiovascular disease. PMID:24771966

  3. Regional cerebral blood flow during comprehension and speech (in cerebrally healthy subjects)

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    Lechevalier, B.; Petit, M.C.; Eustache, F.; Lambert, J.; Chapon, F.; Viader, F. (Service de Neurologie-Dejerine, Chu de Caen (France))

    1989-07-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by the xenon-133 inhalation method in 10 cerebrally healthy subjects at rest and during linguistic activation tests. These consisted of a comprehension test (binaural listening to a narrative text) and a speech test (making sentences from a list of words presented orally at 30-s intervals). The comprehension task induced a moderate increase in the mean right CBF and in both inferior parietal areas, whereas the speech test resulted in a diffuse increase in the mean CBF of both hemispheres, predominating regionally in both inferior parietal, left operculary, and right upper motor and premotor areas. It is proposed that the activation pattern induced by linguistic stimulation depends on not only specific factors, such as syntactic and semantic aspects of language, but also the contents of the material proposed and the attention required by the test situation.

  4. Bacterial Contamination of Blood DNA Samples is Associated with Donor's Health Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Eun; Hong, Eun-Jung; Shim, Sung-Mi; Kim, Jun-Woo; Bae, Geun-Ryang; Cho, Yoon Shin; Jeon, Jae-Pil; Han, Bok-Ghee

    2010-09-01

    Bacterial contamination often occurs in human blood DNA samples, possibly due to bacteremia or an inappropriate procedure during sample preparation. This study aimed at analyzing the clinical significance of bacterial DNA contamination in human blood DNA samples and to assess its influence on experimental data. DNA samples (N = 1359) were randomly selected from population-based cohort samples to determine bacterial DNA contamination by polymerase chain reaction and direct DNA sequencing. Bacterial DNA contaminated samples (N = 150) were then assessed for experimental quality of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip data, compared with uncontaminated DNA samples (N = 1209). DNA sequencing data showed that a major source of bacterial contaminants was derived from Alcaligenes species. The occurrence of bacterial DNA contaminations was significantly associated with some clinical variables including a postprandial glucose level at 60 min, % body fat, and waist-to-hip ratio. It was also found that there was no difference of SNP call rates between bacterial DNA contaminated samples and uncontaminated DNA samples. This study showed that bacterial DNA contamination in human blood samples was related to donor's health condition, suggesting that the occurrence of bacterial DNA contamination may provide useful health information of blood donors and a potential tool for human disease genomics.

  5. Comparative infectious serology testing of pre- and post-mortem blood samples from cornea donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkemeyer, I; Pruss, A; Kalus, U; Schroeter, J

    2012-08-01

    Defined serological blood tests of deceased cornea donors are required to minimize the risk of viral infections of a transplant recipient as much as possible. Haemolysis, autolysis and bacterial contamination, may produce significant changes of post-mortem blood samples, which may lead to false serological test results. Pre- and post-mortem findings from the same cornea donors of the University Tissue Bank of the Charité in the years 2004-2009 (n = 487) were retrospectively analyzed and compared. The test results from pre-mortem blood samples were defined as the reference for the post-mortem blood test. Of 487 cornea donors, there were a total of 21 cases (4.3%) with discrepancies between serological test results from pre- and post-mortem blood samples. Of these, 7 values referred to the HBsAg-testing, 3 to the anti-HBs-, 1 to the anti-HBcIgG + IgM-, 1 to the anti-HCV-, 4 to the anti-HIV 1/2- and 5 to the TPLA-findings. False negative results within post-mortem serology occurred in 4 of 487 cases (0.8%). False positive results within the post-mortem blood samples occurred at a much more frequent rate, with 17 of 487 cases (3.5%). Discrepancies between serological pre- and post-mortem blood tests occur mainly due to the use of non-validated test systems. Therefore, it seems reasonable to test pre- and post-mortem blood samples serologically, whenever possible, at the same time, regardless of the sample age. Positive results, regardless of the sample type, should always be retested with validated confirmation tests (e.g. NAT), in order to differentiate between false and true positive results.

  6. Beetroot supplementation lowers daily systolic blood pressure in older, overweight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jajja, A; Sutyarjoko, A; Lara, J; Rennie, K; Brandt, K; Qadir, O; Siervo, M

    2014-10-01

    Although inorganic nitrate and beetroot juice supplementation are associated with decreased systolic blood pressure (BP), these results have primarily been obtained from short-term trials that focused on healthy young adults. Therefore, we hypothesized that oral supplementation of beetroot juice concentrate would decrease systolic BP in overweight older participants but that the decline in BP would not be sustained after a 1-week interruption of the beetroot juice supplementation. For 3 weeks, 24 participants were randomized to either the beetroot juice concentrate or blackcurrant juice group, with a 1-week postsupplementation phase (week 4). Changes in systolic and diastolic BP were assessed during the supplementation and postsupplementation phases. Blood pressure was measured using 3 different methods: (1) resting clinic BP, (2) 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring, and (3) home monitoring of daily resting BP. The first 2 methods were applied at baseline and after weeks 3 and 4. Daily measurements were conducted throughout the study, with 21 subjects completing the study (beetroot/blackcurrant = 10/11; male/female = 12/9; age = 62.0 ± 1.4 years; body mass index = 30.1 ± 1.2 kg/m(2)). After 3 weeks, beetroot juice supplementation was not associated with significant changes in resting clinic BP or 24-hour ABPM. Conversely, beetroot juice concentrate reduced daily systolic BP after 3 weeks (-7.3 ± 5.9 mm Hg, P = .02); however, the effect was not maintained after the interruption of the supplementation (week 4, 2.8 ± 6.1 mm Hg, P = .09). In overweight older subjects, beetroot juice concentrate supplementation was associated with beneficial effects on daily systolic BP, although the effects were not significant when measured by 24-hour ABPM or resting clinic BP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia: the effect of arterial blood sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Bendtsen, Flemming; Christensen, N J

    1990-01-01

    To investigate whether previously reported changes in venous blood volume and composition induced by acute hypoglycaemia in humans are representative for the entire body we measured erythrocyte 51Cr content, haematocrit, plasma volume, intravascular albumin content and transcapillary escape rate...... of albumin in arterial and venous blood in seven healthy subjects before and during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. In both vascular sites blood 51Cr content and the haematocrit increased, plasma volume and intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased during...... hypoglycaemia. The magnitude of the changes in arterial and venous blood were not significantly different. These results indicate that the above changes in blood volume and composition are whole-body phenomena: furthermore, the major part of the changes are likely to occur in tissues other than upper extremity...

  8. Simplifying sample pretreatment: application of dried blood spot (DBS) method to blood samples, including postmortem, for UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoardi, Sara; Anzillotti, Luca; Strano-Rossi, Sabina

    2014-10-01

    The complexity of biological matrices, such as blood, requires the development of suitably selective and reliable sample pretreatment procedures prior to their instrumental analysis. A method has been developed for the analysis of drugs of abuse and their metabolites from different chemical classes (opiates, methadone, fentanyl and analogues, cocaine, amphetamines and amphetamine-like substances, ketamine, LSD) in human blood using dried blood spot (DBS) and subsequent UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. DBS extraction required only 100μL of sample, added with the internal standards and then three droplets (30μL each) of this solution were spotted on the card, let dry for 1h, punched and extracted with methanol with 0.1% of formic acid. The supernatant was evaporated and the residue was then reconstituted in 100μL of water with 0.1% of formic acid and injected in the UHPLC-MS/MS system. The method was validated considering the following parameters: LOD and LOQ, linearity, precision, accuracy, matrix effect and dilution integrity. LODs were 0.05-1ng/mL and LOQs were 0.2-2ng/mL. The method showed satisfactory linearity for all substances, with determination coefficients always higher than 0.99. Intra and inter day precision, accuracy, matrix effect and dilution integrity were acceptable for all the studied substances. The addition of internal standards before DBS extraction and the deposition of a fixed volume of blood on the filter cards ensured the accurate quantification of the analytes. The validated method was then applied to authentic postmortem blood samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis in Imam Reza Hospital blood bank samples, Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaddel, M; Mirzaii Dizgah, I; Sharif, F

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of toxoplasma gondii (T.g) infection in blood donors has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis in blood products. A total of 223 blood products (101 fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and 122 packed cells (PC)) in Imam Reza hospital blood bank, Tehran, Iran were tested for specific T.g antibodies (IgG and IgM) by ELISA method. Positive IgG anti-T.g samples were further tested for IgM anti-T.g. A positive IgG test with the negative and positive IgM test was interpreted as a chronic and acute toxoplasmosis respectively. Of 223 samples 38.6% and 0.45% were positive for IgG anti-T.g and IgM anti-T.g levels respectively. Therefore, one and 85 samples were involved acute and chronic toxoplasmosis respectively. Twenty-six of fresh frozen plasma samples were positive for IgG anti-T.g and one of them was positive for IgM anti-T.g. Sixty packed cell samples were positive for IgG anti-T.g. Our study showed that there were chronic and acute toxoplasmosis in blood products and the prevalence of toxoplasmosis especially chronic form was high. Therefore screening of blood for T.g antibodies may be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Substantial Inter-Subject Variability in Blood Pressure Responses to Glucose in a Healthy, Non-obese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathriona R. Monnard

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A large inter-subject variability in the blood pressure (BP response to glucose drinks has been reported. However, the underlying factors remain elusive and we hypothesized that accompanying changes in glucose metabolism affect these BP responses.Methods: Cardiovascular and glycemic changes in response to a standard 75 g oral-glucose-tolerance-test were investigated in 30 healthy, non-obese males. Continuous cardiovascular monitoring, including beat-to-beat BP, electrocardiographically deduced heart rate and impedance cardiography, was performed during a 30 min baseline and continued up to 120 min after glucose ingestion. Blood samples were taken at baseline, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min for the assessment of glucose, insulin and c-peptide. Additionally, we evaluated body composition by using validated bioelectrical impedance techniques.Results: Individual overall changes (i.e., averages over 120 min for systolic BP ranged from −4.9 to +4.7 mmHg, where increases and decreases were equally distributed (50%. Peak changes (i.e., peak averages over 10 min intervals for systolic BP ranged from −1.3 to +9.5 mmHg, where 93% of subjects increased systolic BP above baseline values (similar for diastolic BP whilst 63% of subjects increased peak systolic BP by more than 4 mmHg. Changes in peak systolic BP were negatively associated with the calculated Matsuda-index of insulin sensitivity (r = −0.39, p = 0.04 but with no other evaluated parameter including body composition. Moreover, besides a trend toward an association between overall changes in systolic BP and total fat mass percentage (r = +0.32, p = 0.09, no association was found between other body composition parameters and overall BP changes.Conclusion: Substantial inter-subject variability in BP changes was observed in a healthy, non-obese subpopulation in response to an oral glucose load. In 63% of subjects, peak systolic BP increased by more than a clinically relevant 4 mmHg. Peak systolic

  11. [Design of standard voice sample text for subjective auditory perceptual evaluation of voice disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-rang; Sun, Yan-yan; Xu, Wen

    2010-09-01

    To design a speech voice sample text with all phonemes in Mandarin for subjective auditory perceptual evaluation of voice disorders. The principles for design of a speech voice sample text are: The short text should include the 21 initials and 39 finals, this may cover all the phonemes in Mandarin. Also, the short text should have some meanings. A short text was made out. It had 155 Chinese words, and included 21 initials and 38 finals (the final, ê, was not included because it was rarely used in Mandarin). Also, the text covered 17 light tones and one "Erhua". The constituent ratios of the initials and finals presented in this short text were statistically similar as those in Mandarin according to the method of similarity of the sample and population (r = 0.742, P text were statistically not similar as those in Mandarin (r = 0.731, P > 0.05). A speech voice sample text with all phonemes in Mandarin was made out. The constituent ratios of the initials and finals presented in this short text are similar as those in Mandarin. Its value for subjective auditory perceptual evaluation of voice disorders need further study.

  12. Cytogenetic genotoxic investigation in peripheral blood lymphocytes of subjects with dental composite restorative filling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettini, F; Savino, M; Corsalini, M; Cantore, S; Ballini, A

    2015-01-01

    Dental composite resins are biomaterials commonly used to aesthetically restore the structure and function of teeth impaired by caries, erosion, or fracture. Residual monomers released from resin restorations as a result of incomplete polymerization processes interact with living oral tissues. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of a common dental composite material (Enamel Plus-HFO), in subjects with average 13 filled teeth with the same material, compared to a control group (subjects having neither amalgam nor composite resin fillings). Genotoxicity assessment of composite materials was carried out in vitro in human peripheral blood leukocytes using sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosomal aberrations (CA) cytogenetic tests. The results of correlation and multiple regression analyses confirmed the absence of a relationship between SCE/cell, high frequency of SCE(HFC) or CA frequencies and exposure to dental composite materials. These results indicate that composite resins used for dental restorations differ extensively in vivo in their cytotoxic and genotoxic potential and in their ability to affect chromosomal integrity, cell-cycle progression, DNA replication and repair.

  13. Determination of degree of RBC agglutination for blood typing using a small quantity of blood sample in a microfluidic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yaw-Jen; Ho, Ching-Yuan; Zhou, Xin-Miao; Yen, Hsiu-Rong

    2018-04-15

    Blood typing assay is a critical test to ensure the serological compatibility of a donor and an intended recipient prior to a blood transfusion. This paper presents a microfluidic blood typing system using a small quantity of blood sample to determine the degree of agglutination of red blood cell (RBC). Two measuring methods were proposed: impedimetric measurement and electroanalytical measurement. The charge transfer resistance in the impedimetric measurement and the power parameter in the electroanalytical measurement were used for the analysis of agglutination level. From the experimental results, both measuring methods provide quantitative results, and the parameters are linearly and monotonically related to the degree of RBC agglutination. However, the electroanalytical measurement is more reliable than the impedimetric technique because the impedimetric measurement may suffer from many influencing factors, such as chip conditions. Five levels from non-agglutination (level 0) to strong agglutination (level 4+) can be discriminated in this study, conforming to the clinical requirement to prevent any risks in transfusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Study of nitrogen losses at the microcosm in undisturbed soil samples subjected to thermal shocks

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    J. Cancelo-González

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory thermal shocks of different intensity and rainfall simulations were performed in undisturbed Leptic Umbrisol soil samples. Samples were collected in field using specially designed lysimeter boxes to allow sampling, thermal shocks and surface runoff and subsurface flow water collection during the rainfall simulations. Temperature was recorded during heating and degree-hours of accumulated heat were calculated and nitrogen losses in surface and subsurface water collected after two rainfall simulations were determined. Results show losses of total nitrogen from treatments 200 oC and 67 degrees-hours heat supplied in the leachate obtained after 150 mm of simulated rainfall compared with non-heat treated soils. Is remarkable that soils subjected to higher intensity heat treatments (400 oC and 278 67 degrees-hours show greater losses of N-Nitrate and N-Ammonia by subsurface flow, while this behavior was not observed in the other heat treatments.

  15. Stability of diazepam in blood samples at different storage conditions and in the presence of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, V N; Stoykova, S; Runiov, A; Dimitrova, T; Aleksandrova, D; Tsakovski, S; Mitewa, M

    2012-02-10

    Diazepam is one of the mostly used benzodiazepines and it is frequently analyzed in different biological samples, especially blood samples. The diazepam stability in the sample matrices is an important factor regarding reliable data obtaining. The storage is the main factor determining the stability of diazepam in blood samples and it is the object of the study presented. Remaining diazepam amount in spiked whole blood and plasma samples were tested at different storage temperatures, in the absence or presence of sodium fluoride as stabilizer as well as the influence of ethanol on diazepam stability was evaluated. The results of the study indicated that the temperature is the main storage factor affecting diazepam stability. In the fluoride stabilized blood samples the amount of diazepam decreases up to 85% of initial level when stored at -20° C for the period of testing (12 weeks). The presence of low (0.5 g/L) or high (3g/L) ethanol concentrations influences the stability of diazepam at -20 °C. In whole blood samples, the combination of sodium fluoride and ethanol decreases additionally (15-25%) the concentration of the analyte. Freeze-thaw experiments of whole blood samples show about 5-9% decrease in diazepam concentration after the first cycle. The freeze-thaw experiments on plasma samples, containing ethanol and/or fluoride show insignificant decreases of analyte concentration. Further experiments on benzodiazepines stability at different storage conditions or in combination of different factors should be undertaken in forensic toxicology to ensure the data quality, their reliability and reproducibility. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A content validated questionnaire for assessment of self reported venous blood sampling practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bölenius Karin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Venous blood sampling is a common procedure in health care. It is strictly regulated by national and international guidelines. Deviations from guidelines due to human mistakes can cause patient harm. Validated questionnaires for health care personnel can be used to assess preventable "near misses"--i.e. potential errors and nonconformities during venous blood sampling practices that could transform into adverse events. However, no validated questionnaire that assesses nonconformities in venous blood sampling has previously been presented. The aim was to test a recently developed questionnaire in self reported venous blood sampling practices for validity and reliability. Findings We developed a questionnaire to assess deviations from best practices during venous blood sampling. The questionnaire contained questions about patient identification, test request management, test tube labeling, test tube handling, information search procedures and frequencies of error reporting. For content validity, the questionnaire was confirmed by experts on questionnaires and venous blood sampling. For reliability, test-retest statistics were used on the questionnaire answered twice. The final venous blood sampling questionnaire included 19 questions out of which 9 had in total 34 underlying items. It was found to have content validity. The test-retest analysis demonstrated that the items were generally stable. In total, 82% of the items fulfilled the reliability acceptance criteria. Conclusions The questionnaire could be used for assessment of "near miss" practices that could jeopardize patient safety and gives several benefits instead of assessing rare adverse events only. The higher frequencies of "near miss" practices allows for quantitative analysis of the effect of corrective interventions and to benchmark preanalytical quality not only at the laboratory/hospital level but also at the health care unit/hospital ward.

  17. Influence of pre-analytical procedures on genomic DNA integrity in blood samples: the SPIDIA experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malentacchi, F; Ciniselli, C M; Pazzagli, M; Verderio, P; Barraud, L; Hartmann, C C; Pizzamiglio, S; Weisbuch, S; Wyrich, R; Gelmini, S

    2015-02-02

    DNA integrity is a critical part of the definition of genomic DNA (gDNA) quality and can influence downstream molecular applications. Pre-analytical variables as sample storage and DNA extraction methods can influence the quality and quantity of isolated DNA and affect molecular test performances. The aim of this paper is to investigate the role of blood sample storage and DNA extraction procedures on gDNA integrity and gDNA fragmentation impact on a molecular test. 157 DNA samples deriving from the Pan European 1st SPIDIA DNA External Quality Assessment (EQA), aimed to investigate the influence of blood storage on gDNA quality and quantity, have been analyzed by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis and ImageJ imaging software. 157 DNA samples derived from the Pan European 1st SPIDIA DNA External Quality Assessment (EQA), which aimed to investigate the influence of blood storage on gDNA quality and quantity, have been analyzed by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis and ImageJ imaging software. Our results demonstrate that blood sample storage and DNA extraction procedures influence gDNA integrity and that the same blood sample which underwent a long range multiplex PCR based analytical test can provide different results if the adopted pre-analytical procedures are not standardized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Do plasma concentrations obtained from early arterial blood sampling improve pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaufort, A.M; Proost, Hans; Kuizenga, K; Houwertjes, M.C; Kleef, U.W; Wierda, J.MKH

    In pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling the first blood sample is usually taken 1 to 2 min after drug administration (late sampling). Therefore, investigators have to extrapolate the plasma concentration to Time 0. Extrapolation, however, erroneously assumes instantaneous and complete

  19. Sampling methods to the statistical control of the production of blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Seghatchian, Jerard; Caldeira, Beatriz; Santos, Paula; Castro, Rosa; Fernandes, Teresa; Xavier, Sandra; de Sousa, Gracinda; de Almeida E Sousa, João Paulo

    2017-12-01

    The control of blood components specifications is a requirement generalized in Europe by the European Commission Directives and in the US by the AABB standards. The use of a statistical process control methodology is recommended in the related literature, including the EDQM guideline. The control reliability is dependent of the sampling. However, a correct sampling methodology seems not to be systematically applied. Commonly, the sampling is intended to comply uniquely with the 1% specification to the produced blood components. Nevertheless, on a purely statistical viewpoint, this model could be argued not to be related to a consistent sampling technique. This could be a severe limitation to detect abnormal patterns and to assure that the production has a non-significant probability of producing nonconforming components. This article discusses what is happening in blood establishments. Three statistical methodologies are proposed: simple random sampling, sampling based on the proportion of a finite population, and sampling based on the inspection level. The empirical results demonstrate that these models are practicable in blood establishments contributing to the robustness of sampling and related statistical process control decisions for the purpose they are suggested for. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Wuchereria bancrofti in Tanzania: microfilarial periodicity and effect of blood sampling time on microfilarial intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Poul Erik; Niemann, L.; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf

    1997-01-01

    of blood sampling before peak time is discussed, and the importance of taking sampling time into consideration when analysing data from epidemiological studies is emphasized. A simple method is devised which can be used to adjust for the influence of time on mf intensities, in studies where accurate......The circadian periodicity of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial (mf) intensities in peripheral blood was analysed in a group of infected individuals from an endemic community in north-eastern Tanzania. The mf density was quantified at two-hourly intervals for 24 hours. A clear nocturnal periodic...... information on mf intensities is necessary, and where it is impossible to obtain all samples at peak time....

  1. Method of evaluation of process of red blood cell sedimentation based on photometry of droplet samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristov, Alexander; Nosova, Ekaterina

    2017-04-01

    The paper focuses on research aimed at creating and testing a new approach to evaluate the processes of aggregation and sedimentation of red blood cells for purpose of its use in clinical laboratory diagnostics. The proposed method is based on photometric analysis of blood sample formed as a sessile drop. The results of clinical approbation of this method are given in the paper. Analysis of the processes occurring in the sample in the form of sessile drop during the process of blood cells sedimentation is described. The results of experimental studies to evaluate the effect of the droplet sample focusing properties on light radiation transmittance are presented. It is shown that this method significantly reduces the sample volume and provides sufficiently high sensitivity to the studied processes.

  2. Paper membrane-based SERS platform for the determination of glucose in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torul, Hilal; Çiftçi, Hakan; Çetin, Demet; Suludere, Zekiye; Boyacı, Ismail Hakkı; Tamer, Uğur

    2015-11-01

    In this report, we present a paper membrane-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platform for the determination of blood glucose level using a nitrocellulose membrane as substrate paper, and the microfluidic channel was simply constructed by wax-printing method. The rod-shaped gold nanorod particles were modified with 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid (4-MBA) and 1-decanethiol (1-DT) molecules and used as embedded SERS probe for paper-based microfluidics. The SERS measurement area was simply constructed by dropping gold nanoparticles on nitrocellulose membrane, and the blood sample was dropped on the membrane hydrophilic channel. While the blood cells and proteins were held on nitrocellulose membrane, glucose molecules were moved through the channel toward the SERS measurement area. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to confirm the effective separation of blood matrix, and total analysis is completed in 5 min. In SERS measurements, the intensity of the band at 1070 cm(-1) which is attributed to B-OH vibration decreased depending on the rise in glucose concentration in the blood sample. The glucose concentration was found to be 5.43 ± 0.51 mM in the reference blood sample by using a calibration equation, and the certified value for glucose was 6.17 ± 0.11 mM. The recovery of the glucose in the reference blood sample was about 88 %. According to these results, the developed paper-based microfluidic SERS platform has been found to be suitable for use for the detection of glucose in blood samples without any pretreatment procedure. We believe that paper-based microfluidic systems may provide a wide field of usage for paper-based applications.

  3. The effectiveness of cooling conditions on temperature of canine EDTA whole blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M. Tobias

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Preanalytic factors such as time and temperature can have significant effects on laboratory test results. For example, ammonium concentration will increase 31% in blood samples stored at room temperature for 30 min before centrifugation. To reduce preanalytic error, blood samples may be placed in precooled tubes and chilled on ice or in ice water baths; however, the effectiveness of these modalities in cooling blood samples has not been formally evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various cooling modalities on reducing temperature of EDTA whole blood samples. Methods Pooled samples of canine EDTA whole blood were divided into two aliquots. Saline was added to one aliquot to produce a packed cell volume (PCV of 40% and to the second aliquot to produce a PCV of 20% (simulated anemia. Thirty samples from each aliquot were warmed to 37.7 °C and cooled in 2 ml allotments under one of three conditions: in ice, in ice after transfer to a precooled tube, or in an ice water bath. Temperature of each sample was recorded at one minute intervals for 15 min. Results Within treatment conditions, sample PCV had no significant effect on cooling. Cooling in ice water was significantly faster than cooling in ice only or transferring the sample to a precooled tube and cooling it on ice. Mean temperature of samples cooled in ice water was significantly lower at 15 min than mean temperatures of those cooled in ice, whether or not the tube was precooled. By 4 min, samples cooled in an ice water bath had reached mean temperatures less than 4 °C (refrigeration temperature, while samples cooled in other conditions remained above 4.0 °C for at least 11 min. For samples with a PCV of 40%, precooling the tube had no significant effect on rate of cooling on ice. For samples with a PCV of 20%, transfer to a precooled tube resulted in a significantly faster rate of cooling than direct placement of the warmed tube onto ice

  4. Concentration and correlations of perfluoroalkyl substances in whole blood among subjects from three different geographical areas in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chon Rae; Lam, Nguyen Hoang [College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, Chonnam National University, Yeosu 550-749 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Byung Mann [Department of Preventive Medicine and Occupational Medicine, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Kannan, Kurunthachalam [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza PO Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Cho, Hyeon Seo, E-mail: hscho@jnu.ac.kr [College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, Chonnam National University, Yeosu 550-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Toxicity and persistence of perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) in human have raised considerable concern and several biomonitoring studies throughout the world reported the widespread occurrence of these compounds in human tissues. However, information regarding influence of geographic, lifestyle and demographic factor on PFAS levels in human blood tissues is limited. In this study, whole blood samples collected in 2006–2007 from 319 donors from suburban Seoul (Suwon and Yongin), Busan and Yeosu in Korea were analyzed for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). Blood donors classified into seven age groups with ages ranging from 8 to 82 years, and different lifestyles and socio-economic status. PFOS (median = 4.15 ng/mL) was found at the highest concentration with a maximum concentration of 59.1 ng/mL. The concentrations of other PFASs were in the decreasing order of; PFOA (median = 1.30 ng/mL) > PFNA (median = 0.85 ng/mL) > PFHxS (median = 0.47 ng/mL) > PFOSA (median = 0.12 ng/mL). Geographical differences in the concentrations of five target PFASs were found. Significant positive relationships between PFAS concentrations and the age of the donors were found. Gender-related differences were found in the concentrations of PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS and PFOSA. No association was found between PFAS levels and several lifestyle factors and socio-economic status which included drinking habit, furniture/carpet in an indoor environment and monthly income. Occupation was an important determinant for PFNA and PFHxS concentrations in the whole blood. Except for PFOSA, significant associations were noted between PFASs concentrations and smoking habit. The results of this study provide information for further public health monitoring and safety management for PFASs in Korea. - Highlights: • Significant geographical differences in PFAS levels in whole

  5. [Ambulatory blood pressure in normotensive subjects. Definition of reference values as a function of age by the Spacelabs instrument].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagny, J Y; Delva, R; Aouizerate, M; Chatellier, G; Battaglia, C; Devriès, C; Plouin, P F; Corvol, P; Ménard, J

    1987-10-10

    For a finer assessment, by repeated blood pressure (BP) measurements, of the cardiovascular risk associated with BP levels, new instruments have been developed which provide multiple reading during periods of activity. However, the lack of epidemiological studies makes it necessary to determine reference ambulatory BP levels by another method. Twelve-hour recordings were taken with the Spacelabs instrument in 130 volunteers (45% males) aged from 20 to 90 years during their various activities. Mean systolic and diastolic BP values +/- SD were calculated per age-groups of 10 years each. That this sample was representative of the general population was confirmed by the fact that BP fluctuations and variations according to age and sex in these 130 subjects were identical with those observed in the population of an entire town (Framingham). The concept of hypertension, as defined by ambulatory BP recordings, is discussed. This study provides, for the first time, reference ambulatory BP values according to age and sex, measured in normotensive subjects with the Spacelabs instrument. These values constitute a preliminary step indispensable to evaluate this technique in hypertensive patients.

  6. Rapid and reliable determination of the halogenating peroxidase activity in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemmig, Jörg; Schwarz, Pauline; Bäcker, Ingo; Leichsenring, Anna; Lange, Franziska; Arnhold, Jürgen

    2014-12-15

    By combining easy and fast leukocyte enrichment with aminophenyl-fluorescein (APF) staining we developed a method to quickly and specifically address the halogenating activity of the immunological relevant blood heme peroxidases myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase, respectively. For leukocyte enrichment a two-fold hypotonic lysis procedure of the blood with Millipore water was chosen which represents a cheap, fast and reliable method to diminish the amount of erythrocytes in the samples. This procedure is shown to be suitable both to human and murine blood micro-samples, making it also applicable to small animal experiments with recurring blood sampling. As all types of leukocytes are kept in the sample during the preparation, they can be analysed separately after discrimination during the flow cytometry analysis. This also holds for all heme peroxidase-containing cells, namely neutrophils, eosinophils and monocytes. Moreover additional parameters (e.g. antibody staining) can be combined with the heme peroxidase activity determination to gain additional information about the different immune cell types. Based on previous results we applied APF for specifically addressing the halogenating activity of leukocyte peroxidases in blood samples. This dye is selectively oxidized by the MPO and EPO halogenation products hypochlorous and hypobromous acid. This approach may provide a suitable tool to gain more insights into the immune-physiological role of the halogenating activity of heme peroxidases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, and indirect blood pressure evaluation in dogs subjected to different sedation protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Mondardo Cardoso

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of different sedation protocols on blood pressure and echocardiographic and electrocardiographic parameters in dogs. In total, 24 male mixed-breed dogs with a mean weight of 9.87±3.0kg were used.Animals were randomly divided into four groups (n=6, which were subjected to sedation using the following protocols: acepromazine (0.05mgkg-1 and butorphanol (0.3mgkg-1 (AB; acepromazine (0.05mgkg-1and methadone (0.5mgkg-1 (AM; acepromazine (0.03mgkg-1, methadone (0.5mgkg-1, and midazolam (0.3mgkg-1(MAM; and methadone only (0.5mgkg-1 (M. Indirect blood pressure (BP measurements and computerized electrocardiography (ECG and echocardiography (ECO were performed immediately before the application of the sedation protocol (baseline, and the same evaluations were repeated after 15 minutes. BP decreased in groups AB, MAM, and AM compared to baseline values. Electrocardiographic measurements showed decreased heart rates (HRs after sedation in all groups, and bradycardia was observed after sedation in two dogs from group M and one animal from group AM. The P-wave duration increased after sedation in groups AM and M. After sedation, no changes in cardiac dimensions were revealed byECO.Fractional shortening (FS decreased after sedation in the AM group, and dogs from group AB exhibited a smaller decrease in FS compared with the other groups. The cardiac index (CI was lower in groups AM and M than in the other groups. Animals from group AB were less resistant to examination and exhibited the most favorable sedation scores. It was concluded that the combination of acepromazine and butorphanol was the best sedation protocol for performing echocardiogram measurementsbecause dogs were less resistant to examinations and echocardiographic parameters of FS and CI remained stable.

  8. Applying dried blood spot sampling with LCMS quantification in the clinical development phase of tasquinimod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Leif D; Sennbro, Carl-Johan; Svanström, Camilla; Hansson, Gunnar P

    2015-01-01

    Tasquinimod is an orally active anticancer drug in late clinical development. Here we describe the development and validation of a bioanalytical method based upon dried blood spot analysis in combination with LCMS/MS and stable isotope dilution. The present method was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, selectivity, carry-over and ruggedness. Data elucidating stability of tasquinimod in dried blood spots and in blood at ambient temperature was investigated and found adequate. Furthermore, in a clinical study, incurred samples reanalysis was performed, and the correlation of blood concentration versus plasma concentrations of tasquinimod was investigated. The method described here is suitable for bioanalysis of tasquinimod in whole blood from humans in clinical studies.

  9. Evaluation of carbon monoxide in blood samples from the second health and nutrition survey. Progress report No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radford, E.P.

    1976-01-01

    This is a study of carbon monoxide (CO) in the blood of human subjects participating in the Second National Health and Nutrition Survey (HANES II), a detailed study of health indicators in sample populations of many communities throughout the U.S. The purpose of this aspect of the survey is to evaluate the levels of blood carboxyhemoglobin in normal individuals of all ages in typical U.S. communities, from whom accurate histories and clinical studies are available. This report gives results of the first of three years of analyses. A careful calibration of the analytical method has been completed, and more than 3000 blood samples have been analyzed. Although smoking histories are not yet available to permit evaluation of carboxyhemoglobin in non-smokers, in children under 12 years of age, blood COHb has been found to be consistently low, with less than 3% greater than 1.5% COHb. These preliminary results suggest that urban exposure to carbon monoxide among the general population is not now significant in the U.S., at least during the period of these early examinations.

  10. Analytical and between-subject variation of thrombin generation measured by calibrated automated thrombography on plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Anne F; Kristensen, Søren R; Falkmer, Ursula; Münster, Anna-Marie B; Pedersen, Shona

    2018-01-16

    The Calibrated Automated Thrombography (CAT) is an in vitro thrombin generation (TG) assay that holds promise as a valuable tool within clinical diagnostics. However, the technique has a considerable analytical variation, and we therefore, investigated the analytical and between-subject variation of CAT systematically. Moreover, we assess the application of an internal standard for normalization to diminish variation. 20 healthy volunteers donated one blood sample which was subsequently centrifuged, aliquoted and stored at -80 °C prior to analysis. The analytical variation was determined on eight runs, where plasma from the same seven volunteers was processed in triplicates, and for the between-subject variation, TG analysis was performed on plasma from all 20 volunteers. The trigger reagents used for the TG assays included both PPP reagent containing 5 pM tissue factor (TF) and PPPlow with 1 pM TF. Plasma, drawn from a single donor, was applied to all plates as an internal standard for each TG analysis, which subsequently was used for normalization. The total analytical variation for TG analysis performed with PPPlow reagent is 3-14% and 9-13% for PPP reagent. This variation can be minimally reduced by using an internal standard but mainly for ETP (endogenous thrombin potential). The between-subject variation is higher when using PPPlow than PPP and this variation is considerable higher than the analytical variation. TG has a rather high inherent analytical variation but considerable lower than the between-subject variation when using PPPlow as reagent.

  11. Blood pressure and left ventricular mass in subjects with type 2 diabetes and gingivitis or chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franek, Edward; Napora, Magdalena; Blach, Anna; Budlewski, Tadeusz; Gozdowski, Dariusz; Jedynasty, Krystyna; Krajewski, Jarosław; Gorska, Renata

    2010-10-01

    This study aimed to answer the question of whether chronic periodontitis in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with increased left ventricular mass (LVM) and systemic and central blood pressure (CBP). One hundred and fifty-five subjects with type 2 diabetes (67 F, 88 M, mean age 61.1±6.9 years, BMI 32.7±5.7 kg/m(2)) were divided according to their periodontal status into biofilm-gingival interface - healthy (BGI-H, 14 subjects), BGI-gingivitis (BGI-G, 119 subjects) and BGI-periodontitis (BGI-P, 22 subjects) groups. In all subjects, LVM, systemic and CBP were measured. The LVM index (LVMI) was calculated. (1) BGI-P and BGI-G subjects, respectively, had higher (mean; 95% CI) LVM (238.6 g; 206.6-267.4 and 222.8 g; 207.0-238.2) versus BGI-H subjects (170.3 g; 125.5-217.8).
(2) BGI-P and BGI-G subjects, respectively, had higher (mean; 95% CI) LVM1 (95.2 g/m(2) ; 82.9-107.4) and 87.8 g/m(2) ; 81.5-94.1) versus BGI-H subjects (63.7 g/m(2) ; 45.2-62.3).
(3) BGI-P subjects had higher central and systemic systolic and diastolic blood pressure than subjects from BGI-G and BGI-H groups. In subjects with type 2 diabetes, periodontitis and gingivitis are associated with increased LVM and periodontitis is associated with increased central and systemic blood pressure. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Tracer input for kinetic modelling of liver physiology determined without sampling portal venous blood in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterdahl, Michael; Sørensen, Michael; Mortensen, Frank Viborg; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Munk, Ole Lajord

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Quantification of hepatic tracer kinetics by PET requires measurement of tracer input from the hepatic artery (HA) and portal vein (PV). We wished to develop a method for estimating dual tracer input without the necessity to sample PV blood. Methods Pigs weighing 40 kg were given bolus doses of C15O (CO), 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG), [11C]-methylglucose (MG), 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-galactose (FDGal) or H215O (H2O). Tracer concentration 3-min time courses were measured in the femoral artery and PV by blood sampling. Blood flow was measured in the HA and PV using flow-meters. A model for transfer of tracer through the splanchnic circulation was used to estimate values of a tracer-specific model parameter β. Tracer-specific mean values of β were used to estimate tracer concentration time courses in the PV from the measured arterial concentration. A model-derived dual-input was calculated using the mean HA flow fraction (0.25) and validated by comparison of the use of the measured dual-input and a kinetic model with a fixed ”true” K1true, i.e. clearance of tracer from blood to liver cells. Results The rank order of the means of β was CO tracer input, which is of great importance for the assessment of processes such as transfer across the plasma-hepatocyte membrane or hepatic blood perfusion, can be well approximated in pigs without the necessity to sample PV blood and measure hepatic blood flow; only arterial blood sampling is needed. PMID:20882283

  13. Effects of anesthesia and blood sampling techniques on plasma metabolites and corticosterone in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Myrtha; Langhans, Wolfgang

    2010-04-19

    Blood is routinely sampled from laboratory animals in biomedical research, and many of the commonly applied sampling techniques require anesthesia. Acute effects of many sampling and anesthesia procedures may confound the results, but those effects are incompletely characterized. We here compare the effects of four common anesthesia procedures (inhalation anesthesia with ether (EA) or isoflurane (IA) and intraperitoneal injection anesthesia with xylazin/ketamine (XKA) or medetomidine/midazolam/fentanyl (MMFA)) on plasma concentrations of glucose, lactate, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), and corticosterone in blood obtained from a previously implanted jugular vein (JV) catheter with the effect of JV blood sampling from non-anesthetized, freely-moving rats (JV-NA). Also, we included in the comparison two other blood sampling procedures usually performed without anesthesia (NA), i.e., puncture of the saphenic vein (SV) and tail incision (TI). Whereas the control procedure (JV-NA) did not significantly affect any of the target parameters, plasma glucose increased from 14 (JV-IA) to 44 (JV-MMFA) % (all Ps=0.05 when compared with the control procedure) in all blood samples collected in anesthesia and was 12 and 14% lower (both Pssamples, respectively. Plasma lactate increased from 74 (JV-IA) to 226% (SV-NA) (all Pssampling and anesthesia procedures except for JV-XKA and JV-MMF. Plasma NEFAs increased to 52% (P0.05). Finally, only the JV-EA and the JV-MMFA procedures increased plasma corticosterone (+525 and +353%, respectively, both Pssampling procedures can have profound acute effects on plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations. This must be considered for the design and interpretation of blood sampling experiments in laboratory animals. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. A nonlethal sampling method to obtain, generate and assemble whole blood transcriptomes from small, wild mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zixia; Gallot, Aurore; Lao, Nga T; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Foley, Nicole M; Jebb, David; Bekaert, Michaël; Teeling, Emma C

    2016-01-01

    The acquisition of tissue samples from wild populations is a constant challenge in conservation biology, especially for endangered species and protected species where nonlethal sampling is the only option. Whole blood has been suggested as a nonlethal sample type that contains a high percentage of bodywide and genomewide transcripts and therefore can be used to assess the transcriptional status of an individual, and to infer a high percentage of the genome. However, only limited quantities of blood can be nonlethally sampled from small species and it is not known if enough genetic material is contained in only a few drops of blood, which represents the upper limit of sample collection for some small species. In this study, we developed a nonlethal sampling method, the laboratory protocols and a bioinformatic pipeline to sequence and assemble the whole blood transcriptome, using Illumina RNA-Seq, from wild greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis). For optimal results, both ribosomal and globin RNAs must be removed before library construction. Treatment of DNase is recommended but not required enabling the use of smaller amounts of starting RNA. A large proportion of protein-coding genes (61%) in the genome were expressed in the blood transcriptome, comparable to brain (65%), kidney (63%) and liver (58%) transcriptomes, and up to 99% of the mitogenome (excluding D-loop) was recovered in the RNA-Seq data. In conclusion, this nonlethal blood sampling method provides an opportunity for a genomewide transcriptomic study of small, endangered or critically protected species, without sacrificing any individuals. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. ABO blood types and cancer risk--a cohort study of 339,432 subjects in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjie; Wen, Chi-Pang; Lin, Jie; Wen, Christopher; Pu, Xia; Huang, Maosheng; Tsai, Min Kuang; Tsao, Chwen Keng; Wu, Xifeng; Chow, Wong-Ho

    2015-04-01

    The associations of laboratory-based ABO phenotypes with cancer risks and mortality have not been systematically determined. The study subjects were 339,432 healthy individuals with laboratory-based blood types from a Taiwan cohort. Compared to blood type O, blood type A was significantly associated with an elevated risk of stomach cancer incidence (Hazard Ratio [HR], 1.38 [95% CI, 1.11-1.72]) and mortality (HR, 1.38 [95% CI, 1.02-1.86]) compared with blood type O, after adjusting for age, sex, education, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, and body mass index. Non-O blood types were associated with an elevated risk of pancreatic cancer, with blood type B reaching statistical significance for incidence (HR, 1.59 [95% CI, 1.02-2.48]) and mortality (HR, 1.63 [95% CI, 1.02-2.60]). In contrast, kidney cancer risk was inversely associated with blood type AB (HR, 0.41 [95% CI, 0.18-0.93]) compared to type O. Cancer risks vary in people with different ABO blood types, with elevated risks of stomach cancer associated with blood type A and pancreatic cancer associated with non-O blood types (A, B, and AB). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro anti-platelet potency of ticagrelor in blood samples from infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund, Fredrik; Asztély, Anna-Karin; Jeppsson, Anders; Nylander, Sven; Berggren, Anders; Nelander, Karin; Castellheim, Albert; Romlin, Birgitta S

    2015-09-01

    Ticagrelor, a novel platelet inhibitor acting on the ADP-dependent P2Y12 receptor, is currently approved for treating adults with acute coronary syndrome. The effect of ticagrelor in children has not been explored. As a first step, we here evaluate if the in vitro anti-platelet potency of ticagrelor in blood samples from children of different age is different as compared with in blood samples from adults. Blood samples from 36 healthy children grouped by age (0-2 months, n=6; 2-6 months, n=6; 6months-2years, n=6; 2-6 years, n=10; 6-12 years, n=8) and 13 adults were collected for in vitro analysis using vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation (VASP) assay in whole blood and ADP-induced light transmission aggregometry (LTA) in platelet rich plasma. Ticagrelor (0.01 - 10μmol/L) was added in vitro and its potency was assessed by calculating the concentration that provided 50% inhibition of the maximum response (IC50). The in vitro potency of ticagrelor in blood from adults and in blood from children of any age group were comparable, both when analyzed with LTA and with VASP. These in vitro results are consistent with the hypothesis that ticagrelor would achieve a comparable anti-platelet effect in children of different ages as in adults at equal plasma exposure. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Evaluation of pesticide residues in human blood samples from Punjab (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasbir Singh Bedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to estimate the current status of residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, organophosphates (OPs and synthetic pyrethroids (SPs pesticides in human blood. Materials and Methods: Human blood samples were analyzed by gas chromatography and confirmed by gas chromatographymass spectrometry in selective ion monitoring mode. Results: The gas chromatographic analysis of human blood samples collected from Punjab revealed the presence of p,p’-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE, p,p’ dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethane (DDD, o,p’ DDE and β-endosulfan at mean levels of 15.26, 2.71, 5.62 and 4.02 ng/ml respectively. p,p’ DDE residue was observed in 18.0% blood samples, and it contributes 55% of the total pesticide burden in human blood. The difference of total dichlorordiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT between different age groups of humans was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05. The difference of DDT and endosulfan between dietary habits, gender and spraying of pesticides was found statistically non-significant, however endosulfan residues were observed only in pesticide sprayer’s population. Conclusion: Occurrence of p,p’ DDE, p,p’ DDD, o,p’ DDE in human blood indicated restricted use of DDT. However, presence of endosulfan residues in occupationally exposed population is a matter of public health concern.

  18. Using a Single Blood Sample and Inulin to Estimate Glomerular Filtration Rate in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigoshi, Yuuki; Yamagishi, Norio; Satoh, Hiroshi; Kato, Masaki; Furuhama, Kazuhisa

    2011-01-01

    To establish a simple procedure for estimating the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in conscious rabbits, we used the conventional multisample approach to develop a single-blood-sample method. A bolus injection of inulin was administered intravenously at a dose of 40 mg/kg to male New Zealand White rabbits, and blood was collected 30, 60, 90, and 120 min later. Serum inulin, urea nitrogen, and creatinine concentrations were determined. Using this multi-sample method, the reference GFR in clinically healthy rabbits was 4.01 ± 0.17 mL/min/kg (n = 17). In rabbits given an intravenous injection of the antitumor agent cisplatin, GFR fell before serum urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations increased. Based on cumulative GFR data from healthy and nephropathy rabbits, the GFR obtained from the 3-sample method (30-, 60-, and 90-min samples) was closely correlated (r = 0.99) with that calculated from the estimated distribution volume and serum inulin concentration at 90 min after inulin injection in the single-blood-sample method. These results demonstrate that the single-blood-sample method supports sequential GFR measurements in rabbits and is a versatile procedure not only for research purposes but also in clinical settings. PMID:22330718

  19. Fetal scalp blood sampling during labor: an appraisal of the physiological basis and scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandraharan, Edwin; Wiberg, Nana

    2014-06-01

    Fetal cardiotocography is characterized by low specificity; therefore, in an attempt to ensure fetal well-being, fetal scalp blood sampling has been recommended by most obstetric societies in the case of a non-reassuring cardiotocography. The scientific agreement on the evidence for using fetal scalp blood sampling to decrease the rate of operative delivery for fetal distress is ambiguous. Based on the same studies, a Cochrane review states that fetal scalp blood sampling increases the rate of instrumental delivery while decreasing neonatal acidosis, whereas the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence guideline considers that fetal scalp blood sampling decreases instrumental delivery without differences in other outcome variables. The fetal scalp is supplied by vessels outside the skull below the level of the cranial vault, which is likely to be compressed during contractions. The self-regulated redistribution of oxygenated blood from peripheral to central organs causes peripheral ischemia, thus theoretically bringing into question the scalp capillary bed as representative of the central circulation. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. EVALUATION OF ZEBU NELLORE CATTLE BLOOD SAMPLES USING THE CELL-DYN 3500 HEMATOLOGY ANALYZER

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    Alexandre Secorun Borges

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cell-dyn 3500 is a multiparameter flow cytometer, which may analyze samples from several species performing several simultaneous analyses. It is able to perform white blood cells, red blood cells and platelet counts, besides differential leukocyte counts, packed cell volume and hemoglobin determination. Cell-Dyn 3500 performs total leukocyte count both optically and by impedance. The equipment may choose one or other method, based on the reliability of the results. Erythrocyte and platelet counts are determined by impedance. Leukocyte differentiation is based on an optical principle, using separation in multiangular polarized light. The objective of this study was to compare the results of complete blood count of Zebu Nellore heifers from Celldyn 3500, with those obtained from a semi-automated cell counter (Celm CC 510 and the manual technique. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein in 5 mL EDTA vacuum tubes from 58 Nellore heifers, at 24 months of age. Samples were processed in parallel in the three different techniques. Results were analyzed using paired t test, Pearson’s correlation and the Bland-Altmann method. There was a strong correlation for all parameters analyzed by Cell-Dyn 3500, manual method and semiautomated cell counter, except for basophils and monocytes counts. These results confirm that this analyzer is reliable for blood samples analysis of zebu cattle.

  1. Identifying the potential of changes to blood sample logistics using simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Pelle; Jacobsen, Peter; Poulsen, Jørgen Hjelm

    2013-01-01

    Using simulation as an approach to display and improve internal logistics at hospitals has great potential. This study shows how a simulation model displaying the morning blood-taking round at a Danish public hospital can be developed and utilized with the aim of improving the logistics. The focus of the simulation was to evaluate changes made to the transportation of blood samples between wards and the laboratory. The average- (AWT) and maximum waiting time (MWT) from a blood sample was drawn at the ward until it was received at the laboratory, and the distribution of arrivals of blood samples in the laboratory were used as the evaluation criteria. Four different scenarios were tested and compared with the current approach: (1) Using AGVs (mobile robots), (2) using a pneumatic tube system, (3) using porters that are called upon, or (4) using porters that come to the wards every 45 minutes. Furthermore, each of the scenarios was tested in terms of what amount of resources would give the optimal result. The simulations showed a big improvement potential in implementing a new technology/mean for transporting the blood samples. The pneumatic tube system showed the biggest potential lowering the AWT and MWT with approx. 36% and 18%, respectively. Additionally, all of the scenarios had a more even distribution of arrivals except for porters coming to the wards every 45 min. As a consequence of the results obtained in the study, the hospital decided to implement a pneumatic tube system.

  2. Internalizing and externalizing personality and subjective effects in a sample of adolescent cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Sara; Matalí, Josep Lluís; Martín-Fernández, María; Pardo, Marta; Lleras, Maria; Castellano-Tejedor, Carmina; Haro, Josep Maria

    2016-10-06

    Cannabis is the illicit substance most widely used by adolescents. Certain personality traits such as impulsivity and sensation seeking, and the subjective effects experienced after substance use (e.g. euphoria or relaxation) have been identified as some of the main etiological factors of consumption. This study aims to categorize a sample of adolescent cannabis users based on their most dominant personality traits (internalizing and externalizing profile). Then, to make a comparison of both profiles considering a set of variables related to consumption, clinical severity and subjective effects experienced. From a cross-sectional design, 173 adolescents (104 men and 69 women) aged 13 to 18 asking for treatment for cannabis use disorder in an Addictive Behavior Unit (UCAD) from the hospital were recruited. For the assessment, an ad hoc protocol was employed to register consumption, the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) and the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI) 49-item short form were also administered. Factor analysis suggested a two-profile solution: Introverted, Inhibited, Doleful, Dramatizing (-), Egotistic (-), Self-demeaning and Borderline tendency scales composed the internalizing profile, and Submissive (-), Unruly, Forceful, Conforming (-) and Oppositional scales composed the externalizing profile. The comparative analysis showed that the internalizing profile has higher levels of clinical severity and more subjective effects reported than the externalizing profile. These results suggest the need to design specific intervention strategies for each profile.

  3. Prevalence and Cognitive Bases of Subjective Memory Complaints in Older Adults: Evidence from a Community Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Fritsch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of subjective memory complaints (SMCs in a sample of community-dwelling, older adults and to examine cognitive bases of these complaints. Participants. 499 community-dwelling adults, 65 and older. Measurements. A telephone survey consisting of cognitive tests and clinical and sociodemographic variables. SMCs were based on subjects' evaluations and subjects' perceptions of others' evaluations. Analysis. Logistic regression was used to model the risk for SMCs as a function of the cognitive, clinical, and sociodemographic variables. We tested for interactions of the cognitive variables with age, education, and gender. Results. 27.1% reported memory complaints. Among the younger age, better objective memory performance predicted lower risk for SMCs, while among the older age, better memory had no effect on risk. Among the better-educated people, better global cognitive functioning predicted lower risk for SMCs, while among the less-educated people, better global cognitive functioning had no effect on SMC risk. When predicting others' perceptions, better objective memory was associated with lower risk for SMCs. Conclusion. Objective memory performance and global cognitive functioning are associated with lower risk for SMCs, but these relationships are the strongest for the younger age and those with more education, respectively. Age and education may affect the ability to accurately appraise cognitive functioning.

  4. The impact of the site of blood sampling on pharmacokinetic parameters following sublingual dosing to dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohlberg, E; Halldin, M M; Annas, A; Königsson, K; Jansson, B; Pehrson, R; Borg, N

    2013-01-01

    Drugs are most commonly administered orally, but some potential drug candidates are not suited for oral administration due to poor absorption, high first pass metabolism or gastrointestinal side effects. The interest for transmucosal dosing for systemic drug delivery is increasing, e.g. buccal, sublingual and nasal routes. The evaluation of the systemic plasma concentration and the derivation of the pharmacokinetic parameters of candidate compounds in preclinical studies are essential for drug development. The effect of site of blood sampling on the measured drug concentration, in both animals and humans, is to some extent known but it is not always taken into consideration in the design of pharmacological and toxicological studies. Blood samples were collected both from leg and jugular veins from beagle dogs following a single sublingual dosing of Compound A in order to determine the impact of different sites of blood sampling on plasma pharmacokinetics. Plasma was prepared by centrifugation and plasma concentrations of Compound A were determined by protein precipitation and liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometric detection. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non-compartment methods. Sampling from the jugular vein resulted in higher and more variable exposure during the absorption phase compared to sampling from a leg vein. The plasma exposure in the jugular vein, in terms of C(max), was 4-fold compared to that in the leg vein and an approximately 2-fold bioavailability was observed. The aim of this investigation was to determine the impact of the different sites of blood sampling on assessing systemic plasma exposure and pharmacokinetic parameters for Compound A following sublingual dosing to dogs. The results demonstrate the significant impact that the site of blood sampling has on PK parameters, and raise concerns of using the jugular vein as a site of sampling after sublingual and other transmucosal routes of dosing in the head

  5. Rapid microbial sample preparation from blood using a novel concentration device.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K Boardman

    Full Text Available Appropriate care for bacteremic patients is dictated by the amount of time needed for an accurate diagnosis. However, the concentration of microbes in the blood is extremely low in these patients (1-100 CFU/mL, traditionally requiring growth (blood culture or amplification (e.g., PCR for detection. Current culture-based methods can take a minimum of two days, while faster methods like PCR require a sample free of inhibitors (i.e., blood components. Though commercial kits exist for the removal of blood from these samples, they typically capture only DNA, thereby necessitating the use of blood culture for antimicrobial testing. Here, we report a novel, scaled-up sample preparation protocol carried out in a new microbial concentration device. The process can efficiently lyse 10 mL of bacteremic blood while maintaining the microorganisms' viability, giving a 30-μL final output volume. A suite of six microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans at a range of clinically relevant concentrations was tested. All of the microorganisms had recoveries greater than 55% at the highest tested concentration of 100 CFU/mL, with three of them having over 70% recovery. At the lowest tested concentration of 3 CFU/mL, two microorganisms had recoveries of ca. 40-50% while the other four gave recoveries greater than 70%. Using a Taqman assay for methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSAto prove the feasibility of downstream analysis, we show that our microbial pellets are clean enough for PCR amplification. PCR testing of 56 spiked-positive and negative samples gave a specificity of 0.97 and a sensitivity of 0.96, showing that our sample preparation protocol holds great promise for the rapid diagnosis of bacteremia directly from a primary sample.

  6. Cerebral small-resistance artery structure and cerebral blood flow in normotensive subjects and hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ciuceis, Carolina; Cornali, Claudio; Porteri, Enzo; Mardighian, Dikran; Pinardi, Chiara; Fontanella, Marco M; Rodella, Luigi F; Rezzani, Rita; Rizzoni, Damiano; Boari, Gianluca E M; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti; Gasparotti, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate whether the structure of cerebral small-resistance arteries is related to cerebral perfusion parameters as measured with dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) in a selected cohort of hypertensive and normotensive patients. Ten hypertensive and 10 normotensive patients were included in the study. All patients underwent neurosurgical intervention for an intracranial tumor and were investigated with DSC-MRI at 1.5 T. Cerebral small-resistance arteries were dissected from a small portion of morphologically normal cerebral tissue and mounted on an isometric myograph for the measurement of the media-to-lumen (M/L) ratio. A quantitative assessment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and volume (CBV) was performed with a region-of-interest approach. Correlation coefficients were calculated for normally distributed variables. The institutional review board approved the study, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Compared with normotensive subjects, hypertensive patients had significantly lower regional CBF (mL/100 g/min) in the cortical grey matter (55.63 ± 1.90 vs 58.37 ± 2.19, p cerebral arteries and CBF in the cortical grey matter (r = -0.516, p microvascular structure might play a role in controlling CBF, with possible clinical consequences.

  7. Molecular diagnosis of Salmonella typhi and its virulence in suspected typhoid blood samples through nested multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabagaran, Solai Ramatchandirane; Kalaiselvi, Vellingiri; Chandramouleeswaran, Naganathan; Deepthi, Krishnan Nair Geetha; Brahmadathan, Kootallur Narayanan; Mani, Mariappa

    2017-08-01

    A nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based diagnosis was developed for the detection of virulent Salmonella typhi in the blood specimens from patients suspected for typhoid fever. After the Widal test, two pairs of primers were used for the detection of flagellin gene (fliC) of S. typhi. Among them, those positive for fliC alone were subjected to identification of genes in Via B operon of Salmonella Pathogenesity Island (SPI-7) where four primer pairs were used to detect tviA and tviB genes. Among 250 blood samples tested, 115 were positive by fliC PCR; 22 of these were negative for tviA and tviB. Hence, the method described here can be used to diagnose the incidence of Vi-negative serovar typhi especially in endemic regions where the Vi vaccine is administered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Carotid Catheterization and Automated Blood Sampling Induce Systemic IL-6 Secretion and Local Tissue Damage and Inflammation in the Heart, Kidneys, Liver and Salivary Glands in NMRI Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Anne Charlotte; Rozell, Björn; Kalliokoski, Otto

    2016-01-01

    of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, GM-CSF, IFN-γ and TNF-α in male NMRI mice that had been subjected to carotid artery catheterization and subsequent automated blood sampling with age-matched control mice. Body weight and histopathological changes in the surgical area, including the salivary glands...

  9. SPIDIA-RNA: First external quality assessment for the pre-analytical phase of blood samples used for RNA based analyses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pazzagli, M.; Malentacchi, F.; Simi, L.; Wyrich, R.; Guenther, K.; Hartmann, C.; Verderio, P.; Pizzamiglio, S.; Ciniselli, C.M.; Tichopád, Aleš; Kubista, Mikael; Gelmini, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 1 (2013), s. 20-31 ISSN 1046-2023 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Pre-analytical phase * RNA quality * Blood samples Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.221, year: 2013

  10. SPIDIA-DNA: An External Quality Assessment for the pre-analytical phase of blood samples used for DNA-based analyses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malentacchi, F.; Pazzagli, M.; Simi, L.; Orlando, C.; Wyrich, R.; Hartmann, C.C.; Verderio, P.; Pizzamiglio, S.; Ciniselli, C.M.; Tichopád, Aleš; Kubista, Mikael; Gelmini, S.

    -, č. 424 (2013), s. 274-286 ISSN 0009-8981 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Pre-analytical phase * DNA quality * Blood samples Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.764, year: 2013

  11. Evaluation of toxic metals in biological samples (scalp hair, blood and urine) of steel mill workers by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, Hassan I; Kazi, Tasneem G; Jamali, Mohammad K; Kazi, Gul H; Arain, Mohammad B; Jalbani, Nusrat; Shar, Ghulam Q; Sarfaraz, Raja A

    2006-10-01

    The determination of toxic metals in the biological samples of human beings is an important clinical screening procedure. This study aimed to assess the possible influence of environmental exposure on production workers (PW) and quality control workers (QCW) of a steel mill, all male subjects aged 25-55 years. In this investigation, the concentrations of Pb, Cd, Ni and Cr were determined in biological samples (blood, urine and scalp hair samples) from these steel mill workers in relation to controlled unexposed healthy subjects of the same age group. After pre-treatment with nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide, the samples were digested via a microwave oven, and for comparison purposes, the same samples were digested by the conventional wet acid digestion method. The samples digested were subjected to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). To assess the reliability of these methods, critical factors, such as detection limit(s), calibration range(s), accuracy and precision, were studied. Quality control for these procedures was established with certified sample of human hair, urine and whole blood. The results indicate that the level of lead, cadmium and nickel in scalp hair, blood and urine samples were significantly higher in both groups of exposed workers (QW and PW) than those of the controls. The possible connection of these elements with the etiology of disease is discussed. The results also show the need for immediate improvements in workplace ventilation and industrial hygiene practices.

  12. [Epidemiological study of dental and facial asymmetries in a sample of preschool subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Marina Consuelo; Barbieri, Federica; Ricotta, Riccardo; Arpesella, Marisa; Emanuelli, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    to identify the typologies of facial and dental asymmetries in a sample of children aged between 3 and 6 years and to correlate these asymmetries with possible morphological and functional situations. cross-sectional observational study. sample of 95 subjects aged between 3 and 6 years. Clinical data were collected in 10 sessions conducted during school hours in April 2013 by a doctor of Dentistry at two preschools in the city of Sanremo (Liguria Region, Northern Italy) and a kindergarten in the city of Pavia (Lombardy Region, Northern Italy). To collect the data, a weighted clinical questionnaire was used. presence and type of bad habit, type of breathing, presence and type of facial asymmetry, dental formula, presence of diastema, presence and type of occlusal asymmetries, presence and type of dental malocclusions. analysed sample consisted of 53.7% (51/95) of males and 46.3 % (44/95) females; the mean age was 4.3 ± 0.9 years. Most frequent facial asymmetry is orbits asymmetry (35%, 33/95); dental malocclusions are detected in 70%(67/95) of cases. High percentage of subjects (69.5%, 66/95) presents displacement between superior dental midline (SDM) and inferior dental midline (IDM). Several statistically significant associations are observed: in particular, asymmetry of molar ratios is linked to asymmetry of the cheekbones and displacement of the SDM; facial midline has statistical association with asymmetry of the cheekbones (p habits observed and the close correlation between: the presence of dental malocclusions and the presence of compromising habits, the presence of dental malocclusions and the presence of oral breathing.

  13. A blood sampling microsystem for pharmacokinetic applications: design, fabrication, and initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Barnett, Adam; Rogers, Karen L; Gianchandani, Yogesh B

    2009-12-21

    This paper describes a microsystem for automated blood sampling from laboratory mice used in pharmacokinetic studies. Intended to be mounted as a "backpack" on a mouse, it uses a microneedle, reservoir, and an actuator to instantaneously prick the animal for a time-point sample, eliminating the need for a tethered catheter with large dead volume. The blood is collected by capillary effect through a 31-33 gauge microneedle (250-210 microm OD) into a approximately 1 microL micromachined steel reservoir. The voice coil actuator provides a peak force of approximately 300 mN, which amply exceeds the measured piercing force of mouse skin (i.e., 60-85 mN for a 31-gauge needle with 12 degrees bevel). The sampling system was tested in vitro using a mock vessel with adjustable pressure; the reservoir was filled in <0.15 s by a combination of the capillary effect and blood pressure. The system may also be used to sample interstitial fluid, but the absence of blood pressure makes it necessary to enhance the capillary effect of the needle. This is accomplished by either electropolishing the inner surface to make it more hydrophilic or using a polymer wire insert to increase the surface area. The steel surface of the reservoir is also coated with silicon oxynitride by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to improve its hydrophilicity. Blood from fresh bovine tissue was collected into the reservoir to simulate interstitial fluid sampling. In vivo tests on live, anesthetized mice resulted in successful collection of blood into the reservoir. The possible integration of the device in microanalytical systems and the device scalability for multisampling are discussed.

  14. Impaired myocardial blood flow reserve in subjects with metabolic syndrome analyzed using positron emission tomography and N-13 labeled ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teragawa, Hiroki; Kihara, Yasuki [Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Morita, Koichi; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Shishido, Hiroki; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Hirokawa, Yutaka [Hiroshima Heiwa Clinic, Hiroshima (Japan); Chayama, Kazuaki [Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Molecular Science and Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2010-02-15

    Coronary vasomotor response might be impaired in metabolic syndrome (MS); however, the precise abnormality has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess coronary-vasomotor response in MS subjects using N-13 labeled ammonia and positron emission tomography. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured at rest and during adenosine infusion in MS subjects (n = 13, MS group) with no definite evidence of heart disease and in subjects without MS (n = 14, non-MS group). Coronary vascular resistance (CVR) was calculated by dividing the mean aortic blood pressure by MBF. Myocardial blood flow reserve (MFR) was calculated as the ratio of the MBF during adenosine infusion to that during rest. Blood chemical parameters were measured to evaluate their relationship with MFR. During adenosine infusion, MBF was lower (p = 0.0085) and CVR higher (p = 0.0128) in the MS group than in the non-MS group and MFR was significantly lower in the MS group than in the non-MS group (2.13 {+-} 0.99 vs. 3.38 {+-} 0.95, p = 0.0027). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (p < 0.05) and the presence of hypertension (p < 0.05) were independent determinants of MFR. The results indicate that MFR was impaired in MS subjects, suggesting that an abnormal coronary microvascular response occurred in these subjects. This abnormality may have been partially due to insulin resistance and hypertension. (orig.)

  15. BLOOD SMEAR EVALUATION OF BALI DUCKS SAMPLED FROM TRADITIONAL FARMING SYSTEMS IN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Haryono Utama

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Research to confirm the abnormalities of blood corpuscles in Bali ducks based on blood smear examination has been conducted. The research samples consisted of 105 ducks from various regencies in Bali. The blood smear examination was conducted by the method described in this literature and the data was collected and tabulated by means of the descriptive method. Erythrocyte abnormalities were: polychromasia (61.9%, anisocytosis (17.1%, poikilocytosis (21.0%. Abnormalities associated with leukocyte composition were: Lymphopenic (46.7%; Heterophylic (44.8%; Heteropenic (3.8%, also Thrombocyto penia (2.9% was present in 105 ducks. In conclusion 61,9% ducks examined deal with regenerative anaemia. They also have some blood abnormalities such as basophylia, eosinophylia, heterophylia, heteropenia, lymphopenia, and monocytosis.

  16. Stability of heparin blood samples during transport based on defined pre-analytical quality goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Esther A; Stahl, Marta; Brandslund, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    , centrifuged and separated at the doctor's office within 45-60 min. This sample was considered as the best estimate of a comparison value. RESULTS: The pre-set quality goals were fulfilled for all the investigated components for samples transported to hospital by courier either as whole blood or as "on gel...... impact on the quality of results, we wanted to study which combination of transport conditions could fulfil our pre-defined goals for maximum allowable error. METHODS: Samples from 406 patients from nine general practitioners (GPs) in two Danish counties were sent to two hospitals for analyses, during...... whole blood if the above mentioned conditions are met. There is no need for centrifugation in the primary sector. Neither mailing of samples with plasma "on gel" nor public transport by coach bus fulfil our analytical goals....

  17. Changes in body weight and blood pressure: paradoxical outcome events in overweight and obese subjects with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimon, R V; Espinoza, D; Ivers, L; Gebski, V; Finer, N; Legler, U F; Sharma, A M; James, W P T; Coutinho, W; Caterson, I D

    2014-09-01

    The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) trial showed a significantly increased relative risk of nonfatal cardiovascular events, but not mortality, in overweight and obese subjects receiving long-term sibutramine treatment with diet and exercise. We examined the relationship between early changes (both increases and decreases) in body weight and blood pressure, and the impact of these changes on subsequent cardiovascular outcome events. A total of 9804 male and female subjects, aged 55 years or older, with a body mass index of 27-45 kg m(-2) were included in this current subanalysis of the SCOUT trial. Subjects were required to have a history of cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus with at least one cardiovascular risk factor (hypertension, dyslipidemia, current smoking or diabetic nephropathy) to assess cardiovascular outcomes. Post hoc subgroup analyses of weight change (categories) and blood pressure were performed overall and by treatment group (6-week sibutramine followed by randomized placebo or continued sibutramine). The primary outcome event (POE) was a composite of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, resuscitated cardiac arrest or cardiovascular death. Time-to-event analyses of the POE were performed using Cox regression models with factors for treatment, subgroups and interactions. During the initial 6-week sibutramine treatment period, systolic blood pressure decreased progressively with increasing weight loss in hypertensive subjects (-8.1±10.5 mm Hg with <5 kg weight loss to -10.8±11.0 mm Hg with ⩾5 kg weight loss). The highest POE incidence occurred mainly in groups with increases in both weight and blood pressure. However, with long-term sibutramine treatment, a markedly lower blood pressure tended to increase POEs. Modest weight loss and modest lower blood pressure each reduced the incidence of cardiovascular events, as expected. However, the combination of early marked weight loss and rapid

  18. Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of genetic marker alleles associated with a trait indicative of fertility of the bovine subject and/or off-spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    NOVELTY - Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of two or more genetic marker alleles that are associated with a trait indicative of fertility of the bovine subject and/or off-spring. USE - The methods are useful...... for determining fertility in a bovine subject; and selecting bovine subjects for breeding purposes (all claimed). DETAILED DESCRIPTION - Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of two or more genetic marker alleles...... that are associated with a trait indicative of fertility of the bovine subject and/or off-spring, where the two or more genetic marker alleles are single nucleotide polymorphisms selected from Hapmap60827-rs29019866, ARS-BFGL-NGS-40979, Hapmap47854-BTA-119090, ARS-BFGL-NGS-114679, Hapmap43841-BTA-34601, Hapmap43407...

  19. Dielectrophoretic separation of blood pathogens ou Bacterial extraction from biological samples using DEP forces

    OpenAIRE

    Bisceglia, Emilie; Cubizolles, Myriam; Mallard, Frédéric; Français, Olivier; Le Pioufle, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    International audience; We report here a method based on DEP separation to concentrate pathogens out of a biological sample by combining positive and negative DEP to separate pathogens from the sample matrix. In this approach, we take advantage from the large tolerance of micro-organisms towards osmotic shock to perform dielectrophoretic separation in a low electric conductivity medium. This condition enables to collect micro-organisms by positive DEP, while lysed blood cells are repelled fro...

  20. Gram-negative and -positive bacteria differentiation in blood culture samples by headspace volatile compound analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolch, Michael E; Janitza, Silke; Boulesteix, Anne-Laure; Graßmann-Lichtenauer, Carola; Praun, Siegfried; Denzer, Wolfgang; Schelling, Gustav; Schubert, Sören

    2016-12-01

    Identification of microorganisms in positive blood cultures still relies on standard techniques such as Gram staining followed by culturing with definite microorganism identification. Alternatively, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry or the analysis of headspace volatile compound (VC) composition produced by cultures can help to differentiate between microorganisms under experimental conditions. This study assessed the efficacy of volatile compound based microorganism differentiation into Gram-negatives and -positives in unselected positive blood culture samples from patients. Headspace gas samples of positive blood culture samples were transferred to sterilized, sealed, and evacuated 20 ml glass vials and stored at -30 °C until batch analysis. Headspace gas VC content analysis was carried out via an auto sampler connected to an ion-molecule reaction mass spectrometer (IMR-MS). Measurements covered a mass range from 16 to 135 u including CO2, H2, N2, and O2. Prediction rules for microorganism identification based on VC composition were derived using a training data set and evaluated using a validation data set within a random split validation procedure. One-hundred-fifty-two aerobic samples growing 27 Gram-negatives, 106 Gram-positives, and 19 fungi and 130 anaerobic samples growing 37 Gram-negatives, 91 Gram-positives, and two fungi were analysed. In anaerobic samples, ten discriminators were identified by the random forest method allowing for bacteria differentiation into Gram-negative and -positive (error rate: 16.7 % in validation data set). For aerobic samples the error rate was not better than random. In anaerobic blood culture samples of patients IMR-MS based headspace VC composition analysis facilitates bacteria differentiation into Gram-negative and -positive.

  1. Red Blood Cell Distribution Width in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgul, Guler; Seyhan, Ekrem Cengiz; Özgül, Mehmet Akif; Günlüoğlu, Mehmet Zeki

    2017-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is accepted as a powerful predictor of outcomes in patients with CVD. To study RDW in patients with COPD, and to compare the value of this measurement with clinical, echocardiographic, nutritional and laboratory status. Secondly, we aimed to determine the effect of smoking on RDW values in healthy subjects. One hundred and seventy-five patients with stable COPD and 210 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Demographic, clinical, nutritional status, echocardiographic, and laboratory characteristics, RDW values were recorded and compared. RDW values were higher in the COPD group than in controls (15±2.3% vs. 13.8±2.5%, p<0.001). In COPD patients, RDW levels positively correlated with CRP levels (r=0.27, P<.001), albumin levels (r=0.23, P=.04), right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) (r=0.24, P=.001), pulmonary hypertension (PAH) (r=0.1, P=.02), and presence of CVD (r=0.24, P=.02). In multivariable logistic regression suggested that presence of CVD (4.3; 95% CI: 1.3 to 11; P=.01), and presence of RVD (3.1; 95% CI: 1.7 to 8.3; P=.02) were independently related to elevated RDW levels in COPD patients. In the healthy population, correlations analysis showed only a significant correlation between RDW and cigarette smoking years (r=0.57, P<.001). RDW is independently associated with CVD and RVD in patients with COPD. In the healthy population, RDW is also associated with smoking status. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Blood pressure differences between office and home settings among Japanese normotensive subjects and hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hisao; Ukai, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Hareaki; Yuasa, Shouhei; Suzuki, Yoshiro; Chin, Keiichi; Katsumata, Takuma; Umemura, Satoshi

    2017-03-01

    This study attempted to clarify the differences in blood pressure (BP) between the office (clinic) and home settings in patients with controlled, sustained, masked or white-coat hypertension. The following formula was used: office mean systolic BP (omSBP)-mean morning home SBP (mmhSBP)/office mean diastolic BP (omDBP)-mean morning home DBP (mmhDBP). The paired t-test was used for statistical analysis. The omSBP-mmhSBP/omDBP-mmhDBP calculation yielded the following results: among normotensive subjects, -1.1±11.2/-1.7±8.5 mm Hg (mean SBP and mean DBP were higher at home than in the office; n=451, P=0.038 in SBP, P=0.000 in DBP); in controlled hypertensive patients, -0.42±10.9/-2.2±8.2 mm Hg (n=1362, P=0.160 in SBP, P=0.000 in DBP); among sustained hypertensive patients, 5.6±14.7/0.048±9.9 mm Hg (n=1370, P=0.000 in SBP, P=0.857 in DBP); in masked hypertensive patients, -15.3±12.9/-9.3±9.5 mm Hg (n=1308, both P=0.000); and among white-coat hypertensive patients, 23.7±13.2/8.2±9.1 mm Hg (n=580, both P=0.000). Our results showed a difference of 5 mm Hg in SBP among sustained hypertensive patients, as recommended by the Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension; however, in other hypertensive patient types, the differences in SBP and DBP between office and home measurements differed by >5 mm Hg. Office and home BP measurements should be interpreted cautiously, keeping in mind the clinical setting.

  3. Theorical and practical bases for blood sample collection from the heel of newborns for neonatal screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Vela-Amieva

    2014-07-01

    collected in a special filter paper (Guthrie’s card. Despite its apparent simplicity, NBS laboratories commonly receive a large number of samples collected incorrectly and technically unsuitable for perfor4ming biochemical determinations. The aim of the present paper is to offer recommendations based on scientific evidence, for the properly blood collection on filter paper for NBS programs.

  4. Delay in blood sampling for routine newborn screening is associated with increased risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Tidselbak Larsen, Janne; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Danish Neonatal Screening Biobank, containing dried blood spot samples from all newborn in Denmark, is a unique source of data that can be utilized for analyses of genetic and environmental exposures related to schizophrenia and other mental disorders. In previous analyses, we hav...... in future analyses of genetic and environmental risk factors....

  5. Novel genotype of Ehrlichia canis detected in samples of human blood bank donors in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouza-Mora, Laura; Dolz, Gaby; Solórzano-Morales, Antony; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José; Salazar-Sánchez, Lizbeth; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel M

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the detection and identification of DNA and antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. in samples of blood bank donors in Costa Rica using molecular and serological techniques. Presence of Ehrlichia canis was determined in 10 (3.6%) out of 280 blood samples using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the ehrlichial dsb conserved gene. Analysis of the ehrlichial trp36 polymorphic gene in these 10 samples revealed substantial polymorphism among the E. canis genotypes, including divergent tandem repeat sequences. Nucleotide sequences of dsb and trp36 amplicons revealed a novel genotype of E. canis in blood bank donors from Costa Rica. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) detected antibodies in 35 (35%) of 100 serum samples evaluated. Thirty samples showed low endpoint titers (64-256) to E. canis, whereas five sera yielded high endpoint titers (1024-8192); these five samples were also E. canis-PCR positive. These findings represent the first report of the presence of E. canis in humans in Central America. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Differences in hematocrit of blood samples obtained from two venipuncture sites in sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylniczenko, Natalie D; Curtis, Eric W; Wilborn, Rachel E; Young, Forrest A

    2006-11-01

    To evaluate differences in Hct between 2 venipuncture sites in captive and free-ranging sharks. 32 healthy adult captive sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus, Carcharhinus plumbeus, Stegastoma fasciatum, Orectolobus japonicus, and Triaenodon obesus) and 15 captured free-ranging adult sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus and Carcharhinus acronotus). Blood samples were collected from the caudal tail artery followed by collection from the sinus located immediately caudal to the cranial dorsal fin. The Hct was determined for each sample and results were compared. Additionally, results for sharks that were highly active and used aerobic metabolism were compared with results for sharks that were less active and tolerant of anaerobic conditions. Mean Hct for all sharks was significantly less (8% less) in blood samples obtained from the cranial dorsal fin sinus, compared with the Hct for samples obtained from the caudal tail artery. When compared on the basis of metabolic class, sharks that were more tolerant of anaerobic conditions had lower Hct values and smaller differences between the 2 venipuncture sites. Hct values were significantly lower in blood samples collected from the cranial dorsal fin sinus compared with values for samples collected from the caudal tail artery. It is important to recognize this difference when evaluating hematologic variables in sharks and when establishing reference ranges for Hcts for shark populations. Sharks that were more active and relied on aerobic metabolism had higher Hct values than did anaerobic-tolerant sharks, and the difference in Hct values between venipuncture sites was more pronounced.

  7. Specific Antibodies Reacting with SV40 Large T Antigen Mimotopes in Serum Samples of Healthy Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Tognon

    Full Text Available Simian Virus 40, experimentally assayed in vitro in different animal and human cells and in vivo in rodents, was classified as a small DNA tumor virus. In previous studies, many groups identified Simian Virus 40 sequences in healthy individuals and cancer patients using PCR techniques, whereas others failed to detect the viral sequences in human specimens. These conflicting results prompted us to develop a novel indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides, mimicking Simian Virus 40 capsid viral protein antigens, named mimotopes. This immunologic assay allowed us to investigate the presence of serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 and to verify whether Simian Virus 40 is circulating in humans. In this investigation two mimotopes from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen, the viral replication protein and oncoprotein, were employed to analyze for specific reactions to human sera antibodies. This indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen was used to assay a new collection of serum samples from healthy subjects. This novel assay revealed that serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 large T antigen mimotopes are detectable, at low titer, in healthy subjects aged from 18-65 years old. The overall prevalence of reactivity with the two Simian Virus 40 large T antigen peptides was 20%. This new ELISA with two mimotopes of the early viral regions is able to detect in a specific manner Simian Virus 40 large T antigen-antibody responses.

  8. Contextual and subjective antecedents of smoking in a college student sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: College is a time when individuals are at risk for initiating or increasing their smoking behavior. Little is known, however, about the contexts in which college students smoke. Identifying antecedents to smoking would provide insights into motivation and stimulus control of smoking in this population. Method: In a sample of 50 college student smokers, situational, behavioral, and subjective state variables were compared between prompted interviews (N = 2,095) and participant-initiated smoking interviews (N = 865) using electronic handheld diaries. Results: The strongest predictors of smoking were recently inhabiting an outside location (odds ratio [OR] = 4.19, p smoking (OR = 3.93, p smoking was permitted (OR = 3.26, p smoking. Less cue control over smoking was found for daily than nondaily smokers. Craving was the most robust subjective antecedent of smoking behavior (OR = 1.32, p smoking among college students is largely opportunistic, craving is important and may develop early in the progression of smoking, and stimulus control may erode with greater smoking experience. PMID:20739458

  9. Feasibility study for the non-invasive blood pressure estimation based on ppg morphology: normotensive subject study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hangsik; Min, Se Dong

    2017-01-10

    Blood pressure is a critical bio-signal and its importance has been increased with the aged society and the growth of cardiovascular disease population. However, most of hypertensive patients have been suffered the inconvenience in monitoring blood pressure in daily life because the measurement of the blood pressure depends on the cuff-based technique. Nowadays there are many trials to measure blood pressure without cuff, especially, photoplethysmography (PPG) based research is carried out in various ways. Our research is designed to hypothesis the relationship between vessel wall movement and pressure-flow relationship of PPG and to validate its appropriateness by experimental methods. PPG waveform is simplified by approximate model, and then it is analyzed as the velocity and the acceleration of blood flow using the derivatives of PPG. Finally, we develop pressure index (PI) as an estimation factor of blood pressure by combining of statistically significant segments of photoplethysmographic waveform. Twenty-five subjects were participated in the experiment. As a result of simulation, correlation coefficients between developed PI and blood pressure were represented with R = 0.818, R = 0.827 and R = 0.615 in systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure, respectively, and both of result showed the meaningful statistically significance (P blood pressure but could not find the absolute pressure value. Moreover, proposed index has the limitation of diastolic pressure tracing. However, the result shows that the proposed PI is statistically significantly correlated with blood pressures, and it suggests that the proposed PI as a promising additional parameter for the cuff less blood pressure monitoring.

  10. Prognostic value of reading-to-reading blood pressure variability over 24 hours in 8938 subjects from 11 populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine W; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan

    2010-01-01

    In previous studies, of which several were underpowered, the relation between cardiovascular outcome and blood pressure (BP) variability was inconsistent. We followed health outcomes in 8938 subjects (mean age: 53.0 years; 46.8% women) randomly recruited from 11 populations. At baseline, we asses...

  11. ADAM10 gene expression in the blood cells of Alzheimer's disease patients and mild cognitive impairment subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzine, Patricia Regina; Marcello, Elena; Borroni, Barbara; Kamphuis, Willem; Hol, Elly; Padovani, Alessandro; Nascimento, Carla Crispim; De Godoy Bueno, Patricia; Assis Carvalho Vale, Francisco; Iost Pavarini, Sofia Cristina; Di Luca, Monica; Cominetti, Márcia Regina

    2015-01-01

    ADAM10 is a potential biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD). ADAM10 protein levels are reduced in platelets of AD patients. The aim was to verify the total blood and platelet ADAM10 gene expression in AD patients and to compare with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy subjects. No

  12. Association among low whole blood viscosity, haematocrit, haemoglobin and diabetic retinopathy in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irace, C; Scarinci, F; Scorcia, V; Bruzzichessi, D; Fiorentino, R; Randazzo, G; Scorcia, G; Gnasso, A

    2011-01-01

    Haemorheological variables influence endothelial function through the release of several factors. Clinical studies have described an association among blood viscosity, haematocrit, haemoglobin and macro-angiopathy. Few data are reported about the association between haemorheological variables and micro-angiopathy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between these variables and retinopathy in subjects with type 2 diabetes. 111 men, 79 postmenopausal women, and 95 healthy age- and sex-matched controls were recruited. Haematocrit and haemoglobin were measured by standard methods. Blood viscosity was calculated according to the formula (0.12× haematocrit)+(0.17× (plasma proteins-2.07)). Subjects were grouped according to the presence or absence of diabetic retinopathy, while the severity of retinopathy was classified according to the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study scale. Haemoglobin, haematocrit and whole blood viscosity were significantly lower in subjects with retinopathy compared to subjects without retinopathy in both sexes. These variables significantly decreased with increasing severity of retinopathy. A multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed the independent inverse association among viscosity, haematocrit, haemoglobin and retinopathy (p<0.01). Results demonstrate the association among low viscosity, haemoglobin, haematocrit and diabetic retinopathy. The mechanisms responsible for this association can be hypothesised. Reduced haemoglobin might cause direct organ damage. Low blood viscosity, through the reduction of shear stress, might inhibit the anti-atherogenic functions of endothelial cells.

  13. Barrier screens: a method to sample blood-fed and host-seeking exophilic mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkot Thomas R

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determining the proportion of blood meals on humans by outdoor-feeding and resting mosquitoes is challenging. This is largely due to the difficulty of finding an adequate and unbiased sample of resting, engorged mosquitoes to enable the identification of host blood meal sources. This is particularly difficult in the south-west Pacific countries of Indonesia, the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea where thick vegetation constitutes the primary resting sites for the exophilic mosquitoes that are the primary malaria and filariasis vectors. Methods Barrier screens of shade-cloth netting attached to bamboo poles were constructed between villages and likely areas where mosquitoes might seek blood meals or rest. Flying mosquitoes, obstructed by the barrier screens, would temporarily stop and could then be captured by aspiration at hourly intervals throughout the night. Results In the three countries where this method was evaluated, blood-fed females of Anopheles farauti, Anopheles bancroftii, Anopheles longirostris, Anopheles sundaicus, Anopheles vagus, Anopheles kochi, Anopheles annularis, Anopheles tessellatus, Culex vishnui, Culex quinquefasciatus and Mansonia spp were collected while resting on the barrier screens. In addition, female Anopheles punctulatus and Armigeres spp as well as male An. farauti, Cx. vishnui, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Aedes species were similarly captured. Conclusions Building barrier screens as temporary resting sites in areas where mosquitoes were likely to fly was an extremely time-effective method for collecting an unbiased representative sample of engorged mosquitoes for determining the human blood index.

  14. Whole genome transcript profiling from fingerstick blood samples: a comparison and feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Adam R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole genome gene expression profiling has revolutionized research in the past decade especially with the advent of microarrays. Recently, there have been significant improvements in whole blood RNA isolation techniques which, through stabilization of RNA at the time of sample collection, avoid bias and artifacts introduced during sample handling. Despite these improvements, current human whole blood RNA stabilization/isolation kits are limited by the requirement of a venous blood sample of at least 2.5 mL. While fingerstick blood collection has been used for many different assays, there has yet to be a kit developed to isolate high quality RNA for use in gene expression studies from such small human samples. The clinical and field testing advantages of obtaining reliable and reproducible gene expression data from a fingerstick are many; it is less invasive, time saving, more mobile, and eliminates the need of a trained phlebotomist. Furthermore, this method could also be employed in small animal studies, i.e. mice, where larger sample collections often require sacrificing the animal. In this study, we offer a rapid and simple method to extract sufficient amounts of high quality total RNA from approximately 70 μl of whole blood collected via a fingerstick using a modified protocol of the commercially available Qiagen PAXgene RNA Blood Kit. Results From two sets of fingerstick collections, about 70 uL whole blood collected via finger lancet and capillary tube, we recovered an average of 252.6 ng total RNA with an average RIN of 9.3. The post-amplification yields for 50 ng of total RNA averaged at 7.0 ug cDNA. The cDNA hybridized to Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 GeneChips had an average % Present call of 52.5%. Both fingerstick collections were highly correlated with r2 values ranging from 0.94 to 0.97. Similarly both fingerstick collections were highly correlated to the venous collection with r2 values ranging from 0.88 to 0

  15. Fabrication and Characterization of a Microfluidic Device to Ultrapurify Blood Samples

    KAUST Repository

    Tallerico, Marco

    2015-05-04

    The improvement of blood cell sorting techniques in recent years have attracted the attention of many researchers due to the possible benefits that these methods can lead in biology, regenerative medicine, materials science and therapeutic area. In this work a cell sorting technique based on filtration is described. The separation occurs by means of a microfluidic device, suitably designed, manufactured and tested, that is connected to an external experimental set-up. The fabrication process can be divided in two parts: at first it is described the manufacturing process of a filtering membrane, with holes of specific size that allow the passage of only certain cell types. Following the microfluidic device is fabricated through the mechanical micromilling. The membrane and the microdevice are suitably bonded and tested by means of an external connection with syringe pumps that inject blood samples at specific flow rates. The device is designed to separate blood cells and tumor cells only by using differences in size and shape. In particular during the first experiments red blood cells and platelets are sorted from white blood cells; in the other experiments red blood cells and platelets are separated from white blood cells and tumor cells. The microdevice has proven to be very efficient, in fact a capture efficiency of 99% is achieved. For this reason it could be used in identification and isolation of circulating tumor cells, a very rare cancer cell type whose presence in the bloodstream could be symptom of future solid tumor formation. The various experiments have also demonstrated that tumor cells survive even after the separation treatment, and then the suffered stress during the sorting process does not harm the biological sample.

  16. Midazolam sedates Passeriformes for field sampling but affects multiple venous blood analytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heatley JJ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available J Jill Heatley,1 Jennifer Cary,2,3 Lyndsey Kingsley,1 Hughes Beaufrere,4 Karen E Russell,5 Gary Voelker2,3 1Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, 2Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, 3Texas A&M Biodiversity Research and Teaching Collections, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA; 4Health Sciences Centre, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada; 5Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, College Station, TX, USA Abstract: Feasibility and effect of midazolam administration on blood analytes and for sedation of Passeriformes being collected in a larger study of genetic biodiversity was assessed. Midazolam (5.6±2.7 mg/kg was administered intranasally prior to sampling, euthanasia, and specimen preparation of 104 passerine birds. Each bird was assessed for sedation score and then multiple analytes were determined from jugular blood samples using the i-STAT® point of care analyzer at “bird side”. Most birds were acceptably sedated, sedation became more pronounced as midazolam dose increased, and only a single bird died. Electrolyte concentrations and venous blood gas analytes were affected by midazolam administration while blood pH, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, and calculated hematocrit were not. Intranasal midazolam gives adequate sedation and is safe for short-term use in free-living Passeriformes. Based on venous blood analyte data, sedation of Passeriformes prior to handling appears to reduce stress but also produces venous blood gas differences consistent with hypoventilation relative to birds which were not given midazolam. Further study is recommended to investigate midazolam's continued use in free-living avian species. Studies should include safety, reversal and recovery, effect upon additional endogenous analytes, and compatibility with studies of ecology and toxicology

  17. Analysis of whole blood samples with low gas flow inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Sascha; Künnemeyer, Jens; Terborg, Lydia; Trümpler, Stefan; Günsel, Andreas; Wiesmüller, Gerhard A; Karst, Uwe; Buscher, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Low gas flow ICP-OES with a total argon consumption below 0.7 L/min is introduced for the analysis of trace elements in blood samples to investigate the influence of samples containing an organic solvent in a demanding matrix on the performance of this plasma for the first time. Therefore, gadolinium was determined in human plasma samples and mercury in red blood cells, human plasma, and precipitated plasma protein fraction. Limits of detection (LOD) were determined to be in the low microgram per liter range for the analytes and the accuracy of the method was assessed by comparison with a conventional Fassel-type torch-based ICP-OES. It was proven that the low gas flow ICP-OES leads to comparable results with the instrument based on the Fassel-type torch.

  18. Cerebral artery blood velocity in normal subjects during acute decreases in barometric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubøll, E; Sorteberg, W; Owe, J O; Lindegaard, K F; Rusten, K; Sorteberg, A; Gjerstad, L

    1999-07-01

    To investigate the effect of acute changes in barometric pressure on regional cerebral perfusion we studied the middle cerebral artery (MCA) blood velocity in five healthy male volunteers by means of a low-pressure chamber. The MCA blood velocity, arterial blood and respiratory gases were measured at the barometric pressures of 1, 0.8, 0.65, and 0.5 atmospheres. The observed blood velocity (Vo) showed no systematic changes. Decreases in barometric pressure induced hypoxia and hypocapnia. When normalizing the MCA blood velocity (Vn) to a standard P(CO2) (5.3 kPa), thereby correcting for the hypoxic induced hypocapnia, we obtained an inverse relationship between cerebral artery blood velocity and arterial blood oxygen content (CaO2). The oxygen supply to the brain, estimated as the product of Vo and CaO2, decreased with lowering of the barometric pressure. However, the product of Vn and CaO2 remained constant. This suggests the existence of a regulatory mechanism attempting to maintain a constant oxygen supply to the brain during acute changes in CaO2, if the hyperventilation induced decrease in PCO2 can be omitted. In the artificial situation of a low pressure chamber, our findings are quite similar to those obtained at sea level. This indicates that the underlying mechanisms of control of cerebral blood flow do not change during acute exposure to altitude.

  19. Light-scattering properties of undiluted human blood subjected to simple shear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Kolkman, R.G.M.; de Mul, F.F.M.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed into the effect of simple shear on the light-scattering properties of undiluted human blood. Undiluted human blood was enclosed between two glass plates with an adjustable separation between 30 and 120 mm and with one plate moving parallel to the other.

  20. Should fetal scalp blood sampling be performed in the case of meconium-stained amniotic fluid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujenah, J; Oliveira, J; De La Hosseraye, C; Benbara, A; Tigaizin, A; Bricou, A; Carbillon, L

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effect of using fetal scalp blood sampling on the risk of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) with meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF). Prospective data collection with regard to MSAF during labor for low-risk term cephalic singleton live birth from 2012 to 2014. Maternal, obstetric and neonatal data were compared according to the occurrence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS group) or not (no RDS group). Of 515 newborns born through MSAF, 46 experienced RDS and from them 10 experienced meconium aspiration syndrome. No difference was observed according to maternal characteristic, abnormal fetal heart rate tracing pattern irrespective of its category and cesarean rate. Apgar at one minute was lower in the group RDS (7.6 versus 8.5, p scalp lactate sampling during the labor (71.1% versus 55.1%, p scalp blood assessment (p scalp blood assessment and MSAF diagnosed during the first stage of labor (after spontaneous rupture of membranes or at amniotomy) was found. In case of MSAF, fetal scalp blood sampling did not reduce the risk of RDS.

  1. Evaluation of PCR Approaches for Detection of Bartonella bacilliformis in Blood Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Gomes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The lack of an effective diagnostic tool for Carrion's disease leads to misdiagnosis, wrong treatments and perpetuation of asymptomatic carriers living in endemic areas. Conventional PCR approaches have been reported as a diagnostic technique. However, the detection limit of these techniques is not clear as well as if its usefulness in low bacteriemia cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the detection limit of 3 PCR approaches.We determined the detection limit of 3 different PCR approaches: Bartonella-specific 16S rRNA, fla and its genes. We also evaluated the viability of dry blood spots to be used as a sample transport system. Our results show that 16S rRNA PCR is the approach with a lowest detection limit, 5 CFU/μL, and thus, the best diagnostic PCR tool studied. Dry blood spots diminish the sensitivity of the assay.From the tested PCRs, the 16S rRNA PCR-approach is the best to be used in the direct blood detection of acute cases of Carrion's disease. However its use in samples from dry blood spots results in easier management of transport samples in rural areas, a slight decrease in the sensitivity was observed. The usefulness to detect by PCR the presence of low-bacteriemic or asymptomatic carriers is doubtful, showing the need to search for new more sensible techniques.

  2. Use of dried blood sample for serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Terezinha Bahia

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Eluates of 183 dried caprine blood samples on filter paper were tested for anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies, using IFA, ELISA and dot-ELISA, and compared with results obtained by direct observations on comparable sera, usin the same tests. The results has showed that papers with dried blood can be preserved for up to 45 days at room temperature and for six months at 4°C, provided they are protected against humid conditions by using desiccating agents such as silica-gel. Comparison between serum and eluate reactions revelated 97-100% correspondance. The antibody titers remained constant throughout the study period.

  3. Cerebral small-resistance artery structure and cerebral blood flow in normotensive subjects and hypertensive patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Ciuceis, Carolina; Porteri, Enzo; Rizzoni, Damiano; Boari, Gianluca E.M.; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti [University of Brescia, Clinica Medica, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Brescia (Italy); Cornali, Claudio; Mardighian, Dikran; Fontanella, Marco M. [University of Brescia, Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); Pinardi, Chiara [Spedali Civili, Medical Physics Unit, Brescia (Italy); University of Brescia, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); Rodella, Luigi F.; Rezzani, Rita [University of Brescia, Section of Anatomy, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Brescia (Italy); Gasparotti, Roberto [University of Brescia, Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy); University of Brescia, Section of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical and Surgical Specialties, Radiological Sciences and Public Health, Brescia (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate whether the structure of cerebral small-resistance arteries is related to cerebral perfusion parameters as measured with dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) in a selected cohort of hypertensive and normotensive patients. Ten hypertensive and 10 normotensive patients were included in the study. All patients underwent neurosurgical intervention for an intracranial tumor and were investigated with DSC-MRI at 1.5 T. Cerebral small-resistance arteries were dissected from a small portion of morphologically normal cerebral tissue and mounted on an isometric myograph for the measurement of the media-to-lumen (M/L) ratio. A quantitative assessment of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and volume (CBV) was performed with a region-of-interest approach. Correlation coefficients were calculated for normally distributed variables. The institutional review board approved the study, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Compared with normotensive subjects, hypertensive patients had significantly lower regional CBF (mL/100 g/min) in the cortical grey matter (55.63 ± 1.90 vs 58.37 ± 2.19, p < 0.05), basal ganglia (53.34 ± 4.39 vs 58.22. ± 4.33, p < 0.05), thalami (50.65 ± 3.23 vs 57.56 ± 4.45, p < 0.01), subcortical white matter (19.32 ± 2.54 vs 22.24 ± 1.9, p < 0.05), greater M/L ratio (0.099 ± 0.013 vs 0.085 ± 0.012, p < 0.05), and lower microvessel density (1.66 ± 0.67 vs 2.52 ± 1.28, p < 0.05). A statistically significant negative correlation was observed between M/L ratio of cerebral arteries and CBF in the cortical grey matter (r = -0.516, p < 0.05), basal ganglia (r = -0.521, p < 0.05), thalami (r = -0.527 p < 0.05), and subcortical white matter (r = -0.612, p < 0.01). Our results indicate that microvascular structure might play a role in controlling CBF, with possible clinical consequences. (orig.)

  4. Effect of honey vinegar syrup on blood sugar and lipid profile in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh-Masomeh Derakhshandeh-Rishehri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The impact of honey or vinegar on several metabolic abnormalities has been studied separately, a mixture of these two ingredients known as honey vinegar syrup (HVS has not been investigated previously so far. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HVS consumption (Iranian′s traditional syrup on glycemic parameters and lipid profiles in healthy individuals. Methods: We conducted a 4-week, randomized, controlled, parallel study consisting of two groups of nonobese healthy volunteers. All subjects were asked to stay on their normal diet. Intervention group (n = 36 received a cup of HVS daily in the evening snack for 4-week (250 cc syrup contains 21.66 g honey vinegar. Assessments of fasting blood sugar (FBS, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C were conducted at the baseline and after 4-week of study. Results: We observed no significant effect of HVS on FBS, HOMA-IR, LDL-C and TG. A significant effect of HVS was found on increasing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR and reduction in TC level only in intervention group (Δ =3.39 P = 0.01, Δ =1.65 P = 0.03, Δ = −9.43 P = 0.005, respectively. Changes of FBS, TG and LDL-C were 1.83 mg/dl, −1.53 mg/dl and − 3.99 mg/dl respectively in the intervention group. These changes were not significant. An unfavorable and significant reduction in HDL-C level was also observed between two groups (Δ = −4.82 P < 0.001 in the intervention group. Conclusions: Honey vinegar syrup increased fasting insulin level and decreased TC level in the intervention group. HVS had an unfavorable effect on HDL-C level. Further prospective investigations are warranted to confirm these findings.

  5. Enhanced blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene subjected to hydrochloric acid treatment for cardiovascular implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Mohandas, Hemanth; Sivakumar, Gunalan; Kasi, Palaniappan; Sudheer, Theertha; Avineri Veetil, Sruthi; Murugesan, Selvakumar; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    Blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene (mPE) was investigated after modifying the surface using hydrochloric acid. Contact angle of the mPE exposed to HCl poses a decrease in its value which indicates increasing wettability and better blood compatibility. Surface of mPE analyzed by using FTIR revealed no significant changes in its functional groups after treatment. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope images supported the increasing wettability through the modifications like pit formations and etching on the acid rendered surface. To evaluate the effect of acid treatment on the coagulation cascade, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were measured. Both PT and APTT were delayed significantly (P < 0.05) after 60 min exposure implying improved blood compatibility of the surfaces. Hemolysis assay of the treated surface showed a remarkable decrease in the percentage of lysis of red blood cells when compared with untreated surface. Moreover, platelet adhesion assay demonstrated that HCl exposed surfaces deter the attachment of platelets and thereby reduce the chances of activation of blood coagulation cascade. These results confirmed the enhanced blood compatibility of mPE after HCl exposure which can be utilized for cardiovascular implants like artificial vascular prostheses, implants, and various blood contacting devices.

  6. Effect of respiratory pattern on automated clinical blood pressure measurement: an observational study with normotensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herakova, Natalia; Nwobodo, Nnenna Harmony Nzeribe; Wang, Ying; Chen, Fei; Zheng, Dingchang

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that deep breathing could reduce blood pressures (BP) in general. It is also known that BP is decreased during inhalation and increased during exhalation. Therefore, the measured BPs could be potentially different during deep breathing with different lengths of inhalation and exhalation. This study aimed to quantitatively investigate the effect of different respiratory patterns on BPs. Forty healthy subjects (20 males and 20 females, aged from 18 to 60 years) were recruited. Systolic and diastolic BPs (SBP and DBP) were measured using a clinically validated automated BP device. There were two repeated measurement sessions for each subject. Within each session, eight BP measurements were performed, including 4 measurements during deep breathing with different respiratory patterns (Pattern 1: 4.5 s vs 4.5 s; Patter 2: 6 s vs 2 s; Pattern 3: 2 s vs 6 s; and Pattern 4: 1.5 s vs 1.5 s, respectively for the durations of inhalation and exhalation) and additional 4 measurements from 1 min after the four different respiratory patterns. At the beginning and end of the two repeated measurement sessions, there were two baseline BP measurements under resting condition. The key experimental results showed that overall automated SBP significantly decreased by 3.7 ± 5.7 mmHg, 3.9 ± 5.2 mmHg, 1.7 ± 5.9 mmHg and 3.3 ± 5.3 mmHg during deep breathing, respectively for Patterns 1, 2, 3 and 4 (all p Pattern 3). Similarly, the automated DBPs during deep breathing in pattern 1, 2 and 4 decreased by 3.7 ± 5.0 mmHg, 3.7 ± 4.9 mmHg and 4.6 ± 3.9 mmHg respectively (all p Pattern 3 with a decrease of 1.0 ± 4.3 mmHg, p = 0.14). Correspondingly, after deep breathing, automated BPs recovered back to normal with no significant difference in comparison with baseline BP (all p > 0.05, except for SBP in Pattern 4). In summary, this study has quantitatively demonstrated that the measured automated BPs decreased

  7. Noise contamination from PET blood sampling pump: Effects on structural MRI image quality in simultaneous PET/MR studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Elizabeth; DeLorenzo, Christine; Parsey, Ramin; Huang, Chuan

    2018-02-01

    To fully quantify PET imaging outcome measures, a blood sampling pump is often used during the PET acquisition. With simultaneous PET/MR studies, a structural magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo (MP-RAGE) may also be acquired while the pump is generating electromagnetic noise. This study investigated whether this noise contamination would be detrimental to the quantification of volume and cortical thickness measures obtained from automated segmentation of the MP-RAGE image. MP-RAGE T1w structural images were acquired for a phantom and 10 healthy volunteers (five female, 27.2 ± 5.1 y old) with the blood sampling pump and without. The white matter signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was computed for all images. Region-wise cortical thickness and volume were extracted with Freesurfer 5.3.0. The phantom SNR and the white matter human subject SNR was degraded in the MP-RAGE images acquired with the pump (P = 0.005; white matter SNR: 43.9 and 50.8 with the pump and without). Intrasession, region-wise volume and cortical thickness estimates were significantly overestimated with the pump (percent difference: 1.14 ± 2.67% for volume (P = 0.0003) and 0.34 ± 1.59% (P = 0.02) for cortical thickness). Regions with percent differences greater than 5% between pump conditions were those close to tissue-air interfaces: entorhinal, frontal pole, parsorbitalis, temporal pole, and medial orbitofrontal. Synthetically adding Gaussian noise to the without pump MP-RAGE images yielded similar, significant detriments to cortical morphometry compared to without the pump. This study provides evidence that the use of PET blood sampling pumps may generate unstructured, Gaussian-distributed noise in MP-RAGE images that significantly alters the accuracy of Freesurfer-derived volume and cortical thickness estimates. While many cortical regions showed a percent difference of less than 1% with the pump, regions close to tissue-air interfaces, subject to larger susceptibility artifacts

  8. Gene methylation parallelisms between peripheral blood cells and oral mucosa samples in relation to overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Milagro, Fermín I; Riezu-Boj, J Ignacio; Guruceaga, Elizabeth; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Livingstone, Katherine M; Brennan, Lorraine; Lovegrove, Julie A; Daniel, Hannelore; Saris, Wim H; Traczyk, Iwonna; Manios, Yannis; Gibney, Eileen R; Gibney, Michael J; Mathers, John C; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2016-08-01

    Epigenetics has an important role in the regulation of metabolic adaptation to environmental modifications. In this sense, the determination of epigenetic changes in non-invasive samples during the development of metabolic diseases could play an important role in the procedures in primary healthcare practice. To help translate the knowledge of epigenetics to public health practice, the present study aims to explore the parallelism of methylation levels between white blood cells and buccal samples in relation to obesity and associated disorders. Blood and buccal swap samples were collected from a subsample of the Spanish cohort of the Food4Me study. Infinium HumanMethylation450 DNA Analysis was carried out for the determination of methylation levels. Standard deviation for β values method and concordance correlation analysis were used to select those CpG which showed best parallelism between samples. A total of 277 CpGs met the criteria and were selected for an enrichment analysis and a correlation analysis with anthropometrical and clinical parameters. From those selected CpGs, four presented high associations with BMI (cg01055691 in GAP43; r = -0.92 and rho = -0.84 for blood; r = -0.89 and rho = -0.83 for buccal sample), HOMA-IR (cg00095677 in ATP2A3; r = 0.82 and rho = -0.84 for blood; r = -0.8 and rho = -0.83 for buccal sample) and leptin (cg14464133 in ADARB2; r = -0.9182 and rho = -0.94 for blood; r = -0.893 and rho = -0.79 for buccal sample). These findings demonstrate the potential application of non-invasive buccal samples in the identification of surrogate epigenetic biomarkers and identify methylation sites in GAP43, ATP2A3 and ADARB2 genes as potential targets in relation to overweight management and insulin sensibility.

  9. Effect of Ibuprofen dose on platelet aggregation and coagulation in blood samples from pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Wenjun Z; Deguzman, Rodolfo; Rodriguez, Cassandra M; Guerra, Jessica; Martini, Angela K; Pusateri, Anthony E; Dubick, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Ibuprofen is commonly used by Soldiers in the deployed environment. This study investigated its dose-effects on in vitro coagulation. Blood samples were collected from 4 normal healthy pigs and were processed to make platelet-adjusted (100×10(3)/μL) blood samples. Ibuprofen was added to the samples at doses of 0 μg/mL (control), recommended oral dose (163 μg/mL, 1×), 2×, 4×, 8×, 10×, 12×, 16×, and 20×. Arachidonic acid or collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation was assessed at 15 minutes after the addition of ibuprofen. Coagulation was assessed with measurements of prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and thrombelastography by Rotem. A robust inhibition of ibuprofen on arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation was observed at all doses tested. Collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation was inhibited to 71%±5% and 10%±5% of the control values at ibuprofen doses of 4× and 20×, respectively (both pcoagulation time, clot formation time, maximum clot firmness, and A10 were compromised at dose 16× and 20× (all pcoagulation profile until at 16 times the recommended doses and higher. Further effort is needed to clarify whether there are different dose-responses between human and pig blood samples in trauma situations. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  10. Highly Effective DNA Extraction Method from Fresh, Frozen, Dried and Clotted Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaleh Barar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, with the tremendous potential of genomics and other recent advances in science, the role of science to improve reliable DNA extraction methods is more relevant than ever before. The ideal process for genomic DNA extraction demands high quantities of pure, integral and intact genomic DNA (gDNA from the sample with minimal co-extraction of inhibitors of downstream processes. Here, we report the development of a very rapid, less-hazardous, and high throughput protocol for extracting of high quality DNA from blood samples. Methods: Dried, clotted and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA treated fresh and frozen blood samples were extracted using this method in which the quality and integrity of the extracted DNA were corroborated by agarose gel electrophoresis, PCR reaction and DNA digestion using restricted enzyme. The UV spectrophotometric and gel electrophoresis analysis resulted in high A260/A280 ratio (>1.8 with high intactness of DNA. Results: PCR and DNA digestion experiments indicated that the final solutions of extracted DNA contained no inhibitory substances, which confirms that the isolated DNA is of good quality. Conclusion: The high quality and quantity of current method, no enzymatic processing and accordingly its low cost, make it appropriate for DNA extraction not only from human but also from animal blood samples in any molecular biology labs.

  11. Improved age determination of blood and teeth samples using a selected set of DNA methylation markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekaert, Bram; Kamalandua, Aubeline; Zapico, Sara C; Van de Voorde, Wim; Decorte, Ronny

    2015-01-01

    Age estimation from DNA methylation markers has seen an exponential growth of interest, not in the least from forensic scientists. The current published assays, however, can still be improved by lowering the number of markers in the assay and by providing more accurate models to predict chronological age. From the published literature we selected 4 age-associated genes (ASPA, PDE4C, ELOVL2, and EDARADD) and determined CpG methylation levels from 206 blood samples of both deceased and living individuals (age range: 0-91 years). This data was subsequently used to compare prediction accuracy with both linear and non-linear regression models. A quadratic regression model in which the methylation levels of ELOVL2 were squared showed the highest accuracy with a Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) between chronological age and predicted age of 3.75 years and an adjusted R(2) of 0.95. No difference in accuracy was observed for samples obtained either from living and deceased individuals or between the 2 genders. In addition, 29 teeth from different individuals (age range: 19-70 years) were analyzed using the same set of markers resulting in a MAD of 4.86 years and an adjusted R(2) of 0.74. Cross validation of the results obtained from blood samples demonstrated the robustness and reproducibility of the assay. In conclusion, the set of 4 CpG DNA methylation markers is capable of producing highly accurate age predictions for blood samples from deceased and living individuals.

  12. Reducing the risk of fatal and disabling hypoglycaemia: a comparison of arterial blood sampling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, K A; Eapen, G; Turnbull, D

    2010-04-01

    In 2008, the National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) published a report after 42 incidents and two deaths where glucose-containing flush solutions were attached to the arterial line. The molar concentration of 5% glucose is 277 mmol litre(-1). Only a tiny amount of sample contamination will lead to an artificially high glucose. As the NPSA sought a solution, a bench model was constructed to compare the performance of three open and three closed arterial line systems in limiting sample contamination. All arterial line systems were set up in a standard manner and pressurized to 300 mm Hg with 5% glucose used as the flush solution. This was connected to the 'radial artery' using an 18 G needle representing the radial cannula. The radial artery was simulated using a wide-bore extension set with 'blood' flow at 60 ml min(-1). Blood was simulated by the addition of red dye to Hartmann's solution. Increasing multiples of arterial line dead space were aspirated and discarded. Blood samples were then obtained and glucose concentration was measured. Significant glucose contamination (3 mmol litre(-1) +/-3.4) was detected in all open arterial line systems up to an aspiration volume of five times the dead space. No samples from the closed systems recorded glucose concentration >1 mmol litre(-1). Recommended minimal discard volumes are inadequate in the presence of glucose as the flush solution and can lead to high blood glucose readings, inappropriate insulin use, and iatrogenic neuroglycopaenia. Our study demonstrates that the closed-loop arterial sampling system could be the universal solution sought by the NPSA.

  13. Distribution of blood types in a sample of 245 New Zealand non-purebred cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattin, R P

    2016-05-01

    To determine the distribution of feline blood types in a sample of non-pedigree, domestic cats in New Zealand, whether a difference exists in this distribution between domestic short haired and domestic long haired cats, and between the North and South Islands of New Zealand; and to calculate the risk of a random blood transfusion causing a severe transfusion reaction, and the risk of a random mating producing kittens susceptible to neonatal isoerythrolysis. The results of 245 blood typing tests in non-pedigree cats performed at the New Zealand Veterinary Pathology (NZVP) and Gribbles Veterinary Pathology laboratories between the beginning of 2009 and the end of 2014 were retrospectively collated and analysed. Cats that were identified as domestic short or long haired were included. For the cats tested at Gribbles Veterinary Pathology 62 were from the North Island, and 27 from the South Island. The blood type distribution differed between samples from the two laboratories (p=0.029), but not between domestic short and long haired cats (p=0.50), or between the North and South Islands (p=0.76). Of the 89 cats tested at Gribbles Veterinary Pathology, 70 (79%) were type A, 18 (20%) type B, and 1 (1%) type AB; for NZVP 139/156 (89.1%) cats were type A, 16 (10.3%) type B, and 1 (0.6%) type AB. It was estimated that 18.3-31.9% of random blood transfusions would be at risk of a transfusion reaction, and neonatal isoerythrolysis would be a risk in 9.2-16.1% of random matings between non-pedigree cats. The results from this study suggest that there is a high risk of complications for a random blood transfusion between non-purebred cats in New Zealand. Neonatal isoerythrolysis should be considered an important differential diagnosis in illness or mortality in kittens during the first days of life.

  14. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein is associated with the presence of coronary artery calcium in subjects with normal blood pressure but not in subjects with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Joo-Wook; Lee, Sung Ho; Byrne, Christopher D; Chung, Pil-Wook; Won, Yu Sam; Sung, Ki-Chul

    2014-02-01

    An association has been described between high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in some studies but not in others. This finding may be explained by a differential impact of inflammation according to the absence or presence of certain co-existing risk factors. Because hypertension may be an effect modifier of inflammation on CVD, our aim was to investigate the relationship between hs-CRP and pre-clinical atherosclerosis in subjects with normal blood pressure and hypertension. Data were analyzed from 14,584 Korean subjects. Subjects were stratified according to: a) 6030 (41.3%) patients with normal blood pressure (hypertension (120-139 mmHg and 80-89 mmHg) and c) 2924 (20.0%) patients with hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg). Prevalence and odds ratio for the association between increased hs-CRP (>2 mg/L) and presence of CAC (coronary artery calcium) were calculated. In both normal and pre-hypertensive groups, the prevalence of CAC >0 was higher in subjects with increased hs-CRP concentrations (>2 mg/L). Adjusting for age, sex, cerebrovascular accident, coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus, lifestyle, obesity, fasting glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, there was a significant association between higher hs-CRP levels (>2 mg/L) and CAC score in the normal group (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.11-2.16; p = 0.010); a borderline significant association in the pre-hypertensive group (OR 1.33, 95% CI 0.99-1.76; p = 0.054); and no association in the hypertensive group (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.76-1.33; p = 0.94). Higher hs-CRP levels (>2 mg/L) are associated with pre-clinical atherosclerosis in subjects with normal blood pressure but not hypertension. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of fatigue induced by strength training on blood pressure response in hypertensive subjects: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluísio Henrique Rodrigues Lima

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature on blood pressure response after strength training in hypertensive subjects, trying to identify the effect of failure in this response. We performed a literature search in SciELO, LILACS, PubMed / MedLine databases. Out of 9377 studies, only six met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Five studies (83.3% reported a reduction in systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Regarding failure, 66.7% (n = 4 of the studies performed the sets until failure while 33.3% (n = 2 interrupted exercise before failure. Out of the four studies that used protocols until failure, 75% (n=3 observed a reduction in blood pressure, and the two studies who discontinued before the series also showed a reduction of failure. The magnitude of blood pressure reduction was similar among studies that employed both protocols. Thus, the results indicated that the reduction in blood pressure after strength training in subjects with hypertension is independent of the occurrence of failure.

  16. Effects of Administration of Fostamatinib on Blood Concentrations of an Oral Contraceptive in Healthy Female Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    Scientific Terminology Rheumatoid Arthritis, Healthy Female Volunteers, Pharmacokinetics, Oral Contraceptive, Drug-drug Interaction; Laymen Terminology Level of Oral Contraceptive in Blood, Oral Contraceptive, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Drug -Drug Interaction

  17. Pre-analytical effects of blood sampling and handling in quantitative immunoassays for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyan; Qureshi, Ferhan; Eastman, P Scott; Manning, William C; Alexander, Claire; Robinson, William H; Hesterberg, Lyndal K

    2012-04-30

    Variability in pre-analytical blood sampling and handling can significantly impact results obtained in quantitative immunoassays. Understanding the impact of these variables is critical for accurate quantification and validation of biomarker measurements. Particularly, in the design and execution of large clinical trials, even small differences in sample processing and handling can have dramatic effects in analytical reliability, results interpretation, trial management and outcome. The effects of two common blood sampling methods (serum vs. plasma) and two widely-used serum handling methods (on the clot with ambient temperature shipping, "traditional", vs. centrifuged with cold chain shipping, "protocol") on protein and autoantibody concentrations were examined. Matched serum and plasma samples were collected from 32 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients representing a wide range of disease activity status. Additionally, a set of matched serum samples with two sample handling methods was collected. One tube was processed per manufacturer's instructions and shipped overnight on cold packs (protocol). The matched tube, without prior centrifugation, was simultaneously shipped overnight at ambient temperatures (traditional). Upon delivery, the traditional tube was centrifuged. All samples were subsequently aliquoted and frozen prior to analysis of protein and autoantibody biomarkers. Median correlation between paired serum and plasma across all autoantibody assays was 0.99 (0.98-1.00) with a median % difference of -3.3 (-7.5 to 6.0). In contrast, observed protein biomarker concentrations were significantly affected by sample types, with median correlation of 0.99 (0.33-1.00) and a median % difference of -10 (-55 to 23). When the two serum collection/handling methods were compared, the median correlation between paired samples for autoantibodies was 0.99 (0.91-1.00) with a median difference of 4%. In contrast, significant increases were observed in protein biomarker

  18. A Lumped-Parameter Subject-Specific Model of Blood Volume Response to Fluid Infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Bighamian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a lumped-parameter model that can reproduce blood volume response to fluid infusion. The model represents the fluid shift between the intravascular and interstitial compartments as the output of a hypothetical feedback controller that regulates the ratio between the volume changes in the intravascular and interstitial fluid at a target value (called target volume ratio. The model is characterized by only three parameters: the target volume ratio, feedback gain (specifying the speed of fluid shift, and initial blood volume. This model can obviate the need to incorporate complex mechanisms involved in the fluid shift in reproducing blood volume response to fluid infusion. The ability of the model to reproduce real-world blood volume response to fluid infusion was evaluated by fitting it to a series of data reported in the literature. The model reproduced the data accurately with average error and root-mean-squared error (RMSE of 0.6 % and 9.5 % across crystalloid and colloid fluids when normalized by the underlying responses. Further, the parameters derived for the model showed physiologically plausible behaviors. It was concluded that this simple model may accurately reproduce a variety of blood volume responses to fluid infusion throughout different physiological states by fitting three parameters to a given dataset. This offers a tool that can quantify the fluid shift in a dataset given the measured fractional blood volumes.

  19. A Lumped-Parameter Subject-Specific Model of Blood Volume Response to Fluid Infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bighamian, Ramin; Reisner, Andrew T; Hahn, Jin-Oh

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a lumped-parameter model that can reproduce blood volume response to fluid infusion. The model represents the fluid shift between the intravascular and interstitial compartments as the output of a hypothetical feedback controller that regulates the ratio between the volume changes in the intravascular and interstitial fluid at a target value (called "target volume ratio"). The model is characterized by only three parameters: the target volume ratio, feedback gain (specifying the speed of fluid shift), and initial blood volume. This model can obviate the need to incorporate complex mechanisms involved in the fluid shift in reproducing blood volume response to fluid infusion. The ability of the model to reproduce real-world blood volume response to fluid infusion was evaluated by fitting it to a series of data reported in the literature. The model reproduced the data accurately with average error and root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 0.6 and 9.5% across crystalloid and colloid fluids when normalized by the underlying responses. Further, the parameters derived for the model showed physiologically plausible behaviors. It was concluded that this simple model may accurately reproduce a variety of blood volume responses to fluid infusion throughout different physiological states by fitting three parameters to a given dataset. This offers a tool that can quantify the fluid shift in a dataset given the measured fractional blood volumes.

  20. [Blood biochemical parameters of tilted primates periodically subjected to gravitational stimuli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsenko, M A; Aiusheva, I A; Rudneva, R I; Korol'kov, V I

    2007-01-01

    Head-down tilting of primates (HOT) is a universal method of studying the hypokinetic syndrome effects on functionality of various body systems. Clinical biochemical blood assay was performed in a 25-day HDT experiment (-5 degrees) with 11 Macaca rhesus. One group of animals was kept tilted all the time through, whereas the other was periodically returned into the orthostatic position for 30 to 120 minutes 4-5 times a week. Dry chemistry was employed in biochemical analysis of blood serum and enzyme immunodetection (EID) in measuring blood hormones. As a rule, the biochemical parameters of primates' serum were within the physiological norm range. Shifts in protein, carbohydrate and mineral metabolism were sought for and enzymic activity in blood serum and hormone concentrations were determined. HDT did not produce noteworthy changes in blood concentrations of somatotropic hormone, thyrotrophic hormone (TTH), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) or cortisol. Animals of both groups showed statistically reliable decrease in blood osteocalcine. The preventive complex did not contribute materially to the control of metabolic homeostasis and endocrine function of the primates adapting to the 25-day HDT.

  1. Performance evaluation of continuous blood sampling system for PET study. Comparison of three detector-systems

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, K; Sakamoto, S; Senda, M; Yamamoto, S; Tarutani, K; Minato, K

    2002-01-01

    To measure cerebral blood flow with sup 1 sup 5 O PET, it is necessary to measure the time course of arterial blood radioactivity. We examined the performance of three different types of continuous blood sampling system. Three kinds of continuous blood sampling system were used: a plastic scintillator-based beta detector (conventional beta detector (BETA)), a bismuth germinate (BGO)-based coincidence gamma detector (Pico-count flow-through detector (COINC)) and a Phoswich detector (PD) composed by a combination of plastic scintillator and BGO scintillator. Performance of these systems was evaluated for absolute sensitivity, count rate characteristic, sensitivity to background gamnra photons, and reproducibility for nylon tube geometry. The absolute sensitivity of the PD was 0.21 cps/Bq for sup 6 sup 8 Ga positrons at the center of the detector. This was approximately three times higher than BETA, two times higher than COINC. The value measured with BETA was stable, even when background radioactivity was incre...

  2. Intra-arterial blood pressure response in hypertensive subjects during low- and high-intensity resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra de Souza Nery

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe blood pressure responses during resistance exercise in hypertensive subjects and to determine whether an exercise protocol alters these responses. INTRODUCTION: Resistance exercise has been recommended as a complement for aerobic exercise for hypertensive patients. However, blood pressure changes during this kind of exercise have been poorly investigated in hypertensives, despite multiple studies of normotensives demonstrating significant increases in blood pressure. METHODS: Ten hypertensive and ten normotensive subjects performed, in random order, two different exercise protocols, composed by three sets of the knee extension exercise conducted to exhaustion: 40% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM with a 45-s rest between sets, and 80% of 1RM with a 90-s rest between sets. Radial intra-arterial blood pressure was measured before and throughout each protocol. RESULTS: Compared with normotensives, hypertensives displayed greater increases in systolic BP during exercise at 80% (+80±3 vs. +62±2 mmHg, P<0.05 and at 40% of 1RM (+75±3 vs. +67±3 mmHg, P<0.05. In both exercise protocols, systolic blood pressure returned to baseline during the rest periods between sets in the normotensives; however, in the hypertensives, BP remained slightly elevated at 40% of 1RM. During rest periods, diastolic blood pressure returned to baseline in hypertensives and dropped below baseline in normotensives. CONCLUSION: Resistance exercise increased systolic blood pressure considerably more in hypertensives than in normotensives, and this increase was greater when lower-intensity exercise was performed to the point of exhaustion.

  3. A comparison of various methods of blood sampling in mice and rats: Effects on animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harikrishnan, Vs; Hansen, Axel K; Abelson, Klas Sp

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of blood sampling on animal welfare in a total of 60 NTac:SD rats and 72 C57BL/6NTac mice of both sexes. Blood was sampled either by sublingual vein puncture, tail vein puncture or by retrobulbar plexus/sinus puncture under light isoflurane...... anaesthesia and, additionally, by facial vein puncture in mice. Non-punctured animals as well as isoflurane-anaesthetised animals were used as controls. Pre- and post-puncture sucrose intake (1.5% w/w) was measured in rats, and nest building scores were studied in mice for 24 h post-puncture. Post...... procedures. Rats showed reduced activity in the open field test and an increased level of anxiety in the elevated plus maze test following retrobulbar plexus puncture and isoflurane anaesthesia. In mice, nest building activity was affected in all the groups compared with the control group, except for animals...

  4. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  5. Prospective comparison of a PCR assay and a microbiological culture technique for identification of pathogens from blood and non-blood samples in septic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plettig, Runa; Nowak, Andreas; Balau, Veronika; Hahnenkamp, Klaus; Usichenko, Taras

    2015-01-01

    Molecular amplification techniques are suggested to be a useful adjunct in early detection of pathogens in septic patients. The aim was to study the feasibility of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay compared to the standard microbiological culture (MC) technique in identification of pathogenic microorganisms from blood and non-blood samples in septic patients. Samples for pathogen identification were taken during febrile septic episodes (SE) in 54 patients with sepsis and analyzed using both MC and PCR. Semi-automated multiplex PCR, provided by Philips Medical Systems, was able to detect nine different pathogens. The accuracy of pathogen identification using PCR vs. MC as well as the time-saving effect of PCR on the potential decision-making process for antimicrobial therapy was evaluated. In a total of 258 samples taken during 87 SE, both methods yielded more pathogens from the non-blood than blood samples (87 % vs. 45 %; p = 0.002). PCR identified more pathogens than MC in the blood samples (98 vs. 21; p microorganisms isolated from the blood samples than the standard MC technique. In the non-blood samples, PCR was comparable to that of MC.

  6. Optical detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in blood samples for diagnosis purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanis, Elvio; Romero, Graciela; Alvarez, Liliana; Martinez, Carlos C.; Basombrio, Miguel A.

    2004-10-01

    An optical method for detection of Trypanosoma Cruzi (T. cruzi) parasites in blood samples of mice infected with Chagas disease is presented. The method is intended for use in human blood, for diagnosis purposes. A thin layer of blood infected by T. cruzi parasites, in small concentrations, is examined in an interferometric microscope in which the images of the vision field are taken by a CCD camera and temporarily stored in the memory of a host computer. The whole sample is scanned displacing the microscope plate by means of step motors driven by the computer. Several consecutive images of the same field are taken and digitally processed by means of image temporal differentiation in order to detect if a parasite is eventually present in the field. Each field of view is processed in the same fashion, until the full area of the sample is covered or until a parasite is detected, in which case an acoustical warning is activated and the corresponding image is displayed permitting the technician to corroborate the result visually. A discussion of the reliability of the method as well as a comparison with other well established techniques are presented.

  7. Dietary intake of vitamin B6 and concentration of vitamin B6 in blood samples of German vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, A; Dörr, B; Koschizke, J W; Leitzmann, C; Hahn, A

    2006-09-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the dietary vitamin B6 intake and determine the vitamin B6 concentration in blood samples of German vegans. Cross-sectional study with 33 examination sites all over Germany. Subjects Ninety-three vegans (50 females) with a mean (+/- standard deviation (SD)) age of 43.7 +/- 15.7 years who took no vitamin supplements. Dietary intake was assed using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Erythrocyte aspartate aminotransferase activity coefficient (EAST-AC) was calculated as the ratio of stimulated (pyridoxal 5'-phosphate added) to unstimulated activity in blood samples that were provided after an overnight fast. Mean +/- SD vitamin B6 intake was 2.83 +/- 0.98 mg day(-1) and mean +/- SD protein intake was 56.6 +/- 21.7 g day(-1). Of the participants 4% showed vitamin B6 intakes lower than daily recommended intakes for Germany, 16% showed EAST-AC > 1.85, and a further 58% showed EAST-AC of 1.5-1-85. Moderate vegans were affected to a lesser extent than strict vegans. None of the established confounders was a significant predictor of EAST-AC. In logistic regression analyses the contribution of nutriments and cereals to pyridoxine intake was the only predictor of EAST-AC classified as 1.85, respectively. In spite of the high total intake of vitamin B6, an adequate concentration in blood samples could not be realised for a majority of the participants. Due to the health implications of a marginal pyridoxine status, vegans should be encouraged to include foods with a high bioavailability of pyridoxine, such as beans, lentils and bananas, in the daily diet.

  8. Plasma concentrations of endothelial vasoactive substances in clinically healthy subjects. associations with urinary albumin excretion and ambulatory blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Jensent, G

    2000-01-01

    Elevated urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is a predictor of cardiovascular disease, and one possible explanation is that elevated UAE reflects a generalized vascular dysfunction. The present study tests whether the plasma concentrations of the two main endothelial vasoactive substances (nitric oxide...... and endothelin-1 [ET-1]) are changed in clinically healthy subjects with elevated UAE (>6.6 microg/ min-the 90th percentile in the background population) and to test associations between these concentrations and systemic blood pressure. Twenty-seven subjects with elevated UAE were compared with 46 matched...

  9. Gene expression profiling of human whole blood samples with the Illumina WG-DASL assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klotzle Brandy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray-based gene expression analysis of peripheral whole blood is a common strategy in the development of clinically relevant biomarker panels for a variety of human diseases. However, the results of such an analysis are often plagued by decreased sensitivity and reliability due to the effects of relatively high levels of globin mRNA in whole blood. Globin reduction assays have been shown to overcome such effects, but they require large amounts of total RNA and may induce distinct gene expression profiles. The Illumina whole genome DASL assay can detect gene expression levels using partially degraded RNA samples and has the potential to detect rare transcripts present in highly heterogeneous whole blood samples without the need for globin reduction. We assessed the utility of the whole genome DASL assay in an analysis of peripheral whole blood gene expression profiles. Results We find that gene expression detection is significantly increased with the use of whole genome DASL compared to the standard IVT-based direct hybridization. Additionally, globin-probe negative whole genome DASL did not exhibit significant improvements over globin-probe positive whole genome DASL. Globin reduction further increases the detection sensitivity and reliability of both whole genome DASL and IVT-based direct hybridization with little effect on raw intensity correlations. Raw intensity correlations between total RNA and globin reduced RNA were 0.955 for IVT-based direct hybridization and 0.979 for whole genome DASL. Conclusions Overall, the detection sensitivity of the whole genome DASL assay is higher than the IVT-based direct hybridization assay, with or without globin reduction, and should be considered in conjunction with globin reduction methods for future blood-based gene expression studies.

  10. Shilajit: evalution of its effects on blood chemistry of normal human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Praveen; Jha, Jagrati; Shrinivas, V; Dwivedi, L K; Suresh, P; Sinha, M

    2003-10-01

    The effect of Shilajit on blood chemistry was studied in normal human volunteers. Administration of two gms of Shilajit for 45 days did not produced any significant change in physical parameters i.e. blood pressure, pulse rate and body weight and similarly no charge was observed in hematological parameters. A signification reduction in Serum Triglycerides, Serum cholesterol with simultaneous improvement in HDL Cholesterol was seen, besides Shilajit also improved antioxidant status of volunteers. Results of study suggest hypolipidemic and strong antioxidant activity of Shilajit.

  11. Assessment of pre-ejection period in ambulatory subjects using seismocardiogram in a wearable blood pressure monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanqun Zhang; Cottrell, Amber C; Henry, Isaac C; McCombie, Devin B

    2016-08-01

    The ability to monitor arterial blood pressure continuously with unobtrusive body worn sensors may provide a unique and potentially valuable assessment of a patient's cardiovascular health. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) offers an attractive method to continuously monitoring blood pressure. However, PWV technologies based on timing measurements between the ECG and a distal PPG suffer from inaccuracies on mobile patients due to the confounding influence of pre-ejection period (PEP). In this paper, we presented a wearable, continuous blood pressure monitor (ViSi Mobile) that can measure and track changes in PEP. PEP is determined from precordial vibrations captured by an accelerometer coupled to the patient's sternum. The performance of the PEP measurements was evaluated on test subjects with postural change and patient activity. Results showed potential to improve cNIBP accuracy in active patients.

  12. RNA-stabilized whole blood samples but not peripheral blood mononuclear cells can be stored for prolonged time periods prior to transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debey-Pascher, Svenja; Hofmann, Andrea; Kreusch, Fatima; Schuler, Gerold; Schuler-Thurner, Beatrice; Schultze, Joachim L; Staratschek-Jox, Andrea

    2011-07-01

    Microarray-based transcriptome analysis of peripheral blood as surrogate tissue has become an important approach in clinical implementations. However, application of gene expression profiling in routine clinical settings requires careful consideration of the influence of sample handling and RNA isolation methods on gene expression profile outcome. We evaluated the effect of different sample preservation strategies (eg, cryopreservation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells or freezing of PAXgene-stabilized whole blood samples) on gene expression profiles. Expression profiles obtained from cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells differed substantially from those of their nonfrozen counterpart samples. Furthermore, expression profiles in cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples were found to undergo significant alterations with increasing storage period, whereas long-term freezing of PAXgene RNA stabilized whole blood samples did not significantly affect stability of gene expression profiles. This report describes important technical aspects contributing toward the establishment of robust and reliable guidance for gene expression studies using peripheral blood and provides a promising strategy for reliable implementation in routine handling for diagnostic purposes. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Relationship of Erenumab (AMG 334) and Capsaicin-Induced Dermal Blood Flow in Healthy and Migraine Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Thuy; Ma, Peiming; Chen, Jiyun Sunny; de Hoon, Jan; Van Hecken, Anne; Yan, Lucy; Wu, Liviawati Sutjandra; Hamilton, Lisa; Vargas, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Capsaicin-induced dermal blood flow (CIDBF) is a validated biomarker used to evaluate the target engagement of potential calcitonin gene-related peptide-blocking therapeutics for migraine. To characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) and quantify the inhibitory effects of erenumab (AMG 334) on CIDBF, CIDBF data were pooled from a single- and a multiple-dose study in healthy and migraine subjects. Methods Repeated capsaicin challenges and DBF measurements were performed and serum erenumab...

  14. Sources of pre-analytical variations in yield of DNA extracted from blood samples: analysis of 50,000 DNA samples in EPIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Caboux

    Full Text Available The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC is a long-term, multi-centric prospective study in Europe investigating the relationships between cancer and nutrition. This study has served as a basis for a number of Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS and other types of genetic analyses. Over a period of 5 years, 52,256 EPIC DNA samples have been extracted using an automated DNA extraction platform. Here we have evaluated the pre-analytical factors affecting DNA yield, including anthropometric, epidemiological and technical factors such as center of subject recruitment, age, gender, body-mass index, disease case or control status, tobacco consumption, number of aliquots of buffy coat used for DNA extraction, extraction machine or procedure, DNA quantification method, degree of haemolysis and variations in the timing of sample processing. We show that the largest significant variations in DNA yield were observed with degree of haemolysis and with center of subject recruitment. Age, gender, body-mass index, cancer case or control status and tobacco consumption also significantly impacted DNA yield. Feedback from laboratories which have analyzed DNA with different SNP genotyping technologies demonstrate that the vast majority of samples (approximately 88% performed adequately in different types of assays. To our knowledge this study is the largest to date to evaluate the sources of pre-analytical variations in DNA extracted from peripheral leucocytes. The results provide a strong evidence-based rationale for standardized recommendations on blood collection and processing protocols for large-scale genetic studies.

  15. Plasma concentrations of endothelial vasoactive substances in clinically healthy subjects. associations with urinary albumin excretion and ambulatory blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Jensent, G

    2000-01-01

    and endothelin-1 [ET-1]) are changed in clinically healthy subjects with elevated UAE (>6.6 microg/ min-the 90th percentile in the background population) and to test associations between these concentrations and systemic blood pressure. Twenty-seven subjects with elevated UAE were compared with 46 matched...... controls with normoalbuminuria. Plasma concentration of ET-1 was measured using an ELISA method and plasma concentration of nitrate/nitrite using a photometric method. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure was measured using a portable recorder (TM-2421). No significant differences in the concentrations...... of nitrate/nitrite and ET-1 were found between the groups, e.g. 21 (10-105) vs. 18 (11 -152) (p=0.33) and 0.98 (0.58 1.95) vs. 1.10 (0.54 -1.50) (p = 0.27), respectively. However, plasma nitrate/nitrite was significantly positively correlated to systolic and diastolic blood pressure in subjects...

  16. The influence of adverse reactions, subjective distress, and anxiety on retention of first-time blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Anne; Abraham, Charles; Ruiter, Robert A C; Veldhuizen, Ingrid J T

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of adverse events (i.e., needle reactions, fatigue, and vasovagal reactions) and feelings of distress and anxiety on retention of first-time blood donors. All effects were explored separately for men and women. First-time blood donors (n = 2438) received a questionnaire, asking them about their experience of adverse events, subjective distress, and anxiety at their first donation. Provision of a second donation was checked approximately 18 months later. After exclusion of nonresponders and donors who did not experience an adverse event, 1278 first-time donors were included in the logistic regression analyses. Nine percent of donors who experienced an adverse event at their first donation did not return for a second donation. Vasovagal reactions decreased retention in both males and females (men-odds ratio [OR], 0.45; 95% CI, 0.23-0.89; women-OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51-0.98). Fatigue decreased retention in males only (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.42-0.91), and subjective distress decreased retention in females only (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65-0.92). In addition to decreasing vasovagal reactions, retention interventions could productively target coping with fatigue and reducing subjective distress after adverse reactions. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  17. The effect of phenylephrine on arterial and venous cerebral blood flow in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogoh, Shigehiko; Sato, Kohei; Fisher, James P

    2011-01-01

    Sympathetic regulation of the cerebral circulation remains controversial. Although intravenous phenylephrine (PE) infusion reduces the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-determined measure of frontal lobe oxygenation (S(c) O(2) ) and increases middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA V...

  18. Enzymatically hydrolyzed lactotripeptides do not lower blood pressure in mildly hypertensive subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zander, Kim; Bots, Michiel L.; Bak, Annette A. A.; Koning, Mettina M. G.; de Leeuw, Peter W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Several placebo-controlled clinical studies suggest that products containing isoleucyl-prolyl-proline and valyl-prolylproline are able to lower blood pressure without adverse effects. The most efficient way of producing high concentrations of these lacto-tripeptides (LTPs) is enzymatic

  19. Pulmonary blood flow and its distribution in highly trained endurance athletes and healthy control subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Heinonen (Ilkka); M.J. Savolainen (Markku); C. Han (Chunlei); J. Kemppainen (Jukka); V. Oikonen (Vesa); M. Luotolahti (Matti); D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk); D. Merkus (Daphne); J. Knuuti (Juhani); K.K. Kalliokoski (Kari)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPulmonary blood flow (PBF) is an important determinant of endurance sports performance, yet studies investigating adaptations of the pulmonary circulation in athletes are scarce. In the present study, we investigated PBF, its distribution, and heterogeneity at baseline and during

  20. In vitro study of thimerosal reactions in human whole blood and plasma surrogate samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trümpler, Stefan; Meermann, Björn; Nowak, Sascha; Buscher, Wolfgang; Karst, Uwe; Sperling, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Because of its bactericidal and fungicidal properties, thimerosal is used as a preservative in drugs and vaccines and is thus deliberately injected into the human body. In aqueous environment, it decomposes into thiosalicylic acid and the ethylmercury cation. This organomercury fragment is a potent neurotoxin and is suspected to have similar toxicity and bioavailability like the methylmercury cation. In this work, human whole blood and physiological simulation solutions were incubated with thimerosal to investigate its behaviour and binding partners in the blood stream. Inductively coupled plasma with optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was used for total mercury determination in different blood fractions, while liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to electrospray ionisation time-of-flight (ESI-TOF) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) provided information on the individual mercury species in plasma surrogate samples. Analogous behaviour of methylmercury and ethylmercury species in human blood was shown and an ethylmercury-glutathione adduct was identified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. A Simple, Inexpensive and Safe Method for DNA Extraction of Frigid and Clotted Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Mohammadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extraction of blood genomicDNAis one of the main approaches for clinical and molecular biology studies. Although several methods have been developed for extraction of blood genomic DNA, most of these methods consume long time and use expensive chemicals such as proteinase K and toxic organic solvent such as phenol and chloroform. The objective of this study was to developed easy and safe method forDNAextraction from clotted and frozen whole blood. This method has many advantages: time reducing, using inexpensive materials, without phenol and chloroform, achieving of high molecular weight and good quality genomicDNA.Materials and Methods: DNA extraction was performed by two methods (new and phenol-chloroform method. Then quantity and quality parameters were evaluated by 1% agarose gel electrophoresis, Nano drop analysis and efficiency of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR.Results: Extracted DNA from 500μL of blood samples were 457.7ng/μl and 212ng/μL and their purity (OD260/OD280 were 1.8 and 1.81 for new recommended and phenol–chloroform methods respectively. The PCR results indicated that D16S539 and CSF1PO loci were amplified.Conclusion: These results shown that this method is simple, fast, safe and most economical.

  2. Detection of Streptococcus mutans Genomic DNA in Human DNA Samples Extracted from Saliva and Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexandre R.; Deeley, Kathleen B.; Callahan, Nicholas F.; Noel, Jacqueline B.; Anjomshoaa, Ida; Carricato, Wendy M.; Schulhof, Louise P.; DeSensi, Rebecca S.; Gandhi, Pooja; Resick, Judith M.; Brandon, Carla A.; Rozhon, Christopher; Patir, Asli; Yildirim, Mine; Poletta, Fernando A.; Mereb, Juan C.; Letra, Ariadne; Menezes, Renato; Wendell, Steven; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Orioli, Iêda M.; Seymen, Figen; Weyant, Robert J.; Crout, Richard; McNeil, Daniel W.; Modesto, Adriana; Marazita, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Caries is a multifactorial disease, and studies aiming to unravel the factors modulating its etiology must consider all known predisposing factors. One major factor is bacterial colonization, and Streptococcus mutans is the main microorganism associated with the initiation of the disease. In our studies, we have access to DNA samples extracted from human saliva and blood. In this report, we tested a real-time PCR assay developed to detect copies of genomic DNA from Streptococcus mutans in 1,424 DNA samples from humans. Our results suggest that we can determine the presence of genomic DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans in both DNA samples from caries-free and caries-affected individuals. However, we were not able to detect the presence of genomic DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans in any DNA samples extracted from peripheral blood, which suggests the assay may not be sensitive enough for this goal. Values of the threshold cycle of the real-time PCR reaction correlate with higher levels of caries experience in children, but this correlation could not be detected for adults. PMID:21731912

  3. Behavior of optical properties of coagulated blood sample at 633 nm wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Cruzado, Beatriz; Vázquez y Montiel, Sergio; Delgado Atencio, José Alberto

    2011-03-01

    Determination of tissue optical parameters is fundamental for application of light in either diagnostics or therapeutical procedures. However, in samples of biological tissue in vitro, the optical properties are modified by cellular death or cellular agglomeration that can not be avoided. This phenomena change the propagation of light within the biological sample. Optical properties of human blood tissue were investigated in vitro at 633 nm using an optical setup that includes a double integrating sphere system. We measure the diffuse transmittance and diffuse reflectance of the blood sample and compare these physical properties with those obtained by Monte Carlo Multi-Layered (MCML). The extraction of the optical parameters: absorption coefficient μa, scattering coefficient μs and anisotropic factor g from the measurements were carried out using a Genetic Algorithm, in which the search procedure is based in the evolution of a population due to selection of the best individual, evaluated by a function that compares the diffuse transmittance and diffuse reflectance of those individuals with the experimental ones. The algorithm converges rapidly to the best individual, extracting the optical parameters of the sample. We compare our results with those obtained by using other retrieve procedures. We found that the scattering coefficient and the anisotropic factor change dramatically due to the formation of clusters.

  4. [Stability of alpha-tocopherol: pre-analytical conditions in its determination in blood samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezequel-Cuer, M; Le Moël, G; Covi, G; Lepage, S; Peynet, J; Gousson-Evstigneeff, T; Laureaux, C; Troupel, S

    1994-01-01

    Incomplete and controversial data exist concerning vitamin E or alpha-tocopherol stability in biological samples. Recent clinical interest in the protective function of alpha-tocopherol provided another reason for the setting-up of a multicenter study by the Sociéte Française de Biologie Clinique. Our purpose was to examine the effects on alpha-tocopherol stability, firstly, of collection and transportation of blood samples, and, secondly, of the temperature (-20 degrees C and -80 degrees C) and period of storage of serum or plasma. alpha-tocopherol was determined in serum or plasma by isocratic liquid chromatography with UV detection at 292 nm. Our results established that alpha-tocopherol was extremely stable in blood, serum or plasma over 8 hours without special handling conditions (light, temperature). Pools of serum or plasma were stable for at least 3 months at -20 degrees C and -80 degrees C. They are suitable for use in the quality control of alpha-tocopherol. On the other hand, in some samples, we observed great variability in the rate of alpha-tocopherol degradation. However, there was lesser degradation when these plasma samples were stored at -80 degrees C instead of -20 degrees C. We therefore do not advise storing serum or plasma for more than 1 month at -20 degrees C for more than 3 months at -80 degrees C. This latter temperature is recommended in epidemiological studies.

  5. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR DAY CARE CENTER SAMPLE SUBJECTS RECRUITMENT (SOP-1.11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CTEPP subject recruitment procedures for the daycare center component are described in the SOP. There are two stages in this phase of CTEPP subject recruitment. The objective of the first stage is to enroll daycare centers for the study. Six target counties in each state ar...

  6. Accumulation of neutral lipids in peripheral blood mononuclear cells as a distinctive trait of Alzheimer patients and asymptomatic subjects at risk of disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmas Manuela

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease is the most common progressive neurodegenerative disease. In recent years, numerous progresses in the discovery of novel Alzheimer's disease molecular biomarkers in brain as well as in biological fluids have been made. Among them, those involving lipid metabolism are emerging as potential candidates. In particular, an accumulation of neutral lipids was recently found by us in skin fibroblasts from Alzheimer's disease patients. Therefore, with the aim to assess whether peripheral alterations in cholesterol homeostasis might be relevant in Alzheimer's disease development and progression, in the present study we analyzed lipid metabolism in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Alzheimer's disease patients and from their first-degree relatives. Methods Blood samples were obtained from 93 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and from 91 of their first-degree relatives. As controls we utilized 57, cognitively normal, over-65 year-old volunteers and 113 blood donors aged 21-66 years, respectively. Data are reported as mean ± standard error. Statistical calculations were performed using the statistical analysis software Origin 8.0 version. Data analysis was done using the Student t-test and the Pearson test. Results Data reported here show high neutral lipid levels and increased ACAT-1 protein in about 85% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells freshly isolated (ex vivo from patients with probable sporadic Alzheimer's disease compared to about 7% of cognitively normal age-matched controls. A significant reduction in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in plasma from Alzheimer's disease blood samples was also observed. Additionally, correlation analyses reveal a negative correlation between high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and cognitive capacity, as determined by Mini Mental State Examination, as well as between high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and neutral lipid accumulation. We

  7. Vagal Blocking Improves Glycemic Control and Elevated Blood Pressure in Obese Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shikora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. An active device that downregulates abdominal vagal signalling has resulted in significant weight loss in feasibility studies. Objective. To prospectively evaluate the effect of intermittent vagal blocking (VBLOC on weight loss, glycemic control, and blood pressure (BP in obese subjects with DM2. Methods. Twenty-eight subjects were implanted with a VBLOC device (Maestro Rechargeable System at 5 centers in an open-label study. Effects on weight loss, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose, and BP were evaluated at 1 week to 12 months. Results. 26 subjects (17 females/9 males, 51±2 years, BMI 37±1 kg/m2, mean ± SEM completed 12 months followup. One serious adverse event (pain at implant site was easily resolved. At 1 week and 12 months, mean excess weight loss percentages (% EWL were 9±1% and 25±4% (P<0.0001, and HbA1c declined by 0.3±0.1% and 1.0±0.2% (P=0.02, baseline 7.8±0.2%. In DM2 subjects with elevated BP (n=15, mean arterial pressure reduced by 7±3 mmHg and 8±3 mmHg (P=0.04, baseline 100 ± 2 mmHg at 1 week and 12 months. All subjects MAP decreased by 3 ± 2 mmHg (baseline 95 ± 2 mmHg at 12 months. Conclusions. VBLOC was safe in obese DM2 subjects and associated with meaningful weight loss, early and sustained improvements in HbA1c, and reductions in BP in hypertensive DM2 subjects. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00555958.

  8. Expression of activated Fc gamma RII discriminates between multiple granulocyte-priming phenotypes in peripheral blood of allergic asthmatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanters, Deon; ten Hove, Willem; Luijk, Bart; van Aalst, Corneli; Schweizer, René C; Lammers, Jan-Willem J; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Raaijmakers, Jan A M; Bracke, Madelon; Koenderman, Leo

    2007-11-01

    Allergic asthma is associated with chronic airway and systemic immune responses. Systemic responses include priming of peripheral blood eosinophils, which is enhanced after allergen challenge. In a subpopulation of asthmatic subjects, neutrophils are associated with bronchial inflammation. We sought to monitor systemic granulocyte priming in allergic asthmatic subjects as a consequence of chronic and acute inflammatory signals initiated by allergen challenge. Blood was taken at baseline and 6 to 24 hours after allergen challenge in asthmatic subjects with and without late asthmatic responses. Systemic granulocyte priming was studied by using expression of cellular markers, such as alpha-chain of Mac-1 (alpha m)/CD11b, L-selectin/CD62L, and an activation epitope present on Fc gamma RII/CD32 recognized by monoclonal phage antibody A17. Eosinophils of asthmatic subjects have a primed phenotype identified by cell-surface markers. Neutrophils of these patients were subtly primed, which was only identified after activation with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. After allergen challenge, an acute increase in eosinophil priming characterized by enhanced expression of activated Fc gamma RII was found in patients experiencing a late asthmatic response and not in patients with a single early asthmatic response. In contrast, expression of alpha m/CD11b and L-selectin on granulocytes was not different between control and asthmatic subjects and was not affected by allergen challenge. Interestingly, expression of both adhesion molecules was positively correlated, and alpha m expression on eosinophils and neutrophils correlated positively with bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Different phases, phenotypes, or both of allergic asthma are associated with distinct priming profiles of inflammatory cells in peripheral blood. Insight in differences of systemic innate responses will lead to better definition of asthma subtypes and to better designs of new therapeutic options.

  9. Wavelet coherence analysis of spontaneous oscillations in cerebral tissue oxyhemoglobin concentrations and arterial blood pressure in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ruofei; Zhang, Ming; Li, Zengyong; Xin, Qing; Lu, Liqian; Zhou, Weiei; Han, Qingyu; Gao, Yuanjin

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to assess the relationship between spontaneous oscillations in changes in cerebral tissue oxyhemoglobin concentrations (Delta [HbO2]) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) signals in healthy elderly subjects during the resting state using wavelet coherence analysis. Continuous recordings of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and ABP signals were obtained from simultaneous measurements in 33 healthy elderly subjects (age: 70.7±7.9 years) and 27 young subjects (age: 25.2±3.7 years) during the resting state. The coherence between Delta [HbO2] and ABP oscillations in six frequency intervals (I, 0.4-2 Hz; II, 0.15-0.4 Hz; III, 0.05-0.15 Hz; IV, 0.02-0.05 Hz, V, 0.005-0.0095 Hz and VI, 0.005-0.0095 Hz) was analyzed using wavelet coherence analysis. In elderly subjects, the Delta [HbO2] and ABP oscillations were significantly wavelet coherent in interval I, and wavelet phase coherent in intervals I, II and IV. The wavelet coherence in interval I was significantly higher (p=0.040), in elderly subjects than in young subjects whereas that in interval V significantly lower (p=0.015). In addition, the wavelet phase coherence in interval IV was significantly higher in elderly subjects than in young subjects (p=0.028). The difference in the wavelet coherence of the elderly subjects and the young subjects indicates an altered cerebral autoregulation caused by aging. This study provides new insight into the dynamics of Delta [HbO2] and ABP oscillations and may be useful in identifying the risk for dynamic cerebral autoregulation processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular Detection of Dirofilaria immitis Specific Gene from Infected Dog Blood Sample Using Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    OH, In Young; KIM, Kyung Tae; SUNG, Ho Joong

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dirofilaria immitis, a filarial nematode, is the most important parasite-affecting dogs, causing cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis. Current diagnostic tools for detecting D. immitis include morphological assays, antigen detection, and X-ray. Herein, we developed a method for the molecular detection of D. immitis in blood using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methods: The study was conducted at Eulji University, Republic of Korea in 2016. To detect D. immitis-specific gene regions, we aligned the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) genes of seven filarial nematodes and designed primers targeting the unique region. We used dog glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)-targeted primers as the internal control. We conducted PCR-amplified genomic DNA from canine blood samples. The products were confirmed by sequencing. Results: Gene alignment revealed a D. immitis COI-specific gene region, and the activity of designed primers was confirmed by PCR and sequencing. Plasmid DNA made from the PCR products was a positive control. The limit of detection for our method was 50 copies. The D. immitis COI and dog GAPDH genes could be discriminated from blood samples simultaneously. Conclusion: This study provides a method for highly specific and sensitive molecular diagnosis of D. immitis used as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool from the early stage of infection. PMID:28979354

  11. Molecular Detection of Dirofilaria immitis Specific Gene from Infected Dog Blood Sample Using Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Young OH

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dirofilaria immitis, a filarial nematode, is the most important parasite-affecting dogs, causing cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis. Current diagnostic tools for detecting D. immitis include morphological assays, antigen detection, and X-ray. Herein, we developed a method for the molecular detection of D. immitis in blood using polymerase chain reaction (PCR.Methods: The study was conducted at Eulji University, Republic of Korea in 2016. To detect D. immitis-specific gene regions, we aligned the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI genes of seven filarial nematodes and designed primers targeting the unique region. We used dog glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH-targeted primers as the internal control. We conducted PCR-amplified genomic DNA from canine blood samples. The products were confirmed by sequencing.Results: Gene alignment revealed a D. immitis COI-specific gene region, and the activity of designed primers was confirmed by PCR and sequencing. Plasmid DNA made from the PCR products was a positive control. The limit of detection for our method was 50 copies. The D. immitis COI and dog GAPDH genes could be discriminated from blood samples simultaneously.Conclusion: This study provides a method for highly specific and sensitive molecular diagnosis of D. immitis used as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool from the early stage of infection.

  12. Molecular Detection of Dirofilaria immitis Specific Gene from Infected Dog Blood Sample Using Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, In Young; Kim, Kyung Tae; Sung, Ho Joong

    2017-01-01

    Dirofilaria immitis, a filarial nematode, is the most important parasite-affecting dogs, causing cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis. Current diagnostic tools for detecting D. immitis include morphological assays, antigen detection, and X-ray. Herein, we developed a method for the molecular detection of D. immitis in blood using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The study was conducted at Eulji University, Republic of Korea in 2016. To detect D. immitis-specific gene regions, we aligned the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) genes of seven filarial nematodes and designed primers targeting the unique region. We used dog glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)-targeted primers as the internal control. We conducted PCR-amplified genomic DNA from canine blood samples. The products were confirmed by sequencing. Gene alignment revealed a D. immitis COI-specific gene region, and the activity of designed primers was confirmed by PCR and sequencing. Plasmid DNA made from the PCR products was a positive control. The limit of detection for our method was 50 copies. The D. immitis COI and dog GAPDH genes could be discriminated from blood samples simultaneously. This study provides a method for highly specific and sensitive molecular diagnosis of D. immitis used as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool from the early stage of infection.

  13. Evaluation of a novel dried blood spot collection device (HemaSpot™) to test blood samples collected from dogs for antibodies to Leishmania infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Pick, Leanne D; Hernandez, Jaime O Esquivel; Lindsay, David S

    2014-09-15

    Collection of blood samples from veterinary and wildlife patients is often challenging because the samples have to be collected on farm or in the wild under various environmental conditions. This poses many technical problems associated with venipuncture materials, their safe use and disposal, transportation and processing of collected samples. Dried blood spot (DBS) sample collection techniques offer a simple and practical alternative to traditional blood collection methods to obtain blood samples from animals for parasite antibody evaluation. The DBS collection devices are compact, simple to use, and are particularly useful for large number of samples. Additionally, DBS samples take up less space and they are easier to transport than traditional venipuncture-collected blood samples. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a potentially fatal parasitic disease of dogs and humans and it is frequently diagnosed by antibody tests. Immunochromatographic tests (ICT) for antibodies to Leishmania infantum are commercially available for dogs and they produce qualitative results in minutes. Measurement of canine antibodies to L. infantum with the ICT using traditional venipuncture has been validated previously, but the use of DBS samples has not been evaluated using this method. The purpose of the present study was to determine the ability of DBS samples to detect antibodies to L. infantum in dogs using a commercial ICT assay. One hundred plasma samples from dogs experimentally infected with the LIVT-1 strain of L. infantum were collected by venipuncture and frozen. Individual samples were thawed, and then 80 μl plasma (2 drops) was aliquotted onto the 8-spoked disk pad on individual DBS sample collection devices (HemaSpot™, Spot-On Sciences, Austin, TX), dried, and stored in the dark at room temperature. After one month and six months, respectively, 2 spokes of the 8 spokes of the disk pad of each DBS sample were removed and eluted in 200 μl PBS. The eluate was used to test

  14. Blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in healthy, untrained subjects: effects of different exercise intensities controlled by individual anaerobic threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Kathleen; Hilberg, Thomas

    2011-02-01

    The influence of different exercise intensities on haemostasis in healthy, untrained subjects has not been intensively studied. We investigated untrained subjects for alterations in coagulation and fibrinolysis induced by two exercise intensities, precisely controlled by individual anaerobic threshold (IAT). Twenty-five healthy, untrained non-smokers (age 25 ± 3 years; relative VO(2) peak 43.1 ± 5.2 ml/kg/min) underwent exercise tests at 80% (moderate) and 100% (strenuous) of IAT for 60 min. Blood samples were taken after 30 min rest and immediately after exercise. The present results reveal that an exercise intensity at 100% IAT induces a more pronounced coagulation activity than exercises at 80% IAT. 100% IAT led to a significant higher increase in FVIII (80% IAT 85 ± 33 to 114 ± 30% vs. 100% IAT 81 ± 20 to 132 ± 29%) and TAT (80% IAT 2.5 ± 1.4 to 2.9 ± 1.0 μg/l vs. 100% IAT 2.6 ± 1.0 to 5.4 ± 4.2 μg/l). Furthermore, both exercises affected fibrinolysis, but it was significantly higher at 100% IAT (tPA activity; 80% IAT 0.44 ± 0.17 to 4.65 ± 2.67 U/ml vs. 100% IAT 0.43 ± 0.19 to 6.47 ± 3.97 U/ml). The data show that fibrinolytic activity is significantly elevated already after moderate exercise (80% IAT). After strenuous exercise (100% IAT), coagulation is more sharply enhanced together with a higher increase of fibrinolysis in comparison with 80% IAT. However, haemostasis seems to be in balance after moderate as well as after strenuous exercise intensity in healthy, untrained participants. Based on these data, exercise-induced changes of both haemostatic systems should also be tested in patients with cardiovascular diseases in order to be in a position to give recommendations for endurance training modalities in rehabilitation training.

  15. Application of Atomic Dielectric Resonance Spectroscopy for the screening of blood samples from patients with clinical variant and sporadic CJD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagge, Timothy J; Barclay, G Robin; Stove, G Colin; Stove, Gordon; Robinson, Michael J; Head, Mark W; Ironside, James W; Turner, Marc L

    2007-08-30

    Sub-clinical variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) infection and reports of vCJD transmission through blood transfusion emphasise the need for blood screening assays to ensure the safety of blood and transplanted tissues. Most assays aim to detect abnormal prion protein (PrPSc), although achieving required sensitivity is a challenge. We have used innovative Atomic Dielectric Resonance Spectroscopy (ADRS), which determines dielectric properties of materials which are established by reflectivity and penetration of radio/micro waves, to analyse blood samples from patients and controls to identify characteristic ADR signatures unique to blood from vCJD and to sCJD patients. Initial sets of blood samples from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases and normal healthy adults (blood donors) were screened as training samples to determine group-specific ADR characteristics, and provided a basis for classification of blinded sets of samples. Blood sample groups from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases and normal healthy adults (blood donors) screened by ADRS were classified with 100% specificity and sensitivity, discriminating these by a co-variance expert analysis system. ADRS appears capable of recognising and discriminating serum samples from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases, and normal healthy adults, and might be developed to provide a system for primary screening or confirmatory assay complementary to other screening systems.

  16. Application of Atomic Dielectric Resonance Spectroscopy for the screening of blood samples from patients with clinical variant and sporadic CJD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ironside James W

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-clinical variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD infection and reports of vCJD transmission through blood transfusion emphasise the need for blood screening assays to ensure the safety of blood and transplanted tissues. Most assays aim to detect abnormal prion protein (PrPSc, although achieving required sensitivity is a challenge. Methods We have used innovative Atomic Dielectric Resonance Spectroscopy (ADRS, which determines dielectric properties of materials which are established by reflectivity and penetration of radio/micro waves, to analyse blood samples from patients and controls to identify characteristic ADR signatures unique to blood from vCJD and to sCJD patients. Initial sets of blood samples from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases and normal healthy adults (blood donors were screened as training samples to determine group-specific ADR characteristics, and provided a basis for classification of blinded sets of samples. Results Blood sample groups from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases and normal healthy adults (blood donors screened by ADRS were classified with 100% specificity and sensitivity, discriminating these by a co-variance expert analysis system. Conclusion ADRS appears capable of recognising and discriminating serum samples from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases, and normal healthy adults, and might be developed to provide a system for primary screening or confirmatory assay complementary to other screening systems.

  17. First Molecular Identification of Dirofilaria repens in a Dog Blood Sample from Guanajuato, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Lopez, Sandra; León-Galván, Ma Fabiola; Salas-Alatorre, Mariana; Lechuga-Arana, Alma A; Valencia-Posadas, Mauricio; Gutiérrez-Chávez, Abner J

    2016-11-01

    Dirofilaria repens is the causative zoonotic agent of subcutaneous dirofilariosis. Although the American continent is considered currently free of D. repens infections, in the past few years there have been some reports suggesting the presence of this agent in the Americas. In Guanajuato, Mexico, there is a report of the presence of D. repens. To determine whether this parasite is really present in Guanajuato, a total of 177 EDTA blood samples from dogs were tested using the modified Knott's technique. Using this technique, we found 15 positive samples, which were then analyzed using the PCR technique, with a panfilarial set of primers and a specific primer pair for D. repens. In one sample, the expected band was present and the corresponding amplicon, sequenced, displayed a 100% identity to D. repens, confirming the presence of this exotic and zoonotic filarial species in the municipality of Silao, Guanajuato, Mexico.

  18. Leakage of Oxygen from Blood and Water Samples Stored in Plastic and Glass Syringes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Peter V.; Horton, J. N.; Mapleson, W. W.

    1971-01-01

    Theory and experiment showed that samples of blood and water stored in 2-ml and 5-ml syringes made of polypropylene, polystyrene, or S.A.N. co-polymer exchanged oxygen with their surroundings. In the first hour the exchange was due mainly to equilibration with the plastic of the syringe and only in small degree to permeation through the plastic. With high initial tension or with blood of low haemoglobin concentration the exchange can result in errors in Po2 of up to 6% in two minutes and 16% in 30 to 60 minutes. With all-glass syringes the exchange was much slower but, even so, after 24 hours was important in all but a few of 18 interchangeable glass syringes. Therefore unless analysis can be started immediately all-glass syringes are to be preferred, and for prolonged storage even these should be selected. PMID:5565518

  19. A Lumped-Parameter Subject-Specific Model of Blood Volume Response to Fluid Infusion

    OpenAIRE

    Ramin Bighamian; Andrew Reisner; Jin-Oh Hahn

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a lumped-parameter model that can reproduce blood volume response to fluid infusion. The model represents the fluid shift between the intravascular and interstitial compartments as the output of a hypothetical feedback controller that regulates the ratio between the volume changes in the intravascular and interstitial fluid at a target value (called target volume ratio). The model is characterized by only three parameters: the target volume ratio, feedback gain (specifyi...

  20. Effect of a Modest Weight Loss in Normalizing Blood Pressure in Obese Subjects on Antihypertensive Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardini, Luisa; Redaelli, Gabriella; Croci, Marina; Conti, Antonio; Pasqualinotto, Lucia; Invitti, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effect of a lifestyle intervention in lowering/normalizing blood pressure (BP) levels in hypertensive (controlled or not) obese patients. In this prospective observational study, 490 obese hypertensive patients, 389 controlled (BP normalized BP levels (in 49% after a weight loss normalize BP levels avoiding the aggressive use of multiple antihypertensive drugs. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  1. The phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor sildenafil has no effect on cerebral blood flow or blood velocity, but nevertheless induces headache in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruuse, Christina; Thomsen, Lars Lykke; Jacobsen, Torsten Bjørn

    2002-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotides are important hemodynamic regulators in many tissues. Glyceryl trinitrate markedly dilates large cerebral arteries and increases cGMP. Here, the authors study the effect of sildenafil, a selective inhibitor of cGMP-hydrolyzing phosphodiesterase 5 on cerebral hemodynamics...... and headache induction. Ten healthy subjects were included in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study where placebo or sildenafil 100 mg (highest therapeutic dose) were administered on two separate days. Blood velocity in the middle cerebral artery (Vmca) was recorded by transcranial Doppler...

  2. Evaluation of Chromosomal Disorders in Tissue and Blood Samples in Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Parvaneroo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Many studies have indicated that genetic disturbances are common findings in patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC. Identification of these changes can be helpful in diagnostic procedures of these tumors.Purpose: The aim of this study was to appraise the chromosomal disorders in blood and tissue patients with OSCC.Methods and Materials: In this descriptive study, the study group consisted of all OSCC patients who were referred to the Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic of Shariati Hospital, and Amir Aalam Hospital fromSeptember 2000 to November 2002. In order to study chromosomal disorders in the peripheral blood lymphocytes, 5 mL of blood was obtained from each patient In patients with the large lesion, a piece of involved tissue were obtained and cultured for 24 hours.This led to 29 blood samples and 16 tissue specimens and any relation between OSCC and age, sex, smoking and alcohol use were evaluated.Results: In this study, OSCC was more common in males than in females (3 to 5. 31% of our patients were smokers, and one had a history of alcoholic consumption. There was an increase in incidence of OSCC with age. In this study, all patients had numerical(aneuploidy, polyploidy and structural chromosomal disorders (double minute, fragment,breakage and dicentric. There was significant difference between blood and tissue chromosomal disorders (aneuploidy, polyploidy,breakage in OSCC patients.Conclusion: It can be concluded that chromosomes in patients with OSCC might show some genetic aberration and evaluation of involved tissue might be better way for determining this disorders.

  3. Semen quality and reproductive endocrine function with regard to blood cadmium in Croatian male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurasović, Jasna; Cvitković, Petar; Pizent, Alica; Colak, Bozo; Telisman, Spomenka

    2004-12-01

    In 123 Croatian men with no occupational exposure to metals, the influence of cadmium on reproductive parameters was examined after adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol, and biomarkers of lead, copper, zinc, and selenium. The following variables were measured: blood cadmium (BCd), blood lead (BPb), activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), erythrocyte protoporphyrin, serum copper (SCu), serum zinc (SZn), serum selenium (SSe), activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in blood, testis size, semen quality (including sperm concentration, motility, viability, and morphology), indicators in seminal fluid (the lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme LDH-C4, fructose, zinc, acid phosphatase, and citric acid), and hormones in serum (follicle-stimulating hormone--FSH, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, testosterone, and estradiol). The median and range BCd values were 2.94 (0.49-11.93) microg/L in 61 smokers and 0.59 (0.20-3.71) microg/L in 62 nonsmokers (p metals, and other potential confounders when assessing the influence of a particular metal on reproductive function in men, is emphasized.

  4. The effect of foot overpronation on Achilles tendon blood supply in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karzis, K; Kalogeris, M; Mandalidis, D; Geladas, N; Karteroliotis, K; Athanasopoulos, S

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Achilles tendon blood flow in individuals with overpronated feet during non-weight- and weight-bearing positions. Achilles tendon blood flow was measured by means of the pulsatility index (PI) and the resistance index (RI) in 15 male individuals with overpronated feet and 15 counterparts with normal feet, using power Doppler ultrasonography (PDI). Achilles tendon ultrasonographic (US) assessment was performed at its musculo-tendinous junction (MTJ), mid-tendon (MT), and osseotendinous junction (OTJ) at a non-weight-bearing relaxed position (RP) and during two-leg stance (TLS) and one-leg upright stance (OLS). PI and RI indices were significantly greater in individuals with overpronated feet compared to individuals with normal feet at the OTJ in OLS position (P < 0.01), and at MT in both TLS (P < 0.001) and OLS positions (P < 0.001). All individuals demonstrated also greater PI and RI indices at MT followed by the OTJ and MTJ in all positions (P < 0.001), and in OLS compared to TLS and the RP at the OTJ (P < 0.01) as well as at MT and MTJ (P < 0.001). The findings of the present study suggest that foot overpronation may affect Achilles tendon blood flow, particularly at mid-tendon, thus enhancing the possibility for injury. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Comparison of the image-derived radioactivity and blood-sample radioactivity for estimating the clinical indicators of the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT): 4-borono-2-18F-fluoro-phenylalanine (FBPA) PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isohashi, Kayako; Shimosegawa, Eku; Naka, Sadahiro; Kanai, Yasukazu; Horitsugi, Genki; Mochida, Ikuko; Matsunaga, Keiko; Watabe, Tadashi; Kato, Hiroki; Tatsumi, Mitsuaki; Hatazawa, Jun

    2016-12-01

    In boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), positron emission tomography (PET) with 4-borono-2-18F-fluoro-phenylalanine (FBPA) is the only method to estimate an accumulation of 10B to target tumor and surrounding normal tissue after administering 10B carrier of L-paraboronophenylalanine and to search the indication of BNCT for individual patient. Absolute concentration of 10B in tumor has been estimated by multiplying 10B concentration in blood during BNCT by tumor to blood radioactivity (T/B) ratio derived from FBPA PET. However, the method to measure blood radioactivity either by blood sampling or image data has not been standardized. We compared image-derived blood radioactivity of FBPA with blood sampling data and studied appropriate timing and location for measuring image-derived blood counts. We obtained 7 repeated whole-body PET scans in five healthy subjects. Arterialized venous blood samples were obtained from the antecubital vein, heated in a heating blanket. Time-activity curves (TACs) of image-derived blood radioactivity were obtained using volumes of interest (VOIs) over ascending aorta, aortic arch, pulmonary artery, left and right ventricles, inferior vena cava, and abdominal aorta. Image-derived blood radioactivity was compared with those measured by blood sampling data in each location. Both the TACs of blood sampling radioactivity in each subject, and the TACs of image-derived blood radioactivity showed a peak within 5 min after the tracer injection, and promptly decreased soon thereafter. Linear relationship was found between blood sampling radioactivity and image-derived blood radioactivity in all the VOIs at any timing of data sampling (p < 0.001). Image-derived radioactivity measured in the left and right ventricles 30 min after injection showed high correlation with blood radioactivity. Image-derived blood radioactivity was lower than blood sampling radioactivity data by 20 %. Reduction of blood radioactivity of FBPA in left ventricle

  6. Capillary compared to venous blood sampling in clozapine treatment: patients׳ and healthcare practitioners׳ experiences with a point-of-care device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogers, Jan P A M; Bui, Hong; Herruer, Martien; Cohen, Dan

    2015-03-01

    Underuse of the antipsychotic clozapine for schizophrenia is an impediment to improving outcomes for patients. Because of its possible severe side effects, including granulocytopenia or even agranulocytosis, clozapine treatment entails regular WBC monitoring, which can be a major drawback for patients and practitioners. The HemoCue WBC DIFF system is a point-of-care device using capillary blood sampling which provides WBC counts with differentials, including granulocytes. We investigated if capillary sampling instead of conventional venous sampling might diminish the burden for patients and practitioners and motivate them to continue clozapine treatment. A randomized cross-over trial design was used to compare the two sampling methods. Patients׳ subjective experiences of various aspects of blood sampling were rated on a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS). Patients and practitioners were also asked if they had any preference for venous or capillary sampling and patients were asked if the sampling method influenced their motivation to continue clozapine treatment. Seventy-three patients were included in this study. Three dropped out before completion. The VAS ratings on all five aspects and the total burden experienced showed a consistent pattern favouring capillary blood sampling (psampling at a laboratory and practitioners also preferred it. Using this method might therefore boost clozapine prescription rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  7. Morphological and biochemical indicators of blood of rats poisoned by carbon tetrachloride and subject to action of liposomal preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gutyj

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the results of the research on the influence of a developed complex liposomal preparation on the dynamics of morphological and biochemical indicators of the blood of rats subjected to modeled oxidative stress caused by intermuscular injection of 50% carbon tetrachloride at a dose of 0.25 ml per 100 g of body mass. We found that in conditions of intoxication by carbon tetrachloride, the physiological level of hematological indicators of the researched animals’ body was disrupted. This is indicated by the reduction in the amount of erythrocytes, hemoglobin content, concentration of hemoglobin per erythrocyte, increase in the amount of leucocytes, mass of hemoglobin per erythrocyte and increase of colour indicator. Also, we detected suppression of protein synthesis function of the liver. The levels of total protein and albumin fraction were below the normal physiological level. High indicators were observed in the levels of creatinine, urea and total bilirubin. In order to normalize the functional state of the liver under oxidative stress it is reasonable to use a liposomal preparation which contains butafosfan, interferon, thistle and vitamins. In order to normalize morphological and biochemical indicators of the blood of rats subject to intoxication of carbon tetrachloride it is reasonable to use a liposomal preparation that contains butafosfan, selenium, thistle, methionine and vitamins. Using the liposomal preparation Butaselmevit for rats under oxidative stress the morphological and biochemical indicators in the blood normalized. On the 14th day the indictors of the number of erythrocytes, the hemoglobin content, the white blood cell count and red blood indexes compared to control came within the physiological indicators, indicating a recovery of hematopoietic function of the bone marrow and normalized indicators of the functional state of the liver.

  8. Influence of Blood Pressure and Other Clinical Variables on Long-Term Mortality in a Cohort of Elderly Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Daniel M; Meneilly, Graydon S; Moleski, Luc; Trottier, Lise; Lanthier, Luc

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus and high blood pressure (HBP) are commonly associated conditions in the elderly population. An effect of treatments, biologic and anthropometric variables on long-term mortality is unknown in this population. To determine the prevalence of HBP control in a sample of elderly patients with type 2 diabetes with office blood pressure (BP) readings and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and evaluate the influence of BP, anthropometric and laboratory variables on long term mortality. Cohort study in patients living at home in the area of Sherbrooke, ≥65 years old, receiving reimbursement for antidiabetic medication. The study included medical history, 2 sets of BP measurements, 2 24-hour urinary collections for microalbuminuria, 1 24-hour ABPM, blood level of creatinine and glycosylated hemoglobin. Charts were reanalyzed 8 years later for analysis of cardiovascular and total mortality cases. 198 patients were initially recruited. By history, 83% of the subjects had diagnoses and treatments for high blood pressure. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with an 8-year increased risk for cardiovascular mortality were creatinine ≥84 µmol/L, office seated systolic blood pressure ≤130 and diastolic BP ≤67.6 over 24 hours. Factors associated with total mortality were lower waist circumference, serum creatinine ≥84 and diastolic BP ≤67.6 over 24 hours. Lower systolic and diastolic BP (office and ABPM), lower waist circumference and higher creatinine values are associated with an increased mortality risk. This suggests that a lower BP, declining kidney function and frailty are factors associated with this observation. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Serological Status of Rubella Virus in Cord Blood Samples of Newborn in Hospitals Affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Monavari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Rubella is a disease caused by the rubella virus and is usually mild and self-limiting. Infection of a developing fetus is serious and important because the child may be born with congenital rubella syndrome. Its symptoms include mental retardation, heart defects, cataract, etc. In 2003, mass vaccination against measles and rubella in individuals 5-25 years old was done. One of the main objectives of this study was to survey congenital rubella infection status with the presence of IgM antibodies against rubella virus in cord blood samples and also the immunity assessment of maternal IgG antibodies against rubella virus in the samples.Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study 358 cord blood samples were collected in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2008-2009. The collected samples were analyzed by two ELISA methods for detection of IgG and IgM antibodies and RT-nested PCR tests on samples of IgG–negative and IgM-positive. In this study two groups of mothers were tested, one consisted of the ones29 with the frequency of 29.1%.Results: The mean age of subjects was 22.6 years old. Out of 358 samples, 326 (91.1% were IgG positive, and 10 (2.8% were IgM positive against rubella virus. All of the samples with negative result for IgG antibody, and positive result for IgM antibody against rubella virus were tested for the presence of rubella genome with RT-nested PCR method. None of these samples were positive according to the presence of the virus genome.Conclusion: According to the high immunity of mothers, the probability of congenital rubella transmission is low, but because of low immunity of mothers being >29 years old, it is highly reccommended to upgrade the age of vaccination to 28.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(1:16-21

  10. [Characteristic of sample banks isolated from EDTA-blood by sedimentation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-bin; Lin, Qin; Ma, Chang-hua; Liu, Kai-ning; Meng, Huan-xin

    2014-02-18

    To assess the characteristics of establishing the different sample banks of plasma, leukocytes and DNA by sedimentation method of isolating from ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid(EDTA)-blood and to clarify the sedimentation method of leukocyte isolation and plasma volume by comparative data and recommended procedures for applicability. In the study, 29 EDTA-bloods were obtained, the total amounts of leukocytes and the percentage of neutrophile granulocytes, and lymphocytes in the EDTA-blood detected as a control group and then assigned equally into 4 EP tubes with 1 mL EDTA-blood per tube as 4 test groups, then the 4 tubes were placed with the EDTA-blood at room temperature and the plasma layers were isolated at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 h, receptively. The total amount of leukocytes and the percentage of neutrophile granulocytes, and lymphocytes were detected by automated hematology analyzer at the clinical laboratory. The volume of the plasma was also measured at the same time. The plasma volume at 0.5 h [(241.72 ± 101.52)μL] was substantially lower than those at 1 h[(317.24 ± 97.50)μL], at 2 h[(371.03 ± 91.66)μL], and at 3 h [(408.97 ± 97.43)μL] , P 0.05. The total amount of leukocytes in the plasma layer in 1 h group was substantially higher than that in 2 h and 3 h groups (P 0.05). The total amount of leukocytes in the plasma layer of the 4 test groups was substantially lower than that in the control group (P 0.05). The mean percentage of lymphocytes in the plasma layer in 0.5 h group (35.09% ± 10.84%) was substantially lower than those in the plasma layer in 1 h, 2 h and 3 h groups, respectively ( 41.48% ± 12.20%, 47.96% ± 12.27%, 45.50% ± 13.71%), which was significant higher than that in the control group(30.98% ± 7.33%), P 0.05). The best period of time in obtaining leukocytes is 0.5-1 h sedimentation of EDTA-blood. Both the plasma layer and leukocytes can be separated and obtained at the same time from the same sample by the sedimentation method of

  11. Capillary blood sampling: national recommendations on behalf of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krleza, Jasna Lenicek; Dorotic, Adrijana; Grzunov, Ana; Maradin, Miljenka

    2015-01-01

    Capillary blood sampling is a medical procedure aimed at assisting in patient diagnosis, management and treatment, and is increasingly used worldwide, in part because of the increasing availability of point-of-care testing. It is also frequently used to obtain small blood volumes for laboratory testing because it minimizes pain. The capillary blood sampling procedure can influence the quality of the sample as well as the accuracy of test results, highlighting the need for immediate, widespread standardization. A recent nationwide survey of policies and practices related to capillary blood sampling in medical laboratories in Croatia has shown that capillary sampling procedures are not standardized and that only a small proportion of Croatian laboratories comply with guidelines from the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) or the World Health Organization (WHO). The aim of this document is to provide recommendations for capillary blood sampling. This document has been produced by the Working Group for Capillary Blood Sampling within the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine. Our recommendations are based on existing available standards and recommendations (WHO Best Practices in Phlebotomy, CLSI GP42-A6 and CLSI C46-A2), which have been modified based on local logistical, cultural, legal and regulatory requirements. We hope that these recommendations will be a useful contribution to the standardization of capillary blood sampling in Croatia.

  12. Blood cell gene expression profiling in subjects with aggressive periodontitis and chronic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars K; Poulsen, Anne Havemose; Sønder, Søren U

    2008-01-01

    with untreated localized aggressive periodontitis (LAgP) or generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP). Differentially expressed genes were validated in groups of subjects with LAgP, GAgP, juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and controls. METHODS: Candidate genes were identified...

  13. Validation of a non-invasive blood-sampling technique for doubly-labelled water experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Christian C; Helversen, Otto Von; Michener, Robert H; Kunz, Thomas H

    2003-04-01

    Two techniques for bleeding small mammals have been used in doubly-labeled water (DLW) studies, including vena puncture and the use of starved nymphal stages of hematophagous reduviid bugs (Reduviidae, Hemiptera). In this study, we tested the validity of using reduviid bugs in doubly-labeled water experiments. We found that the isotope enrichment in initial blood samples collected with bugs was significantly lower compared to isotope enrichment in blood samples obtained using vena puncture. We therefore used the desiccation method for estimating total body water (TBW) in DLW experiments because TBW calculated using the isotope dilution method was overestimated when blood samples were collected using reduviid bugs. In our validation experiment with nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina), we compared estimates of daily energy expenditure (DEE) using DLW with those derived from the energy balance method. We considered Speakman's equation (controlling for 25% fractionated water loss) as the most appropriate for our study animal and calculated DEE accordingly. On average, DEE estimated with DLW was not significantly different from the mean value obtained with the energy balance method (mean deviation 1.2%). We conclude that although bug hemolymph or intestinal liquids most likely contaminate the samples, estimates of DEE are still valid because the DLW method does not depend on absolute isotope enrichments but on the rate of isotope decrease over time. However, dilution of blood with intestinal liquids or hemolymph from a bug may lead to larger variation in DEE estimates. We also tested how the relative error of DLW estimates changed with varying assumptions about fractionation. We used three additional equations for calculating DEE in DLW experiments. The basic equation for DLW experiments published by Lifson and McClintock (LM-6) assumes no fractionation, resulted in an overestimate of DEE by 10%. Nagy's equation (N-2) controls for changes in body mass but not for

  14. Heel blood sampling in European neonatal intensive care units: compliance with pain management guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Losacco, Valentina; Cuttini, Marina; Greisen, Gorm

    2011-01-01

    of heel blood sampling and associated procedures (oral sweet solutions, non-nutritive sucking, swaddling or positioning, topical anaesthetics and heel warming) were collected through a structured mail questionnaire. 284 NICUs (78% response rate) participated, but only 175 with >/=50 very low birth weight...... and France were the most likely, and Belgium and Spain the least likely to employ recommended combinations of evidence-based pain management measures. Conclusions Heel puncture is a common procedure in preterm neonates, but pain appears inadequately treated in many units and countries. Better compliance...

  15. Weekday variation in triglyceride concentrations in 1.8 million blood samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaskolowski, Jörn; Ritz, Christian; Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Triglyceride (TG) concentration is used as a marker of cardio-metabolic risk. However, diurnal and possibly weekday variation exists in TG concentrations. OBJECTIVE: To investigate weekday variation in TG concentrations among 1.8 million blood samples drawn between 2008 and 2015 from...... variations in TG concentrations were recorded for out-patients between the age of 9 to 26 years, with up to 20% higher values on Mondays compared to Fridays (all PTriglyceride concentrations were highest after the weekend and gradually declined during the week. We suggest that unhealthy...

  16. Subjective Memory in a National Sample: Predicting Psychological Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogle, Jacqueline A; Hill, Nikki; McDermott, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Individual perception of memory performance (i.e., subjective memory) is assessed using a variety of approaches. This article focuses on 2 such approaches: (1) self-comparison assessments that attempt to capture changes in memory ability over a period of time and (2) age-anchored comparisons that assess how an individual perceives their memory in relation to others their age. These different types of assessment may relate to psychological well-being differently due to the underlying mechanisms of assessment. The purpose of these analyses is to examine 2 measures of subjective memory (i.e., a self-comparison measure and an age-anchored comparison measure) as predictors of psychological well-being among adults in mid- and late life. Participants (n = 3,434) in the Midlife in the United States Study completed measures of subjective memory, depressive affect, and life satisfaction. Structural equation modeling was used to examine whether the self-comparison and age-anchored comparison measures had differential predictive utility regarding psychological well-being. Higher age-anchored comparison ratings were related to higher life satisfaction scores. There was a significant interaction between the 2 items such that individuals with lower ratings on both subjective memory measures had the poorest outcomes. Additionally, age-anchored comparisons interacted with age: older adults had the poorest outcomes when they reported poorer age-anchored comparisons. These findings highlight the importance of precise measurement in the consideration of subjective memory. How an individual was asked to rate his or her perception of memory influenced the relationships between subjective memory and psychological well-being. This study contributes valuable insight into the importance of the assessment models of subjective memory. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Effect on blood lipids of two daily servings of Camembert cheese. An intervention trial in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlienger, Jean-Louis; Paillard, Francois; Lecerf, Jean-Michel; Romon, Monique; Bonhomme, Cécile; Schmitt, Bernard; Donazzolo, Yves; Defoort, Catherine; Mallmann, Cécilia; Le Ruyet, Pascale; Bresson, Jean-Louis

    2014-12-01

    As a concentrated source of saturated fat, cheese consumption is considered to be associated with increased cholesterolemia and generally forbidden in dietary guidelines for adults with hypercholesterolemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of saturated fatty acids on lipid parameters and blood pressure with regards to different types of dairy products: Camembert and full-fat yoghurt. One-hundred and fifty-nine moderate hypercholesterolemic subjects without treatment were instructed to consume two full-fat yoghurts (2 × 125 g) per day for 3 weeks (run-in period) and then for a further period of 5 weeks, either two full-fat yoghurts or two 30 g servings of Camembert cheese per day. We observed that over the 5-week daily consumption of two servings of Camembert cheese, blood pressure and serum lipids did not change in moderate hypercholesterolemic subjects. These results suggest that fermented cheese such as Camembert could be consumed daily without affecting serum lipids or blood pressure.

  18. Effect of commercial rye whole-meal bread on postprandial blood glucose and gastric emptying in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwich Gassan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intake of dietary fibre has been shown to reduce the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of commercial rye whole-meal bread containing whole kernels and white wheat bread on the rate of gastric emptying and postprandial glucose response in healthy subjects. Methods Ten healthy subjects took part in a blinded crossover trial. Blood glucose level and gastric emptying rate (GER were determined after the ingestion of 150 g white wheat bread or 150 g whole-meal rye bread on two different occasions after fasting overnight. The GER was measured using real-time ultrasonography, and was calculated as the percentage change in antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after completing the meal. Results No statistically significant difference was found between the GER values or the blood glucose levels following the two meals when evaluated with the Wilcoxon signed rank sum test. Conclusion The present study revealed no difference in postprandial blood glucose response or gastric emptying after the ingestion of rye whole-meal bread compared with white wheat bread. Trial registration NCT00779298

  19. Radioimmunoassay of ''free thyroxin'' in dried blood spots on filter paper - preliminary observations on the effective differentiation of subjects with congenital hypothyroidism from those with subnormal thyroxin-binding globulin and normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuta, H.; Miyai, K.; Ichihara, K.; Amino, N.; Harada, T.; Nose, O.; Tanizawa, O.

    1982-03-01

    In this sensitive, simple method for measuring ''free thyroxin'' (FT/sub 4/) in eluates of dried blood spots on filter paper by use of a radioimmunoassay kit (Amerlex Free T/sub 4/ RIA), the measurable range of FT/sub 4/ is 1.8 to 57 ng/L (equivalent to the concentration in serum), or 7 to 237 fg/tube. The mean coefficients of variation for within assay-within spots, within assay-between spots, and between assays were 5.3%, 5.0%, and 6.2%, respectively. FT/sub 4/ in blood spotted on filter paper is stable for at least a month when dried and kept at either -20/sup 0/C, 4/sup 0/C, room temperature (about 25/sup 0/C), or 37/sup 0/C. The results for FT/sub 4/ in dried blood spots correlated closely with the free-T/sub 4/ concentration in serum (r = 0.99). The method can be used to differentiate cases of primary and secondary hypothyroidism from normal subjects and those with subnormal thyroxin-binding globulin. This method may be useful in screening for congenital hypothyroidism, because sample-retesting is not necessary.

  20. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organs and show how well treatments are working. Problems with your blood may include bleeding disorders, excessive clotting and platelet disorders. If you lose too much blood, you may need a transfusion. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  1. The subjective experience of trauma and subsequent PTSD in a sample of undocumented immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Andrew; Rosenfeld, Barry; Reeves, Kim; Keller, Allen S

    2007-02-01

    Although a subjective component of trauma is commonly recognized in diagnosing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there are few studies that specifically address Criterion A2, and none addressing this issue among undocumented immigrants. We assessed 212 arriving undocumented immigrants with diverse trauma histories to investigate concordance between objective and subjective factors of trauma (Criteria A1 and A2) and across different types of trauma and PTSD. Concordance between Criteria A1 and A2 varied, with highest rates found for political violence. Interpersonal violence in general was associated with higher rates of PTSD. We identified a dose-response effect for PTSD, but this was not dependent on other events (i.e., other doses) meeting Criterion A2. Discussion focuses on Criterion A within the phenomenology of PTSD and the need to gauge subjective interpretations of trauma events among this population.

  2. One-year prospective replication study of an untreated sample of community dysthymia subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, J P; McCune, K J; Kaye, A L; Braith, J A; Friend, R; Roberts, W C; Belyea-Caldwell, S; Norris, S L; Hampton, C

    1994-07-01

    This study replicates an earlier naturalistic-prospective investigation of nontreatment, community DSM-III-R dysthymia subjects. Major goals were to determine spontaneous remission rates and monitor the stability of psychosocial functioning levels over time. Twenty-four dysthymia subjects were followed for 1 year. Three remissions (13%) were diagnosed at the final interview. At a 4-year diagnostic follow-up contact with the remitters only, one remitter had relapsed and two remained in remission. Subjects were monitored for depressive symptom intensity, personality functioning, general medical distress, cognitive functioning, coping stylistics, interpersonal functioning, quality of their social support resources, and general family functioning. Stable levels of psychosocial functioning were maintained across all measures over the 1-year period. Current psychometric findings confirm the conclusions of the earlier nontreatment prospective study that dysthymia is a chronic mood disorder with stable psychosocial features and is unlikely to remit spontaneously over time.

  3. Prediction and analysis of the glycemic consumptions of newborn’s blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Martos Monereo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Occasionally we can be with false situations of hypoglycemia in newborn caused by inadequate times of delay between extraction and analysis and therefore, it is necessary to make a new extraction and increase the baby controls. This is the reason why we proposed to elude these negative consequences elaborating the equation that calculates consumptions that occurs on any sample of unweaned babies in waiting times between 1 and 2 hours, and that will be by those variables that determine these consumptions.Observational, correlational and multivariant study, in which it is used blood samples of each unweaned baby admitted in the newborn unit, dividing them in three fractions to determinate hemogram, initial glucose, glucose after an hour of delay in the odds samples and glucose after two hours of delay in the even samples, writing down the age of the baby and the room temperature. N= 110Concluding, the glucolitic decrease in sanguineous samples of unweaned babies aged between 0 and 4 months, completely conserved and kept at room temperature between 1 and 2 hours, are related with the waiting time (p, number of red globules by unit of volume (h, and therefore with the haematocrit (ht, with the room temperature (t and the age (e, responding the average glucolitic consumptions (CGM: 0.20 * ht, and the minimum glucolitic consumption (CGMi: CGMi: 0.34 * ht + 0.1 * p – 25, being this last the most suitable one for, when conflicting situations, discarding false hypoglycemia without a new extraction.

  4. A review of blood sample handling and pre-processing for metabolomics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, Vinicius Veri; Barbas, Coral; Dudzik, Danuta

    2017-09-01

    Metabolomics has been found to be applicable to a wide range of clinical studies, bringing a new era for improving clinical diagnostics, early disease detection, therapy prediction and treatment efficiency monitoring. A major challenge in metabolomics, particularly untargeted studies, is the extremely diverse and complex nature of biological specimens. Despite great advances in the field there still exist fundamental needs for considering pre-analytical variability that can introduce bias to the subsequent analytical process and decrease the reliability of the results and moreover confound final research outcomes. Many researchers are mainly focused on the instrumental aspects of the biomarker discovery process, and sample related variables sometimes seem to be overlooked. To bridge the gap, critical information and standardized protocols regarding experimental design and sample handling and pre-processing are highly desired. Characterization of a range variation among sample collection methods is necessary to prevent results misinterpretation and to ensure that observed differences are not due to an experimental bias caused by inconsistencies in sample processing. Herein, a systematic discussion of pre-analytical variables affecting metabolomics studies based on blood derived samples is performed. Furthermore, we provide a set of recommendations concerning experimental design, collection, pre-processing procedures and storage conditions as a practical review that can guide and serve for the standardization of protocols and reduction of undesirable variation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Influence of physical activity and dietary habits on lipid profile, blood pressure and BMI in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muros Molina, J J; Oliveras López, Ma J; Mayor Reyes, Ma; Reyes Burgos, T; López García de la Serrana, H

    2011-01-01

    The present study was determined the influence of physical activity and dietary habits on lipid profile, blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI) in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS). Identify the relationship between physical activity and proper nutrition and the probability of suffering from myocardial infarction (MI). Hundred chronically ill with MS who were active and followed a healthy diet were classified as compliant, while the remaining subjects were classified as non-compliant. The compliant subjects show lower BMI values (30.8±4.9 vs 32.5±4.6), as well as lower levels of triacylglycerol (130.4±48.2 vs 242.1±90.1), total cholesterol (193.5±39 vs 220.2±52.3) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (105.2±38.3 vs 139.2±45). They show higher values in terms of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (62.2±20.1 vs 36.6±15.3), with statistically significant differences. In terms of both systolic and diastolic pressure, no differences were revealed between the groups; however, those who maintain proper dietary habits show lower systolic blood pressure levels than the inactive subjects. The probability of suffering from MI greatly increases among the group of non-compliant subjects. Our results demonstrate how performing aerobic physical activity and following an individualized, Mediterranean diet significantly reduces MS indicators and the chances of suffering from MI.

  6. Evaluation of dyspnoea in a sample of elderly subjects recruited from general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, F; Mehlsen, J; Raymond, I

    2007-01-01

    . Of 129 subjects with dyspnoea, 68 (53%) had signs of lung disease, 27 (21%) had heart disease, a total of 43 (33%) were obese, 20 (16%) were obese without other causes of dyspnoea and five (4%) had general physical deconditioning. Twelve per cent had none of the above-mentioned potential causes...

  7. Antibiogram pattern of Salmonella in blood samples of enteric fever patients at Lalitpur, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biraj Gurung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the status of isolation blood stream serotypes of enteric fever pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns and to guide clinicians for appropriate therapy. Methods: Samples were examined by microbiological techniques to identify the causative agent and determine their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion methods and interpreted as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results: Among 403 blood samples, 76 (18.85% showed growth for Salmonella isolates. Distribution of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A isolates were found to be 54% and 46% respectively. Among 76 Salmonella isolates, 28 (36.84% were from male and remaining 48 (63.15% were from female belonging to all age-groups. Multidrug-resistance was found to be 17% among the Salmonella isolates. Nalidixic acid resistance was 73.68% in Salmonella with higher proportion in Salmonella paratyphi A (85.7% in comparison to Salmonella typhi (63.42%. Salmonella isolates demonstrated 100% susceptibility to azithromycin, ceftriazone, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and imipenem. Conclusions: The need of continual surveillance of resistance levels to guide clinicians for appropriate therapy based on the antibiotic susceptibility pattern for Salmonella isolates is sustained with discouragement in misuse of antibiotics prior to prescription as multidrugresistance-nalidixic acid resistant strains.

  8. Variation of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell RNA Quality in Archived Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlakidis, Zisis; Mant, Christine; Abdinur, Fartun; Cope, Andrew; Steiner, Szabi; Peakman, Mark; Hayday, Adrian; Cason, John

    2011-09-01

    The Infectious Diseases BioBank (IDB) has consistently archived peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMNC) RNA for transcriptome analyses. RNA is particularly labile, and hence, these samples provide a sensitive indicator for assessing the IDB's quality-assurance measures. Independent analyses of 104 PBMNC RNA specimens from 26 volunteers revealed that the mean RNA integrity number (RIN) was high (9.02), although RIN ranged between scores of 7 and 10. This variation of RIN values was not associated with ischemic time, PBMNC quality, number of samples processed per day, self-medication after immunization, freezer location, donor characteristics, differential white blood cell counts, or daily variation in RNA extractions (all P>0.05). RIN values were related to the date of collection, with those processed during mid-summer having highest RIN scores (P=0.0001). Amongst specimens with the lowest RIN scores, no common feature could be identified. Thus, no technical explanation for the variation in RNA quality could be ascertained and these may represent normal physiological variations. These data provide strong evidence that current IDB protocols for the isolation and preservation PBMNC RNA are robust.

  9. Development of stable isotope dilution assays for ochratoxin A in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Markus; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas; Rychlik, Michael

    2011-12-15

    Two new stable isotope dilution assays were developed for the quantification of ochratoxin A in human blood samples for exposure studies. The methods based on two different sample extraction and cleanup procedures including liquid-liquid extraction with following immunoaffinity chromatography (IA) as well as a dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) method. For detection, LC-MS/MS was applied. For the first time, exact quantitation of the reference compound ochratoxin A was performed by quantitative NMR spectroscopy (qNMR). Additionally, a comparison of different blood-drawing procedures revealed no differences for heparin plasma and serum whereas citrate plasma gave significantly lower results for the mycotoxin. Limits of detection (LOD: 0.02 ng/g (IA) vs 0.03 ng/g (DSPE)), limits of quantification (LOQ: 0.07 ng/g (IA) vs 0.08 ng/g (DSPE)), relative recovery (≥94%), precision, and linearity indicated excellent performance of the developed methods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A survey: Glucose sedative effect in neonates during Venus blood sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fariba Tarhani

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of invasive procedures performed in newborns admitted in neonatal units is very high. Nonpharmacologic interventions are valuable alternatives for pain relief during minor procedures in neonates. The aim of this study was to assess the analgesic effect of orally administered glucose with different concentration in neonate using a validated behavioral acute pain rating scale. Materials and methods: A clinical trial study was conducted in 65 neonates. Each infant received 3 treatments with sterile water, 30% Dextrose Solution and 50% solution during consecutive Venus blood sampling and their responses was measured by behavioral acute pain rating scale for neonate (DAN score. This study was done in form of double blind and observer was unaware. Data analysis was perform using SPSS software. Results: Results of this study showed that pain score significantly is lower in neonates that received sweet solution. Mean of pain scores for sterile water, Dextrose 30% and Dextrose 50% solutions, respectively were 8.74, 6.9 and 5.48. There was no statistical relationship between sex, gestational age and weight with pain score. Conclusions: A small dose (0.5ml of 30% or 50% of oral glucose have an analgesic effect in neonates during Venus blood sampling. This effect is higher in 50% glucose solution and it can be detected by a behavioral pain rating scale.

  11. Analysis of intraosseous blood samples using an EPOC point of care analyzer during resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallman, Crystal Ives; Darracq, Michael; Young, Megann

    2017-03-01

    In the early phases of resuscitation in a critically ill patient, especially those in cardiac arrest, intravenous (IV) access can be difficult to obtain. Intraosseous (IO) access is often used in these critical situations to allow medication administration. When no IV access is available, it is difficult to obtain blood for point of care analysis, yet this information can be crucial in directing the resuscitation. We hypothesized that IO samples may be used with a point of care device to obtain useful information when seconds really do matter. Patients presenting to the emergency department requiring resuscitation and IO placement were prospectively enrolled in a convenience sample. 17 patients were enrolled. IO and IV samples obtained within five minutes of one another were analyzed using separate EPOC® point of care analyzers. Analytes were compared using Bland Altman Plots and intraclass correlation coefficients. In this analysis of convenience sampled critically ill patients, the EPOC® point of care analyzer provided results from IO samples. IO and IV samples were most comparable for pH, bicarbonate, sodium and base excess, and potentially for lactic acid; single outliers for bicarbonate, sodium and base excess were observed. Intraclass correlation coefficients were excellent for sodium and reasonable for pH, pO2, bicarbonate, and glucose. Correlations for other variables measured by the EPOC® analyzer were not as robust. IO samples can be used with a bedside point of care analyzer to rapidly obtain certain laboratory information during resuscitations when IV access is difficult. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimating species – area relationships by modeling abundance and frequency subject to incomplete sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaura, Yuichi; Connor, Edward F.; Royle, Andy; Itoh, Katsuo; Sato, Kiyoshi; Taki, Hisatomo; Mishima, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Models and data used to describe species–area relationships confound sampling with ecological process as they fail to acknowledge that estimates of species richness arise due to sampling. This compromises our ability to make ecological inferences from and about species–area relationships. We develop and illustrate hierarchical community models of abundance and frequency to estimate species richness. The models we propose separate sampling from ecological processes by explicitly accounting for the fact that sampled patches are seldom completely covered by sampling plots and that individuals present in the sampling plots are imperfectly detected. We propose a multispecies abundance model in which community assembly is treated as the summation of an ensemble of species-level Poisson processes and estimate patch-level species richness as a derived parameter. We use sampling process models appropriate for specific survey methods. We propose a multispecies frequency model that treats the number of plots in which a species occurs as a binomial process. We illustrate these models using data collected in surveys of early-successional bird species and plants in young forest plantation patches. Results indicate that only mature forest plant species deviated from the constant density hypothesis, but the null model suggested that the deviations were too small to alter the form of species–area relationships. Nevertheless, results from simulations clearly show that the aggregate pattern of individual species density–area relationships and occurrence probability–area relationships can alter the form of species–area relationships. The plant community model estimated that only half of the species present in the regional species pool were encountered during the survey. The modeling framework we propose explicitly accounts for sampling processes so that ecological processes can be examined free of sampling artefacts. Our modeling approach is extensible and could be applied

  13. Hypomethylation of serum blood clot DNA, but not plasma EDTA-blood cell pellet DNA, from vitamin B12-deficient subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eoin P Quinlivan

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12, a co-factor in methyl-group transfer, is important in maintaining DNA (deoxycytidine methylation. Using two independent assays we examined the effect of vitamin B12-deficiency (plasma vitamin B12<148 pmol/L on DNA methylation in women of childbearing age. Coagulated blood clot DNA from vitamin B12-deficient women had significantly (p<0.001 lower percentage deoxycytidine methylation (3.23±0.66%; n = 248 and greater [3 H]methyl-acceptance (42,859±9,699 cpm; n = 17 than DNA from B12-replete women (4.44±0.18%; n = 128 and 26,049±2,814 cpm; n = 11 [correlation between assays: r = -0.8538; p<0.001; n = 28]. In contrast, uncoagulated EDTA-blood cell pellet DNA from vitamin B12-deficient and B12-replete women exhibited similar percentage methylation (4.45±0.15%; n = 77 vs. 4.47±0.15%; n = 47 and [3 H]methyl-acceptance (27,378±4,094 cpm; n = 17 vs. 26,610±2,292 cpm; n = 11. Therefore, in simultaneously collected paired blood samples, vitamin B12-deficiency was associated with decreased DNA methylation only in coagulated samples. These findings highlight the importance of sample collection methods in epigenetic studies, and the potential impact biological processes can have on DNA methylation during collection.

  14. [Chronic vascular catheterization in the rat. Adaptation to injections and semi-continous blood sampling for hormonal studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrige, J F; Boucher, D; Leinot, M

    1978-01-01

    A method for frequent sampling of blood and injections of fluids in undisturbed rats is described. The right external jugular vein and the left carotid artery are cannulated without completely blood stream interruption in the vessel. Injection or perfusion can be performed during several weeks. Blood was collected for at least 15 post-operative days. The technique appears suitable for pituitary kinetics studies which can be carried out several times in rats bearing indwelling catheters.

  15. Water ingestion affects orthostatic challenge-induced blood pressure and heart rate responses in young healthy subjects: gender implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, L A; Aaron, A O; Micheal, O S; Oyeyipo, I P

    2011-11-23

    Evidence exists that women have lower orthostatic tolerance than men during quiescent standing. Water ingestion has been demonstrated to improve orthostatic tolerance in patients with severe autonomic dysfunction. We therefore sought to test the hypothesis that water ingestion would improve orthostatic tolerance in healthy young women more than in aged-matched men. Thirty seven (22 men and 15 women) healthy subjects aged 22.5± 1.7 and 21.5±1.4 (means±SD) respectively, ingested 50ml (control) and 500ml of water 40min before orthostatic challenge on two separate days of appointment in a randomized controlled, cross-over design. Seated and standing blood pressure and heart rate were determined. Orthostatic tolerance was assessed as the time to presyncope during standing. Ingesting 500ml of water significantly improves orthostatic tolerance by 22% (32.0 ± 5.2 vs 26.2 ± 2.4min; pwater, seated systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure rose significantly in men while only systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure rose significantly in women. However ingesting 500ml of water did not have significant effect on seated heart rate in both men and women. Ingestion of 500ml of water significantly attenuated both the orthostatic challenge-induced increased heart rate and decreased pulse pressure responses especially in women. Diastolic blood pressure tended to be positively correlated with orthostatic tolerance strongly in men than in women. Pulse pressure correlated positively while heart rate correlated negatively to orthostatic tolerance in women but not in men independent of other correlates. Water ingestion is associated with orthostatic tolerance strongly in women but weakly in men independent of other correlates. In conclusion, the findings in the present study demonstrated that water ingestion caused improvement strongly in young women than in young men. This improvement is associated with increased pulse pressure

  16. Circadian blood pressure variability in type 1 diabetes subjects and their nondiabetic siblings - influence of erythrocyte electron transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoni Maria

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Normotensive non-diabetic relatives of type 1 diabetes (T1D patients have an abnormal blood pressure response to exercise testing that is associated with indices of metabolic syndrome and increased oxidative stress. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the circadian variability of blood pressure and the ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI in healthy siblings of T1D patients vs healthy control subjects who had no first-degree relative with T1D. Secondary aims of the study were to explore the influence of both cardiovascular autonomic function and erythrocyte electron transfer activity as oxidative marker on the ambulatory blood pressure profile. Methods Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM was undertaken in 25 controls, 20 T1D patients and 20 siblings. In addition to laboratory examination (including homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity and clinical testing of autonomic function, we measured the rate of oxidant-induced erythrocyte electron transfer to extracellular ferricyanide (RBC vfcy. Results Systolic blood pressure (SBP midline-estimating statistic of rhythm and pulse pressure were higher in T1D patients and correlated positively with diabetes duration and RBC vfcy; autonomic dysfunction was associated with diastolic BP ecphasia and increased AASI. Siblings had higher BMI, lower insulin sensitivity, larger SBP amplitude, and higher AASI than controls. Daytime SBP was positively, independently associated with BMI and RBC vfcy. Among non-diabetic people, there was a significant correlation between AASI and fasting plasma glucose. Conclusions Siblings of T1D patients exhibited a cluster of sub-clinical metabolic abnormalities associated with consensual perturbations in BP variability. Moreover, our findings support, in a clinical setting, the proposed role of transplasma membrane electron transport systems in vascular pathobiology.

  17. Alcohol drinking patterns and habits among a sample of PONS study subjects: preliminary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przewoźniak, Krzysztof; Łobaszewski, Jakub; Wojtyła, Andrzej; Bylina, Jerzy; Mańczuk, Marta; Zatoński, Witold A

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol drinking is a major contributing factor to death, disease, injury and social problems such as violence or child neglect and abuse, especially in Eastern Europe. To preliminary evaluate the prevalence and social and behavioural patterns of alcohol drinking in a pilot group of the Polish-Norwegian Study (PONS study) subjects. Open-ended prospective cohort study conducted in Świetokrzyskie province. A pilot group of subjects aged 45-64 years has been examined. Data on alcohol drinking were collected for 3,845 respondents with the use of the Health State Questionnaire administered by the CAPI method. In males, 72.3% drank alcohol currently, 22.7% were former drinkers, and only 5% never drinkers. Among females, the percentage of current alcohol drinkers was significantly lower than in males, while the percentages of former and never drinkers was higher (50.3%, 35.4% and 14.6%, respectively). 7.4% of males and 0.8% of females drank alcohol daily or almost daily, and weekly alcohol drinking was respectively at level of 32.2% and 15.7%. Males drank mainly vodka (or other spirits) and beer, females grape wine and vodka. PONS study includes interesting dataset for assessing prevalence and patterns of alcohol drinking at population level. Alcohol drinking seems to be common among PONS subjects. Comparison with nation-wide surveys shows on higher number of alcohol abstainers and lower number of binge drinkers among PONS study subjects. On the other hand, frequency and social patterns of alcohol drinking seem to be consistent with data found in national studies.

  18. Use of dried blood samples for monitoring hepatitis B virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Onofre

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a problem in several regions of the world with limited resources. Blood samples dried on filter paper (DBS have been successfully used to diagnose and monitor several infectious diseases. In Mexico there is an urgent need for an affordable and easy sampling method for viral load (VL testing and monitoring of chronic HBV infection. The purpose of this work was to validate the utility of DBS samples for monitoring HBV infection in patients from Mexico City. Methods Matched samples of plasma and DBS on filter paper from 47 HBV infected patients from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS, were included. To evaluate the DNA stability and purity from DBS stored at different temperature conditions, samples from ten patients were stored at 4 degree, 25 degree, and 37 degree C for 7 days. After DBS elution and DNA extraction, the purity of these samples was determined measuring the O.D. rate 260/280. The DBS utility for molecular studies was assessed with PCR assays to amplify a 322 bp fragment from the "a" determinant region of the HBV "S" gene. The VL from all samples was determined to evaluate the correlation between plasma and DBS matched samples. Results The quality of the DNA from DBS specimen is not adversely affected by storage at 4 degree, 25 degree and 37 degree C for up 7 days. Statistical ANOVA analyses did not show any significant difference. The same amplification efficiency was observed between DNA templates from samples stored at different temperatures. The Pearson correlation between the VL from DBS and plasma matched samples was 0.93 (p = 0.01. The SD was 1.48 for DBS vs.1.32 for Plasma, and an average of log10 copies/mL of 5.32 vs. 5.53. ANOVA analysis did not show any statistically significant difference between the analyzed groups (p = 0.92. Conclusion The results provide strong evidence that the isolation and quantification of DNA-HBV from DBS is a viable alternative

  19. Use of dried blood samples for monitoring hepatitis B virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Rosalia; Maldonado-Rodriguez, Angelica; Rojas-Montes, Othon; Ruiz-Tachiquin, Martha; Torres-Ibarra, Rocio; Cano-Dominguez, Carlos; Valdez-Salazar, Hilda; Gomez-Delgado, Alejandro; Muñoz, Onofre; Alvarez-Muñoz, Ma-Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a problem in several regions of the world with limited resources. Blood samples dried on filter paper (DBS) have been successfully used to diagnose and monitor several infectious diseases. In Mexico there is an urgent need for an affordable and easy sampling method for viral load (VL) testing and monitoring of chronic HBV infection. The purpose of this work was to validate the utility of DBS samples for monitoring HBV infection in patients from Mexico City. Methods Matched samples of plasma and DBS on filter paper from 47 HBV infected patients from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), were included. To evaluate the DNA stability and purity from DBS stored at different temperature conditions, samples from ten patients were stored at 4 degree, 25 degree, and 37 degree C for 7 days. After DBS elution and DNA extraction, the purity of these samples was determined measuring the O.D. rate 260/280. The DBS utility for molecular studies was assessed with PCR assays to amplify a 322 bp fragment from the "a" determinant region of the HBV "S" gene. The VL from all samples was determined to evaluate the correlation between plasma and DBS matched samples. Results The quality of the DNA from DBS specimen is not adversely affected by storage at 4 degree, 25 degree and 37 degree C for up 7 days. Statistical ANOVA analyses did not show any significant difference. The same amplification efficiency was observed between DNA templates from samples stored at different temperatures. The Pearson correlation between the VL from DBS and plasma matched samples was 0.93 (p = 0.01). The SD was 1.48 for DBS vs.1.32 for Plasma, and an average of log10 copies/mL of 5.32 vs. 5.53. ANOVA analysis did not show any statistically significant difference between the analyzed groups (p = 0.92). Conclusion The results provide strong evidence that the isolation and quantification of DNA-HBV from DBS is a viable alternative for patient monitoring

  20. The Effects of Lavender Scent on Pain of Blood Sampling in Term Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Razaghi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction  After birth, many infants were in hospital undergo repeated invasive procedures and because there is increasing evidence of short-term and long-term adverse neurodevelopment consequences, pain management in neonates is very important. Methods and Materials This was a quasi experimental study of clinical trial type that carried out on 80 term neonate that were allocated to two intervention (40 neonates and control (40 neonates groups. In experimental group, infants at night for 8 hours before blood sampling were exposed to the scent of lavender. And the next day, at the time of blood sampling was used of the scent of lavender. Simultaneously with the needle, pain assessment scale scores Douleur Aigue Nouveau-ne (DAN or neonatal pain discomfort by a trained person, was calculated and recorded. Duration of crying in seconds from start cry to silence that lasted at least 5 seconds interval was measured. The control group did not receive additional action for pain relief. Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 16 software. Results Average rating of DAN score was in control group 5.97 ± 1.94 and in experimental group 4.47+1.81. Mann–Whitney test results showed a significant difference in pain scores in the two groups (P=0.001. The crying time between groups was not significant difference (P = 0.12. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that the scent of lavender is effective in reducing the pain caused by sampling in term neonates but had no effect on the duration of crying infants. Since neonatal pain management is an important task for nurse, using of the scent of lavender as a non pharmacological method of pain management in neonates requires further investigation.

  1. Comparison of diagnostic methods to detect Histoplasma capsulatum in serum and blood samples from AIDS patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcos Vinicius; Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Vicentini, Adriana Pardini

    2018-01-01

    Background Although early and rapid detection of histoplasmosis is essential to prevent morbidity and mortality, few diagnostic tools are available in resource-limited areas, especially where it is endemic and HIV/AIDS is also epidemic. Thus, we compared conventional and molecular methods to detect Histoplasma capsulatum in sera and blood from HIV/AIDS patients. Methodology We collected a total of 40 samples from control volunteers and patients suspected of histoplasmosis, some of whom were also infected with other pathogens. Samples were then analyzed by mycological, serological, and molecular methods, and stratified as histoplasmostic with (group I) or without AIDS (group II), uninfected (group III), and infected with HIV and other pathogens only (group IV). All patients were receiving treatment for histoplasmosis and other infections at the time of sample collection. Results Comparison of conventional methods with nested PCR using primers against H. capsulatum 18S rRNA (HC18S), 5.8S rRNA ITS (HC5.8S-ITS), and a 100 kDa protein (HC100) revealed that sensitivity against sera was highest for PCR with HC5.8S-ITS, followed by immunoblotting, double immunodiffusion, PCR with HC18S, and PCR with HC100. Specificity was equally high for double immunodiffusion, immunoblotting and PCR with HC100, followed for PCR with HC18S and HC5.8-ITS. Against blood, sensitivity was highest for PCR with HC5.8S-ITS, followed by PCR with HC18S, Giemsa staining, and PCR with HC100. Specificity was highest for Giemsa staining and PCR with HC100, followed by PCR with HC18S and HC5.8S-ITS. PCR was less efficient in patients with immunodeficiency due to HIV/AIDS and/or related diseases. Conclusion Molecular techniques may detect histoplasmosis even in cases with negative serology and mycology, potentially enabling early diagnosis. PMID:29342162

  2. Cleaning the IceMole: collection of englacial samples from Blood Falls, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikucki, J.; Digel, I.; Chua, M.; Davis, J.; Ghosh, D.; Lyons, W. B.; Welch, K. A.; Purcell, A.; Francke, G.; Feldmann, M.; Espe, C.; Heinen, D.; Dachwald, B.; Kowalski, J.; Tulaczyk, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Minimally Invasive Direct Glacial Access project (MIDGE) used a maneuverable thermoelectric melting probe called the IceMole to collect the first englacial samples of brine from Blood Falls, Antarctica. In order to maintain the scientific integrity of samples collected and minimize impact to this specially protected ecosystem, microbial and chemical contamination of the IceMole needed to be minimized. Guidelines have been established for research in Antarctic subglacial systems by the scientific and regulatory community and have been detailed by the "Code of Conduct for the Exploration and Research of Subglacial Aquatic Environments" put forth by the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) Action Group, and was submitted to the Antarctic Treaty System. This Code of Conduct (CoC) recognizes the ecological importance and pristine nature of subglacial habitats and recommends a path forward towards clean exploration. Similarly, the US and European space agencies (NASA and ESA) have detailed instrument preparation protocols for the exploration of icy worlds in our solar system for planetary protection. Given the synergistic aims of these two groups we have adopted protocols from both subglacial and space exploration approaches. Here we present our approach to cleaning the IceMole in the field and report on ability to reduce the bioload inherent on the melter. Specifically our protocol reduced the exterior bio-load by an order of magnitude, to levels common in most clean rooms, and 1-3 orders of magnitude below that of Taylor Glacier ice surrounding Blood Falls. Our results indicate that the collection of englacial samples for microbiological analysis is feasible with melting probes.

  3. Subjective Experiences in Activity Involvement and Perceptions of Growth in a Sample of First-Year Female University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busseri, Michael A.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2008-01-01

    We examined subjective experiences in activities and perceptions of growth in a sample of first-year female university students (N = 196; age range = 17 to 19 years old, M = 18.48, SD = 0.53; the most common ethnic affiliations were British Isles, 51% of respondents, Canadian, 34%, French, 14%, and German, 8%). Students described 4 activities,…

  4. The effect of circadian blood pressure pattern on presence of fragmented QRS complexes in hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyuboglu, Mehmet; Karabag, Yavuz; Karakoyun, Suleyman; Akdeniz, Bahri

    2017-08-01

    The association of deteriorated circadian blood pressure (BP) variability with presence of fragmented QRS (fQRS) on electrocardiography (ECG) is not clear. The present study aims to evaluate the relationship of BP patterns with presence of fQRS on ECG. A total of 338 consecutive newly diagnosed and never treated hypertensive patients who are without left ventricular hypertrophy and underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring were enrolled. Patients were classified as dippers, nondippers, and reverse dippers according to ambulatory BP monitoring results. The groups were compared regarding frequency of fQRS on ECG. The frequency of fQRS was significantly higher in reverse dippers compared with dippers (37.7% vs. 20.6%, P = .013). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, nighttime systolic BP was found to be an independent predictor of fQRS on ECG (P reverse dipping BP pattern in hypertensive patients (P = .004, odds ratio: 2.416, 95% confidence interval = 1.327-4.396). In conclusion, as a marker of fibrosis and higher fibrotic burden within myocardium, fQRS may be useful to determine the high-risk hypertensive patients in the absence of left ventricular hypertrophy. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bridging the gap between sample collection and laboratory analysis: using dried blood spots to identify human exposure to chemical agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.; Blake, Thomas A.; Perez, Jonas W.; Crow, Brian S.; Shaner, Rebecca L.; Coleman, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2016-05-01

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  6. Sex based levels of C-reactive protein and white blood cell count in subjects with metabolic syndrome: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Gharipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: C-reactive protein (CRP and white blood cell (WBC are proinflammatory markers. They are major pathophysiological for the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS. This study aimed to address the independent associations between MetS and WBC counts and serum CRP levels and evaluation of their magnitude in relation to the MetS, based on the sex in the Iranian adults. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, subjects who met the MetS criteria, based on the Adult Treatment Panel III were selected from the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program database. A questionnaire containing the demographic data, weight, height, waist, and hip circumference of the respondents was completed for each person. Blood pressure was measured and the anthropometric measurements were done, and fasting blood samples were taken for 2 h postload plasma glucose (2 hpp. Serum [total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, and low-density lipoprotein] levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, and CRP as well as WBC counts were determined. The univariate analyses were carried out to assess the relation between the CRP levels, WBC counts with the MetS in both sexes the. Results: In men with the abdominal obesity, the higher levels of WBC count, high serum triglyceride and blood glucose levels, a low serum HDL level, and raised systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed. However, the higher serum CRP levels were only observed in those with the low serum HDL-cholesterol levels. The mean values of the WBC counts were statistically different between the men with and without MetS, but the mean values of the CRP levels were similar between the two groups. In women, the mean values of WBC count and CRP levels were statistically different in the subjects with and without a MetS components (except for the low serum HDL levels and high diastolic blood pressure for the WBC measures and abdominal obesity for the CRP measures and for those with and without MetS. The age and

  7. Association between essential trace and toxic elements in scalp hair samples of smokers rheumatoid arthritis subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland. (Ireland); National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Pakistan); Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Pakistan); Brabazon, Dermot, E-mail: dermot.brabazon@dcu.ie [Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland. (Ireland); Naher, Sumsun, E-mail: sumsun.naher@dcu.ie [Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland. (Ireland)

    2011-12-15

    The incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been increased among people who possess habit of tobacco smoking. In the present study, zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were determined in scalp hair samples of smokers and nonsmokers RA patients, residents of Dublin, Ireland. For comparison purposes scalp hair samples of age and sex matched healthy smokers and nonsmokers were also analyzed. The concentrations of understudied elements were measured by inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of methodology was checked using certified reference material (NCS ZC 81002b) and by the conventional wet acid digestion method on the same certified reference material and on real samples. The mean hair Zn, Cu and Mn contents were significantly lower in smokers and nonsmokers RA patients as compared to healthy individuals (p = 0.01-0.001). Whereas the concentrations of Cd and Pb were significantly higher in scalp hair samples of RA patients of both group (p < 0.001). The referent smokers have high level of Cd and Pb in their scalp hair samples as compared to those had not smoking tobacco (p < 0.01). The ratio of Cd and Pb to Zn, Cu and Mn in scalp hair samples was also calculated. The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in smoker RA patients with related to nonsmoker RA and referents. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between toxic elements, cigarette smoking, deficiency of essential trace elements and risk of arthritis.

  8. The Relationship of Anxiety and Depression to Subjective Well-Being in a Mainland Chinese Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Christopher; Wachholtz, Amy

    2018-02-01

    This pilot study examines anxiety, depression, and well-being in a mainland Chinese sample and discusses the implications for mental health care. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-being, and the Body Mind Spirit Well-Being Inventory were administered to 60 mainland China residents. Correlational analyses revealed significant relationships among depression, anxiety, and every domain of well-being except the faith domain. Levels of depression and anxiety are inversely related to levels of well-being in a mainland Chinese sample. Chinese culture was expected to moderate this relationship; however, this was not confirmed by the results.

  9. Concentrations of environmental contaminants in blood samples collected from Sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) from the Eastern Flyway

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Table 1 provides the results of organochlorine and mercury analysis on plasma and whole blood samples (respectively) collected from 20 sharp-shinned hawks at HMS...

  10. [Evaluating the applicability of medical examinations constituting "the protocol of obtaining a blood sample" in measuring the degree of intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelgardt, Piotr; Grzech, Weronika; Drzewiecki, Jarosław; Sliwka, Karol

    2010-01-01

    Breathalysing and blood analysis is the basic instrument of measuring the level of intoxication. Prior to collecting a blood sample, an individual suspected of being under the influence of alcohol is examined by a physician, who fills out the "protocol of obtaining a blood sample". This work aims at evaluating the applicability of the described examination in measuring the level of intoxication. In order to do so, our team analyzed 352 "protocols of obtaining blood sample" referred to the Forensic Laboratory KWP in Bydgoszcz, Poland, and compared them with the results of blood analysis. The results of the above analysis point to the fact that the elements of medical examination constituting "the protocol of obtaining a blood sample" are of a minor usefulness in determining the degree of intoxication with ethyl alcohol. The smell from the mouth and the conclusions formulated the examining physician prove to be the most useful. The summary usage of deviations from the norm does not seem to increase the usefulness of methods used within "the protocol of obtaining a blood sample" in evaluating the degree of intoxication.

  11. Evaluation of dyspnoea in a sample of elderly subjects recruited from general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, F; Mehlsen, J; Raymond, I

    2007-01-01

    . Of 129 subjects with dyspnoea, 68 (53%) had signs of lung disease, 27 (21%) had heart disease, a total of 43 (33%) were obese, 20 (16%) were obese without other causes of dyspnoea and five (4%) had general physical deconditioning. Twelve per cent had none of the above-mentioned potential causes...... in most cases, the most frequent being lung disease followed by heart disease and obesity. These data shed light on the diagnostic yield that can be expected from a relatively simple diagnostic approach, including the most frequent recommended initial screening tests. As expected, the incremental nature...

  12. Large-scale subject-specific cerebral arterial tree modeling using automated parametric mesh generation for blood flow simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Mahsa; Tangen, Kevin; Alaraj, Ali; Du, Xinjian; Charbel, Fady T; Linninger, Andreas A

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we present a novel technique for automatic parametric mesh generation of subject-specific cerebral arterial trees. This technique generates high-quality and anatomically accurate computational meshes for fast blood flow simulations extending the scope of 3D vascular modeling to a large portion of cerebral arterial trees. For this purpose, a parametric meshing procedure was developed to automatically decompose the vascular skeleton, extract geometric features and generate hexahedral meshes using a body-fitted coordinate system that optimally follows the vascular network topology. To validate the anatomical accuracy of the reconstructed vasculature, we performed statistical analysis to quantify the alignment between parametric meshes and raw vascular images using receiver operating characteristic curve. Geometric accuracy evaluation showed an agreement with area under the curves value of 0.87 between the constructed mesh and raw MRA data sets. Parametric meshing yielded on-average, 36.6% and 21.7% orthogonal and equiangular skew quality improvement over the unstructured tetrahedral meshes. The parametric meshing and processing pipeline constitutes an automated technique to reconstruct and simulate blood flow throughout a large portion of the cerebral arterial tree down to the level of pial vessels. This study is the first step towards fast large-scale subject-specific hemodynamic analysis for clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Clean Sampling of an Englacial Conduit at Blood Falls, Antarctica - Some Experimental and Numerical Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Julia; Francke, Gero; Feldmann, Marco; Espe, Clemens; Heinen, Dirk; Digel, Ilya; Clemens, Joachim; Schüller, Kai; Mikucki, Jill; Tulaczyk, Slawek M.; Pettit, Erin; Berry Lyons, W.; Dachwald, Bernd

    2017-04-01

    There is significant interest in sampling subglacial environments for geochemical and microbiological studies, yet those environments are typically difficult to access. Existing ice-drilling technologies make it cumbersome to maintain microbiologically clean access for sample acquisition and environmental stewardship of potentially fragile subglacial aquatic ecosystems. With the "IceMole", a minimally invasive, maneuverable subsurface ice probe, we have developed a clean glacial exploration technology for in-situ analysis and sampling of glacial ice and sub- and englacial materials. Its design is based on combining melting and mechanical stabilization, using an ice screw at the tip of the melting head to maintain firm contact between the melting head and the ice. The IceMole can change its melting direction by differential heating of the melting head and optional side wall heaters. Downward, horizontal and upward melting, as well as curve driving and penetration of particulate-ladden layers has already been demonstrated in several field tests. This maneuverability of the IceMole also necessitates a sophisticated on-board navigation system, capable of autonomous operations. Therefore, between 2012 and 2014, a more advanced probe was developed as part of the "Enceladus Explorer" (EnEx) project. The EnEx-IceMole offers systems for accurate positioning, based on in-ice attitude determination, acoustic positioning, ultrasonic obstacle and target detection, which is all integrated through a high-level sensor fusion algorithm. In December 2014, the EnEx-IceMole was used for clean access into a unique subglacial aquatic environment at Blood Falls, Antarctica, where an englacial brine sample was successfully obtained after about 17 meters of oblique melting. Particular attention was paid to clean protocols for sampling for geochemical and microbiological analysis. In this contribution, we will describe the general technological approach of the IceMole and report on the

  14. MalHaploFreq: A computer programme for estimating malaria haplotype frequencies from blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Thomas A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular markers, particularly those associated with drug resistance, are important surveillance tools that can inform policy choice. People infected with falciparum malaria often contain several genetically-distinct clones of the parasite; genotyping the patients' blood reveals whether or not the marker is present (i.e. its prevalence, but does not reveal its frequency. For example a person with four malaria clones may contain both mutant and wildtype forms of a marker but it is not possible to distinguish the relative frequencies of the mutant and wildtypes i.e. 1:3, 2:2 or 3:1. Methods An appropriate method for obtaining frequencies from prevalence data is by Maximum Likelihood analysis. A computer programme has been developed that allows the frequency of markers, and haplotypes defined by up to three codons, to be estimated from blood phenotype data. Results The programme has been fully documented [see Additional File 1] and provided with a user-friendly interface suitable for large scale analyses. It returns accurate frequencies and 95% confidence intervals from simulated dataset sets and has been extensively tested on field data sets. Additional File 1 User manual for MalHaploFreq. Click here for file Conclusion The programme is included [see Additional File 2] and/or may be freely downloaded from 1. It can then be used to extract molecular marker and haplotype frequencies from their prevalence in human blood samples. This should enhance the use of frequency data to inform antimalarial drug policy choice. Additional File 2 executable programme compiled for use on DOS or windows Click here for file

  15. Sample preparation and orthogonal chromatography for broad polarity range plasma metabolomics: application to human subjects with neurodegenerative dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armirotti, Andrea; Basit, Abdul; Realini, Natalia; Caltagirone, Carlo; Bossù, Paola; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Piomelli, Daniele

    2014-06-15

    We describe a simple protocol for the preparation and orthogonal hydrophobic/hydrophilic LC-MS/MS analysis of mouse and human plasma samples, which enables the untargeted ("shotgun") or targeted profiling of hydrophilic, amphipathic, and hydrophobic constituents of plasma metabolome. The protocol is rapid, efficient, and reliable, and offers several advantages compared to current procedures. When applied to a training set of human plasma samples, the protocol allowed for the rapid acquisition of full LogP metabolic profiles in plasma samples obtained from cognitively healthy human subjects and age-matched subjects with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease (n=15 each). Targeted analyses confirmed these findings, which are consistent with data previously published by other groups. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Residual stress redistribution in shot peened samples subject to mechanical loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, Dennis J., E-mail: dennis.buchanan@udri.udayton.edu [University of Dayton Research Institute, 300 College Park, Dayton, OH 45469-0020 (United States); John, Reji [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RXCM), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433-7817 (United States)

    2014-10-06

    Shot peening is a well-established surface treatment process that imparts large compressive residual stresses onto the surface and at shallow depths to retard initiation and growth of fatigue cracks. The plastic deformation developed during the surface treatment sets up a constraint that retains compressive stresses on the surface balanced by tensile residual stresses in the interior. However, component service histories that produce subsequent plastic deformation may redistribute these residual stresses. In most engineering components, this additional plastic deformation is localized to stress concentration sites such as holes, notches, and fillets. In the case of gross plastic deformation where the entire cross section experiences material yielding the residual stress profile may redistribute, resulting in tensile stresses on the outside surface balanced by compression in the interior. This paper describes a series of experiments combined with models to explain the redistribution in residual stress depth profiles subject to applied stresses producing gross plastic strains in shot peened laboratory specimens. The initial room temperature residual stress and plastic strain profiles provide initial conditions for predictions. Model predictions correlate well with experimental results on shot peened dogbone specimens subject to single cycle and fatigue loading conditions at elevated temperature. Experiments on shot peened notched specimens do not exhibit the same stress redistribution even for larger applied stresses.

  17. Relationship between heart rate variability, blood pressure and arterial wall properties during air and oxygen breathing in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Beata; Szyndler, Anna; Czechowicz, Krzysztof; Kucharska, Wiesława; Graff, Grzegorz; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Laurent, Stephane; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies reported that normobaric hyperoxia influences heart rate, arterial pressure, cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance, but the mechanisms underlying these changes are still not fully understood. Several factors are considered including degeneration of endothelium-derived nitric oxide by reactive oxygen species, the impact of oxygen-free radicals on tissues and alterations of autonomic nervous system function. Recently, new devices for the detailed non-invasive assessment of large and small arteries have been developed. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess heart rate variability (HRV) as a potential indicator of autonomic balance and its relation to blood pressure and vascular properties during medical air (MAB) and 100% oxygen breathing (OXB) in healthy volunteers. In 12 healthy subjects we assessed heart rate and blood pressure variability, baroreflex sensitivity, respiratory frequency, common carotid artery diameter and its wall distensibility, as well as changes in the digital artery pulse waveform, stroke index and systemic vascular resistance during MAB and OXB. Mean and systolic blood pressure have increased significantly while digital pulse amplitude and carotid artery diameter were significantly lower during hyperoxia. Heart rate variability measures did not differ during MAB and OXB. However, the correlations between spectral HRV components and those hemodynamic parameters which have changed due to hyperoxia varied substantially during MAB (correlated significantly) and OXB (no significant correlations were noted). Our findings suggest that autonomic nervous system might not be the main mediator of the cardiovascular changes during 100% oxygen breathing in healthy subjects. It seems that the direct vascular responses are initial consequences of hyperoxia and other cardiovascular parameter alterations are secondary to them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Rate of manual leukocyte differentials in dog, cat and horse blood samples using ADVIA 120 cytograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirn, Martina; Moritz, Andreas; Bauer, Natali

    2014-06-05

    Modern automated haematology instruments are capable of performing leukocyte differentials faster, cheaper and with a higher precision than the traditional 100-cell manual differential count. Thus, in human laboratories, criteria are defined for performing a manual review of the blood smear resulting in a marked reduction of manual differential counts. While common in human laboratories, this approach to reducing the number of manual differentials in veterinary laboratories is still not commonly performed. Thus, our aim was to determine the rate and causes of manual leukocyte differentials in a university clinical pathology laboratory using the automated laser-based haematology analyser ADVIA 120. Overall, 14,953 complete blood cell counts from dogs, cats and horses were reviewed. Manual leukocyte differentials were requested if abnormal ADVIA peroxidase and baso cytograms were detected (i.e. suspicion of left shift or atypical lymphocytes/blasts, inappropriate separation of cell populations). In 21% of canine, 32% of feline and 20% of equine samples, a manual differential was requested. Indistinct separation of the cell population was present in 10% to 15% of the cases. Depending on the species, atypical lymphocytes were suspected in 2% to 12%, left shift in 13% to 25% and suspicion of blasts was present in less than 0.4% of the cases. The obtained results are comparable to those published for human medicine and the rate of manual differentiation could be markedly reduced in veterinary laboratories if microscopic examination was used as a validation procedure rather than as a reflexive substitute for automated differentiation.

  19. Putative Epimutagens in Maternal Peripheral and Cord Blood Samples Identified Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Arai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of transcription and genome stability by epigenetic systems are crucial for the proper development of mammalian embryos. Chemicals that disturb epigenetic systems are termed epimutagens. We previously performed chemical screening that focused on heterochromatin formation and DNA methylation status in mouse embryonic stem cells and identified five epimutagens: diethyl phosphate (DEP, mercury (Hg, cotinine, selenium (Se, and octachlorodipropyl ether (S-421. Here, we used human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs to confirm the effects of 20 chemicals, including the five epimutagens, detected at low concentrations in maternal peripheral and cord blood samples. Of note, these individual chemicals did not exhibit epimutagenic activity in hiPSCs. However, because the fetal environment contains various chemicals, we evaluated the effects of combined exposure to chemicals (DEP, Hg, cotinine, Se, and S-421 on hiPSCs. The combined exposure caused a decrease in the number of heterochromatin signals and aberrant DNA methylation status at multiple gene loci in hiPSCs. The combined exposure also affected embryoid body formation and neural differentiation from hiPSCs. Therefore, DEP, Hg, cotinine, Se, and S-421 were defined as an “epimutagen combination” that is effective at low concentrations as detected in maternal peripheral and cord blood.

  20. Haematospirillum jordaniae gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from human blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humrighouse, B W; Emery, B D; Kelly, A J; Metcalfe, M G; Mbizo, J; McQuiston, J R

    2016-04-01

    A Gram-negative, aerobic, motile, spiral-shaped bacterium, strain H5569(T), was isolated from a human blood sample. Phenotypic and molecular characteristics of the isolate were investigated. Optimal growth was found to occur at 35 °C under aerobic conditions on Heart Infusion Agar supplemented with 5 % rabbit blood. The major fatty acids present in the cells were identified as C16:0, C16:1ω7c and C18:1ω7c. The predominant respiratory quinone was found to be ubiquinone-Q10. The G+C content of genomic DNA for strain H5569(T) was found to be 49.9 %. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis results, 13 additional isolates were also analysed in this study. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the organism, represented by strain H5569(T), forms a distinct lineage within the family Rhodospirillaceae, closely related to two Novispirillum itersonii subspecies (93.9-94.1 %) and two Caenispirillum sp. (91.2-91.6 %). Based on these results, the isolate H5569(T) is concluded to represent a new genus and species for which the name Haematospirillum jordaniae gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is H5569(T) (=DSM(T) 28903 = CCUG 66838(T)).

  1. Maternal obesity alters immune cell frequencies and responses in umbilical cord blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Randall M; Marshall, Nicole E; Jeske, Daniel R; Purnell, Jonathan Q; Thornburg, Kent; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2015-06-01

    Maternal obesity is one of the several key factors thought to modulate neonatal immune system development. Data from murine studies demonstrate worse outcomes in models of infection, autoimmunity, and allergic sensitization in offspring of obese dams. In humans, children born to obese mothers are at increased risk for asthma. These findings suggest a dysregulation of immune function in the children of obese mothers; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal body weight and the human neonatal immune system. Umbilical cord blood samples were collected from infants born to lean, overweight, and obese mothers. Frequency and function of major innate and adaptive immune cell populations were quantified using flow cytometry and multiplex analysis of circulating factors. Compared to babies born to lean mothers, babies of obese mothers had fewer eosinophils and CD4 T helper cells, reduced monocyte and dendritic cell responses to Toll-like receptor ligands, and increased plasma levels of IFN-α2 and IL-6 in cord blood. These results support the hypothesis that maternal obesity influences programming of the neonatal immune system, providing a potential link to increased incidence of chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma and cardiovascular disease in the offspring. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The gingival vein as a minimally traumatic site for multiple blood sampling in guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Mariana Valotta; de Castro, Simone Oliveira; de Albuquerque, Cynthia Zaccanini; Mattaraia, Vânia Gomes de Moura; Santoro, Marcelo Larami

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory animals are still necessary in scientific investigation and vaccine testing, but while novel methodological approaches are not available for their replacement, the search for new, humane, easy, and painless methods is necessary to diminish their stress and pain. When multiple blood samples are to be collected from hamsters and guinea pigs, the number of available venipuncture sites-which are greatly diminished in these species in comparison with other rodents due to the absence of a long tail-, harasses animal caregivers and researchers. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate if gingival vein puncture could be used as an additional route to obtain multiple blood samples from anesthetized hamsters and guinea pigs in such a way that animal behavior, well-being or hematological parameters would not be altered. Thus, twelve anesthetized Syrian golden hamsters and English guinea pigs were randomly allocated in two groups: a control group, whose blood samples were not collected, and an experimental group in which blood samples (200 microliters) were collected by gingival vein puncture at weekly intervals over six weeks. Clinical assessment, body weight gain and complete blood cell count were evaluated weekly, and control and experimental animals were euthanized at week seven, when the mentolabial region was processed to histological analyses. Multiple blood sampling from the gingival vein evoked no clinical manifestations or alteration in the behavioral repertoire, nor a statistically significant difference in weight gain in both species. Guinea pigs showed no alteration in red blood cell, leukocyte or platelet parameters over time. Hamsters developed a characteristic pattern of age-related physiological changes, which were considered normal. Histological analyses showed no difference in morphological structures in the interdental gingiva, confirming that multiple blood sampling is barely traumatic. Thus, these results evidence that blood collection from multiple

  3. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Blood Pressure in a Clinical Sample of Overweight Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndanuko, Rhoda N; Tapsell, Linda C; Charlton, Karen E; Neale, Elizabeth P; Batterham, Marijka J

    2017-02-01

    Dietary pattern analysis provides important evidence revealing diet-disease relationships. It may be especially useful in areas less well researched, such as diet and hypertension in clinical populations. The aim of this study was to identify the association between dietary patterns and blood pressure (BP) in a sample of overweight adults volunteering for a clinical trial for weight loss. This cross-sectional analysis used baseline data from the HealthTrack study, a 12-month randomized controlled trial. Dietary intake was evaluated with 4-day food records. Participants were 328 adults recruited from the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia, between May 2014 and April 2015. Resting BP and 24-hour urine sodium and potassium were measured. Dietary patterns were derived by principal component analysis from 21 food groups. Multiple regression analysis was performed to assess the association between the extracted dietary patterns and BP. The participants' mean age was 43.6±8.0 years, mean body mass index was 32.4±4.2, and mean systolic BP/diastolic BP was 124.9±14.5/73.3±9.9 mm Hg. Six major dietary patterns were identified: "nuts, seeds, fruit, and fish," "milk and meat," "breads, cereals, and snacks," "cereal-based products, fats, and oils," "alcohol, eggs, and legumes," and "savoury sauces, condiments, and meat." The "nuts, seeds, fruit, and fish" dietary pattern was significantly and inversely associated with systolic BP (F [7,320]=15.248; Pnuts, seeds, fruit, and fish was inversely associated with blood pressure in this clinical sample. The findings suggest that current dietary guidelines are relevant to an overweight clinical population and support the value of dietary pattern analysis when exploring the diet-disease relationship. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. SAMPLING PLAN FOR ASSESSING BROWN ROT SEVERITY IN PEACHES SUBJECTED TO DIFFERENT PLANT EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KELLY PAZOLINI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of brown rot control derivatives has been the focus of intense research owing to the negative effects of the unrelenting usage of fungicides. Brown rot, caused by Monilinia fructicola, is an important post-harvest disease of peaches. The goal of this study was to estimate the optimum sample size of peaches in order to assess the average lesion size and the influence of different plant extracts on the fruits. Three preparation forms (FPE were evaluated, as well as another seven forms of application (FAE of canola and mustard extracts on peaches, with applications of the pathogen’s inoculum. Five fruits were utilized in five repetitions per treatment. Evaluation involved measurement of the fruits’ lesioned areas. The necessary sampling size was determined for estimation of the averages for each treatment and experiment. For measurement of the lesion size, 99 fruits in FPE and 23 fruits in FAE were sufficient for estimating the average with an estimation error of 10%. Based on the same estimation error, the sampling size is contingent on the extracts (canola, and mustard, batches of fruits, forms of extraction, and extract application on the fruits.

  5. Gastrointestinal dysfunction in a community sample of subjects with symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanng, Charlotte; Mortensen, Dennis; Friis, Merete

    2003-01-01

    , there was a non-significant tendency towards spasms at 23-hour pH and pressure recordings (OR = 3.58 (0.4-35.2)), and more discomfort at lactose tolerance test (OR = 5.8 (0.6-51.3)) in persons with IBS compared to subjects without abdominal complaints. CONCLUSION: The results of this population-based study......BACKGROUND/AIM: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects about 15-20% of the population of the Western countries. Traditionally, IBS has been an exclusion diagnosis, but recently definitions have emerged from population-based research. The aim of this population-based study was to evaluate any...... evaluation. IBS was defined as more than weekly experience of abdominal pain and distension, and in addition either borborygmia or altering stool consistency. The diagnostic work-up consisted of gastroscopy, manometry and 23-hour pH and pressure recordings of the oesophagus, lactose tolerance test, barium...

  6. A policy of routine umbilical cord blood gas analysis decreased missing samples from high-risk births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, M; Elvander, C; Johansson, S; Cnattingius, S; Stephansson, O

    2017-01-01

    This study compared obstetric units practicing routine or selective umbilical cord blood gas analysis, with respect to the risk of missing samples in high-risk deliveries and in infants with birth asphyxia. This was a Swedish population-based cohort study that used register data for 155 235 deliveries of live singleton infants between 2008 and 2014. Risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to estimate the association between routine and selective umbilical cord blood gas sampling strategies and the risk of missing samples. Selective sampling increased the risk ratios when routine sampling was used as the reference, with a value of 1.0, and these were significant in high-risk deliveries and birth asphyxia. The risk ratios for selective sampling were large-for-gestational age (9.07), preterm delivery at up to 36 weeks of gestation (8.24), small-for-gestational age (7.94), two or more foetal scalp blood samples (5.96), an Apgar score of less than seven at one minute (2.36), emergency Caesarean section (1.67) and instrumental vaginal delivery (1.24). Compared with routine sampling, selective umbilical cord blood gas sampling significantly increased the risks of missing samples in high-risk deliveries and in infants with birth asphyxia. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Preterm Cord Blood Contains a Higher Proportion of Immature Hematopoietic Progenitors Compared to Term Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Podestà

    Full Text Available Cord blood contains high number of hematopoietic cells that after birth disappear. In this paper we have studied the functional properties of the umbilical cord blood progenitor cells collected from term and preterm neonates to establish whether quantitative and/or qualitative differences exist between the two groups.Our results indicate that the percentage of total CD34+ cells was significantly higher in preterm infants compared to full term: 0.61% (range 0.15-4.8 vs 0.3% (0.032-2.23 p = 0.0001 and in neonates <32 weeks of gestational age (GA compared to those ≥32 wks GA: 0.95% (range 0.18-4.8 and 0.36% (0.15-3.2 respectively p = 0.0025. The majority of CD34+ cells co-expressed CD71 antigen (p<0.05 preterm vs term and grew in vitro large BFU-E, mostly in the second generation. The subpopulations CD34+CD38- and CD34+CD45- resulted more represented in preterm samples compared to term, conversely, Side Population (SP did not show any difference between the two group. The absolute number of preterm colonies (CFCs/10microL resulted higher compared to term (p = 0.004 and these progenitors were able to grow until the third generation maintaining an higher proportion of CD34+ cells (p = 0.0017. The number of colony also inversely correlated with the gestational age (Pearson r = -0.3001 p<0.0168.We found no differences in the isolation and expansion capacity of Endothelial Colony Forming Cells (ECFCs from cord blood of term and preterm neonates: both groups grew in vitro large number of endothelial cells until the third generation and showed a transitional phenotype between mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitors (CD73, CD31, CD34 and CD144The presence, in the cord blood of preterm babies, of high number of immature hematopoietic progenitors and endothelial/mesenchymal stem cells with high proliferative potential makes this tissue an important source of cells for developing new cells therapies.

  8. Vaccination and blood sampling acceptability during Ramadan fasting month: A cross-sectional study in Conakry, Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer-Smadja, Nathan; Ouedraogo, Ramatou; D'Ortenzio, Eric; Cissé, Papa Ndiaga; Zeggani, Zahra; Beavogui, Abdoul Habib; Faye, Sylvain Landry; Le Marcis, Frédéric; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Nguyen, Vinh-Kim

    2017-05-02

    There are few data on the acceptability of vaccination or blood sampling during Ramadan fasting month in Muslim countries. This could impact vaccination campaigns, clinical trials or healthcare during Ramadan. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, we conducted a cross-sectional study on 201 practising Muslims and 10 religious leaders in Conakry, Guinea in the wake of the recent epidemic Ebola epidemic. Acceptability of vaccination and blood sampling during Ramadan were investigated as well as reasons for refusal. Vaccination was judged acceptable during Ramadan by 46% (93/201, 95% CI 0.40-0.53) of practising Muslims versus 80% (8/10, 95% CI 0.49-0.94) of religious leaders (p=0.11). Blood sampling was judged acceptable during Ramadan by 54% (108/201, 95% CI 0.47-0.60) of practising Muslims versus 80% (8/10, 95% CI 0.49-0.94) of religious leaders (p=0.19). The percentage of participants that judged both blood sampling and vaccination acceptable during Ramadan was 40% (81/201, 95% CI 0.34-0.47) for practising Muslims versus 80% (8/10, 95% CI 0.49-0.94) for religious leaders (p=0.048). The most common reasons for refusal of vaccination or blood sampling were that nothing should enter or leave the body during Ramadan (43%), that adverse events could lead to breaking the fast (32%), that blood should not be seen during Ramadan (9%) and that the Quran explicitly forbids it (9%). Although most Muslims leaders and scientists consider that injections including immunization and blood sampling should be authorized during Ramadan, many Muslims in our study judged vaccination or blood sampling unacceptable when fasting. Widely available recommendations on healthcare during Ramadan would be useful to inform Muslims. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Rhinovirus-induced alterations on peripheral blood mononuclear cell phenotype and costimulatory molecule expression in normal and atopic asthmatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, N G; Stanciu, L A; Papi, A; Holgate, S T; Johnston, S L

    2002-04-01

    Rhinovirus (RV) infection is the commonest trigger of acute asthma exacerbations; however, the immune response to these viruses and any potential implications in the mechanisms leading to asthma exacerbations are not well understood. To assess the effects of in vitro RV infection on the phenotype and expression of costimulatory molecules on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from normal and atopic asthmatic subjects, as a model for RV antigen presentation. PBMC from seven normal and seven asthmatic subjects were exposed to one infectious unit/cell of RV16 for 48 h. Surface expression of CD25, CD28, CD40, CD54, CD80, CD86 and CTLA-4 was evaluated on CD3, CD4, CD8, CD14 and CD19 PBMC subpopulations by three-colour flow cytometry. No changes in the percentage of CD3, CD4, CD8 or CD19 were observed. CD14 was significantly reduced by the infection and this was more pronounced in normal subjects. On Th cells CTLA-4 was increased after RV infection only in the asthmatic group. Levels of CD80 and CD86 in the control cultures were lower in the asthmatic group. RV infection induced a significant increase of CD80 on monocytes and of CD86 on B cells, which occurred in both groups but were less marked in atopic asthmatic subjects. Exposure of PBMC to RV is able to activate the antigen presentation machinery. Differences between normal and atopic asthmatic individuals are compatible with the hypothesis that an aberrant immune response to RV may be involved in the development of acute exacerbations in atopic asthmatic subjects.

  10. IPP-rich milk protein hydrolysate lowers blood pressure in subjects with stage 1 hypertension, a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kloek Joris

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Milk derived peptides have been identified as potential antihypertensive agents. The primary objective was to investigate the effectiveness of IPP-rich milk protein hydrolysates (MPH on reducing blood pressure (BP as well as to investigate safety parameters and tolerability. The secondary objective was to confirm or falsify ACE inhibition as the mechanism underlying BP reductions by measuring plasma renin activity and angiotensin I and II. Methods We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover study including 70 Caucasian subjects with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension. Study treatments consisted of daily consumption of two capsules MPH1 (each containing 7.5 mg Isoleucine-Proline-Proline; IPP, MPH2 (each containing 6.6 mg Methionine-Alanine-Proline, 2.3 mg Leucine-Proline-Proline, 1.8 mg IPP, or placebo (containing cellulose for 4 weeks. Results In subjects with stage 1 hypertension, MPH1 lowered systolic BP by 3.8 mm Hg (P = 0.0080 and diastolic BP by 2.3 mm Hg (P = 0.0065 compared with placebo. In prehypertensive subjects, the differences in BP between MPH1 and placebo were not significant. MPH2 did not change BP significantly compared with placebo in stage I hypertensive or prehypertensive subjects. Intake of MPHs was well tolerated and safe. No treatment differences in hematology, clinical laboratory parameters or adverse effects were observed. No significant differences between MPHs and placebo were found in plasma renin activity, or angiotensin I and II. Conclusions MPH1, containing IPP and no minerals, exerts clinically relevant BP lowering effects in subjects with stage 1 hypertension. It may be included in lifestyle changes aiming to prevent or reduce high BP. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00471263

  11. Development and Evaluation of a Blood Culture PCR Assay for Rapid Detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A in Clinical Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liqing; Jones, Claire; Gibani, Malick M; Dobinson, Hazel; Thomaides-Brears, Helena; Shrestha, Sonu; Blohmke, Christoph J; Darton, Thomas C; Pollard, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Enteric fever remains an important cause of morbidity in many low-income countries and Salmonella Paratyphi A has emerged as the aetiological agent in an increasing proportion of cases. Lack of adequate diagnostics hinders early diagnosis and prompt treatment of both typhoid and paratyphoid but development of assays to identify paratyphoid has been particularly neglected. Here we describe the development of a rapid and sensitive blood culture PCR method for detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A from blood, potentially allowing for appropriate diagnosis and antimicrobial treatment to be initiated on the same day. Venous blood samples from volunteers experimentally challenged orally with Salmonella Paratyphi A, who subsequently developed paratyphoid, were taken on the day of diagnosis; 10 ml for quantitative blood culture and automated blood culture, and 5 ml for blood culture PCR. In the latter assay, bacteria were grown in tryptone soy broth containing 2.4% ox bile and micrococcal nuclease for 5 hours (37°C) before bacterial DNA was isolated for PCR detection targeting the fliC-a gene of Salmonella Paratyphi A. An optimized broth containing 2.4% ox bile and micrococcal nuclease, as well as a PCR test was developed for a blood culture PCR assay of Salmonella Paratyphi A. The volunteers diagnosed with paratyphoid had a median bacterial burden of 1 (range 0.1-6.9) CFU/ml blood. All the blood culture PCR positive cases where a positive bacterial growth was shown by quantitative blood culture had a bacterial burden of ≥ 0.3 CFU/ ml blood. The blood culture PCR assay identified an equal number of positive cases as automated blood culture at higher bacterial loads (≥0.3 CFU/ml blood), but utilized only half the volume of specimens. The blood culture PCR method for detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A can be completed within 9 hours and offers the potential for same-day diagnosis of enteric fever. Using 5 ml blood, it exhibited a lower limit of detection equal to 0.3 CFU

  12. Development and Evaluation of a Blood Culture PCR Assay for Rapid Detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A in Clinical Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqing Zhou

    Full Text Available Enteric fever remains an important cause of morbidity in many low-income countries and Salmonella Paratyphi A has emerged as the aetiological agent in an increasing proportion of cases. Lack of adequate diagnostics hinders early diagnosis and prompt treatment of both typhoid and paratyphoid but development of assays to identify paratyphoid has been particularly neglected. Here we describe the development of a rapid and sensitive blood culture PCR method for detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A from blood, potentially allowing for appropriate diagnosis and antimicrobial treatment to be initiated on the same day.Venous blood samples from volunteers experimentally challenged orally with Salmonella Paratyphi A, who subsequently developed paratyphoid, were taken on the day of diagnosis; 10 ml for quantitative blood culture and automated blood culture, and 5 ml for blood culture PCR. In the latter assay, bacteria were grown in tryptone soy broth containing 2.4% ox bile and micrococcal nuclease for 5 hours (37°C before bacterial DNA was isolated for PCR detection targeting the fliC-a gene of Salmonella Paratyphi A.An optimized broth containing 2.4% ox bile and micrococcal nuclease, as well as a PCR test was developed for a blood culture PCR assay of Salmonella Paratyphi A. The volunteers diagnosed with paratyphoid had a median bacterial burden of 1 (range 0.1-6.9 CFU/ml blood. All the blood culture PCR positive cases where a positive bacterial growth was shown by quantitative blood culture had a bacterial burden of ≥ 0.3 CFU/ ml blood. The blood culture PCR assay identified an equal number of positive cases as automated blood culture at higher bacterial loads (≥0.3 CFU/ml blood, but utilized only half the volume of specimens.The blood culture PCR method for detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A can be completed within 9 hours and offers the potential for same-day diagnosis of enteric fever. Using 5 ml blood, it exhibited a lower limit of detection

  13. Development and Evaluation of a Blood Culture PCR Assay for Rapid Detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A in Clinical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liqing; Jones, Claire; Gibani, Malick M.; Dobinson, Hazel; Thomaides-Brears, Helena; Shrestha, Sonu; Blohmke, Christoph J.; Darton, Thomas C.; Pollard, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Enteric fever remains an important cause of morbidity in many low-income countries and Salmonella Paratyphi A has emerged as the aetiological agent in an increasing proportion of cases. Lack of adequate diagnostics hinders early diagnosis and prompt treatment of both typhoid and paratyphoid but development of assays to identify paratyphoid has been particularly neglected. Here we describe the development of a rapid and sensitive blood culture PCR method for detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A from blood, potentially allowing for appropriate diagnosis and antimicrobial treatment to be initiated on the same day. Methods Venous blood samples from volunteers experimentally challenged orally with Salmonella Paratyphi A, who subsequently developed paratyphoid, were taken on the day of diagnosis; 10 ml for quantitative blood culture and automated blood culture, and 5 ml for blood culture PCR. In the latter assay, bacteria were grown in tryptone soy broth containing 2.4% ox bile and micrococcal nuclease for 5 hours (37°C) before bacterial DNA was isolated for PCR detection targeting the fliC-a gene of Salmonella Paratyphi A. Results An optimized broth containing 2.4% ox bile and micrococcal nuclease, as well as a PCR test was developed for a blood culture PCR assay of Salmonella Paratyphi A. The volunteers diagnosed with paratyphoid had a median bacterial burden of 1 (range 0.1–6.9) CFU/ml blood. All the blood culture PCR positive cases where a positive bacterial growth was shown by quantitative blood culture had a bacterial burden of ≥ 0.3 CFU/ ml blood. The blood culture PCR assay identified an equal number of positive cases as automated blood culture at higher bacterial loads (≥0.3 CFU/ml blood), but utilized only half the volume of specimens. Conclusions The blood culture PCR method for detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A can be completed within 9 hours and offers the potential for same-day diagnosis of enteric fever. Using 5 ml blood, it exhibited a

  14. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and can affect people who have a diet ... 2015 More on this topic for: Teens Blood Types Donating Blood Blood Transfusions Anemia Sickle Cell Disease Hemophilia When Cancer Keeps You ...

  15. Copper and zinc level in biological samples from healthy subjects of vegetarian food habit in reference to community environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, R.D.; Patel, T.S.; Pandya, C.B.

    1985-04-01

    Many epidemiologists have found a correlation between copper and zinc in the community environment and diseases, such as myocardial and vascular pathologies, and diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the total daily intake of these two metals in cooked food, drinking water and air and their respective levels in blood and urine. A chronobiological methodology has been adopted to establish the reference values of these two metals in biological samples. It has been observed that the daily intake of copper is within the recommended value, whereas its urinary excretion is high. The daily intake of zinc is below the recommended value and its urinary excretion is also high. Both the metals showed a temporal oscillation pattern in blood and urine. A possible chronic zinc deficiency has been anticipated in this particular ethnic group of vegetarian food habit.

  16. Microjetting from grooved surfaces in metallic samples subjected to laser driven shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rességuier, T.; Lescoute, E.; Sollier, A.; Prudhomme, G.; Mercier, P.

    2014-01-01

    When a shock wave propagating in a solid sample reflects from a free surface, geometrical effects predominantly governed by the roughness and defects of that surface may lead to the ejection of tiny jets that may breakup into high velocity, approximately micrometer-size fragments. This process referred to as microjetting is a major safety issue for engineering applications such as pyrotechnics or armour design. Thus, it has been widely studied both experimentally, under explosive and impact loading, and theoretically. In this paper, microjetting is investigated in the specific loading conditions associated to laser shocks: very short duration of pressure application, very high strain rates, small spatial scales. Material ejection from triangular grooves in the free surface of various metallic samples is studied by combining transverse optical shadowgraphy and time-resolved velocity measurements. The influences of the main parameters (groove angle, shock pressure, nature of the metal) on jet formation and ejection velocity are quantified, and the results are compared to theoretical estimates.

  17. Microjetting from grooved surfaces in metallic samples subjected to laser driven shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rességuier, T. de, E-mail: resseguier@ensma.fr [Institut PPRIME, UPR 3346, CNRS, ENSMA, Université de Poitiers, 1 ave. Clément Ader, 86961 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Lescoute, E.; Sollier, A.; Prudhomme, G.; Mercier, P. [CEA, DAM, DIF, 91297 Arpajon (France)

    2014-01-28

    When a shock wave propagating in a solid sample reflects from a free surface, geometrical effects predominantly governed by the roughness and defects of that surface may lead to the ejection of tiny jets that may breakup into high velocity, approximately micrometer-size fragments. This process referred to as microjetting is a major safety issue for engineering applications such as pyrotechnics or armour design. Thus, it has been widely studied both experimentally, under explosive and impact loading, and theoretically. In this paper, microjetting is investigated in the specific loading conditions associated to laser shocks: very short duration of pressure application, very high strain rates, small spatial scales. Material ejection from triangular grooves in the free surface of various metallic samples is studied by combining transverse optical shadowgraphy and time-resolved velocity measurements. The influences of the main parameters (groove angle, shock pressure, nature of the metal) on jet formation and ejection velocity are quantified, and the results are compared to theoretical estimates.

  18. An everyday phrase may harm your patients: the influence of negative words on pain during venous blood sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Johannes; Aust, Stefanie; Nouri, Kazem; Promberger, Regina

    2012-05-01

    Venous blood sampling is one of the most common diagnostic medical procedures performed in clinical practice. It has been shown that negatively loaded words may result in negative affective reactions and, consequently, in an increased perception of pain. We aimed to evaluate whether common warnings before venous blood sampling might induce unnecessary pain. We included 100 healthy participants (50 females, 50 males) who were randomized to one of the 2 study groups ("sting" vs. "beware"). Directly before insertion of the needle, the participants were warned with either the word "sting" or "beware." Venous blood sampling was performed according to a standardized protocol. Preinterventional and postinterventional blood pressure and heart rate, as well as pain scores after venous blood sampling, were evaluated. There were 98 participants, 26.2 ± 3.2 years of age, who were included into the analysis. Participants experienced significantly more pain after having been warned with the word "sting" compared with the word "beware." The numeric rating scale results were 2.7 ± 1.2 versus 1.9 ± 1.1, respectively (P=0.001). Words associated with pain increase the perception of pain during venous blood sampling. Omitting these words may be a simple and essential method by which to avoid unnecessary pain.

  19. Comparative value of blood and skin samples for diagnosis of spotted fever group rickettsial infection in model animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael L; Snellgrove, Alyssa N; Zemtsova, Galina E

    2016-07-01

    The definitive diagnosis of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses in humans is challenging due to the retrospective nature and cross reactivity of the serological methods and the absence of reliable and consistent samples for molecular diagnostics. Existing data indicate the transient character of bacteremia in experimentally infected animals. The ability of arthropod vectors to acquire rickettsial infection from the laboratory animals in the absence of systemic infection and known tropism of rickettsial agents to endothelial cells of peripheral blood vessels underline the importance of local infection and consequently the diagnostic potential of skin samples. In order to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity of rickettsial DNA detection in blood and skin samples, we compared results of PCR testing in parallel samples collected from model laboratory animals infected with Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri and Rickettsia slovaca-like agent at different time points after infection. Skin samples were collected from ears - away from the site of tick placement and without eschars. Overall, testing of skin samples resulted in a higher proportion of positive results than testing of blood samples. Presented data from model animals demonstrates that testing of skin samples from sites of rickettsial proliferation can provide definitive molecular diagnosis of up to 60-70% of tick-borne SFG rickettsial infections during the acute stage of illness. Detection of pathogen DNA in cutaneous samples is a valuable alternative to blood-PCR at least in model animals. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  20. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling of the antimalarial effect of Actelion-451840 in an induced blood stage malaria study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Andreas; Dingemanse, Jasper; Mathis, Alexandre; Marquart, Louise; Möhrle, Jörg J; McCarthy, James S

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to use data from an experimental induced blood stage malaria clinical trial to characterize the antimalarial activity of the new compound Actelion-451840 using pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling. Then, using simulations from the model, the dose and dosing regimen necessary to achieve cure of infection were derived. Eight healthy male subjects were infected with blood stage P. falciparum. After 7 days, a single dose of 500 mg of Actelion-451840 was administered under fed conditions. Parasite and drug concentrations were sampled frequently. Parasite growth and the relation to drug exposure were estimated using PK/PD modelling. Simulations were then undertaken to derive estimates of the likelihood of achieving cure in different scenarios. Actelion-451840 was safe and well tolerated. Single dose treatment markedly reduced the level of P. falciparum parasitaemia, with a weighted average parasite reduction rate of 73.6 (95% CI 56.1, 96.5) and parasite clearance half-life of 7.7 h (95% CI 7.3, 8.3). A two compartment PK/PD model with a steep concentration-kill effect predicted maximum effect with a sustained concentration of 10-15 ng ml(-1) and cure achieved in 90% of subjects with six once daily doses of 300 mg once daily. Actelion-451840 shows clinical efficacy against P. falciparum infections. The PK/PD model developed from a single proof-of-concept study with eight healthy subjects enabled prediction of therapeutic effects, with cure rates with seven daily doses predicted to be equivalent to artesunate monotherapy. Larger doses or more frequent dosing are not predicted to achieve more rapid cure. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  1. Simultaneous screening and detection of drugs in small blood samples and bloodstains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Harald; Gotta, Jan Christoph; Erdmann, Freidoon; Risse, Manfred; Weiler, Günter

    2002-05-23

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method is described for the screening and detection of morphine, codeine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, methylecgonine, cocaethylene, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THC-COOH), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymetamphetamine (MDMA) and N-methyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine (MBDB) in small blood samples and bloodstains using solid phase SPE columns and a pipetting robot (Gilson Aspec XL). The detection limits are in the order of 1.62-4.10 ng/50 microl spot (amphetamines), 0.15-0.82 ng/50 microl spot (cannabinoids), 1.67-4.70 ng/50 microl spot (cocaine and derivatives) and 4.53-4.91 ng/50 microl spot (opiates) and the correlation factors are between 0.9957 and 0.9999. The method has proven useful in forensic cases with only small sample volumes or bloodstains. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  2. [Stress and night eating syndrome: a comparison study between a sample of psychiatric outpatients and healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacitti, Francesca; Maraone, Annalisa; Zazzara, Francesca; Biondi, Massimo; Caredda, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The Night Eating Syndrome (NES) is a disorder characterized by the clinical features of morning anorexia, evening hyperphagia, and insomnia with awakenings followed by nocturnal food ingestion. The core clinical feature appears to be a delay in the circadian timing of food intake. The diagnosis and early treatment of NES may represent an important means of prevention for obesity. Aims. The aim of the present study was to determine the vulnerability to develop NES between a clinical sample of patients with psychiatric disorders and a non clinical sample. We investigated a possible relation between stress and a dysfunctional eating behaviors as NES. Methods. The Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) has been administered to 147 psychiatric outpatients and to 531 subjects attending the University of L'Aquila. The NEQ is a questionnaire used to evaluate the prevalence of NES. The sample has been also evaluated through the Stress-related Vulnerability Scale (SVS) to measure both perceived stress and social support. Results. The 8.2% of patients scored above the diagnostic cut-off of the NEQ, compared to the 2.1% in the sample of healthy subjects. The majority of patients who had shown NEQ>25 had a diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD). The total scores on the NEQ were strongly associated with the SVS total score and especially with the "lack of social support" subscale. Conclusions. This study shows the increased vulnerability of NES in the sample of psychiatric patients compared to the sample of healthy subjects. The study further confirms the strong association between perceived stress, social support, altered eating behaviors and obesity.

  3. [Detection of antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi in Somoto, Nicaragua, using indirect ELISA and IFI on blood samples on filter paper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, X; Belli, A; Espino, A M

    2000-12-01

    We standardized a solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in order to study the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in asymptomatic persons who live in an area of Nicaragua endemic for Chagas' disease. The test was standardized to analyze filter-paper blood samples, which are easy to transport. In the first phase of our investigation, ELISA was used to study 18 samples of total serum and 18 eluates of blood from patients with chronic Chagas' disease; 30 samples of serum and 30 eluates of blood from healthy people, used as negative controls; and 14 samples of serum and 14 eluates of blood from patients with cutaneous or visceral leishmaniasis, which were used to study cross-reactions. Both with the total-serum and the blood-eluate samples, the ELISA test provided 100% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Cross-reactions in the patient samples were observed only with visceral leishmaniasis. The second phase of our investigation was a population study that included eight rural communities in the area of Somoto, Nicaragua. Through random sampling, filter-paper blood samples were collected from 2,434 people (1,335 men and 1,099 women) from the communities of Aguas Calientes, El Brocal, La Manzana, Las Playas, Los Canales, Santa Isabel, Santa Rosa, and Santa Teresa. Studied by ELISA and by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), the samples included 260 found seropositive by ELISA (10.7%), of which 207 were positive according to IIF (8.5%). With both techniques, the majority of seropositives were among women, but the difference between men and women was not statistically significant. There was a high level of agreement between the results obtained with the two techniques. There was an upward trend with age, with 5.4% of those found seropositive by ELISA being persons 10 years of age or younger and 42.7% of those found seropositive being older than 50. The vast majority of the individuals analyzed were asymptomatic.

  4. Concentration and correlations of perfluoroalkyl substances in whole blood among subjects from three different geographical areas in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chon Rae; Lam, Nguyen Hoang; Cho, Byung Mann; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Cho, Hyeon Seo

    2015-04-15

    Toxicity and persistence of perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) in human have raised considerable concern and several biomonitoring studies throughout the world reported the widespread occurrence of these compounds in human tissues. However, information regarding influence of geographic, lifestyle and demographic factor on PFAS levels in human blood tissues is limited. In this study, whole blood samples collected in 2006-2007 from 319 donors from suburban Seoul (Suwon and Yongin), Busan and Yeosu in Korea were analyzed for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). Blood donors classified into seven age groups with ages ranging from 8 to 82 years, and different lifestyles and socio-economic status. PFOS (median=4.15 ng/mL) was found at the highest concentration with a maximum concentration of 59.1 ng/mL. The concentrations of other PFASs were in the decreasing order of; PFOA (median=1.30 ng/mL)>PFNA (median=0.85 ng/mL)>PFHxS (median=0.47 ng/mL)>PFOSA (median=0.12 ng/mL). Geographical differences in the concentrations of five target PFASs were found. Significant positive relationships between PFAS concentrations and the age of the donors were found. Gender-related differences were found in the concentrations of PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS and PFOSA. No association was found between PFAS levels and several lifestyle factors and socio-economic status which included drinking habit, furniture/carpet in an indoor environment and monthly income. Occupation was an important determinant for PFNA and PFHxS concentrations in the whole blood. Except for PFOSA, significant associations were noted between PFASs concentrations and smoking habit. The results of this study provide information for further public health monitoring and safety management for PFASs in Korea. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Coagulation indices in very preterm infants from cord blood and postnatal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, E; McCallion, N; Kevane, B; Cotter, M; Egan, K; Regan, I; Kirkham, C; Mooney, C; Coulter-Smith, S; Ní Áinle, F

    2015-11-01

    Very premature infants are at high risk of bleeding complications; however, few data exist on ranges for standard coagulation tests. The primary objective of this study was to measure standard plasma coagulation tests and thrombin generation in very premature infants compared with term infants. The secondary objective was to evaluate whether an association existed between coagulation indices and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Cord and peripheral blood of neonates coagulation factor levels were measured and tissue factor-stimulated thrombin generation was characterized. Control plasma was obtained from cord blood of term neonates. One hundred and sixteen infants were recruited. Median (range) GA was 27.7 (23.7-29.9) weeks and mean (SD) birth weight was 1020 (255) g. Median (5th-95th percentile) day 1 PT, APTT and fibrinogen were 17.5 (12.7-26.6) s, 78.7 (48.7-134.3) s and 1.4 (0.72-3.8) g L(-1) , respectively. No difference in endogenous thrombin potential between preterm and term plasma was observed, where samples were available. Levels of coagulation factors II, VII, IX and X, protein C, protein S and antithrombin were reduced in preterm compared with term plasma. Day 1 APTT and PT were not associated with IVH. In the largest cross-sectional study to date of very preterm infants, typical ranges for standard coagulation tests were determined. Despite long clotting times, thrombin generation was observed to be similar in very preterm and term infants. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  6. Correlation of hematocrit, platelet concentration, and plasma coagulation factors with results of thromboelastometry in canine whole blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie A; McMichael, Maureen A; Gilor, Shir; Galligan, Alyssa J; Hoh, Crystal M

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the components of canine whole blood samples that contribute to results of thromboelastometry (TEM). 127 healthy dogs. For each dog, a blood sample was collected from a jugular vein into tubes containing no anticoagulant, EDTA, or citrate anticoagulant. Citrated whole blood samples underwent TEM with tissue factor and TEM with ellagic acid. Indicators of RBC mass and platelet concentration were evaluated, and plasma coagulation tests were performed; data obtained were compared with results of TEM. For technical reasons, samples were not available from all dogs for all tests. Coagulation time was correlated with concentrations of primarily extrinsic pathway coagulation factors for TEM with tissue factor and with most factors via TEM with ellagic acid. Clot formation time, α angle, and maximum clot firmness were highly correlated with fibrinogen and platelet concentrations and some individual factor concentrations. Sample Hct was strongly correlated with most measured variables; low Hct was associated with relative hypercoagulability, and high Hct was associated with relative hypocoagulability. For TEM of canine blood samples, coagulation time was primarily a function of coagulation factor concentrations, whereas other variables were dependent on platelet and fibrinogen concentrations. Sample Hct strongly influenced the results of TEM, likely because RBCs act as a diluent for plasma coagulation factors. Thromboelastometry appeared to be affected by abnormalities of coagulation factors, platelet concentrations, and RBC mass. In samples from anemic patients, results of TEM indicative of hypercoagulability may be artifactual because of low RBC mass.

  7. Weight loss and blood pressure reduction in obese subjects in response to nutritional guidance using information communication technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Kanako; Sakurai, Nozomi; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2009-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome caused by visceral-fat obesity is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. This study used a new information communication technology (ICT) to investigate body weight (BW) and blood pressure (BP) changes in response to nutritional guidance. Obese subjects with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or impaired glucose tolerance received guidance with the ICT method (n = 13) or face-to-face according to conventional methods (n = 39). The effects of the methods were compared. After 12 weeks, significant weight loss and BP reduction were observed in the ICT group. Also, significant higher improvements were observed in total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and HbA(1c) in the ICT-group compared with those groups using the conventional method. The effectiveness of the ICT method in reducing BW, BP, total and LDL cholesterol, and HbA(1c) was demonstrated.

  8. Effect of age and gender on sudomotor and cardiovagal function and blood pressure response to tilt in normal subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, P. A.; Denq, J. C.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.; Dyck, P. J.; O'Brien, P. C.; Slezak, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    Normative data are limited on autonomic function tests, especially beyond age 60 years. We therefore evaluated these tests in a total of 557 normal subjects evenly distributed by age and gender from 10 to 83 years. Heart rate (HR) response to deep breathing fell with increasing age. Valsalva ratio varied with both age and gender. QSART (quantitative sudomotor axon-reflex test) volume was consistently greater in men (approximately double) and progressively declined with age for all three lower extremity sites but not the forearm site. Orthostatic blood pressure reduction was greater with increasing age. HR at rest was significantly higher in women, and the increment with head-up tilt fell with increasing age. For no tests did we find a regression to zero, and some tests seem to level off with increasing age, indicating that diagnosis of autonomic failure was possible to over 80 years of age.

  9. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during isoflurane-induced hypotension in patients subjected to surgery for cerebral aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J B; Cold, G E; Hansen, E S

    1987-01-01

    ). Controlled hypotension to an average MAP of 50-55 mm Hg was induced by increasing the dose of isoflurane, and maintained at an inspired concentration of 2.2 +/- 0.2%. This resulted in a significant decrease in CMRO2 (to 1.73 +/- 0.16 ml/100 g min-1), while CBF was unchanged. After the clipping......Cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen were measured during isoflurane-induced hypotension in 10 patients subjected to craniotomy for clipping of a cerebral aneurysm. Flow and metabolism were measured 5-13 days after the subarachnoid haemorrhage by a modification...... of the aneurysm the isoflurane concentration was reduced to 0.75%. There was a significant increase in CBF, although CMRO2 was unchanged, compared with pre-hypotensive values. These changes might offer protection to brain tissue during periods of induced hypotension....

  10. Risk Stratification by 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate in 5322 Subjects From 11 Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boggia, José; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    subjects (median age, 51.8 years; 43.1% women) randomly recruited from 11 populations, who had baseline measurements of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP(24)) and eGFR. We computed hazard ratios using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression. Median follow-up was 9.3 years. In fully adjusted models......, which included both ABP(24) and eGFR, ABP(24) predicted (P≤0.008) both total (513 deaths) and cardiovascular (206) mortality; eGFR only predicted cardiovascular mortality (P=0.012). Furthermore, ABP(24) predicted (P≤0.0056) fatal combined with nonfatal events as a result of all cardiovascular causes...... (555 events), cardiac disease (335 events), or stroke (218 events), whereas eGFR only predicted the composite cardiovascular end point and stroke (P≤0.035). The interaction terms between ABP(24) and eGFR were all nonsignificant (P≥0.082). For cardiovascular mortality, the composite cardiovascular end...

  11. Exercise responsive genes measured in peripheral blood of women with chronic fatigue syndrome and matched control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whistler, Toni; Jones, James F; Unger, Elizabeth R; Vernon, Suzanne D

    2005-03-24

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is defined by debilitating fatigue that is exacerbated by physical or mental exertion. To search for markers of CFS-associated post-exertional fatigue, we measured peripheral blood gene expression profiles of women with CFS and matched controls before and after exercise challenge. Women with CFS and healthy, age-matched, sedentary controls were exercised on a stationary bicycle at 70% of their predicted maximum workload. Blood was obtained before and after the challenge, total RNA was extracted from mononuclear cells, and signal intensity of the labeled cDNA hybridized to a 3800-gene oligonucleotide microarray was measured. We identified differences in gene expression among and between subject groups before and after exercise challenge and evaluated differences in terms of Gene Ontology categories. Exercise-responsive genes differed between CFS patients and controls. These were in genes classified in chromatin and nucleosome assembly, cytoplasmic vesicles, membrane transport, and G protein-coupled receptor ontologies. Differences in ion transport and ion channel activity were evident at baseline and were exaggerated after exercise, as evidenced by greater numbers of differentially expressed genes in these molecular functions. These results highlight the potential use of an exercise challenge combined with microarray gene expression analysis in identifying gene ontologies associated with CFS.

  12. Exercise responsive genes measured in peripheral blood of women with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and matched control subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unger Elizabeth R

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is defined by debilitating fatigue that is exacerbated by physical or mental exertion. To search for markers of CFS-associated post-exertional fatigue, we measured peripheral blood gene expression profiles of women with CFS and matched controls before and after exercise challenge. Results Women with CFS and healthy, age-matched, sedentary controls were exercised on a stationary bicycle at 70% of their predicted maximum workload. Blood was obtained before and after the challenge, total RNA was extracted from mononuclear cells, and signal intensity of the labeled cDNA hybridized to a 3800-gene oligonucleotide microarray was measured. We identified differences in gene expression among and between subject groups before and after exercise challenge and evaluated differences in terms of Gene Ontology categories. Exercise-responsive genes differed between CFS patients and controls. These were in genes classified in chromatin and nucleosome assembly, cytoplasmic vesicles, membrane transport, and G protein-coupled receptor ontologies. Differences in ion transport and ion channel activity were evident at baseline and were exaggerated after exercise, as evidenced by greater numbers of differentially expressed genes in these molecular functions. Conclusion These results highlight the potential use of an exercise challenge combined with microarray gene expression analysis in identifying gene ontologies associated with CFS.

  13. Comparison of complete blood counts in samples obtained from healthy dogs and cats by use of standard and microsample blood collection tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittemore, Jacqueline C; Flatland, Bente

    2010-08-01

    To compare results of a CBC performed on blood samples obtained from healthy dogs and cats by use of standard and microsample collection tubes. Evaluation study. 29 healthy client-owned animals (14 dogs and 15 cats). A blood sample (3 mL) was collected from each animal; 2.5 mL was transferred into a vacuum tube that contained sodium EDTA, and 0.5 mL was transferred into a microsample tube that contained sodium EDTA. Variables evaluated were total numbers of RBCs and WBCs, hemoglobin concentration, Hct, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean platelet volume, and plasma total protein concentration as well as neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil, and platelet counts. Results for the 2 types of tube in each species were compared by use of Pearson correlation coefficients, Passing-Bablok regression analysis, and Bland-Altman analysis. The Pearson correlation coefficient was low for basophil count in cats and moderate, high, or very high for all other variables. Constant and proportional biases were identified for MCHC in dogs by use of Passing-Bablok regression analysis, although the mean difference between types of blood collection tubes was small. No evidence of constant or proportional bias for any other variable was revealed by regression analysis or Bland-Altman analysis. Samples obtained from healthy dogs and cats by use of microsample blood collection tubes provided clinically equivalent CBC results, compared with results for samples obtained by use of standard blood collection tubes, and minimized the total sample volume collected for diagnostic testing.

  14. Factors associated with hospital service satisfaction in a sample of Arab subjects with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Zayed Adel A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessment of patients' satisfaction with health care services could help to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the system and provide guidance for further development. The study's objectives were to: (i assess the pattern of satisfaction with hospital care for a sample of people with schizophrenia in Kuwait, using the Verona Service Satisfaction Scale (VSSS-EU; ii compare the pattern of satisfaction with those of similar studies; and iii assess the association of VSSS seven domains with a number of variables representing met and unmet needs for care, family caregiver burden, severity of psychopathology, level of psychosocial functioning, socio-demographic characteristics, psychological well-being and objective quality of life. Methods Consecutive outpatients in stable condition and their family caregivers were interviewed with the VSSS-EU and measures of needs for care, caregiver burden, quality of life and psychopathology. Results There were 130 patients (66.1%m, mean age 36.8. While over two-thirds expressed satisfaction with the domains of "overall satisfaction", "professionals' skills", "access", "efficacy", and "relatives' involvement", only about one-third were satisfied with the domains of "information" and "types of intervention". The later two domains were the areas in which European patients had better satisfaction than our patients, while our patients expressed better satisfaction than the Europeans in the domain of "relatives' involvement". In multiple regression analyses, self-esteem, positive and negative affect were the most important correlates of the domains of service satisfaction, while clinical severity, caregiver burden and health unmet needs for care played relatively minor roles. Conclusion The noted differences and similarities with the international data, as well as the predictive power of self-esteem and affective state, support the impression that patients' attitudes towards psychiatric care

  15. Search for the presence of six Mycoplasma species in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of subjects seropositive and seronegative for human immunodeficiency virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Kovacic, R; Launay, V; Tuppin, P; Lafeuillade, A; Feuillie, V; Montagnier, L; Grau, O

    1996-01-01

    The prevalence of Mycoplasma fermentans, Mycoplasma pirum, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, and Mycoplasma penetrans was investigated by using specific PCR assays with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects infected or not infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Only M. fermentans was detected in 5.8% of 154 HIV-seropositive and 11.1% of 90 HIV-seronegative subjects.

  16. Liver kinetics of glucose analogs measured in pigs by PET: importance of dual-input blood sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, O L; Bass, L; Roelsgaard, K

    2001-01-01

    -tissue exchange. Furthermore, the arterial input led to absurdly low estimates for the extracellular volume compared with the independently measured hepatic blood volume of 0.25 +/- 0.01 mL/mL (milliliter blood per milliliter liver tissue). In contrast, the use of a dual-input function provided parameter...... parameters, because of ignorance of the dual blood supply from the hepatic artery and the portal vein to the liver. METHODS: Six pigs underwent PET after [15O]carbon monoxide inhalation, 3-O-[11C]methylglucose (MG) injection, and [18F]FDG injection. For the glucose scans, PET data were acquired for 90 min....... Hepatic arterial and portal venous blood samples and flows were measured during the scan. The dual-input function was calculated as the flow-weighted input. RESULTS: For both MG and FDG, the compartmental analysis using arterial input led to systematic underestimation of the rate constants for rapid blood...

  17. Are blood pressure and diabetes additive or synergistic risk factors? outcome in 8494 subjects randomly recruited from 10 populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Hansen, Tine W; Li, Yan

    2011-01-01

    It remains unknown whether diabetes and high blood pressure (BP) are simply additive risk factors for cardiovascular outcome or whether they act synergistically and potentiate one another. We performed 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring in 8494 subjects (mean age, 54.6 years; 47.0% women; 6.9% diabetic...... as the reference group, the adjusted hazard ratios for the cardiovascular endpoint were 1.35 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.87-2.11) for white-coat hypertension, 1.78 (95% CI, 1.22-2.60) for masked hypertension and 2.44 (95% CI, 1.92-3.11) for sustained hypertension. The hazard ratios for non-diabetic subjects...... were not different from those of diabetic patients (P-values for interaction, 0.09¿P¿0.72). In conclusion, in a large international population-based database, both diabetes mellitus and BP contributed equally to the risk of cardiovascular complications without evidence for a synergistic effect.Hypertension...

  18. Significantly Reduced Blood Pressure Measurement Variability for Both Normotensive and Hypertensive Subjects: Effect of Polynomial Curve Fitting of Oscillometric Pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fangwei; Chen, Fei; Zhu, Mingping; Chen, Aiqing; Zheng, Dingchang

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to compare within-subject blood pressure (BP) variabilities from different measurement techniques. Cuff pressures from three repeated BP measurements were obtained from 30 normotensive and 30 hypertensive subjects. Automatic BPs were determined from the pulses with normalised peak amplitude larger than a threshold (0.5 for SBP, 0.7 for DBP, and 1.0 for MAP). They were also determined from cuff pressures associated with the above thresholds on a fitted curve polynomial curve of the oscillometric pulse peaks. Finally, the standard deviation (SD) of three repeats and its coefficient of variability (CV) were compared between the two automatic techniques. For the normotensive group, polynomial curve fitting significantly reduced SD of repeats from 3.6 to 2.5 mmHg for SBP and from 3.7 to 2.1 mmHg for MAP and reduced CV from 3.0% to 2.2% for SBP and from 4.3% to 2.4% for MAP (all P oscillometric pulses had the ability to reduce automatic BP measurement variability.

  19. Efficacy of the FilmArray blood culture identification panel for direct molecular diagnosis of infectious diseases from samples other than blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micó, Miquel; Navarro, Ferran; de Miniac, Daniela; González, Yésica; Brell, Albert; López, Cristina; Sánchez-Reus, Ferran; Mirelis, Beatriz; Coll, Pere

    2015-12-01

    Molecular-based techniques reduce the delay in diagnosing infectious diseases and therefore contribute to better patient outcomes. We assessed the FilmArray blood culture identification (BCID) panel (Biofire Diagnostics/bioMérieux) directly on clinical specimens other than blood: cerebrospinal, joint, pleural and ascitic fluids, bronchoscopy samples and abscesses. We compared the results from 88 samples obtained by culture-based techniques. The percentage of agreement between the two methods was 75 % with a Cohen κ value of 0.51. Global sensitivity and specificity using the FilmArray BCID panel were 71 and 97 %, respectively. Sensitivity was poorer in samples with a low bacterial load, such as ascitic and pleural fluids (25 %), whereas the sensitivity for abscess samples was high (89 %). These findings suggest that the FilmArray BCID panel could be useful to perform microbiological diagnosis directly from samples other than positive blood cultures, as it offers acceptable sensitivity and moderate agreement with conventional microbiological methods. Nevertheless, cost-benefit studies should be performed before introducing this method into algorithms for microbiological diagnostics.

  20. Effect of shear stress in the flow through the sampling needle on concentration of nanovesicles isolated from blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štukelj, Roman; Schara, Karin; Bedina-Zavec, Apolonija; Šuštar, Vid; Pajnič, Manca; Pađen, Ljubiša; Krek, Judita Lea; Kralj-Iglič, Veronika; Mrvar-Brečko, Anita; Janša, Rado

    2017-02-15

    During harvesting of nanovesicles (NVs) from blood, blood cells and other particles in blood are exposed to mechanical forces which may cause activation of platelets, changes of membrane properties, cell deformation and shedding of membrane fragments. We report on the effect of shear forces imposed upon blood samples during the harvesting process, on the concentration of membrane nanovesicles in isolates from blood. Mathematical models of blood flow through the needle during sampling with vacuumtubes and with free flow were constructed, starting from the Navier-Stokes formalism. Blood was modeled as a Newtonian fluid. Work of the shear stress was calculated. In experiments, nanovesicles were isolated by repeated centrifugation (up to 17,570×g) and washing, and counted by flow cytometry. It was found that the concentration of nanovesicles in the isolates positively corresponded with the work by the shear forces in the flow of the sample through the needle. We have enhanced the effect of the shear forces by shaking the samples prior to isolation with glass beads. Imaging of isolates by scanning electron microscopy revealed closed globular structures of a similar size and shape as those obtained from unshaken plasma by repetitive centrifugation and washing. Furthermore, the sizes and shapes of NVs obtained by shaking erythrocytes corresponded to those isolated from shaken platelet-rich plasma and from unshaken platelet rich plasma, and not to those induced in erythrocytes by exogenously added amphiphiles. These results are in favor of the hypothesis that a significant pool of nanovesicles in blood isolates is created during their harvesting. The identity, shape, size and composition of NVs in isolates strongly depend on the technology of their harvesting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Trace samples of human blood in mosquitoes as a forensic investigation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabêlo, K C N; Albuquerque, C M R; Tavares, V B; Santos, S M; Souza, C A; Oliveira, T C; Oliveira, N C L; Crovella, S

    2015-11-23

    Investigations of any type of crime invariably starts at the crime scene by collecting evidence. Thus, the purpose of this research was to collect and analyze an entomological trace from an environment that is similar to those of indoor crime scenes. Hematophagous mosquitoes were collected from two residential units; saliva of volunteers that were residents in the units was also collected for genetic analysis as reference samples. We examined the allele frequencies of 15 short tandem repeat loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818, and FGA) and amelogenin. A total of 26 female hematophagous mosquitoes were identified as Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus; we were able to obtain 11 forensically valid genetic profiles, with a minimum of 0.028203 ng/μL of human DNA. Thus, the results of this study showed that it was possible to correlate human genetic information from mosquitoes with the volunteer reference samples, which validates the use of this information as forensic evidence. Furthermore, we observed mixed genetic profiles from one mosquito. Therefore, it is clearly important to collect these insects indoors where crimes were committed, because it may be possible to find intact genetic profiles of suspects in the blood found in the digestive tract of hematophagous mosquitoes for later comparison to identify an offender and/or exclude suspects.

  2. Correction of an input function for errors introduced with automated blood sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlyer, D.J.; Dewey, S.L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Accurate kinetic modeling of PET data requires an precise arterial plasma input function. The use of automated blood sampling machines has greatly improved the accuracy but errors can be introduced by the dispersion of the radiotracer in the sampling tubing. This dispersion results from three effects. The first is the spreading of the radiotracer in the tube due to mass transfer. The second is due to the mechanical action of the peristaltic pump and can be determined experimentally from the width of a step function. The third is the adsorption of the radiotracer on the walls of the tubing during transport through the tube. This is a more insidious effect since the amount recovered from the end of the tube can be significantly different than that introduced into the tubing. We have measured the simple mass transport using [{sup 18}F]fluoride in water which we have shown to be quantitatively recovered with no interaction with the tubing walls. We have also carried out experiments with several radiotracers including [{sup 18}F]Haloperidol, [{sup 11}C]L-deprenyl, [{sup 18}]N-methylspiroperidol ([{sup 18}F]NMS) and [{sup 11}C]buprenorphine. In all cases there was some retention of the radiotracer by untreated silicone tubing. The amount retained in the tubing ranged from 6% for L-deprenyl to 30% for NMS. The retention of the radiotracer was essentially eliminated after pretreatment with the relevant unlabeled compound. For example less am 2% of the [{sup 18}F]NMS was retained in tubing treated with unlabelled NMS. Similar results were obtained with baboon plasma although the amount retained in the untreated tubing was less in all cases. From these results it is possible to apply a mathematical correction to the measured input function to account for mechanical dispersion and to apply a chemical passivation to the tubing to reduce the dispersion due to adsorption of the radiotracer on the tubing walls.

  3. Triclosan/triclocarban levels in maternal and umbilical blood samples and their association with fetal malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ling; Qiao, Pengyun; Shi, Ying; Ruan, Yan; Yin, Jie; Wu, Qingqing; Shao, Bing

    2017-03-01

    Triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) are widely used as antimicrobial compounds in consumer products. TCS and TCC are frequently found in waste water and sewage. In this study, we investigate the potential impact of exposure to triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) on fetal abnormalities. We measured TCS and TCC levels in maternal and umbilical cord blood samples from 39 pregnant women diagnosed with fetal or post-birth abnormalities at Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital. 52 pregnant women who gave birth to healthy neonates during the same period of time were included as controls. Applying ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, TCS and TCC concentrations were measured in maternal and fetal sera. Significantly increased levels of TCS were detected in maternal sera from mothers with abnormal births. Similar levels of TCS or TCC were found in maternal and cord sera in control group. The concentrations of TCS or TCC in maternal sera correlated with those in umbilical cord sera (r=0.649, PTCC, and high exposure to TCS may be potentially associated with increased risk for fetal malformations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. BLOOD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    benefit (altruism). '35 An individual who gives blood in replacement for that which has been given to his relation is referred to as family replacement donor. '2 But when a person donates blood for the purpose of transfusing a. defined patient, such a person is referred to as. AHMED S. G. AND HASSAN A. W. a directed donor.

  5. Effect of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B and -7 polymorphisms on blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations in healthy subjects with a history of moderate alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorino, Roberta; Iuliano, Luigi; Vecchioni, Alessia; Arzani, Dario; Milic, Mirta; Annunziata, Francesca; Zerbinati, Chiara; Capoluongo, Ettore; Bonassi, Stefano; McKay, James D; Boccia, Stefania

    2017-07-21

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of ADH1B and ADH7 genotypes on blood acetaldehyde and ethanol levels after alcohol ingestion, and to measure the genotoxic effect of smoking and ethanol on the buccal cells, also controlling for ADH variants. We recruited healthy Italian subjects with at least a moderate history of alcohol consumption. All subjects were given an alcoholic drink of 0.4 g ethanol /kg of body weight. Blood venous samples were collected at baseline, and 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after ingestion. Buccal cells were collected before ethanol ingestion. Sixty subjects were enrolled in the study. Individuals with the ADH1B GG genotype had median ethanol levels of 5.0mM (IQR 3.4-7.2), and those with the ADH1B GT/TT genotype had 4.7mM (IQR 4.2-4.8). Corresponding acetaldehyde levels were 1.5μM (IQR 0.7-2.6) for ADH1B GG genotype and 1.6μM (IQR 1.5-1.7) for ADH1B CG/GG genotype. Individuals with the ADH7 CC genotype had median ethanol levels of 5.0mM (IQR 3.3-7.2), while 5.0mM (IQR 4.7-5.6) was in those with the ADH7 CG/GG genotype. Corresponding acetaldehyde levels were 1.5 μM (IQR 0.7-2.6) for ADH7 CC genotype and 1.5 μM (IQR 1.4-1.6) for ADH7 CG/GG genotypes. A non-significant increase in the frequency of karyolitic and pyknotic cells was found in the group of heavy drinkers and current smokers, when compared to the moderate drinkers and the non-smokers. Our study does not support the hypothesis that ADH1B and ADH7 genotypes affect blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentration. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Effects of short-term exercise in the heat on thermoregulation, blood parameters, sweat secretion and sweat composition of tropic-dwelling subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saat, Mohamed; Sirisinghe, Roland Gamini; Singh, Rabindarjeet; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2005-09-01

    This study investigates the effects of a short-term aerobic training program in a hot environment on thermoregulation, blood parameters, sweat secretion and composition in tropic-dwellers who have been exposed to passive heat. Sixteen healthy Malaysian-Malay male volunteers underwent heat acclimation (HA) by exercising on a bicycle ergometer at 60% of VO2max for 60 min each day in a hot environment (Ta: 31.1+/-0.1 degrees C, rh: 70.0+/-4.4%) for 14 days. All parameters mentioned above were recorded on Day 1 and at the end of HA (Day 16). On these two days, subjects rested for 10 min, then cycled at 60% of VO2max for 60 min and rested again for 20 min (recovery) in an improvised heat chamber. Rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk) heart rate (HR), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation (TS), local sweat rate and percent dehydration were recorded during the test. Sweat concentration was analysed for sodium [Na+]sweat and potassium. Blood samples were analysed for biochemical changes, electrolytes and hematologic indices. Urine samples were collected before and after each test and analysed for electrolytes.After the period of acclimation the percent dehydration during exercise significantly increased from 1.77+/-0.09% (Day 1) to 2.14+/-0.07% (Day 16). Resting levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cells decreased significantly while [Na+]sweat increased significantly. For Tre and Tsk there were no differences at rest. Tre, HR, RPE, TS, plasma lactate concentration, hemoglobin and hematocrit at the 40th min of exercise were significantly lower after the period of acclimation but mean corpuscular hemoglobin and serum osmolality were significantly higher while no difference was seen in [Na+]sweat and Tsk. It can be concluded that tropic-dwelling subjects, although exposed to prolonged passive heat exposure, were not fully heat acclimatized. To achieve further HA, they should gradually expose themselves to exercise-heat stress in a

  7. Cheek swabs, SNP chips, and CNVs: Assessing the quality of copy number variant calls generated with subject-collected mail-in buccal brush DNA samples on a high-density genotyping microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erickson Stephen W

    2012-06-01

    statistically significantly different than the average correlation of 0.526 between mother-offspring dyads of blood samples (p=0.302. Conclusions We observed performance from the subject-collected mail-in buccal brush samples comparable to that of blood. These results show that such DNA samples can be used for genome-wide scans of both SNPs and CNVs, and that high rates of CNV concordance were achieved whether using a change-point-based algorithm or one based on a hidden Markov model (HMM.

  8. Acute effects of blood flow restriction on exercise-induced free radical production in young and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centner, Christoph; Zdzieblik, Denise; Dressler, Patrick; Fink, Bruno; Gollhofer, Albert; König, Daniel

    2018-02-16

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the acute local and systemic effects of low-load resistance exercise (30% 1RM) with partial vascular occlusion on exercise-induced free radical production and to compare these effects with other established training methods. Fifteen young and healthy males (25 ± 3 years) performed the following four sessions in a counterbalanced order on separate days: low-load resistance exercise (LI: 30% 1RM), low-load resistance exercise with blood flow restriction (LIBR: 30% 1RM), high-load resistance exercise (HI: 80% 1RM) and an additional session without exercise but blood flow restriction only (BR). Blood samples were obtained 15 minutes prior to and immediately after exercise sessions from the right index finger and first toe. To analyze concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used. Additionally, mitochondrial ROS production was measured by adding inhibitors of electron transport chain complex III. There was an increased systemic ROS generation after the LIBR session from 0.838 ± 0.096-0.901 ± 0.095 µmol/l/min. However, no local or systemic time × condition interaction was detected for ROS production. Regarding mitochondrial ROS production, results were not different between the conditions. Although the low-load resistance exercise session with partial vascular occlusion elicited systemic increases of ROS production, no significant changes were seen on a local level. We assume that this ROS concentration might not be high enough to induce cellular damage but is rather involved in muscle remodulation. However, this needs to be confirmed by future research.

  9. Racial discrimination associated with higher diastolic blood pressure in a sample of American Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Zaneta M; Blair, Irene V; Buchwald, Dedra S; Manson, Spero M

    2017-05-01

    Hypertension prevalence is high among American Indians (AIs). AIs experience a substantial burden of interpersonal racial discrimination, which in other populations has been associated with higher blood pressure. The purpose of this study is to understand whether racial discrimination experiences are associated with higher blood pressure in AIs. We used the Everyday Discrimination Scale to evaluate the relationship between discrimination and measured blood pressure among 77 AIs from two reservation communities in the Northern Plains. We used multivariate linear regression to evaluate the association of racial discrimination with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. Racial discrimination, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were analyzed as continuous variables. All analyses adjusted for sex, waist circumference, age, posttraumatic stress disorder status, and education. We found that 61% of participants experienced discrimination that they attributed to their race or ancestry. Racial discrimination was associated with significantly higher diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.22, SE = 0.09, p = .02), and with a similar non-significant trend toward higher systolic blood pressure (β = 0.25, SE = 0.15, p = .09). The results of this analysis suggest that racial discrimination may contribute to higher diastolic blood pressure within Native communities. These findings highlight one pathway through which the social environment can shape patterns of biology and health in AI and other socially and politically marginalized groups. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  11. Analytical sample preparation strategies for the determination of antimalarial drugs in human whole blood, plasma and urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Monica Escolà; Hansen, Martin; Krogh, Kristine A

    2014-01-01

    Antimalarial drugs commonly referred to as antimalarials, include a variety of compounds with different physicochemical properties. There is a lack of information on antimalarial distribution in the body over time after administration, e.g. the drug concentrations in whole blood, plasma, and urine...... the available sample preparation strategies combined with liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis to determine antimalarials in whole blood, plasma and urine published over the last decade. Sample preparation can be done by protein precipitation, solid-phase extraction, liquid-liquid extraction or dilution. After...

  12. Microbiological comparison of blood culture and amplification of 16S rDNA methods in combination with DGGE for detection of neonatal sepsis in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gudiño, Isela; Yllescas-Medrano, Eucario; Maida-Claros, Rolando; Soriano-Becerril, Diana; Díaz, Nestor F; García-López, Guadalupe; Molina-Hernández, Anayansí; Flores-Herrera, Oscar; Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Francisco J; Del Rosario Peralta-Pérez, María; Flores-Herrera, Héctor

    2017-10-31

    It is estimated that 15% of all newborns admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) for suspected sepsis receive multiple broad-spectrum antibiotics without pathogen identification. The gold standard for bacterial sepsis detection is blood culture, but the sensitivity of this method is very low. Recently, amplification and analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) bacterial gene in combination with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) has proven to be a useful approach for identifying bacteria that are difficult to isolate by standard culture methods. The main goal of this study was to compare two methods used to identify bacteria associated with neonatal sepsis: blood culture and broad range 16S rDNA-DGGE. Twenty-two blood samples were obtained from newborns with (n = 15) or without (n = 7) signs and symptoms of sepsis. Blood samples were screened to identify pathogenic bacteria with two different methods: (1) bacteriological culture and (2) amplification of the variable V3 region of 16S rDNA-DGGE. Blood culture analysis was positive in 40%, whereas 16S rDNA-DGGE was positive in 87% of neonatal sepsis cases. All 16S rDNA-DGGE positive samples were associated with some other signs of neonatal sepsis. Our study shows that the molecular approach with 16S rDNA-DGGE identifies twofold more pathogenic bacteria than bacteriological culture, including complex bacterial communities associated with the development of bacterial sepsis in neonates. What is Known: • Neonatal sepsis affects 2.3% of birth in the NICU with a high mortality risk. • Evidence supports the use of molecular methods as an alternative to blood culture for identification of bacterial associated neonatal sepsis. What is New: • The DGGE gel is a good methodological approach for the identification of bacterial in neonatal blood samples. • This study describes the pattern of electrophoretic mobility obtained by DGGE gels and allows to determine the type of bacteria associated in

  13. Evaluation of changes in birefringence for samples subjected to various stress sources measured with polarization-sensitive OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnowski, Karol; Li, Qingyun; Villiger, Martin; Sampson, David D.

    2017-04-01

    Polarization-sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) has proven useful in determining the stress-induced birefringence of non-biological materials, but such utility in biological tissues subjected to stress has not been well studied yet. To study stress-induced birefringence of biological tissues, we use a swept-source PS-OCT system with passively depth-encoded, orthogonal polarization states in the illumination path and polarization-diversity detection and a Mueller formalism in post-processing. We present measurements of stress-induced changes in the birefringence of non-biological and biological samples that provide useful benchmarks in further assessing the utility of this approach.

  14. Beneficial Effects of Long-Term CPAP Treatment on Sleep Quality and Blood Pressure in Adherent Subjects With Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei-Chen; Huang, Yi-Chih; Lan, Chou-Chin; Wu, Yao-Kuang; Huang, Kuo-Feng

    2015-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Although CPAP is the first treatment choice for moderate-to-severe OSA, acceptance of and adherence to CPAP remain problematic. High CPAP adherence is generally defined as ≥4 h of use/night for ≥70% of the nights monitored. We investigated the long-term beneficial effects of CPAP on sleep quality and blood pressure in subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA according to high or low CPAP adherence. We retrospectively analyzed 121 subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA from August 2008 to July 2012. These subjects were divided into 3 groups: (1) no CPAP treatment (n = 29), (2) low CPAP adherence (n = 28), and (3) high CPAP adherence (n = 64). All subjects were followed up for at least 1 y. The 3 groups were compared regarding anthropometric and polysomnographic variables, presence of cardiovascular comorbidities, and blood pressure at baseline and at the last follow-up. The no-treatment group showed significant increases in oxygen desaturation index and blood pressure. The high-adherence group showed significant improvement in daytime sleepiness, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), oxygen desaturation index, and blood pressure. Although the AHI was also significantly decreased after CPAP treatment in the low-adherence group, blood pressure remained unchanged. CPAP treatment had beneficial effects on both sleep quality and blood pressure only in subjects with OSA and high CPAP adherence who used CPAP for ≥4 h/night for ≥70% of nights monitored. Subjects with low CPAP adherence received beneficial effects on AHI, but not blood pressure. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  15. Detection of bacterial DNA in blood samples from febrile patients: underestimated infection or emerging contamination?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Remco P. H.; Mohammadi, Tamimount; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Danner, Sven A.; van Agtmael, Michiel A.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.

    2004-01-01

    We applied real-time broad-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect bacteraemia in blood from febrile patients. Interpretation of amplification results in relation to clinical data and blood culture outcome was complex, although the reproducibility of the PCR results was good. Sequencing

  16. Sample to answer visualization pipeline for low-cost point-of-care blood cell counting

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, S

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available solutions, and can be particularly beneficial for blood cell count tests, which are often the starting point in the process of diagnosing a patient. The initial focus of this work is on total white and red blood cell counts, using a microfluidic cartridge...

  17. A system for sampling changes in blood pressure from a videotape, using Finapres(TM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Näring, G.W.B.; Wittebrood, J.; Staak, C. van der; DeMey, H.; Schaap, C.

    1996-01-01

    A system is described that measures blood pressure noninvasively and continuously during a videotaped verbal interaction. The system incorporates the use of the Finapres to nonintrusively and continuously measure BP during a verbal interaction. Segments from the interaction, in which blood pressure

  18. Immunosuppressant therapeutic drug monitoring by LC-MS/MS: workflow optimization through automated processing of whole blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Mariela; Artusi, Carlo; Brugnolo, Laura; Antonelli, Giorgia; Zaninotto, Martina; Plebani, Mario

    2013-11-01

    Although, due to its high specificity and sensitivity, LC-MS/MS is an efficient technique for the routine determination of immunosuppressants in whole blood, it involves time-consuming manual sample preparation. The aim of the present study was therefore to develop an automated sample-preparation protocol for the quantification of sirolimus, everolimus and tacrolimus by LC-MS/MS using a liquid handling platform. Six-level commercially available blood calibrators were used for assay development, while four quality control materials and three blood samples from patients under immunosuppressant treatment were employed for the evaluation of imprecision. Barcode reading, sample re-suspension, transfer of whole blood samples into 96-well plates, addition of internal standard solution, mixing, and protein precipitation were performed with a liquid handling platform. After plate filtration, the deproteinised supernatants were submitted for SPE on-line. The only manual steps in the entire process were de-capping of the tubes, and transfer of the well plates to the HPLC autosampler. Calibration curves were linear throughout the selected ranges. The imprecision and accuracy data for all analytes were highly satisfactory. The agreement between the results obtained with manual and those obtained with automated sample preparation was optimal (n=390, r=0.96). In daily routine (100 patient samples) the typical overall total turnaround time was less than 6h. Our findings indicate that the proposed analytical system is suitable for routine analysis, since it is straightforward and precise. Furthermore, it incurs less manual workload and less risk of error in the quantification of whole blood immunosuppressant concentrations than conventional methods. © 2013.

  19. A Comparative Study of Blood Culture Sampling from Umbilical Catheter Line versus Peripheral Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolkarim Hamedi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal sepsis is an important cause of death and morbidity in newborns and is diagnosed by isolation of organism in blood culture. In several reports,reliablity of blood cultures were done from umbi lical catheters,have been demonstrated. The objective of the present study was to determine,wether an inde welling umbilical catheter, could be an alternative site for blood culture. In a prospective study over 6 months during 2006,141 paired blood cultures from 134 infant,were done simultaneously from peripheral site and umbilical catheter (mostly U. V. C,during the first four days of life. Majority of these infants were preterm and admitted to NICU for special care. these infants had indwelling umbilical line and had indication of sepsis workup. A total of 141 pairs of blood cultures were obtained from 134 infants. In 16 infants blood culture pairs were positive for one organism in both peripheral vein and umbilical site. 71. 6% of total cultures (n=11pairs were negative in boths site. A total of 22 pairs were positive in one site only,with 5 positive from peripheral vein only and the other 17 from umblical site. Two pairs were positve in boths site with two different organism. In over all 16 infant (11%of blood were considered to be contaminated. Contamination rate were 2. 4% and 9. 2% for peripheral and umbilical catheter site. Contamination rate increased after 48 hours of age in umbilical catheter. The result showed that after 2 days contamination rate for blood culture taken from catheter line increased and specifity decreased. We recommended that blood culture via umblical catheter in first 2 days in sick neonates with indwelling catheter can be a alternate site of blood culture sampelling.

  20. A Comparative Study of Blood Culture Sampling from Umbilical Catheter Line versus Peripheral Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolkarim Hamedi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "nNeonatal sepsis is an important cause of death and morbidity in newborns and is diagnosed by isolation of organism in blood culture. In several reports,reliablity of blood cultures were done from umbi lical catheters,have been demonstrated. The objective of the present study was to determine,wether an inde welling umbilical catheter, could be an alternative site for blood culture. In a prospective study over 6 months during 2006,141 paired blood cultures from 134 infant,were done simultaneously from peripheral site and umbilical catheter (mostly U. V. C,during the first four days of life. Majority of these infants were preterm and admitted to NICU for special care. these infants had indwelling umbilical line and had indication of sepsis workup. A total of 141 pairs of blood cultures were obtained from 134 infants. In 16 infants blood culture pairs were positive for one organism in both peripheral vein and umbilical site. 71. 6% of total cultures (n=11pairs were negative in boths site. A total of 22 pairs were positive in one site only,with 5 positive from peripheral vein only and the other 17 from umblical site. Two pairs were positve in boths site with two different organism. In over all 16 infant (11%of blood were considered to be contaminated. Contamination rate were 2. 4% and 9. 2% for peripheral and umbilical catheter site. Contamination rate increased after 48 hours of age in umbilical catheter. The result showed that after 2 days contamination rate for blood culture taken from catheter line increased and specifity decreased. We recommended that blood culture via umblical catheter in first 2 days in sick neonates with indwelling catheter can be a alternate site of blood culture sampelling.

  1. Estimating a Logistic Discrimination Functions When One of the Training Samples Is Subject to Misclassification: A Maximum Likelihood Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Nagelkerke

    Full Text Available The problem of discrimination and classification is central to much of epidemiology. Here we consider the estimation of a logistic regression/discrimination function from training samples, when one of the training samples is subject to misclassification or mislabeling, e.g. diseased individuals are incorrectly classified/labeled as healthy controls. We show that this leads to zero-inflated binomial model with a defective logistic regression or discrimination function, whose parameters can be estimated using standard statistical methods such as maximum likelihood. These parameters can be used to estimate the probability of true group membership among those, possibly erroneously, classified as controls. Two examples are analyzed and discussed. A simulation study explores properties of the maximum likelihood parameter estimates and the estimates of the number of mislabeled observations.

  2. Direct polymerase chain reaction from blood and tissue samples for rapid diagnosis of bovine leukemia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimori, Asami; Konnai, Satoru; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Nakahara, Ayako; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-06-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection induces bovine leukemia in cattle and causes significant financial harm to farmers and farm management. There is no effective therapy or vaccine; thus, the diagnosis and elimination of BLV-infected cattle are the most effective method to eradicate the infection. Clinical veterinarians need a simpler and more rapid method of diagnosing infection, because both nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR are labor intensive, time-consuming, and require specialized molecular biology techniques and expensive equipment. In this study, we describe a novel PCR method for amplifying the BLV provirus from whole blood, thus eliminating the need for DNA extraction. Although the sensitivity of PCR directly from whole blood (PCR-DB) samples as measured in bovine blood containing BLV-infected cell lines was lower than that of nested PCR, the PCR-DB technique showed high specificity and reproducibility. Among 225 clinical samples, 49 samples were positive by nested PCR, and 37 samples were positive by PCR-DB. There were no false positive samples; thus, PCR-DB sensitivity and specificity were 75.51% and 100%, respectively. However, the provirus loads of the samples detected by nested PCR and not PCR-DB were quite low. Moreover, PCR-DB also stably amplified the BLV provirus from tumor tissue samples. PCR-DB method exhibited good reproducibility and excellent specificity and is suitable for screening of thousands of cattle, thus serving as a viable alternative to nested PCR and real-time PCR.

  3. Regional Cerebral Blood Flow during Wakeful Rest in Older Subjects with Mild to Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Andrée-Ann; Gagnon, Katia; Arbour, Caroline; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Montplaisir, Jacques; Gagnon, Jean-François; Gosselin, Nadia

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during wakeful rest in older subjects with mild to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and healthy controls, and to identify markers of OSA severity that predict altered rCBF. High-resolution (99m)Tc-HMPAO SPECT imaging during wakeful rest. Research sleep laboratory affiliated with a University hospital. Fifty untreated OSA patients aged between 55 and 85 years, divided into mild, moderate, and severe OSA, and 20 age-matched healthy controls. N/A. Using statistical parametric mapping, rCBF was compared between groups and correlated with clinical, respiratory, and sleep variables. Whereas no rCBF change was observed in mild and moderate groups, participants with severe OSA had reduced rCBF compared to controls in the left parietal lobules, left precentral gyrus, bilateral postcentral gyri, and right precuneus. Reduced rCBF in these regions and in areas of the bilateral frontal and left temporal cortex was associated with more hypopneas, snoring, hypoxemia, and sleepiness. Higher apnea, microarousal, and body mass indexes were correlated to increased rCBF in the basal ganglia, insula, and limbic system. While older individuals with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) had hypoperfusion in the sensorimotor and parietal areas, respiratory variables and subjective sleepiness were correlated with extended regions of hypoperfusion in the lateral cortex. Interestingly, OSA severity, sleep fragmentation, and obesity correlated with increased perfusion in subcortical and medial cortical regions. Anomalies with such a distribution could result in cognitive deficits and reflect impaired vascular regulation, altered neuronal integrity, and/or undergoing neurodegenerative processes. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  4. Significantly Reduced Blood Pressure Measurement Variability for Both Normotensive and Hypertensive Subjects: Effect of Polynomial Curve Fitting of Oscillometric Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangwei Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare within-subject blood pressure (BP variabilities from different measurement techniques. Cuff pressures from three repeated BP measurements were obtained from 30 normotensive and 30 hypertensive subjects. Automatic BPs were determined from the pulses with normalised peak amplitude larger than a threshold (0.5 for SBP, 0.7 for DBP, and 1.0 for MAP. They were also determined from cuff pressures associated with the above thresholds on a fitted curve polynomial curve of the oscillometric pulse peaks. Finally, the standard deviation (SD of three repeats and its coefficient of variability (CV were compared between the two automatic techniques. For the normotensive group, polynomial curve fitting significantly reduced SD of repeats from 3.6 to 2.5 mmHg for SBP and from 3.7 to 2.1 mmHg for MAP and reduced CV from 3.0% to 2.2% for SBP and from 4.3% to 2.4% for MAP (all P<0.01. For the hypertensive group, SD of repeats decreased from 6.5 to 5.5 mmHg for SBP and from 6.7 to 4.2 mmHg for MAP, and CV decreased from 4.2% to 3.6% for SBP and from 5.8% to 3.8% for MAP (all P<0.05. In conclusion, polynomial curve fitting of oscillometric pulses had the ability to reduce automatic BP measurement variability.

  5. Extra virgin olive oil use is associated with improved post-prandial blood glucose and LDL cholesterol in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violi, F; Loffredo, L; Pignatelli, P; Angelico, F; Bartimoccia, S; Nocella, C; Cangemi, R; Petruccioli, A; Monticolo, R; Pastori, D; Carnevale, R

    2015-07-20

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is a key component of the Mediterranean diet and seems to account for the protective effect against cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanism is still elusive. We tested the effect of EVOO, added to Mediterranean-type meal, on post-prandial glycemic and lipid profile. Post-prandial glycemic and lipid profile were investigated in 25 healthy subjects who were randomly allocated in a cross-over design to a Mediterranean-type meal added with or without 10 g EVOO (first study), or Mediterranean-type meal with EVOO (10 g) or corn oil (10 g; second study). Glycemic profile, which included glucose, insulin, dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4) protein and activity, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and lipid profile, which included, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (LDL-C), oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C), were analyzed before and 2 h after the meal. In the first study, 2 h after meal, subjects who assumed a meal with EVOO had significantly lower blood glucose (PEVOO. The second study showed that compared with corn oil, EVOO improved both glycemic and lipid profile. Thus, a significantly smaller increase of glucose (PEVOO showed a significantly less increase of LDL-C (PEVOO improves post-prandial glucose and LDL-C, an effect that may account for the antiatherosclerotic effect of the Mediterranean diet.

  6. Vegetarian diets and blood pressure among white subjects: results from the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, Betty J; Anousheh, Ramtin; Fan, Jing; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fraser, Gary E

    2012-01-01

    Objective Previous work studying vegetarians has often found that they have lower blood pressure (BP). Reasons may include their lower BMI and higher intake levels of fruit and vegetables. Here we seek to extend this evidence in a geographically diverse population containing vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians and omnivores. Design Data are analysed from a calibration sub-study of the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) cohort who attended clinics and provided validated FFQ. Criteria were established for vegan, lacto-ovo vegetarian, partial vegetarian and omnivorous dietary patterns. Setting Clinics were conducted at churches across the USA and Canada. Dietary data were gathered by mailed questionnaire. Subjects Five hundred white subjects representing the AHS-2 cohort. Results Covariate-adjusted regression analyses demonstrated that the vegan vegetarians had lower systolic and diastolic BP (mmHg) than omnivorous Adventists (β =−6·8, Pvegans) were also less likely to be using antihypertensive medications. Defining hypertension as systolic BP > 139 mmHg or diastolic BP > 89 mmHg or use of antihypertensive medications, the odds ratio of hypertension compared with omnivores was 0·37 (95 % CI 0·19, 0·74), 0·57 (95 % CI 0·36, 0·92) and 0·92 (95 % CI 0·50, 1·70), respectively, for vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians and partial vegetarians. Effects were reduced after adjustment for BMI. Conclusions We conclude from this relatively large study that vegetarians, especially vegans, with otherwise diverse characteristics but stable diets, do have lower systolic and diastolic BP and less hypertension than omnivores. This is only partly due to their lower body mass. PMID:22230619

  7. Correlation of lithium levels between drinking water obtained from different sources and scalp hair samples of adult male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Shahnawaz; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Talpur, Farah Naz; Arain, Muhammad Balal

    2017-10-01

    There is some evidence that natural levels of lithium (Li) in drinking water may have a protective effect on neurological health. In present study, we evaluate the Li levels in drinking water of different origin and bottled mineral water. To evaluate the association between lithium levels in drinking water with human health, the scalp hair samples of male subjects (25-45 years) consumed drinking water obtained from ground water (GW), municipal treated water (MTW) and bottled mineral water (BMW) from rural and urban areas of Sindh, Pakistan were selected. The water samples were pre-concentrated five to tenfold at 60 °C using temperature-controlled electric hot plate. While scalp hair samples were oxidized by acid in a microwave oven, prior to determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The Li content in different types of drinking water, GW, MTW and BMW was found in the range of 5.12-22.6, 4.2-16.7 and 0.0-16.3 µg/L, respectively. It was observed that Li concentration in the scalp hair samples of adult males consuming ground water was found to be higher, ranged as 292-393 μg/kg, than those who are drinking municipal treated and bottle mineral water (212-268 and 145-208 μg/kg), respectively.

  8. Branched-chain amino acids increase arterial blood ammonia in spite of enhanced intrinsic muscle ammonia metabolism in patients with cirrhosis and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Gitte; Keiding, Susanne; Munk, Ole Lajord

    2011-01-01

    metabolism of ammonia and amino acids in 14 patients with cirrhosis and in 7 healthy subjects by combining [(13)N]ammonia positron emission tomography (PET) of the thigh muscle with measurements of blood flow and arteriovenous (A-V) concentrations of ammonia and amino acids. PET was used to measure...... the metabolism of blood-supplied ammonia and the A-V measurements were used to measure the total ammonia metabolism across the thigh muscle. After intake of BCAA, blood ammonia increased more than 30% in both groups of subjects (both P PET) was unaffected (P...... = 0.75), but the metabolic removal rate (PET) increased significantly because of increased blood ammonia in both groups (all P

  9. Using CF11 cellulose columns to inexpensively and effectively remove human DNA from Plasmodium falciparum-infected whole blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan Meera

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome and transcriptome studies of Plasmodium nucleic acids obtained from parasitized whole blood are greatly improved by depletion of human DNA or enrichment of parasite DNA prior to next-generation sequencing and microarray hybridization. The most effective method currently used is a two-step procedure to deplete leukocytes: centrifugation using density gradient media followed by filtration through expensive, commercially available columns. This method is not easily implemented in field studies that collect hundreds of samples and simultaneously process samples for multiple laboratory analyses. Inexpensive syringes, hand-packed with CF11 cellulose powder, were recently shown to improve ex vivo cultivation of Plasmodium vivax obtained from parasitized whole blood. This study was undertaken to determine whether CF11 columns could be adapted to isolate Plasmodium falciparum DNA from parasitized whole blood and achieve current quantity and purity requirements for Illumina sequencing. Methods The CF11 procedure was compared with the current two-step standard of leukocyte depletion using parasitized red blood cells cultured in vitro and parasitized blood obtained ex vivo from Cambodian patients with malaria. Procedural variations in centrifugation and column size were tested, along with a range of blood volumes and parasite densities. Results CF11 filtration reliably produces 500 nanograms of DNA with less than 50% human DNA contamination, which is comparable to that obtained by the two-step method and falls within the current quality control requirements for Illumina sequencing. In addition, a centrifuge-free version of the CF11 filtration method to isolate P. falciparum DNA at remote and minimally equipped field sites in malaria-endemic areas was validated. Conclusions CF11 filtration is a cost-effective, scalable, one-step approach to remove human DNA from P. falciparum-infected whole blood samples.

  10. Analysis of hemoglobin adducts from acrylamide, glycidamide, and ethylene oxide in paired mother/cord blood samples from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Stedingk, Hans; Vikström, Anna C; Rydberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge about fetal exposure to acrylamide/glycidamide from the maternal exposure through food is limited. Acrylamide, glycidamide, and ethylene oxide are electrophiles and form adducts with hemoglobin (Hb), which could be used for in vivo dose measurement. In this study, a method...... for analysis of Hb adducts by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the adduct FIRE procedure, was applied to measurements of adducts from these compounds in maternal blood samples (n = 87) and umbilical cord blood samples (n = 219). The adduct levels from the three compounds, acrylamide, glycidamide......, and ethylene oxide, were increased in tobacco smokers. Highly significant correlations were found between cord and maternal blood with regard to measured adduct levels of the three compounds. The mean cord/maternal hemoglobin adduct level ratios were 0.48 (range 0.27-0.86) for acrylamide, 0.38 (range 0...

  11. Office blood pressure is a predictor of aortic elastic properties and urinary protein excretion in subjects with white coat hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznaouridis, Konstantinos; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Masoura, Konstantina; Pietri, Panagiota; Vyssoulis, Gregory; Ioakeimidis, Nikolaos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Tousoulis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-15

    White coat hypertension (WCH) is related to target organ damage and increased cardiovascular risk. Arterial elastic properties and urinary protein excretion are determinants of cardiovascular performance and predictors of outcomes. We investigated whether office blood pressure (BP) is a better determinant of arterial and renal function than the ambulatory BP in WCH patients. We studied 440 consecutive untreated non-diabetic patients with WCH (office BP >140/90 mmHg, mean daytime ambulatory BP 0.5). Hierarchical multilevel linear regression analysis showed that office systolic BP is an independent determinant of cfPWV (P=0.050), AIx (P=0.029), albumin (P=0.002) and ACR (P=0.001) and has a borderline association with α1-microglobulin (P=0.088). In non-diabetic WCH individuals, office systolic BP is an independent predictor of aortic elastic properties and urinary protein excretion, whereas ambulatory BP is not. This finding suggests that office BP may be a marker of cardiovascular risk in subjects with WCH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Consumption of a Polyphenol-Rich Grape-Wine Extract Lowers Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Mildly Hypertensive Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Draijer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols in grape and wine have been suggested to contribute to the cardiovascular health benefits of the Mediterranean lifestyle. The reported effects of grape products on blood pressure (BP remain, however, equivocal. In a double-blind placebo controlled crossover study, the effect of two grape extracts on BP and vascular function was assessed in 60 untreated, mildly hypertensive subjects after four weeks intervention. Both extracts (grape-red wine and grape alone had high concentrations of anthocyanins and flavonols, but the grape alone was relatively poor in catechins and procyanidins. Parameters measured included ambulatory and office BP, flow-mediated vasodilation, arterial distensibility, platelet function and plasma lipoproteins. Results showed that 24-hour ambulatory systolic/diastolic BPs were significantly lower in the grape-wine extract intervention (135.9 ± 1.3/84.7 ± 0.8 mmHg; mean ± SEM compared to placebo (138.9 ± 1.3/86.6 ± 1.2 mmHg, predominantly during daytime. Plasma concentrations of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 decreased by 10%, but other measures of vascular function were not affected. Grape juice extract alone had no effect on BP or any measures of vascular function. Polyphenol-rich food products, and may be specifically catechins and procyanidins, may thus help sustain a healthy BP and contribute to the healthy Mediterranean lifestyle.

  13. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Relationship of Erenumab (AMG 334) and Capsaicin-Induced Dermal Blood Flow in Healthy and Migraine Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Thuy; Ma, Peiming; Chen, Jiyun Sunny; de Hoon, Jan; Van Hecken, Anne; Yan, Lucy; Wu, Liviawati Sutjandra; Hamilton, Lisa; Vargas, Gabriel

    2017-09-01

    Capsaicin-induced dermal blood flow (CIDBF) is a validated biomarker used to evaluate the target engagement of potential calcitonin gene-related peptide-blocking therapeutics for migraine. To characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) and quantify the inhibitory effects of erenumab (AMG 334) on CIDBF, CIDBF data were pooled from a single- and a multiple-dose study in healthy and migraine subjects. Repeated capsaicin challenges and DBF measurements were performed and serum erenumab concentrations determined. A population analysis was conducted using a nonlinear mixed-effects modeling approach. Effects of body weight, gender, and age on model parameters were evaluated. Two-compartment target-mediated drug disposition (TMDD) model assuming binding of erenumab in the central compartment best described the nonlinear PK of erenumab. Subcutaneous absorption half-life was 1.6 days and bioavailability was 74%. Erenumab produced a maximum inhibition of 89% (95% confidence interval: 87-91%). Erenumab concentrations required for 50% and 99% of maximum inhibition were 255 ng/mL and 1134 ng/mL, respectively. Increased body weight was associated with increased erenumab clearance but had no effect on the inhibitory effect on CIDBF. Our results show that erenumab pharmacokinetics was best characterized by a TMDD model and resulted in potent inhibition of CIDBF.

  14. Smoking, white blood cell counts, and TNF system activity in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Naoya

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smokers have increased white blood cell (WBC counts and the activation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF. The effect of smoking on WBC counts and TNF system activity, however, has not been separately investigated yet. Subjects and Methods One hundred and forty-two Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance were recruited. They were stratified into two groups based on the questionnaire for smoking: one with current smokers (n = 48 and the other with current non-smokers (n = 94. Whereas no significant differences were observed in age, BMI, high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin, and TNF-α between the two groups, current smokers had significantly higher soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNF-R1 (1203 ± 30 vs. 1116 ± 21 pg/ml, p = 0.010 and increased WBC counts (7165 ± 242 vs. 5590 ± 163/μl, p p = 0.031 as compared to current non-smokers. Next, we classified 48 current smokers into two subpopulations: one with heavy smoking (Brinkman index ≥ 600 and the other with light smoking (Brinkman index Results Whereas no significant difference was observed in age, BMI, HMW adiponectin, WBC counts and TNF-α, sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were significantly higher in heavy smoking group (1307 ± 44 vs. 1099 ± 30 pg/ml, p p = 0.005 than in light smoking group, whose sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were similar to non-smokers (sTNF-R1: 1116 ± 15 pg/ml, p = 0.718, sTNF-R2; 1901 ± 32 pg/ml, p = 0.437. In contrast, WBC counts were significantly increased in heavy (7500 ± 324/μl, p p = 0.001 smoking group as compared to non-smokers (5590 ± 178/μl. There was no significant difference in WBC counts between heavy and light smoking group (p = 0.158. Conclusion We can hypothesize that light smoking is associated with an increase in WBC counts, while heavy smoking is responsible for TNF activation in Japanese male subjects with normal glucose tolerance.

  15. Blood plasma sample preparation method to determine thyroid hormone-disrupting compounds in Effect-Directed Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, E.; Bytingsvik, J.; Jonker, W.; Leonards, P.E.G.; de Boer, J.; Jenssen, B.M.; Lie, E.; Aars, J.; Hamers, T.H.M.; Lamoree, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    A sample preparation method combining solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) was developed to be used in Effect-Directed Analysis (EDA) of blood plasma. Until now such a method was not available. It can be used for extraction of a broad range of thyroid hormone

  16. Adiponectin levels measured in dried blood spot samples from neonates born small and appropriate for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamer, A; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, D M

    2007-01-01

    Adiponectin levels measured in neonatal dried blood spot samples (DBSS) might be affected by both prematurity and being born small for gestational age (SGA). The aim of the study was to measure adiponectin levels in routinely collected neonatal DBSS taken on day 5 (range 3-12) postnatal from...

  17. Antisocial and psychopathic personalities in a sample of addicted subjects: differences in psychological resources, symptoms, alexithymia and impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Alessio; Craparo, Giuseppe; Sareri, Giuseppe Iraci; Caretti, Vincenzo; Giannini, Marco; Meringolo, Patrizia

    2014-10-01

    Psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are two constructs not interchangeable. Compared to the ASPD, psychopathy is characterized by lack of anxiety, low withdrawal, and high levels of attention seeking. The sample of this study included 76 subjects with a substance use disorder. Subjects were aged between 18 and 59 years old (M=32.87, SD=9.36). With respect to level of education 3 subjects are elementary school graduates, 49 have a middle school diploma, 21 own a high school diploma, and 3 participants have a bachelor's degree. We administered the following measures: a) Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R); b) Psychological Treatment Inventory (PTI); c) 20-Item-Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20); d) Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). Most of the significant correlations between the Psychopathic Index (PPI-R total score), and the measures administered are listed below: PPI-R total score and Deviance (r=.482, p<.001), PPI-R total score and Hypomania (r=.369, p < .001), PPI-R total score and Unresolved attachment (r=.293, p<.001), PPI-R total score and Manipulativeness (r=.550, p<.001), PPI-R total score and the TAS-20 total score (r=.230; p<.001), PPI-R total score and Difficulty in Identifying Feelings (DIF) factor (r=.250, p<.001), PPI-R total score and Attentional Impulsiveness (r=.409, p<.001); PPI-R total score and Motor Impulsiveness (r=.526, p<.001). Results of MANOVAs between the two groups also revealed significant differences on several variables analyzed. Our study showed that addicted subjects with psychopathic tendencies are more likely to experience negative emotions and have a peculiar cognitive style with respect to antisocial addicts. These results partially confirm those ones of previous studies underlining that psychopathic population is generally characterized for a major need for stimulation, poor behavioral controls, lack of realistic long-term goals, impulsivity, irresponsibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc

  18. Preference changes of adult outpatients for giving saliva, urine and blood for clinical testing after actual sample collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhima, Matilda; Salinas, Thomas J; Wermers, Robert A; Weaver, Amy L; Koka, Sreenivas

    2013-01-01

    Patients' preferences of the type of sample collections for clinical testing are currently unknown. The aims of this study were: (1) to assess patients' preferences of three types of samples for clinical testing (saliva, urine and blood) both before and after collection and (2) to assess whether prior experiences with collection of saliva impacted patients responses. Adult outpatients underwent collection of one sample each of saliva, urine and blood. Patients' perceptions of comfort, convenience and easiness were assessed in pre-collection and post-collection questionnaires. Post-collection, patients' endorsement of saliva as being the "most comfortable" and "most convenient" significantly declined (pre vs. post, 61.5% vs. 37.5% and 73.1% vs. 42.3%). However, saliva was still endorsed as the "most convenient" post-collection (compared to urine 33.7% and blood 24.0%). Although not statistically significant, the proportion of patients who changed their response in terms of what sample was "easiest to collect at home" was considerably higher in the group with vs. without prior experience giving saliva (54.6% vs. 32.6%, p=0.19 Fisher's exact test). Overall, saliva remained as the most highly preferred sample to donate despite a decline in patients' preferences of saliva donation after sample collection. The results of the study are promising for future widespread patient acceptance of saliva as a diagnostic fluid. Copyright © 2012 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of some toxic metals in blood samples of smokers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. All rights reserved. Available ... Keywords: Blood, Heavy metals, Smokers, Tobacco pipe smokers, Inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Tropical .... total and free testosterone, genetic variation, carcinogenic effect [23].

  20. Association between anthropometry and high blood pressure in a representative sample of preschoolers in madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Beneit, Gloria; Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Pocock, Stuart; Redondo, Juliana; Fuster, Valentín; Peñalvo, José L

    2015-06-01

    Program SI! is a multi-level, school-based intervention for the promotion of cardiovascular health from early childhood. The aim of this paper is to characterize the prevalence of obesity and high blood pressure in the preschoolers enrolled in the study, and to compare various criteria for classifying obesity. The study was a cluster-randomized controlled intervention trial including 24 state schools in Madrid (Spain). Weight, height, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses, waist circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured in 2011 children (1009 boys and 1002 girls) aged 3 to 5 years (3.7 [0.9]). Body mass index and blood pressure were classified by corresponding task force criteria. Obesity was studied by 6 different criteria. Associations of body mass index, body weight, body fat, and waist circumference on blood pressure were examined, and the risk of high blood pressure in relation to tertiles of body mass index was calculated. The prevalence of obesity according to the International Obesity Task Force varied from 2% at age 3 to 8% at age 5, and the overall prevalence of high blood pressure (≥ 90th percentile) was 20%. Sex- and age-specific criteria for obesity showed better agreement with the reference than a single generalized cutoff. The risk of high blood pressure was higher for the highest tertile of body mass index distribution. The highest prevalence of obesity and high blood pressure was found among older children. The classification of obesity in children was more accurate using sex- and age-specific cutoffs. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Elevated 1-h post-challenge plasma glucose levels in subjects with normal glucose tolerance or impaired glucose tolerance are associated with whole blood viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Maria Adelaide; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Andreozzi, Francesco; Mannino, Gaia Chiara; Perticone, Maria; Sciacqua, Angela; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2017-08-01

    It has been suggested that glucose levels ≥155 mg/dl at 1-h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) may predict development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events among adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high). Studies showed a link between increased blood viscosity and type 2 diabetes. However, whether blood viscosity is associated with dysglycemic conditions such as NGT 1 h-high, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is unsettled. 1723 non-diabetic adults underwent biochemical evaluation and OGTT. A validated formula based on hematocrit and total plasma proteins was employed to estimate whole blood viscosity. Subjects were categorized into NGT with 1 h glucose h-low), NGT-1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT. Hematocrit and blood viscosity values appeared significantly higher in individuals with NGT 1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT as compared to NGT 1 h-low subjects. Blood viscosity was significantly correlated with age, waist circumference, blood pressure, HbA1c, fasting, 1- and 2-h post-challenge insulin levels, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, fibrinogen, white blood cell, and inversely correlated with high-density lipoprotein and insulin sensitivity. Of the four glycemic parameters, 1-h post-challenge glucose showed the strongest correlation with blood viscosity (β = 0.158, P h post-challenge plasma glucose. They also suggest that a subgroup of NGT individuals with 1-h post-challenge plasma >155 mg/dl have increased blood viscosity comparable to that observed in subjects with IFG and/or IGT.

  2. An effective method to purify Plasmodium falciparum DNA directly from clinical blood samples for whole genome high-throughput sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Auburn

    Full Text Available Highly parallel sequencing technologies permit cost-effective whole genome sequencing of hundreds of Plasmodium parasites. The ability to sequence clinical Plasmodium samples, extracted directly from patient blood without a culture step, presents a unique opportunity to sample the diversity of "natural" parasite populations in high resolution clinical and epidemiological studies. A major challenge to sequencing clinical Plasmodium samples is the abundance of human DNA, which may substantially reduce the yield of Plasmodium sequence. We tested a range of human white blood cell (WBC depletion methods on P. falciparum-infected patient samples in search of a method displaying an optimal balance of WBC-removal efficacy, cost, simplicity, and applicability to low resource settings. In the first of a two-part study, combinations of three different WBC depletion methods were tested on 43 patient blood samples in Mali. A two-step combination of Lymphoprep plus Plasmodipur best fitted our requirements, although moderate variability was observed in human DNA quantity. This approach was further assessed in a larger sample of 76 patients from Burkina Faso. WBC-removal efficacy remained high (70% samples and lower variation was observed in human DNA quantities. In order to assess the Plasmodium sequence yield at different human DNA proportions, 59 samples with up to 60% human DNA contamination were sequenced on the Illumina Genome Analyzer platform. An average ~40-fold coverage of the genome was observed per lane for samples with ≤ 30% human DNA. Even in low resource settings, using a simple two-step combination of Lymphoprep plus Plasmodipur, over 70% of clinical sample preparations should exhibit sufficiently low human DNA quantities to enable ~40-fold sequence coverage of the P. falciparum genome using a single lane on the Illumina Genome Analyzer platform. This approach should greatly facilitate large-scale clinical and epidemiologic studies of P

  3. Autonomic neuropathy in nondiabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects is associated with urinary albumin excretion rate and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure: the Fredericia Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Anne-Catherine; Vestbo, Else; Frøland, Anders

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of parental type 2 diabetes on the autonomic nervous system and to determine whether autonomic neuropathy is present and associated with changes in 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (AMBP) and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in nondiabetic subjects...... offspring with parental type 2 diabetes (6.7%) was significantly (P pressure...... UAER, fasting insulin level, and 24-h AMBP and a reduced diurnal blood pressure variation. This study indicates that parental type 2 diabetes has an impact on the cardiac autonomic function in nondiabetic subjects....

  4. Alcohol intoxication at Swedish football matches: A study using biological sampling to assess blood alcohol concentration levels among spectators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbeej, Natalie; Elgán, Tobias H; Jalling, Camilla; Gripenberg, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems, including accidents, vandalism and violence, at sporting events are of increased concern in Sweden and other countries. The relationship between alcohol use and violence has been established and can be explained by the level of intoxication. Given the occurrence of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems at sporting events, research has assessed intoxication levels measured through biological sampling among spectators. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the level of alcohol intoxication among spectators at football matches in the Swedish Premier Football League. Spectators were randomly selected and invited to participate in the study. Alcohol intoxication was measured with a breath analyser for Blood Alcohol Concentration levels, and data on gender, age, and recent alcohol use were gathered through a face-to-face interview. Blood Alcohol Concentration samples from 4420 spectators were collected. Almost half (46.8%) had a positive Blood Alcohol Concentration level, with a mean value of 0.063%, while 8.9% had a Blood Alcohol Concentration level ≥ 0.1%, with a mean value of 0.135%. Factors that predicted a higher Blood Alcohol Concentration level included male gender (p = 0.005), lower age (p football matches in the Swedish Premier Football League drink alcohol in conjunction with the match. Approximately one tenth have a high level of alcohol intoxication.

  5. Clot formation in canine whole blood as measured by rotational thromboelastometry is influenced by sample handling and coagulation activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephanie A; McMichael, Maureen; Galligan, Alyssa; Gilor, Shir; Hoh, Crystal M

    2010-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to systematically evaluate the impact of methodology on thromboelastometry with canine whole blood. Thromboelastometry was performed on citrated blood using a variety of combinations of clotting activators [ex-tem (tissue factor or TF), in-tem (ellagic acid), diluted TF from Innovin, or Ca (recalcification only)] and storage times. Thromboelastometry was also performed using diluted TF from Innovin on blood collected into a contact inhibitor. Ex-vivo contact activation was compared between canine and human blood. Clotting activator had a marked impact on coagulation time, a minor impact on alpha angle, and no impact on clot formation time or maximum clot firmness. When ex-tem or in-tem was the clotting activator, sample storage up to 30 min did not affect results. With diluted TF from Innovin or Ca, sample storage was associated with the development of increased coagulability (as indicated by shorter coagulation time and clot formation time and higher alpha angle) due to ex-vivo contact activation. Canine blood underwent markedly more ex-vivo contact activation than did human blood. Canine blood undergoes significant ex-vivo contact activation during and after collection, which influences thromboelastometry results when a weak clotting activator (such as low TF or recalcification) is used. Thromboelastometry with a strong activator (such as ex-tem or in-tem) is less influenced by ex-vivo changes, and, therefore, likely to be more reflective of in-vivo hemostatic capabilities and to provide consistently interpretable and comparable results.

  6. Ehrlichia canis detection in dogs from Várzea Grande: a comparative analysis of blood and bone marrow samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herica Makino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:The objective of this study was to compare the DNA detection ofEhrlichia canisin blood and bone marrow to determine the prevalence of the agent in Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso. Blood samples and bone marrow from 80 dogs of both sexes, different breeds and age, were collected and processed for a cross-sectional study performed using nested PCR. Of the 80 dogs, 61 (76.3% had E. canisDNA in one of the samples. The buffy coat was positive in 42 dogs (52.5% and the bone marrow was positive in 33 (41.3%. There was no significant association between the positive biological samples of either the buffy coat or bone marrow and the presence or absence of clinical signs (P=0.49. No risk factor was associated with infection in the studied area. The bone marrow samples were efficient for the molecular diagnosis of canine ehrlichiosis, particularly when there was a negative blood sample, although infection was present.

  7. Detection of JCPyV microRNA in blood and urine samples of multiple sclerosis patients under natalizumab therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, Irene; Martelli, Francesco; Repice, Anna; Massacesi, Luca; Azzi, Alberta; Giannecchini, Simone

    2015-12-01

    Polyomavirus JC (JCPyV) reactivation and development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a health concern in multiple sclerosis patients under natalizumab therapy. Here, the JCPyV microRNA-J1-3p and microRNA-J1-5p expressions and genomic variability were investigated in blood and urine samples of multiple sclerosis patients before and under natalizumab therapy and in healthy controls. The two JCPyV microRNAs were detected in the JCPyV-DNA-positive peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples and in the exosomes derived from plasma and urine obtained from JCPyV-DNA-positive and JCPyV-DNA-negative patients. In particular, the increased JCPyV microRNA expression in samples of multiple sclerosis patients under natalizumab therapy was consistent with the high JCPyV-DNA positivity observed in these samples. Moreover, JCPyV microRNA genomic region showed few nucleotide differences in samples obtained from blood and urine of multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls. Overall, these data suggest a potential role of the JCPyV microRNA expression in counteracting the viral reactivation to maintain JCPyV asymptomatic persistence in the host.

  8. Detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum antibodies in turkey blood samples by ELISA and by the slide agglutination and haemagglutination inhibition tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszanyitzky, E; Czifra, G; Stipkovits, L

    1994-01-01

    Comparative examination of a total of 1,030 blood samples from six turkey flocks of three Eastern Hungarian turkey farms was performed by the conventional haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and slide agglutination (SA) tests and by a competitive ELISA visualizing the inhibition by a positive test serum of the reaction between a monoclonal antibody and the specific epitope of Mycoplasma gallisepticum recognized by it. All the three tests detected the flocks which were certainly infected. The highest rate of positivity (93% of the samples tested) was revealed by the ELISA. By SA and HI the positivity rate was 56% and 55%, respectively. Thirty-five per cent of the positive blood samples reacted in all three tests, 17% of them only by ELISA and HI, another 17% only by ELISA and SA, while 3% only by SA and HI. In the case of positive flocks first the SA test and ELISA, then the HI test and ELISA give parallel results.

  9. [Responsibility of the physician for blood samples according to paragraph 81 a StPO?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, J H

    1992-03-01

    On principle no physician is under obligation to take blood-tests prescribed in Art. 81 a StPO (Code of Criminal Procedure). However, this principle is not valid without exception. Hence to be appointed expert by a judge or a public prosecutor shall give the reason for a legal pledge. An indirect obligation--but not to police authorities--may result from a contractually stipulated assumption or from being part of the Public Health Service staff. For the physician being employed in a hospital, the special rule 2 c fig. 3 par. 1 BAT (Federal Employees Tariff Treaty) is valid, which stipulates an obligation to take blood-tests, even if a contractual agreement is missing. Violation of contract and offence against legal pledges may justify giving notice to the physician. However, the obligation of taking blood-tests is not unlimited. Within the pale of law rights of refusal are stated in Art. 22, 24, 52, 72, 74 StPO (Code of Criminal Procedure). Moreover a refusal is justified, if the manoeuvre is injurious to health of the accused under consideration. In this case the physician on the spot taking blood-tests has got the exclusive responsibility, which cannot be shifted on to other authorities. In case of personally justified refusal the physician does not have to expect any prejudices. A physician refusing to take blood-tests does not incur a penalty under Art. 258 or Art. 258 a StGB (Criminal Code).

  10. Whole blood samples for adrenocorticotrophic hormone measurement can be stored at room temperature for 4 hours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette; Madsen, Rikke Fogt; Møller, Line Rosengreen

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the stability of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in whole blood stored on ice and at room temperature for up to 48 hours. This study differs from previous studies by a larger data material. MATERIALS AND METHODS: EDTA-blood sa......INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the stability of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in whole blood stored on ice and at room temperature for up to 48 hours. This study differs from previous studies by a larger data material. MATERIALS AND METHODS: EDTA......-blood samples from 30 patients were collected, aliquoted and stored on ice or at room temperature for 0, 2, 4, 24, or 48 h before centrifugation, and the plasma was stored frozen until analysis. All samples were analyzed using an automated electrochemiluminescence immunoassay on cobas 6000 e601. The change...... no clinically relevant change in ACTH recovery for up to 4 h compared to standard conditions. For samples stored at room temperature for 4 h, a significant (p temperature for up...

  11. Team-based learning on a third-year pediatric clerkship improves NBME subject exam blood disorder scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Saudek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: At our institution, speculation amongst medical students and faculty exists as to whether team-based learning (TBL can improve scores on high-stakes examinations over traditional didactic lectures. Faculty with experience using TBL developed and piloted a required TBL blood disorders (BD module for third-year medical students on their pediatric clerkship. The purpose of this study is to analyze the BD scores from the NBME subject exams before and after the introduction of the module. Methods: We analyzed institutional and national item difficulties for BD items from the NBME pediatrics content area item analysis reports from 2011 to 2014 before (pre and after (post the pilot (October 2012. Total scores of 590 NBME subject examination students from examinee performance profiles were analyzed pre/post. t-Tests and Cohen's d effect sizes were used to analyze item difficulties for institutional versus national scores and pre/post comparisons of item difficulties and total scores. Results: BD scores for our institution were 0.65 (±0.19 compared to 0.62 (±0.15 nationally (P=0.346; Cohen's d=0.15. The average of post-consecutive BD scores for our students was 0.70(±0.21 compared to examinees nationally [0.64 (±0.15] with a significant mean difference (P=0.031; Cohen's d=0.43. The difference in our institutions pre [0.65 (±0.19] and post [0.70 (±0.21] BD scores trended higher (P=0.391; Cohen's d=0.27. Institutional BD scores were higher than national BD scores for both pre and post, with an effect size that tripled from pre to post scores. Institutional BD scores increased after the use of the TBL module, while overall exam scores remained steadily above national norms. Conclusions: Institutional BD scores were higher than national BD scores for both pre and post, with an effect size that tripled from pre to post scores. Institutional BD scores increased after the use of the TBL module, while overall exam scores remained steadily above

  12. A simplified method for determination of radioactive iron in whole-blood samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukhave, Klaus; Sørensen, Anne Dorthe; Hansen, M.

    2001-01-01

    for simultaneous determination of Fe-55 and Fe-59 in blood, using a dry-ashing procedure and recrystallization of the remaining iron. The detection Limit of the method permits measurements of 0.1 Bq/ml blood thus allowing detection of Less than 1% absorption from a 40 kBq dose, which is ethically acceptable......For studies on iron absorption in man radioisotopes represent an easy and simple tool. However, measurement of the orbital electron emitting radioiron, Fe-55, in blood is difficult and insufficiently described in the literature. The present study describes a relatively simple method...... a sensitive method for studying the intestinal absorption of Fe-55 and Fe-59 in man and at the same time allows estimation of the amount of radioiron Located in the vascular compartment....

  13. Rapid Treponema pallidum clearance from blood and ulcer samples following single dose benzathine penicillin treatment of early syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, Craig; Jones, Rachael; McClure, Myra; Taylor, Graham

    2015-02-01

    Currently, the efficacy of syphilis treatment is measured with anti-lipid antibody tests. These can take months to indicate cure and, as a result, syphilis treatment trials require long periods of follow-up. The causative organism, Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum), is detectable in the infectious lesions of early syphilis using DNA amplification. Bacteraemia can likewise be identified, typically in more active disease. We hypothesise that bacterial clearance from blood and ulcers will predict early the standard serology-measured treatment response and have developed a qPCR assay that could monitor this clearance directly in patients with infectious syphilis. Patients with early syphilis were given an intramuscular dose of benzathine penicillin. To investigate the appropriate sampling timeframe samples of blood and ulcer exudate were collected intensively for T. pallidum DNA (tpp047 gene) and RNA (16S rRNA) quantification. Sampling ended when two consecutive PCRs were negative. Four males were recruited. The mean peak level of T. pallidum DNA was 1626 copies/ml whole blood and the mean clearance half-life was 5.7 hours (std. dev. 0.53). The mean peak of 16S rRNA was 8879 copies/ml whole blood with a clearance half-life of 3.9 hours (std. dev. 0.84). From an ulcer, pre-treatment, 67,400 T. pallidum DNA copies and 7.08 x 107 16S rRNA copies were detected per absorbance strip and the clearance half-lives were 3.2 and 4.1 hours, respectively. Overall, T. pallidum nucleic acids were not detected in any sample collected more than 56 hours (range 20-56) after treatment. All patients achieved serologic cure. In patients with active early syphilis, measuring T. pallidum levels in blood and ulcer exudate may be a useful measure of treatment success in therapeutic trials. These laboratory findings need confirmation on a larger scale and in patients receiving different therapies.

  14. Rapid Diagnosis of Staphylococcal Catheter-Related Bacteraemia in Direct Blood Samples by Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zboromyrska, Yuliya; De la Calle, Cristina; Soto, Marcelo; Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Soriano, Alex; Alvarez-Martínez, Míriam José; Almela, Manel; Marco, Francesc; Arjona, Ruth; Cobos-Trigueros, Nazaret; Morata, Laura; Mensa, José; Martínez, José Antonio; Mira, Aurea; Vila, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Catheter-related bacteremia (CRB) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients, being staphylococci the main etiologic agents. The objective of this study was to assess the use of a PCR-based assay for detection of staphylococci directly from blood obtained through the catheter to diagnose CRB caused by these microorganisms and to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis. A total of 92 patients with suspected CRB were included in the study. Samples were obtained through the catheter. Paired blood cultures were processed by standard culture methods and 4 ml blood samples were processed by GeneXpert-MRSA assay for the detection of methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) or methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CoNS). Sixteen CRB caused by staphylococci were diagnosed among 92 suspected patients. GeneXpert detected 14 out of 16 cases (87.5%), including 4 MSSA and 10 MR-CoNS in approximately 1 hour after specimen receipt. The sensitivity and specificity of GeneXpert were 87.5% (CI 95%: 60.4-97.8) and 92.1% (CI 95%: 83-96.7), respectively, compared with standard culture methods. The sensitivity of GeneXpert for S. aureus was 100%. Regarding a cost-effectiveness analysis, the incremental cost of using GeneXpert was of 31.1€ per patient while the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of GeneXpert compared with blood culture alones was about 180€ per life year gained. In conclusion, GeneXpert can be used directly with blood samples obtained through infected catheters to detect S. aureus and MR-CoNS in approximately 1h after sampling. In addition, it is cost-effective especially in areas with high prevalence of staphylococcal CRB.

  15. Metabolic clearance rate and blood production rate of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in normal subjects, during pregnancy, and in hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saez, J. M.; Forest, M. G.; Morera, A. M.; Bertrand, J.

    1972-01-01

    The metabolic clearance rate (MCR) and blood production rate (BP) of testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), the conversion of plasma testosterone to plasma dihydrotestosterone, and the renal clearance of androstenedione, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone have been studied in man. In eight normal men, the MCRT (516±108 [SD] liters/m2/day) was significantly greater than the MCRDHT (391±71 [SD] liters/m2/day). In seven females, the MCRT (304±53 [SD] liters/m2/day) was also greater than the MCRDHT (209±45 [SD] liters/m2/day) and both values were less than their respective values in men (P hyperthyroidism, the MCR for testosterone and dihydrotestosterone were similar to those observed in pregnant females, but the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (2.78±1.7%) (SD) was greater, and similar to that found in men. In men the production of dihydrotestosterone was 0.39±0.1 (SD) mg/day, 50% being derived from the transformation of plasma testosterone. In women the production of DHT was 0.05±0.028 (SD) mg/day, only 10% coming from testosterone. During pregnancy, the production of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone are similar to that in normal women. In three patients with testicular feminization syndrome (an adult with hyperthyroidism and two children) these two MCRs were greatly reduced compared to the normal females, but the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone was in the limits of normal male range In the normal subjects the renal clearance of androstenedione was greater than that of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Less than 20% of the dihydrotestosterone and less than 10% of the androstenedione in the urine is derived from the plasma dihydrotestosterone and androstenedione. PMID:5020435

  16. Vegetarian diets and blood pressure among white subjects: results from the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, Betty J; Anousheh, Ramtin; Fan, Jing; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Fraser, Gary E

    2012-10-01

    Previous work studying vegetarians has often found that they have lower blood pressure (BP). Reasons may include their lower BMI and higher intake levels of fruit and vegetables. Here we seek to extend this evidence in a geographically diverse population containing vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians and omnivores. Data are analysed from a calibration sub-study of the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) cohort who attended clinics and provided validated FFQ. Criteria were established for vegan, lacto-ovo vegetarian, partial vegetarian and omnivorous dietary patterns. Clinics were conducted at churches across the USA and Canada. Dietary data were gathered by mailed questionnaire. Five hundred white subjects representing the AHS-2 cohort. Covariate-adjusted regression analyses demonstrated that the vegan vegetarians had lower systolic and diastolic BP (mmHg) than omnivorous Adventists (β = -6.8, P vegetarians (β = -9.1, P vegetarians (mainly the vegans) were also less likely to be using antihypertensive medications. Defining hypertension as systolic BP > 139 mmHg or diastolic BP > 89 mmHg or use of antihypertensive medications, the odds ratio of hypertension compared with omnivores was 0.37 (95 % CI 0.19, 0.74), 0.57 (95 % CI 0.36, 0.92) and 0.92 (95 % CI 0.50, 1.70), respectively, for vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians and partial vegetarians. Effects were reduced after adjustment for BMI. We conclude from this relatively large study that vegetarians, especially vegans, with otherwise diverse characteristics but stable diets, do have lower systolic and diastolic BP and less hypertension than omnivores. This is only partly due to their lower body mass.

  17. Validation and Clinical Evaluation of a Novel Method To Measure Miltefosine in Leishmaniasis Patients Using Dried Blood Spot Sample Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kip, A E; Rosing, H; Hillebrand, M J X; Blesson, S; Mengesha, B; Diro, E; Hailu, A; Schellens, J H M; Beijnen, J H; Dorlo, T P C

    2016-04-01

    To facilitate future pharmacokinetic studies of combination treatments against leishmaniasis in remote regions in which the disease is endemic, a simple cheap sampling method is required for miltefosine quantification. The aims of this study were to validate a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to quantify miltefosine in dried blood spot (DBS) samples and to validate its use with Ethiopian patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Since hematocrit (Ht) levels are typically severely decreased in VL patients, returning to normal during treatment, the method was evaluated over a range of clinically relevant Ht values. Miltefosine was extracted from DBS samples using a simple method of pretreatment with methanol, resulting in >97% recovery. The method was validated over a calibration range of 10 to 2,000 ng/ml, and accuracy and precision were within ±11.2% and ≤7.0% (≤19.1% at the lower limit of quantification), respectively. The method was accurate and precise for blood spot volumes between 10 and 30 μl and for Ht levels of 20 to 35%, although a linear effect of Ht levels on miltefosine quantification was observed in the bioanalytical validation. DBS samples were stable for at least 162 days at 37°C. Clinical validation of the method using paired DBS and plasma samples from 16 VL patients showed a median observed DBS/plasma miltefosine concentration ratio of 0.99, with good correlation (Pearson'sr= 0.946). Correcting for patient-specific Ht levels did not further improve the concordance between the sampling methods. This successfully validated method to quantify miltefosine in DBS samples was demonstrated to be a valid and practical alternative to venous blood sampling that can be applied in future miltefosine pharmacokinetic studies with leishmaniasis patients, without Ht correction. Copyright © 2016 Kip et al.

  18. Blood flow after contraction and cuff occlusion is reduced in subjects with muscle soreness after eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza-Silva, Eduardo; Wittrup Christensen, Steffan; Hirata, Rogerio Pessoto

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) occur within 1-2 days after eccentric exercise but the mechanism mediating hypersensitivity is unclear. This study hypothesized that eccentric exercise reduces the blood flow response following muscle contractions and cuff occlusion, which may result ...... that eccentric contractions decreased vessel diameter, impaired the blood flow response and promoted hyperalgesia. Thus, the results suggest that the blood flow reduction may be involved in the increased pain response after eccentric exercise....

  19. Quantitative detection of epstein-barr virus DNA in cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clementina E Cocuzza

    Full Text Available The presence of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and peripheral blood (PB samples collected from 55 patients with clinical and radiologically-active relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS and 51 subjects with other neurological diseases was determined using standardized commercially available kits for viral nucleic acid extraction and quantitative EBV DNA detection. Both cell-free and cell-associated CSF and PB fractions were analyzed, to distinguish latent from lytic EBV infection. EBV DNA was detected in 5.5% and 18.2% of cell-free and cell-associated CSF fractions of patients with RRMS as compared to 7.8% and 7.8% of controls; plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC positivity rates were 7.3% and 47.3% versus 5.8% and 31.4%, respectively. No significant difference in median EBV viral loads of positive samples was found between RRMS and control patients in all tested samples. Absence of statistically significant differences in EBV positivity rates between RRMS and control patients, despite the use of highly sensitive standardized methods, points to the lack of association between EBV and MS disease activity.

  20. Assessing blood brain barrier dynamics or identifying or measuring selected substances, including ethanol or toxins, in a subject by analyzing Raman spectrum signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A non-invasive method for analyzing the blood-brain barrier includes obtaining a Raman spectrum of a selected portion of the eye and monitoring the Raman spectrum to ascertain a change to the dynamics of the blood brain barrier.Also, non-invasive methods for determining the brain or blood level of an analyte of interest, such as glucose, drugs, alcohol, poisons, and the like, comprises: generating an excitation laser beam at a selected wavelength (e.g., at a wavelength of about 400 to 900 nanometers); focusing the excitation laser beam into the anterior chamber of an eye of the subject so that aqueous humor, vitreous humor, or one or more conjunctiva vessels in the eye is illuminated; detecting (preferably confocally detecting) a Raman spectrum from the illuminated portion of the eye; and then determining the blood level or brain level (intracranial or cerebral spinal fluid level) of an analyte of interest for the subject from the Raman spectrum. In certain embodiments, the detecting step may be followed by the step of subtracting a confounding fluorescence spectrum from the Raman spectrum to produce a difference spectrum; and determining the blood level and/or brain level of the analyte of interest for the subject from that difference spectrum, preferably using linear or nonlinear multivariate analysis such as partial least squares analysis. Apparatus for carrying out the foregoing methods are also disclosed.

  1. Analytical sensitivity and specificity of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) kit prototype for detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in human blood samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besuschio, Susana A.; Llano Murcia, Mónica; Benatar, Alejandro F.; Monnerat, Severine; Cruz, Israel; Picado, Albert; Curto, María de los Ángeles; Kubota, Yutaka; Wehrendt, Diana P.; Pavia, Paula; Mori, Yasuyoshi; Puerta, Concepción; Ndung'u, Joseph M.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess analytical parameters of a prototype LAMP kit that was designed for detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in human blood. The prototype is based on the amplification of the highly repetitive satellite sequence of T.cruzi in microtubes containing dried reagents on the inside of the caps. The reaction is carried out at 65°C during 40 minutes. Calcein allows direct detection of amplified products with the naked eye. Inclusivity and selectivity were tested in purified DNA from Trypanosoma cruzi stocks belonging to the six discrete typing units (DTUs), in DNA from other protozoan parasites and in human DNA. Analytical sensitivity was estimated in serial dilutions of DNA samples from Sylvio X10 (Tc I) and CL Brener (Tc VI) stocks, as well as from EDTA-treated or heparinized blood samples spiked with known amounts of cultured epimastigotes (CL Brener). LAMP sensitivity was compared after DNA extraction using commercial fiberglass columns or after “Boil & Spin” rapid preparation. Moreover, the same DNA and EDTA-blood spiked samples were subjected to standardized qPCR based on the satellite DNA sequence for comparative purposes. A panel of peripheral blood specimens belonging to Chagas disease patients, including acute, congenital, chronic and reactivated cases (N = 23), as well as seronegative controls (N = 10) were evaluated by LAMP in comparison to qPCR. LAMP was able to amplify DNAs from T. cruzi stocks representative of the six DTUs, whereas it did not amplify DNAs from Leishmania sp, T. brucei sp, T. rangeli KPN+ and KPN-, P. falciparum and non-infected human DNA. Analytical sensitivity was 1x10-2 fg/μL of both CL Brener and Sylvio X10 DNAs, whereas qPCR detected up to 1x 10−1 fg/μL of CL Brener DNA and 1 fg/μl of Sylvio X10 DNA. LAMP detected 1x10-2 parasite equivalents/mL in spiked EDTA blood and 1x10-1 par.eq/mL in spiked heparinized blood using fiberglass columns for DNA extraction, whereas qPCR detected 1x10-2 par.eq./mL in EDTA

  2. Investigation of endogenous blood lipids components that contribute to matrix effects in dried blood spot samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaiel, Omnia A; Jenkins, Rand G; Karnes, H Thomas

    2013-08-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is a rapidly developing approach in the field of biopharmaceutical analysis. DBS sampling enables analysis of small sample volumes with high sensitivity and selectivity while providing a convenient easy to store and ship format. Lipid components that may be extracted during biological sample processing may result in matrix ionization effects and can significantly affect the precision and accuracy of the results. Glycerophosphocholines (GPChos), cholesterols and triacylglycerols (TAG) are the main lipid components that contribute to matrix effects in LC-MS/MS. Various organic solvents such as methanol, acetonitrile, methyl tertiary butyl ether, ethyl ether, dichloromethane and n-hexane were investigated for elution of these lipid components from DBS samples. Methanol extracts demonstrated the highest levels of GPChos whereas ethyl ether and n-hexane extracts contained less than 1.0 % of the GPChos levels in the methanol extracts. Ethyl ether extracts contained the highest levels of cholesterols and TAG in comparison to other investigated organic solvents. Acetonitrile is recommended as an elution solvent due to low lipid recoveries. Matrix effects resulted from different extracted lipid components should be studied and assessed carefully in DBS samples. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Optimal time interval between repeated blood sampling for measurements of total homocysteine in healthy individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voortman, A.; Melse-Boonstra, A.; Schultz, M.; Burema, J.; Katan, M.B.; Verhoef, P.

    2001-01-01

    Many studies have shown that increased plasma concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy) are associated with cardiovascular disease (1). Like most biological variables, plasma tHcy fluctuates within an individual around a long-term mean (2)(3). tHcy measurements often are based on a single blood

  4. Evaluation of some toxic metals in blood samples of smokers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt, 3Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, College of Pharmacy,. King Saud ... Purpose: To determine some toxic elements in the blood of cigarette and tobacco pipe smokers in. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia ..... smoking on students at College of Applied Medical. Sciences ...

  5. [Lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay of 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone in dried blood samples for neonatal screening for adrenogenital syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekman, N I; Laricheva, S Iu; Pomelova, V G; Osin, N S

    2010-12-01

    The first Russian assay of 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone in dried blood spots has been developed to use for neonatal screening for adrenogenital syndrome (AGS). The technique is modeled on solid-phase lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay with time-resolution detection and it ensures the hormone to be determined in a 3.2-mm dried blood spot in the concentration range of 0 to 400 nmol/l, the coefficient of variation being not greater than 15%, and the results correlated with those of the DELFIA Neo170HP test system. The tests of 387 dried blood samples carried out in three regions have demonstrated the efficiency of the technique for screening and verifying neonatal AGS.

  6. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in blood samples as a diagnostic method for complicated and persistent forms of urogenital chlamydia infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultanakhmedov E.S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Goal: the study of the effectiveness of the method for laboratory diagnostics of urogenital chlamydial infection in patients with chronic form of the disease. Material and methods. The presence of DNAof C. trachomatis was detected by PCR in either genital or extragenital (blood sites in eighth patients (four men and four women. Results. It is established that in biological material taken from extragenital (blood sites, C. trachomatis was detected in all patients examined (in 100% of cases, while in clinical samples obtained from genital sites, in seven patients only (87.5%. Conclusion. We found that specific chlamydial DNAcan be detected in extragenital (blood site, despite the negative reaction in the clinical material from the genital tract of patients with genital chlamydial infection.

  7. pH adjustment of human blood plasma prior to bioanalytical sample preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, G.; Uges, D. R. A.; Franke, J. P.

    2008-01-01

    pH adjustment in bioanalytical sample preparation concerning ionisable compounds is one of the most common sample treatments. This is often done by mixing an aliquot of the sample with a proper buffer adjusted to the proposed pH. The pH of the resulting mixture however, does not necessarily have to

  8. Trace of heavy metals in maternal and umbilical cord blood samples in association with birth outcomes in Baghdad, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan Rhaif Al-Sahlanee, Mayyadah; Maizan Ramli, Ramzun; Abdul Hassan Ali, Miami; Fadhil Tawfiq, Nada; Zahirah Noor Azman, Nurul; Abdul Rahman, Azhar; Shahrim Mustafa, Iskandar; Noor Ashikin Nik Abdul Razak, Nik; Zakiah Yahaya, Nor; Mohammed Al-Marri, Hana; Syuhada Ayob, Nur; Zakaria, Nabela

    2017-10-01

    Trace elements are essential nutritional components in humans and inconvenient tissue content that have a significant influence on infant size. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of concentration of elements (uranium (U), lead (Pb) and iron (Fe)) and absorption of Pb and Fe on maternal and umbilical cord blood samples. The concentration and absorption of Pb and Fe in blood samples were determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry device, while the uranium concentration was determined by using CR-39 detector. Fifty women of age 16-44 years are involved in this study. Results show that the maximum and minimum values of both concentration and absorption in the maternal samples were for Pb and Fe, respectively. In addition, for umbilical cord, the maximum values of concentration and absorption were for Fe and the minimum concentration and absorption were for U and Pb, respectively. A significant correlation between maternal and umbilical cord blood samples was found. This indicates that the Pb, U and Fe elements can easily transfer from maternal to the fetal body which impacts the growth of fetus.

  9. Levels of ochratoxin A and IgG against conidia of Penicillium verrucosum in blood samples from healthy farm workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaug, Marit Aralt

    2003-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin frequently found in human blood and milk samples in the colder climatic zones. In addition to dietary intake, exposure may occur by inhalation of toxin containing fungal conidia. The purpose of this work was to investigate the level of OTA in blood samples from farm workers and non-farm working controls, and to examine if serum levels of OTA were related to inhalatory exposure to conidia of Penicillium verrucosum, the main OTA producer in temperate climates. Blood samples from 210 participants were analysed for the presence of OTA and IgG antibodies against P. verrucosum conidia. The concentration of OTA was determined by HPLC (DL 10 ng/l), and the IgG level was determined by ELISA. All serum samples contained OTA (mean 397 ng/l, range 21-5534 ng/l). The OTA level in serum was unrelated to farm working, gender, age, and IgG level. The mean IgG level was significantly higher among farm workers than controls. Farm working, or increased inhalatory exposure to P. verrucosum, was not related to higher OTA serum levels. Inhalatory exposure to OTA from farm working seems to be of minor importance compared to dietary intake.

  10. Role of 5-hydroxytryptamine mechanisms in mediating the effects of small intestinal glucose on blood pressure and antropyloroduodenal motility in older subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gentilcore, Diana; Little, Tanya J.; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Samsom, Melvin; Smout, Andre J. P. M.; Horowitz, Michael; Jones, Karen L.

    2007-01-01

    5-hydroxytryptamine mechanisms in mediating the effects of small intestinal glucose on blood pressure and antropyloroduodenal motility in older subjects. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 293: G692-G698, 2007. First published August 9, 2007; doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00199.2007.-Postprandial

  11. Frequency of Th17 CD20+cells in the peripheral blood of rheumatoid arthritis patients is higher compared to healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggleton, Paul; Bremer, Edwin; Tarr, Joanna M.; de Bruyn, Marco; Helfrich, Wijnand; Kendall, Alexandra; Haigh, Richard C.; Viner, Nick J.; Winyard, Paul G.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is considered a T cell driven autoimmune disease, therefore, the ability of B cell depleting biologics, e.g., anti-CD20 antibodies, to alleviate RA is unclear. This study examined the proportions of IL-17-secreting lymphocytes in the blood of healthy subjects

  12. Diagnosis of Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in AIDS Patients in Brazil: Importance of Molecular and Immunological Methods Using Peripheral Blood Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Fabio A.; Vidal, José E.; Oliveira, Augusto C. Penalva de; Hernandez, Adrián V.; Bonasser-Filho, Francisco; Nogueira, Roberta S.; Focaccia, Roberto; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera Lucia

    2005-01-01

    Cerebral toxoplasmosis is the most common cerebral focal lesion in AIDS and still accounts for high morbidity and mortality in Brazil. Its occurrence is more frequent in patients with low CD4+ T-cell counts. It is directly related to the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in the population. Therefore, it is important to evaluate sensitive, less invasive, and rapid diagnostic tests. We evaluated the value of PCR using peripheral blood samples on the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis and whether its association with immunological assays can contribute to a timely diagnosis. We prospectively analyzed blood samples from 192 AIDS patients divided into two groups. The first group was composed of samples from 64 patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis diagnosed by clinical and radiological features. The second group was composed of samples from 128 patients with other opportunistic diseases. Blood collection from patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis was done before or on the third day of anti-toxoplasma therapy. PCR for T. gondii, indirect immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and an avidity test for toxoplasmosis were performed on all samples. The PCR sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis in blood were 80% and 98%, respectively. Patients with cerebral toxoplasmosis (89%) presented higher titers of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies than patients with other diseases (57%) (P < 0.001). These findings suggest the clinical value of the use of both PCR and high titers of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies for the diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis. This strategy may prevent more invasive approaches. PMID:16207959

  13. Detection of sepsis in patient blood samples using CD64 expression in a microfluidic cell separation device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Li, Wenjie; Zhou, Yun; Johnson, Amanda; Venable, Amanda; Hassan, Ahmed; Griswold, John; Pappas, Dimitri

    2017-11-16

    A microfluidic affinity separation device was developed for the detection of sepsis in critical care patients. An affinity capture method was developed to capture cells based on changes in CD64 expression in a single, simple microfluidic chip for sepsis detection. Both sepsis patient samples and a laboratory CD64+ expression model were used to validate the microfluidic assay. Flow cytometry analysis showed that the chip cell capture had a linear relationship with CD64 expression in laboratory models. The Sepsis Chip detected an increase in upregulated neutrophil-like cells when the upregulated cell population is as low as 10% of total cells spiked into commercially available aseptic blood samples. In a proof of concept study, blood samples obtained from sepsis patients within 24 hours of diagnosis were tested on the chip to further validate its performance. On-chip CD64+ cell capture from 10 patient samples (619 ± 340 cells per chip) was significantly different from control samples (32 ± 11 cells per chip) and healthy volunteer samples (228 ± 95 cells per chip). In addition, the on-chip cell capture has a linear relationship with CD64 expression indicating our approach can be used to measure CD64 expression based on total cell capture on Sepsis Chip. Our method has proven to be sensitive, accurate, rapid, and cost-effective. Therefore, this device is a promising detection platform for neutrophil activation and sepsis diagnosis.

  14. Hepatitis C genotype distribution in patient and blood donor samples in South Africa for the period 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabdial-Sing, N; Chirwa, T; Thaver, J; Smuts, H; Vermeulen, M; Suchard, M; Puren, A J

    2016-11-01

    There are limited molecular epidemiological studies of hepatitis C at a national level in South Africa. The introduction of newer treatment modalities for hepatitis C requires knowledge of the genotypes as these may have different prognostic and therapeutic implications. This retrospective study describes genotype distributions of patients attending specialist clinics and a blood donor group studied during the period 2008-2012 in South Africa. Residual samples from diagnostic viral load testing from specialist clinics in South Africa (n=941) and from the South African National Blood Service (n=294) were analysed quantitatively by real-time PCR and genotyped using the Versant line probe assay or sequencing. Genotype 1 was predominant in blood donors (34%), whilst genotype 5a was prevalent in patients (36%). In the blood donor group, genotype 4 was detected for the first time. Genotype 2 was rare in the patient group and not detected in blood donors. Genotype 1 was the predominant genotype in the younger age groups (less than 30 years), whereas genotype 5a was found at higher proportions in the older age groups for both the patient and blood donor groups, comprising more than 60% of genotypes in those older than 50 years. Genotypes 1 and 5 were at highest proportions across all provinces compared to other genotypes. In blood donors, genotype 1 was predominant among Caucasians (43%) and genotype 5a among Blacks (54%). Such information is required for planning the impact on the health sector with regard to newly emerging therapies for hepatitis C and burden of disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Effects of time and temperature on 48 routine chemistry, haematology and coagulation analytes in whole blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Balveren, Jasmijn A; Huijskens, Mirelle Jaj; Gemen, Eugenie Fa; Péquériaux, Nathalie Cv; Kusters, Ron

    2017-07-01

    Background Phlebotomy for the purpose of blood analysis is often performed at remote locations, and samples are usually temporarily stored before transport to a central laboratory for analysis. The circumstances during storage and shipment may not meet the necessary requirements. If analysed anyway, false results may be generated. We therefore examined the influence of precentrifugation time and temperature of the most frequently requested tests in whole blood. Methods Healthy volunteers donated blood in which 48 analytes were tested. Routine chemistry was performed in lithium heparin tubes, haematology in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid tubes, coagulation in citrate tubes and glucose in sodium fluoride tubes. One tube was measured directly. The others were kept at different temperatures (4, 8, 20 or 30℃) and stored for 4, 6, 8 or 24 h before analysis. Additionally, some analytes were examined at 12, 16, 24 and 28℃. The mean percentage deviation was compared with different decision levels, including the total allowable error. Results When using the total allowable error as an acceptable limit, most of the investigated analytes remained stable. However, bicarbonate is unstable at almost all tested time-points and temperatures. Calcium, lactate dehydrogenase, potassium and sodium are particularly affected at low temperatures, while phosphate is mainly affected at and above room temperature after 8 h. Conclusion We established the influence of time and temperature on a broad range of analytes, which may be applied to set the limits in transportation and storage of whole blood samples.

  16. Effects of low-fat dairy intake on blood pressure, endothelial function, and lipoprotein lipids in subjects with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki KC

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Kevin C Maki,1 Tia M Rains,1 Arianne L Schild,1 Mary R Dicklin,1 Keigan M Park,2 Andrea L Lawless,1 Kathleen M Kelley1 1Biofortis Clinical Research, Addison, IL, USA; 2Dairy Research Institute/National Dairy Council, Rosemont, IL, USA Objective: This randomized crossover trial assessed the effects of 5 weeks of consuming low-fat dairy (one serving/day each of 1% fluid milk, low-fat cheese, and low-fat yogurt versus nondairy products (one serving/day each of apple juice, pretzels, and cereal bar on systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP, vascular function (reactive hyperemia index [RHI] and augmentation index, and plasma lipids. Methods: Patients were 62 men and women (mean age 54.5 years, body mass index 29.2 kg/m2 with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension (mean resting SBP/DBP 129.8 mmHg/80.8 mmHg while not receiving antihypertensive medications. A standard breakfast meal challenge including two servings of study products was administered at the end of each treatment period. Results: Dairy and nondairy treatments did not produce significantly different mean SBP or DBP in the resting postprandial state or from premeal to 3.5 hours postmeal (SBP, 126.3 mmHg versus 124.9 mmHg; DBP, 76.5 mmHg versus 75.7 mmHg, premeal (2.35 versus 2.20 or 2 hours postmeal (2.33 versus 2.30 RHI, and premeal (22.5 versus 23.8 or 2 hours postmeal (12.4 versus 13.2 augmentation index. Among subjects with endothelial dysfunction (RHI ≤ 1.67; n = 14 during the control treatment, premeal RHI was significantly higher in the dairy versus nondairy condition (2.32 versus 1.50, P = 0.002. Fasting lipoprotein lipid values were not significantly different between treatments overall, or in subgroup analyses. Conclusion: No significant effects of consuming low-fat dairy products, compared with low-fat nondairy products, were observed for blood pressures, measures of vascular function, or lipid variables in the overall sample, but results from subgroup analyses

  17. Phthalocyanine-BODIPY dye: synthesis, characterization, and utilization for pattern recognition of CYFRA 21-1 in whole blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Comnea-Stancu, Ionela Raluca; Yanık, Hülya; Göksel, Meltem; Alexandru, Anghel; Durmuş, Mahmut

    2017-08-29

    Phthalocyanine-BODIPY dye (BODIPY = boron dipyrromethene) was synthesized, fully characterized, and used for molecular recognition of CYFRA 21-1, a lung cancer biomarker, from whole blood samples. Thin films of three magnesium oxides ((MgO) n , where n = 8, 9, or 10)) were deposited on a paper substrate, and they were immersed in a solution of phthalocyanine-BODIPY dye (1.17 × 10(-3) mol/L) for the design of stochastic sensors. Limits of determination of picograms per milliliter magnitude order were recorded for the proposed stochastic sensors. CYFRA 21-1 was reliably identified and determined with recoveries higher than 95% and RSD lower than 1% in whole blood samples.

  18. Pattern recognition of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in whole blood samples using new platforms based on nanostructured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Gugoasa, Livia Alexandra; Biris, Alexandru Radu

    2015-09-01

    Four stochastic microsensors based on nanostructured materials (graphene, maltodextrin (MD), and diamond) integrated in miniaturized platforms were proposed. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine whose main function is to regulate cell trafficking. It is correlated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and obesity, and was used as the model analyte in this study. The screening of whole blood samples for MCP-1 can be done for concentrations ranging from 10-12 to 10-8 g mL-1. The method was used for both qualitative and quantitative assessments of MCP-1 in whole blood samples. The lowest quantification limits for the assay of MCP-1 (1 pg mL-1) were reached when the microsensors based on protoporphyrin IX/Graphene-Au-3 and on MD/Graphene were employed in the platform design.

  19. Rate of manual leukocyte differentials in dog, cat and horse blood samples using ADVIA 120 cytograms

    OpenAIRE

    Stirn, Martina; Moritz, Andreas; Bauer, Natali

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Modern automated haematology instruments are capable of performing leukocyte differentials faster, cheaper and with a higher precision than the traditional 100-cell manual differential count. Thus, in human laboratories, criteria are defined for performing a manual review of the blood smear resulting in a marked reduction of manual differential counts. While common in human laboratories, this approach to reducing the number of manual differentials in veterinary laboratories is sti...

  20. Measuring the level of agreement in hematologic and biochemical values between blood sampling sites in leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kimberly; Mitchell, Mark A; Norton, Terry; Krecek, Rosina C

    2012-12-01

    Conservation programs to protect endangered sea turtles are being instituted worldwide. A common practice in these programs is to collect blood to evaluate the health of the turtles. Several different venipuncture sites are used to collect blood from sea turtles for hematologic and biochemistry tests, depending on the species. To date, it is unknown what affect venipuncture site may have on sample results. The purpose of this study was to measure the level of agreement between hematologic and biochemistry values collected from the dorsal cervical sinus and the interdigital vein of leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) sea turtles. Paired heparinized blood samples were obtained from the dorsal cervical sinus and the interdigital vein of 12 adult female nesting leatherback sea turtles on Keys Beach, St. Kitts, West Indies. Even though the sample population was small, the data for each chemistry were normally distributed, except for creatine kinase (CK). There was no significant difference when comparing biochemistry or hematologic values by venipuncture site, except for CK (P = 0.02). The level of agreement between sampling sites was considered good for albumin, calcium, globulin, glucose, packed cell volume, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, total protein, total solids, uric acid, white blood cell count, and all of the individual white cell types, while the level of agreement for aspartate aminotransferase and CK were considered poor. This information, coupled with the fact that the interdigital vein affords a less-invasive procedure, demonstrates that the interdigital vein is an appropriate location to use when establishing a hematologic and biochemical profile for leatherback sea turtles.

  1. Boron detection from blood samples by ICP-AES and ICP-MS during boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linko, S; Revitzer, H; Zilliacus, R; Kortesniemi, M; Kouri, M; Savolainen, S

    2008-01-01

    The concept of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) involves infusion of a (10)B containing tracer into the patient's bloodstream followed by local neutron irradiation(s). Accurate estimation of the blood boron level for the treatment field before irradiation is required. Boron concentration can be quantified by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), spectrofluorometric and direct current atomic emission spectrometry (DCP-AES) or by prompt gamma photon detection methods. The blood boron concentrations were analysed and compared using ICP-AES and ICP-MS to ensure congruency of the results if the analysis had to be changed during the treatment, e.g. for technical reasons. The effect of wet-ashing on the results was studied in addition. The mean of all samples analysed with ICP-MS was 5.8 % lower than with ICP-AES coupled to wet-ashing (R (2) = 0.88). Without wet-ashing, the mean of all samples analysed with ICP-MS was 9.1 % higher than with ICP-AES (R (2) = 0.99). Boron concentration analysed from whole blood samples with ICP-AES correlated well with the values of ICP-MS with wet-ashing of the sample matrix, which is generally considered the reference method. When using these methods in parallel at certain intervals during the treatments, reliability of the blood boron concentration values remains satisfactory, taking into account the required accuracy of dose determination in the irradiation of cancer patients.

  2. Systemic Metabolomic Changes in Blood Samples of Lung Cancer Patients Identified by Gas Chromatography Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Miyamoto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Metabolic alterations in tumor cells coupled with systemic indicators of the host response to tumor development have the potential to yield blood profiles with clinical utility for diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. We report results from two separate studies using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS to profile metabolites in human blood samples that significantly differ from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC adenocarcinoma and other lung cancer cases. Metabolomic analysis of blood samples from the two studies yielded a total of 437 metabolites, of which 148 were identified as known compounds and 289 identified as unknown compounds. Differential analysis identified 15 known metabolites in one study and 18 in a second study that were statistically different (p-values <0.05. Levels of maltose, palmitic acid, glycerol, ethanolamine, glutamic acid, and lactic acid were increased in cancer samples while amino acids tryptophan, lysine and histidine decreased. Many of the metabolites were found to be significantly different in both studies, suggesting that metabolomics appears to be robust enough to find systemic changes from lung cancer, thus showing the potential of this type of analysis for lung cancer detection.

  3. Nucleic Acid, Antibody, and Virus Culture Methods to Detect Xenotropic MLV-Related Virus in Human Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Kearney

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The MLV-related retrovirus, XMRV, was recently identified and reported to be associated with both prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. At the National Cancer Institute-Frederick, MD (NCI-Frederick, we developed highly sensitive methods to detect XMRV nucleic acids, antibodies, and replication competent virus. Analysis of XMRV-spiked samples and/or specimens from two pigtail macaques experimentally inoculated with 22Rv1 cell-derived XMRV confirmed the ability of the assays used to detect XMRV RNA and DNA, and culture isolatable virus when present, along with XMRV reactive antibody responses. Using these assays, we did not detect evidence of XMRV in blood samples ( or prostate specimens ( from two independent cohorts of patients with prostate cancer. Previous studies detected XMRV in prostate tissues. In the present study, we primarily investigated the levels of XMRV in blood plasma samples collected from patients with prostate cancer. These results demonstrate that while XMRV-related assays developed at the NCI-Frederick can readily measure XMRV nucleic acids, antibodies, and replication competent virus, no evidence of XMRV was found in the blood of patients with prostate cancer.

  4. Accuracy of intrapartum fetal blood gas analysis by scalp sampling: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Ziad; Mrkvicka, Jennifer; Rezniczek, Günther A; Dogan, Askin; Tempfer, Clemens B

    2017-12-01

    Fetal blood gas analysis (FBGA) using scalp blood is commonly used to identify serious fetal distress. However, there is a lack of data regarding its accuracy and reliability. The aim of this study was to determine the positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of FBGA for predicting postpartum acidosis in case of nonreassuring fetal heart rate tracings (NRFHRT). To this end, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of singleton term deliveries with NRFHRT according to Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique and Fisher cardiotocography scores undergoing FBGA in a university hospital. The PPV and NPV of FBGA regarding neonatal acidosis (defined as a pH value ≤ 7.15 in arterial or venous umbilical cord blood) and Apgar scores indicating neonatal depression (defined as a 5-min Apgar score ≤5) were evaluated. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the influence of cardiotocography variations and the time delay between FBGA and delivery on the accuracy of FBGA. We analyzed 343 deliveries with NRFHRT. In 32 (9%) of these cases, fetal acidosis was confirmed by a postpartum umbilical cord blood pH value ≤ 7.15. In 308/343 (90%) cases, FBGA identified NRFHRT as false positive (as confirmed by nonacidotic postpartum pH values) and thus avoided unnecessary interventions such as operative delivery. The overall test accuracy of FBGA was 91%. FBGA accurately predicted postpartum cord blood pH values with a margin of ±0.2 in 319/343 (93%) cases. On the other hand, the false negative rate of FBGA was 8% (29/343). The PPV and NPV of FBGA for predicting postpartum acidosis were 50% and 91%, respectively. The sensitivity was 9% and the specificity was 99%. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, maternal body mass index (odds ratio [OR] 1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.17; P = .029) and cardiotocography variations (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.66-0.98; P = .029) independently affected the predictive value of

  5. Hepatitis B Virus DNA in Blood Samples Positive for Antibodies to Core Antigen and Negative for Surface Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, C.; León, G.; Loureiro, C. L.; Uzcátegui, N.; Liprandi, F.; Pujol, F. H.

    1999-01-01

    Anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg)-positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative plasma samples from blood donors were tested by nested PCR. DNA positivity was more significantly associated with high levels of anti-HBcAg than with low levels of anti-HBsAg antibodies. Analysis of a dilution of anti-HBcAg antibodies might result in a more rational exclusion of anti-HBcAg-positive HBsAg-negative samples, reducing the number of donations discarded and enabling more countries to incorporate anti-HBcAg testing. PMID:10473534

  6. Quality Assessment of Platelet-Rich Fibrin-Like Matrix Prepared from Whole Blood Samples after Extended Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Hideo; Isobe, Kazushige; Watanabe, Taisuke; Okudera, Toshimitsu; Nakamura, Masayuki; Suzuki, Masashi; Ryu, Jietsu; Kitamura, Yutaka; Okudera, Hajime; Okuda, Kazuhiro; Nakata, Koh; Kawase, Tomoyuki

    2017-09-18

    The platelet-rich fibrin-like matrix (PRFM) is usually prepared onsite and immediately used for regenerative therapy. Nonetheless, to meet the clinical necessity of preserving the PRFM without quality deterioration, we developed a method for preparation of PRFMs from short-term-stored whole blood (WB) samples. In this study, to evaluate the practical expiration date of storage, we extended the storage time of WB samples from 2 to 7 days and assessed the quality of the resulting PRFMs. WB samples collected with acid-citrate-dextrose were stored with gentle agitation at ambient temperature. To prepare PRFMs, the stored WB samples were mixed with CaCl₂ in glass tubes and centrifuged. Fibrin fiber networks, CD41 and CD62P expression, and Platelet Derived Growth Factor-BB (PDGF-BB) levels were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), flow cytometry, and an Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA), respectively. Long-term storage had no significant effect on either blood cell counts or platelet functions tested. The resulting PRFMs were visually identical to freshly prepared ones. PDGF-BB levels did not markedly decrease in a time-dependent manner. However, fibrin fibers gradually became thinner after storage. Although the coagulation activity may diminish, we propose that PRFMs can be prepared-without evident loss of quality-from WB samples stored for up to 7 days by our previously developed method.

  7. Alcohol intoxication at Swedish football matches: A study using biological sampling to assess blood alcohol concentration levels among spectators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Durbeej

    Full Text Available Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems, including accidents, vandalism and violence, at sporting events are of increased concern in Sweden and other countries. The relationship between alcohol use and violence has been established and can be explained by the level of intoxication. Given the occurrence of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems at sporting events, research has assessed intoxication levels measured through biological sampling among spectators. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the level of alcohol intoxication among spectators at football matches in the Swedish Premier Football League. Spectators were randomly selected and invited to participate in the study. Alcohol intoxication was measured with a breath analyser for Blood Alcohol Concentration levels, and data on gender, age, and recent alcohol use were gathered through a face-to-face interview. Blood Alcohol Concentration samples from 4420 spectators were collected. Almost half (46.8% had a positive Blood Alcohol Concentration level, with a mean value of 0.063%, while 8.9% had a Blood Alcohol Concentration level ≥ 0.1%, with a mean value of 0.135%. Factors that predicted a higher Blood Alcohol Concentration level included male gender (p = 0.005, lower age (p < 0.001, attending a local derby (p < 0.001, alcohol use prior to having entered the arena (p < 0.001, attending a weekend match (p < 0.001, and being a spectator at supporter sections (p < 0.001. About half of all spectators at football matches in the Swedish Premier Football League drink alcohol in conjunction with the match. Approximately one tenth have a high level of alcohol intoxication.

  8. In vitro immunomodulation of a whole blood IFN-γ release assay enhances T cell responses in subjects with latent tuberculosis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv L Gaur

    Full Text Available Activation of innate immunity via pathogen recognition receptors (PRR modulates adaptive immune responses. PRR ligands are being exploited as vaccine adjuvants and as therapeutics, but their utility in diagnostics has not been explored. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ release assays (IGRAs are functional T cell assays used to diagnose latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI; however, novel approaches are needed to improve their sensitivity.In vitro immunomodulation of a whole blood IGRA (QuantiFERON®-TB GOLD In-Tube with Toll-like receptor agonists poly(I:C, LPS, and imiquimod was performed on blood from subjects with LTBI and negative controls.In vitro immunomodulation significantly enhanced the response of T cells stimulated with M. tuberculosis antigens from subjects with LTBI but not from uninfected controls. Immunomodulation of IGRA revealed T cell responses in subjects with LTBI whose T cells otherwise do not respond to in vitro stimulation with antigens alone. Similar to their in vivo functions, addition of poly(I:C and LPS to whole blood induced secretion of inflammatory