WorldWideScience

Sample records for subjects anatomy physiology

  1. Olfaction: anatomy, physiology and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Benignus, Vernon A.; Prah, James D.

    1982-01-01

    The anatomy, physiology and function of the olfactory system are reviewed, as are the normal effects of olfactory stimulation. It is speculated that olfaction may have important but unobtrusive effects on human behavior.

  2. Normal Bone Anatomy and Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Bart

    2008-01-01

    This review describes normal bone anatomy and physiology as an introduction to the subsequent articles in this section that discuss clinical applications of iliac crest bone biopsy. The normal anatomy and functions of the skeleton are reviewed first, followed by a general description of the processes of bone modeling and remodeling. The bone remodeling process regulates the gain and loss of bone mineral density in the adult skeleton and directly influences bone strength. Thorough understandin...

  3. Anatomy and physiology of cisternostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Iype; Grasso, Giovanni; Bernardo, Antonio; Munakomi, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Cisternostomy is defined as opening the basal cisterns to atmospheric pressure. This technique helps to reduce the intracranial pressure in severe head trauma as well as other conditions when the so-called sudden "brain swelling" troubles the surgeon. We elaborated the surgical anatomy of this procedure as well as the proposed physiology of how cisternostomy works. This novel technique may change the current trends in neurosurgery.

  4. Anatomy and physiology of chronic scrotal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Abhishek P

    2017-05-01

    This article reviews the anatomy and physiology of the scrotum and its contents as it pertains to chronic scrotal pain. Physiology of chronic pain is reviewed, as well as the pathophysiology involved in the development of chronic pain.

  5. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.

    2008-01-01

    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  6. Auditory pathways: anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, James O

    2015-01-01

    This chapter outlines the anatomy and physiology of the auditory pathways. After a brief analysis of the external, middle ears, and cochlea, the responses of auditory nerve fibers are described. The central nervous system is analyzed in more detail. A scheme is provided to help understand the complex and multiple auditory pathways running through the brainstem. The multiple pathways are based on the need to preserve accurate timing while extracting complex spectral patterns in the auditory input. The auditory nerve fibers branch to give two pathways, a ventral sound-localizing stream, and a dorsal mainly pattern recognition stream, which innervate the different divisions of the cochlear nucleus. The outputs of the two streams, with their two types of analysis, are progressively combined in the inferior colliculus and onwards, to produce the representation of what can be called the "auditory objects" in the external world. The progressive extraction of critical features in the auditory stimulus in the different levels of the central auditory system, from cochlear nucleus to auditory cortex, is described. In addition, the auditory centrifugal system, running from cortex in multiple stages to the organ of Corti of the cochlea, is described. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Bone Conduction: Anatomy, Physiology, and Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henry, Paula; Letowski, Tomasz R

    2007-01-01

    .... This report combines results of an extensive literature review of the anatomy and physiology of human hearing, theories behind the mechanisms of bone conduction transmission, devices for use in bone...

  8. Anatomy and Physiology of the Small Bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Neil; Lacy, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Comprehension of small intestine physiology and function provides a framework for the understanding of several important disease pathways of the gastrointestinal system. This article reviews the development, anatomy and histology of the small bowel in addition to physiology and digestion of key nutrients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Alterations in physiology and anatomy during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eng Kien; Tan, Eng Loy

    2013-12-01

    Pregnant women undergo profound anatomical and physiological changes so that they can cope with the increased physical and metabolic demands of their pregnancies. The cardiovascular, respiratory, haematological, renal, gastrointestinal and endocrine systems all undergo important physiological alterations and adaptations needed to allow development of the fetus and to allow the mother and fetus to survive the demands of childbirth. Such alterations in anatomy and physiology may cause difficulties in interpreting signs, symptoms, and biochemical investigations, making the clinical assessment of a pregnant woman inevitably confusing but challenging. Understanding these changes is important for every practicing obstetrician, as the pathological deviations from the normal physiological alterations may not be clear-cut until an adverse outcome has resulted. Only with a sound knowledge of the physiology and anatomy changes can the care of an obstetric parturient be safely optimized for a better maternal and fetal outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anatomy and physiology of the aging neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadfar, Scott; Perkins, Stephen W

    2014-05-01

    This article discusses the surgically relevant anatomic and physiologic tenets of the aging neck. Procedures performed to rejuvenate and contour the aging neck can be challenging. A thorough understanding of the underlying neck anatomy, as well as the physiology associated with aging, is critical for surgical planning, execution, and achieving aesthetically pleasing outcomes. These topics are reviewed and used as the foundation for a discussion of various other techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Anatomy and physiology of genital organs - women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziottin, Alessandra; Gambini, Dania

    2015-01-01

    "Anatomy is destiny": Sigmund Freud viewed human anatomy as a necessary, although not a sufficient, condition for understanding the complexity of human sexual function with a solid biologic basis. The aim of the chapter is to describe women's genital anatomy and physiology, focusing on women's sexual function with a clinically oriented vision. Key points include: embryology, stressing that the "female" is the anatomic "default" program, differentiated into "male" only in the presence of androgens at physiologic levels for the gestational age; sex determination and sex differentiation, describing the interplay between anatomic and endocrine factors; the "clitoral-urethral-vaginal" complex, the most recent anatomy reading of the corpora cavernosa pattern in women; the controversial G spot; the role of the pelvic floor muscles in modulating vaginal receptivity and intercourse feelings, with hyperactivity leading to introital dyspareunia and contributing to provoked vestibulodynia and recurrent postcoital cystitis, whilst lesions during delivery reduce vaginal sensations, genital arousability, and orgasm; innervation, vessels, bones, ligaments; and the physiology of women's sexual response. Attention to physiologic aging focuses on "low-grade inflammation," genital and systemic, with its impact on women sexual function, especially after the menopause, if the woman does not or cannot use hormone replacement therapy. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fostering improved anatomy and physiology instructor pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheis, Allison; Jensen, Murray

    2014-12-01

    Despite widespread calls for reform in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, effecting lasting change in instructor practice is challenging to achieve. This article describes the results of a 2-yr research study that involved efforts to develop the pedagogical expertise of a group of anatomy and physiology instructors at the college level. Data were collected through a series of individual interviews that included the use of the Teacher Beliefs Inventory questionnaire (23) along with observations onsite in participants' college classrooms and at process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) curriculum writing workshops. Findings indicated attitudinal shifts on the part of participants from teacher-centered to more student-centered pedagogy and supported the benefits of long-term professional development for instructors. Here, we documented the successful progress of these professors as they participated in a curriculum development process that emphasized student-centered teaching with the goal of promoting broader change efforts in introductory anatomy and physiology. Copyright © 2014 The American Physiological Society.

  13. Anatomy and Physiology of the Pelvic Floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickmeyer, Sarah M

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the anatomic relationship of the pelvic floor muscles with the pelvic girdle, spine, and hips aids the rehabilitation provider in diagnosis, management, and appropriate referrals. The bony anatomy of the pelvic girdle consists of 3 bones and 3 joints. The pelvic floor muscles are comprised mainly of the levator ani muscles with somatic innervation from the lumbosacral plexus. The bony and muscular pelvis is highly interconnected to the hip and gluteal musculature, which together provide support to the internal organs and core muscles. Pelvic floor physiology is centered on bladder and bowel control, sexual functioning, and pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional anatomy and physiology of gastric secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Mitchell L

    2015-11-01

    This review summarizes the past year's literature regarding the neuroendocrine and intracellular regulation of gastric acid secretion, discussing both basic and clinical aspects. Gastric acid facilitates the digestion of protein as well as the absorption of iron, calcium, vitamin B12, and certain medications. High acidity kills ingested microorganisms and limits bacterial overgrowth, enteric infection, and possibly spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. The main stimulants of acid secretion are gastrin, released from antral gastrin cells; histamine, released from oxyntic enterochromaffin-like cells; and acetylcholine, released from antral and oxyntic intramural neurons. Ghrelin and coffee also stimulate acid secretion whereas somatostatin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1, and atrial natriuretic peptide inhibit acid secretion. Although 95% of parietal cells are contained within the oxyntic mucosa (fundus and body), 50% of human antral glands contain parietal cells. Proton pump inhibitors are considered well tolerated drugs, but concerns have been raised regarding dysbiosis, atrophic gastritis, hypergastrinemia, hypomagnesemia, and enteritis/colitis. Our understanding of the functional anatomy and physiology of gastric secretion continues to advance. Such knowledge is crucial for improved management of acid-peptic disorders, prevention and management of neoplasia, and the development of novel medications.

  15. Anatomy and physiology for nursing students: is problem-based learning effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayner, Lidia; Gillham, David; Sansoni, Julita

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether problem-based learning (PBL) was an effective strategy for nursing students learning anatomy and physiology. Anatomy and physiology are subject areas that have posed long standing difficulty for nursing students. Since anatomy and physiology underpin clinical decision making it is important that nursing students are able to understand and retain this knowledge and apply it to practice. Problem-based learning offers potential advantages for teaching anatomy and physiology as clinical cases can provide the impetus for student problem solving. This project trialled a simple PBL scenario and investigated students' response to the task of problem solving in a laboratory setting adapted to simulate a hospital ward. The study found students learn better, retain the knowledge and merge theory with simulated practice when a PBL teaching mode is used. While PBL was effective, blended, web based and hybrid PBL models warrant investigation.

  16. The anatomy and physiology of the avian endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Midge; Pilny, Anthony A

    2008-01-01

    The endocrine system of birds is comparable to that of mammals, although there are many unique aspects to consider when studying the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry. Avian endocrinology is a field of veterinary medicine that is unfamiliar to many practitioners; however, it is important to have a comprehensive understanding when evaluating companion birds in clinical practice. This article covers the anatomy and physiology of the normal avian, and readers are referred to other articles for a more detailed explanation of altered physiology and pathology.

  17. Fostering Improved Anatomy and Physiology Instructor Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheis, Allison; Jensen, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread calls for reform in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, effecting lasting change in instructor practice is challenging to achieve. This article describes the results of a 2-yr research study that involved efforts to develop the pedagogical expertise of a group of anatomy and physiology…

  18. Introductory anatomy and physiology in an undergraduate nursing curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S J; White, S; Power, N

    2017-03-01

    Using an educational data mining approach, first-year academic achievement of undergraduate nursing students, which included two compulsory courses in introductory human anatomy and physiology, was compared with achievement in a final semester course that transitioned students into the workplace. We hypothesized that students could be grouped according to their first-year academic achievement using a two-step cluster analysis method and that grades achieved in the human anatomy and physiology courses would be strong predictors of overall achievement. One cohort that graduated in 2014 (n = 105) and one that graduated in 2015 (n = 94) were analyzed separately, and for both cohorts, two groups were identified, these being "high achievers" (HIGH) and "low achievers" (LOW). Consistently, the anatomy and physiology courses were the strongest predictors of group assignment, such that a good grade in these was much more likely to put a student into a high-achieving group. Students in the HIGH groups also scored higher in the Transition to Nursing course when compared with students in the LOW groups. The higher predictor importance of the anatomy and physiology courses suggested that if a first-year grade-point average was calculated for students, an increased weighting should be attributed to these courses. Identifying high-achieving students based on first-year academic scores may be a useful method to predict future academic performance. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Contributing Factors to Student Success in Anatomy and Physiology: Lower outside Workload and Better Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, David E.; Hannum, Lynn; Gupta, Sat

    2004-01-01

    A study of students of a traditional two-semester Anatomy and Physiology class was made to determine factors that contributed to success in the coursework. The test established a co-relation between the amount of study in mathematics and science done previously in school and final grades in the subject.

  20. An emerging paradigm for teaching human anatomy and physiology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabab El-Sayed Hassan El-Sayed

    2013-03-15

    Mar 15, 2013 ... ures in the immediate and follow-up measures as compared with the traditional method of teaching human anatomy and physiology that was based on printout illustrations, but these differences were not statistically significant. Moreover, nurse students appeared positive about their learning expe- riences ...

  1. Anatomy and Physiology. Health Occupations Education. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    Nine units on anatomy and physiology are presented in this teacher's guide. The units are the following: organization and general plan of the body; skeletal and muscular systems; digestive system; circulatory system; respiratory system; nervous system and special senses; urinary system; reproductive system; and endocrine glands. Each instructional…

  2. Gregorc Learning Styles and Achievement in Anatomy and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasym, P. H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Results from the Gregorc Style Delineator (GSD), administered to 260 undergraduate nursing students, were compared with achievement scores in a human anatomy and physiology course. Factor analysis and VARIMAX rotation demonstrate that there is no relationship between any of the four learning styles allegedly identified by the GSD and achievement…

  3. Introductory Anatomy and Physiology in an Undergraduate Nursing Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S. J.; White, S.; Power, N.

    2017-01-01

    Using an educational data mining approach, first-year academic achievement of undergraduate nursing students, which included two compulsory courses in introductory human anatomy and physiology, was compared with achievement in a final semester course that transitioned students into the workplace. We hypothesized that students could be grouped…

  4. Anatomy and Physiology of the Speech Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Boyd V.

    This monograph on the anatomical and physiological aspects of the speech mechanism stresses the importance of a general understanding of the process of verbal communication. Contents include "Positions of the Body,""Basic Concepts Linked with the Speech Mechanism,""The Nervous System,""The Respiratory System--Sound-Power Source,""The…

  5. The human hair: from anatomy to physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffoli, Barbara; Rinaldi, Fabio; Labanca, Mauro; Sorbellini, Elisabetta; Trink, Anna; Guanziroli, Elena; Rezzani, Rita; Rodella, Luigi F

    2014-03-01

    Hair is a unique character of mammals and has several functions, from protection of the skin to sexual and social communication. In literature, there are various studies about hair that take into consideration different aspects within many fields of science, including biology, dermatology, cosmetics, forensic sciences, and medicine. We carried out a search of studies published in PubMed up to 2013. In this review, we summarized the principal anatomical and physiological aspects of the different types of human hair, and we considered the clinical significance of the different structures and the distribution of the hair in the human body. This review could be the basis for improvement and progression in the field of hair research. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  6. Anatomy and physiology of directional hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przewoźny, T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present the most important neuroanatomical and neurophysiological studies concerning the phenomenon of sound localisation in space by people. The author analysed the available literature concerning this topic. The article presents different theories explaining the phenomenon of sound localisation, such as interaural differences in time, interaural differences in sound intensity, interaural and monaural differences in phase and the anatomical and physiological basis of these processes. It also describes methods of measurement of disturbances in sound localisation which are used around the world and in Poland, also by the author of this work. The author lists a number of reports on the neurological causes of disturbances in sound localisation, especially the ones connected with vascular damage of the brain. The reports indicate that it is the temporal and parietal lobes that play the role of cortical centres of sound localisation. Also, it should be pointed out that even though having two ears indeed makes it possible for humans to localise sources of sounds, the process itself takes place in the brain.

  7. Adrenal steroid metabolism in birds: anatomy, physiology, and clinical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal system in birds is anatomically and functionally different from that in mammals. The adrenal gland structure and corticosteroid hormone physiology of birds will be reviewed. The anatomy and physiology sections of this article will be important for better understanding the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and possible treatment of primary or secondary adrenal gland disease. Causes of hyper- and hypoadrenocorticism in birds also will be reviewed. The article will conclude with current indications and complications to the clinical use of glucocorticoids in birds.

  8. The anatomy of subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Praag, B.M.S.; Frijters, P.; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on Subjective Well-Being by taking into account different aspects of life, called domains, such as health, financial situation, job, leisure, housing, and environment. We postulate a two-layer model where individual total Subjective Well-Being depends on the

  9. The Anatomy of Subjective Well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praag, van B.M.S.; Frijters, P.; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on Subjective Well-Being by taking into account different aspects of life, called domains, such as health, financial situation, job, leisure, housing, and environment. We postulate a two-Iayer model where individual total Subjective Well-Being depends on the

  10. Drawing on student knowledge in human anatomy and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Tara Nicole

    Prior to instruction, students may have developed alternative conceptions about the mechanics behind human physiology. To help students re-shape these ideas into correct reasoning, the faulty characteristics reinforcing the alternative conceptions need to made explicit. This study used student-generated drawings to expose alternative conceptions Human Anatomy and Physiology students had prior to instruction on neuron physiology. Specifically, we investigated how students thought about neuron communication across a synapse (n=355) and how neuron activity can be modified (n=311). When asked to depict basic communication between two neurons, at least 80% of students demonstrated incorrect ideas about synaptic transmission. When targeting spatial and temporal summation, only eleven students (3.5%) were able to accurately depict at least one form of summation. In response to both drawing questions, student drawings revealed multiple alternative conceptions that resulted in a deeper analysis and characterization of the wide variation of student ideas.

  11. Anatomy and physiology of the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serlin, Yonatan; Shelef, Ilan; Knyazer, Boris; Friedman, Alon

    2015-02-01

    Essential requisite for the preservation of normal brain activity is to maintain a narrow and stable homeostatic control in the neuronal environment of the CNS. Blood flow alterations and altered vessel permeability are considered key determinants in the pathophysiology of brain injuries. We will review the present-day literature on the anatomy, development and physiological mechanisms of the blood-brain barrier, a distinctive and tightly regulated interface between the CNS and the peripheral circulation, playing a crucial role in the maintenance of the strict environment required for normal brain function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Anatomy and physiology of velopharyngeal closure and insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raol, Nikhila; Hartnick, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    The velopharynx is a complex structure that is responsible for separation of the oral and nasal cavities during speech production and swallowing. Incompetence of this mechanism can lead to hypernasality, with nasal air emission and incomprehensible speech, as well as nasopharyngeal regurgitation. There can be a significant social stigma associated with velopharyngeal dysfunction, and surgical treatment can be curative in many cases. Knowledge of the normal anatomy and physiology of the velopharyngeal complex is essential when planning for surgical repair. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. [Anatomy and physiology of the nasolacrimal ducts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, F; Garreis, F; Schicht, M; Bräuer, L; Ali, M J; Sel, S

    2016-06-01

    Ophthalmologists and interventional radiologists are not the only professionals for whom diseases of the efferent tear duct system occupy centre stage; this applies also to ENT specialists involving endonasal conservative or surgical treatment. On the basis of current knowledge and taking account of results yielded by own research in recent years and of clinical aspects, we here give an overview of basic knowledge on the anatomy and physiology of the nasolacrimal system. In doing so functional aspects regarding tear transport as well as embryological and pathophysiological issues are integrated.

  14. Exploring anatomy and physiology using iPad applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Tandra R; Cooperstein, Deborah F

    2017-11-07

    This study examined the use of iPads with anatomy applications (apps) in the laboratory sections of the largest undergraduate course at the university, Anatomy and Physiology, serving more than 300 students. The majority of these students were nursing, exercise science/physical education and biology majors. With a student survey (student opinion) and student practicum grades as metrics, this study determined whether the introduction of this novel mobile technology improved student grades and aided the students in learning the course material. The results indicated that students' grades improved with the introduction of the iPads, and 78% of the students reported that the iPads facilitated their ability to learn the course material. There was a positive association between frequency of app use and standardized mastery of the course material, as students who used the apps more frequently scored higher and indicated that they felt as though they had learned the material more comprehensively. Owning or having an iPad at home did not have a significant effect on the learning of the material. The general consensus by students was that iPad anatomy apps should be used frequently to better develop student understanding of the course material. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  15. Dual atrioventricular nodal pathways physiology: a review of relevant anatomy, electrophysiology, and electrocardiographic manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Bhalaghuru Chokkalingam; Pavri, Behzad B

    2014-01-01

    More than half a century has passed since the concept of dual atrioventricular (AV) nodal pathways physiology was conceived. Dual AV nodal pathways have been shown to be responsible for many clinical arrhythmia syndromes, most notably AV nodal reentrant tachycardia. Although there has been a considerable amount of research on this topic, the subject of dual AV nodal pathways physiology remains heavily debated and discussed. Despite advances in understanding arrhythmia mechanisms and the widespread use of invasive electrophysiologic studies, there is still disagreement on the anatomy and physiology of the AV node that is the basis of discontinuous antegrade AV conduction. The purpose of this paper is to review the concept of dual AV nodal pathways physiology and its varied electrocardiographic manifestations.

  16. Dual Atrioventricular Nodal Pathways Physiology: A Review of Relevant Anatomy, Electrophysiology, and Electrocardiographic Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhalaghuru Chokkalingam Mani, MD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available More than half a century has passed since the concept of dual atrioventricular (AV nodal pathways physiology was conceived. Dual AV nodal pathways have been shown to be responsible for many clinical arrhythmia syndromes, most notably AV nodal reentrant tachycardia. Although there has been a considerable amount of research on this topic, the subject of dual AV nodal pathways physiology remains heavily debated and discussed. Despite advances in understanding arrhythmia mechanisms and the widespread use of invasive electrophysiologic studies, there is still disagreement on the anatomy and physiology of the AV node that is the basis of discontinuous antegrade AV conduction. The purpose of this paper is to review the concept of dual AV nodal pathways physiology and its varied electrocardiographic manifestations.

  17. Use of Interactive Live Digital Imaging to Enhance Histology Learning in Introductory Level Anatomy and Physiology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higazi, Tarig B.

    2011-01-01

    Histology is one of the main subjects in introductory college-level Human Anatomy and Physiology classes. Institutions are moving toward the replacement of traditional microscope-based histology learning with virtual microscopy learning amid concerns of losing the valuable learning experience of traditional microscopy. This study used live digital…

  18. The gut microbiota: its anatomy and physiology over a lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibiino, Giulia; Ianiro, Gianluca; Cammarota, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    The wide assemblage of microorganisms inhabiting our gastrointestinal tract is an attractive field for overwhelming contemporary research in several aspects of the human health. Most recent molecular techniques, as the use of rRNAs or whole genome sequencing, definitely overcame traditional culture techniques in giving outline of the intestinal bacterial richness. Moreover, the crosstalk between host and intestinal microbes is considered a cornerstone affecting the host's metabolism, immunity, autoimmunity and autoinflammation and elaborate networks linked to several organs. The aim of this review is to summarize the broad spectrum of available pieces of information in this setting and to assess the current knowledge of the intestinal microbiota anatomy and physiology, in the perspective of future therapies modulating the gut microbial balance.

  19. Anatomy and physiology of plant conductive systems. Book chapter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, C.

    1993-01-01

    Mathematical models considered in the book are representations of the physical features and chemical reactions that define interactions between plants and their environment. By centering attention on equations, it is easy to lose sight of the intricate and complex nature of the problem. The particular chapter describes the anatomy of important plant features and briefly discuss some physiological principles that will help to visualize and perceive the conditions which are represented in the models. Because of the many competing interactions, the fate of chemicals in the soil/plant/air environment is not obvious. Models were thus developed to intelligently integrate available knowledge, to increase understanding of the complex interactions, to aid in presentation of plant functions, and to help make predictions about chemical fate.

  20. Student Enrollment in a Supplement Course for Anatomy and Physiology Results in Improved Retention and Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Anatomy and Physiology I (A&P 1) has one of the highest failure and withdrawal rates on campus. To increase academic success, a course to supplement A&P 1 (Supplement) was developed and taught by anatomy and physiology faculty. Primary goals for the Supplement included (1) early identification of students at risk for failing or withdrawal;…

  1. Offering an anatomy and physiology course through a high school-university partnership: the Minnesota model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Murray; Mattheis, Allison; Loyle, Anne

    2013-06-01

    This article describes a one-semester anatomy and physiology course that is currently offered through the concurrent enrollment program at the University of Minnesota. The article explains how high school teachers are prepared to teach the course and describes efforts to promote program quality, student inquiry, and experiential learning. Recommendations are made for anatomy and physiology instructors who are involved in similar endeavors.

  2. [Anatomy and physiology of the human trapezometacarpal joint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongieres, M

    2004-12-01

    Biomechanics of the trapeziometacarpal joint (TMJ) are controversial, because of differences between its normal anatomical description and theories of its pathophysiology. The aim of this article is to explain the mechanisms underlying trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis by means of the anatomy and physiology of the TM joint. Having described the main ligaments and their roles in the physiology of the joint, it is then difficult to understand why trapezectomy usually improves patients with TMO, when the ligaments are destroyed or only partially repaired by tendinoplasty. Different explanations of TMO are detailed but it seems, according to the literature, that TMO can be explained more by genetic considerations than anatomic dysfunction. The theory of Zancolli is not verified by facts, and other concepts such as ligament theory, and dysplasia of the caudal aspect of the trapezial bone are not sufficient to understand this disease. The same discussion is engaged with regard to explaining the automatic rotation of the thumb in the TM joint. The cantilever bending principle is described as proposed by Bettinger and al.

  3. Panel 2: Anatomy (Eustachian Tube, Middle Ear, and Mastoid-Anatomy, Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Cuneyt M; Luntz, Michal; Takahashi, Haruo; Ghadiali, Samir N; Swarts, J Douglas; Teixeira, Miriam S; Csákányi, Zsuzsanna; Yehudai, Noam; Kania, Romain; Poe, Dennis S

    2017-04-01

    Objective In this report, we review the recent literature (ie, past 4 years) to identify advances in our understanding of the middle ear-mastoid-eustachian tube system. We use this review to determine whether the short-term goals elaborated in the last report were achieved, and we propose updated goals to guide future otitis media research. Data Sources PubMed, Web of Science, Medline. Review Methods The panel topic was subdivided, and each contributor performed a literature search within the given time frame. The keywords searched included middle ear, eustachian tube, and mastoid for their intersection with anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, and pathology. Preliminary reports from each panel member were consolidated and discussed when the panel met on June 11, 2015. At that meeting, the progress was evaluated and new short-term goals proposed. Conclusions Progress was made on 13 of the 20 short-term goals proposed in 2011. Significant advances were made in the characterization of middle ear gas exchange pathways, modeling eustachian tube function, and preliminary testing of treatments for eustachian tube dysfunction. Implications for Practice In the future, imaging technologies should be developed to noninvasively assess middle ear/eustachian tube structure and physiology with respect to their role in otitis media pathogenesis. The new data derived from these structure/function experiments should be integrated into computational models that can then be used to develop specific hypotheses concerning otitis media pathogenesis and persistence. Finally, rigorous studies on medical or surgical treatments for eustachian tube dysfunction should be undertaken.

  4. Proposal for research and education: joint lectures and practicals on central nervous system anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Ikuo; Yoshimura, Ken; Satoh, Yoshihide; Nanayakkara, Chinthani D; Pallegama, Ranjith W; Iwasaki, Shin-Ichi

    2016-07-01

    We coordinated anatomy and physiology lectures and practicals to facilitate an integrated understanding of morphology and function in a basic medical science program for dental students and to reduce the time spent on basic science education. This method is a means to provide the essential information and skills in less time. The overall impression was that the practice of joint central nervous system lectures and practicals was an efficient method for students, which suggests that joint lectures might also be useful for clinical subjects. About two-thirds of students felt that the joint anatomy and physiology lecture on the central nervous system was useful and necessary in understanding the relationship between morphology and function, at least for this subject. One-third of students were neutral on the effectiveness of this method. However, the survey results suggest that improvements are needed in the method and timing of joint lectures and practicals. The present teaching approach can be further improved by conducting combined lectures in which the form and function of anatomic structures are presented by the relevant departments during the same lecture. Finally, joint lecturers and practicals offer an opportunity to increase student understanding of the importance of new research findings by the present authors and other researchers.

  5. Evaluating an Instrument to Quantify Attitude to the Subject of Physiology in Undergraduate Health Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen; White, Sue; Bowmar, Alex; Power, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    The attitude toward a subject contributes to both academic engagement and success at university, yet it is not routinely measured in undergraduate students. Therefore, in two consecutive introductory courses in Human anatomy and physiology (HAP 1, n = 239, and HAP 2, n = 329), an instrument to quantify undergraduate students' attitude to the…

  6. [Anatomy and physiology of chronic pelvic and perineal pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labat, J-J; Robert, R; Delavierre, D; Sibert, L; Rigaud, J

    2010-11-01

    To determine the mechanisms involved in the regulation of pelvic and perineal pain. Description of the anatomical pathways mediating nociceptive transmission and the physiological mechanisms of pain control. The pelvis and perineum do not have the same innervation. The pelvis is innervated by the sympathetic nervous system, while the perineum is innervated by the somatic nervous system via sacral nerve roots (and the pudendal nerve) and the thoracolumbar sympathetic nervous system. Systems of regulation of nociceptive messages are present at all levels of the nervous system. Two of these systems are essential: one situated in the dorsal horns of the spinal cord (gate control) and another supraspinal system (descending inhibitory system). Via a series of filters and amplifiers, the nociceptive message is integrated and analysed in the cerebral cortex, with interconnections with various areas, especially involving memory and emotion. Excessive nociceptive stimulation must be clearly distinguished from dysfunction of pain control systems (for example neuropathic pain). The definition of pain: "unpleasant sensory and emotional experience related to a real or potential tissue lesion or described in terms of such a lesion" clearly indicates that not all pain is inevitably related to a persistent and visible cause. Convergence phenomena identified between nerve pathways of the various systems and pelvic organs account for the possible diffusion of visceral nociceptive messages and interactions between organs. A good knowledge of anatomy is essential to understand the patient's description of the pain, and a good knowledge of the modalities of pain control is essential to correctly adapt treatment strategies (drugs, neurostimulation, psycho-behavioural therapy, etc.). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. From tissue to silicon to plastic: 3D printing in comparative anatomy and physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Hansen, Kasper; Nørgård, Mathias Ørum

    2016-01-01

    Comparative anatomy and physiology are disciplines related to structures and mechanisms in three-dimensional space. For the past centuries, scientific reports in these fields have relied on written descriptions and two-dimensional illustrations, but in recent years three-dimensional virtual...... to produce digital models of animal anatomy well suited to be printed on low cost 3D printers. In this communication we report how to apply such technology in comparative anatomy and physiology to aid discovery, description, comprehension and communication, and we seek to inspire fellow researchers...

  8. Orientar la asignatura de Anatomía y Fisiología hacia las competencias profesionales de enfermería: Propuesta de un proyecto docente Orienting the subjects of anatomy and physiology to nursing professional competence: A teaching proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Falcó Pegueroles

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de la anatomía y la fisiología del cuerpo humano forma parte de las materias básicas e imprescindibles en la formación de los profesionales de la salud. Sin embargo, las competencias profesionales de la enfermería actual, el entorno sanitario, y la interrelación con otras materias del currículum, establecen unas necesidades de formación muy específicas en el campo de la anatomía, la fisiología, y la bioquímica. En la actualidad, muchos de los proyectos docentes relativos a estas materias que se imparten en las Escuelas universitarias de Enfermería están diseñados a partir de un modelo tradicional que introduce con éxito al alumno en los conceptos anatómicos y fisiológicos más importantes y fundamentales del cuerpo humano, sin duda, pero no permite a éste integrarlos con el resto de asignaturas ni asegurar el aprendizaje de contenidos útiles y necesarios desde un punto de vista práctico. El presente artículo analiza los factores que explican este desajuste entre los contenidos de la asignatura de anatomía y fisiología y las necesidades de formación; también expone un proyecto docente que orienta los contenidos y los métodos pedagógicos a estas exigencias de formación en enfermería; y busca compartir con otros docentes la experiencia de creación y ejecución de un proyecto de estas características en un momento de transformación académica con motivo de la integración del sistema universitario español al espacio europeo de enseñanza superior.The study of anatomy and physiology of the human body is an essential part in the education of all health professionals. However, the professional competence in today’s nursing, the health environment, and their interrelation with other subjects in the nursing curriculum require very specific educational needs in the field of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry. Nowadays, most of the teaching projects on this subject at nursing university schools are designed

  9. Measuring higher cognitive development in anatomy and physiology students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Christopher

    To estimate the higher cognitive development of college science students, performance on lecture exams at different cognitive levels was measured in a two-semester sequence of anatomy and physiology at Idaho State University. Lecture exams consisted of multiple-choice test items, each classified at various cognitive levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. These included the knowledge, comprehension, application, and analysis levels. The investigation comprised students who completed both semesters from the same instructor during the same academic year. Data was collected on two separate cohorts of students. One completed the sequence during 1998--1999 and the other during the 1999--2000 school year. Student performance was assessed on four exams each semester, for a total of eight exams each year of the study. Based on preliminary analysis of the 1998--1999 data, the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) was incorporated as an independent and discipline-neutral measure of higher-level thinking. The CCTST was administered during the beginning, middle, and end of the 1999--2000 school year. Two years of data analysis confirmed the cumulative hierarchical relationship of the knowledge, comprehension, application, and analysis levels of the taxonomy. Performance at successively higher cognitive levels was significantly and consistently lower than at preceding levels. Higher-level thinking was substantially more difficult for students than lower-level thinking. Students averaged 73% at the knowledge level and 53% at the application and analysis levels on lecture exams. No improvement in higher-level thinking was detected at either the application and analysis levels of Bloom's Taxonomy or on the CCTST over two semesters. The ability to detect improvement was likely complicated by varying exam topics and a lack of student motivation on the CCTST. The results of this investigation highlight the need for higher cognitive development across the curriculum. The findings have

  10. An Active Learning Exercise to Facilitate Understanding of Nephron Function: Anatomy and Physiology of Renal Transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks-Naylor, Amie J.

    2016-01-01

    Renal transport is a central mechanism underlying electrolyte homeostasis, acid base balance and other essential functions of the kidneys in human physiology. Thus, knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the nephron is essential for the understanding of kidney function in health and disease. However, students find this content difficult to…

  11. Can Computer-Based Visual-Spatial Aids Lead to Increased Student Performance in Anatomy & Physiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, Michael H.; Linzey, Alicia V.

    2005-01-01

    InterActive Physiology (IAP) is one of a new generation of anatomy and physiology learning aids with a broader range of sensory inputs than is possible from a static textbook or moderately dynamic lecture. This best-selling software has modules covering the muscular, respiratory, urinary, cardiovascular, and nervous systems plus a module on fluids…

  12. Changing undergraduate human anatomy and physiology laboratories: perspectives from a large-enrollment course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griff, Edwin R

    2016-09-01

    In the present article, a veteran lecturer of human anatomy and physiology taught several sections of the laboratory component for the first time and shares his observations and analysis from this unique perspective. The article discusses a large-enrollment, content-heavy anatomy and physiology course in relationship to published studies on learning and student self-efficacy. Changes in the laboratory component that could increase student learning are proposed. The author also points out the need for research to assess whether selective curricular changes could increase the depth of understanding and retention of learned material. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  13. Comprehensive Modeling and Visualization of Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology from CT Imaging and Computer Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Guanglei; Sun, Peng; Zhou, Haoyin; Ha, Seongmin; Hartaigh, Briain O; Truong, Quynh A; Min, James K

    2017-02-01

    In clinical cardiology, both anatomy and physiology are needed to diagnose cardiac pathologies. CT imaging and computer simulations provide valuable and complementary data for this purpose. However, it remains challenging to gain useful information from the large amount of high-dimensional diverse data. The current tools are not adequately integrated to visualize anatomic and physiologic data from a complete yet focused perspective. We introduce a new computer-aided diagnosis framework, which allows for comprehensive modeling and visualization of cardiac anatomy and physiology from CT imaging data and computer simulations, with a primary focus on ischemic heart disease. The following visual information is presented: (1) Anatomy from CT imaging: geometric modeling and visualization of cardiac anatomy, including four heart chambers, left and right ventricular outflow tracts, and coronary arteries; (2) Function from CT imaging: motion modeling, strain calculation, and visualization of four heart chambers; (3) Physiology from CT imaging: quantification and visualization of myocardial perfusion and contextual integration with coronary artery anatomy; (4) Physiology from computer simulation: computation and visualization of hemodynamics (e.g., coronary blood velocity, pressure, shear stress, and fluid forces on the vessel wall). Substantially, feedback from cardiologists have confirmed the practical utility of integrating these features for the purpose of computer-aided diagnosis of ischemic heart disease.

  14. Multimodal integration of anatomy and physiology classes: How instructors utilize multimodal teaching in their classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Gerald M., Jr.

    Multimodality is the theory of communication as it applies to social and educational semiotics (making meaning through the use of multiple signs and symbols). The term multimodality describes a communication methodology that includes multiple textual, aural, and visual applications (modes) that are woven together to create what is referred to as an artifact. Multimodal teaching methodology attempts to create a deeper meaning to course content by activating the higher cognitive areas of the student's brain, creating a more sustained retention of the information (Murray, 2009). The introduction of multimodality educational methodologies as a means to more optimally engage students has been documented within educational literature. However, studies analyzing the distribution and penetration into basic sciences, more specifically anatomy and physiology, have not been forthcoming. This study used a quantitative survey design to determine the degree to which instructors integrated multimodality teaching practices into their course curricula. The instrument used for the study was designed by the researcher based on evidence found in the literature and sent to members of three associations/societies for anatomy and physiology instructors: the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society; the iTeach Anatomy & Physiology Collaborate; and the American Physiology Society. Respondents totaled 182 instructor members of two- and four-year, private and public higher learning colleges collected from the three organizations collectively with over 13,500 members in over 925 higher learning institutions nationwide. The study concluded that the expansion of multimodal methodologies into anatomy and physiology classrooms is at the beginning of the process and that there is ample opportunity for expansion. Instructors continue to use lecture as their primary means of interaction with students. Email is still the major form of out-of-class communication for full-time instructors. Instructors with

  15. Anatomy and Physiology of the Lesser Metatarsophalangeal Joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, Fred T; Cata, Ezequiel; Holmes, James R; Talusan, Paul G

    2018-03-01

    Knowledge and command of anatomy is paramount to effectively treating disorders of the lesser metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints. The osseous structures consist of the proximal phalanx of the toe and the metatarsal head. The soft tissues on the dorsum of the MTP joint include the joint capsule and the tendons of extensor digitorum longus and extensor digitorum brevis. The proper and accessory collateral ligaments form the medial and lateral walls and contribute to stability in the coronal and sagittal planes. The plantar plate forms the plantar border of the MTP joint and stabilizes the MTP joint against hyperextension and dorsal translation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anatomy, Physiology and Function of the Auditory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmeier, Birger

    The human ear consists of the outer ear (pinna or concha, outer ear canal, tympanic membrane), the middle ear (middle ear cavity with the three ossicles malleus, incus and stapes) and the inner ear (cochlea which is connected to the three semicircular canals by the vestibule, which provides the sense of balance). The cochlea is connected to the brain stem via the eighth brain nerve, i.e. the vestibular cochlear nerve or nervus statoacusticus. Subsequently, the acoustical information is processed by the brain at various levels of the auditory system. An overview about the anatomy of the auditory system is provided by Figure 1.

  17. From tissue to silicon to plastic: three-dimensional printing in comparative anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Hansen, Kasper; Nørgård, Mathias Ørum; Wang, Tobias; Pedersen, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Comparative anatomy and physiology are disciplines related to structures and mechanisms in three-dimensional (3D) space. For the past centuries, scientific reports in these fields have relied on written descriptions and two-dimensional (2D) illustrations, but in recent years 3D virtual modelling has entered the scene. However, comprehending complex anatomical structures is hampered by reproduction on flat inherently 2D screens. One way to circumvent this problem is in the production of 3D-printed scale models. We have applied computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to produce digital models of animal anatomy well suited to be printed on low-cost 3D printers. In this communication, we report how to apply such technology in comparative anatomy and physiology to aid discovery, description, comprehension and communication, and we seek to inspire fellow researchers in these fields to embrace this emerging technology.

  18. Introduction to the Anatomy and Physiology of Pulmonary Circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharara, Rihab Saeed; Hattab, Yousef; Patel, Kaushal; DiSilvio, Briana; Singh, Anil C; Malik, Khalid

    In the United States, venous thromboembolism is associated with high mortality and morbidity affecting as many as 900 000 people (1-2 per 1000) each year. Estimates suggest that 60 000 to 100 000 Americans die of deep venous thrombosis/pulmonary embolism and 10% to 30% die within 1 month of diagnosis, with sudden death being the first symptom in approximately 25% of population with pulmonary embolism. One-half of the patients with deep venous thrombosis will have postthrombotic syndrome, which includes swelling, pain, discoloration, and scaling in the affected limb. Approximately 33% of patients will have a recurrence within 10 years. It is important to understand the anatomy of the pulmonary circulation and the pathophysiology of the disease as it leads to understanding of the potential devastating clinical consequences.

  19. The right ventricle: anatomy, physiology and functional assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusca, Sorin; Jurcut, Ruxandra; Ginghina, Carmen; Voigt, Jens-Uwe

    2010-02-01

    Right ventricular function is acknowledged as an important prognostic element in cardiovascular pathologies. Although recent years have seen significant advances in the exploration of cardiac function, assessing right ventricular performance still remains a challenge for the daily practice. The right ventricle is a complex structure that cannot be approximated by a simple geometric form. It functions in a low impedance system therefore it is sensitive to pressure overload. Along with contractility and loading conditions, ventricular interactions play an important part in right ventricular function and failure. The aims of our review are to describe the main characteristics of RV anatomy, function and failure and also to present the standard and novel tools that can be employed to investigate them. Moreover, the advantages, limitations and clinical significance of each parameter will be discussed.

  20. Anatomy and physiology of lymphatic drainage of the breast from the perspective of sentinel node biopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, P. J.; Nieweg, O. E.; Valdés Olmos, R. A.; Kroon, B. B.

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the lymphatic system is helpful when considering a particular sentinel node biopsy technique. The delicate balance between internal and external pressures in a lymphatic channel can be influenced by the injection volume and by massage in a negative or

  1. Offering an Anatomy and Physiology Course through a High School-University Partnership: The Minnesota Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Murray; Mattheis, Allison; Loyle, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a one-semester anatomy and physiology course that is currently offered through the concurrent enrollment program at the University of Minnesota. The article explains how high school teachers are prepared to teach the course and describes efforts to promote program quality, student inquiry, and experiential learning.…

  2. Implementing and Evaluating a Peer-Led Team Learning Approach in Undergraduate Anatomy and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Kevin; Campisi, Jay

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how a Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) program was implemented in a first-year, undergraduate Anatomy and Physiology course sequence to examine the student perceptions of the program and determine the effects of PLTL on student performance.

  3. Pros and Cons of a Group Webpage Design Project in a Freshman Anatomy and Physiology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Kevin M.; Jensen, Murray; Moore, Randy

    2007-01-01

    To generate motivation and promote the development of written communication skills, students in a freshman-level anatomy and physiology course for nonmajors created group webpages describing historically important diseases. After the groups had been formed, each individual was assigned specific components of the disease (e.g., causes or…

  4. Understanding Protein Synthesis: A Role-Play Approach in Large Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Cole, Oladipo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of role play in a large undergraduate science class. The targeted population consisted of 298 students enrolled in 2 sections of an undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught by the same instructor. The section engaged in the role-play activity served as the study group, whereas the section…

  5. A Survey of Anatomy and Physiology Pedagogy and Lifestyle Factors in Undergraduate Medical Students in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R. G.; Chifamba, J.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on health pedagogy in medical students in African universities are lacking. The aim of the current investigation was to assess the following pedagogy influences on second year Zimbabwean medical students' well-being. A group of 100 students studying Physiology and Anatomy in MBChB. II program at the University of Zimbabwe College of Health…

  6. Audio-Tutorial Project: An Audio-Tutorial Approach to Human Anatomy and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzio, Joseph N.; And Others

    A two course sequence on human anatomy and physiology using the audiotutorial method of instruction was developed for use by nursing students and other students in the health or medical fields at the Kingsborough Community College in New York. The project was motivated by the problems of often underprepared students coming to learn a new field and…

  7. An emerging paradigm for teaching human anatomy and physiology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabab El-Sayed Hassan El-Sayed

    2013-03-15

    Mar 15, 2013 ... and physiology courses. This was also supported by Kalwitzki et al.,47 who were studying the acceptance and benefits of vi- deo-based teaching in pediatric dentistry among students, they were asked by means of a questionnaire. 95.5% welcomed the use of video in pediatric dentistry. Out of four didactical.

  8. Anatomy and physiology of respiratory system relevant to anaesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Apeksh Patwa; Amit Shah

    2015-01-01

    Clinical application of anatomical and physiological knowledge of respiratory system improves patient's safety during anaesthesia. It also optimises patient's ventilatory condition and airway patency. Such knowledge has influence on airway management, lung isolation during anaesthesia, management of cases with respiratory disorders, respiratory endoluminal procedures and optimising ventilator strategies in the perioperative period. Understanding of ventilation, perfusion and their relation wi...

  9. Anatomy and physiology of the afferent visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sashank; Galetta, Steven L

    2011-01-01

    The efficient organization of the human afferent visual system meets enormous computational challenges. Once visual information is received by the eye, the signal is relayed by the retina, optic nerve, chiasm, tracts, lateral geniculate nucleus, and optic radiations to the striate cortex and extrastriate association cortices for final visual processing. At each stage, the functional organization of these circuits is derived from their anatomical and structural relationships. In the retina, photoreceptors convert photons of light to an electrochemical signal that is relayed to retinal ganglion cells. Ganglion cell axons course through the optic nerve, and their partial decussation in the chiasm brings together corresponding inputs from each eye. Some inputs follow pathways to mediate pupil light reflexes and circadian rhythms. However, the majority of inputs arrive at the lateral geniculate nucleus, which relays visual information via second-order neurons that course through the optic radiations to arrive in striate cortex. Feedback mechanisms from higher cortical areas shape the neuronal responses in early visual areas, supporting coherent visual perception. Detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the afferent visual system, in combination with skilled examination, allows precise localization of neuropathological processes and guides effective diagnosis and management of neuro-ophthalmic disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, George K; Koutsouflianiotis, Konstantinos N; Nitsa, Zoi; Demesticha, Theano; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of knowledge regarding the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages is described, and general perceptions about this organ during different eras along this time line are presented. The original words of great physicians from the period of time stretching from Ancient Egypt to the Avicennan era are quoted and discussed to demonstrate how knowledge of the spleen has evolved and to present the theories that dominated each era. Furthermore, theories about illnesses relating to the spleen are reported, which show how this organ was perceived-in terms of its function and anatomy-during each era.

  11. From tissue to silicon to plastic: 3D printing in comparative anatomy and physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Hansen, Kasper; Nørgård, Mathias Ørum

    2016-01-01

    modelling has entered the scene. However, comprehending complex anatomical structures is hampered by reproduction on flat inherently two-dimensional screens. One way to circumvent this problem is in the production of 3D printed scale models. We have applied computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging...... to produce digital models of animal anatomy well suited to be printed on low cost 3D printers. In this communication we report how to apply such technology in comparative anatomy and physiology to aid discovery, description, comprehension and communication, and we seek to inspire fellow researchers...

  12. Anatomy and physiology of respiratory system relevant to anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwa, Apeksh; Shah, Amit

    2015-09-01

    Clinical application of anatomical and physiological knowledge of respiratory system improves patient's safety during anaesthesia. It also optimises patient's ventilatory condition and airway patency. Such knowledge has influence on airway management, lung isolation during anaesthesia, management of cases with respiratory disorders, respiratory endoluminal procedures and optimising ventilator strategies in the perioperative period. Understanding of ventilation, perfusion and their relation with each other is important for understanding respiratory physiology. Ventilation to perfusion ratio alters with anaesthesia, body position and with one-lung anaesthesia. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, an important safety mechanism, is inhibited by majority of the anaesthetic drugs. Ventilation perfusion mismatch leads to reduced arterial oxygen concentration mainly because of early closure of airway, thus leading to decreased ventilation and atelectasis during anaesthesia. Various anaesthetic drugs alter neuronal control of the breathing and bronchomotor tone.

  13. Anatomy and physiology of respiratory system relevant to anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apeksh Patwa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical application of anatomical and physiological knowledge of respiratory system improves patient's safety during anaesthesia. It also optimises patient's ventilatory condition and airway patency. Such knowledge has influence on airway management, lung isolation during anaesthesia, management of cases with respiratory disorders, respiratory endoluminal procedures and optimising ventilator strategies in the perioperative period. Understanding of ventilation, perfusion and their relation with each other is important for understanding respiratory physiology. Ventilation to perfusion ratio alters with anaesthesia, body position and with one-lung anaesthesia. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, an important safety mechanism, is inhibited by majority of the anaesthetic drugs. Ventilation perfusion mismatch leads to reduced arterial oxygen concentration mainly because of early closure of airway, thus leading to decreased ventilation and atelectasis during anaesthesia. Various anaesthetic drugs alter neuronal control of the breathing and bronchomotor tone.

  14. Anatomy, Physiology, and Laboratory Evaluation of the Pituitary Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Gregory K; Payne, Spencer C; Jane, John A

    2016-02-01

    The pituitary gland functions prominently in the control of most endocrine systems in the body. Diverse processes such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, and water balance are tightly regulated by the pituitary in conjunction with the hypothalamus and various downstream endocrine organs. Benign tumors of the pituitary gland are the primary cause of pituitary pathology and can result in inappropriate secretion of pituitary hormones or loss of pituitary function. First-line management of clinically significant tumors often involves surgical resection. Understanding of normal pituitary physiology and basic testing strategies to assess for pituitary dysfunction should be familiar to any skull base surgeon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Non-invasive determination of port wine stain anatomy and physiology for optimal laser treatment strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Nelson, J. Stuart; Milner, Thomas E.; Smithies, Derek J.; Verkruysse, Wim; de Boer, Johannes F.; Lucassen, Gerald W.; Goodman, Dennis M.; Tanenbaum, B. Samuel; Norvang, Lill T.; Svaasand, Lars O.

    1997-05-01

    The treatment of port wine stains (PWSs) using a flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser is often performed using virtually identical irradiation parameters. Although encouraging clinical results have been reported, we propose that lasers will only reach their full potential provided treatment parameters match individual PWS anatomy and physiology. The purpose of this paper is to review the progress made on the technical development and clinical implementation of (i) infrared tomography (IRT), optical reflectance spectroscopy (ORS) and optical low-coherence reflectometry (OLCR) to obtain in vivo diagnostic data on individual PWS anatomy and physiology and (ii) models of light and heat propagation, predicting irreversible vascular injury in human skin, to select optimal laser wavelength, pulse duration, spot size and radiant exposure for complete PWS blanching in the fewest possible treatment sessions. Although non-invasive optical sensing techniques may provide significant diagnostic data, development of a realistic model will require a better understanding of relevant mechanisms for irreversible vascular injury.

  16. Pointing and tracing gestures may enhance anatomy and physiology learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macken, Lucy; Ginns, Paul

    2014-07-01

    Currently, instructional effects generated by Cognitive load theory (CLT) are limited to visual and auditory cognitive processing. In contrast, "embodied cognition" perspectives suggest a range of gestures, including pointing, may act to support communication and learning, but there is relatively little research showing benefits of such "embodied learning" in the health sciences. This study investigated whether explicit instructions to gesture enhance learning through its cognitive effects. Forty-two university-educated adults were randomly assigned to conditions in which they were instructed to gesture, or not gesture, as they learnt from novel, paper-based materials about the structure and function of the human heart. Subjective ratings were used to measure levels of intrinsic, extraneous and germane cognitive load. Participants who were instructed to gesture performed better on a knowledge test of terminology and a test of comprehension; however, instructions to gesture had no effect on subjective ratings of cognitive load. This very simple instructional re-design has the potential to markedly enhance student learning of typical topics and materials in the health sciences and medicine.

  17. [Anatomy, biology, physiology and basic pathology of the nail organ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneke, E

    2014-04-01

    The nail is the largest skin appendage. It grows continuously through life in a non-cyclical manner; its growth is not hormone-dependent. The nail of the middle finger of the dominant hand grows fastest with approximately 0.1 mm/day, whereas the big toe nail grows only 0.03-0.05 mm/d. The nails' size and shape vary characteristically from finger to finger and from toe to toe, for which the size and shape of the bone of the terminal phalanx is responsible. The nail apparatus consists of both epithelial and connective tissue components. The matrix epithelium is responsible for the production of the nail plate whereas the nail bed epithelium mediates firm attachment. The hyponychium is a specialized structure sealing the subungual space and allowing the nail plate to physiologically detach from the nail bed. The proximal nail fold covers most of the matrix. Its free end forms the cuticle which seals the nail pocket or cul-de-sac. The dermis of the matrix and nail bed is specialized with a morphogenetic potency. The proximal and lateral nail folds form a frame on three sides giving the nail stability and allowing it to grow out. The nail protects the distal phalanx, is an extremely versatile tool for defense and dexterity and increases the sensitivity of the tip of the finger. Nail apparatus, finger tip, tendons and ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint form a functional unit and cannot be seen independently. The nail organ has only a certain number of reaction patterns that differ in many respects from hairy and palmoplantar skin.

  18. Ultrasound-based teaching of cardiac anatomy and physiology to undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoudi, Nadjib; Arangalage, Dimitri; Boubrit, Lila; Renaud, Marie Christine; Isnard, Richard; Collet, Jean-Philippe; Cohen, Ariel; Duguet, Alexandre

    2013-10-01

    Ultrasonography is a non-invasive imaging modality that offers the opportunity to teach living cardiac anatomy and physiology. The objectives of this study were to assess the feasibility of integrating an ultrasound-based course into the conventional undergraduate medical teaching programme and to analyse student and teacher feedback. An ultrasound-based teaching course was implemented and proposed to all second-year medical students (n=348) at the end of the academic year, after all the conventional modules at our faculty. After a brief theoretical and practical demonstration, students were allowed to take the probe and use the ultrasound machine. Students and teachers were asked to complete a survey and were given the opportunity to provide open feedback. Two months were required to implement the entire module; 330 (95%) students (divided into 39 groups) and 37 teachers participated in the course. Student feedback was very positive: 98% of students agreed that the course was useful; 85% and 74% considered that their understanding of cardiac anatomy and physiology, respectively, was improved. The majority of the teachers (97%) felt that the students were interested, 81% agreed that the course was appropriate for second-year medical students and 84% were willing to participate to future sessions. Cardiac anatomy and physiology teaching using ultrasound is feasible for undergraduate medical students and enhances their motivation to improve their knowledge. Student and teacher feedback on the course was very positive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Student learning styles in anatomy and physiology courses: Meeting the needs of nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A N B; Hamill, J; Barton, M J; Baldwin, S; Percival, J; Williams-Pritchard, G; Salvage-Jones, J; Todorovic, M

    2015-11-01

    Anatomy and Physiology is a core course in pre-registration nursing programs, yet many students have difficulty successfully negotiating the large volume of content and the complex concepts in these bioscience courses. Typically students perform poorly in these 'threshold' courses', despite multiple interventions to support student engagement. Investigation of the shortcomings in these courses, based on feedback from students indicated several key areas of difficulty in the course, especially focused around a relative lack of hands-on 'concrete' activities in laboratories and tutorials. To attempt to address this, academic and technical staff developed activities for students that promoted discussion and allowed students to interact easily and repetitively with content. Interactive tables and posters that needed to be labelled or 'filled-in' using pre-prepared Velcro dots, as well as pre-prepared flash cards to promote group work, were some examples of the activities used to enhance student experiences and promote hands-on learning. Over the academic year of 2013 these activities were introduced into the laboratory and tutorial classes for first year Bachelor of Nursing anatomy and physiology students. Staff and student participants positively rated implementation of these new activities on surveys, as they allowed them to explore the difficult aspects of anatomy and physiology, utilising various learning styles that may have been neglected in the past. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. subjective approach to subjective approach to human physiological

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    This study was based on the subjective responses of the masons that are performing physical activity of blocklaying in the outdoor condition in outdoor condition in outdoor condition in Ogun State Nigeria. A total of 204 masons were investigated on the average of seventeen. Ogun State Nigeria. A total of 204 masons were ...

  1. Short communication: Characteristics of student success in an undergraduate physiology and anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwazdauskas, F C; McGilliard, M L; Corl, B A

    2014-10-01

    Several factors affect the success of students in college classes. The objective of this research was to determine what factors affect success of undergraduate students in an anatomy and physiology class. Data were collected from 602 students enrolled in the Agriculture and Life Sciences (ALS) 2304 Animal Physiology and Anatomy course from 2005 through 2012. The data set included 476 females (79.1%) and 126 males (20.9%). Time to complete exams was recorded for each student. For statistical analyses, students' majors were animal and poultry sciences (APSC), agricultural sciences, biochemistry, biological sciences, dairy science, and "other," which combined all other majors. All analyses were completed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Gender, major, matriculation year, major by year interaction, gender by year interaction, and time to complete the exam affected final course grade. The significant gender effect was manifested in the final grade percentage of 75.9 ± 0.4 for female students compared with 72.3 ± 0.6 for male students. Junior males had final course grades comparable with those of females, but sophomore and senior males had lower final course grades than other combinations. Biology majors had a final grade of 82.4 ± 0.6 and this grade was greater than all other majors. Students classified as "other" had a final score of 74.4 ± 0.8, which was greater than agricultural science majors (69.5 ± 0.9). The APSC grade (72.6 ± 0.5) was higher than the agricultural science majors. Junior students had significantly greater final grades (76.1 ± 0.5) than sophomores (73.3 ± 0.6) and seniors (72.9 ± 0.9). All biology students had greater final grades than all other majors, but biochemistry juniors had greater final course grades than APSC, agricultural science, and dairy science juniors. "Other" seniors had greater final course grades than agricultural science seniors. The regression for time to complete the exam was

  2. Anatomy, Physiology and Non-dental Disorders of the Mouth of Pet Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Thomas M; Vella, David

    2016-09-01

    The first part of this review focuses on the anatomy and physiology of the rabbit mouth. Practical understanding is critical to comprehend the dynamic pathologic changes of dental disease, which is one of the most common presenting problems in rabbits. The major theories of the etiopathogenesis of dental disease are presented. The second part focuses on non-dental oral disorders, which encompass only a small incidence of stomatognathic diseases when compared with dental disease. These diseases are primarily composed of infections (treponematosis, oral papillomatosis), neoplasia (frequently involving calcified tissue proliferation), and congenital abnormalities (mandibular prognathism, absent peg teeth, supernumerary peg teeth). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prognostic Determinants of Coronary Atherosclerosis in Stable Ischemic Heart Disease: Anatomy, Physiology, or Morphology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Amir; Stone, Gregg W; Leipsic, Jonathon; Shaw, Leslee J; Villines, Todd C; Kern, Morton J; Hecht, Harvey; Erlinge, David; Ben-Yehuda, Ori; Maehara, Akiko; Arbustini, Eloisa; Serruys, Patrick; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M; Narula, Jagat

    2016-07-08

    Risk stratification in patients with stable ischemic heart disease is essential to guide treatment decisions. In this regard, whether coronary anatomy, physiology, or plaque morphology is the best determinant of prognosis (and driver an effective therapeutic risk reduction) remains one of the greatest ongoing debates in cardiology. In the present report, we review the evidence for each of these characteristics and explore potential algorithms that may enable a practical diagnostic and therapeutic strategy for the management of patients with stable ischemic heart disease. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Cardiovascular anatomy, physiology, and disease of rodents and small exotic mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatley, J Jill

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease in small exotic mammals is anecdotally common, but clinical reports of diagnosis and treatment of disease are rare. This article focuses on known causes of cardiovascular disease in the small exotic mammal. Normal anatomy and physiology, as it differs from the dog and cat, is also highlighted. Cardiomyopathy, dirofilariasis, atrial thrombosis, and other acquired and congenital cardiac and vascular diseases of rodents, hedgehogs, sugar gliders, raccoons, opossums, and skunks are reviewed. Expected clinical signs and diagnostic and treatment options, including a formulary, are provided for these species.

  5. Are Your Students Ready for Anatomy and Physiology? Developing Tools to Identify Students at Risk for Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultice, Amy; Witham, Ann; Kallmeyer, Robert

    2015-01-01

    High failure rates in introductory college science courses, including anatomy and physiology, are common at institutions across the country, and determining the specific factors that contribute to this problem is challenging. To identify students at risk for failure in introductory physiology courses at our open-enrollment institution, an online…

  6. Cerebral cross-perfusion and the Circle of Willis: does physiology trump anatomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musicki K

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Korana Musicki,1 Katherine Victoria Hurst,1,2 Zoltán Molnár,3 Elizabeth Hardy,4 Ashok Handa,1,2 1Department of Vascular Surgery, John Radcliffe Hospital, 2Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, 3Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, 4Vascular Studies Unit, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK Introduction: Cerebral cross-perfusion is essential for ipsilateral brain viability during unilateral insult. Aortic arch and great vessel procedures depend on its function for safe practice, unless adjuncts like shunts are used. This paper assesses the contribution of cerebrovascular anatomy against physiology in determining requisite hemispheric perfusion during carotid endarterectomy (CEA.Materials and methods: A review of shunting requirements for CEAs under locoregional anesthesia (LA at the John Radcliffe Hospital during 1999–2013 was performed. A PubMed search for “Circle of Willis” was screened for all original articles defining cerebrovascular anatomy by postmortem or angiography.Results: Over 14 years, 1137 CEAs were performed under cervical plexus block; during this period, the departmental standard of practice evolved from exclusively general anesthesia to predominantly LA. CEAs performed under LA during the early phase (1999–2003 had a shunt rate of 15.1%, compared to 20% as predicted by stump pressures alone. However, shunting decreased as higher perioperative systolic pressures were routinely practiced; shunt rates were 8.0% during the intermediate (2004–2007 and 6.4% during the later (2008–2013 phase. By comparison, 25 articles characterizing 6414 brains report an intact circle of Willis in 33–35% of people, with a complete hemi-circle anteriorly (77% seen more commonly than posteriorly (42%, and 11–16% deficient in both hemi-circles with no cross-flow.Conclusion: Cerebral cross-perfusion is fundamental for safe CEA. Anatomy of the circle of Willis alone does not itself determine adequacy

  7. A Review of Anatomy, Physiology, and Benign Pathology of the Nipple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Kimberly; Wheeler, Amanda

    2015-10-01

    The nipple and areola are pigmented areas of modified skin that connect with the underlying gland of the breast via ducts. The fairly common congenital anomalies of the nipple include inversion, clefts, and supernumerary nipples. The anatomy of the nipple areolar complex is discussed as a foundation to review anatomical variants, and the physiologic development of the nipple, including changes in puberty and pregnancy, as well as the basis of normal physiologic discharge, are addressed. Skin conditions affecting the nipple include eczema, which, while similar to eczema occurring elsewhere on the body, poses unique aspects in terms of diagnosis and treatment. This article concludes with discussion on the benign abnormalities that develop within the nipple, including intraductal papilloma and nipple adenoma.

  8. The Nuts and Bolts of Breastfeeding: Anatomy and Physiology of Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriraman, Natasha K

    2017-12-01

    Breastmilk is the physiologic norm for infant nutrition. Despite recommendations from major health organizations, many women in the U.S. are not achieving this metric. Understanding breast anatomy and lactation physiology will allow physicians to gain knowledge of the processes, which control lactation enabling physicians to appropriately manage the breastfeeding dyad. The interplay of hormones involved in lactation and milk management affect milk initiation, as well as ongoing milk production (galactopoesis). The unique components of breastmilk that provide protection against infection and chronic diseases also change between and during feeds. Colostrum and the importance of early skin-to-skin after delivery will also be discussed. Copyright © 2016 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The use of computers to teach human anatomy and physiology to allied health and nursing students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Valerie J.

    Educational institutions are under tremendous pressure to adopt the newest technologies in order to prepare their students to meet the challenges of the twenty-first century. For the last twenty years huge amounts of money have been spent on computers, printers, software, multimedia projection equipment, and so forth. A reasonable question is, "Has it worked?" Has this infusion of resources, financial as well as human, resulted in improved learning? Are the students meeting the intended learning goals? Any attempt to develop answers to these questions should include examining the intended goals and exploring the effects of the changes on students and faculty. This project investigated the impact of a specific application of a computer program in a community college setting on students' attitudes and understanding of human anatomy and physiology. In this investigation two sites of the same community college with seemingly similar students populations, seven miles apart, used different laboratory activities to teach human anatomy and physiology. At one site nursing students were taught using traditional dissections and laboratory activities; at the other site two of the dissections, specifically cat and sheep pluck, were replaced with the A.D.A.M.RTM (Animated Dissection of Anatomy for Medicine) computer program. Analysis of the attitude data indicated that students at both sites were extremely positive about their laboratory experiences. Analysis of the content data indicated a statistically significant difference in performance between the two sites in two of the eight content areas that were studied. For both topics the students using the computer program scored higher. A detailed analysis of the surveys, interviews with faculty and students, examination of laboratory materials, and observations of laboratory facilities in both sites, and cost-benefit analysis led to the development of seven recommendations. The recommendations call for action at the level of the

  10. Effective radiation doses associated with non-invasive versus invasive assessment of coronary anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, G G; Ntalianis, A; Ntarladimas, Y; de Booij, M; De Winter, O; Barbato, E; Pilet, B; Van Mieghem, C; Wijns, W; De Bruyne, B

    2015-06-01

    To compare the effective radiation dose (ERD) needed to obtain information on coronary anatomy and physiology by a non-invasive versus an invasive diagnostic strategy. Knowledge of anatomy and physiology is needed for management of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). There is, however, a growing concern about detrimental long-term effects of radiation associated with diagnostic procedures. In a total of 671 patients with suspected CAD, we compared the ERD needed to obtain anatomical and physiological information through a non-invasive strategy or an invasive strategy. The non-invasive strategy consisted of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The invasive strategy included coronary angiography (CA) and fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurement. In 464 patients, the data were acquired in Period 2009 and in 207 the data were acquired in Period 2011 (after each period, the CCTA- and the CA-equipment had been upgraded). For the Period 2009 total ERD of the non-invasive approach was significantly larger compared to the invasive approach (28.45 ± 5.37 mSv versus 15.79 ± 7.95 mSv, respectively; P < 0.0001). For Period 2011, despite the significant decrease in ERD for both groups (P<0.0001 for both), the ERD remained higher for the non-invasive approach compared to the invasive approach (16.67 ± 10.45 mSv vs. 10.36 ± 5.87 mSv, respectively; P < 0.0001). Simulation of various diagnostic scenarios showed cumulative radiation dose is the lowest when a first positive test is followed by an invasive strategy. To obtain anatomic and physiologic information in patients with suspected CAD, the combination of CA and FFR is associated with lower ERD than the combination of CCTA and SPECT. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Back to the future with hands-on science: students' perceptions of learning anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Amy Nicole Burne; McAllister, Margaret

    2008-09-01

    This article examines student perceptions of learning related to anatomy and physiology in a bachelor of nursing program. One strategy to teach the sciences is simulated learning, a technology that offers exciting potential. Virtual environments for laboratory learning may offer numerous benefits: teachers can convey information to a larger group of students, reducing the need for small laboratory classes; less equipment is required, thus containing ongoing costs; and students can learn in their own time and place. However, simulated learning may also diminish access to the teacher-student relationship and the opportunity for guided practice and guided linking of theory with practice. Without this hands-on experience, there is a risk that students will not engage as effectively, and thus conceptual learning and the development of critical thinking skills are diminished. However, student perceptions of these learning experiences are largely unknown. Thus, this study examined students' perceptions of anatomy and physiology laboratory experiences and the importance they placed on hands-on experience in laboratory settings.

  12. The claustrum: a historical review of its anatomy, physiology, cytochemistry and functional significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, L R; Denaro, F J

    2004-09-01

    The claustrum (Cl) is a subcortical structure located in the basolateral telencephalon of the mammalian brain. It has been a subject of inquiry since the mid-nineteenth century. The Cl can be identified in a number of species, and appears as a phylogenetically related nucleus in Insectivores, Prosimians and Marsupials. Ontogenetic investigations have been the subject of much debate over the years. There are three hypotheses for claustral development. To date, the "hybrid theory" has garnered the most support. Pathological conditions specifically associated with the Cl, while few in number, are of interest from a functional perspective. Several cases of claustral agenesis have been reported. The implications of these clinical reports are discussed. Claustral neuroanatomy at the light-microscopic and electron-microscopic level is reviewed. The morphology of the claustral neuron consists of several types, which roughly corresponds to the neuron's location within distinct claustral subdivisions. The interconnectivity of the Cl with the cerebral cortex is rather complex and reflective of complex functional interrelationships. Several researchers have investigated the angioarchitecture of the Cl. It appears that vessels permeating the insula also vascularize the Cl. Literature investigating the neurotransmitters and overall chemical neuroanatomy of the Cl is extensive. These studies clearly demonstrate that the Cl is richly innervated with a wide and diverse array of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. Lesion, stimulation and recording experiments demonstrate that the functional and physiologic capacity of the Cl is quite robust. A recurring theme of claustral function appears to be its involvement in sensorimotor integration. This may be expected of the Cl, given the degree ofheterotopic, heterosensory convergence and its interconnectivity with the key subcortical nuclei and sensory cortical areas. The Cl remains a poorly understood and under investigated nucleus

  13. Overview of the Anatomy, Physiology, and Pharmacology of the Autonomic Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrwein, Erica A; Orer, Hakan S; Barman, Susan M

    2016-06-13

    Comprised of the sympathetic nervous system, parasympathetic nervous system, and enteric nervous system, the autonomic nervous system (ANS) provides the neural control of all parts of the body except for skeletal muscles. The ANS has the major responsibility to ensure that the physiological integrity of cells, tissues, and organs throughout the entire body is maintained (homeostasis) in the face of perturbations exerted by both the external and internal environments. Many commonly prescribed drugs, over-the-counter drugs, toxins, and toxicants function by altering transmission within the ANS. Autonomic dysfunction is a signature of many neurological diseases or disorders. Despite the physiological relevance of the ANS, most neuroscience textbooks offer very limited coverage of this portion of the nervous system. This review article provides both historical and current information about the anatomy, physiology, and pharmacology of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS. The ultimate aim is for this article to be a valuable resource for those interested in learning the basics of these two components of the ANS and to appreciate its importance in both health and disease. Other resources should be consulted for a thorough understanding of the third division of the ANS, the enteric nervous system. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1239-1278, 2016. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Comparisons between the attitudes of medical and dental students toward the clinical importance of gross anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olowo-Ofayoku, Anthony; Moxham, Bernard John

    2014-10-01

    Marked changes are occurring within both the medical and dental curricula and new ways of teaching the basic sciences have been devised and traditional methods (e.g., dissection for gross anatomy and of bench-based animal preparations for physiology) are increasingly no longer the norm. Although there is much anecdotal evidence that students are not in favor of such changes, there is little evidence for this based on quantitative analyses of students' attitudes. Using Thurstone and Chave attitude analyses, we assessed the attitudes of first year medical and dental students at Cardiff University toward gross anatomy and physiology in terms of their perceived clinical importance. In addition, we investigated the appropriateness ("fitness for purpose") of teaching methodologies used for anatomy and physiology. The hypotheses tested recognized the possibility that medical and dental students differed in their opinions, but that they had a preference to being taught gross anatomy through the use of dissection and had no preference for physiology teaching. It was found that both medical and dental students displayed positive attitudes toward the clinical relevance of gross anatomy and that they preferred to be taught by means of dissection. Although both medical and dental students displayed positives attitudes toward the clinical relevance of physiology, this was greater for the medical students. Both medical and dental students showed a preference for being taught physiology through didactic teaching in small groups but the medical students also appreciated being taught by means of practicals. Overall, this study highlights the expectations that students have for the basic science foundation teaching within their professional training and signals a preference for being taught experientially/practically. Differences were discerned between medical and dental students that might reflect the direct association between systems physiology and pathophysiology and the

  15. Anatomy and physiology of the thick-tufted layer 5 pyramidal neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Srikanth; Markram, Henry

    2015-01-01

    The thick-tufted layer 5 (TTL5) pyramidal neuron is one of the most extensively studied neuron types in the mammalian neocortex and has become a benchmark for understanding information processing in excitatory neurons. By virtue of having the widest local axonal and dendritic arborization, the TTL5 neuron encompasses various local neocortical neurons and thereby defines the dimensions of neocortical microcircuitry. The TTL5 neuron integrates input across all neocortical layers and is the principal output pathway funneling information flow to subcortical structures. Several studies over the past decades have investigated the anatomy, physiology, synaptology, and pathophysiology of the TTL5 neuron. This review summarizes key discoveries and identifies potential avenues of research to facilitate an integrated and unifying understanding on the role of a central neuron in the neocortex.

  16. Nursing students’ experiences, perceptions and behavior in a flipped-classroom anatomy and physiology course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Thomas Raundahl

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore nursing students’ experiences, perceptions and behavior during a course on kidney and urinary system anatomy and physiology designed according to the flipped-classroom approach. In flipped-classroom teaching, students prepare for class by engaging...... with teacher-produced learning material, typically videos. This frees up time in class, which can instead be spent on various student-centered, active-learning activities. Only very few studies on the use of flipped classroom in nursing education have been published. Methods: Videos and active......-learning activities were developed and used in a course with forty-eight first-year, first-semester nursing students at the School of Nursing, Campus Holstebro, VIA University College, Denmark. After completing the course, students were invited to participate in a survey. In addition, students’ use of videos...

  17. Anatomy and Physiology of the Thick-tufted Layer 5 Pyramidal Neuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth eRamaswamy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The thick-tufted layer 5 (TTL5 pyramidal neuron is one of the most extensively studied neuron types in the mammalian neocortex and has become a benchmark for understanding information processing in excitatory neurons. By virtue of having the widest local axonal and dendritic arborization, the TTL5 neuron encompasses various local neocortical neurons and thereby defines the dimensions of neocortical microcircuitry. The TTL5 neuron integrates input across all neocortical layers and is the principal output pathway funneling information flow to subcortical structures. Several studies over the past decades have investigated the anatomy, physiology, synaptology, and pathophysiology of the TTL5 neuron. This review summarizes key discoveries and identifies potential avenues of research to facilitate an integrated and unifying understanding on the role of a central neuron in the neocortex.

  18. Physiology, anatomy, and plasticity of the cerebral cortex in relation to musical instrument performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramo, Mark Jude

    2004-05-01

    The acquisition and maintenance of fine-motor skills underlying musical instrument performance rely on the development, integration, and plasticity of neural systems localized within specific subregions of the cerebral cortex. Cortical representations of a motor sequence, such as a sequence of finger movements along the keys of a saxophone, take shape before the figure sequence occurs. The temporal pattern and spatial coordinates are computed by networks of neurons before and during the movements. When a finger sequence is practiced over and over, performance gets faster and more accurate, probably because cortical neurons generating the sequence increase in spatial extent, their electrical discharges become more synchronous, or both. By combining experimental methods such as single- and multi-neuron recordings, focal stimulation, microanatomical tracers, gross morphometry, evoked potentials, and functional imaging in humans and nonhuman primates, neuroscientists are gaining insights into the cortical physiology, anatomy, and plasticity of musical instrument performance.

  19. Morphology, Physiology, and Anatomy of Penny Fern (Drymoglossum phyloselloidesand Its Effect on Cocoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Yuliasmara

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the anatomy, physiology and morphology of penny fern (Drimoglosum phylloseloides and its effect on cocoa. Morphological observation of penny fern used microscope to observe the roots, stems, leaves and spores. Physiology of penny fern was observed based on number of stomata and stomatal conductance using stomata printing method, while the amount of chlorophyll based on spectrophotometric method and rate of transpiration used cobalt chloride paper. Penny fern anatomy on cross-sectional and longitudinal in roots, stems and leaves. Penny fern growth was observed based the length of tendrils once a week during rainy and dry season. While the effect of penny fern invasion was observed based on variable leaf area with gravimetric method, the cross-section of attacked cacao branch using microtom and microscope and chlorophyll content by chlorophyll meter. Results showed that penny fern is a epiphytic weed which was crassulaceae acid metabolism plants that have the ability to absorb carbon dioxide at night and carry out photosynthesis during the day with closed stomata. Penny ferns reproduce using spores. The growth rate of penny fern 2.18 cm/week during the dry season and while in rainy season 3.89 cm/week. Penny fern leaf contains 0.0212 mg/g chlorophyll. Penny fern stomata density was 18.33/mm 2 with a width of opening stomata at night 26.3 µm which caused a veryslow rate of transpiration of 0.69 mm 2 /seconds. The existence penny fern on cocoa decreased leaf area and chlorophyll content decreased crop productivity which was indicated by decreasing in number of flowers, number of small, medium fruit, and large pods. However it had no effect on the number of leaves on one side flush cocoa. Key words: Drimoglosum phylloseloides, weeds, decrease productivity, Theobroma cacao

  20. Dual Atrioventricular Nodal Pathways Physiology: A Review of Relevant Anatomy, Electrophysiology, and Electrocardiographic Manifestations

    OpenAIRE

    Mani, Bhalaghuru Chokkalingam; Pavri, Behzad B.

    2014-01-01

    More than half a century has passed since the concept of dual atrioventricular (AV) nodal pathways physiology was conceived. Dual AV nodal pathways have been shown to be responsible for many clinical arrhythmia syndromes, most notably AV nodal reentrant tachycardia. Although there has been a considerable amount of research on this topic, the subject of dual AV nodal pathways physiology remains heavily debated and discussed. Despite advances in understanding arrhythmia mechanisms and the wides...

  1. An Exploration of the Factors That Contribute to Learning Satisfaction of First-Year Anatomy and Physiology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagleton, Saramarie

    2015-01-01

    Lecturers have reverted to using a "blended" approach when teaching anatomy and physiology. Student responses as to how this contributes to their learning satisfaction were investigated using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of closed- and open-ended questions that were based on three determinants of…

  2. Process-Oriented Guided-Inquiry Learning in an Introductory Anatomy and Physiology Course with a Diverse Student Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Process-oriented guided-inquiry learning (POGIL), a pedagogical technique initially developed for college chemistry courses, has been implemented for 2 yr in a freshman-level anatomy and physiology course at a small private college. The course is populated with students with backgrounds ranging from no previous college-level science to junior and…

  3. Gateway to Healthcare Careers for Vulnerable Students: A New Approach to the Teaching of Anatomy and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCiccio, Albert; Kenny, Tammy; Lippacher, Linda; Flanary, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Many first-year students interested in healthcare careers do not succeed in Anatomy and Physiology I (A&PI), which they take in their first semester. These first-year students withdraw from the course or the institution, or their final grade may be below the identified threshold for progressing in their programs. A&PI has become a…

  4. Examining High School Anatomy and Physiology Teacher Experience in a Cadaver Dissection Laboratory and Impacts on Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheis, Allison; Ingram, Debra; Jensen, Murray S.; Jackson, Jon

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the results of a study that investigated the experiences of a group of high school anatomy and physiology teachers who participated in a cadaver dissection laboratory workshop organized through a university-school partnership. Teacher feedback was collected before, during, and after the workshop through pre-arrival surveys,…

  5. Academic Performance in Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes: A 2-Yr Study of Academic Motivation and Grade Expectation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini

    2016-01-01

    This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic…

  6. Active Learning and Flipped Classroom, Hand in Hand Approach to Improve Students Learning in Human Anatomy and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entezari, Maria; Javdan, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Because Human Anatomy and Physiology (A&P), a gateway course for allied health majors, has high dropout rates nationally, it is challenging to find a successful pedagogical intervention. Reports on the effect of integration of flipped classrooms and whether it improves learning are contradictory for different disciplines. Thus many educators…

  7. Effect of an Interactive Web-Based Instruction in the Performance of Undergraduate Anatomy and Physiology Lab Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Tamilselvi; Herron, Sherry S.; Mohn, Richard S.; Hartsell, Taralynn; Jawor, Jodie M.; Blickenstaff, Jacob C.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides an understanding of how different interactive technology tools that are integrated into a Website can be used for teaching undergraduate human anatomy and physiology laboratory students. Technology tools refer to a Website that the authors created to teach the Cardiovascular System that includes dynamic tools such as the…

  8. An investigation of the relationship between having recent knowledge in basic biology and student success in Anatomy and Physiology I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Edward T.

    Allied Health Programs generally require that students complete coursework in Human Anatomy and Physiology I and II as part of their Pre-Allied Health curriculum. Human Anatomy and Physiology I generally has as a prerequisite some coursework in basic biology. Basic biology as a prerequisite should provide students with the foundation of knowledge in the basic biological principles and processes that will prepare them for the material presented in a Human Anatomy and Physiology I course and the Allied Health Program. The principle question that prompted this study was, Do students need coursework in basic biology to be successful in Anatomy and Physiology I? The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in the exam average obtained in Biology 202, Human Anatomy and Physiology I, for those students who have had, within the previous three years, a foundation course in basic biology as compared to those students who have not, within the previous three years, had a foundation course in basic biology. The current study analyzed data obtained on 642 students who were enrolled in Biology 202, Anatomy and Physiology I, during the Fall semester of 2000 to the Spring semester of 2003 at Wor-Wic Community College. Statistical techniques including an ANOVA, Pearson Product Moment Correlation, and a Multiple Regression Analysis were conducted to reveal any relationships in the data. The dependent variable was the exam average obtained in the independent variables included the time period since the student had taken a basic biology course, sex, age, and college GPA. The results of the ANOVA indicated that there was no relationship between the exam average between current and non-current students, where alpha = 0.05 and p = 0.783. There was statistically significance for GPA, where p = 0 .000. There was also statistically significant interactions between last biology course and GPA, p = 0.05, last biology course, sex, and GPA, p = 0.002. The Pearson Product

  9. Viral vector-based tools advance knowledge of basal ganglia anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, Rachel J; Seeger-Armbruster, Sonja; Hughes, Stephanie M; Parr-Brownlie, Louise C

    2016-04-01

    Viral vectors were originally developed to deliver genes into host cells for therapeutic potential. However, viral vector use in neuroscience research has increased because they enhance interpretation of the anatomy and physiology of brain circuits compared with conventional tract tracing or electrical stimulation techniques. Viral vectors enable neuronal or glial subpopulations to be labeled or stimulated, which can be spatially restricted to a single target nucleus or pathway. Here we review the use of viral vectors to examine the structure and function of motor and limbic basal ganglia (BG) networks in normal and pathological states. We outline the use of viral vectors, particularly lentivirus and adeno-associated virus, in circuit tracing, optogenetic stimulation, and designer drug stimulation experiments. Key studies that have used viral vectors to trace and image pathways and connectivity at gross or ultrastructural levels are reviewed. We explain how optogenetic stimulation and designer drugs used to modulate a distinct pathway and neuronal subpopulation have enhanced our mechanistic understanding of BG function in health and pathophysiology in disease. Finally, we outline how viral vector technology may be applied to neurological and psychiatric conditions to offer new treatments with enhanced outcomes for patients. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Louis Ranvier (1835-1922): the contribution of microscopy to physiology and the renewal of French general anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, Jean-Gaël

    2007-01-01

    The French neurohistologist Louis-Antoine Ranvier (1835-1922), somewhat neglected in classical histories of nineteenth-century studies on the nervous system, developed a personal style, traditionally referred to as a synthesis between histology and physiology. Ranvier's research was not centered on the brain. Rather, he remained attached to the intimate nature of minute structures, with a style marked by the concept of generality. Ranvier's original style and role in the development of French histology and anatomie générale are analyzed, and their significance evaluated. Ranvier is reassessed as a prominent figure and as the leader in the renewal of the French anatomy.

  11. The anatomy and physiology of normal and abnormal swallowing in oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasegbon, A; Hamdy, S

    2017-11-01

    Eating and drinking are enjoyable activities that positively impact on an individual's quality of life. The ability to swallow food and fluid is integral to the process of eating. Swallowing occupies a dual role being both part of the enjoyment of eating and being a critically important utilitarian activity to enable adequate nutrition and hydration. Any impairment to the process of swallowing can negatively affect a person's perception of their quality of life. The process of swallowing is highly complex and involves muscles in the mouth, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus. The oropharynx is the anatomical region encompassing the oral cavity and the pharynx. Food must be masticated, formed into a bolus and transported to the pharynx by the tongue whereas fluids are usually held within the mouth before being transported ab-orally. The bolus must then be transported through the pharynx to the esophagus without any matter entering the larynx. The muscles needed for all these steps are coordinated by swallowing centers within the brainstem which are supplied with sensory information by afferent nerve fibers from several cranial nerves. The swallowing centers also receive modulatory input from higher centers within the brain. Hence, a swallow has both voluntary and involuntary physiologic components and the term dysphagia is given to difficult swallowing while oropharyngeal dysphagia is difficult swallowing due to pathology within the oropharynx. Problems affecting any point along the complex swallowing pathway can result in dysphagia. This review focuses on the anatomy and physiology behind normal and abnormal oropharyngeal swallowing. It also details the common diseases and pathology causing oropharyngeal dysphagia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Integration of the BSCS 5E instructional method and technology in an anatomy and physiology lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Tamilselvi

    This research provides an understanding of how the 5E instructional method combined with educational technology tools can be used in teaching undergraduate college level anatomy and physiology laboratory classes. The 5E instructional model is the exemplary instructional model in teaching biology for high school students. The phases in the 5E learning cycle are Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate. In every step of the learning cycle, the researcher used appropriate technology tools to enhance the teaching and learning processes. The researcher used the Dynamic Instructional Design model to identify the appropriate technology tools for instruction. The topics selected for modification were 'The Heart' and 'The Vascular System.' The researcher chose these two topics based on results of the preliminary survey that the researcher conducted during summer 2008. The existing topics identified on the syllabus were followed but the teaching method was changed. In order to accomplish this, the researcher created a class Website and included tools including pronunciation, spelling, an Interactive Tool, and Web links. In addition, the researcher also created teacher resources for the Pronunciation Corner and Spelling Bee, so that any teacher can customize and use these tools for their classes. The results indicated that the students took advantage of the technology provided.

  13. Paths and Perspectives on Being a Data Scientist: Anatomy and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    While many educators are trying to look forward and develop or adapt degree programs, curricula and even courses for prospective data scientists, not many are able to reflect on and draw from the long look back into their career path and choices related to data science. Given the considerable hype and co-opting of the term Data Science by business and government, its roots are in numerous scientific research fields. This contribution offers the author's path in data science, assessed and framed in terms of the anatomy and physiology of a data scientist; quite literally the "body" parts and functions and the function of the "body", or the data scientist as-a-whole. Pivoting to the prospectives for both data science research and education, course, curricula and degree programs are mapped to data science functions and how they work together. The conclusion is that data science must become embedded in all degree and continuing programs, lest it be misconstrued as a separate discipline. Ideas and experience on how this embedding may be accomplished are also offered for discussion.

  14. Optimal uterine anatomy and physiology necessary for normal implantation and placentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ziegler, Dominique; Pirtea, Paul; Galliano, Daniela; Cicinelli, Ettore; Meldrum, David

    2016-04-01

    The authors review aberrations of uterine anatomy and physiology affecting pregnancy outcomes with IVF. In the case of endometriosis and hydrosalpinx, pathologies outside of the uterus alter the uterine endometrium. In the case of endometriosis, Dominique de Ziegler outlines the numerous changes in gene expression and the central role of inflammation in causing progesterone resistance. With endometriosis, the absence of ovarian function inherent in deferred transfer, with or without a more lengthy suppression of ovarian function, appears to be sufficient to restore normal function of eutopic endometrium. Because laparoscopy is no longer routine in the evaluation of infertility, unrecognized endometriosis then becomes irrelevant in the context of assisted reproductive technology. With hydrosalpinx and submucus myomas, the implantation factor HOXA-10 is suppressed in the endometrium and, with myomas, even in areas of the uterus not directly affected. Daniela Galliano reviews various uterine pathologies, the most enigmatic being adenomyosis, where the endometrium also manifests many of the changes seen in endometriosis and deferred transfer with extended suppression appears to provide the best outcomes. Ettore Cicinelli's group has extensively studied the diagnosis and treatment of endometritis, and although more definitive diagnosis and care of this covert disorder may await techniques such as sequencing of the endometrial microbiome, it undoubtedly is an important factor in implantation failure, deserving our attention and treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Understanding protein synthesis: a role-play approach in large undergraduate human anatomy and physiology classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W; Cole, Oladipo

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of role play in a large undergraduate science class. The targeted population consisted of 298 students enrolled in 2 sections of an undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught by the same instructor. The section engaged in the role-play activity served as the study group, whereas the section presented with a traditional lecture served as the control group. A pretest/posttest assessment and a survey were administered to both sections and used in data analysis. In addition, overall test scores and item analysis were examined. The analysis revealed that participants in both groups improved significantly from pretest to posttest, but there were no significant differences between the groups in posttest scores. Neither group showed a significant change from posttest to the exam. However, there was a moderate positive effect on engagement and satisfaction survey questions from being in the study group (based on 255 total surveys returned by both groups). The role-play activity was at least as effective as the lecture in terms of student performance on the above-mentioned assessments. In addition, it proved successful in engaging students in the learning process and increasing their satisfaction.

  16. The LINDSAY Virtual Human Project: An immersive Approach to Anatomy and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tworek, Janet K.; Jamniczky, Heather A.; Jacob, Christian; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Wright, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The increasing number of digital anatomy teaching software packages challenges anatomy educators on how to best integrate these tools for teaching and learning. Realistically, there exists a complex interplay of design, implementation, politics, and learning needs in the development and integration of software for education, each of which may be…

  17. Gastrointestinal Physiology During Head Down Tilt Bedrest in Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaksman, Z.; Guthienz, J.; Putcha, L.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility plays a key role in the physiology and function of the GI tract. It directly affects absorption of medications and nutrients taken by mouth, in addition to indirectly altering GI physiology by way of changes in the microfloral composition and biochemistry of the GI tract. Astronauts have reported nausea, loss of appetite and constipation during space flight all of which indicate a reduction in GI motility and function similar to the one seen in chronic bed rest patients. The purpose of this study is to determine GI motility and bacterial proliferation during -6 degree head down tilt bed rest (HTD). Methods: Healthy male and female subjects between the ages of 25-40 participated in a 60 day HTD study protocol. GI transit time (GITT) was determined using lactulose breath hydrogen test and bacterial overgrowth was measured using glucose breath hydrogen test. H. Pylori colonization was determined using C13-urea breath test (UBIT#). All three tests were conducted on 9 days before HDT, and repeated on HDT days 2, 28, 58, and again on day 7 after HDT. Results: GITT increased during HTD compared to the respective ambulatory control values; GITT was significantly lower on day 7 after HTD. A concomitant increase in bacterial colonization was also noticed during HDT starting after approximately 28 days of HDT. However, H. Pylori proliferation was not recorded during HDT as indicated by UBIT#. Conclusion: GITT significantly decreased during HDT with a concomitant increase in the proliferation of GI bacterial flora but not H. pylori.

  18. Developing the Immunology Book for Animal and Human Physiology Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuni Mitasari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available he objective of the study was to develop an immunology book for Animal and Human Physiology subject. This book was developed based on the Thiagarajan development model which was modified of: Define, Design, Develop, dan Disseminate (4D. The data expert validation instrument was questionnaire using Likert scales, comments, and recommendation sheets. Expert appraisal was done by material expert and media and design learning expert. The developmental testing was conducted using questionnaire to test the readibility. The expert validation was conducted by material expert as well as design and media learning expert validator; meanwhile, the field test was done to measure the readability. The validity test results were: the material expert state that the material is valid (97.14%, as well as the design and learning media expert (84.88% and field test by students (88.17%.

  19. Opportunities for learning in an introductory undergraduate human anatomy and physiology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montplaisir, Lisa Marie

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the course conditions that support the development of meaningful student learning in an introductory undergraduate human anatomy and physiology course. The study was conducted during an 8-week summer-session at a small mid-western university. Classroom observations and taped recordings of class sessions were used to determine content episodes within the instructional unit, opportunities for learning created by the instructor, demonstrations of information processing by the students, and the ways in which the instructor used the Personal Response System (PRS). Student interviews were used to determine students' level of understanding of pre-test and post-test items. Student interviews and a questionnaire were used to determine students' perceptions of the PRS as a learning tool. Findings reveal that the instructor had different expectations of students when posing verbal questions in-class than he had when posing PRS questions. The use of verbal questions did not permit demonstrations of student understanding; however, the use of the PRS did result in demonstrations of student understanding. Questions posed via the use of the PRS were categorized according to cognitive level. The cognitive level of the questions increased with time over the instructional unit and within the content episodes. Students demonstrated deeper understanding of the topics after instruction than they did before instruction. Students reported more in-class thinking about the content, more discussion of the content with their neighbors, more regular class attendance, more opportunities for deeper learning, and a general preference for the PRS over traditional lectures. Findings of the study indicate that the instructional decisions about the use of questions influences the opportunities for students to process information and demonstrate their understanding of the content and that students valued these opportunities. A better understanding of the

  20. Anatomy and Physiology of the Urinary Tract: Relation to Host Defense and Microbial Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling, Duane R; Sun, Tung-Tien; Wu, Xue-Ru

    2015-08-01

    The urinary tract exits to a body surface area that is densely populated by a wide range of microbes. Yet, under most normal circumstances, it is typically considered sterile, i.e., devoid of microbes, a stark contrast to the gastrointestinal and upper respiratory tracts where many commensal and pathogenic microbes call home. Not surprisingly, infection of the urinary tract over a healthy person's lifetime is relatively infrequent, occurring once or twice or not at all for most people. For those who do experience an initial infection, the great majority (70% to 80%) thankfully do not go on to suffer from multiple episodes. This is a far cry from the upper respiratory tract infections, which can afflict an otherwise healthy individual countless times. The fact that urinary tract infections are hard to elicit in experimental animals except with inoculum 3-5 orders of magnitude greater than the colony counts that define an acute urinary infection in humans (105 cfu/ml), also speaks to the robustness of the urinary tract defense. How can the urinary tract be so effective in fending off harmful microbes despite its orifice in a close vicinity to that of the microbe-laden gastrointestinal tract? While a complete picture is still evolving, the general consensus is that the anatomical and physiological integrity of the urinary tract is of paramount importance in maintaining a healthy urinary tract. When this integrity is breached, however, the urinary tract can be at a heightened risk or even recurrent episodes of microbial infections. In fact, recurrent urinary tract infections are a significant cause of morbidity and time lost from work and a major challenge to manage clinically. Additionally, infections of the upper urinary tract often require hospitalization and prolonged antibiotic therapy. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the basic anatomy and physiology of the urinary tract with an emphasis on their specific roles in host defense. We also highlight the

  1. Polyploidy and the relationship between leaf structure and function: implications for correlated evolution of anatomy, morphology, and physiology in Brassica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert L; Yarkhunova, Yulia; Vidal, Katherine; Ewers, Brent E; Weinig, Cynthia

    2017-01-05

    Polyploidy is well studied from a genetic and genomic perspective, but the morphological, anatomical, and physiological consequences of polyploidy remain relatively uncharacterized. Whether these potential changes bear on functional integration or are idiosyncratic remains an open question. Repeated allotetraploid events and multiple genomic combinations as well as overlapping targets of artificial selection make the Brassica triangle an excellent system for exploring variation in the connection between plant structure (anatomy and morphology) and function (physiology). We examine phenotypic integration among structural aspects of leaves including external morphology and internal anatomy with leaf-level physiology among several species of Brassica. We compare diploid and allotetraploid species to ascertain patterns of phenotypic correlations among structural and functional traits and test the hypothesis that allotetraploidy results in trait disintegration allowing for transgressive phenotypes and additional evolutionary and crop improvement potential. Among six Brassica species, we found significant effects of species and ploidy level for morphological, anatomical and physiological traits. We identified three suites of intercorrelated traits in both diploid parents and allotetraploids: Morphological traits (such as leaf area and perimeter) anatomic traits (including ab- and ad- axial epidermis) and aspects of physiology. In general, there were more correlations between structural and functional traits for allotetraploid hybrids than diploid parents. Parents and hybrids did not have any significant structure-function correlations in common. Of particular note, there were no significant correlations between morphological structure and physiological function in the diploid parents. Increased phenotypic integration in the allotetraploid hybrids may be due, in part, to increased trait ranges or simply different structure-function relationships. Genomic and chromosomal

  2. Gestation-Specific Changes in the Anatomy and Physiology of Healthy Pregnant Women: An Extended Repository of Model Parameters for Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallmann, André; Ince, Ibrahim; Meyer, Michaela; Willmann, Stefan; Eissing, Thomas; Hempel, Georg

    2017-11-01

    In the past years, several repositories for anatomical and physiological parameters required for physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling in pregnant women have been published. While providing a good basis, some important aspects can be further detailed. For example, they did not account for the variability associated with parameters or were lacking key parameters necessary for developing more detailed mechanistic pregnancy physiologically based pharmacokinetic models, such as the composition of pregnancy-specific tissues. The aim of this meta-analysis was to provide an updated and extended database of anatomical and physiological parameters in healthy pregnant women that also accounts for changes in the variability of a parameter throughout gestation and for the composition of pregnancy-specific tissues. A systematic literature search was carried out to collect study data on pregnancy-related changes of anatomical and physiological parameters. For each parameter, a set of mathematical functions was fitted to the data and to the standard deviation observed among the data. The best performing functions were selected based on numerical and visual diagnostics as well as based on physiological plausibility. The literature search yielded 473 studies, 302 of which met the criteria to be further analyzed and compiled in a database. In total, the database encompassed 7729 data. Although the availability of quantitative data for some parameters remained limited, mathematical functions could be generated for many important parameters. Gaps were filled based on qualitative knowledge and based on physiologically plausible assumptions. The presented results facilitate the integration of pregnancy-dependent changes in anatomy and physiology into mechanistic population physiologically based pharmacokinetic models. Such models can ultimately provide a valuable tool to investigate the pharmacokinetics during pregnancy in silico and support informed decision making regarding

  3. Normal and abnormal physiology, pharmacology, and anatomy of the gastroesophageal junction high-pressure zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry; Vegesna, Anil; Ruggieri, Michael; Braverman, Alan

    2016-09-01

    The high-pressure zone of the gastroesophageal junction acts as a multifunctional valve that comprises different groups of smooth muscles located in the distal esophagus and the proximal stomach, in addition to the extrinsic crural diaphragm, composed of skeletal muscle. In this review article, we evaluate the current literature with respect to human subjects, discussing the anatomic locations and physiologic and pharmacologic processes controlling these muscles. These muscles work individually and as a group to prevent reflux of gastric contents while allowing anterograde passage of food and liquid and retrograde passage of gas. We also reviewed new findings with respect to abnormalities that are permissive of reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus, which may lead to gastroesophageal reflux disease. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. perception to cadaver dissection and views on anatomy as a subject

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inculcate into students carefulness and empathy, which is important in the subsequent medical practice. Regarding the opinion of respondents on cadaver dissection and human anatomy, we found overwhelmingly favourable opinions, with majority disagreeing to the statement that they dislike anatomy, while 62.7% and ...

  5. Impact of Subject Specialists on Teaching: Application to Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Owoyele

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the impact of teachers on the teaching of a physiology course to performing arts students of the University of Ilorin. Questionnaires and personal observations were used to assess students' perception of the course and performance, the examination results in the two years before and after the takeover of the course by physiology teachers were obtained and analysed. The results showed that the students appreciated the teaching by core physiology teachers than the teaching by performing arts teachers and the initial phobias of the students were significantly doused. The average performance by the students did not change significantly and this further justified the taking over of the course by physiology teachers.

  6. 2016 High School Honors Human Anatomy and Physiology Curriculum Investigation for College Board Advanced Placement Classification Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanine Siebold

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Four sections of senior Honors Human Anatomy and Physiology (A&P students are representative of sixty-five nations. These classes participated in a yearlong investigation pursuant of innovative learning, and grading modalities to introduce a 21st century curriculum for A&P to become a College Board Advanced Placement (AP course. All enrollees began the year by taking a self-assessment based on Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligences. This data was evaluated for the design of learning approaches identifying student uniqueness that could better implement the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS, and present State of Tennessee Human Anatomy and Physiology Learning Standards laying the groundwork to write the AP curriculum. Component curriculum rubrics were used, and modified to enable students to self-evaluate their performance in certain areas. Students participated in teams represented as Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC 'Intern Teams' investigating various diseases. The students, also, researched health equity, and disparity issues from variables based on survey questions they designed that could affect the health care treatment of patients suffering from their investigated disease. They then proposed a 2016 CDC Educational Campaign revamping public health education for the disease, including brochure, and public service announcement (PSA.

  7. Nasal Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure Statement Printer Friendly Nasal Physiology Jeremiah A. Alt, MD, PhD Noam Cohen, MD, ... control the inflammation. CONCLUSION An understanding of the physiology of the nose is critical to understand nasal ...

  8. The LINDSAY Virtual Human Project: an immersive approach to anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tworek, Janet K; Jamniczky, Heather A; Jacob, Christian; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Wright, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The increasing number of digital anatomy teaching software packages challenges anatomy educators on how to best integrate these tools for teaching and learning. Realistically, there exists a complex interplay of design, implementation, politics, and learning needs in the development and integration of software for education, each of which may be further amplified by the somewhat siloed roles of programmers, faculty, and students. LINDSAY Presenter is newly designed software that permits faculty and students to model and manipulate three-dimensional anatomy presentations and images, while including embedded quizzes, links, and text-based content. A validated tool measuring impact across pedagogy, resources, interactivity, freedom, granularity, and factors outside the immediate learning event was used in conjunction with observation, field notes, and focus groups to critically examine the impact of attitudes and perceptions of all stakeholders in the early implementation of LINDSAY Presenter before and after a three-week trial period with the software. Results demonstrate that external, personal media usage, along with students' awareness of the need to apply anatomy to clinical professional situations drove expectations of LINDSAY Presenter. A focus on the software over learning, which can be expected during initial orientation, surprisingly remained after three weeks of use. The time-intensive investment required to create learning content is a detractor from user-generated content and may reflect the consumption nature of other forms of digital learning. Early excitement over new technologies needs to be tempered with clear understanding of what learning is afforded, and how these constructively support future application and integration into professional practice. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

  9. Puzzle-based versus traditional lecture: comparing the effects of pedagogy on academic performance in an undergraduate human anatomy and physiology II lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetzik, Lucas; Deeter, Anthony; Parker, Jamie; Yukech, Christine

    2015-06-23

    A traditional lecture-based pedagogy conveys information and content while lacking sufficient development of critical thinking skills and problem solving. A puzzle-based pedagogy creates a broader contextual framework, and fosters critical thinking as well as logical reasoning skills that can then be used to improve a student's performance on content specific assessments. This paper describes a pedagogical comparison of traditional lecture-based teaching and puzzle-based teaching in a Human Anatomy and Physiology II Lab. Using a single subject/cross-over design half of the students from seven sections of the course were taught using one type of pedagogy for the first half of the semester, and then taught with a different pedagogy for the second half of the semester. The other half of the students were taught the same material but with the order of the pedagogies reversed. Students' performance on quizzes and exams specific to the course, and in-class assignments specific to this study were assessed for: learning outcomes (the ability to form the correct conclusion or recall specific information), and authentic academic performance as described by (Am J Educ 104:280-312, 1996). Our findings suggest a significant improvement in students' performance on standard course specific assessments using a puzzle-based pedagogy versus a traditional lecture-based teaching style. Quiz and test scores for students improved by 2.1 and 0.4% respectively in the puzzle-based pedagogy, versus the traditional lecture-based teaching. Additionally, the assessments of authentic academic performance may only effectively measure a broader conceptual understanding in a limited set of contexts, and not in the context of a Human Anatomy and Physiology II Lab. In conclusion, a puzzle-based pedagogy, when compared to traditional lecture-based teaching, can effectively enhance the performance of students on standard course specific assessments, even when the assessments only test a limited

  10. Medical Student Dissection of Cadavers Improves Performance on Practical Exams but not on the NBME Anatomy Subject Exam

    OpenAIRE

    Sargent Jones, Leslie; Paulman, Lance E.; Thadani, Raj; Terracio, Louis

    2009-01-01

    We have examined whether cadaver dissection by first year medical students (MIs) affected their performance in two test measures: the NBME Gross Anatomy and Embryology Subject Exam (dissection-relevant questions only), and practical exams given at the end of each major section within the course. The dissections for the entire course were divided into 18 regional dissection units and each student was assigned to dissect one third of the regional units; the other two-thirds of the material was ...

  11. A study of student perceptions of learning transfer from a human anatomy and physiology course in an allied health program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Leigh S.

    The purpose of this study was two-fold. First the study was designed to determine student perceptions regarding the perceived degree of original learning from a human anatomy and physiology course, and the student perception of the use of the knowledge in an allied health program. Second, the intention of the study was to establish student beliefs on the characteristics of the transfer of learning including those factors which enhance learning transfer and those that serve as barriers to learning transfer. The study participants were those students enrolled in any allied health program at a community college in a Midwest state, including: nursing, radiology, surgical technology, health information technology, and paramedic. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed from the responses to the survey. A sub-group of participants were chosen to participate in semi-structured formal interviews. From the interviews, additional qualitative data were gathered. The data collected through the study demonstrated student perception of successful transfer experiences. The students in the study were able to provide specific examples of learning transfer experienced from the human anatomy and physiology course in their allied health program. Findings also suggested students who earned higher grades in the human anatomy and physiology course perceived greater understanding and greater use of the course's learning objectives in their allied health program. The study found the students believed the following learning activities enhances the transfer of learning: (1) Providing application of the information or skills being learned during the instruction of the course content enhances the transfer of learning. (2) Providing resource materials and activities which allow the students to practice the content being taught facilitates the transfer of learning. The students made the following recommendations to remove barriers to the transfer of learning: (1

  12. Physiology in medicine: obstructive sleep apnea pathogenesis and treatment--considerations beyond airway anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Jerome A; Xie, Ailiang; Patz, David S; Wang, David

    2014-01-01

    We review evidence in support of significant contributions to the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) from pathophysiological factors beyond the well-accepted importance of airway anatomy. Emphasis is placed on contributions from neurochemical control of central respiratory motor output through its effects on output stability, upper airway dilator muscle activation, and arousability. In turn, we consider the evidence demonstrating effective treatment of OSA via approaches that address each of these pathophysiologic risk factors. Finally, a case is made for combining treatments aimed at both anatomical and ventilatory control system deficiencies and for individualizing treatment to address a patient's own specific risk factors.

  13. MO-DE-201-03: This course presents a review of radiologic anatomy and physiology as it applies to projection radiography, fluoroscopy, CT, MRI, U/S, and nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahey, F.

    2015-06-15

    Fundamental knowledge of radiologic anatomy and physiology is critical for medical physicists. Many physicists are exposed to this topic only in graduate school, and knowledge is seldom formally evaluated or assessed after Part I of the ABR exam. Successful interactions with clinicians, including surgeons, radiologists, and oncologists requires that the medical physicist possess this knowledge. This course presents a review of radiologic anatomy and physiology as it applies to projection radiography, fluoroscopy, CT, MRI, U/S, and nuclear medicine. We will review structural anatomy, manipulation of tissue contrast, the marriage between anatomy and physiology, and explore how medical imaging exploits normal and pathological processes in the body to generate contrast. Learning Objectives: Review radiologic anatomy. Examine techniques to manipulate tissue contrast in radiology. Integrate anatomy and physiology in molecular imaging.

  14. Physiological Changes at Altitude in Nonasthmatic and Asthmatic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianna Louie

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercised-induced asthma is not due to exercise itself per se, but rather is due to cooling and/or drying of the airway because of the increased ventilation that accompanies exercise. Travel to high altitudes is accompanied by increased ventilation of cool, often dry, air, irrespective of the level of exertion, and by itself, this could represent an 'exercise' challenge for asthmatic subjects. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction was measured at sea level and at various altitudes during a two-week trek through the Himalayas in a group of nonasthmatic and asthmatic subjects. The results of this study showed that in mild asthmatics, there was a significant reduction in peak expiratory flow at very high altitudes. Contrary to the authors' hypothesis, there was not a significant additional decrease in peak expiratory flow after exercise in the asthmatic subjects at high altitude. However, there was a significant fall in arterial oxygen saturation postexercise in the asthmatic subjects, a change that was not seen in the nonasthmatic subjects. These data suggest that asthmatic subjects develop bronchoconstriction when they go to very high altitudes, possibly via the same mechanism that causes exercise-induced asthma.

  15. Cactus stem (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill): anatomy, physiology and chemical composition with emphasis on its biofunctional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Aguilar, Rosa Isela; Bosquez-Molina, Elsa; Bautista-Baños, Silvia; Rivera-Cabrera, Fernando

    2017-12-01

    Cactus stem (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill) is native to Mesoamerica and marketed in different forms such as fresh, frozen or pre-cooked. Worldwide, this vegetable is recognized for its pharmaceutical actions, including its antioxidant, diuretic, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and anti-hypercholesterolemic properties, as well as their antiviral and antispermatogenic effects. However, not all of these properties have been associated with its chemical composition; therefore, this review aims to present and integrate information available on the physiology and anatomy of cactus stem and its chemical composition, focusing on some of the many factors that determine its biofunctionality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Venous drainage of the spine and spinal cord: a comprehensive review of its history, embryology, anatomy, physiology, and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griessenauer, Christoph J; Raborn, Joel; Foreman, Paul; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2015-01-01

    Venous drainage of the spine and spinal cord is accomplished through a complex network of venous structures compartmentalized to intrinsic, extrinsic, and extradural systems. As the literature on this topic is scarce, the following review was performed to summarize the available literature into a single coherent format. The medical literature on the spinal venous system was reviewed using online sources as well as historical documents that were not available online in regard to history, embryology, anatomy, and physiology with a particular emphasis on the pathology affecting this system. The spinal venous system is complex and variable. Proper understanding of all aspects is critical for the management of the pathology that results from its failure. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Assisting at-risk community college students' acquisition of critical thinking learning strategies in human anatomy and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arburn, Theresa Morkovsky

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether learning thinking strategies within the context of a community college course in Human Anatomy and Physiology would result in increased academic performance and the incidence of critical thinking skills. Included in the study sample were 68 community college students, many of whom would be categorized as "at-risk," who were enrolled in four sections of a Human Anatomy and Physiology class. Two of the class sections served as the experimental group and two sections served as the control group. During the course of one semester, members of the experimental group participated in the use of a student-generated questioning technique in conjunction with lecture presentations, while members of the control group did not. All students were pretested using the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) and the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). Posttesting was completed using these same instruments and an end-of-course comprehensive examination. Analysis of data revealed no significant differences between the experimental and control groups with regard to their overall achievement, their ability to process information, or their demonstration of critical thinking. It was interesting to note, however, that members of the experimental group did exhibit a change in their ability to select main ideas, apply deductive reasoning, and use inference. While the use of thinking strategies within the context of the course did not effect a significant change in academic achievement or critical thinking among at-risk community college students, it should be noted that application of a non-lecture method of class participation had no negative impact on student performance. Whether more abstruse changes have occurred with regard to the acquisition of cognitive skills remains to be elucidated.

  18. Neurological Principles and Rehabilitation of Action Disorders: Computation, Anatomy & Physiology (CAP) model

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, Scott H.; Fogassi, Leonardo; Grafton, Scott; Picard, Nathalie; Rothwell, John C.; Schweighofer, Nicolas; Corbetta, Maurizio; Fitzpatrick, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines the basic computational, anatomical and physiological (CAP) principles underlying upper limb actions such as reaching for a cup and grasping it, or picking up a key, inserting it into a lock, and turning it.

  19. Objective and Subjective Assessment of Reciprocal Peer Teaching in Medical Gross Anatomy Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Brian S.; Hill, Robert V.

    2009-01-01

    Reciprocal peer teaching (RPT), wherein students alternate roles as teacher and learner, has been applied in several educational arenas with varying success. Here, we describe the implementation of a reciprocal peer teaching protocol in a human gross anatomy laboratory curriculum. We compared the outcomes of the RPT class with those of previous…

  20. Anatomy and Physiology of Left Ventricular Suction Induced by Rotary Blood Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamonsen, Robert Francis; Lim, Einly; Moloney, John; Lovell, Nigel Hamilton; Rosenfeldt, Franklin L

    2015-08-01

    This study in five large greyhound dogs implanted with a VentrAssist left ventricular assist device focused on identification of the precise site and physiological changes induced by or underlying the complication of left ventricular suction. Pressure sensors were placed in left and right atria, proximal and distal left ventricle, and proximal aorta while dual perivascular and tubing ultrasonic flow meters measured blood flow in the aortic root and pump outlet cannula. When suction occurred, end-systolic pressure gradients between proximal and distal regions of the left ventricle on the order of 40-160 mm Hg indicated an occlusive process of variable intensity in the distal ventricle. A variable negative flow difference between end systole and end diastole (0.5-3.4 L/min) was observed. This was presumably mediated by variable apposition of the free and septal walls of the ventricle at the pump inlet cannula orifice which lasted approximately 100 ms. This apposition, by inducing an end-systolic flow deficit, terminated the suction process by relieving the imbalance between pump requirement and delivery from the right ventricle. Immediately preceding this event, however, unnaturally low end-systolic pressures occurred in the left atrium and proximal left ventricle which in four dogs lasted for 80-120 ms. In one dog, however, this collapse progressed to a new level and remained at approximately -5 mm Hg across four heart beats at which point suction was relieved by manual reduction in pump speed. Because these pressures were associated with a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of -5 mm Hg as well, they indicate total collapse of the entire pulmonary venous system, left atrium, and left ventricle which persisted until pump flow requirement was relieved by reducing pump speed. We suggest that this collapse caused the whole vascular region from pulmonary capillaries to distal left ventricle to behave as a Starling resistance which further reduced right

  1. Endoscopic Ear Surgery: Critical Review of Anatomy and Physiology of Normal and Reconstructive Middle Ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udagatti, Vithal D; Dinesh Kumar, Rajendran

    2016-06-01

    Middle ear anatomy is complex hence it is difficult to study the microscopic vibration of tympanic membrane and ossicles. The basic research has been done in few centres. Our experience is based on clinical data. The lack of quantitative understanding of structural and functional relationship in the mechanical response of the normal and reconstructed middle ear is major factor in poor hearing results after surgery (Merchant et al. in J Laryngol Otol 112:715-731, 1998). The vibration pattern of tympanic membrane changes with different frequencies. It depends upon shape, position and tension of tympanic membrane. Sometimes reconstructed tympanic membrane loses its shape and tension and thus its vibratory response (Pusalkar and Steinbach in Transplants and implants in otology II, 1992). Then what should be the shape, position, tension of the tympanic membrane and the ossicles. In order to have a serviceable hearing, dry and safe ear, there is a necessity of answering all these queries by us.

  2. The Endocrine System [and] Instructor's Guide: The Endocrine System. Health Occupations Education Module: Instructional Materials in Anatomy and Physiology for Pennsylvania Health Occupations Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    This module on the endocrine system is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. It is part of an eight-unit miniseries on anatomy and physiology within the series of 17 modules. Following a preface which explains to the student how to use the…

  3. The Implementation of Clay Modeling and Rat Dissection into the Human Anatomy and Physiology Curriculum of a Large Urban Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haspel, Carol; Motoike, Howard K.; Lenchner, Erez

    2014-01-01

    After a considerable amount of research and experimentation, cat dissection was replaced with rat dissection and clay modeling in the human anatomy and physiology laboratory curricula at La Guardia Community College (LAGCC), a large urban community college of the City University of New York (CUNY). This article describes the challenges faculty…

  4. Learning Style versus Time Spent Studying and Career Choice: Which Is Associated with Success in a Combined Undergraduate Anatomy and Physiology Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Gary J.; Mazurek, Ewa; Marone, Jane R.

    2016-01-01

    The VARK learning style is a pedagogical focus in health care education. This study examines relationships of course performance vs. VARK learning preference, study time, and career plan among students enrolled in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course at a large urban university. Students (n?=?492) from the fall semester course completed…

  5. Anatomy Lessons

    OpenAIRE

    Reena Mary George; Shefali Mathew

    2017-01-01

    The microcosm of the human body, like the great rhythm of the universe, is silent, intricate, delicately balanced. Anatomy supports Physiology as organs and tissues connect, communicate and nourish life. In illness, they speak through the patient's history. Even in this era of cutting-edge technology, the clinical history remains the foundation of palliative and patient centred care. In listening to Anatomy speak, we understand how and where the body hurts. In health and infirmity, may we als...

  6. A method of providing engaging formative feedback to large cohort first-year physiology and anatomy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston-Green, Katrina; Wallace, Margaret

    2016-09-01

    A growing body of evidence demonstrates a critical role for effective, meaningful feedback to enhance student learning. Effective feedback can become part of the learning cycle that is not only a learning opportunity for the student but can also be used to inform the teacher and ongoing curriculum development. Feedback is considered particularly important during the first year of university and can even be viewed as a retention strategy that can help attenuate student performance anxieties and solidify perceptions of academic support. Unfortunately, the provision of individualized, timely feedback can be particularly challenging in first-year courses as they tend to be large and diverse cohort classes that pose challenges of time and logistics. Various forms of generic feedback can provide rapid and cost-effect feedback to large cohorts but may be of limited benefit to students other than signaling weaknesses in knowledge. The present study describes a method that was used to provide formative task-related feedback to a large cohort of first-year physiology and anatomy students. Based on student evaluations presented in this study, this method provided feedback in a manner that engaged students, uncovered underlying misconceptions, facilitated peer discussion, and provided opportunity for new instruction while allowing the lecturer to recognize common gaps in knowledge and inform ongoing curriculum development. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  7. Comprehensive Multi-Dimensional MRI for the Simultaneous Assessment of Cardiopulmonary Anatomy and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Joseph Y; Zhang, Tao; Alley, Marcus T; Uecker, Martin; Lustig, Michael; Pauly, John M; Vasanawala, Shreyas S

    2017-07-13

    Diagnostic testing often assesses the cardiovascular or respiratory systems in isolation, ignoring the major pathophysiologic interactions between the systems in many diseases. When both systems are assessed currently, multiple modalities are utilized in costly fashion with burdensome logistics and decreased accessibility. Thus, we have developed a new acquisition and reconstruction paradigm using the flexibility of MRI to enable a comprehensive exam from a single 5-15 min scan. We constructed a compressive-sensing approach to pseudo-randomly acquire highly subsampled, multi-dimensionally-encoded and time-stamped data from which we reconstruct volumetric cardiac and respiratory motion phases, contrast-agent dynamics, and blood flow velocity fields. The proposed method, named XD flow, is demonstrated for (a) evaluating congenital heart disease, where the impact of bulk motion is reduced in a non-sedated neonatal patient and (b) where the observation of the impact of respiration on flow is necessary for diagnostics; (c) cardiopulmonary imaging, where cardiovascular flow, function, and anatomy information is needed along with pulmonary perfusion quantification; and in (d) renal function imaging, where blood velocities and glomerular filtration rates are simultaneously measured, which highlights the generality of the technique. XD flow has the ability to improve quantification and to provide additional data for patient diagnosis for comprehensive evaluations.

  8. The Hair Follicle: A Comparative Review of Canine Hair Follicle Anatomy and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, Monika M; Wiener, Dominique J

    2016-06-01

    The hair follicle (HF) has a wide range of functions including thermoregulation, physical and immunological protection against external insults, sensory perception, social interactions, and camouflage. One of the most characteristic features of HFs is that they self-renew during hair cycle (HC) throughout the entire life of an individual to continuously produce new hair. HC disturbances are common in humans and comparable to some alopecic disorders in dogs. A normal HC is maintained by follicular stem cells (SCs), which are predominately found in an area known as the bulge. Due to similar morphological characteristics of the human and canine bulge area, the particularity of compound HFs in humans and dogs as well as similarities in follicular biomarker expression, the dog might be a promising model to study human HC and SC disorders. In this review, we give an overview of normal follicular anatomy, the HC, and follicular SCs and discuss the possible pathogenetic mechanisms of noninflammatory alopecia. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. ClueConnect: a word array game to promote student comprehension of key terminology in an introductory anatomy and physiology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleson, Kathryn M; Olimpo, Jeffrey T

    2016-06-01

    The sheer amount of terminology and conceptual knowledge required for anatomy and physiology can be overwhelming for students. Educational games are one approach to reinforce such knowledge. In this activity, students worked collaboratively to review anatomy and physiology concepts by creating arrays of descriptive tiles to define a term. Once guessed, students located the structure or process within diagrams of the body. The game challenged students to think about course vocabulary in novel ways and to use their collective knowledge to get their classmates to guess the terms. Comparison of pretest/posttest/delayed posttest data revealed that students achieved statistically significant learning gains for each unit after playing the game, and a survey of student perceptions demonstrated that the game was helpful for learning vocabulary as well as fun to play. The game is easily adaptable for a variety of lower- and upper-division courses. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  10. Anatomy and physiology of Cattail as related to different population densities

    OpenAIRE

    Corrêa,F. F.; R. H. Madail; Barbosa, S; Pereira,M. P.; E. M. Castro; SORIANO,C.T.G.; Pereira,F.J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of the population density of Typha angustifolia plants in the anatomical and physiological characteristics. Plants were collected from populations of high density (over 50% of colonization capacity) and low density (less than 50% of colonization capacity) and cultivated under controlled greenhouse conditions. Plants from both populations were grown in plastic trays containing 4 L of nutritive solution for 60 days. At the end of this perio...

  11. Comparison of the gastrointestinal anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of humans and commonly used laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kararli, T T

    1995-07-01

    In addition to metabolic differences, the anatomical, physiological, and biochemical differences in the gastrointestinal (G.I.) tract of the human and common laboratory animals can cause significant variation in drug absorption from the oral route. Among the physiological factors, pH, bile, pancreatic juice, and mucus and fluid volume and content can modify dissolution rates, solubility, transit times, and membrane transport of drug molecules. The microbial content of the G.I. tract can significantly affect the reductive metabolism and enterohepatic circulation of drugs and colonic delivery of formulations. The transit time of dosage forms can be significantly different between species due to different dimensions and propulsive activities of the G.I. tract. The lipid/protein composition of the enterocyte membrane along the G.I. tract can alter binding and passive, active, and carrier-mediated transport of drugs. The location and number of Peyer's patches can also be important in the absorption of large molecules and particulate matter. While small animals, rats, mice, guinea pigs, and rabbits, are most suitable for determining the mechanism of drug absorption and bioavailability values from powder or solution formulations, larger animals, dogs, pigs, and monkeys, are used to assess absorption from formulations. The understanding of physiological, anatomical, and biochemical differences between the G.I. tracts of different animal species can lead to the selection of the correct animal model to mimic the bioavailability of compounds in the human. This article reviews the anatomical, physiological, and biochemical differences between the G.I. tracts of humans and commonly used laboratory animals.

  12. [Anatomy and physiology of the vestibular system: review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka, L; Vitte, E

    2004-10-01

    The vestibular system is a complex system involving not only posterior labyrinth but also central structures such as cerebellum, striatum, thalamus, frontal and prefrontal cortex to assure balance, movements and walking. Information reaching the vestibular complex are not purely vestibular but also from visual, somatosensory and cerebellar origins. The equilibrium is also a complex physiological function needing concordance of vestibular, visual and somatosensory information or either central compensation after an injury but also an integrity of the central nervous system.

  13. Employee subjective well-being and physiological functioning: An integrative model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Kuykendall

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that worker subjective well-being influences physiological functioning—an early signal of poor health outcomes. While several theoretical perspectives provide insights on this relationship, the literature lacks an integrative framework explaining the relationship. We develop a conceptual model explaining the link between subjective well-being and physiological functioning in the context of work. Integrating positive psychology and occupational stress perspectives, our model explains the relationship between subjective well-being and physiological functioning as a result of the direct influence of subjective well-being on physiological functioning and of their common relationships with work stress and personal resources, both of which are influenced by job conditions.

  14. Online anatomy and physiology: piloting the use of an anatomy and physiology e-book-VLE hybrid in pre-registration and post-qualifying nursing programmes at the University of Salford.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Michael; Iggulden, Helen

    2008-06-01

    Anatomy and physiology (A&P) teaching and learning in nursing curricula poses problems for educators because of the often varying levels of students' background knowledge. This study reports on a pilot project that attempted to normalize these differentials by delivering A&P teaching using an online interactive e-book-virtual learning environment (VLE) hybrid. Evaluate the effectiveness of using an online interactive resource to deliver A&P teaching. Data were collected from pre-registration and post-qualifying students by questionnaire and observation, and from lecturers by structured interviews. Scale-up issues were identified and documented as part of support for the ongoing pilot. The pre-registration group encountered problems accessing the resource and yielded evidence to suggest that inexperienced learners require a high level of direction to use the resource effectively. The post-qualifying group benefited from the resource's interactive elements and 24/7 availability. There was clear evidence that the group were able to relate knowledge gained from the resource to practice. This hybrid has great potential to add value to A&P learning on nursing programmes at post-qualifying level. The resource could replace its printed equivalent; however, negotiations need to take place between institutions and publishers in order to resolve scale-up issues.

  15. The Accuracy of 3D Optical Reconstruction and Additive Manufacturing Processes in Reproducing Detailed Subject-Specific Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ferraiuoli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available 3D reconstruction and 3D printing of subject-specific anatomy is a promising technology for supporting clinicians in the visualisation of disease progression and planning for surgical intervention. In this context, the 3D model is typically obtained from segmentation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, computed tomography (CT or echocardiography images. Although these modalities allow imaging of the tissues in vivo, assessment of quality of the reconstruction is limited by the lack of a reference geometry as the subject-specific anatomy is unknown prior to image acquisition. In this work, an optical method based on 3D digital image correlation (3D-DIC techniques is used to reconstruct the shape of the surface of an ex vivo porcine heart. This technique requires two digital charge-coupled device (CCD cameras to provide full-field shape measurements and to generate a standard tessellation language (STL file of the sample surface. The aim of this work was to quantify the error of 3D-DIC shape measurements using the additive manufacturing process. The limitations of 3D printed object resolution, the discrepancy in reconstruction of the surface of cardiac soft tissue and a 3D printed model of the same surface were evaluated. The results obtained demonstrated the ability of the 3D-DIC technique to reconstruct localised and detailed features on the cardiac surface with sub-millimeter accuracy.

  16. Correlations between tests of aging in Hiroshima subjects: an attempt to define physiologic age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J.W.; Hashizume, Asaji; Jablon, Seymour

    1964-12-01

    Nine physiologic functions which change with age were measured in 437 subjects during their regular visits to the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission clinic in Hiroshima, Japan. This pilot study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of collecting such data in a population sample physiologic age score. Tests conducted consisted of: skin elasticity, systolic blood pressure, vital capacity, hand grip strength, light extinction time, vibrometer, visual activity, audiometry, and serum cholesterol. The study demonstrated that adequate sample data could be obtained, and that statistical treatment could construct a physiologic age for individual subjects. However, the tests were of limited value below age 40, and the validation of the concept of physiologic age requires eventual correlation with mortality. Since the ABCC program includes a highly accurate mortality survey, it is hoped that data on physiologic aging can be collected and eventually related to mortality. 11 references, 3 figures, 6 tables.

  17. Explicit logic circuits predict local properties of the neocortex's physiology and anatomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lane Yoder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two previous articles proposed an explicit model of how the brain processes information by its organization of synaptic connections. The family of logic circuits was shown to generate neural correlates of complex psychophysical phenomena in different sensory systems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here it is shown that the most cost-effective architectures for these networks produce correlates of electrophysiological brain phenomena and predict major aspects of the anatomical structure and physiological organization of the neocortex. The logic circuits are markedly efficient in several respects and provide the foundation for all of the brain's combinational processing of information. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: At the local level, these networks account for much of the physical structure of the neocortex as well its organization of synaptic connections. Electronic implementations of the logic circuits may be more efficient than current electronic logic arrays in generating both Boolean and fuzzy logic.

  18. Explicit Logic Circuits Predict Local Properties of the Neocortex's Physiology and Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Lane

    2010-01-01

    Background Two previous articles proposed an explicit model of how the brain processes information by its organization of synaptic connections. The family of logic circuits was shown to generate neural correlates of complex psychophysical phenomena in different sensory systems. Methodology/Principal Findings Here it is shown that the most cost-effective architectures for these networks produce correlates of electrophysiological brain phenomena and predict major aspects of the anatomical structure and physiological organization of the neocortex. The logic circuits are markedly efficient in several respects and provide the foundation for all of the brain's combinational processing of information. Conclusions/Significance At the local level, these networks account for much of the physical structure of the neocortex as well its organization of synaptic connections. Electronic implementations of the logic circuits may be more efficient than current electronic logic arrays in generating both Boolean and fuzzy logic. PMID:20169077

  19. Genetic Influences on Physiological and Subjective Responses to an Aerobic Exercise Session among Sedentary Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollis C. Karoly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine whether genetic variants suggested by the literature to be associated with physiology and fitness phenotypes predicted differential physiological and subjective responses to a bout of aerobic exercise among inactive but otherwise healthy adults. Method. Participants completed a 30-minute submaximal aerobic exercise session. Measures of physiological and subjective responding were taken before, during, and after exercise. 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that have been previously associated with various exercise phenotypes were tested for associations with physiological and subjective response to exercise phenotypes. Results. We found that two SNPs in the FTO gene (rs8044769 and rs3751812 were related to positive affect change during exercise. Two SNPs in the CREB1 gene (rs2253206 and 2360969 were related to change in temperature during exercise and with maximal oxygen capacity (VO2 max. The SLIT2 SNP rs1379659 and the FAM5C SNP rs1935881 were associated with norepinephrine change during exercise. Finally, the OPRM1 SNP rs1799971 was related to changes in norepinephrine, lactate, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE during exercise. Conclusion. Genetic factors influence both physiological and subjective responses to exercise. A better understanding of genetic factors underlying physiological and subjective responses to aerobic exercise has implications for development and potential tailoring of exercise interventions.

  20. Physiology and anatomy of neurons in the medial superior olive of the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischl, Matthew J; Burger, R Michael; Schmidt-Pauly, Myriam; Alexandrova, Olga; Sinclair, James L; Grothe, Benedikt; Forsythe, Ian D; Kopp-Scheinpflug, Conny

    2016-12-01

    In mammals with good low-frequency hearing, the medial superior olive (MSO) computes sound location by comparing differences in the arrival time of a sound at each ear, called interaural time disparities (ITDs). Low-frequency sounds are not reflected by the head, and therefore level differences and spectral cues are minimal or absent, leaving ITDs as the only cue for sound localization. Although mammals with high-frequency hearing and small heads (e.g., bats, mice) barely experience ITDs, the MSO is still present in these animals. Yet, aside from studies in specialized bats, in which the MSO appears to serve functions other than ITD processing, it has not been studied in small mammals that do not hear low frequencies. Here we describe neurons in the mouse brain stem that share prominent anatomical, morphological, and physiological properties with the MSO in species known to use ITDs for sound localization. However, these neurons also deviate in some important aspects from the typical MSO, including a less refined arrangement of cell bodies, dendrites, and synaptic inputs. In vitro, the vast majority of neurons exhibited a single, onset action potential in response to suprathreshold depolarization. This spiking pattern is typical of MSO neurons in other species and is generated from a complement of Kv1, Kv3, and IH currents. In vivo, mouse MSO neurons show bilateral excitatory and inhibitory tuning as well as an improvement in temporal acuity of spiking during bilateral acoustic stimulation. The combination of classical MSO features like those observed in gerbils with more unique features similar to those observed in bats and opossums make the mouse MSO an interesting model for exploiting genetic tools to test hypotheses about the molecular mechanisms and evolution of ITD processing. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Effect of different light sources on reproductive anatomy and physiology of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla-Mendez, M F; Rojas-Granados, C P; Andrade, E F; Retes, P L; Ferreira, L G; Alvarenga, R R; Rodriguez-Gil, J E; Fassani, E J; Zangeronimo, M G

    2016-05-01

    Artificial lights are essential for controlling the reproductive tract development of birds during puberty and therefore influence reproductive quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different light sources on reproductive anatomic and physiological characteristics of female Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). A total of 270 birds from one day of age were housed in a masonry shed divided into six rooms with light isolation. Each room was equipped with a different type of light bulb and contained seven cages with five birds in each. The light bulbs tested were: incandescent; compact fluorescent; and light-emitting diode (LED) in the colors white, blue, red and green. The experimental design was completely randomized with six treatments and seven replications of individual birds each. The anatomic and physiological condition of the birds was evaluated at four, eight and 12 weeks of age. The white LED bulb advanced (P<0.05) the sexual maturity by one week, resulted (P<0.05) in higher live weights and greater weight and relative percentage of ovarian stroma, oviduct and ovarian tissue at eight weeks of age. Higher plasma concentrations of estradiol and lipids were also observed (P<0.05) at eight weeks under the white LED bulb. At 12 weeks of age, the magnum and isthmus folding characteristics were better (P<0.05) with the red LED bulb. In conclusion, the photostimulation with the white LED bulb was more efficient at activating the reproductive cycle, hastening the onset of sexual maturity and increasing the development of reproductive organs after puberty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Using Guided Notes to Increase the Understanding of Anatomy and Physiology in 11th Grade Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Jay

    A survey of over 500 science teachers reported that two thirds of their science classes were lecture based lessons where students were required to listen and take notes (Boyle, 2010). In addition to taking notes from lectures, note taking is a necessary skill to possess to record scientific observations and procedures and record information during class. Guided notes is a pedagogical method in which the instructor prepares and provides students with a modified form of lecture information to guide students (Neef, McCord, & Ferreri, 2006). This study examined the extent to which the use of guided notes in a unit of study of the muscular system of anatomy and physiology positively affected the mastery on content-based assessments for 11 th grade students. The data collection methods included quiz and test scores, a 4-point Likert scale survey, and an open-ended questionnaire. Results of the data revealed that guided notes was one factor that led to mastery in learning content. Additionally, students in this study preferred this method as it helped them to distinguish relevant information allowing more time to listen and focus on the teacher.

  3. Advances in understanding of mammalian penile evolution, human penile anatomy and human erection physiology: Clinical implications for physicians and surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hsing; Liu, Shih-Ping; Hsu, Geng-Long; Chen, Heng-Shuen; Molodysky, Eugen; Chen, Ying-Hui; Yu, Hong-Jeng

    2012-01-01

    Summary Recent studies substantiate a model of the tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa as a bi-layered structure with a 360° complete inner circular layer and a 300° incomplete outer longitudinal coat spanning from the bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus proximally and extending continuously into the distal ligament within the glans penis. The anatomical location and histology of the distal ligament invites convincing parallels with the quadrupedal os penis and therefore constitutes potential evidence of the evolutionary process. In the corpora cavernosa, a chamber design is responsible for facilitating rigid erections. For investigating its venous factors exclusively, hemodynamic studies have been performed on both fresh and defrosted human male cadavers. In each case, a rigid erection was unequivocally attainable following venous removal. This clearly has significant ramifications in relation to penile venous surgery and its role in treating impotent patients. One deep dorsal vein, 2 cavernosal veins and 2 pairs of para-arterial veins (as opposed to 1 single vein) are situated between Buck’s fascia and the tunica albuginea. These newfound insights into penile tunical, venous anatomy and erection physiology were inspired by and, in turn, enhance clinical applications routinely encountered by physicians and surgeons, such as penile morphological reconstruction, penile implantation and penile venous surgery. PMID:22739749

  4. Advances in understanding of mammalian penile evolution, human penile anatomy and human erection physiology: clinical implications for physicians and surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hsing; Liu, Shih-Ping; Hsu, Geng-Long; Chen, Heng-Shuen; Molodysky, Eugen; Chen, Ying-Hui; Yu, Hong-Jeng

    2012-07-01

    Recent studies substantiate a model of the tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa as a bi-layered structure with a 360° complete inner circular layer and a 300° incomplete outer longitudinal coat spanning from the bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus proximally and extending continuously into the distal ligament within the glans penis. The anatomical location and histology of the distal ligament invites convincing parallels with the quadrupedal os penis and therefore constitutes potential evidence of the evolutionary process. In the corpora cavernosa, a chamber design is responsible for facilitating rigid erections. For investigating its venous factors exclusively, hemodynamic studies have been performed on both fresh and defrosted human male cadavers. In each case, a rigid erection was unequivocally attainable following venous removal. This clearly has significant ramifications in relation to penile venous surgery and its role in treating impotent patients. One deep dorsal vein, 2 cavernosal veins and 2 pairs of para-arterial veins (as opposed to 1 single vein) are situated between Buck's fascia and the tunica albuginea. These newfound insights into penile tunical, venous anatomy and erection physiology were inspired by and, in turn, enhance clinical applications routinely encountered by physicians and surgeons, such as penile morphological reconstruction, penile implantation and penile venous surgery.

  5. Treatment of General Tension: Subjective and Physiological Effects of Progressive Relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkovec, T. D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presence or absence of tension release significantly influenced the number of relaxation cycles necessary to produce reports of deep relaxation, frequency of practice, and successfulness of eliminating daily tension at follow-up. Subject's ability to reduce physiological activity by a procedure contributed to reductions in subjective tension.…

  6. Comprehensive review of the anatomy and physiology of male ejaculation: Premature ejaculation is not a disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppo, Vincenzo; Puppo, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Human semen contains spermatozoa secreted by the testes and a mixture of components produced by the bulbo-urethral and Littre (paraurethral) glands, prostate, seminal vesicles, ampulla, and epididymis. Ejaculation is used as a synonym for the external ejection of semen, but it comprises two phases: emission and expulsion. As semen collects in the prostatic urethra, the rapid preorgasmic distension of the urethral bulb is pathognomonic of impeding orgasm, and the man experiences a sensation that ejaculation is inevitable (in women, emission is the only phase of orgasm). The semen is propelled along the penile urethra mainly by the bulbocavernosus muscle. With Kegel exercises, it is possible to train the perineal muscles. Immediately after the expulsion phase the male enters a refractory period, a recovery time during which further orgasm or ejaculation is physiologically impossible. Age affects the recovery time: as a man grows older, the refractory period increases. Sexual medicine experts consider premature ejaculation only in the case of vaginal intercourse, but vaginal orgasm has no scientific basis, so the duration of intercourse is not important for a woman's orgasm. The key to female orgasm are the female erectile organs; vaginal orgasm, G-spot, G-spot amplification, clitoral bulbs, clitoris-urethra-vaginal complex, internal clitoris and female ejaculation are terms without scientific basis. Female sexual dysfunctions are popular because they are based on something that does not exist, i.e. the vaginal orgasm. The physiology of ejaculation and orgasm is not impaired in premature ejaculation: it is not a disease, and non-coital sexual acts after male ejaculation can be used to produce orgasm in women. Teenagers and men can understand their sexual responses by masturbation and learn ejaculatory control with the stop-start method and the squeeze technique. Premature ejaculation must not be classified as a male sexual dysfunction. It has become the center of a

  7. Clarifying the anatomy and physiology of totally anomalous systemic venous connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saurabh Kumar; Juneja, Rajnish; Anderson, Robert H; Gulati, Gurpreet S; Devagorou, Velayoudam

    2017-01-01

    The description of totally anomalous systemic venous connection is limited to case reports. In this review, we seek to clarify anatomic, physiologic, and hemodynamic aspects of this extremely rare anomaly. We also present findings of two patients in whom connection of all the systemic veins was anomalous. In the first patient, with usual atrial arrangement, all systemic veins, including the coronary sinus, were connected anomalously to the morphologically left atrium. Limited left-to-right shunt across an atrial septal defect provided the only source of blood flow to the lungs. The diagnosis was established by saline contrast echocardiography and cardiac catheterization. Extreme hypoplasia of the right ventricle precluded corrective surgery, so we performed a bidirectional Glenn operation, along with atrial septectomy. The second patient had isomerism of the left atrial appendages, which creates problems in the definition in anatomic terms since the connection of the systemic veins can never be normal anatomically when both atriums possess a morphologically left appendage. Our patient, nonetheless, had all the systemic and pulmonary veins, connected to the left-sided atrial chamber which then connected to the left ventricle, thus producing hemodynamics of totally anomalous systemic venous connection. We propose an algorithm for evaluation of this hemodynamic combination and discuss management options. We also intend to clarify the potential differences between connection and drainage, with particular attention to the arrangement of atrial appendages. Even though the hemodynamics may be comparable, in anatomic terms, both systemic and pulmonary venoatrial connection will always be anomalous with isomeric atrial appendages.

  8. Segregation of Form, Color, Movement, and Depth: Anatomy, Physiology, and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Margaret; Hubel, David

    1988-05-01

    Anatomical and physiological observations in monkeys indicate that the primate visual system consists of several separate and independent subdivisions that analyze different aspects of the same retinal image: cells in cortical visual areas 1 and 2 and higher visual areas are segregated into three interdigitating subdivisions that differ in their selectivity for color, stereopsis, movement, and orientation. The pathways selective for form and color seem to be derived mainly from the parvocellular geniculate subdivisions, the depth- and movement-selective components from the magnocellular. At lower levels, in the retina and in the geniculate, cells in these two subdivisions differ in their color selectivity, contrast sensitivity, temporal properties, and spatial resolution. These major differences in the properties of cells at lower levels in each of the subdivisions led to the prediction that different visual functions, such as color, depth, movement, and form perception, should exhibit corresponding differences. Human perceptual experiments are remarkably consistent with these predictions. Moreover, perceptual experiments can be designed to ask which subdivisions of the system are responsible for particular visual abilities, such as figure/ground discrimination or perception of depth from perspective or relative movement--functions that might be difficult to deduce from single-cell response properties.

  9. Válvula nasal: anatomia e fisiologia Nasal valve: anatomy and physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Nazareth Nigro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A porção anterior das cavidades nasais, da narina à válvula nasal (VN, é a região de maior resistência nasal ao fluxo aerífero, de suma importância para a fisiologia nasal. Na literatura existem terminologias diferentes para se referir às mesmas estruturas anatômicas e, ainda, o mesmo termo se referindo a estruturas anatômicas diferentes. OBJETIVO: Realizamos este trabalho com o objetivo de revisarmos o funcionamento da VN e definirmos com mais clareza estruturas anatômicas da porção anterior das cavidades nasais, principalmente a região da VN. CONCLUSÃO: Existe controvérsia na literatura quanto à nomenclatura das estruturas da VN. Neste trabalho definimos VN como uma estrutura tridimensional compreendida anteriormente pelo ostium internum e posteriormente pelo isthmus nasi.The anterior portion of the nasal cavities, from the nostril to the nasal valve (NV, is the place of highest nasal resistance to airflow, paramount to nasal physiology. There are different terminologies for the same anatomic structures in the literature. AIM: The aim of this paper was to study the NV function and define clearly the structures of the anterior portion of the nasal cavities, mainly the region of the NV. CONCLUSION: Internum ostium is the anterior segment and isthmus nasi is the posterior segment of the NV region.

  10. Learning style versus time spent studying and career choice: Which is associated with success in a combined undergraduate anatomy and physiology course?

    OpenAIRE

    Farkas, Gary J.; Mazurek, Ewa; Marone, Jane R.

    2015-01-01

    The VARK learning style is a pedagogical focus in health care education. This study examines relationships of course performance vs. VARK learning preference, study time, and career plan among students enrolled in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course at a large urban university. Students (n = 492) from the fall semester course completed a survey consisting of the VARK questionnaire, gender, academic year, career plans, and estimated hours spent per week in combined classroom and stu...

  11. Clarifying the anatomy and physiology of totally anomalous systemic venous connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Kumar Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The description of totally anomalous systemic venous connection is limited to case reports. In this review, we seek to clarify anatomic, physiologic, and hemodynamic aspects of this extremely rare anomaly. We also present findings of two patients in whom connection of all the systemic veins was anomalous. In the first patient, with usual atrial arrangement, all systemic veins, including the coronary sinus, were connected anomalously to the morphologically left atrium. Limited left-to-right shunt across an atrial septal defect provided the only source of blood flow to the lungs. The diagnosis was established by saline contrast echocardiography and cardiac catheterization. Extreme hypoplasia of the right ventricle precluded corrective surgery, so we performed a bidirectional Glenn operation, along with atrial septectomy. The second patient had isomerism of the left atrial appendages, which creates problems in the definition in anatomic terms since the connection of the systemic veins can never be normal anatomically when both atriums possess a morphologically left appendage. Our patient, nonetheless, had all the systemic and pulmonary veins, connected to the left-sided atrial chamber which then connected to the left ventricle, thus producing hemodynamics of totally anomalous systemic venous connection. We propose an algorithm for evaluation of this hemodynamic combination and discuss management options. We also intend to clarify the potential differences between connection and drainage, with particular attention to the arrangement of atrial appendages. Even though the hemodynamics may be comparable, in anatomic terms, both systemic and pulmonary venoatrial connection will always be anomalous with isomeric atrial appendages.

  12. Learning Outcomes and Student-Perceived Value of Clay Modeling and Cat Dissection in Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHoff, Mary Ellen; Clark, Krista L.; Meganathan, Karthikeyan

    2011-01-01

    Alternatives and/or supplements to animal dissection are being explored by educators of human anatomy at different academic levels. Clay modeling is one such alternative that provides a kinesthetic, three-dimensional, constructive, and sensory approach to learning human anatomy. The present study compared two laboratory techniques, clay modeling…

  13. Intensified emotion perception in depression: Differences in physiological arousal and subjective perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzler, Sofia; Hagen, Marleen; Tarvainen, Mika P; Hilke, Marietheres; Ghirmai, Naddy; Huthmacher, Ann-Caitlin; Trettin, Marco; van Dick, Rolf; Reif, Andreas; Oertel-Knöchel, Viola

    2017-07-01

    People suffering from depression perceive themselves and their surroundings as more negative than healthy ones. An explanation might be that depressed individuals experience negative information as more stressful than non-depressed subjects and, consequently, respond in an amplified manner on a subjective and physiological level. To test this proposition, we presented 41 patients with recurrent depressive episodes and 42 controls with stimuli from the International Affective Picture System split into three valence categories while different parameters of physiological arousal (e.g., heart rate variability) and subjective perceptions of valence and arousal were assessed. Furthermore, we examined social skills and emotional competence. Results regarding physiological arousal revealed an elevated skin temperature and a more accentuated respiratory frequency in depressed subjects. Furthermore, depressed subjects rated the stimuli as more negative and arousing, which was associated with reduced social and emotional competence. Variation in antidepressant medication, menstrual cycle and other factors that have an impact on HRV are a potential bias. Our findings suggest an intensified perception of negative emotion in depressed individuals as compared to controls that manifests itself in an increased physiological arousal as well as on a subjective level. This intensified emotion perception is further associated with deficits in social and emotional competence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Role of the Periaqueductal Gray in the Modulation of Pain in Males and Females: Are the Anatomy and Physiology Really that Different?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayna R. Loyd

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical and physiological studies conducted in the 1960s identified the periaqueductal gray (PAG and its descending projections to the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM and spinal cord dorsal horn, as a primary anatomical pathway mediating opioid-based analgesia. Since these initial studies, the PAG-RVM-spinal cord pathway has been characterized anatomically and physiologically in a wide range of vertebrate species. Remarkably, the majority of these studies were conducted exclusively in males with the implicit assumption that the anatomy and physiology of this circuit were the same in females; however, this is not the case. It is well established that morphine administration produces greater antinociception in males compared to females. Recent studies indicate that the PAG-RVM pathway contributes to the sexually dimorphic actions of morphine. This manuscript will review our anatomical, physiological, and behavioral data identifying sex differences in the PAG-RVM pathway, focusing on its role in pain modulation and morphine analgesia.

  15. Utility of virtual reality environments to examine physiological reactivity and subjective distress in adults who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundage, Shelley B; Brinton, James M; Hancock, Adrienne B

    2016-12-01

    Virtual reality environments (VREs) allow for immersion in speaking environments that mimic real-life interactions while maintaining researcher control. VREs have been used successfully to engender arousal in other disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of virtual reality environments to examine physiological reactivity and subjective ratings of distress in persons who stutter (PWS). Subjective and objective measures of arousal were collected from 10PWS during four-minute speeches to a virtual audience and to a virtual empty room. Stuttering frequency and physiological measures (skin conductance level and heart rate) did not differ across speaking conditions, but subjective ratings of distress were significantly higher in the virtual audience condition compared to the virtual empty room. VREs have utility in elevating subjective ratings of distress in PWS. VREs have the potential to be useful tools for practicing treatment targets in a safe, controlled, and systematic manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anatomy teaching: Flexnerian model to contextualized vertical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abraham Flexner in 1910 established the fundamental model where the subjects of anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, pathology and bacteriology are mastered before the clinical phase of medical training (1). He was clear that this mastery was best achieved by active student learning in the laboratory guided by clinical.

  17. Subjective and Physiological Responses to Music Stimuli Controlled Over Activity and Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga; Moroki

    1999-01-01

    Results of physiological responses to music are inconclusive considering results of several studies, probably due to the insufficient control of the musical stimuli. The present study aimed to examine the effects of music type and preference on subjective and physiological responses using controlled stimuli by subjects' evaluations for music activity and preference. Subjects were 47 undergraduate students selected from a pool of 145 undergraduates. Results of evaluations of music activity and music preference for musical stimuli in preliminary research determined participation in the study. The music used in this study included the 4th movement of Tchaikovsky's Symphony No. 4 as an excitative piece and the 3rd movement of Mahler's Symphony No. 6 as a sedative one. The excitative music aroused feelings of vigor and tension more than did the sedative one, while sedative music eased tension. Favorite music, regardless of music type, lowered subjective tension. Physiological responses (heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure) were greater during excitative music than during sedative music. Music preference did not, however, affect physiological responses. These results indicate that the dominant factor affecting emotional response was music type but not preference.

  18. Relationship between subjective fatigue and physiological variables in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breukink, SO; Strijbos, JH; Koorn, M; Koeter, GH; Breslin, EH; Van der Schans, CP

    Patients with chronic illnesses, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), report an increase in the perception of fatigue in the clinical setting. Subjective fatigue associated with physiological factors has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship

  19. The assessment of critical thinking skills in anatomy and physiology students who practice writing higher order multiple choice questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jason

    Critical thinking is a complex abstraction that defies homogeneous interpretation. This means that no operational definition is universal and no critical thinking measurement tool is all encompassing. Instructors will likely find evidence based strategies to facilitate thinking skills only as numerous research efforts from multiple disciplines accumulate. This study focuses on a question writing exercise designed to help anatomy and physiology students. Students were asked to design multiple choice questions that combined course concepts in new and novel ways. Instructions and examples were provided on how to construct these questions and student attempts were sorted into levels one through three of Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy (Bloom et al. 1956). Students submitted their question designs weekly and received individual feedback as to how they might improve. Eight course examinations were created to contain questions that modeled the Bloom's Cognitive Taxonomy levels that students were attempting. Students were assessed on their course examination performance as well as performance on a discipline independent critical thinking test called the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). The performance of students in this study was compared to students from two previous years that took the same course but did not have the question writing activity. Results suggest that students do not improve their ability to answer critical thinking multiple choices questions when they practice the task of creating such problems. The effect of class level on critical thinking is examined and it appears that the longer a student has attended college the better the performance on both discipline specific and discipline independent critical thinking questions. The data were also used to analyze students who improved their course examination grades in the second semester of this course. There is a pattern to suggest that students who improve their performance on course examinations

  20. Subjective and physiological emotional response in euthymic bipolar patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Mathieu; Aguillon-Hernandez, Nadia; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique; Martineau, Joëlle; El-Hage, Wissam

    2014-12-15

    The euthymic phase of bipolar disorders may be associated with residual emotional and/or subsyndromal symptoms. The aim of this study was to compare subjective and physiologic emotional response to negative, neutral and positive emotion eliciting pictures between euthymic bipolar patients (n=26) and healthy controls (n=30). We evaluated emotional response using an emotional induction method with emotional pictures from the International Affective Picture System. We measured subjective emotional response with the Self-Assessment Manikin and physiological emotional response by measuring pupil size. No difference was found between euthymic bipolar patients and controls regarding subjective emotional response. However, upon viewing positive pictures, pupil dilation was significantly lower in euthymic bipolar patients compared to controls. This finding suggests that euthymic bipolar phase may be associated with reduced physiologic emotional response to positive valence, which is consistent with a more general negative emotional bias or can be understood as a residual emotional subsyndromal symptom. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Classroom Performance System (CPS): Effects on student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural anatomy and physiology classes at South Texas College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termos, Mohamad Hani

    2011-12-01

    The Classroom Performance System (CPS) is an instructional technology tool that increases student performance and addresses different learning styles. Instructional technologies are used to promote active learning; however, student embarrassment issue in a multicultural setting is not addressed. This study assessed the effect of the CPS on student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural college-level anatomy and physiology classes at South Texas College, where the first spoken language is not English. Quantitative method and quasi-experimental design were employed and comparative statistic methods and pre-post tests were used to collect the data. Participants were college students and sections of study were selected by convenient sampling. Participation was 100% during most of the lectures held and participation rate did not strike above 68% in control group. Attendance was significantly higher in CPS sections than the control group as shown by t-tests. Experimental sections had a higher increase in the pre-post test scores and student averages on lecture exams increased at a higher rate as compared to the control group. Therefore, the CPS increased student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural anatomy and physiology classes. The CPS can be studied in other settings where the first spoken language is English or in other programs, such as special education programs. Additionally, other variables can be studied and other methodologies can be employed.

  2. Evidence of Rapid Modulation by Social Information of Subjective, Physiological, and Neural Responses to Emotional Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martial Mermillod

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that conceptual or emotional factors could influence the perceptual processing of stimuli. In this article, we aimed to evaluate the effect of social information (positive, negative, or no information related to the character of the target on subjective (perceived and felt valence and arousal, physiological (facial mimicry as well as on neural (P100 and N170 responses to dynamic emotional facial expressions (EFE that varied from neutral to one of the six basic emotions. Across three studies, the results showed reduced ratings of valence and arousal of EFE associated with incongruent social information (Study 1, increased electromyographical responses (Study 2, and significant modulation of P100 and N170 components (Study 3 when EFE were associated with social (positive and negative information (vs. no information. These studies revealed that positive or negative social information reduces subjective responses to incongruent EFE and produces a similar neural and physiological boost of the early perceptual processing of EFE irrespective of their congruency. In conclusion, the article suggests that the presence of positive or negative social context modulates early physiological and neural activity preceding subsequent behavior.

  3. Physiological quality of sesame seeds produced from plants subjected to water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronimeire Torres da Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Germination and seed vigor may be influenced by several factors, such as water stress during production, which affect crops differently according to the phenological stage of the plant. The aim of this study therefore was to evaluate the physiological quality of sesame seeds from plants subjected to water stress at different phenological stages. To this end, sesame plants were subjected to water stress at the following stages: I - germination to the start of vegetative growth (T1; II - vegetative growth to flowering (T2; III - flowering to pod formation (T3; IV - fruit maturation (T4; also for stress at all stages (T5 and full irrigation (T6. By weighing and daily irrigation of the containers, levels were kept at 50% of pot capacity (CV for treatments with water deficit, and at 100% CV for treatments with no deficit. At 90 days after planting, the plants were harvested. The seeds were evaluated by germination test, first germination count, germination speed index, mean germination time, accelerated aging, electrical conductivity, seedling emergence, emergence speed index, mean time of emergence, seedling length and seedling dry weight. Sesame seeds from plants grown under water deficit display lower physiological quality. Between germination and the start of vegetative growth, and between flowering and fruit formation, the sesame is more sensitive to water stress, so that water limitation during these periods results in the production of seeds of low physiological quality.

  4. Impact of low filter resistances on subjective and physiological responses to filtering facepiece respirators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond J Roberge

    Full Text Available Ten subjects underwent treadmill exercise at 5.6 km/h over one hour while wearing each of three identical appearing, cup-shaped, prototype filtering facepiece respirators that differed only in their filter resistances (3 mm, 6 mm, and 9 mm H2O pressure drop. There were no statistically significant differences between filtering facepiece respirators with respect to impact on physiological parameters (i.e., heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, transcutaneous carbon dioxide levels, tympanic membrane temperature, pulmonary function variables (i.e., tidal volume, respiratory rate, volume of carbon dioxide production, oxygen consumption, or ventilation, and subjective ratings (i.e., exertion, thermal comfort, inspiratory effort, expiratory effort and overall breathing comfort. The nominal filter resistances of the prototype filtering facepiece respirators correspond to airflow resistances ranging from 2.1 - 6.6 mm H2O/L/s which are less than, or minimally equivalent to, previously reported values for the normal threshold for detection of inspiratory breathing resistance (6 - 7.6 mm H2O/L/sec. Therefore, filtering facepiece respirators with filter resistances at, or below, this level may not impact the wearer differently physiologically or subjectively from those with filter resistances only slightly above this threshold at low-moderate work rates over one hour.

  5. The implementation of clay modeling and rat dissection into the human anatomy and physiology curriculum of a large urban community college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haspel, Carol; Motoike, Howard K; Lenchner, Erez

    2014-01-01

    After a considerable amount of research and experimentation, cat dissection was replaced with rat dissection and clay modeling in the human anatomy and physiology laboratory curricula at La Guardia Community College (LAGCC), a large urban community college of the City University of New York (CUNY). This article describes the challenges faculty overcame and the techniques used to solve them. Methods involved were: developing a laboratory manual in conjunction with the publisher, holding training sessions for faculty and staff, the development of instructional outlines for students and lesson plans for faculty, the installation of storage facilities to hold mannequins instead of cat specimens, and designing mannequin clean-up techniques that could be used by more than one thousand students each semester. The effectiveness of these curricular changes was assessed by examining student muscle practical examination grades and the responses of faculty and students to questionnaires. The results demonstrated that the majority of faculty felt prepared to teach using clay modeling and believed the activity was effective in presenting lesson content. Students undertaking clay modeling had significantly higher muscle practical examination grades than students undertaking cat dissection, and the majority of students believed that clay modeling was an effective technique to learn human skeletal, respiratory, and cardiovascular anatomy, which included the names and locations of blood vessels. Furthermore, the majority of students felt that rat dissection helped them learn nervous, digestive, urinary, and reproductive system anatomy. Faculty experience at LAGCC may serve as a resource to other academic institutions developing new curricula for large, on-going courses. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  6. Comparison of subjective symptoms associated with exposure to low levels of formaldehyde between students enrolled and not enrolled in a gross anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Mihoko; Matsumoto, Yuuki; Kushino, Nanae; Morimatsu, Yoshitaka; Hoshiko, Michiko; Saga, Tsuyoshi; Yamaki, Koh-ichi; Ishitake, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate students' subjective symptoms associated with exposure to low levels of formaldehyde (FA) during a gross anatomy course and to survey how the risk of subjective symptoms was affected by exposure to FA. We conducted three questionnaire surveys of 125 students enrolled in an anatomy course (FA exposure group) and 124 students not enrolled in the course (FA nonexposure group) before, during, and 6 months after the course. The questionnaire included questions inquiring about subjective symptoms, sex, age, and allergies. We analyzed differences in the prevalence of subjective symptoms in distinct survey periods. Furthermore, we analyzed the relationship between the subjective symptoms and exposure to FA after adjusting for allergy, sex, and age using multiple logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of some of the ocular, nasal, and nonspecific symptoms in the FA exposure group was low before the course, increased during the course and decreased 6 months after the course. A significant positive relationship was observed between exposure to FA and some symptoms after adjusting for allergy, sex, and age. We identified some concrete symptoms associated with exposure to FA. We suggest that the exposure to low levels of FA influences students' subjective symptoms.

  7. Hyperventilation, anxiety sensitivity, and the expectations for alcohol use: subjective and physiological reactivity to alcohol cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, M E; McKay, D

    2001-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between alcohol-related expectancies, body sensation fear and reactions to cues for alcohol following a hyperventilation task. Forty-two undergraduate students participated for course credit. Each student hyperventilated for 5 min, paced at a rate of 30 breaths per minute. Following hyperventilation, each student was exposed to containers with alcohol (beer and wine coolers), with subjective urge to consume and heart rate measures taken. Path analysis supported models associated with tension reduction and self-focused attention expectancies as significant contributors to increased urge to consume alcohol and lowered heart rate following hyperventilation. However, social-anxiety-related expectancies failed to demonstrate a relationship. These results suggest that additional work on the tension reduction model of alcohol use should examine physiological stressors in association with subject characteristics such as proneness to experience panic symptoms.

  8. Subject-independent emotion recognition based on physiological signals: a three-stage decision method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Hu, Bin; Wang, Yue; Moore, Philip; Dai, Yongqiang; Feng, Lei; Ding, Zhijie

    2017-12-20

    Collaboration between humans and computers has become pervasive and ubiquitous, however current computer systems are limited in that they fail to address the emotional component. An accurate understanding of human emotions is necessary for these computers to trigger proper feedback. Among multiple emotional channels, physiological signals are synchronous with emotional responses; therefore, analyzing physiological changes is a recognized way to estimate human emotions. In this paper, a three-stage decision method is proposed to recognize four emotions based on physiological signals in the multi-subject context. Emotion detection is achieved by using a stage-divided strategy in which each stage deals with a fine-grained goal. The decision method consists of three stages. During the training process, the initial stage transforms mixed training subjects to separate groups, thus eliminating the effect of individual differences. The second stage categorizes four emotions into two emotion pools in order to reduce recognition complexity. The third stage trains a classifier based on emotions in each emotion pool. During the testing process, a test case or test trial will be initially classified to a group followed by classification into an emotion pool in the second stage. An emotion will be assigned to the test trial in the final stage. In this paper we consider two different ways of allocating four emotions into two emotion pools. A comparative analysis is also carried out between the proposal and other methods. An average recognition accuracy of 77.57% was achieved on the recognition of four emotions with the best accuracy of 86.67% to recognize the positive and excited emotion. Using differing ways of allocating four emotions into two emotion pools, we found there is a difference in the effectiveness of a classifier on learning each emotion. When compared to other methods, the proposed method demonstrates a significant improvement in recognizing four emotions in the

  9. Examining subjective and physiological responses to norm violation using text-based vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhuber, Eva G; Tsankova, Elena; Kappas, Arvid

    2016-01-13

    In this article, we describe a paradigm using text-based vignettes for the study of social and cultural norm violation. Towards this aim, a range of scenarios depicting instances of norm violations was generated and tested with respect to their ability in evoking subjective and physiological responses. In Experiment 1, participants evaluated 29 vignettes on how upsetting, excusable and realistic the described behaviour appeared to be. Based on those ratings we selected and extended three norm violation vignettes for Experiment 2 in which participants' physiological responses were obtained in addition to their subjective ratings. In both studies, the vignettes were successful in eliciting negative responses to norm violations and were significantly affected by the perceivers' level of ethnocultural empathy. The trait measure of cultural empathy further predicted facial electromyography (EMG) activity at muscle sites associated with disgust (M. Levator Labii), thereby suggesting a potential moral response to norm-violating scenarios. We discuss the methodological merits and implications of this vignettes paradigm for investigating perceived norm transgressions and make recommendations for future work. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  10. Emotions over time: synchronicity and development of subjective, physiological, and facial affective reactions to music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Oliver; Nagel, Frederik; Kopiez, Reinhard; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2007-11-01

    Most people are able to identify basic emotions expressed in music and experience affective reactions to music. But does music generally induce emotion? Does it elicit subjective feelings, physiological arousal, and motor reactions reliably in different individuals? In this interdisciplinary study, measurement of skin conductance, facial muscle activity, and self-monitoring were synchronized with musical stimuli. A group of 38 participants listened to classical, rock, and pop music and reported their feelings in a two-dimensional emotion space during listening. The first entrance of a solo voice or choir and the beginning of new sections were found to elicit interindividual changes in subjective feelings and physiological arousal. Quincy Jones' "Bossa Nova" motivated movement and laughing in more than half of the participants. Bodily reactions such as "goose bumps" and "shivers" could be stimulated by the "Tuba Mirum" from Mozart's Requiem in 7 of 38 participants. In addition, the authors repeated the experiment seven times with one participant to examine intraindividual stability of effects. This exploratory combination of approaches throws a new light on the astonishing complexity of affective music listening.

  11. Learning style versus time spent studying and career choice: Which is associated with success in a combined undergraduate anatomy and physiology course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Gary J; Mazurek, Ewa; Marone, Jane R

    2016-01-01

    The VARK learning style is a pedagogical focus in health care education. This study examines relationships of course performance vs. VARK learning preference, study time, and career plan among students enrolled in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course at a large urban university. Students (n = 492) from the fall semester course completed a survey consisting of the VARK questionnaire, gender, academic year, career plans, and estimated hours spent per week in combined classroom and study time. Seventy-eight percent of students reported spending 15 or fewer hours per week studying. Study time and overall course score correlated significantly for the class as a whole (r = 0.111, P = 0.013), which was mainly due to lecture (r = 0.118, P = 0.009) performance. No significant differences were found among students grouped by learning styles. When corrected for academic year, overall course scores (mean ± SEM) for students planning to enter dentistry, medicine, optometry or pharmacy (79.89 ± 0.88%) were significantly higher than those of students planning to enter physical or occupational therapies (74.53 ± 1.15%; P = 0.033), as well as nurse/physician assistant programs (73.60 ± 1.3%; P = 0.040). Time spent studying was not significantly associated with either learning style or career choice. Our findings suggest that specific career goals and study time, not learning preferences, are associated with better performance among a diverse group of students in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course. However, the extent to which prior academic preparation, cultural norms, and socioeconomic factors influenced these results requires further investigation. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  12. Learning style versus time spent studying and career choice: Which is associated with success in a combined undergraduate anatomy and physiology course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Gary J.; Mazurek, Ewa; Marone, Jane R.

    2016-01-01

    The VARK learning style is a pedagogical focus in health care education. This study examines relationships of course performance vs. VARK learning preference, study time, and career plan among students enrolled in an undergraduate anatomy and physiology course at a large urban university. Students (n = 492) from the fall semester course completed a survey consisting of the VARK questionnaire, gender, academic year, career plans, and estimated hours spent per week in combined classroom and study time. Seventy-eight percent of students reported spending 15 or fewer hours per week studying. Study time and overall course score correlated significantly for the class as a whole (r = 0.111, P = 0.013), which was mainly due to lecture (r = 0.118, P = 0.009) performance. No significant differences were found among students grouped by learning styles. When corrected for academic year, overall course scores (mean ± SEM) for students planning to enter “medicines” (79.89 ± 0.88%) were significantly higher than those of students planning to enter physical/occupational therapies (74.53 ± 1.15%; P = 0.033), as well as nurse/physician assistant programs (73.60 ± 1.3%; P = 0.040). Time spent studying was not significantly associated with either learning style or career choice. Our findings suggest that specific career goals and study time, not learning preferences, are associated with better performance among a diverse group of students in an undergraduate anatomy/physiology course. However, the extent to which prior academic preparation, cultural norms, and socioeconomic factors influenced these results requires further investigation. PMID:26301828

  13. Ocular physiology and comfort in neophyte subjects fitted with daily disposable silicone hydrogel contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Philip B; Chamberlain, Paul; Moody, Kurt; Maldonado-Codina, Carole

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the performance of a silicone hydrogel daily disposable lens in neophyte subjects over 12 months. Seventy four subjects with no previous contact lens experience were randomised to wear narafilcon A (1 DAY ACUVUE(®) TruEye™) lenses (LW group) or to wear no contact lenses (NLW group) for 12 months. Biomicroscopy (performed by a masked investigator), visual acuity and subjective response scores were recorded at an initial visit and six follow-up visits, in addition to lens fit and surface evaluation for the LW group. Comfort was recorded with SMS messaging. Fifteen of the LW group discontinued before the end of the study, compared with six of the NLW group. Measured visual acuity was about half a line better for the NLW group as these subjects were provided with their full sphero-cylindrical over-refraction, compared to the LW group in their best spherical corrected contact lenses; subjective scores for vision were similar for the two groups. Bulbar conjunctival hyperaemia, limbal hyperaemia, corneal staining, conjunctival staining and papillary conjunctivitis were clinically equivalent for the two groups whereas conjunctival staining was higher in the LW group. Comfort scores assessed by SMS were equivalent for the LW and NLW groups; there was a measurable improvement in comfort during the first month of wear for the LW group. This work has demonstrated that modern soft lenses (narafilcon A daily disposable silicone hydrogel lenses) offer an excellent, comfortable form of vision correction, and are able to exhibit minimal alterations to ocular physiology. Copyright © 2012 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

  15. Pharynx Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pharynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Pharynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pharynx; drawing shows the ...

  16. Larynx Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Larynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Larynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the larynx; drawing shows the ...

  17. Vulva Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Vulva Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x634 ... View Download Large: 3000x2640 View Download Title: Vulva Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the vulva; drawing shows the ...

  18. Physiological Response of Rice Seedlings (Oryza sativa L. Subjected to Different Periods of Two Night Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Alvarado-Sanabria

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Night temperatures have shown an increase in rice-growing regions due to climate change in Colombia in recent years, causing a reduction in grain yield. The objective of this research was to study the effect of four different periods of exposure to two night temperatures (24°C vs. 30°C on the physiological behavior of an Indica rice cultivar widely grown in Colombia. Fedearroz 60 (ʻF60ʼ were grown under greenhouse conditions for forty-five days. After this period, 12 plants in each treatment was established in a growth chamber at 30°C from 18:00 to 24:00 to carry out the duration of the different periods of heat nighttime stress (4, 8, 12, and 16 days respectively. The control plants were kept in a greenhouse at 24°C. The results showed that leaf photosynthesis, carboxylation efficiency, and pigment content decreased in rice seedlings subjected to 30°C. Also, dark respiration and intercellular CO2 concentration increased. These reductions in the variables as mentioned above were more severe during the first four days of exposure to 30°C than 24°C. In conclusion, these results suggest that these physiological variables may be useful to assess the tolerance of rice plants to high nighttime temperatures in plant breeding programs.

  19. Aponeurosis of the levator palpebrae superioris in Chinese subjects: A live gross anatomy and cadaveric histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Er; Nie, Yun-Fei; Wang, Zhen-Jun; Peng, Li-Xia; Wu, Yan-Hong; Li, Qin

    2016-08-01

    An accurate understanding of the anatomy of the levator palpebrae superioris aponeurosis (LPSA) is critical for successful blepharoplasty of aponeurotic ptosis. We investigated the macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the LPSA.This prospective live gross anatomy study enrolled 200 adult Chinese patients with bilateral mild ptosis undergoing elective blepharoplasty. Full-thick eyelid tissues and sagittal sections from the eyelid skin to the conjunctiva were examined with Masson trichrome staining or antismooth muscle actin (SMA) immunohistochemistry.Gross anatomy showed that the space between the superficial and deep layers of the LPSA could be accessed after incising the overlying superficial fascia, by retracting the white line. Adipose layers were clearly observed in 195 out of 200 patients with bilateral mild ptosis, among which 180 cases had the superficial layer connected to the uncoated adipose. Fifteen cases had the superficial layer connected to the smoothly coated layer, and 5 cases had the superficial layer directly connected to the deep loose fiber, almost without adipose. In previously untreated patients, the LPSA space was located beneath the intact orbital septum. In those with previous surgeries, it was beneath the superficial layer of the LPSA, underlying the destructed orbital septum. Cadaveric histology showed that the deep layer of the LPSA extended into the anterior layer of the tarsal plate and the superficial layer reflexed upward in continuity with the vertical orbital septum. An occult space existed between the 2 layers of the LPSA, with a smooth lining on the deep layer. The superficial layer of the LPSA was SMA-immunonegative but the deep layer was slightly immunopositive for SMA. An occult anatomic space exists between the superficial and deep layers of the LPSA, in proximity to the superior tarsal plate margin. Recognition of the more anatomically significant LPSA deep layer may help improve the aesthetic outcome of blepharoplasty.

  20. Rice Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.A. Counce; Davidi R. Gealy; Shi-Jean Susana Sung

    2002-01-01

    Physiology occurs tn physical space through chemical reactions constrained by anatomy and morphology, yet guided by genetics. Physiology has been called the logic of life. Genes encode structural and fimcdonal proteins. These proteins are subsequently processed to produce enzymes that direct and govern the biomechanical processes involved in the physiology of the...

  1. The Use of Modular, Electronic Neuron Simulators for Neural Circuit Construction Produces Learning Gains in an Undergraduate Anatomy and Physiology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petto, Andrew; Fredin, Zachary; Burdo, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    During the spring of 2016 at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, we implemented a novel educational technology designed to teach undergraduates about the nervous system while allowing them to physically construct their own neural circuits. Modular, electronic neuron simulators called NeuroBytes were used by the students in BIOSCI202 Anatomy and Physiology I, a four-credit course consisting of three hours per week each of lecture and laboratory time. 162 students participated in the laboratory sessions that covered reflexes; 83 in the experimental sections used the NeuroBytes to build a model of the patellar tendon reflex, while 79 in the control sections participated in alternate reflex curricula. To address the question of whether or not the NeuroBytes-based patellar tendon reflex simulation brought about learning gains, the control and experimental group students underwent pre/post testing before and after their laboratory sections. We found that for several of the neuroscience and physiology concepts assessed on the test, the experimental group students had significantly greater declarative learning gains between the pre- and post-test as compared to the control group students. While there are numerous virtual neuroscience education tools available to undergraduate educators, there are relatively few designed to engage students in the basics of electrophysiology and neural circuitry using physical manipulatives, and none to our knowledge that allow them to build circuits from functioning hand-held "neurons."

  2. PHYSIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF HEAD-OUT AQUATIC EXERCISES IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS: A QUALITATIVE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago M Barbosa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades head-out aquatic exercises became one of the most important physical activities within the health system. Massive research has been produced throughout these decades in order to better understand the role of head-out aquatic exercises in populations' health. Such studies aimed to obtain comprehensive knowledge about the acute and chronic response of subjects performing head-out aquatic exercises. For that, it is assumed that chronic adaptations represent the accumulation of acute responses during each aquatic session. The purpose of this study was to describe the "state of the art" about physiological assessment of head-out aquatic exercises based on acute and chronic adaptations in healthy subjects based on a qualitative review. The main findings about acute response of head-out aquatic exercise according to water temperature, water depth, type of exercise, additional equipment used, body segments exercising and music cadence will be described. In what concerns chronic adaptations, the main results related to cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations, muscular strength, flexibility and body composition improvements will be reported

  3. Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection: Preoperative Anatomy, Physiology, Imaging, and Interventional Management of Postoperative Pulmonary Venous Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Files, Matthew D; Morray, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection refers to a spectrum of cardiac anomalies where the pulmonary veins fail to return to the left atrium and the pulmonary venous blood returns through a systemic vein or directly to the right atrium. There is a wide anatomical variety of venous connections and degrees of pulmonary venous obstruction that affect the presentation, surgical repair, and outcomes. In this review, we explore the preoperative physiology, echocardiographic diagnosis, and approach to postoperative complications.

  4. Variable Myocardial Response to Load Stresses in Infants with Single Left Ventricular Anatomy: Influence of Initial Physiology and Surgical Palliative Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horriat, Narges L; Deatsman, Sara L; Stelter, Jessica; Frommelt, Peter C; Hill, Garick D

    2016-12-01

    Initial surgical strategies in neonates with single left ventricular (LV) anatomy vary based on adequacy of pulmonary and systemic blood flow. Differing myocardial responses to these strategies, as reflected in indices of systolic function, ventricular size, and mass have not been well defined. We sought to evaluate single LV myocardial response to varied physiology and initial palliation and determine whether the response is consistent and predictable. Infants with single LV physiology were divided based on neonatal palliation: no palliation/PA band (NO); BT shunt only (BT); or Norwood procedure (NP). Echo measures were obtained at presentation, early post-bidirectional Glenn (BDG), late post-BDG follow-up, and post-Fontan procedure. Measures included ejection fraction, LV mass indexed to height(2.7) and end diastolic volume indexed to body surface area, and mass/volume ratio. The cohort included 38 children (13 NO, 13 BT, 12 NP). Ejection fraction was similar but depressed in all groups at all stages. LV mass was higher in the NP group than the BT group at early post-BDG (p = 0.03) and higher than both BT and NO groups (p < 0.01) at late post-BDG, but the difference was resolved by post-Fontan follow-up. The NP group had the most remarkable remodeling in LV size from BDG to Fontan, suggesting that volume unloading is most valuable in this subgroup. Ventricular remodeling can be identified by echocardiography in children with single LV physiology, despite variable initial surgical palliative strategies. Importantly, these initial surgical strategies do not result in significant differences after Fontan palliation during early childhood.

  5. Characterization of the Psychological, Physiological and EEG Profile of Acute Betel Quid Intoxication in Naïve Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Peter G.; Tung-Shan Chou; Tsu-Wang Shen

    2011-01-01

    Betel quid use and abuse is wide spread in Asia but the physiological basis of intoxication and addiction are unknown. In subjects naïve to the habit of betel quid intoxication, the psychological and physiological profile of intoxication has never been reported. We compared the effect of chewing gum or chewing betel quid, and subsequent betel quid intoxication, on psychological assessment, prospective time interval estimation, numerical and character digit span, computerized 2 choice tests an...

  6. Effects of blue pulsed light on human physiological functions and subjective evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuura Tetsuo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been assumed that light with a higher irradiance of pulsed blue light has a much greater influence than that of light with a lower irradiance of steady blue light, although they have the same multiplication value of irradiance and duration. We examined the non-visual physiological effects of blue pulsed light, and determined whether it is sensed visually as being blue. Findings Seven young male volunteers participated in the study. We placed a circular screen (diameter 500 mm in front of the participants and irradiated it using blue and/or white light-emitting diodes (LEDs, and we used halogen lamps as a standard illuminant. We applied three steady light conditions of white LED (F0, blue LED + white LED (F10, and blue LED (F100, and a blue pulsed light condition of a 100-μs pulse width with a 10% duty ratio (P10. The irradiance of all four conditions at the participant's eye level was almost the same, at around 12 μW/cm2. We measured their pupil diameter, recorded electroencephalogram readings and Kwansei Gakuin Sleepiness Scale score, and collected subjective evaluations. The subjective bluish score under the F100 condition was significantly higher than those under other conditions. Even under the P10 condition with a 10% duty ratio of blue pulsed light and the F10 condition, the participant did not perceive the light as bluish. Pupillary light response under the P10 pulsed light condition was significantly greater than under the F10 condition, even though the two conditions had equal blue light components. Conclusions The pupil constricted under the blue pulsed light condition, indicating a non-visual effect of the lighting, even though the participants did not perceive the light as bluish.

  7. Effects of blue pulsed light on human physiological functions and subjective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuura, Tetsuo; Ochiai, Yukifumi; Senoo, Toshihiro; Lee, Soomin; Takahashi, Yoshika; Shimomura, Yoshihiro

    2012-09-03

    It has been assumed that light with a higher irradiance of pulsed blue light has a much greater influence than that of light with a lower irradiance of steady blue light, although they have the same multiplication value of irradiance and duration. We examined the non-visual physiological effects of blue pulsed light, and determined whether it is sensed visually as being blue. Seven young male volunteers participated in the study. We placed a circular screen (diameter 500 mm) in front of the participants and irradiated it using blue and/or white light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and we used halogen lamps as a standard illuminant. We applied three steady light conditions of white LED (F0), blue LED + white LED (F10), and blue LED (F100), and a blue pulsed light condition of a 100-μs pulse width with a 10% duty ratio (P10). The irradiance of all four conditions at the participant's eye level was almost the same, at around 12 μW/cm2. We measured their pupil diameter, recorded electroencephalogram readings and Kwansei Gakuin Sleepiness Scale score, and collected subjective evaluations. The subjective bluish score under the F100 condition was significantly higher than those under other conditions. Even under the P10 condition with a 10% duty ratio of blue pulsed light and the F10 condition, the participant did not perceive the light as bluish. Pupillary light response under the P10 pulsed light condition was significantly greater than under the F10 condition, even though the two conditions had equal blue light components. The pupil constricted under the blue pulsed light condition, indicating a non-visual effect of the lighting, even though the participants did not perceive the light as bluish.

  8. Presence of a dog reduces subjective but not physiological stress responses to an analog trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Peyk, Peter; Streb, Markus; Holz, Elena; Michael, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Dogs are known to have stress and anxiety reducing effects. Several studies have shown that dogs are able to calm people during cognitive and performance stressors. Recently, therapy dogs have been proposed as a treatment adjunct for post-traumatic stress disorder patients. In this study we aimed to investigate, whether dogs also have anxiety- and stress reducing effect during "traumatic stressors." 80 healthy female participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. They were exposed to a "traumatic" film clip (trauma-film-paradigm). For one group of participants a friendly dog was present during the film, one group of participants was accompanied by a friendly human, another control group watched the film with a toy animal and the last group watched the film clip alone. Participants that were accompanied by the dog during the film reported lower anxiety ratings and less negative affect after the film clip as compared to the "toy dog group" and the "alone group." Results of the "dog group" were comparable to the group that was accompanied by a friendly human. There were no differences in physiological stress responses between the four conditions. Our results show that dogs are able to lessen subjectively experienced stress and anxiety during a "traumatic" stress situation. This effect was comparable to that of social support by a friendly person. Implications for PTSD patients are discussed.

  9. Presence of a dog reduces subjective but not physiological stress responses to an analogue trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna eLass-Hennemann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dogs are known to have stress and anxiety reducing effects. Several studies have shown that dogs are able to calm people during cognitive and performance stressors. Recently, therapy dogs have been proposed as a treatment adjunct for PTSD patients. In this study we aimed to investigate, whether dogs also have anxiety- and stress reducing effect during traumatic stressors. 80 healthy female participants were randomly assigned to one of 4 conditions. They were exposed to a traumatic film clip (trauma-film-paradigm. For one group of participants a friendly dog was present during the film, one group of participants was accompanied by a friendly human, another control group watched the film with a toy animal and the last group watched the film clip alone. Participants that were accompanied by the dog during the film reported lower anxiety ratings and less negative affect after the film clip as compared to the toy dog group and the alone group. Results of the dog group were comparable to the group that was accompanied by a friendly human. There were no differences in physiological stress responses between the four conditions. Our results show that dogs are able to lessen subjectively experienced stress and anxiety during a traumatic stress situation. This effect was comparable to that of social support by a friendly person. Implications for PTSD patients are discussed.

  10. Presence of a dog reduces subjective but not physiological stress responses to an analog trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Peyk, Peter; Streb, Markus; Holz, Elena; Michael, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Dogs are known to have stress and anxiety reducing effects. Several studies have shown that dogs are able to calm people during cognitive and performance stressors. Recently, therapy dogs have been proposed as a treatment adjunct for post-traumatic stress disorder patients. In this study we aimed to investigate, whether dogs also have anxiety- and stress reducing effect during “traumatic stressors.” 80 healthy female participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. They were exposed to a “traumatic” film clip (trauma-film-paradigm). For one group of participants a friendly dog was present during the film, one group of participants was accompanied by a friendly human, another control group watched the film with a toy animal and the last group watched the film clip alone. Participants that were accompanied by the dog during the film reported lower anxiety ratings and less negative affect after the film clip as compared to the “toy dog group” and the “alone group.” Results of the “dog group” were comparable to the group that was accompanied by a friendly human. There were no differences in physiological stress responses between the four conditions. Our results show that dogs are able to lessen subjectively experienced stress and anxiety during a “traumatic” stress situation. This effect was comparable to that of social support by a friendly person. Implications for PTSD patients are discussed. PMID:25250009

  11. CONSIDERATIONS ON ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF LYMPH VESSELS OF UPPER AERO DIGESTIVE ORGANS AND CERVICAL SATELLITE LYMPH NODE GROUP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciupilan, Corina; Stan, C I

    2016-01-01

    The almost constant local regional development of the cancers of upper aero digestive organs requires the same special attention to cervical lymph node metastases, as well as to the primary neoplastic burning point. The surgical therapy alone or associated has a mutilating, damaging character, resulting in loss of an organ and function, most of the times with social implications, involving physical distortions with aesthetic consequences, which make the reintegration of the individual into society questionable. The problem of cervical lymph node metastases is vast and complex, reason why we approached several anatomical and physiological aspects of lymph vessels of the aero digestive organs. Among the available elements during treatment, the headquarters of the tumour, its histologic degree, and its infiltrative nature, each of them significantly influences the possibility of developing metastases.

  12. Vesalius on the anatomy and function of the recurrent laryngeal nerves: medical illustration and reintroduction of a physiological demonstration from Galen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanska, Douglas J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the anatomical illustrations and physiological demonstrations of sixteenth-century Flemish-born anatomist and physician Andreas Vesalius concerning the recurrent laryngeal nerves. Although Vesalius was primarily an anatomist, he also used vivisection as a pedagogical device to help his students understand the function of structures within the fabric of the body that they had previously studied in anatomical detail. Vesalius's masterwork, De humani corporis fabrica or simply the Fabrica (1543, 1555), was ostensibly an anatomy text, but Vesalius included textual and figural references to his use of vivisection to explicate the function of specific structures. Even as he began to criticize the errors in Galen's anatomical works, Vesalius nevertheless adopted some of Galen's classic physiological demonstrations, in particular the ligation (and subsequent release) of the recurrent laryngeal nerves of a pig to demonstrate their role in generating the pig's squeal. Vesalius's illustrations concerning the recurrent laryngeal nerve in the Fabrica were of two types: elegant anatomical woodcut plates-unsurpassed for their clarity, accuracy, and detail - and the distinctly inelegant historiated initial Q, depicting a throng of putti busily engaged in vivisecting a pig. Vesalius' anatomical plates were heavily plagiarized while the historiated initials, showing the rough work of an anatomist or surgeon, were largely ignored and remain little recognized today. While Vesalius' anatomical illustrations of the recurrent laryngeal nerves contained some errors, they were a dramatic departure from prior meager efforts at medical illustration and indeed far surpassed all contemporary published illustrations by others. Vesalius was also influential in reviving Galen's approach to vivisection, at least for pedagogical purposes, if not really then yet as a full-fledged investigative technique.

  13. Anatomy and physiology of the clitoris, vestibular bulbs, and labia minora with a review of the female orgasm and the prevention of female sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    This review, with 21 figures and 1 video, aims to clarify some important aspects of the anatomy and physiology of the female erectile organs (triggers of orgasm), which are important for the prevention of female sexual dysfunction. The clitoris is the homologue of the male's glans and corpora cavernosa, and erection is reached in three phases: latent, turgid, and rigid. The vestibular bulbs cause "vaginal" orgasmic contractions, through the rhythmic contraction of the bulbocavernosus muscles. Because of the engorgement with blood during sexual arousal, the labia minora become turgid, doubling or tripling in thickness. The corpus spongiosum of the female urethra becomes congested during sexual arousal; therefore, male erection equals erection of the female erectile organs. The correct anatomical term to describe the erectile tissues responsible for female orgasm is the female penis. Vaginal orgasm and the G-spot do not exist. These claims are found in numerous articles that have been written by Addiego F, Whipple B, Jannini E, Buisson O, O'Connell H, Brody S, Ostrzenski A, and others, have no scientific basis. Orgasm is an intense sensation of pleasure achieved by stimulation of erogenous zones. Women do not have a refractory period after each orgasm and can, therefore, experience multiple orgasms. Clitoral sexual response and the female orgasm are not affected by aging. Sexologists should define having sex/love making when orgasm occurs for both partners with or without vaginal intercourse. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Temporal and Physiologic Measurements of Deglutition in the Upright and Supine Position with Videofluoroscopy (VFS) in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, H K; Khorsandi, A; Silberzweig, J; Kobren, A J; Urken, M L; Amin, M R; Branski, R C; Lazarus, C L

    2015-08-01

    Cross-sectional imaging has long been employed to examine swallowing in both the sagittal and axial planes. However, data regarding temporal swallow measures in the upright and supine positions are sparse, and none have employed the MBS impairment profile (MBSImP). We report temporal swallow measures, physiologic variables, and swallow safety of upright and supine swallowing in healthy subjects using videofluoroscopy (VFS). Twenty healthy subjects ages 21-40 underwent VFS study upright and supine. Subjects were viewed in the sagittal plane and swallowed 5 mL liquid and pudding barium. Oral transit time, pharyngeal delay time, pharyngeal response time, pharyngeal transit time, and total swallow duration were measured. Penetration/aspiration scores and 14 MBSImP variables were analyzed in both positions. All subjects completed swallows supine, although one aspirated on one liquid bolus. Temporal measures of swallowing were similar for pudding upright and supine. Pharyngeal phase swallow measures were longer for liquids in supine. MBSImP physiologic measures revealed a pharyngeal delay in both positions. Although Pen/Asp range was higher supine, more subjects penetrated upright. Temporal measures were increased for liquids in supine. Although Pen/Asp range was higher in supine, more subjects penetrated upright. These results provide support for cross-sectional supine imaging of swallowing for pudding, but perhaps not thin liquids for dysphagic patients. Slightly thicker liquids might prove reliable in supine without compromising swallow safety. Future research should examine swallow physiology in both positions in dysphagic and older healthy subjects.

  15. Comparative Clinical, Physiological, and Inflammatory Characteristics of Elderly Subjects With or Without Asthma and Young Subjects With Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Robitaille, Catherine; Deschesnes, Francine; Villeneuve, Hélène; Boulay, Marie-Ève

    2017-12-01

    Asthma seems to present in the elderly as a specific phenotype that remains to be further described. In this prospective observational study, we aimed to assess the multidimensional aspects of asthma in the elderly. In young (18 to 35 years old) subjects with mild to moderate asthma and elderly subjects (aged ≥60 years) either with or without mild to moderate asthma, we compared asthma control, health care and medication use, lung function, markers of airway and systemic inflammation, and adherence to therapy. Fifty subjects were recruited in each group. Elderly people with asthma showed more marked airway obstruction compared with young people with asthma and elderly people without asthma. They also had poorer asthma control, mainly associated with a lower FEV1, compared with young people with asthma, although airway responsiveness, health care use, prescribed doses of inhaled corticosteroids, and adherence to treatment were similar in both groups. Elderly subjects had an increase in some markers of systemic inflammation and bronchial epithelial dysfunction compared with young people with asthma. Blood eosinophils were higher in both asthma groups, particularly in elderly people with asthma. Sputum neutrophils were increased in both groups of elderly subjects and sputum eosinophils were increased in elderly people with asthma compared with the other two groups. Asthma in the elderly presents as a specific phenotype associated with increased airway obstruction and mixed airway inflammation in addition to signs of systemic inflammation. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Within-catchment variation in regulation of water use by eucalypts, and the roles of stomatal anatomy and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharun, Mana; Turnbull, Tarryn; Adams, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Understanding how environmental cues impact water use of forested catchments is crucial for accurate calculation of water balance and effective catchment management in terrestrial ecosystems. We characterised structural and physiological properties of leaves and canopies of Eucalyptus delegatensis, E. pauciflora and E. radiata, the most common species in high-country catchments in temperate Australia. These properties were related to whole-tree water transport to assess differences in water use strategies among the three species. Stomatal conductance, instantaneous transpiration efficiency, stomatal occlusion (through cuticular ledges) and leaf area index differed significantly among species. Whole-tree water use of all species was strongly coupled to changes in vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and photosynthetically active radiation (Q), yet stomatal closure reduced water transport at VPD > 1 kPa in all species, even when soil water was not limiting. The observed differences in leaf traits and related water use strategies reflect species-specific adaptations to dominant environmental conditions within the landscape matrix of catchments. The generalist E. radiata seems to follow an opportunistic, while the two more spatially restricted species have adopted a pessimistic water use strategy. Catchment-scale models of carbon and water fluxes will need to reflect such variation in structure and function, if they are to fully capture species effects on water balance and yield.

  17. Asymmetrical interhemispheric connections develop in cat visual cortex after early unilateral convergent strabismus: Anatomy, physiology and mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel eBui Quoc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the mammalian primary visual cortex, the corpus callosum contributes to the unification of the visual hemifields that project to the two hemispheres. Its development depends on visual experience. When the latter is abnormal, callosal connections must undergo dramatic anatomical and physiological changes. However, such data are sparse and incomplete. Thus, little is known about the consequences of abnormal postnatal visual experience on the development of callosal connections and their role in unifying representation of the two hemifields. Here, the effects of early unilateral convergent strabismus (a model of abnormal visual experience were fully characterized with respect to the development of the callosal connections in cat visual cortex, an experimental model for humans. Electrophysiological responses and 3D reconstruction of single callosal axons show that abnormally asymmetrical callosal connections develop after unilateral convergent strabismus, resulting from an extension of axonal branches of specific orders in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the deviated eye and a decreased number of nodes and terminals in the other (ipsilateral to the non deviated eye. Furthermore this asymmetrical organization prevents the establishment of a unifying representation of the two visual hemifields. As a general rule, we suggest that crossed and uncrossed retino-geniculo-cortical pathways contribute in succession to the development of the callosal maps in visual cortex.

  18. Sinus Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure Statement CONDITIONS Adult Sinusitis Pediatric Sinusitis Fungal Sinusitis Sinusitis & Asthma Empty Nose Syndrome Cystic Fibrosis Sinusitis Q&A Complications of Sinusitis Epistaxis (Nosebleeds) Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever) Headaches and Sinus Disease Disorders of ...

  19. Nasal Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure Statement CONDITIONS Adult Sinusitis Pediatric Sinusitis Fungal Sinusitis Sinusitis & Asthma Empty Nose Syndrome Cystic Fibrosis Sinusitis Q&A Complications of Sinusitis Epistaxis (Nosebleeds) Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever) Headaches and Sinus Disease Disorders of ...

  20. Robottens Anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antabi, Mimo

    Artiklen "Robottens Anatomi - mellem kunst og videnskab". Handler om brugen af robotter i kunstens og videnskabens verden.......Artiklen "Robottens Anatomi - mellem kunst og videnskab". Handler om brugen af robotter i kunstens og videnskabens verden....

  1. Paraganglioma Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Paraganglioma Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Paraganglioma Anatomy Description: Paraganglioma of the head and neck; drawing ...

  2. Tooth anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002214.htm Tooth anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... upper jawbone is called the maxilla. Images Tooth anatomy References Chan S, Alessandrini EA. Dental injuries. In: Selbst ...

  3. Eye Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  4. Incorporation of CT-based measurements of trunk anatomy into subject-specific musculoskeletal models of the spine influences vertebral loading predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Alexander G; Mokhtarzadeh, Hossein; Allaire, Brett T; Velie, Kelsey R; De Paolis Kaluza, M Clara; Anderson, Dennis E; Bouxsein, Mary L

    2017-10-01

    We created subject-specific musculoskeletal models of the thoracolumbar spine by incorporating spine curvature and muscle morphology measurements from computed tomography (CT) scans to determine the degree to which vertebral compressive and shear loading estimates are sensitive to variations in trunk anatomy. We measured spine curvature and trunk muscle morphology using spine CT scans of 125 men, and then created four different thoracolumbar spine models for each person: (i) height and weight adjusted (Ht/Wt models); (ii) height, weight, and spine curvature adjusted (+C models); (iii) height, weight, and muscle morphology adjusted (+M models); and (iv) height, weight, spine curvature, and muscle morphology adjusted (+CM models). We determined vertebral compressive and shear loading at three regions of the spine (T8, T12, and L3) for four different activities. Vertebral compressive loads predicted by the subject-specific CT-based musculoskeletal models were between 54% lower to 45% higher from those estimated using musculoskeletal models adjusted only for subject height and weight. The impact of subject-specific information on vertebral loading estimates varied with the activity and spinal region. Vertebral loading estimates were more sensitive to incorporation of subject-specific spinal curvature than subject-specific muscle morphology. Our results indicate that individual variations in spine curvature and trunk muscle morphology can have a major impact on estimated vertebral compressive and shear loads, and thus should be accounted for when estimating subject-specific vertebral loading. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2164-2173, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Integration of root phenes revealed by intensive phenotyping of root system architecture, anatomy, and physiology in cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Larry

    2015-04-01

    Food insecurity is among the greatest challenges humanity will face in the 21st century. Agricultural production in much of the world is constrained by the natural infertility of soil which restrains crops from reaching their yield potential. In developed nations, fertilizer inputs pollute air and water and contribute to climate change and environmental degradation. In poor nations low soil fertility is a primary constraint to food security and economic development. Water is almost always limiting crop growth in any system. Increasing the acquisition efficiency of soil resources is one method by which crop yields could be increased without the use of more fertilizers or irrigation. Cereals are the most widely grown crops, both in terms of land area and in yield, so optimizing uptake efficiency of cereals is an important goal. Roots are the primary interface between plant and soil and are responsible for the uptake of soil resources. The deployment of roots in space and time comprises root system architecture (RSA). Cereal RSA is a complex phenotype that aggregates many elemental phenes (elemental units of phenotype). Integration of root phenes will be determined by interactions through their effects on soil foraging and plant metabolism. Many architectural, metabolic, and physiological root phenes have been identified in maize, including: nodal root number, nodal root growth angle, lateral root density, lateral root length, aerenchyma, cortical cell size and number, and nitrate uptake kinetics. The utility of these phenes needs confirmation in maize and in other cereals. The maize root system is composed of an embryonic root system and nodal roots that emerge in successive whorls as the plant develops, and is similar to other cereals. Current phenotyping platforms often ignore the inner whorls and instead focus on the most visible outer whorls after excavating a maize root crown from soil. Here, an intensive phenotyping platform evaluating phenes of all nodal root

  6. Anatomie ontleed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleys, R.L.A.W.

    2013-01-01

    Anatomie ofwel ontleedkunde is de wetenschap die zich bezighoudt met de bouw van mens en dier. Mijn leeropdracht is Klinische Anatomie. Dit is een relatief nieuwe richting die vooral de anatomie die van belang is voor het medisch handelen omvat. In deze rede wil u meenemen op een reis door dit

  7. SURGICAL ANATOMY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SURGICAL ANATOMY. Rare high origin of the radial artery: a bilateral, symmetrical ease. I. O. ()koro and B. C. J iburum. Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, lrno State University, Owerri, Nigeria. Reprint requests to: Dr I. O. 0k0r0, Department of Anatomy, [mo State University, P. M. B. 2000. Owerri, Nigeria.

  8. Determining the Views of Students of Faculty of Education on Human Anatomy and Physiology Courses / Eğitim Fakültesi Öğrencilerinin İnsan Anatomisi ve Fizyolojisi Dersi Eğitimi Üzerine Görüşlerinin Belirlenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    KUNT, Halil

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at determining level of understanding and views about problems of the students of Faculty of Education Preschool Teaching and Science Teaching towards Anatomy and Physiology courses. The scope of the research was constructed by 188 students who study at Faculty of Education, Dumlupınar University. For this research, in which general scanning method was used, when collecting the data, the questionnaire of “The Views of Students of Anatomy and Physiology Courses Form...

  9. Large changes in anatomy and physiology between diploid Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia) and its autotetraploid are not associated with large changes in leaf gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allario, Thierry; Brumos, Javier; Colmenero-Flores, Jose Manuel; Tadeo, Francisco; Froelicher, Yann; Talon, Manuel; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick; Morillon, Raphaël

    2011-05-01

    Very little is known about the molecular origin of the large phenotypic differentiation between genotypes arising from somatic chromosome set doubling and their diploid parents. In this study, the anatomy and physiology of diploid (2x) and autotetraploid (4x) Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck) seedlings has been characterized. Growth of 2x was more vigorous than 4x although leaves, stems, and roots of 4x plants were thicker and contained larger cells than 2x that may have a large impact on cell-to-cell water exchanges. Leaf water content was higher in 4x than in 2x. Leaf transcriptome expression using a citrus microarray containing 21 081 genes revealed that the number of genes differentially expressed in both genotypes was less than 1% and the maximum rate of gene expression change within a 2-fold range. Six up-regulated genes in 4x were targeted to validate microarray results by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Five of these genes were apparently involved in the response to water deficit, suggesting that, in control conditions, the genome expression of citrus autotetraploids may act in a similar way to diploids under water-deficit stress condition. The sixth up-regulated gene which codes for a histone may also play an important role in regulating the transcription of growth processes. These results show that the large phenotypic differentiation in 4x Rangpur lime compared with 2x is not associated with large changes in genome expression. This suggests that, in 4x Rangpur lime, subtle changes in gene expression may be at the origin of the phenotypic differentiation of 4x citrus when compared with 2x.

  10. The future of gross anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S; Seiden, D

    1995-01-01

    A survey of U.S. departments of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry shows that 39% of the respondent anatomy departments reported declines in the numbers of graduate students taking the human gross anatomy course. Similarly, 42% of the departments reported decreases in the numbers of graduate students teaching human gross anatomy. These decreases were greater in anatomy than in physiology and in biochemistry. The percentages of departments reporting increases in students taking or teaching their courses was 6% for human gross anatomy and 0% to 19% for physiology and biochemistry courses. To reverse this trend the establishment of specific programs for the training of gross anatomy teachers is advocated. These new teachers will be available as the need for them is increasingly recognized in the future.

  11. Nasal Anatomy and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ruchin G

    2017-02-01

    The nose is a complex structure important in facial aesthetics and in respiratory physiology. Nasal defects can pose a challenge to reconstructive surgeons who must re-create nasal symmetry while maintaining nasal function. A basic understanding of the underlying nasal anatomy is thus necessary for successful nasal reconstruction. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Student perceptions and learning outcomes of blended learning in a massive first-year core physiology for allied health subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Janelle; Meehan-Andrews, Terri; Weerakkody, Nivan; Hughes, Diane L; Rathner, Joseph A

    2017-03-01

    Evidence shows that factors contributing to success in physiology education for allied health students at universities include not only their high school achievement and background but also factors such as confidence with their teachers and quality of their learning experience, justifying intensive and continued survey of students' perceptions of their learning experience. Here we report data covering a 3-yr period in a physiology subject that has been redesigned for blended and online presentation. Consistent with previous reports, we show that when we undertook a blended mode of delivery, students demonstrated better grades than traditional modes of teaching; however the absence of didactic teaching in this subject resulted in lower grades overall. Students have very strong positive attitudes to weekly quizzes (80% positive approval) but report ambivalent attitudes to online self-directed learning (61% negative perception), even though they had 2-h weekly facilitated workshops. Overwhelmingly, students who undertook the subject in a self-directed online learning mode requested more face-to-face-teaching (70% of comments). From these data, we suggest that there is a quantifiable benefit to didactic teaching in the blended teaching mode that is not reproduced in online self-directed learning, even when face-to-face guided inquiry-based learning is embedded in the subject. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Self-distancing from trauma memories reduces physiological but not subjective emotional reactivity among Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisco, Blair E; Marx, Brian P; Sloan, Denise M; Gorman, Kaitlyn R; Kulish, Andrea L; Pineles, Suzanne L

    2015-11-01

    Self-distancing, or viewing oneself from a third-person perspective, reduces reactivity when analyzing one's feelings. Self-distancing may have important effects among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), who have heightened emotional and physiological reactivity to trauma memories, but the effects of self-distancing in this group are unclear. We randomly assigned 48 Veterans diagnosed with PTSD to analyze their trauma-related feelings from an immersed (first-person) or distanced (third-person) perspective, and measured physiological and subjective emotional reactivity. Self-distancing during trauma analysis protected against increases in physiological reactivity, such that participants in the immersed condition showed a significant increase in heart rate and skin conductance responses not seen in the distanced condition. However, self-distancing had no effect on self-reported emotional reactivity. Our findings suggest that the effects of self-distancing on subjective emotions may not extend to trauma memories. However, self-distancing during trauma analysis did change physiological reactivity, suggesting at least a short-term benefit for individuals with PTSD.

  14. Interaction between physiological and subjective states predicts the effect of a judging panel on the postures of cellists in performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi eEndo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of a panel of judges on the movements and postures of cellists in performance. 24 expert cellists played a short piece of music, to a metronome beat, in the presence and absence of the panel. Kinematic analyses showed that in the presence of the panel the temporal execution of left arm shifting movements became less variable and closer to the metronome beat. In contrast, the panel's presence had no reliable effect on their spatial accuracy. A detailed postural analysis indicated that left elbow angle during execution of a given high note was correlated with level of heart rate, though the nature of this correlation was systematically affected by the relevant participant's subjective state: if anxious, a higher heart rate correlated with a more flexed elbow, if not anxious then with a more extended elbow. Our results suggest a change in physiological state alone does not reliably predict a change in behaviour in performing cellists, which instead depends on the interaction between physiological state and subjective experience of anxiety. This highlights a need to distinguish performance anxiety from physiological arousal, to which end we advocate currency for the specific term performance arousal to describe heightened physiological activity in a performer.

  15. MBBS student perceptions about physiology subject teaching and objective structured practical examination based formative assessment for improving competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmipathy, K

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of the present study were to 1) assess student attitudes to physiology, 2) evaluate student opinions about the influence of an objective structured practical examination (OSPE) on competence, and 3) assess the validity and reliability of an indigenously designed feedback questionnaire. A structured questionnaire containing 16 item statements, 8 items on an Osgood's 5-point semantic differential scale and 8 items on a Likert's 5-point scale, was used. Options were assigned scores of 1-5 according to weightage. For Osgood's semantic differential scale items, a χ(2)-test was done to analyze student attitudes toward the subject. For Likert scale items, mean score and SD were calculated to analyze student opinions of the OSPE. Item validity was assessed by item analysis, and reliability was assessed by calculating Crohnbach's α. The subject as a whole was interesting to 82% of the students (n = 135). The theory was interesting to 75% of the students (n = 132) but complex to 42% (n = 118). The practical was interesting to 93% of the students (n = 134); 76% of the students (n = 104) felt that the practical was simple, whereas 4% felt it was complex. The OSPE was interesting to 79% of the students (n = 131); 57% of the students (n = 116) felt it was simple, whereas 24% found it complex. Components of the subject, intricateness, and student interests were strongly associated. Students chose options on a higher weight scale, favoring the OSPE. Items were found to be valid and reliable. In conclusion, the subject of physiology was interesting but not simple to understand. Student interests varied with the components of the subject, and the components of the subject had varied intricateness. Students were in favor of the OSPE for assessment. The questionnaire used for the study was valid and reliable. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  16. An Independent Assessment of the Physiological and Cognitive Effects from the X-26 TASER Device in Volunteer Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-05

    Final Report For Contract/PR No. W911QY-08-C-0023 An Independent Assessment of the Physiological and Cognitive Effects from the X-26 TASER ® Device...Cognitive Effects from the X-26 TASER Device in Volunteer Human Subjects 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911QY-08-C-0023 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Exposure to the X-26 TASER ? was studied in 32

  17. Concordance between women's physiological and subjective sexual arousal is associated with consistency of orgasm during intercourse but not other sexual behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brody, Stuart; Laan, Ellen; van Lunsen, Rik H. W.

    2003-01-01

    Many studies have found a discordance between women's genital (vaginal pulse amplitude) and subjective sexual arousal responses to erotica. We hypothesized that the association between the physiological and subjective domains would be greater for women with greater orgasmic consistency during

  18. Characterization of the psychological, physiological and EEG profile of acute betel quid intoxication in naïve subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G Osborne

    Full Text Available Betel quid use and abuse is wide spread in Asia but the physiological basis of intoxication and addiction are unknown. In subjects naïve to the habit of betel quid intoxication, the psychological and physiological profile of intoxication has never been reported. We compared the effect of chewing gum or chewing betel quid, and subsequent betel quid intoxication, on psychological assessment, prospective time interval estimation, numerical and character digit span, computerized 2 choice tests and mental tasks such as reading and mathematics with concurrent monitoring of ECG, EEG and face temperature in healthy, non-sleep deprived, male subjects naïve to the habit of chewing betel quid. Betel quid intoxication, dose dependently induced tachycardia (max 30 bpm and elevated face temperature (0.7°C (P<0.001 above the effects observed in response to chewing gum (max 12 bpm and 0.3°C in 12 subjects. Gross behavioral indices of working memory such as numerical or character digit span in 8 subjects, or simple visual-motor performance such as reaction speed or accuracy in a two choice scenario in 8 subjects were not affected by betel quid intoxication. Betel quid intoxication strongly influenced the psychological aspects of perception such as slowing of the prospective perception of passage of a 1 minute time interval in 8 subjects (P<0.05 and perceived increased arousal (P<0.01 and perceived decreased ability to think (P<0.05 in 31 subjects. The EEG spectral profile recorded from mental states associated with open and closed eyes, and mental tasks such as reading and eyes closed mental arithmetic were significantly modified (P<0.05 relative to chewing gum by betel quid intoxication in 10 subjects. The prevalence of betel quid consumption across a range of social and work settings warrants greater investigation of this widespread but largely under researched drug.

  19. Reproductive system: part one--male anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Brendan

    This article, the first in a four-part series, explores the core anatomy of the male human reproductive system. Part two will focus on its physiology and function. Part three and four will explore the female human reproductive anatomy and its reproductive physiology. The series should enhance the reader's theory and practice when caring for patients with reproductive or sexual health needs.

  20. Bridging the gap between what is praised and what is practiced: Supporting the work of change as anatomy and physiology instructors introduce active learning into their undergraduate classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Patti Marie

    When college Anatomy & Physiology instructors begin using active learning in their classrooms, what do they experience? How do their beliefs about teaching and learning change? What obstacles do they encounter and how do they respond? How do their responses influence future decisions regarding the use of active learning? This study documented the experiences of seven instructors from diverse types of institutions as they began using active learning in their classrooms. Conceptual change and social cognitive motivation theory provided guidance for the 15-month project. A classroom-situated professional development framework that included goal setting, planning and doing active learning and formative assessment, and reflecting on experiences was used. Multiple data sources (verbatim transcripts from emergent and semi-structured interviews, observation notes, surveys, written correspondence, instructional materials, and student surveys) and research methods allowed rigorous exploration of the research questions. A number of important findings emerged from the study. Data indicated that instructors struggled with a lack of instructional, pedagogical and clinical content knowledge, student resistance, personal and professional risk-taking issues, and widely shifting attitudes toward active learning. Data also suggested a developmental progression in beliefs about teaching and learning as instructors implemented active learning, and the progression shared similarities with reports of preservice teacher development documented in the learning-to-teach literature. Initially, instructors' beliefs shifted from knowledge transmission and intuitive theories to constructivist theories; however there was marked variation in the intelligibility, status, and endurance of the new beliefs. Data also allowed identification of two distinct conceptual change experiences. Analysis of instructor beliefs within and between the change groups strongly suggested that causal attribution

  1. Characterization of the psychological, physiological and EEG profile of acute betel quid intoxication in naïve subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Peter G; Chou, Tung-Shan; Shen, Tsu-Wang

    2011-01-01

    Betel quid use and abuse is wide spread in Asia but the physiological basis of intoxication and addiction are unknown. In subjects naïve to the habit of betel quid intoxication, the psychological and physiological profile of intoxication has never been reported. We compared the effect of chewing gum or chewing betel quid, and subsequent betel quid intoxication, on psychological assessment, prospective time interval estimation, numerical and character digit span, computerized 2 choice tests and mental tasks such as reading and mathematics with concurrent monitoring of ECG, EEG and face temperature in healthy, non-sleep deprived, male subjects naïve to the habit of chewing betel quid. Betel quid intoxication, dose dependently induced tachycardia (max 30 bpm) and elevated face temperature (0.7°C) (Peffects observed in response to chewing gum (max 12 bpm and 0.3°C) in 12 subjects. Gross behavioral indices of working memory such as numerical or character digit span in 8 subjects, or simple visual-motor performance such as reaction speed or accuracy in a two choice scenario in 8 subjects were not affected by betel quid intoxication. Betel quid intoxication strongly influenced the psychological aspects of perception such as slowing of the prospective perception of passage of a 1 minute time interval in 8 subjects (Pchewing gum by betel quid intoxication in 10 subjects. The prevalence of betel quid consumption across a range of social and work settings warrants greater investigation of this widespread but largely under researched drug.

  2. Integer anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doolittle, R. [ONR, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The title integer anatomy is intended to convey the idea of a systematic method for displaying the prime decomposition of the integers. Just as the biological study of anatomy does not teach us all things about behavior of species neither would we expect to learn everything about the number theory from a study of its anatomy. But, some number-theoretic theorems are illustrated by inspection of integer anatomy, which tend to validate the underlying structure and the form as developed and displayed in this treatise. The first statement to be made in this development is: the way structure of the natural numbers is displayed depends upon the allowed operations.

  3. Physiological quality of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Steud. (Leguminosae - Papilionoideae seeds subjected to different storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Conduru Ribeiro Reis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies of seed physiological processes represent the starting point for the sustainable utilization of native or cultivated plant species from the caatinga biome for which germination studies are still scarce. In order to determine adequate methods for the conservation of Gliricidia sepium seeds, the physiological quality of propagules exposed to different conditions and times of storage were examined. Recently collected seeds of G. sepium were analyzed immediately, while the other sample was stored for three, six, nine, or twelve months in plastic or paper bags under refrigeration or at room temperature for further analysis. The germination rates of seeds from each storage regime were determined and these rates compared to their water content. It was observed that germination capacity was directly related to changes in seed humidity. Storing seeds in plastic bags yielded the best conservation, mainly when they were stored at low temperatures. However, even at temperatures near 25°C it was possible to prolong seed viability when their water content was controlled through the use of impermeable packing.

  4. Knowledge on the subject of human physiology among Polish high school students--a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwinczewska, Helena; Rozwadowska, Joanna; Traczyk, Anna; Majda, Szymon; Wysocki, Michał; Grabowski, Kamil; Kopeć, Sylwia; Głowacki, Roman; Węgrzyn, Katarzyna; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Walocha, Jerzy A

    2014-01-01

    responsible decisions regarding their health. Our results suggest that more emphasis should be put on properly teaching human physiology in high school, especially to those students who do not plan a career in medicine-related fields. This study brings to light the disturbing fact that about a year after a student finishes his basic physiology course his knowledge of the subject returns to a pre high school level.

  5. CONTRIBUTIONS OF SUSHRUTA TO ANATOMY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-08-08

    Aug 8, 2005 ... Probably, the exhaustive knowledge of basic sciences he had would have made him a versatile surgeon. This article has compiled the contributions of this great stalwart to anatomy and interprets his perspective towards teaching this subject. Keywords: Sushruta, Dissection, Cadaver, Anatomy, Preservation.

  6. Individual differences in timing of peak positive subjective responses to d-amphetamine: Relationship to pharmacokinetics and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher T; Weafer, Jessica; Cowan, Ronald L; Kessler, Robert M; Palmer, Abraham A; de Wit, Harriet; Zald, David H

    2016-04-01

    Rate of delivery of psychostimulants has been associated with their positive euphoric effects and potential addiction liability. However, information on individual differences in onset of d-amphetamine's effects remains scarce. We examined individual differences in the time to peak subjective and physiological effects and the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of oral d-amphetamine. We considered two independent studies that used different dosing regimens where subjects completed the drug effects questionnaire at multiple time points post d-amphetamine. Based on the observation of distinct individual differences in time course of drug effects questionnaire "feel", "high", and "like" ratings (DEQH+L+F) in Study 1, subjects in both studies were categorized as early peak responders (peak within 60 minutes), late peak responders (peak > 60 minutes) or nonresponders; 20-25% of participants were categorized as early peak responders, 50-55% as late peak responders and 20-30% as nonresponders. Physiological (both studies) and plasma d-amphetamine (Study 1) were compared among these groups. Early peak responders exhibited an earlier rise in plasma d-amphetamine levels and more sustained elevation in heart rate compared to late peak responders. The present data illustrate the presence of significant individual differences in the temporal pattern of responses to oral d-amphetamine, which may contribute to heightened abuse potential. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Determinants of cue-elicited craving and physiologic reactivity in methamphetamine-dependent subjects in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolliver, Bryan K; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Saladin, Michael; Price, Kimber L; Simpson, Annie N; DeSantis, Stacia M; Baker, Nathaniel L; Brady, Kathleen T

    2010-03-01

    Craving for methamphetamine is commonly reported by heavy users of the drug and may increase the risk of relapse in newly abstinent individuals. Exposure to methamphetamine-associated cues in the laboratory can elicit measureable craving and autonomic reactivity in some individuals with methamphetamine dependence. In this study, clinical and demographic correlates of methamphetamine craving and the optimal conditions for its measurement in the laboratory are explored. Subjective (craving) and physiologic (heart rate and skin conductance) reactivity to presentation of methamphetamine-associated photo, video, and paraphernalia cues were evaluated in 43 subjects with methamphetamine dependence. Association of cue reactivity with demographic and clinical characteristics including duration, frequency, amount, and recency of methamphetamine use were assessed. Craving was reported by fewer than half of subjects at baseline and by approximately 70% of subjects after methamphetamine cue exposure. Relative to baseline, subjective craving was increased by all three cue modalities to a similar extent. In general, physiological cue reactivity correlated poorly with cue-induced craving. Craving at baseline was strongly predictive of cue-induced craving. Differences in cue-induced craving were not associated with age, sex, education, employment, treatment status, or number of days using methamphetamine in the 60 days prior to study entry. In contrast, the degree of baseline craving was strongly associated with employment status and the number of days using methamphetamine in the past 60 days. Cue-induced craving for methamphetamine may be reliably measured in methamphetamine-dependent individuals in the laboratory. Further studies employing the cue reactivity paradigm in methamphetamine dependence are warranted.

  8. [Specifity of optic disc evaluation in healthy subjects with large optic discs and physiologic cupping using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plange, N; Hirsch, T; Bienert, M; Remky, A

    2014-02-01

    Imaging methods of the optic nerve head appear to have an increasing impact in glaucoma diagnosis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the specifity of the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (software version 1.7 and 3.0) in subjects with physiological cupping and large optic discs. 27 eyes of 27 subjects (mean age 41.3 ± 15.8 years) with bilateral physiological cupping and large optic discs (vertical cup-to-disc-ratio > 0.3, optic disc area 2.48 ± 0.45 mm2, max. 3.54 mm2) were included in a clinical study. All subjects had an intraocular pressure cupping by funduscopy and no nerve fibre layer defects (Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope, Rodenstock, Germany). Standard achromatic perimetry (Humphrey Field Analyzer, Humphrey-Zeiss, 24/2 SITA or full threshold), short-wavelength automated perimetry (Humphrey Field Analyzer, Humphrey-Zeiss), and frequency doubling technology (FDT, Humphrey-Zeiss) revealed no visual field defects. Optic disc imaging was performed in all subjects using the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II (HRT). Optic disc images were transferred to the software-update of the HRT 3 (Version 3.0, Heidelberg Engineering). Specifity was calculated using the Moorfields regression analysis (MRA, software version 1.7 and 3.0) and the glaucoma probability score (GPS analysis) using all disc sectors and omitting the nasal and 3 nasal sectors. Specifity of the MRA (software version 1.7) was 66.6 % (most specific criteria), and 22.2 % (least specific criteria). Specifity of the MRA (software version 3.0) was 33.3 % (most specific criteria), and 14.8 % (least specific criteria), whereas specifity of the GPS analysis was 37.0 % (most specific criteria), and 11.1 % (least specific criteria). When the nasal sectors were omitted for analysis, specifity increased for the MRA analysis, but not for the GPS analysis. Specifity of the MRA was unsatisfactory using the software version 1.7 and 3.0 in subjects with large optic discs and physiological cupping

  9. It's difficult to change the way we teach: lessons from the Integrative Themes in Physiology curriculum module project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dee U. Silverthorn; Patti M. Thorn; Marilla D. Svinicki

    2006-01-01

    ...) and the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS). The project goal was to create instructional resources that emphasized active learning in undergraduate anatomy and physiology classrooms. The resources...

  10. It's difficult to change the way we tea?h: lessons from the Integrative Themes in Physiology curriculum module project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dee U Silverthorn; Patti M Thorn; Manila D Svinicki

    2006-01-01

    ...) and the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS). The project goal was to create instructional resources that emphasized active learning in undergraduate anatomy and physiology classrooms. The resources...

  11. Cinema Seminar as a guidance resource in the election of undergraduate dissertation in the subject of physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán DOMÍNGUEZ VÍAS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Physiology, in the medical and other health sciences or experimental degrees, is one of the subjects with morevariety of themes that a student can choose for the development of his undergraduate dissertation. The complexityof the syllabus, together with the disorientation to the lack of ideas, incapacitates the students to choose theirproject. As a main objective, the development of a seminar using the Cinema as an auxiliary tool would help to guidein the choice of an initial idea of the whole physiology syllabus. The review of each theme, or specific thematic block, would be linked to the visualization of short film fragments (30 seconds ? 3 minutes that would reflect a crucial moment of different physiological states of an individual. The transition of topics should be paused to opt to comment or reflect on aspects and ideas. A template with different options per unit helps to mark the most valued aspects. From the conclusions obtained, a final summary of the assimilated allows to obtain a previous idea of a possible chosen theme. We can assure that the Cinema offers the students a useful experience for the resolution ofconflicts after acquiring knowledge, thinking skills, attitudes and values.

  12. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  13. Physiological and subjective effects of acute intranasal methamphetamine during extended-release alprazolam maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lile, Joshua A; Stoops, William W; Glaser, Paul E A; Hays, Lon R; Rush, Craig R

    2011-12-15

    Medications development for methamphetamine dependence is ongoing, but no widely accepted, effective pharmacotherapy has been identified. Previous studies have demonstrated neurobiological perturbations to central GABA(A) activity following chronic stimulant use, and that positive modulation of GABA(A) receptors attenuates the neurochemical and behavioral response to stimulant drugs such as methamphetamine. Therefore, GABA(A) modulators could be useful as pharmacotherapies for stimulant-use disorders. This study tested the hypothesis that intranasal methamphetamine would be safe and well tolerated during maintenance on extended-release alprazolam (XR), and that the effects of methamphetamine would be attenuated. Eight non-treatment-seeking, stimulant-dependent individuals completed an inpatient experiment in which ascending doses of intranasal methamphetamine (0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 mg) were administered after four days of alprazolam XR maintenance (0 and 1mg/day). Intranasal methamphetamine produced prototypical effects (e.g., increased positive subjective ratings and elevated cardiovascular signs). The combination of intranasal methamphetamine and alprazolam XR was safe and well tolerated. Alprazolam XR produced small, but orderly, reductions in some of the subjective effects of methamphetamine, and performance impairment. The present results demonstrate that methamphetamine use during alprazolam XR treatment would not pose a significant safety risk. Given the potential of GABA(A) positive modulators to manage certain aspects of stimulant abuse and dependence (i.e., drug-induced seizures, anxiety and stress), but the relatively small impact on the acute abuse-related effects of methamphetamine observed here, additional research with GABA(A) positive modulators is warranted, but should consider their use as an adjunct component of combination behavioral and/or drug treatment. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Hand Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Arthritis Thumb Sprains Trigger Finger Tumors Wrist Fracture Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin ... A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is ...

  15. Facial anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marur, Tania; Tuna, Yakup; Demirci, Selman

    2014-01-01

    Dermatologic problems of the face affect both function and aesthetics, which are based on complex anatomical features. Treating dermatologic problems while preserving the aesthetics and functions of the face requires knowledge of normal anatomy. When performing successfully invasive procedures of the face, it is essential to understand its underlying topographic anatomy. This chapter presents the anatomy of the facial musculature and neurovascular structures in a systematic way with some clinically important aspects. We describe the attachments of the mimetic and masticatory muscles and emphasize their functions and nerve supply. We highlight clinically relevant facial topographic anatomy by explaining the course and location of the sensory and motor nerves of the face and facial vasculature with their relations. Additionally, this chapter reviews the recent nomenclature of the branching pattern of the facial artery. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Transforming Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Anndee

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Transforming Anatomy Studying historic books allows people to witness the transformation of the world right before their very eyes. The Bruxellensis Icones Anatomicae[1] by Andreas Vesalius is a vital piece of evidence in the movement from a more rudimentary understanding of the human body into the more complex and accurate development of modern anatomy. Vesalius’ research worked to both refute and confirm findings of his predecessor, the great historical Greek philosopher, Galen...

  17. Robottens Anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antabi, Mimo

    Rapport der beskriver de samlede erfaringer fra arbejdet med produktionen af teaterforestillingen Robottens Anatomi. Indehoder bl.a. interviews med medvirkende, bidrag fra instruktør, synopsis, beskrivelse af scenografi mv.......Rapport der beskriver de samlede erfaringer fra arbejdet med produktionen af teaterforestillingen Robottens Anatomi. Indehoder bl.a. interviews med medvirkende, bidrag fra instruktør, synopsis, beskrivelse af scenografi mv....

  18. Air temperature and physiological and subjective responses during competitive singles tennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morante, Sarah M; Brotherhood, John R

    2007-11-01

    This report describes the thermal stresses and strains during competitive singles tennis. Thermoregulatory responses were investigated during best of three set tennis matches among 25 players. A total of 86 observations were made from 43 matches played, covering each season, with ambient temperatures ranging from 14.5 to 38.4 degrees C. Core body temperature and skin temperature were recorded each minute throughout the match, whilst heart rate was logged every 15 s. Body mass and fluid intake were measured before the match, after 30 min of play and at the completion of the match to determine sweat rate. Subjective ratings of thermal strain included thermal comfort, sweatiness and perceived exertion. The thermal environment was assessed by dry bulb, wet bulb and natural wet bulb temperatures, globe temperature and wind speed. Mean (SD) core temperature after 30 min of play was 38.4 degrees C (0.4 degrees C), and demonstrated no association with air temperature or wet bulb globe temperature. Mean skin temperature was 31.8 degrees C (2.3 degrees C) ranging from 25.7 to 36.5 degrees C, and showed a positive association with air temperature (pair temperature. Sweat rate averaged 1.0 (0.4) litres/h (0.2-2.4 litres/h) or 12.8 (5.5) ml/kg/h (2.7-26.0 ml/kg/h), and demonstrated a positive relationship with air temperature (pair temperature (p<0.001). Stressful environmental conditions produce a high skin temperature and rating of thermal discomfort. However, overall thermoregulatory strain during tennis is moderate, with core temperature remaining within safe levels.

  19. An Anatomico-physiological Principle Governing the Direction of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-03-09

    Mar 9, 1974 ... In anatomical, physiological and motility studies, possible movements of the mucosa and its folds ... Other views on the anatomy,""· histology," applied anatomy," radio- graphic anatomy," and physiology'· are: that the circular ..... F. W. (l959): Anatomy of the Human Body. p. 518. London: Faber & Faber. 22.

  20. Musical emotions: predicting second-by-second subjective feelings of emotion from low-level psychoacoustic features and physiological measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Eduardo; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2011-08-01

    We sustain that the structure of affect elicited by music is largely dependent on dynamic temporal patterns in low-level music structural parameters. In support of this claim, we have previously provided evidence that spatiotemporal dynamics in psychoacoustic features resonate with two psychological dimensions of affect underlying judgments of subjective feelings: arousal and valence. In this article we extend our previous investigations in two aspects. First, we focus on the emotions experienced rather than perceived while listening to music. Second, we evaluate the extent to which peripheral feedback in music can account for the predicted emotional responses, that is, the role of physiological arousal in determining the intensity and valence of musical emotions. Akin to our previous findings, we will show that a significant part of the listeners' reported emotions can be predicted from a set of six psychoacoustic features--loudness, pitch level, pitch contour, tempo, texture, and sharpness. Furthermore, the accuracy of those predictions is improved with the inclusion of physiological cues--skin conductance and heart rate. The interdisciplinary work presented here provides a new methodology to the field of music and emotion research based on the combination of computational and experimental work, which aid the analysis of the emotional responses to music, while offering a platform for the abstract representation of those complex relationships. Future developments may aid specific areas, such as, psychology and music therapy, by providing coherent descriptions of the emotional effects of specific music stimuli. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  1. The effects of extended nap periods on cognitive, physiological and subjective responses under simulated night shift conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Jonathan; Göbel, Matthias

    2017-11-16

    Extended nap opportunities have been effective in maintaining alertness in the context of extended night shifts (+12 h). However, there is limited evidence of their efficacy during 8-h shifts. Thus, this study explored the effects of extended naps on cognitive, physiological and perceptual responses during four simulated, 8-h night shifts. In a laboratory setting, 32 participants were allocated to one of three conditions. All participants completed four consecutive, 8-h night shifts, with the arrangements differing by condition. The fixed night condition worked from 22h00 to 06h00, while the nap early group worked from 20h00 to 08h00 and napped between 00h00 and 03h20. The nap late group worked from 00h00 to 12h00 and napped between 04h00 and 07h20. Nap length was limited to 3 hours and 20 minutes. Participants performed a simple beading task during each shift, while also completing six to eight test batteries roughly every 2 h. During each shift, six test batteries were completed, in which the following measures were taken. Performance indicators included beading output, eye accommodation time, choice reaction time, visual vigilance, simple reaction time, processing speed and object recognition, working memory, motor response time and tracking performance. Physiological measures included heart rate and tympanic temperature, whereas subjective sleepiness and reported sleep length and quality while outside the laboratory constituted the self reported measures. Both naps reduced subjective sleepiness but did not alter the circadian and homeostatic-related changes in cognitive and physiological measures, relative to the fixed night condition. Additionally, there was evidence of sleep inertia following each nap, which resulted in transient reductions in certain perceptual cognitive performance measures. The present study suggested that there were some benefits associated with including an extended nap during 8-h night shifts. However, the effects of sleep inertia

  2. A Review of the Comparative Anatomy, Histology, Physiology and Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of Rats, Mice, Dogs and Non-human Primates. Relevance to Inhalation Toxicology and Human Health Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanza, R; Wright, J A

    2015-11-01

    There are many significant differences in the structural and functional anatomy of the nasal cavity of man and laboratory animals. Some of the differences may be responsible for the species-specific nasal lesions that are often observed in response to inhaled toxicants. This paper reviews the comparative anatomy, physiology and pathology of the nasal cavity of the rat, mouse, dog, monkey and man, highlighting factors that may influence the distribution of nasal lesions. Gross anatomical variations such as turbinate structure, folds or grooves on nasal walls, or presence or absence of accessory structures, may influence nasal airflow and species-specific uptake and deposition of inhaled material. In addition, interspecies variations in the morphological and biochemical composition and distribution of the nasal epithelium may affect the local tissue susceptibility and play a role in the development of species-specific nasal lesions. It is concluded that, while the nasal cavity of the monkey might be more similar to that of man, each laboratory animal species provides a model that responds in a characteristic and species-specific manner. Therefore for human risk assessment, careful consideration must be given to the anatomical differences between a given animal model and man. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. CPR Instruction in a Human Anatomy Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutton, Lewis M.

    1978-01-01

    Describes how cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction can be included in a college anatomy and physiology course. Equipment and instructors are provided locally by the Red Cross or American Heart Association. (MA)

  4. Neurovascular anatomy: a practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Randy; Severson, Meryl A; Armonda, Rocco A

    2009-07-01

    Students of cerebrovascular anatomy and physiology tend to model their learning based on normal patterns of blood flow. As such, the focus tends toward arterial physiology and pathology with less than adequate understanding of the significance of the venous system. This article presents a different approach to neurovascular anatomy, starting with the venous system and demonstrating both normal and pathologic states. It reviews the cerebral circulation with attention to the microsurgical relationships, angiographic patterns, and fusion of dual-volume imaging. The importance of bony, sulcal, and ventricular anatomy is presented as it relates to the angiographic representation of pathologic lesions. Examples are given of anatomic variants seen with the operating microscope, biplanar angiography, and three-dimensional rotational angiography." Note that in the synopsis and throughout the article, first person usage has been changed to third person per journal style.

  5. Stedets Anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    Titlen på denne ph.d.-afhandling, Stedets Anatomi – en teoretisk undersøgelse af stedets og rumlighedens betydning for leg, computerspil og læring, skitserer ikke kun afhandlingens teoretiske dimensionering, men også dens analytiske bliks tematik i forbindelse med undersøgelsen af fænomenerne leg...

  6. Regulatory Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, le...... they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape....

  7. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on seed germination, microbial quality, anatomy-morphology and physiological characteristics of garden cress (Lepidium sativum) seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    İşlek, Cemil; Murat Altuner, Ergin; Çeter, Talip; Alpas, Hami

    2013-06-01

    High hydrostatic pressure is a non-thermal food processing technology that is found to increase the percentage of germination, decrease the germination time and improve the microbial quality of seeds. In this study, pressures of 100-400 MPa for 10 min at 30°C are used to compare the percentage of germination, the microbial quality of seeds, chlorophyll a and b, and total phenolic compounds concentrations in seedlings, and the anatomy-morphology characteristics of garden cress. Enhanced reductions of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, total and fecal coliforms, and yeast and mould populations in seeds were observed, especially at 300 MPa. In addition, the percentage of germination, chlorophyll content and phenolic compounds concentrations, fresh and dry weights, and hypocotyl lengths of the seedlings are higher than those of all samples, where the percentage of germination is equal to controls but higher than other samples, and radicula length is lower than controls but higher than others.

  8. Anatomy and Biomechanics of the Unstable Shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuéllar, Ricardo; Ruiz-Ibán, Miguel Angel; Cuéllar, Adrián

    2017-01-01

    To review the anatomy of the shoulder joint and of the physiology of glenohumeral stability is essential to manage correctly shoulder instability. It was reviewed a large number of recently published research studies related to the shoulder instability that received a higher Level of Evidence grade. It is reviewed the bony anatomy, the anatomy and function of the ligaments that act on this joint, the physiology and physiopathology of glenohumeral instability and the therapeutic implications of the injured structures. This knowledge allows the surgeon to evaluate the possible causes of instability, to assess which are the structures that must be reconstructed and to decide which surgical technique must be performed.

  9. Distraction and task engagement: How interesting and boring information impact driving performance and subjective and physiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrey, William J; Lesch, Mary F; Garabet, Angela; Simmons, Lucinda; Maikala, Rammohan

    2017-01-01

    As more devices and services are integrated into vehicles, drivers face new opportunities to perform additional tasks while driving. While many studies have explored the detrimental effects of varying task demands on driving performance, there has been little attention devoted to tasks that vary in terms of personal interest or investment-a quality we liken to the concept of task engagement. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of task engagement on driving performance, subjective appraisals of performance and workload, and various physiological measurements. In this study, 31 participants (M = 37 yrs) completed three driving conditions in a driving simulator: listening to boring auditory material; listening to interesting material; and driving with no auditory material. Drivers were simultaneously monitored using near-infrared spectroscopy, heart monitoring and eye tracking systems. Drivers exhibited less variability in lane keeping and headway maintenance for both auditory conditions; however, response times to critical braking events were longer in the interesting audio condition. Drivers also perceived the interesting material to be less demanding and less complex, although the material was objectively matched for difficulty. Drivers showed a reduced concentration of cerebral oxygenated hemoglobin when listening to interesting material, compared to baseline and boring conditions, yet they exhibited superior recognition for this material. The practical implications, from a safety standpoint, are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Subjective, behavioral, and physiological responses to the rubber hand illusion do not vary with age in the adult phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Priscila; Borrego, Adrián; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Llorens, Roberto; Demarzo, Marcelo; Baños, Rosa M

    2017-11-03

    The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) is a perceptual illusion that enables integration of artificial limbs into the body representation through combined multisensory integration. Most previous studies investigating the RHI have involved young healthy adults within a very narrow age range (typically 20-30 years old). The purpose of this paper was to determine the influence of age on the RHI. The RHI was performed on 93 healthy adults classified into three groups of age (20-35 years old, N = 41; 36-60 years old, N = 28; and 61-80 years old, N = 24), and its effects were measured with subjective (Embodiment of Rubber Hand Questionnaire), behavioral (proprioceptive drift), and physiological (changes in skin temperature and conductance) measures. There were neither significant differences among groups in any response, nor significant covariability or correlation between age and other measures (but for skin temperature), which suggests that the RHI elicits similar responses across different age groups in the adult phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Anatomy of Learning Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan; Scheja, Max; Lonka, Kirsti; Josephson, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The experience of clinical teachers as well as research results about senior medical students' understanding of basic science concepts has much been debated. To gain a better understanding about how this knowledge-transformation is managed by medical students, this work aims at investigating their ways of setting about learning anatomy.…

  12. Authorized Course of Instruction for the Quinmester Program. Science: Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology; Human Reproduction; Man and Disease; Man's Senses; and Introduction to the Human Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Performance objectives are stated for each of the five secondary school units included in this package of instructional guides prepared for the Dade County Florida Quinmester Program. All five units are concerned with aspects of physiology; three require no prerequisite study of biology ("Introduction to the Human Body,""Man and…

  13. Using Castration Surgery in Male Rats to Demonstrate the Physiological Effects of Testosterone on Seminal Vesicle Anatomy in an Undergraduate Laboratory Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Rachelle M.; Conant, Stephanie B.; Grabowski, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Rats can be used as a model organism to teach physiological concepts in a laboratory setting. This article describes a two-part laboratory that introduces students to hypothesis testing, experimental design, the appropriate use of controls and surgical techniques. Students perform both a castration and sham-control surgery on male rats and test…

  14. Anatomy Live : Performance and the Operating Theatre

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Gross anatomy, the study of anatomical structures that can be seen by unassisted vision, has long been a subject of fascination for artists. For most modern viewers, however, the anatomy lesson hardly seems the proper breeding ground for the hybrid workings of art and theory. We forget that, in its early stages, anatomy pursued the highly theatrical spirit of Renaissance science, as painters such as Rembrandt and Da Vinci and medical instructors shared audiences devoted to the workings of the...

  15. D-cycloserine combined with cue exposure therapy fails to attenuate subjective and physiological craving in cocaine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Ana, Elizabeth J; Prisciandaro, James J; Saladin, Michael E; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Shaftman, Stephanie R; Nietert, Paul J; Brady, Kathleen T

    2015-04-01

    Based on preclinical studies showing that the partial N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) agonist D-cycloserine (DCS) facilitates extinction of cocaine self-administration and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference, we evaluated whether 50 mg of DCS would reduce craving to cocaine cues when combined with cue exposure (CE) in cocaine dependent humans. In this double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study, 47 cocaine dependent participants were randomized to DCS or placebo (PBO), plus CE. Participants received DCS or PBO 30 minutes prior to two CE sessions, conducted one day apart. Craving and heart rate was assessed prior to CE sessions, during CE trials, and after CE trials. These measures were assessed again at a 1-week follow-up (session 3) after the second CE session. DCS failed to significantly attenuate cocaine cue reactivity based on subjective craving and physiological reactivity (heart rate) compared to PBO. The CE protocol, consisting of repeated exposure to drug cues combined with skills training, resulted in extinction to cocaine cues as suggested by decreased craving within and between sessions in both treatment conditions. All participants exhibited elevated heart rate with repeated exposures, demonstrating a potentiation in heart rate between sessions. 50 mg of DCS may not be effective for extinguishing reactivity to drug cues for individuals with cocaine dependence. Future studies examining the effect of DCS on facilitating extinction to drug cues should examine variations in cue exposure length, number of CE presentations, and timing of DCS dose administration prior to cue exposures, which may differentially impact drug cue reactivity. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  16. A blended approach to active learning in a physiology laboratory-based subject facilitated by an e-learning component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Arianne M; Kemm, Robert E

    2008-03-01

    Learning via online activities (e-learning) was introduced to facilitate existing face-to-face teaching to encourage more effective student preparation and then informed participation in an undergraduate physiology laboratory-based course. Active learning was encouraged by hypothesis formation and predictions prior to classes, with opportunities for students to amend their e-learning submissions after classes. Automatic or tutor feedback was provided on student submissions. Evaluation of the course was conducted via student questionnaires, individual student interviews, and analysis of student marks in examinations and of the e-learning component. Student feedback on this entire subject in the university-wide quality of teaching survey was very high by University of Melbourne standards and most encouraging for the first implementation of such a curriculum modification. Results from further detailed surveys of student interactions and engagement and correlation analysis between student responses were also very supportive of the effectiveness of the course. There were no significant differences between examination marks in the new course with e-learning and the previous year without e-learning. However, there was a significant correlation between assessment of student e-learning work and their final examination mark. Correlation analysis between various survey responses helped interpret results and strengthened arguments for e-learning and suggested future improvements for student use of e-learning. This mode of e-learning used to support face-to-face learning activities in the laboratory can be adapted for other disciplines and may assist students in developing a greater appreciation and a deeper approach for learning from their practical class experiences.

  17. Conhecimento de adolescentes grávidas sobre anatomia e fisiologia da reprodução Knowledge of pregnant adolescents about reproductive anatomy and physiology in a municipality of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Espejo Carvacho

    2008-02-01

    study knowledge of some aspects of the female reproductive anatomy and physiology and their association with socio-demographic and reproductive "choices" of pregnant adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed with 200 first time pregnant adolescents who attended a public women's health clinic in the municipality of Indaiatuba, Sao Paulo, Brazil. During their first prenatal care visit, face-to-face interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire and a three-dimensional handmade female model. Bivariate data analyses were performed using Person's Chi-square or Fisher Exact test. Data were also analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models to test for associations of indicators of knowledge of female reproductive anatomy, physiology of female reproductive organs and physiology of reproduction with socio-demographic characteristics and reproductive "choices". RESULTS: The majority had little knowledge of anatomy (55.5%, with external organs more easily identified and placed than the internal; of physiology of reproductive organs (61.0%, and of physiology of reproduction (76.5%. Associations were found between knowledge and age of partner, couple difference of age, maintenance of the relationship with partner after pregnancy, religious affiliation, and level of education. No association was found between indicators of knowledge with use of contraceptives at first intercourse and with intention of having the baby at that time. CONCLUSION: This study addressed the complexity of the relationship between knowledge of reproductive anatomy and physiology and the theme of adolescent pregnancy, and emphasized the need for more contextualized approaches of programmatic contents on sexual education, in view of the intention to reduce early pregnancy.

  18. Dancers' Perceived and Actual Knowledge of Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Dana H; Lynch, Meaghan; Cushman, Daniel; Hu, Jason; Garner, Jocelyn

    2017-06-15

    Dancers are highly susceptible to musculoskeletal injuries and frequently require interaction with medical professionals. While many dancers have a finely tuned awareness of their bodies, their knowledge of the fundamentals of human anatomy is not uniform. There is a paucity of literature on the benefits of human anatomy education in dancers, though it seems intuitive that there should be a relationship. The purpose of this study was to assess dancers' perceived and actual knowledge of basic musculoskeletal anatomy and its relationship to function. Adult dancers at the undergraduate, pre-professional, and professional levels were surveyed through an anonymous online questionnaire. Questions included demographic information, dance techniques studied, anatomy training, and injury history. Subjects rated their perceived knowledge of anatomy and were tested with 15 multiple-choice questions on basic musculoskeletal anatomy. Four hundred seventy-five surveys were completed. Ordinal regression showed a correlation of perceived to actual knowledge of anatomy (p < 0.001). Factors that correlated with increases in both perceived and actual knowledge of anatomy included having taken an anatomy course of any type (p < 0.001) and increased age (p ≤ 0.001). Years of dance training and professional dancer status both significantly correlated with increased knowledge of anatomy (p < 0.001) but not perceived knowledge. Chi-square analysis showed that dancers with training in either modern or jazz dance had a significantly higher perceived, but not actual, knowledge when compared to those without training in those styles of dance (p < 0.001 and p = 0.011, respectively). In conclusion, dancers generally scored well on questions pertaining to basic musculoskeletal anatomy, and their perception correlated with their actual knowledge of anatomy. Factors that contribute to dancers' knowledge of anatomy include age, years of experience, professional dancer status, and anatomy training.

  19. Classic versus millennial medical lab anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninger, Brion; Matsler, Nik; Delamarter, Taylor

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the integration, implementation, and use of cadaver dissection, hospital radiology modalities, surgical tools, and AV technology during a 12-week contemporary anatomy course suggesting a millennial laboratory. The teaching of anatomy has undergone the greatest fluctuation of any of the basic sciences during the past 100 years in order to make room for the meteoric rise in molecular sciences. Classically, anatomy consisted of a 2-year methodical, horizontal, anatomy course; anatomy has now morphed into a 12-week accelerated course in a vertical curriculum, at most institutions. Surface and radiological anatomy is the language for all clinicians regardless of specialty. The objective of this study was to investigate whether integration of full-body dissection anatomy and modern hospital technology, during the anatomy laboratory, could be accomplished in a 12-week anatomy course. Literature search was conducted on anatomy text, journals, and websites regarding contemporary hospital technology integrating multiple image mediums of 37 embalmed cadavers, surgical suite tools and technology, and audio/visual technology. Surgical and radiology professionals were contracted to teach during the anatomy laboratory. Literature search revealed no contemporary studies integrating full-body dissection with hospital technology and behavior. About 37 cadavers were successfully imaged with roentograms, CT, and MRI scans. Students were in favor of the dynamic laboratory consisting of multiple activity sessions occurring simultaneously. Objectively, examination scores proved to be a positive outcome and, subjectively, feedback from students was overwhelmingly positive. Despite the surging molecular based sciences consuming much of the curricula, full-body dissection anatomy is irreplaceable regarding both surface and architectural, radiological anatomy. Radiology should not be a small adjunct to understand full-body dissection, but rather, full-body dissection

  20. Normal Pancreas Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreas Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 761x736 ... View Download Large: 3172x3068 View Download Title: Pancreas Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pancreas; drawing shows the ...

  1. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  2. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  3. Separate and combined impact of acute naltrexone and alprazolam on subjective and physiological effects of oral d-amphetamine in stimulant users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Katherine R.; Lile, Joshua A.; Stoops, William W.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Opioid antagonists (e.g., naltrexone) and positive modulators of γ-aminobutyric-acidA (GABAA) receptors (e.g., alprazolam) modestly attenuate the abuse-related effects of stimulants like amphetamine. The use of higher doses to achieve greater efficacy is precluded by side effects. Combining naltrexone and alprazolam might safely maximize efficacy while avoiding the untoward effects of the constituent compounds. Objectives The present pilot study tested the hypothesis that acute pretreatment with the combination of naltrexone and alprazolam would not produce clinically problematic physiological effects or negative subjective effects and would reduce the positive subjective effects of d-amphetamine to a greater extent than the constituent drugs alone. Methods Eight nontreatment-seeking, stimulant-using individuals completed an outpatient experiment in which oral d-amphetamine (0, 15, and 30 mg) was administered following acute pretreatment with naltrexone (0 and 50 mg) and alprazolam (0 and 0.5 mg). Subjective effects, psychomotor task performance, and physiological measures were collected. Results Oral d-amphetamine produced prototypical physiological and stimulant-like positive subjective effects (e.g., VAS ratings of Active/Alert/Energetic, Good Effect, and High). Pretreatment with naltrexone, alprazolam, and their combination did not produce clinically problematic acute physiological effects or negative subjective effects. Naltrexone and alprazolam each significantly attenuated some of the subjective effects of d-amphetamine. The combination attenuated a greater number of subjective effects than the constituent drugs alone. Conclusions The present results support the continued evaluation of an opioid receptor antagonist combined with a GABAA-positive modulator using more clinically relevant experimental conditions like examining the effect of chronic dosing with these drugs on methamphetamine self-administration. PMID:24464531

  4. Anatomy of pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corton, Marlene M

    2009-09-01

    Normal physiologic function of the pelvic organs depends on the anatomic integrity and proper interaction among the pelvic structures, the pelvic floor support components, and the nervous system. Pelvic floor dysfunction includes urinary and anal incontinence; pelvic organ prolapse; and sexual, voiding, and defecatory dysfunction. Understanding the anatomy and proper interaction among the support components is essential to diagnose and treat pelvic floor dysfunction. The primary aim of this article is to provide an updated review of pelvic support anatomy with clinical correlations. In addition, surgical spaces of interest to the gynecologic surgeon and the course of the pelvic ureter are described. Several concepts reviewed in this article are derived and modified from a previous review of pelvic support anatomy.

  5. Physiological Responses and Ovarian Development of Female Chinese Mitten Crab Eriocheir sinensis Subjected to Different Salinity Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Long

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity plays a key role affecting ovarian development, osmoregulation and metabolism of female Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis during reproductive migration. In this study, female E. sinensis after their puberty molt were subjected to four salinities of 0, 6, 12, and 18‰ for 40 days to investigate the salinity effects on their ovarian development as well as a range of important physiological parameters. Elevated salinity accelerated the ovarian development with ovigerous crabs found at salinity treatments of 12 and 18‰ despite no copulation had occurred. Meanwhile the survival rate of female crabs showed a decreasing trend with increasing salinity. Higher salinity also led to increased hemolymph Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl−, and Mg2+ concentrations. The 6‰ treatment had the highest contents of hemolymph total and major free amino acids while the Na+/K+ -ATPase activity in the posterior gills was the lowest among treatments. Total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (∑n-3PUFA and n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in the anterior gills showed a decreasing trend with salinity while 18‰ had the highest ∑PUFA and ∑n-6PUFA. The ∑n-3PUFA content and n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio of the posterior gills showed a fluctuating pattern and the highest value was detected at 0‰, while an increasing trend was found for the ∑n-6PUFA with increasing salinity. The hemolymph glucose showed a decreasing trend with increasing salinity and the highest total cholesterol in hemolymph was detected at 12‰. The 18‰ treatment had the highest levels of hemolymph γ-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase, as well as glucose, urea and acid phosphatase in hepatopancreas while the highest hemolymph superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were detected at 0‰. Overall, the results showed that salinity increase from freshwater to brackish conditions led to lower metabolism, accelerated ovarian development, and the appearance of ovigerous crabs without

  6. Nuevas metodologías docentes aplicadas al estudio de la fisiología y la anatomía: estudio comparativo con el método tradicional Novel methodologies applied to Physiology and Anatomy teaching: comparison with traditional teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gal-Iglesias

    2009-06-01

    paradigm in Europe is a methodological challenge due to the curricular complexity and specific competencies profiles involved. Aims. To evaluate a mixed methodology in the Physiology and Anatomy teaching aimed to measure knowledge and competencies. We also propose an evaluation scale to score learning. Subjects and methods. Data were gathered from a control group (classical methodology: lectures which was compared with an experimental group (mixed methodology: problem-based learning (PBL, clinical cases, team working and lectures in the Podiatric School at the Universidad Europea de Madrid. Knowledge was measured with multiple choice exams and PBL, clinical cases and team working evaluation. Results. We show that the students gain knowledge and competences during the academic course using a new mixed methodology for teaching. In contrast to the control group, knowledge in the experimental group stabilizes over the academic course making individual differences between the students insignificant. This homogenization becomes evident as a lower variability of the average scores of the experimental group and gives support to the value of a mixed methodology for students with more difficulties. There is a strong linear regression between class attendance and exam scores, confirming the importance of face-to-face supervision for learning. Conclusions. A mixed methodology for Physiology and Anatomy teaching allows the students to acquire abilities and competencies, also helping to equilibrate individual differences during the learning process.

  7. [Airway anatomy : Relevant structures in emergency medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, M; Wree, A

    2017-09-01

    The subject of this article is the anatomy of the respiratory tract with an emphasis on the larynx. A differentiation is made between the upper and lower airways according to topographical and functional aspects, the limits of which are marked by the lower section of the larynx. The focus is on the anatomy of the structures involved, which are relevant for emergency medicine.

  8. Ameliorative effects of melatonin on dark-induced leaf senescence in gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis): leaf morphology, anatomy, physiology and transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Daqiu; Wang, Rong; Meng, Jiasong; Li, Zhiyuan; Wu, Yanqing; Tao, Jun

    2017-09-05

    Cut gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) foliage is widely used as a vase material or flower bouquet indoors; however, insufficient indoor light accelerates its senescence, which shortens its viewing time. In this study, applying melatonin to delay gardenia leaf senescence when exposed to extremely low light condition (darkness), and the results showed that 1.0 mM was the effective concentration. At this concentration, chlorophyll contents and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fv/Fm, Fv/F0 and Y(II)) increased, while the carotenoid and flavonoid contents decreased. Meanwhile, stress physiological indices decreased in response to exogenous melatonin application, whereas an increase in glutamine synthetase activity, water and soluble protein contents was observed. Moreover, exogenous melatonin application also reduced leaf programmed cell death under darkness, increased the endogenous melatonin level, expression levels of tryptophan decarboxylase gene, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, and maintained more intact anatomical structures. Furthermore, transcriptome sequencing revealed that various biological processes responded to exogenous melatonin application, including carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, plant hormone signal transduction and pigment biosynthesis. Consequently, dark-induced leaf senescence in gardenia was significantly delayed. These results provided a better understanding for improving the ornamental value of cut gardenia foliage using melatonin.

  9. Student Perceptions and Learning Outcomes of Blended Learning in a Massive First-Year Core Physiology for Allied Health Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Janelle; Meehan-Andrews, Terri; Weerakkody, Nivan; Hughes, Diane L.; Rathner, Joseph A.

    2017-01-01

    Evidence shows that factors contributing to success in physiology education for allied health students at universities include not only their high school achievement and background but also factors such as confidence with their teachers and quality of their learning experience, justifying intensive and continued survey of students' perceptions of…

  10. Enhancing nursing students' skills in vital signs assessment by using multimedia computer-assisted learning with integrated content of anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaveevivitchai, Chularuk; Chuengkriankrai, Benchaporn; Luecha, Yuwadee; Thanooruk, Rujires; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Ruenwongsa, Pintip

    2009-01-01

    Due to constraints of increasing number of nursing students and a disproportionate shortfall of faculty members in nursing schools, it was necessary to supplement traditional lecture or lecture-demonstration with on-line multimedia materials and/or multimedia compact discs for enhancing learning. The authors have developed a computer-assisted learning (CAL) multimedia on vital signs with animation and audio features for teaching in the classroom based on the 5Es inquiry cycle. When the CAL was tried on second-year undergraduates in two comparable schools, all groups of students gained significantly higher performance skills regardless of whether the groups were subjected to CAL/lecture or CAL/lecture/demonstration. However, they did not gain in factual knowledge.

  11. An anatomy precourse enhances student learning in veterinary anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Margaret A; Stevens-Sparks, Cathryn; Taboada, Joseph; Daniel, Annie; Lazarus, Michelle D

    2016-07-08

    Veterinary anatomy is often a source of trepidation for many students. Currently professional veterinary programs, similar to medical curricula, within the United States have no admission requirements for anatomy as a prerequisite course. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the impact of a week-long precourse in veterinary anatomy on both objective student performance and subjective student perceptions of the precourse educational methods. Incoming first year veterinary students in the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine professional curriculum were asked to participate in a free precourse before the start of the semester, covering the musculoskeletal structures of the canine thoracic limb. Students learned the material either via dissection only, instructor-led demonstrations only, or a combination of both techniques. Outcome measures included student performance on examinations throughout the first anatomy course of the professional curriculum as compared with those who did not participate in the precourse. This study found that those who participated in the precourse did significantly better on examinations within the professional anatomy course compared with those who did not participate. Notably, this significant improvement was also identified on the examination where both groups were exposed to the material for the first time together, indicating that exposure to a small portion of veterinary anatomy can impact learning of anatomical structures beyond the immediate scope of the material previously learned. Subjective data evaluation indicated that the precourse was well received and students preferred guided learning via demonstrations in addition to dissection as opposed to either method alone. Anat Sci Educ 9: 344-356. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  12. Nail anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Berker, David

    2013-01-01

    The nail unit comprises the nail plate, the surrounding soft tissues, and their vasculature and innervation based upon the distal phalanx. The nail plate is a laminated keratinized structure lying on the nail matrix (15-25%), the nail bed with its distal onychodermal band (75-85%), and the hyponychium at its free edge. The distal part of the matrix, the lunula characterized by its half-moon shape, can be observed in some digits. The nail plate is embedded by the proximal and lateral folds. From the proximal nail fold, the cuticle (also known as the eponychium), adheres to the superficial surface of the proximal nail plate. The nail unit possesses a complex and abundant vascular network to ensure adequate blood supply. Finally, both the periungual soft tissues and the nail folds are innervated. The shapes, structure, and inter-relationships of these tissues are factors in the way nails present with disease and how we understand and manage those diseases. In particular, an understanding of the surgical anatomy is important for those undertaking diagnostic or curative operations on the nail. With this knowledge, the most appropriate surgery can be planned and the patient can be provided with accurate and clear guidance to enable informed consent. © 2013.

  13. Impact of Anatomy Boot Camp on Students in a Medical Gross Anatomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herling, Patrick J.; Mohseni, B. Tanya; Hill, Derek C.; Chelf, Stacy; Rickert, Jeffrey A.; Leo, Jonathan T.; Langley, Natalie R.

    2017-01-01

    Lincoln Memorial University-DeBusk College of Osteopathic Medicine (LMU-DCOM) offers an optional three-week summer Anatomy Boot Camp course (ABC) to facilitate students' transition into medical school and promote retention of anatomy subject matter. The pre-matriculation program is a supplemental instruction course that utilizes a small group…

  14. Subjective and physiological effects, and expired carbon monoxide concentrations in frequent and occasional cannabis smokers following smoked, vaporized, and oral cannabis administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmeyer, Matthew N; Swortwood, Madeleine J; Abulseoud, Osama A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2017-06-01

    Although smoking is the most common cannabis administration route, vaporization and consumption of cannabis edibles are common. Few studies directly compare cannabis' subjective and physiological effects following multiple administration routes. Subjective and physiological effects, and expired carbon monoxide (CO) were evaluated in frequent and occasional cannabis users following placebo (0.001% Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]), smoked, vaporized, and oral cannabis (6.9% THC, ∼54mg). Participants' subjective ratings were significantly elevated compared to placebo after smoking and vaporization, while only occasional smokers' ratings were significantly elevated compared to placebo after oral dosing. Frequent smokers' maximum ratings were significantly different between inhaled and oral routes, while no differences in occasional smokers' maximum ratings between active routes were observed. Additionally, heart rate increases above baseline 0.5h after smoking (mean 12.2bpm) and vaporization (10.7bpm), and at 1.5h (13.0bpm) and 3h (10.2bpm) after oral dosing were significantly greater than changes after placebo, with no differences between frequent and occasional smokers. Finally, smoking produced significantly increased expired CO concentrations 0.25-6h post-dose compared to vaporization. All participants had significant elevations in subjective effects after smoking and vaporization, but only occasional smokers after oral cannabis, indicating partial tolerance to subjective effects with frequent exposure. There were no differences in occasional smokers' maximum subjective ratings across the three active administration routes. Vaporized cannabis is an attractive alternative for medicinal administrations over smoking or oral routes; effects occur quickly and doses can be titrated with minimal CO exposure. These results have strong implications for safety and abuse liability assessments. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Comparison of Physiological and Psychological Relaxation Using Measurements of Heart Rate Variability, Prefrontal Cortex Activity, and Subjective Indexes after Completing Tasks with and without Foliage Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin-Ae; Song, Chorong; Oh, Yun-Ah; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi; Son, Ki-Cheol

    2017-09-20

    The objective of this study was to compare physiological and psychological relaxation by assessing heart rate variability (HRV), prefrontal cortex activity, and subjective indexes while subjects performed a task with and without foliage plants. In a crossover experimental design, 24 university students performed a task transferring pots with and without a foliage plant for 3 min. HRV and oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentration in the prefrontal cortex were continuously measured. Immediately thereafter, subjective evaluation of emotions was performed using a modified semantic differential (SD) method and a profile of mood state questionnaire (POMS). Results showed that the natural logarithmic (ln) ratio of low frequency/high frequency, as an estimate of sympathetic nerve activity, was significantly lower while performing the task with foliage plants for the average 3 min measurement interval. Oxy-Hb concentration in the left prefrontal cortex showed a tendency to decrease in the 2-3 min interval in the task with foliage plants compared to the task without plants. Moreover, significant psychological relaxation according to POMS score and SD was demonstrated when the task involved foliage plants. In conclusion, the task involving foliage plants led to more physiological and psychological relaxation compared with the task without foliage plants.

  16. Non-Smoker Exposure to Secondhand Cannabis Smoke II: Effect of Room Ventilation on the Physiological, Subjective, and Behavioral/Cognitive Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Evan S.; Cone, Edward J; Mitchell, John M.; Bigelow, George E.; LoDico, Charles; Flegel, Ron; Vandrey, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug. Many individuals are incidentally exposed to secondhand cannabis smoke, but little is known about the effects of this exposure. This report examines the physiological, subjective, and behavioral/cognitive effects of secondhand cannabis exposure, and the influence of room ventilation on these effects. Methods Non-cannabis-using individuals were exposed to secondhand cannabis smoke from six individuals smoking cannabis (11.3% THC) ad libitum in a specially constructed chamber for one hour. Chamber ventilation was experimentally manipulated so that participants were exposed under unventilated conditions or with ventilation at a rate of 11 air exchanges/hour. Physiological, subjective and behavioral/cognitive measures of cannabis exposure assessed after exposure sessions were compared to baseline measures. Results Exposure to secondhand cannabis smoke under unventilated conditions produced detectable cannabinoid levels in blood and urine, minor increases in heart rate, mild to moderate self-reported sedative drug effects, and impaired performance on the Digit Symbol Substitution Task (DSST). One urine specimen tested positive at using a 50 ng/mL cut-off and several specimens were positive at 20 ng/mL. Exposure under ventilated conditions resulted in much lower blood cannabinoid levels, and did not produce sedative drug effects, impairments in performance, or positive urine screen results. Conclusions Room ventilation has a pronounced effect on exposure to secondhand cannabis smoke. Under extreme, unventilated conditions, secondhand cannabis smoke exposure can produce detectable levels of THC in blood and urine, minor physiological and subjective drug effects, and minor impairment on a task requiring psychomotor ability and working memory. PMID:25957157

  17. Non-smoker exposure to secondhand cannabis smoke II: Effect of room ventilation on the physiological, subjective, and behavioral/cognitive effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Evan S; Cone, Edward J; Mitchell, John M; Bigelow, George E; LoDico, Charles; Flegel, Ron; Vandrey, Ryan

    2015-06-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug. Many individuals are incidentally exposed to secondhand cannabis smoke, but little is known about the effects of this exposure. This report examines the physiological, subjective, and behavioral/cognitive effects of secondhand cannabis exposure, and the influence of room ventilation on these effects. Non-cannabis-using individuals were exposed to secondhand cannabis smoke from six individuals smoking cannabis (11.3% THC) ad libitum in a specially constructed chamber for 1h. Chamber ventilation was experimentally manipulated so that participants were exposed under unventilated conditions or with ventilation at a rate of 11 air exchanges/h. Physiological, subjective and behavioral/cognitive measures of cannabis exposure assessed after exposure sessions were compared to baseline measures. Exposure to secondhand cannabis smoke under unventilated conditions produced detectable cannabinoid levels in blood and urine, minor increases in heart rate, mild to moderate self-reported sedative drug effects, and impaired performance on the digit symbol substitution task (DSST). One urine specimen tested positive at using a 50 ng/ml cut-off and several specimens were positive at 20 ng/ml. Exposure under ventilated conditions resulted in much lower blood cannabinoid levels, and did not produce sedative drug effects, impairments in performance, or positive urine screen results. Room ventilation has a pronounced effect on exposure to secondhand cannabis smoke. Under extreme, unventilated conditions, secondhand cannabis smoke exposure can produce detectable levels of THC in blood and urine, minor physiological and subjective drug effects, and minor impairment on a task requiring psychomotor ability and working memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Anatomy of the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Young Adult Guidelines For brain tumor information and support Call: 800-886-ABTA (2282) or Complete our contact form Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Structure Neuron Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis ...

  19. Anatomy by Logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texley, Juliana

    2001-01-01

    Presents a strategy for teaching anatomy to middle school students. Recommends teaching about an organism's niche and ability to make connections between structure and function rather than using standard anatomy lessons. (YDS)

  20. Anatomy of the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anatomy of the Eye En Español Read in Chinese External (Extraocular) Anatomy Extraocular Muscles: There are six muscles that are ...

  1. Optimizing preprocessing and analysis pipelines for single-subject fMRI. I. Standard temporal motion and physiological noise correction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Nathan W; Oder, Anita; Abdi, Hervé; Tam, Fred; Lee, Wayne; Thomas, Christopher; Ween, Jon E; Graham, Simon J; Strother, Stephen C

    2012-03-01

    Subject-specific artifacts caused by head motion and physiological noise are major confounds in BOLD fMRI analyses. However, there is little consensus on the optimal choice of data preprocessing steps to minimize these effects. To evaluate the effects of various preprocessing strategies, we present a framework which comprises a combination of (1) nonparametric testing including reproducibility and prediction metrics of the data-driven NPAIRS framework (Strother et al. [2002]: NeuroImage 15:747-771), and (2) intersubject comparison of SPM effects, using DISTATIS (a three-way version of metric multidimensional scaling (Abdi et al. [2009]: NeuroImage 45:89-95). It is shown that the quality of brain activation maps may be significantly limited by sub-optimal choices of data preprocessing steps (or "pipeline") in a clinical task-design, an fMRI adaptation of the widely used Trail-Making Test. The relative importance of motion correction, physiological noise correction, motion parameter regression, and temporal detrending were examined for fMRI data acquired in young, healthy adults. Analysis performance and the quality of activation maps were evaluated based on Penalized Discriminant Analysis (PDA). The relative importance of different preprocessing steps was assessed by (1) a nonparametric Friedman rank test for fixed sets of preprocessing steps, applied to all subjects; and (2) evaluating pipelines chosen specifically for each subject. Results demonstrate that preprocessing choices have significant, but subject-dependant effects, and that individually-optimized pipelines may significantly improve the reproducibility of fMRI results over fixed pipelines. This was demonstrated by the detection of a significant interaction with motion parameter regression and physiological noise correction, even though the range of subject head motion was small across the group (≪ 1 voxel). Optimizing pipelines on an individual-subject basis also revealed brain activation patterns

  2. Physiological and Subjective Responses to Wearing the A/P22P-9(V) helicopter Aircrewman Chemical, Biological Protection Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-21

    2. The assembly consists of eight basic components. MK-i Undercoverall 14. The MK-i is a one-piece coverall constructed of a nonwoven nylon fabric...constructed of a nonwoven nylon fabric with a small percentage of viscose rayon. The outside of the garment is treated with a fluorochemical to repel liquids...temperatures was known to produce heat stress. subjects were well-trained on heat-related injuries, their symptoms and remedies . An explanation of heat

  3. Redox proteomics and physiological responses in Cistus albidus shrubs subjected to long-term summer drought followed by recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Brossa, Ricard; Pint?-Marijuan, Marta; Francisco, Rita; L?pez-Carbonell, Marta; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Alegre, Leonor

    2014-01-01

    Main conclusion The interaction between enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, endogenous levels of ABA and ABA-GE, the rapid recuperation of photosynthetic proteins under re-watering as well the high level of antioxidant proteins in previously drought-stressed plants under re-watering conditions, will contribute to drought resistance in plants subjected to a long-term drought stress under Mediterranean field conditions. This work provides an overview of the mechanisms of Cistus albidus ac...

  4. Gender differences in response to emotional stress: an assessment across subjective, behavioral, and physiological domains and relations to alcohol craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M; Hong, Kwangik; Bergquist, Keri; Sinha, Rajita

    2008-07-01

    Women and men are at risk for different types of stress-related disorders, with women at greater risk for depression and anxiety and men at greater risk for alcohol-use disorders. The present study examines gender differences in emotional and alcohol craving responses to stress that may relate to this gender divergence in disorders. Healthy adult social drinkers (27 men, 27 women) were exposed to individually developed and calibrated stressful, alcohol-related, and neutral-relaxing imagery, 1 imagery per session, on separate days and in random order. Subjective emotions, behavioral/bodily responses, cardiovascular arousal [heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP)], and self-reported alcohol craving were assessed. Women reported and displayed greater sadness and anxiety following stress than men and men had greater diastolic BP response than women. No gender differences in alcohol craving, systolic BP or HR were observed. Subjective, behavioral, and cardiovascular measures were correlated in both genders. However, for men, but not women, alcohol craving was associated with greater subjective emotion and behavioral arousal following stress and alcohol cues. These data suggest that men and women respond to stress differently, with women experiencing greater sadness and anxiety, while men show a greater integration of reward motivation (craving) and emotional stress systems. These findings have implications for the gender-related divergence in vulnerability for stress-related disorders, with women at greater risk for anxiety and depression than men, and men at greater risk for alcohol-use disorders than women.

  5. The Anatomy and Physiology of Data Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Whether the science (especially geosciences) community at-large likes it or not, the co-opting of the term Data Science by the private sector has led to increased hype over data science as a career and as a means to solve challenging data problems, and lack of educational innovation in curricula for data science. If the full benefits of a new generation of statistical and analytical software tools that operate on high-performance computational infrastructure are to be attained, adequate attention to the 'science of data science' is needed. In this contribution, we present a science view of data science both from an education and research perspective. We also will introduce a research agenda that explores the key challenges that must be met to meet the needs of research driven by large-scale data analytics. We focus on three, as-yet untapped, data science topics: understanding scale in systems, spare systems, and abductive reasoning. We conclude with a specific call to action to make progress on the aforementioned topics.

  6. Anatomy and Physiology of Phrenic Afferent Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Jayakrishnan; Streeter, Kristi A; Turner, Sara M F; Sunshine, Michael D; Bolser, Donald C; Fox, Emily J; Davenport, Paul W; Fuller, David D

    2017-08-23

    Large diameter myelinated phrenic afferents discharge in phase with diaphragm contraction and smaller diameter fibers discharge across the respiratory cycle. In this article, we review the phrenic afferent literature and highlight areas in need of further study. We conclude that 1) activation of both myelinated and non-myelinated phrenic sensory afferents can influence respiratory motor output on a breath-by-breath basis; 2) the relative impact of phrenic afferents substantially increases with diaphragm work and fatigue; 3) activation of phrenic afferents has a powerful impact on sympathetic motor outflow, and 4) phrenic afferents contribute to diaphragm somatosensation and the conscious perception of breathing. Much remains to be learned regarding the spinal and supraspinal distribution and synaptic contacts of myelinated and non-myelinated phrenic afferents. Similarly, very little is known regarding the potential role of phrenic afferent neurons in triggering or modulating expression of respiratory neuroplasticity. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Neurophysiology.

  7. Anatomy and Physiology of the Pericardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoit, Brian D

    2017-11-01

    The pericardium consists of a visceral mesothelial monolayer (epicardium) that reflects over the great vessels and joins an outer, relatively inelastic fibrous parietal layer of organized collagen and elastin fibers, between which is a potential space that normally contains up to 50 mL of plasma filtrate. Although not essential for life, the pericardium serves important albeit subtle functions in the euvolemic healthy individual that become increasingly important in hypervolemic states and conditions in which the heart enlarges acutely. The pericardial functions can be divided into the mechanical, reflex, membranous, metabolic, ligamentous. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Anatomy and physiology of genital organs - men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Pierre; Giuliano, François

    2015-01-01

    Male sexual functions involve a number of organs and structures in genitalia whose role is to produce fertilizing gametes and to allow female-partner insemination. The testes belong to the reproductive and endocrine systems as they synthesize spermatozoa and androgens, and are under finely regulated hormonal control by the hypothalamopituitary axis. Sexual responses are controlled by a complex and coordinated interplay of both the somatic and the autonomic nervous system in multiple components of the brain, spinal cord, and relevant peripheral organs. Erectile bodies are an essential element of the penis and engorgement of the penis with blood leads to penile tumescence. Blood engorgement is due to relaxation of smooth-muscle cells of erectile tissue and endothelium of the penile arteries. The penis gains additional rigidity when the ischiocavernosus muscles contract. Stimuli from peripheral and/or central origins activate particular spinal nuclei, causing penile erection. Ejaculation consists of two phases, emission and expulsion, which correspond, respectively, to secretion of the different components of the semen by sex glands and forceful expulsion of semen due to rhythmic contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscle. A spinal generator of ejaculation integrates genital stimuli and sexual cues and, when the excitatory threshold is reached, triggers ejaculation by orchestrating the activation of autonomic and somatic pathways commanding the peripheral events of ejaculation. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Anatomy and physiology of the peritoneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Simon C; Stanton, Michael P

    2014-12-01

    The peritoneum is commonly encountered in abdominal surgery. The development and rotation of the primitive gut tube lead to the normal adult arrangement of the peritoneal cavity, which forms bloodless planes allowing the retroperitoneal portions of the bowel to be safely mobilised. The arrangement of the peritoneum also forms spaces in which infected fluid or pus can collect. The microcirculation of peritoneal fluid is now well understood, and the large absorptive surface of the peritoneum can be exploited in peritoneal dialysis. The absorption of gas by the peritoneum following abdominal surgery is faster in neonates than in older children, and understanding this process contributes to the interpretation of post-operative radiographs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bone Conduction: Anatomy, Physiology, and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    www.mhseriestacticalheadsets.com PerCom / Audio Communicatio ns HB-1 (communication system); 31MIT, 17MIT, inertial teardrop (bone conduction transducers...www.tacticalcommand.com Savox Communicatio ns HS-C (helmet communication with bone conduction microphone); E-C (ear bone conduction microphone and

  11. Anatomy and Physiology of the Auditory Tracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad hosein Hekmat Ara

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Hearing is one of the excel sense of human being. Sound waves travel through the medium of air and enter the ear canal and then hit the tympanic membrane. Middle ear transfer almost 60-80% of this mechanical energy to the inner ear by means of “impedance matching”. Then, the sound energy changes to traveling wave and is transferred based on its specific frequency and stimulates organ of corti. Receptors in this organ and their synapses transform mechanical waves to the neural waves and transfer them to the brain. The central nervous system tract of conducting the auditory signals in the auditory cortex will be explained here briefly.

  12. Physiological and Proteomic Responses of Diploid and Tetraploid Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. Subjected to Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanjuan Meng

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tetraploid black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. is adaptable to salt stress. Here, we compared morphological, physiological, ultrastructural, and proteomic traits of leaves in tetraploid black locust and its diploid relatives under salt stress. The results showed that diploid (2× plants suffered from greater negative effects than those of tetraploid (4× plants. After salt treatment, plant growth was inhibited, photosynthesis was reduced, reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde content, and relative electrolyte leakage increased, and defense-related enzyme activities decreased in 2× compared to those in 4×. In addition, salt stress resulted in distorted chloroplasts, swollen thylakoid membranes, accumulation of plastoglobules, and increased starch grains in 2× compared to those in 4×. However, 4× developed diverse responses under salt stress. A comparative proteomic analysis revealed that 41 and 37 proteins were differentially expressed in 2× and 4×, respectively. These proteins were mainly involved in photosynthesis, stress and defense, energy, metabolism, transcription/translation, and transportation. Distinct patterns of protein changes between 2× and 4× were analyzed. Collectively, our results suggest that the plants showed significantly different responses to salt stress based on ploidy level of the plant. The 4× possessed a better salt protection mechanism than that of 2×, suggesting salt tolerance in the polyploid plant.

  13. Comparative effects of pulsed and continuous short wave diathermy on pain and selected physiological parameters among subjects with chronic knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teslim, Onigbinde Ayodele; Adebowale, Adenle Charles; Ojoawo, Adesola Ojo; Sunday, Odejide Akinwole; Bosede, Arilewola

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare the effects of pulsed and continuous short wave diathermy on pain, range of motion, pulse rate and skin temperature in subjects with chronic knee osteoarthritis. 24 Participants with grade 111 OA of the knee were randomly selected into CSWD and PSWD groups. Pre and post treatment parameters were recorded at onset and the end of 4th week. ANO VA, independent, paired t-test and chi-square were used to analyze the data. The pain experienced by participants in the CSWD group was significantly lower than that of the PSWD groups (P effective than PSWD in alleviating pain and in increasing knee flexion range of motion among subjects with chronic knee OA. Also, a mild elevation of skin temperature was able to elicit physiological effects that could exert therapeutic effects.

  14. Physiology of Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carley, David W; Farabi, Sarah S

    2016-02-01

    IN BRIEF Far from a simple absence of wakefulness, sleep is an active, regulated, and metabolically distinct state, essential for health and well-being. In this article, the authors review the fundamental anatomy and physiology of sleep and its regulation, with an eye toward interactions between sleep and metabolism.

  15. Evaluation of a subject-specific finite-element model of the equine metacarpophalangeal joint under physiological load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Simon M; Whitton, R Chris; Kawcak, Chris E; Stover, Susan M; Pandy, Marcus G

    2014-01-03

    The equine metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint is frequently injured, especially by racehorses in training. Most injuries result from repetitive loading of the subchondral bone and articular cartilage rather than from acute events. The likelihood of injury is multi-factorial but the magnitude of mechanical loading and the number of loading cycles are believed to play an important role. Therefore, an important step in understanding injury is to determine the distribution of load across the articular surface during normal locomotion. A subject-specific finite-element model of the MCP joint was developed (including deformable cartilage, elastic ligaments, muscle forces and rigid representations of bone), evaluated against measurements obtained from cadaver experiments, and then loaded using data from gait experiments. The sensitivity of the model to force inputs, cartilage stiffness, and cartilage geometry was studied. The FE model predicted MCP joint torque and sesamoid bone flexion angles within 5% of experimental measurements. Muscle-tendon forces, joint loads and cartilage stresses all increased as locomotion speed increased from walking to trotting and finally cantering. Perturbations to muscle-tendon forces resulted in small changes in articular cartilage stresses, whereas variations in joint torque, cartilage geometry and stiffness produced much larger effects. Non-subject-specific cartilage geometry changed the magnitude and distribution of pressure and the von Mises stress markedly. The mean and peak cartilage stresses generally increased with an increase in cartilage stiffness. Areas of peak stress correlated qualitatively with sites of common injury, suggesting that further modelling work may elucidate the types of loading that precede joint injury and may assist in the development of techniques for injury mitigation. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Redox proteomics and physiological responses in Cistus albidus shrubs subjected to long-term summer drought followed by recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossa, Ricard; Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Francisco, Rita; López-Carbonell, Marta; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Alegre, Leonor

    2015-04-01

    The interaction between enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, endogenous levels of ABA and ABA-GE, the rapid recuperation of photosynthetic proteins under re-watering as well the high level of antioxidant proteins in previously drought-stressed plants under re-watering conditions, will contribute to drought resistance in plants subjected to a long-term drought stress under Mediterranean field conditions. This work provides an overview of the mechanisms of Cistus albidus acclimation to long-term summer drought followed by re-watering in Mediterranean field conditions. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of drought resistance in these plants, a proteomic study using 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS was performed on leaves from these shrubs. The analysis identified 57 differentially expressed proteins in water-stressed plants when contrasted to well watered. Water-stressed plants showed an increase, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in HSPs, and downregulation of photosynthesis and carbon metabolism enzymes. Under drought conditions, there was considerable upregulation of enzymes related to redox homeostasis, DHA reductase, Glyoxalase, SOD and isoflavone reductase. However, upregulation of catalase was not observed until after re-watering was carried out. Drought treatment caused an enhancement in antioxidant defense responses that can be modulated by ABA, and its catabolites, ABA-GE, as well as JA. Furthermore, quantification of protein carbonylation was shown to be a useful marker of the relationship between water and oxidative stress, and showed that there was only moderate oxidative stress in C. albidus plants subjected to water stress. After re-watering plants recovered although the levels of ABA-GE and antioxidant enzymes still remain higher than in well-watered plants. We expect that our results will provide new data on summer acclimation to drought stress in Mediterranean shrubs.

  17. Surgical anatomy of the nail apparatus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneke, E.

    2006-01-01

    Nail surgery is an integral part of dermatologic surgery. An in-depth knowledge of the anatomy, biology, physiology, and gross pathology of the entire nail unit is essential. In particular, knowledge of nail histopathology is necessary to perform diagnostic nail biopsies and other nail procedures

  18. Surgical anatomy of the nail apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneke, Eckart

    2006-07-01

    Nail surgery is an integral part of dermatologic surgery. An in-depth knowledge of the anatomy, biology, physiology, and gross pathology of the entire nail unit is essential. In particular, knowledge of nail histopathology is necessary to perform diagnostic nail biopsies and other nail procedures correctly.

  19. Kant on anatomy and the status of the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    This paper contributes to recent interest in Kant's engagement with the life sciences by focusing on one corner of those sciences that has received comparatively little attention: physical and comparative anatomy. By attending to remarks spread across Kant's writings, we gain some insight into Kant's understanding of the disciplinary limitations but also the methodological sophistication of the study of anatomy and physiology. Insofar as Kant highlights anatomy as a paradigmatic science guided by the principle of teleology in the Critique of the Power of Judgment, a more careful study of Kant's discussions of anatomy promises to illuminate some of the obscurities of that text and of his understanding of the life sciences more generally. In the end, it is argued, Kant's ambivalence with regard to anatomy gives way to a pessimistic conclusion about the possibility that anatomy, natural history, and, by extension, the life sciences more generally might one day become true natural sciences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. AnatomiQuiz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brent, Mikkel Bo; Emmanuel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    AnatomiQuiz er en quiz-app udviklet til bevægeapparatets anatomi. Den består af mere end 2500 spørgsmål og over 1000 anatomiske billeder. Alle spørgsmål tager udgangspunkt i lærebogen Bevægeapparatets anatomi af Finn Bojsen-Møller m.fl.......AnatomiQuiz er en quiz-app udviklet til bevægeapparatets anatomi. Den består af mere end 2500 spørgsmål og over 1000 anatomiske billeder. Alle spørgsmål tager udgangspunkt i lærebogen Bevægeapparatets anatomi af Finn Bojsen-Møller m.fl....

  1. Patellofemoral anatomy and biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Seth L; Plackis, Andreas C; Nuelle, Clayton W

    2014-07-01

    Patellofemoral disorders are common. There is a broad spectrum of disease, ranging from patellofemoral pain and instability to focal cartilage disease and arthritis. Regardless of the specific condition, abnormal anatomy and biomechanics are often the root cause of patellofemoral dysfunction. A thorough understanding of normal patellofemoral anatomy and biomechanics is critical for the treating physician. Recognizing and addressing abnormal anatomy will optimize patellofemoral biomechanics and may ultimately translate into clinical success. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis regulates physiology and performance of Digitaria eriantha plants subjected to abiotic stresses by modulating antioxidant and jasmonate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedranzani, H; Rodríguez-Rivera, M; Gutiérrez, M; Porcel, R; Hause, B; Ruiz-Lozano, J M

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates antioxidant responses and jasmonate regulation in Digitaria eriantha cv. Sudafricana plants inoculated (AM) and non-inoculated (non-AM) with Rhizophagus irregularis and subjected to drought, cold, or salinity. Stomatal conductance, photosynthetic efficiency, biomass production, hydrogen peroxide accumulation, lipid peroxidation, antioxidants enzymes activities, and jasmonate levels were determined. Stomatal conductance and photosynthetic efficiency decreased in AM and non-AM plants under all stress conditions. However, AM plants subjected to drought, salinity, or non-stress conditions showed significantly higher stomatal conductance values. AM plants subjected to drought or non-stress conditions increased their shoot/root biomass ratios, whereas salinity and cold caused a decrease in these ratios. Hydrogen peroxide accumulation, which was high in non-AM plant roots under all treatments, increased significantly in non-AM plant shoots under cold stress and in AM plants under non-stress and drought conditions. Lipid peroxidation increased in the roots of all plants under drought conditions. In shoots, although lipid peroxidation decreased in AM plants under non-stress and cold conditions, it increased under drought and salinity. AM plants consistently showed high catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity under all treatments. By contrast, the glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of AM roots was lower than that of non-AM plants and increased in shoots. The endogenous levels of cis-12-oxophytodienoc acid (OPDA), jasmonic acid (JA), and 12-OH-JA showed a significant increase in AM plants as compared to non-AM plants. 11-OH-JA content only increased in AM plants subjected to drought. Results show that D. eriantha is sensitive to drought, salinity, and cold stresses and that inoculation with AM fungi regulates its physiology and performance under such conditions, with antioxidants and jasmonates being involved

  3. [Human physiology: kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natochin, Iu V

    2010-01-01

    The content of human physiology as an independent part of current physiology is discussed. Substantiated is the point that subjects of human physiology are not only special sections of physiology where functions are inherent only in human (physiology of intellectual activity, speech, labor, sport), but also in peculiarities of functions, specificity of regulation of each of physiological systems. By the example of physiology of kidney and water-salt balance there are shown borders of norm, peculiarities of regulation in human, new chapters of renal physiology which have appeared in connection with achievements of molecular physiology.

  4. Psychomotor performance, subjective and physiological effects and whole blood Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol concentrations in heavy, chronic cannabis smokers following acute smoked cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwope, David M; Bosker, Wendy M; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2012-07-01

    Δ⁹-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the illicit drug most frequently observed in accident and driving under the influence of drugs investigations. Whole blood is often the only available specimen collected during such investigations, yet few studies have examined relationships between cannabis effects and whole blood concentrations following cannabis smoking. Nine male and one female heavy, chronic cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit and smoked ad libitum one 6.8% THC cannabis cigarette. THC, 11-hydroxy-THC and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC were quantified in whole blood and plasma. Assessments were performed before and up to 6 h after smoking, including subjective [visual analog scales (VAS) and Likert scales], physiological (heart rate, blood pressure and respirations) and psychomotor (critical-tracking and divided-attention tasks) measures. THC significantly increased VAS responses and heart rate, with concentration-effect curves demonstrating counter-clockwise hysteresis. No significant differences were observed for critical-tracking or divided-attention task performance in this cohort of heavy, chronic cannabis smokers. The cannabis influence factor was not suitable for quantifying psychomotor impairment following cannabis consumption and was not precise enough to determine recent cannabis use with accuracy. These data inform our understanding of impairment and subjective effects following acute smoked cannabis and interpretation of whole blood cannabinoid concentrations in forensic investigations.

  5. Teaching Anatomy: need or taste?

    OpenAIRE

    Farrokhi, Ahmad; Nejad, Masoume Soleymani

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Anatomy is one of the core sections of Basic Medical Sciences. Given the central role of anatomy, the development of medical knowledge and reach new horizons in science is not possible without relying on anatomy. Since in the anatomy science, students are familiar with the basic terms of medical language, the anatomy's hard to know and have a negative attitude towards this course. With these conditions, anatomy professors have an important role in providing incentives...

  6. Ontology-enriched Visualization of Human Anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouchard, LC

    2005-12-20

    The project focuses on the problem of presenting a human anatomical 3D model associated with other types of human systemic information ranging from physiological to anatomical information while navigating the 3D model. We propose a solution that integrates a visual 3D interface and navigation features with the display of structured information contained in an ontology of anatomy where the structures of the human body are formally and semantically linked. The displayed and annotated anatomy serves as a visual entry point into a patient's anatomy, medical indicators and other information. The ontology of medical information provides labeling to the highlighted anatomical parts in the 3D display. Because of the logical organization and links between anatomical objects found in the ontology and associated 3D model, the analysis of a structure by a physician is greatly enhanced. Navigation within the 3D visualization and between this visualization and objects representing anatomical concepts within the model is also featured.

  7. Anatomy Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  8. Anatomy Journal of Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. Anatomy Journal of Africa is the Official Journal for the Association of Anatomical Societies of Africa. This journal has its editorial office based at the department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, and has biannual issues (January and July issues). We accept and publish a wide variety of ...

  9. P. Stibbe of anatomy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-09-15

    Sep 15, 1990 ... History of Medicine. The role of R. B. Thomson brief heralds of the science in South Africa. Part I. R. B. Thomson. P. V. TOBIAS and E. ·P. Stibbe of anatomy. Early in ... They became the first professors of anatomy at, respectively, the ... medical practice and farming; Stibbe returned to the UK and a career in ...

  10. John Barclay (1758-1826) extra-mural teacher of anatomy in Edinburgh: Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, M H

    2006-04-01

    John Barclay (1758-1826) was one of the most distinguished, respected and enthusiastic teachers of anatomy in Edinburgh during the first decades of the 19th century. He taught this subject in the extra-mural school from 1797 until 1825. He initially studied divinity at St Andrews University, intending entering the Church. After acting as a minister of the Church for about 10 years and tutoring for most of these years, he decided to study medicine in Edinburgh, and was particularly attracted to anatomy. After he qualified with the MD degree, he proceeded to London where he attended the anatomical classes of Dr Marshall for about a year. On his return to Edinburgh he taught anatomy to a small class for three years in High School Yards. He then acquired a property at Number 10 Surgeons' Square where he taught from 1800 until 1825, when he was forced to withdraw due to poor health. His lectures were meticulously prepared, and his illustrations clear and copious. In 1804, his class was recognised by the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh as fulfilling their requirements for students who wished to take the College's examinations. During the winter sessions he taught anatomy, physiology and surgery, while in the summer sessions he taught comparative anatomy, a subject in which he was particularly interested. He was elected an Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh in 1821. His classes were taken over by his partner Robert Knox, at that time Conservator of the College's Museum.

  11. Does Spatial Ability Help the Learning of Anatomy in a Biomedical Science Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Kevin; Hayes, Jennifer A.; Chiavaroli, Neville

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional appreciation of the human body is the cornerstone of clinical anatomy. Spatial ability has previously been found to be associated with students' ability to learn anatomy and their examination performance. The teaching of anatomy has been the subject of major change over the last two decades with the reduction in time spent…

  12. The Use of Educational Comics in Learning Anatomy among Multiple Student Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoon; Chung, Min Suk; Jang, Hae Gwon; Chung, Beom Sun

    2017-01-01

    Understanding basic human anatomy can be beneficial for all students, regardless of when, or if, they will later undertake a formal course in the subject. For students who are preparing to undertake a formal anatomy course, educational comics on basic anatomy can serve as a concise and approachable review of the material. For other students, these…

  13. Physiological changes in scalp, facial and body hair after the menopause: a cross-sectional population-based study of subjective changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, I; Wojnarowska, F

    2011-03-01

    Significant changes in scalp, facial and body hair occur after the menopause. These can have a significant negative impact on self-esteem and are also potential markers of endocrine or metabolic diseases. Knowledge of postmenopausal hair changes is important for clinicians to distinguish between normal physiological change and those that require further medical investigation. To assess the subjective experience of scalp, facial and body hair change in a large cohort of normal postmenopausal females. Postmenopausal females aged 45 years or over of northern European origin completed a questionnaire detailing scalp, facial and body hair changes following the menopause. Women with a history of thyroid disease, oophorectomy or premature menopause were excluded from the study. The Mann-Whitney U-test and the χ(2) test were used to assess the correlation between scalp, facial and body hair changes with age. Diffuse generalized hair loss was the most common form of scalp hair loss, reported by 26% of women. Frontal hair loss was reported by 9% of women. Facial hair gain was cited by 39% of females with the chin being the most frequent site for new growth (32% of women). Body hair loss was significantly correlated with older age (P hair loss in which diffuse generalized scalp hair loss was significantly correlated with body hair loss and increasing age (P hair loss which was associated with higher facial hair scores and relatively younger age (P hair loss. This is the first comprehensive study of the subjective hair changes in postmenopausal women. This study demonstrates two distinct patterns of hair change relating to age, which may reflect different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and are of relevance to the medical management of these women as well as being possible predictors of health outcomes. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  14. Cervical flexion-rotation test and physiological range of motion - A comparative study of patients with myogenic temporomandibular disorder versus healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Tzvika; Dvir, Zeevi; Reiter, Shoshana; Winocur, Ephraim

    2017-02-01

    Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) refer to several common clinical disorders which involve the masticatory muscles, the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the adjacent structures. Although neck signs and symptoms are found with higher prevalence in TMD patients compared to the overall population, whether limitation of cervical mobility is an additional positive finding in this cohort is still an open question. To compare the physiological cervical range of motion (CROM) and the extent of rotation during cervical flexion (flexion-rotation test, FRT) in people with TMD (muscular origin) and healthy control subjects. The range of motion of the neck and FRT was measured in 20 women with myogenic TMD and 20 age matched healthy controls. Women with myogenic TMD had significantly lower FRT scores compared to their matched healthy women. No difference was found between groups in CROM in any of the planes of movement. The FRT was positive (less than 32°) in 90% of the TMD participants versus 5% in the healthy control but the findings were not correlated with TMD severity. The results point out a potential involvement of the upper cervical joints (c1-c2) in women with myogenic TMD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Coffee leaf and stem anatomy under boron deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Rosolem,Ciro Antonio; Leite,Vagner Maximino

    2007-01-01

    Boron deficiency in coffee is widely spread in Brazilian plantations, but responses to B fertilizer have been erratic, depending on the year, form and time of application and B source. A better understanding of the effects of B on plant physiology and anatomy is important to establish a rational fertilization program since B translocation within the plant may be affected by plant anatomy. In this experiment, coffee plantlets of two varieties were grown in nutrient solutions with B levels of 0...

  16. Anatomy of Sarcocaulon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Verhoeven

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of the leaf blade, petiole, stem and root of the genus Sarcocaulon (DC. Sweet is discussed. On the basis of the leaf anatomy, the four sections recognized by Moffett (1979 can be identified: section Denticulati (dorsiventral leaves, section Multifidi (isobilateral leaves and adaxial and abaxial palisade continuous at midvein, section Crenati (isobilateral leaves, short curved trichomes and glandular hairs, section Sarcocaulon (isobilateral leaves and glandular hairs only. The anatomy of the stem is typically that of a herbaceous dicotyledon with a thick periderm. The root structure shows that the function of the root is not food storage.

  17. Anatomy of Sarcocaulon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Verhoeven

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of the leaf blade, petiole, stem and root of the genus Sarcocaulon (DC. Sweet is discussed. On the basis of the leaf anatomy, the four sections recognized by Moffett (1979 can be identified: section Denticulati (dorsiventral leaves, section Multifidi (isobilateral leaves and adaxial and abaxial palisade continuous at midvein, section Crenati (isobilateral leaves, short curved trichomes and glandular hairs, section Sarcocaulon (isobilateral leaves and glandular hairs only. The anatomy of the stem is typically that of a herbaceous dicotyledon with a thick periderm. The root structure shows that the function of the root is not food storage.

  18. [Division and specialization of the Western European physiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S I; Kim, O J

    1992-01-01

    The 19th century has been thought to be the turning point that the experimental method began to take strong root as the core to solve many physiological subjects, and the discipline of physiology got firmly fixed as the specialized one in the western Europe. Authors found the following characteristics in the process of the division and specialization of the 19th century western physiology. 1) It was the process of its separation from the discipline of anatomy that was necessary in the development of physiology as the independent, specialized division. Newly grown ideas, that there were working functions specialized study, were the important background and basis of the development of physiology as the specialized discipline. 2) It was not until the force and influence of the metaphysical concept on the living things (vitalism) grew weak that physiology could become the specialized discipline. The new materialistic concept about living things made it possible for the researchers of that time to apply the physico-chemical method in the study of physiological problems. 3) Institutionalization of the physiological research and education accelerated its development and specialization. The followings appeared in the mid-19th century: specialized professorship, division as the separated subject in the undergraduated medical school curriculum, laboratory settings for the purpose of physiological study, establishment of independent academic societies and publication of their own journals. Two main factors, namely, both the settlement of the new physiological thought and method of the very scientific nature and the institutionalization within the academic and medical societies, exerted influences on each other in the ground of the 19th century western Europe. Through that process, the discipline of physiology took root deep as the independent specialized division in the societies of science and medicine.

  19. From college to clinic: reasoning over memorization is key for understanding anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sue Ann; Perrotti, William; Silverthorn, Dee U; Dalley, Arthur F; Rarey, Kyle E

    2002-04-15

    Anatomy and physiology are taught in community colleges, liberal arts colleges, universities, and medical schools. The goals of the students vary, but educators in these diverse settings agree that success hinges on learning concepts rather than memorizing facts. In this article, educators from across the postsecondary educational spectrum expand on several points: (1) There is a problem with student perception that anatomy is endless memorization, whereas the ability to manage information and use reasoning to solve problems are ways that professionals work. This misperception causes students to approach the subject with the wrong attitude. (2) The process of learning to use information is as important as the concepts themselves. Using understanding to explain and make connections is a more useful long-term lesson than is memorization. Anatomy should be presented and learned as a dynamic basis for problem solving and for application in the practice and delivery of quality health care. (3) Integration of form and function must be explicit and universal across all systems. (4) Using only models, images, audiovisuals, or computers cannot lead students to the requisite reasoning that comes from investigative dissection of real tissue. (5) Some undergraduate courses require students to memorize excessive musculoskeletal detail. (6) Learning tissue biology is a particular struggle for medical students who have no background from an undergraduate course. (7) Medical professors and students see benefits when students have taken undergraduate courses in anatomy, histology, and physiology. If medical schools suggest these electives to applicants, medical students might arrive better prepared and, thus, be able to learn clinical correlations more efficiently in the limited allocated time of medical school curricula. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Comparison of a Gross Anatomy Laboratory to Online Anatomy Software for Teaching Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if…

  1. Anatomy of the Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Resources Anatomy of the Spine Bones Vertebrae Each individual vertebra has unique features ... or "extensor". The muscles and ligaments in the spine work to hold the spine upright, and to ...

  2. Anatomy and art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, Konstantinos; Tsoukalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Androutsos, George

    2013-01-01

    Leonardo da Vinci, Jean Falcon, Andreas Vesalius, Henry Gray, Henry Vandyke Carter and Frank Netter created some of the best atlases of anatomy. Their works constitute not only scientific medical projects but also masterpieces of art.

  3. It's Difficult to Change the Way We Teach: Lessons from the Integrative Themes in Physiology Curriculum Module Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverthorn, Dee U.; Thorn, Patti M.; Svinicki, Marilla D.

    2006-01-01

    The Integrative Themes in Physiology (ITIP) project was a National Science Foundation-funded collaboration between the American Physiological Society (APS) and the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS). The project goal was to create instructional resources that emphasized active learning in undergraduate anatomy and physiology classrooms.…

  4. Options for postgraduate anatomy education in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ian S; Fox, Carly M

    2012-03-30

    Medical education in Australia has changed considerably in recent times. As a result, hours dedicated to subjects such as anatomy have been reduced. Young doctors preparing for a career in anatomy-focussed specialties such as surgery and radiology require an indepth knowledge of this subject matter. Many Australian and New Zealand universities now offer postgraduate anatomy courses to address this potential gap in a budding surgeon's education. This article summarises the current options for postgraduate surgical anatomy education in Australia and New Zealand. All universities in Australia and New Zealand were contacted between September 2010 and December 2010 regarding the nature and content of course offerings. An Internet-based search was also conducted. There are currently nine universities in Australia and New Zealand offering postgraduate anatomy courses. Courses vary in contact hours, dissection time, lecture content, and examination methods. There are currently two universities offering a Postgraduate Diploma of Surgical Anatomy - the University of Melbourne, and the University of Otago. University of Western Australia and the University of New England offer a graduate diploma and a graduate certificate, respectively. Several other universities offer courses that deliver quality anatomical education but do not award students a university-recognised qualification. The Australian Orthopaedic Association now offers courses in Perth, Sydney and Brisbane, which delivers anatomy education specific to orthopaedics. There are a number of courses available to budding surgeons and radiologists to help fill the anatomy education void. With the development of such courses questions of accessibility, affordability and equity remain.

  5. Refined balloon pulmonary angioplasty driven by combined assessment of intra-arterial anatomy and physiology--Multimodal approach to treated lesions in patients with non-operable distal chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension--Technique, safety and efficacy of 50 consecutive angioplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roik, Marek; Wretowski, Dominik; Łabyk, Andrzej; Kostrubiec, Maciej; Irzyk, Katarzyna; Dzikowska-Diduch, Olga; Lichodziejewska, Barbara; Ciurzyński, Michał; Kurnicka, Katarzyna; Gołębiowski, Marek; Pruszczyk, Piotr

    2016-01-15

    Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) is an emerging therapeutic method in CTEPH. We aimed to prove the safety and efficacy of refined BPA driven by combined assessment of intra-arterial anatomy (IVUS/OCT) and physiology (pulmonary pressure ratio, PPR) in non-operable distal CTEPH. 11 pts (mean age 76, 59–84, 7 males) were enrolled in the BPA program according to the following inclusion criteria: 1. Non-operable CTEPH; 2. RHC with mPAP > 30 mm Hg; 3. At least one segmental perfusion defect at lung scintigraphy; 4. WHO class > II. Overall, 9 pts underwent 27 BPA sessions (mean 3 sessions per patient, range 1–5), 50 pulmonary arteries were dilated (mean 6 vessels per patient, range 3–9; 2.03 dilated arteries per session). All the angioplasties were performed according to an algorithm, which incorporated anatomical and functional assessment of targeted lesions. We performed BPA of 32 web lesions, 5 ring-like stenosis and 13 complete obstructions. BPA resulted in clinical and hemodynamic improvement. WHO class improved from pre-BPA to post-BPA (p = 0.018), and 6 MWD increased from 304 m to 384 m (p = 0.03), NT-proBNP dropped from 1248 pg/ml to 730 pg/ml (p < 0.001). Mean PAP and PVR decreased (p = 0.01), while CO and CI increased (p = 0.01). All dilated arteries were patent at angiographic reassessment. No significant complications occurred and all treated patients are still alive. Insignificant transient reperfusion pulmonary oedema occurred in only 2 patients, who responded well to supplemental oxygen. Refined BPA with assessment of intrapulmonary physiology using a pressure wire and precise evaluation of anatomy with IVUS and OCT provides hemodynamic and functional improvement, with minimal complications in distal non-operable CTEPH. This observation requires further validation in a large prospective study.

  6. Building Virtual Models by Postprocessing Radiology Images: A Guide for Anatomy Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Matthew D. B. S.

    2010-01-01

    Radiology and radiologists are recognized as increasingly valuable resources for the teaching and learning of anatomy. State-of-the-art radiology department workstations with industry-standard software applications can provide exquisite demonstrations of anatomy, pathology, and more recently, physiology. Similar advances in personal computers and…

  7. Human Cadavers vs. Multimedia Simulation: A Study of Student Learning in Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltarelli, Andrew J.; Roseth, Cary J.; Saltarelli, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Multimedia and simulation programs are increasingly being used for anatomy instruction, yet it remains unclear how learning with these technologies compares with learning with actual human cadavers. Using a multilevel, quasi-experimental-control design, this study compared the effects of "Anatomy and Physiology Revealed" (APR) multimedia…

  8. Premedical anatomy experience and student performance in medical gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashov, Peter; McDaniel, Dalton J; Jordan, Rebecca M

    2017-04-01

    Gross anatomy is considered one of the most important basic science courses in medical education, yet few medical schools require its completion prior to matriculation. The effect of taking anatomy courses before entering medical school on performance in medical gross anatomy has been previously studied with inconsistent results. The effect of premedical anatomy coursework on performance in medical gross anatomy, overall medical school grade point average (GPA), and Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination Level 1 (COMLEX 1) score was evaluated in 456 first-year osteopathic medical students along with a survey on its perceived benefits on success in medical gross anatomy course. No significant differences were found in gross anatomy grade, GPA, or COMLEX 1 score between students with premedical anatomy coursework and those without. However, significant differences and higher scores were observed in students who had taken three or more undergraduate anatomy courses including at least one with cadaveric laboratory. There was significantly lower perceived benefit for academic success in the medical gross anatomy course (Pstudents who had taken premedical anatomy courses (5.9 of 10) compared with those who had not (8.2 of 10). Results suggest that requiring any anatomy course as a prerequisite for medical school would not have significant effect on student performance in the medical gross anatomy course. However, requiring more specific anatomy coursework including taking three or more undergraduate anatomy courses, one with cadaveric laboratory component, may result in higher medical gross anatomy grades, medical school GPA, and COMLEX 1 scores. Clin. Anat. 30:303-311, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [The formative role of the laboratory in teaching the science of physiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Guzmán, Rosalinda; Urrutia Aguilar, María Esther

    2014-12-01

    Physiology teaching began with Claudius Galenus (c. 126-199 AD), known as Galen, who is considered the initiator of experimental physiology. This discipline was consolidated in the XIX century with the discoveries of Claude Bernard, which influenced the way of teaching this discipline in universities, independently from Anatomy. In Mexico, physiology teaching started in 1580. It was at the beginning of the XIX century when Valentín Gómez Farías created the professorship in Medical Sciences and Daniel Vergara Lope carried out its consolidation when he implemented a lab course. Doctor José Joaquín Izquierdo established that this subject ought to be taught by teachers with experience in research. Undoubtedly, formative physiology teaching carried out in labs must strengthen the application of method and scientific methodology in students. In this symposium, we put forward that the change in physiology teaching must promote multidisciplinary research in students, who will formulate a research question and develop an experimental model that will let them integrate their basic knowledge of physiology, pharmacology, biochemistry, and functional anatomy under the supervision of a research teacher.

  10. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  11. The Drosophila anatomy ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marta; Reeve, Simon; Grumbling, Gary; Osumi-Sutherland, David

    2013-10-18

    Anatomy ontologies are query-able classifications of anatomical structures. They provide a widely-used means for standardising the annotation of phenotypes and expression in both human-readable and programmatically accessible forms. They are also frequently used to group annotations in biologically meaningful ways. Accurate annotation requires clear textual definitions for terms, ideally accompanied by images. Accurate grouping and fruitful programmatic usage requires high-quality formal definitions that can be used to automate classification and check for errors. The Drosophila anatomy ontology (DAO) consists of over 8000 classes with broad coverage of Drosophila anatomy. It has been used extensively for annotation by a range of resources, but until recently it was poorly formalised and had few textual definitions. We have transformed the DAO into an ontology rich in formal and textual definitions in which the majority of classifications are automated and extensive error checking ensures quality. Here we present an overview of the content of the DAO, the patterns used in its formalisation, and the various uses it has been put to. As a result of the work described here, the DAO provides a high-quality, queryable reference for the wild-type anatomy of Drosophila melanogaster and a set of terms to annotate data related to that anatomy. Extensive, well referenced textual definitions make it both a reliable and useful reference and ensure accurate use in annotation. Wide use of formal axioms allows a large proportion of classification to be automated and the use of consistency checking to eliminate errors. This increased formalisation has resulted in significant improvements to the completeness and accuracy of classification. The broad use of both formal and informal definitions make further development of the ontology sustainable and scalable. The patterns of formalisation used in the DAO are likely to be useful to developers of other anatomy ontologies.

  12. Oral and Maxillofacial Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrameli, Mitra; Mupparapu, Mel

    2018-01-01

    This article deals with identification and descriptions of intraoral and extraoral anatomy of the dental and maxillofacial structures. The anatomic landmarks are highlighted and described based on their radiographic appearance and their clinical significance is provided. Cone beam CT-based images are described in detail using the multiplanar reconstructions. The skull views are depicted via line diagrams in addition to their normal radiographic appearance to make identification of anatomic structures easier for clinicians. The authors cover most of the anatomic structures commonly noted via radiographs and their descriptions. This article serves as a clinician's guide to oral and maxillofacial radiographic anatomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Interoperability between phenotype and anatomy ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Oellrich, Anika; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2010-12-15

    Phenotypic information is important for the analysis of the molecular mechanisms underlying disease. A formal ontological representation of phenotypic information can help to identify, interpret and infer phenotypic traits based on experimental findings. The methods that are currently used to represent data and information about phenotypes fail to make the semantics of the phenotypic trait explicit and do not interoperate with ontologies of anatomy and other domains. Therefore, valuable resources for the analysis of phenotype studies remain unconnected and inaccessible to automated analysis and reasoning. We provide a framework to formalize phenotypic descriptions and make their semantics explicit. Based on this formalization, we provide the means to integrate phenotypic descriptions with ontologies of other domains, in particular anatomy and physiology. We demonstrate how our framework leads to the capability to represent disease phenotypes, perform powerful queries that were not possible before and infer additional knowledge. http://bioonto.de/pmwiki.php/Main/PheneOntology.

  14. Learning anatomy enhances spatial ability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorstenbosch, M.A.T.M.; Klaassen, T.P.; Donders, A.R.T.; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Bolhuis, S.M.; Laan, R.F.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of

  15. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  16. Oral anatomy of the dog and cat in veterinary dentistry practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioso, Marco A; Carvalho, Vanessa G G

    2005-07-01

    The study of anatomy is important to accomplish any kind of surgical and medical procedure and to understand the physiology and diseases of animals. It is no different in veterinary dentistry. The study of oral anatomy helps the veterinarian to accomplish any kind of surgical procedure more quickly and with less damage to tissues, especially in cases of major oral surgery. In fact, under-standing the anatomy is easier when this knowledge is acquired directly, with surgical application. This article describes the essentials of the oral anatomy of the dog and cat, correlating this knowledge with the dental procedures to be used by veterinarians as a guide.

  17. Leaf anatomy and photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuijs, H.N.C.

    2016-01-01

    Keywords: CO2 diffusion, C3 photosynthesis, mesophyll conductance, mesophyll resistance, re-assimilation, photorespiration, respiration, tomato Herman Nicolaas Cornelis Berghuijs (2016). Leaf anatomy and photosynthesis; unravelling the CO2 diffusion pathway in C3 leaves. PhD thesis. Wageningen

  18. The Anatomy Puzzle Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Willis H.; Carter, Robert, III

    This document features review questions, crossword puzzles, and word search puzzles on human anatomy. Topics include: (1) Anatomical Terminology; (2) The Skeletal System and Joints; (3) The Muscular System; (4) The Nervous System; (5) The Eye and Ear; (6) The Circulatory System and Blood; (7) The Respiratory System; (8) The Urinary System; (9) The…

  19. Blended learning in anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Gert Værge; Brogner, Heidi Marie

    2016-01-01

    in working with the assignments in the classroom."... External assesor, observer and interviewer Based on the different evaluations, the conclusion are that the blended learning approach combined with the ‘flipped classroom’ is a very good way to learn and apply the anatomy, both for the students...

  20. Physiological and enzymatic analyses of pineapple subjected to ionizing radiation; Analises fisiologicas e enzimaticas em abacaxi submetido a tecnologia de radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Josenilda Maria da [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: jmnilda@yahoo.com.br; Silva, Juliana Pizarro; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-15

    The physiological and enzymatic post-harvest characteristics of the pineapple cultivar Smooth Cayenne were evaluated after the fruits were gamma-irradiated with doses of 100 and 150 Gy and the fruits were stored for 10, 20 and 30 days at 12 deg C ({+-}1) and relative humidity of 85% ({+-}5). Physiological and enzymatic analyses were made for each storage period to evaluate the alterations resulting from the application of ionizing radiation. Control specimens showed higher values of soluble pectins, total pectins, reducing sugars, sucrose and total sugars and lower values of polyphenyloxidase and polygalacturonase enzyme activities. All the analyses indicated that storage time is a significantly influencing factor. The 100 Gy dosage and 20-day storage period presented the best results from the standpoint of maturation and conservation of the fruits quality. (author)

  1. Successful Implementation of Inquiry-Based Physiology Laboratories in Undergraduate Major and Nonmajor Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casotti, G.; Rieser-Danner, L.; Knabb, M. T.

    2008-01-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated that inquiry-based physiology laboratories improve students' critical- and analytical-thinking skills. We implemented inquiry-based learning into three physiology courses: Comparative Vertebrate Physiology (majors), Human Physiology (majors), and Human Anatomy and Physiology (nonmajors). The aims of our curricular…

  2. Imaging of jaw with dental CT software program: Normal Anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myong Gon; Seo, Kwang Hee; Jung, Hak Young; Sung, Nak Kwan; Chung, Duk Soo; Kim, Ok Dong [School of Medicine, Taegu Catholic University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Hwan [Taegu Armed Forces General Hospital, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    Dental CT software program can provide reformatted cross-sectional and panoramic images that cannot be obtained with conventional axial and direct coronal CT scan. The purpose of this study is to describe the method of the technique and to identify the precise anatomy of jaw. We evaluated 13 mandibles and 7 maxillae of 15 subjects without bony disease who were being considered for endosseous dental implants. Reformatted images obtained by the use of bone algorithm performed on GE HiSpeed Advantage CT scanner were retrospectively reviewed for detailed anatomy of jaw. Anatomy related to neurovascular bundle(mandibular foramen, inferior alveolar canal, mental foramen, canal for incisive artery, nutrient canal, lingual foramen and mylohyoid groove), muscular insertion(mylohyoid line, superior and inferior genial tubercle and digastric fossa) and other anatomy(submandibular fossa, sublingual fossa, contour of alveolar process, oblique line, retromolar fossa, temporal crest and retromolar triangle) were well delineated in mandible. In maxilla, anatomy related to neurovascular bundle(greater palatine foramen and groove, nasopalatine canal and incisive foramen) and other anatomy(alveolar process, maxillary sinus and nasal fossa) were also well delineated. Reformatted images using dental CT software program provided excellent delineation of the jaw anatomy. Therefore, dental CT software program can play an important role in the preoperative assessment of mandible and maxilla for dental implants and other surgical conditions.

  3. Interactive anatomical teaching: Integrating radiological anatomy within topographic anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed Rabbo, F; Garrigues, F; Lefèvre, C; Seizeur, R

    2016-03-01

    Hours attributed to teaching anatomy have been reduced in medical curricula through out the world. In consequence, changes in anatomical curriculum as well as in teaching methods are becoming necessary. New methods of teaching are being evaluated. We present in the following paper an example of interactive anatomical teaching associating topographic anatomy with ultrasonographic radiological anatomy. The aim was to explicitly show anatomical structures of the knee and the ankle through dissection and ultrasonography. One cadaver was used as an ultrasonographic model and the other was dissected. Anatomy of the knee and ankle articulations was studied through dissection and ultrasonography. The students were able to simultaneously assimilate both anatomical aspects of radiological and topographic anatomy. They found the teaching very helpful and practical. This body of work provides example of a teaching method combining two important aspects of anatomy to help the students understand both aspects simultaneously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Breast development and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Sonali; Moore, Richard G

    2011-03-01

    In this article, the development of the female breast, as well as the functional anatomy, blood supply, innervation and lymphatic drainage are described. A thorough understanding of the breast anatomy is an important adjunct to a meticulous clinical breast examination. Breast examination is a complex skill involving key maneuvers, including careful inspection and palpation. Clinical breast examination can provide an opportunity for the clinician to educate patients about their breast and about breast cancer, its symptoms, risk factors, early detection, and normal breast composition, and specifically variability. Clinical breast examination can help to detect some cancers not found by mammography, and clinicians should not override their examination findings if imaging is not supportive of the physical findings.

  5. Human ocular anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kels, Barry D; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    We review the normal anatomy of the human globe, eyelids, and lacrimal system. This contribution explores both the form and function of numerous anatomic features of the human ocular system, which are vital to a comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of many oculocutaneous diseases. The review concludes with a reference glossary of selective ophthalmologic terms that are relevant to a thorough understanding of many oculocutaneous disease processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Executions and scientific anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, Antonín; Jelen, Karel; Stajnrtova, Olga

    2015-12-01

    The very word "anatomy" tells us about this branch's connection with dissection. Studies of anatomy have taken place for approximately 2.300 years already. Anatomy's birthplace lies in Greece and Egypt. Knowledge in this specific field of science was necessary during surgical procedures in ophthalmology and obstetrics. Embalming took place without public disapproval just like autopsies and manipulation with relics. Thus, anatomical dissection became part of later forensic sciences. Anatomical studies on humans themselves, which needed to be compared with the knowledge gained through studying procedures performed on animals, elicited public disapprobation and prohibition. When faced with a shortage of cadavers, anatomists resorted to obtaining bodies of the executed and suicide victims - since torture, public display of the mutilated body, (including anatomical autopsy), were perceived as an intensification of the death penalty. Decapitation and hanging were the main execution methods meted out for death sentences. Anatomists preferred intact bodies for dissection; hence, convicts could thus avoid torture. This paper lists examples of how this process was resolved. It concerns the manners of killing, vivisection on people in the antiquity and middle-ages, experiments before the execution and after, vivifying from seeming death, experiments with galvanizing electricity on fresh cadavers, evaluating of sensibility after guillotine execution, and making perfect anatomical preparations and publications during Nazism from fresh bodies of the executed.

  7. Orbita - Anatomy, development and deformities; Orbita - Anatomie, Entwicklung und Fehlbildungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, K.M.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Golinski, M. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Schroeder, A.C. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Augenheilkunde, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    The development of the structures of the human orbita is very complex, but understanding the development makes it easier to understand normal anatomy and dysplasia. The following article first discusses the embryonic development of the eye structures and then presents the ''normal'' radiological anatomy using different investigation techniques and the most common deformities. (orig.) [German] Die Entwicklung der Strukturen der menschlichen Orbita ist sehr komplex. Ihre Kenntnis erleichtert jedoch das Verstaendnis von Anatomie und Fehlbildungen. In dieser Uebersicht wird zunaechst auf die embryonale Entwicklung eingegangen, bevor die ''normale'' radiologische Anatomie bei verschiedenen Untersuchungstechniken und die haeufigsten Fehlbildungen thematisiert werden. (orig.)

  8. Comparison of a gross anatomy laboratory to online anatomy software for teaching anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if equivalent learning outcomes could be achieved regardless of learning tool used. In addition, it was important to determine why students chose the gross anatomy laboratory over online AnatomyTV. A two group, post-test only design was used with data gathered at the end of the course. Primary outcomes were students' grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction. In addition, a survey was used to collect descriptive data. One cadaver prosection was available for every four students in the gross anatomy laboratory. AnatomyTV was available online through the university library. At the conclusion of the course, the gross anatomy laboratory group had significantly higher grade percentage, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction than the AnatomyTV group. However, the practical significance of the difference is debatable. The significantly greater time spent in gross anatomy laboratory during the laboratory portion of the course may have affected the study outcomes. In addition, some students may find the difference in (B+) versus (A-) grade as not practically significant. Further research needs to be conducted to identify what specific anatomy teaching resources are most effective beyond prosection for students without access to a gross anatomy laboratory. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  9. Modeling of Craniofacial Anatomy, Variation, and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Signe Strann

    the two images. To elaborate further: a computational atlas of the average anatomy was constructed. Using non-rigid registration, image data from a subject is automatically transformed into the coordinate space of the atlas. In this process, all knowledge built into the atlas is transferred to the subject...... and palate, unicoronal synostosis, and Crouzon syndrome. Using the proposed methods, highly detailed variation was assessed for cleft lip and palate, correspondence between images obtained before and after lip repair was established for cleft lip and palate, the intracranial volume was estimated for infants...

  10. Quantitative normal thoracic anatomy at CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Monica M S; Udupa, Jayaram K; Tong, Yubing; Saboury, Babak; Torigian, Drew A

    2016-07-01

    Automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) methodologies for a body region require detailed understanding of the morphology, architecture, and geographical layout of the organs within the body region. The aim of this paper was to quantitatively characterize the normal anatomy of the thoracic region for AAR. Contrast-enhanced chest CT images from 41 normal male subjects, each with 11 segmented objects, were considered in this study. The individual objects were quantitatively characterized in terms of their linear size, surface area, volume, shape, CT attenuation properties, inter-object distances, size and shape correlations, size-to-distance correlations, and distance-to-distance correlations. A heat map visualization approach was used for intuitively portraying the associations between parameters. Numerous new observations about object geography and relationships were made. Some objects, such as the pericardial region, vary far less than others in size across subjects. Distance relationships are more consistent when involving an object such as trachea and bronchi than other objects. Considering the inter-object distance, some objects have a more prominent correlation, such as trachea and bronchi, right and left lungs, arterial system, and esophagus. The proposed method provides new, objective, and usable knowledge about anatomy whose utility in building body-wide models toward AAR has been demonstrated in other studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Introduction to anatomy on Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledger, Thomas Stephen

    2017-09-01

    Wikipedia (www.wikipedia.com) is the largest encyclopaedia in existence. Of over five million English-language articles, about 6000 relate to Anatomy, which are viewed roughly 30 million times monthly. No work parallels the amount of attention, scope or interdisciplinary layout of Wikipedia, and it offers a unique opportunity to improve the anatomical literacy of the masses. Anatomy on Wikipedia is introduced from an editor's perspective. Article contributors, content, layout and accuracy are discussed, with a view to demystifying editing for anatomy professionals. A final request for edits or on-site feedback from anatomy professionals is made. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  12. A framework for assessing inter-individual variability in pharmacokinetics using virtual human populations and integrating general knowledge of physical chemistry, biology, anatomy, physiology and genetics: A tale of 'bottom-up' vs 'top-down' recognition of covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamei, Masoud; Dickinson, Gemma L; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of failures in clinical stages of drug development have been related to the effects of candidate drugs in a sub-group of patients rather than the 'average' person. Expectation of extreme effects or lack of therapeutic effects in some subgroups following administration of similar doses requires a full understanding of the issue of variability and the importance of identifying covariates that determine the exposure to the drug candidates in each individual. In any drug development program the earlier these covariates are known the better. An important component of the drive to decrease this failure rate in drug development involves attempts to use physiologically-based pharmacokinetics 'bottom-up' modeling and simulation to optimize molecular features with respect to the absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination (ADME) processes. The key element of this approach is the separation of information on the system (i.e. human body) from that of the drug (e.g. physicochemical characteristics determining permeability through membranes, partitioning to tissues, binding to plasma proteins or affinities toward certain enzymes and transporter proteins) and the study design (e.g. dose, route and frequency of administration, concomitant drugs and food). In this review, the classical 'top-down' approach in covariate recognition is compared with the 'bottom-up' paradigm. The determinants and sources of inter-individual variability in different stages of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion are discussed in detail. Further, the commonly known tools for simulating ADME properties are introduced.

  13. Minimal Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic and Drug-Drug-Disease Interaction Model of Rivaroxaban and Verapamil in Healthy and Renally Impaired Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Mohamed; Lee, Vincent H; Chow, Christina R; Rubino, Christopher M

    2017-12-14

    Current dosing recommendations for rivaroxaban advocate dosage reduction in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment and avoidance of concomitant strong inhibitors of CYP3A or P-glycoprotein. However, rivaroxaban dosing in patients with mild renal impairment taking concomitant moderate inhibitors of CYP3A and P-glycoprotein is not addressed. To quantify the impacts of concomitant verapamil administration and renal impairment on rivaroxaban pharmacokinetics, a minimal physiologically based pharmacokinetic model system was developed and used to evaluate potential increases in rivaroxaban exposure and the consequent increase in risk of major bleeding. Data from a phase 1, drug-drug interaction study were used to qualify the minimal physiologically based pharmacokinetic model system. Model-based simulations indicate that coadministration of rivaroxaban with verapamil substantially increases rivaroxaban exposure across all renal function categories, resulting in an exponential increase in bleeding risk. Reduction of the daily rivaroxaban dose to 10 to 15 mg reduces the major bleeding risk below the designated 4.5% threshold in the majority of patients with normal or mildly impaired renal function. A reduction to 10 mg daily in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment provides additional risk reduction so that 90% of those patients fall below the 4.5% threshold. A risk threshold of 4.5% was selected because it is the median predicted risk in patients treated concomitantly with ketoconazole, which is contraindicated for use with rivaroxaban. Patients taking both rivaroxaban and verapamil should take a reduced daily dose of rivaroxaban to minimize bleeding risk. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  14. Who Is Repeating Anatomy? Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Audra F.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy courses frequently serve as prerequisites or requirements for health sciences programs. Due to the challenging nature of anatomy, each semester there are students remediating the course (enrolled in the course for a second time), attempting to earn a grade competitive for admissions into a program of study. In this retrospective study,…

  15. Variant Anatomy of the External Jugular Vein | Olabu | Anatomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variant anatomy of the external jugular vein is important when performing invasive procedures in the neck. Although there are a number of case reports on some of these variations, there are few descriptive cross-sectional regarding the same. This study therefore aimed at describing the variant anatomy of the external ...

  16. The Use of Limericks to Engage Student Interest and Promote Active Learning in an Undergraduate Course in Functional Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, Jacqueline A.

    2012-01-01

    The study of anatomy is a content-dense discipline with a challenging vocabulary. A mnemonic is a series of letters, a word, a phrase, or a rhyme that students can use when studying to facilitate recall. This project was designed to promote active learning in undergraduate students studying anatomy and physiology by asking them to create limericks…

  17. [Pandora's box of anatomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Uri; Reis, Shmuel

    2008-05-01

    Physicians in Nazi Germany were among the first to join the Nazi party and the SS, and were considered passionate and active supporters of the regime. Their actions included development and implementation of the racial theory thus legitimizing the development of the Nazi genocide plan, leadership and execution of the sterilization and euthanasia programs as well as atrocious human experimentation. Nazi law allowed the use of humans and their remains in research institutions. One of the physicians whose involvement in the Nazi regime was particularly significant was Eduard Pernkopf. He was the head of the Anatomy Institute at the University of Vienna, and later became the president of the university. Pernkopf was a member of the Nazi party, promoted the idea of "racial hygiene", and in 1938, "purified" the university from all Jews. In Pernkopfs atlas of anatomy, the illustrators expressed their sympathy to Nazism by adding Nazi symbols to their illustrations. In light of the demand stated by the "Yad Vashem" Institute, the sources of the atlas were investigated. The report, which was published in 1998, determined that Pernkopfs Anatomy Institute received almost 1400 corpses from the Gestapo's execution chambers. Copies of Pernkopfs atlas, accidentally exposed at the Rappaport School of Medicine in the Technion, led to dilemmas concerning similar works with a common background. The books initiated a wide debate in Israel and abroad, regarding ethical aspects of using information originated in Nazi crimes. Moreover, these findings are evidence of the evil to which science and medicine can give rise, when they are captured as an unshakable authority.

  18. The prospect of anatomy as a career choice among clinical year medical students in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onakpoya, Oluwatoyin H; Onakpoya, Uvie U; Adereti, Grace E

    2009-01-01

    Medical doctors are potential important source of anatomy teachers. The aim of this study was to determine the choice of anatomy as a career option among medical students in a Nigerian medical school Descriptive survey of second- and third-year medical students using a self-administered questionnaire to asses age, sex, perception of anatomy as a subject, anatomy training experience and choice of anatomy as a career among respondents. Analysis was conducted using the SPSS and statistical significance inferred at P RESULTS: Three hundred and fifty three (85.3% response rate) who completely filled questionnaire were returned and analyzed of which 195 (55.2%) were males and 158(44.8%) were females. Their ages ranged between 18 and 37 years with a mean of 22.4 9.9 years. Although most students agreed that anatomy was an important subject in medical sciences 346 (98%), they had benefited from anatomy training in their clinical classes 320 (90.7%), and the knowledge of anatomy is useful in investigating patients with certain diseases 251 (71.1%), only 22 (6.2%) would choose anatomy as a career. Male students were more likely to choose anatomy as a career (P=0.026). Textbooks were the most common 334 (94.5%), while radiological means were the least 23 (6.5%) method employed in learning anatomy. Anatomy as a subject is perceived positively by clinical medical students, but the choice as a career option is low; attempt at increasing career interest is needful.

  19. A prepared speech in front of a pre-recorded audience: subjective, physiological, and neuroendocrine responses to the Leiden Public Speaking Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenberg, P Michiel; Bokhorst, Caroline L; Miers, Anne C; Sumter, Sindy R; Kallen, Victor L; van Pelt, Johannes; Blöte, Anke W

    2009-10-01

    This study describes a new public speaking protocol for youth. The main question asked whether a speech prepared at home and given in front of a pre-recorded audience creates a condition of social-evaluative threat. Findings showed that, on average, this task elicits a moderate stress response in a community sample of 83 12- to 15-year-old adolescents. During the speech, participants reported feeling more nervous and having higher heart rate and sweatiness of the hands than at baseline or recovery. Likewise, physiological (heart rate and skin conductance) and neuroendocrine (cortisol) activity were higher during the speech than at baseline or recovery. Additionally, an anticipation effect was observed: baseline levels were higher than recovery levels for most variables. Taking the anticipation and speech response together, a substantial cortisol response was observed for 55% of participants. The findings indicate that the Leiden Public Speaking Task might be particularly suited to investigate individual differences in sensitivity to social-evaluative situations.

  20. Archives: Anatomy Journal of Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 13 of 13 ... Archives: Anatomy Journal of Africa. Journal Home > Archives: Anatomy Journal of Africa. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 13 of 13 Items. 2017 ...

  1. Jan Toerien and the History of the Anatomy at the University of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Department of Anatomy at the University of the Free State (UFS) was established in 1970 and the first head of department, Professor Mattheus Johannes Toerien, assumed duties on 1 January 1971. However, little is known about the establishment and growth of anatomy as a department and this biomedical subject at ...

  2. The quail anatomy portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruparelia, Avnika A; Simkin, Johanna E; Salgado, David; Newgreen, Donald F; Martins, Gabriel G; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese quail is a widely used model organism for the study of embryonic development; however, anatomical resources are lacking. The Quail Anatomy Portal (QAP) provides 22 detailed three-dimensional (3D) models of quail embryos during development from embryonic day (E)1 to E15 generated using optical projection tomography. The 3D models provided can be virtually sectioned to investigate anatomy. Furthermore, using the 3D nature of the models, we have generated a tool to assist in the staging of quail samples. Volume renderings of each stage are provided and can be rotated to allow visualization from multiple angles allowing easy comparison of features both between stages in the database and between images or samples in the laboratory. The use of JavaScript, PHP and HTML ensure the database is accessible to users across different operating systems, including mobile devices, facilitating its use in the laboratory.The QAP provides a unique resource for researchers using the quail model. The ability to virtually section anatomical models throughout development provides the opportunity for researchers to virtually dissect the quail and also provides a valuable tool for the education of students and researchers new to the field. DATABASE URL: http://quail.anatomyportal.org (For review username: demo, password: quail123).

  3. Age-Related and Degenerative Changes in the Osseous Anatomy, Alignment, and Range of Motion of the Cervical Spine: A Comparative Study of Radiographic Data From 1016 Patients With Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy and 1230 Asymptomatic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machino, Masaaki; Yukawa, Yasutsugu; Imagama, Shiro; Ito, Keigo; Katayama, Yoshito; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Inoue, Taro; Ouchida, Jun; Tomita, Keisuke; Ishiguro, Naoki; Kato, Fumihiko

    2016-03-01

    A prospective comparative study. This study aimed to establish cervical spine morphometry, alignment, and range of motion (ROM) and to clarify the impact of these age-related and degenerative changes. There are no studies that have evaluated differences in the results of cervical spine radiographs between a large series of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) patients and healthy subjects. We enrolled 1016 consecutive CSM patients who underwent laminoplasty. CSM patients were also divided based on each decade of life between the fourth and ninth decades. We also enrolled a total of 1230 healthy volunteers as asymptomatic subjects in this study. There were at least 100 men and 100 women in each decade of life between the third and eighth decades. Cervical sagittal alignment on neutral and flexion-extension views was measured by the Cobb method at C2-7. ROM was assessed by measuring the difference in alignment between flexion and extension. Cervical lordosis in the neutral position increased gradually with age in both groups. CSM patients showed significantly smaller lordotic angles compared with those shown by asymptomatic subjects within each decade. The total ROM decreased with increasing age in both groups. The total ROM of females was larger than males. The ROM of CSM patients was significantly smaller than asymptomatic subjects. The flexion ROM did not change with aging in either group. There was no significant difference in the flexion ROM between males and females in the two groups. However, the extension ROM decreased gradually in both groups. The extension ROM of CSM patients was significantly smaller than asymptomatic subjects. Age-related and degenerative changes in the cervical spine, alignment, and ROM in each decade of life were established between CSM patients and asymptomatic subjects.

  4. Effects of Reinforcement Method of Dissection Physiology Education on the Achievement in Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Tomoya; Kagota, Satomi; Yoshikawa, Noriko; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Nishimura, Kanae; Miura, Takeshi; Yasui, Naomi; Shinozuka, Kazumasa; Nakabayashi, Toshikatsu

    2016-01-01

    The Pharmaceutical Education Support Center was established in the Department of Pharmacy at the School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science of Mukogawa Women's University in 2014. We started teaching first and second years students according to proficiency from the 2014 academic year. Students were divided into two classes: the regular class (high proficiency class) and the basic class (low proficiency class), based on achievement in several basic subjects related to the study of pharmacy. The staffs in the Pharmaceutical Education Support Center reinforce what is taught to students in the basic class. In this reinforcement method of education, the class size is small, consisting of about 15 students, a quiz to review the previous lesson is given at the beginning of each lecture, and an additional five lectures are conducted, compared to the high proficiency class, which receives 15 lectures. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the reinforcement method of physiology education on achievement in pharmacology that was not conducted in the proficiency-dependent teaching method. The students in the basic class in physiology education were chosen based on achievement levels in anatomy. Achievement levels of pharmacology students in the basic class of physiology improved compared with those of students who had the same achievement levels in physiology but were not taught according to proficiency-dependent teaching in the 2013 academic year. These results suggest that the reinforcement method for education in basic subjects in pharmacy, such as physiology, can improve achievement in more advanced subjects, such as pharmacology.

  5. Robert Knox and the anatomy of beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, Allister

    2011-06-01

    Robert Knox (1791-1862) is typically remembered as the Edinburgh anatomist to whom the murderers Burke and Hare sold the bodies of their victims. This association brought Knox infamy and damaged his life and career. Before the Burke and Hare scandal, Knox was one of the most famous, original and influential anatomists in Britain. He was also something of a dandy with a sophisticated appreciation of the visual arts. His most significant writings on artistic subjects were his books A Manual of Artistic Anatomy and Great Artists and Great Anatomists: A Biographical and Philosophical Study. Knox's interesting and independently minded opinions on the central artistic questions of his day were taken seriously by his contemporaries. His demotion in the official history of anatomy following his involvement with Burke and Hare, however, also removed him from the history of art theory in 19th century Britain. Knox was such a magnetic and impressive figure, though, that he has to be brought back to his era and his era is not complete without him. This paper discusses how Knox's writings on anatomy and biology shaped his contributions to art theory. It is a first step towards returning Knox, the art theorist, to the cultural life of 19th century Britain.

  6. Human Physiology and the Environment in Health and Disease: Readings from Scientific American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976

    This anthology of articles is designed to supplement standard texts for courses in human physiology, environmental physiology, anatomy and physiology, pathobiology, general biology, and environmental medicine. It focuses on the influences of the external environment on the body, the physiological responses to environmental challenges, and the ways…

  7. The Impact of Energy Substrates, Hormone Level and Subject-Related Factors on Physiologic Myocardial {sup 18}F-FDG Uptake in Normal Humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Juhye; Kong, Eunjung; Chun, Kyungah; Cho, Ihnho [Yeung-Nam Univ. Hoepital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    In a whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, non-specific {sup 18}F-FDG uptake of the myocardium is a common finding and can be very variable, ranging from background activity to intense accumulation and inhomogeneity. We investigated the effect of energy substrates and plasma/serum hormones that may have an influence on myocardial {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. F-FDG PET/CT was performed on 100 normal volunteers from November 2007 to August 2008. Blood samples were taken just before {sup 18}F-FDG injection from all subjects. Myocardial {sup 18}F-FDG uptake was measured as the mean (SUVmean) and maximal (SUV{sub max}) standardized uptake value. The myocardium was delineated on the PET/CT image by a manual volume of interest (VOI).We analyzed the influence of age, sex, presence of diabetes, fasting duration, insulin, glucagon, fasting glucose, lactate, free fatty acid (FFA), epinephrine (EPi), norepinephrine (NEp), free triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (T4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and body mass index (BMI). Overall, 92 subjects (mean age 50.28±8.30, male 57) were enrolled. The average of myocardial SUVmean was 2.08 and of myocardial SUV{sub max} was 4.57, respectively and there was a strong linear correlation between SUVmean and SUV{sub max} (r =0.98). FFA and fasting duration showed significant negative correlation with myocardial {sup 18}F-FDG uptake, respectively (r =-0.40 in FFA; r =-0.41 in fasting duration). No significant relationships were observed between myocardial uptake and age, sex, presence of diabetics, insulin, glucagon, fasting glucose, lactate, EPi, NEp, free T3, free T4, TSH and BMI. Myocardial {sup 18}F-FDG uptake decreases with longer fasting duration and higher FFA level in normal humans. Modulating myocardial uptake could improve {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging for specific oncologic and cardiovascular indications.

  8. The role of calcium in improving photosynthesis and related physiological and biochemical attributes of spring wheat subjected to simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatabadian, Aria; Sanavy, Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres; Gholamhoseini, Majid; Joghan, Aydin Khodaei; Majdi, Mohammad; Kashkooli, Arman Beyraghdar

    2013-04-01

    The response of photosynthesis parameters, catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activity, malondialdehyde, proline, chlorophyll, yield and yield components to foliar application of calcium and simulated acid rain in wheat were investigated. Foliar treatment of calcium led to significant increases in the photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, proline, chlorophyll, yield and yield components in plants subjected to acid rain. Antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation in the wheat leaves decreased because of calcium foliar application. Calcium hindered degradation of the rubisco subunits under acid rain treatment compared with water-treated plants. Results suggest that acid rain induces the production of free radicals resulting in lipid peroxidation of the cell membrane so that significant increase in antioxidant enzyme activity was observed. In addition, photosynthetic parameters i.e. photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were drastically suppressed by acid rain. The cellular damage caused by free radicals might be reduced or prevented by a protective metabolism including antioxidative enzymes and calcium. We report that foliar application of calcium before acid rain may ameliorate the adverse effects of acid rain in wheat plants.

  9. The Anatomy of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Mauro; Rampazzo, Roberto; Zaggia, Simone; Longair, Malcolm S.; Ferrarese, Laura; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; van der Kruit, Pieter C.; Laurikainen, Eija; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Combes, Françoise; Bertin, Giuseppe; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Calzetti, Daniela; Moss, David L.; Matteucci, Francesca; Djorgovski, Stanislav George; Fraix-Burnet, Didier; Graham, Alister W. McK.; Tully, Brent R.

    Just after WWII Astronomy started to live its "Golden Age", not differently to many other sciences and human activities, especially in the west side countries. The improved resolution of telescopes and the appearance of new efficient light detectors (e.g. CCDs in the middle eighty) greatly impacted the extragalactic researches. The first morphological analysis of galaxies were rapidly substituted by "anatomic" studies of their structural components, star and gas content, and in general by detailed investigations of their properties. As for the human anatomy, where the final goal was that of understanding the functionality of the organs that are essential for the life of the body, galaxies were dissected to discover their basic structural components and ultimately the mystery of their existence.

  10. MAINTAINING EXCELLENCE IN TEACHING OF HUMAN ANATOMY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kevin Wangwe Ongeti

    2013-01-02

    Jan 2, 2013 ... MDS Paediatric dentistry. 02. Master of science, Human. Anatomy. 04. PhD Human Anatomy. 05. MD Anatomy. 01. DSC Anatomy. *This is a special one year undergraduate program is offered only to distinguished medical and dental students who have demonstrated high level of interest and enthusiasm in ...

  11. THE CHANGING FACE OF HUMAN ANATOMY PRACTICE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contemporary practice of Human Anatomy should combine historical practices and current advances in technology. The history of Anatomy has changed dramatically over the years. It was not until the Grecian Period that people began to accept anatomy as a science. Originally nobody knew anything about anatomy and its.

  12. Regulation of some salt defense-related genes in relation to physiological and biochemical changes in three sugarcane genotypes subjected to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonsawat, Wasinee; Theerawitaya, Cattarin; Suwan, Therapatt; Mongkolsiriwatana, Chareerat; Samphumphuang, Thapanee; Cha-um, Suriyan; Kirdmanee, Chalermpol

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum officinale L.; Poaceae) is a sugar-producing plant widely grown in tropic. Being a glycophytic species, it is very sensitive to salt stress, and salinity severely reduces growth rate and cane yield. The studies investigating the regulation of salt defense metabolite-related genes in relation to final biochemical products in both susceptible and tolerant genotypes of sugarcane are largely lacking. We therefore investigated the expression levels of sugarcane shaggy-like kinase (SuSK), sucrose transporter (SUT), proline biosynthesis (pyrolline-5-carboxylate synthetase; P5CS), ion homeostasis (NHX1), and catalase (CAT2) mRNAs, and contents of Na(+), soluble sugar, and free proline in three sugarcane genotypes (A19 mutant, K88-92, and K92-80) when subjected to salt stress (200 mM NaCl). The relative expression levels of salt defense-related genes in salt-stressed plantlets of sugarcane cv. K88-92 were upregulated in relation to salt exposure times when compared with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as housekeeping gene. In addition, final biochemical products, i.e., low Na(+), sucrose enrichment, and free proline accumulation, were evidently demonstrated in salt-stressed plantlets. Chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, total carotenoid concentrations, and maximum quantum yield of PSII (F v/F m) in positive check (K88-92) were maintained under salt stress, leading to high net photosynthetic rate (P n) and growth retention (root length, fresh weight, and leaf area). In contrast, photosynthetic abilities in negative check, K92-80, and A19 mutant lines grown under salt stress declined significantly in comparison to control, leading to a reduction in P n and an inhibition of overall growth characters. The study concludes that the genetic background of sugarcane cv. K88-92 may further be exploited to play a key role as parental clone for sugarcane breeding program for salt-tolerant purposes.

  13. Lumbar vertebral pedicles: radiologic anatomy and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, N.P.; Kumar, R.; Kinkhabwala, M.; Wengrover, S.I.

    1988-01-01

    With the advancement of high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scanning the spine has added new knowledge to the various conditions affecting the pedicles. We wish to review the entire spectrum of pedicular lesions: the embryology, normal anatomy, normal variants, pitfalls, congenital anomalies, and pathological conditions are discussed. Different imaging modalities involving CT, isotope bone scanning, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are used to complement plain films of the lumbar spine. This subject review is an excellent source for future reference to lumbar pedicular lesions. 27 references.

  14. VISUALIZATION OF REGISTERED SUBSURFACE ANATOMY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method for visualization of subsurface anatomy includes obtaining a first image from a first camera and a second image from a second camera or a second channel of the first camera, where the first and second images contain shared anatomical structures. The second camera and the second...... channel of the first camera are capable of imaging anatomy beneath the surface in ultra-violet, visual, or infra-red spectrum. A data processor is configured for computing registration of the first image to the second image to provide visualization of subsurface anatomy during surgical procedures...

  15. Influence of age on gallbladder morphometry | Kariuki | Anatomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ninety-two gallbladder specimens of subjects aged between 21 and 84 were sourced from City mortuary and the Department of Human anatomy during autopsy. For each gallbladder specimen, measurements of length and circumference were taken to the accuracy of 0.1millimetres (mm) and used to calculate the ...

  16. A stochastic large deformation model for computational anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnaudon, Alexis; Holm, Darryl D.; Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru

    2017-01-01

    In the study of shapes of human organs using computational anatomy, variations are found to arise from inter-subject anatomical differences, disease-specific effects, and measurement noise. This paper introduces a stochastic model for incorporating random variations into the Large Deformation...

  17. Active Learning Improves Student Performance in a Respiratory Physiology Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Alex M.; Liachovitzky, Carlos; Abdullahi, Abass S.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of the introduction of active learning exercises into the anatomy and physiology curriculum in a community college setting. Specifically, the incorporation of a spirometry-based respiratory physiology lab resulted in improved student performance in two concepts (respiratory volumes and the hallmarks of…

  18. Evolutionary Medicine: The Ongoing Evolution of Human Physiology and Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühli, Frank; van Schaik, Katherine; Henneberg, Maciej

    2016-11-01

    The field of evolutionary medicine uses evolutionary principles to understand changes in human anatomy and physiology that have occurred over time in response to environmental changes. Through this evolutionary-based approach, we can understand disease as a consequence of anatomical and physiological "trade-offs" that develop to facilitate survival and reproduction. We demonstrate how diachronic study of human anatomy and physiology is fundamental for an increased understanding of human health and disease. ©2016 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

  19. Microscopic anatomy of the pleura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevin, Carla M; Light, Richard W

    2011-05-01

    This article describes the anatomy of the pleura, which is made up of five layers. Blood supply and lymphatics are described, as are pleural fluid, mesothelial cells, and Kampmeier foci. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Anatomy, biogenesis and regeneration of salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Kyle V; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients each year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients' quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland, which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting that nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of 3 general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph.

  1. A comparative anatomic and physiologic overview of the porcine heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelovas, Pavlos P; Kostomitsopoulos, Nikolaos G; Xanthos, Theodoros T

    2014-09-01

    Despite advances during the last 2 decades in every aspect of cardiovascular research (interventional cardiology, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and so forth), Western societies still are plagued by the consequences of cardiovascular disease. Consequently the discovery of new regimens and therapeutic interventions is of utmost importance. Research using human subjects is associated with substantial methodologic and ethical considerations, and the quest for an appropriate animal model for the human cardiovascular system has led to swine. The porcine heart bears a close resemblance to the human heart in terms of its coronary circulation and hemodynamic similarities and offers ease of implementation of methods and devices from human healthcare facilities. A thorough comprehension of the anatomy and physiology of the porcine cardiovascular system should focus on differences between swine and humans as well as similarities. Understanding these differences and similarities is essential to extrapolating data appropriately and to addressing the social demand for the ethical use of animals in biomedical research.

  2. Impact of Anatomy Boot Camp on Students in a Medical Gross Anatomy Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herling, Patrick J; Mohseni, B Tanya; Hill, Derek C; Chelf, Stacy; Rickert, Jeffrey A; Leo, Jonathan T; Langley, Natalie R

    2017-06-01

    Lincoln Memorial University-DeBusk College of Osteopathic Medicine (LMU-DCOM) offers an optional three-week summer Anatomy Boot Camp course (ABC) to facilitate students' transition into medical school and promote retention of anatomy subject matter. The pre-matriculation program is a supplemental instruction course that utilizes a small group learning format. Boot camp instruction is led by teaching assistants and two anatomy professors. Enrollees gain early exposure to Medical Gross Anatomy (MGA) course subject matter, which is taught in the fall semester, and learn study skills necessary to excel in medical school. No grade is assigned for the course, therefore participants can study without the fear of potentially affecting grades. This study evaluates the effectiveness of the LMU-DCOM ABC course using data from four consecutive summers. Independent two-sample t-tests were used to compare ABC to non-ABC students for the following variables: incoming grade point average (GPA) and Medical College Admission Test® (MCAT®) scores, MGA written and laboratory practical examination grades, and final MGA course grade. Additionally, a 26-question survey was administered to 2012-2014 boot camp participants. There were no significant differences in incoming GPA and MCAT scores. However, boot campers scored significantly higher on the first two lecture and laboratory examinations (P < 0.05) for each year of the study. Thereafter scores varied less, suggesting a faster head start for boot camp participants. Mean MGA final grade was on average 3% higher for the boot camp cohort. The survey feedback supports that the ABC course assists with the academic and social transition into medical school. Anat Sci Educ 10: 215-223. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. Study Skills in Anatomy and Physiology: Is There a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husmann, Polly R.; Barger, J. Bradley; Schutte, Audra F.

    2016-01-01

    Many factors influence the way individual students study, including but not limited to: previous coursework, attitudes toward the class (motivation, intimidation, risk, etc.), metacognition, and work schedules. However, little of this research has involved medical students. The present article asks the question, "Do individual medical…

  4. Anatomy, physiology and diagnostic considerations of taste and smell disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Visser; R. van Weissenbruch; A. Vissink; A. van Nieuw Amerongen; F.K.L. Spijkervet; Dr Harriët Jager-Wittenaar

    2013-01-01

    Taste and smell perception are closely related. The taste perception is performed by taste buds which can distinguish salt, sour, sweet, bitter, and umami. Moreover, 2,000-4,000 smells can be recognized. Many taste disorders are in fact smell disorders. Saliva affects taste perception because it

  5. Anatomy and physiology of the lower urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groat, William C; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Functions of the lower urinary tract to store and periodically eliminate urine are regulated by a complex neural control system in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral autonomic ganglia that coordinates the activity of smooth and striated muscles of the bladder and urethral outlet. Neural control of micturition is organized as a hierarchic system in which spinal storage mechanisms are in turn regulated by circuitry in the rostral brainstem that initiates reflex voiding. Input from the forebrain triggers voluntary voiding by modulating the brainstem circuitry. Many neural circuits controlling the lower urinary tract exhibit switch-like patterns of activity that turn on and off in an all-or-none manner. The major component of the micturition switching circuit is a spinobulbospinal parasympathetic reflex pathway that has essential connections in the periaqueductal gray and pontine micturition center. A computer model of this circuit that mimics the switching functions of the bladder and urethra at the onset of micturition is described. Micturition occurs involuntarily during the early postnatal period, after which it is regulated voluntarily. Diseases or injuries of the nervous system in adults cause re-emergence of involuntary micturition, leading to urinary incontinence. The mechanisms underlying these pathologic changes are discussed. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Anatomy and physiology of the heart and coronary arteries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Florence

    2015-03-01

    The myocardium assures the supply of oxygen to the body. The provision of oxygen to the myocardium by the coronary arteries is dependent on two key parameters: the coronary blood flow and the ability to extract oxygen from the arterial blood. Coronary artery disease is almost always the consequence of atherosclerosis and can lead to myocardial infarction.

  7. Anatomy, physiology, and physics of the peripheral vestibular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingma, H; van de Berg, R

    2016-01-01

    Many medical doctors consider vertigo and dizziness as the major, almost obligatory complaints in patients with vestibular disorders. In this chapter, we will explain that vestibular disorders result in much more diverse and complex complaints. Many of these other complaints are unfortunately often misinterpreted and incorrectly classified as psychogenic. When we really understand the function of the vestibular system, it becomes quite obvious why patients with vestibular disorders complain about a loss of visual acuity, imbalance, fear of falling, cognitive and attentional problems, fatigue that persists even when the vertigo attacks and dizziness decreases or even disappears. Another interesting new aspect in this chapter is that we explain why the function of the otolith system is so important, and that it is a mistake to focus on the function of the semicircular canals only, especially when we want to understand why some patients seem to suffer more than others from the loss of canal function as objectified by reduced caloric responses. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Visualizing liver anatomy, physiology and pharmacology using multiphoton microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haolu; Liang, Xiaowen; Gravot, Germain; Thorling, Camilla A; Crawford, Darrell H G; Xu, Zhi Ping; Liu, Xin; Roberts, Michael S

    2017-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has become increasingly popular and widely used in both basic and clinical liver studies over the past few years. This technology provides insights into deep live tissues with less photobleaching and phototoxicity, which helps us to better understand the cellular morphology, microenvironment, immune responses and spatiotemporal dynamics of drugs and therapeutic cells in the healthy and diseased liver. This review summarizes the principles, opportunities, applications and limitations of MPM in hepatology. A key emphasis is on the use of fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) to add additional quantification and specificity to the detection of endogenous fluorescent species in the liver as well as exogenous molecules and nanoparticles that are applied to the liver in vivo. We anticipate that in the near future MPM-FLIM will advance our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of liver diseases, and will be evaluated from bench to bedside, leading to real-time histology of human liver diseases. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The Anatomy and Physiology of Eyeblink Classical Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara-Nishiuchi, Kaori

    2016-12-27

    This chapter reviews the past research toward identifying the brain circuit and its computation underlying the associative memory in eyeblink classical conditioning. In the standard delay eyeblink conditioning paradigm, the conditioned stimulus (CS) and eyeblink-eliciting unconditioned stimulus (US) converge in the cerebellar cortex and interpositus nucleus (IPN) through the pontine nuclei and inferior olivary nucleus. Repeated pairings of CS and US modify synaptic weights in the cerebellar cortex and IPN, enabling IPN neurons to activate the red nucleus and generate the conditioned response (CR). In a variant of the standard paradigm, trace eyeblink conditioning, the CS and US are separated by a brief stimulus-free trace interval. Acquisition in trace eyeblink conditioning depends on several forebrain regions, including the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex as well as the cerebellar-brainstem circuit. Details of computations taking place in these regions remain unclear; however, recent evidence supports a view that the forebrain encodes a temporal sequence of the CS, trace interval, and US in a specific environmental context and signals the cerebellar-brainstem circuit to execute the CR when the US is likely to occur. Together, delay eyeblink conditioning represents one of the most successful cases of understanding the neural substrates of long-term memory in mammals, while trace eyeblink conditioning demonstrates its utility for uncovering detailed computations in the whole brain network underlying long-term memory.

  10. Comparing Individual Instruction & Lecture Formats in Human Anatomy & Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Fred H.

    1989-01-01

    Provides a description of and information about an individualized program in science at Central Community College. Reports on a study which compares lecture with individualized instruction. Concludes that there were no significant differences between heterogeneous groups, and there are advantages and disadvantages to each method. Diagrams and…

  11. Anatomy and physiology of the embryo, fetus and placenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegst, A.V. (Diagnostic Technology Consultants, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)); Davis, J.M. (Kansas Univ., Kansas City, KS (United States). Medical Center)

    1992-01-01

    Complexities of fetal and placental development introduce unique problems in quantitating a fetal radiation dose from internal radionuclide contamination. The paper briefly describes the many transitory stages in the development of the fetal organs and placenta from the time of the union of the egg and sperm. Descriptions of migration, differentiation and functional changes of cell lines will illustrate the difficulties in establishing a radiation history. The development of the cells responsible for hematopoiesis are reviewed, along with the thyroid gland and blood brain barrier, because of the importance of these tissues in radiation protection. (author).

  12. Carpal tunnel syndrome - Part I (anatomy, physiology, etiology and diagnosis,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Chammas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is defined by compression of the median nerve in the wrist. It is the commonest of the compressive syndromes and its most frequent cause is idiopathic. Even though spontaneous regression is possible, the general rule is that the symptoms will worsen. The diagnosis is primarily clinical, from the symptoms and provocative tests. Elec-troneuromyographic examination may be recommended before the operation or in cases of occupational illnesses.

  13. The Epistemology of Wrinkles: From Geology and Anatomy to Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad P. Paul

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The author studies the geometry and physics of wrinkling – drawing from geology and animal biology. The general principles behind tension and compression wrinkles are the same in geology or dermatology. But what is the structure in the subcutaneous tissue that marks every overlying wrinkle? Given we now know wrinkles have both anatomical and pathological correlations considering wrinkles as pure anatomic lines is fallacious and the article offers a unique perspective of skin creases and also avenues for further research.

  14. The Bartholin gland: An overview of anatomy, physiology and disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Bartholin's glands are located bilaterally at the posterior portion of the vestibule, distal to the hymenal remnants and are secretory in function. Although not solely so, they are responsible for the natural lubrication of the vagina and vulva and are normally not palpable or visible on examination of the pelvis. Symptomatic ...

  15. Properties of publications on anatomy in medical education literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc; Bolhuis, Sanneke; van Kuppeveld, Sascha; Kooloos, Jan; Laan, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Publications on anatomy in medical education appear to be largely anecdotal. To explore this, we investigated the literature on anatomy in medical education, aiming first to evaluate the contribution of the literature on anatomy in medical education to "best evidence medical education" (BEME) and second to evaluate the development of this literature toward more "best evidence" between 1985 and 2009. Four databases were searched for publications on anatomy in medical education published between 1985 and 2009, resulting in 525 references. Hundred publications were characterized by five variables (journal category, paper subject, paper category, author perspective, and paper perspective). Statements from these publications were characterized by two variables (category and foundation). The publications contained 797 statements that involved the words "anatomy," "anatomical," or "anatomist." Forty-five percent of the publications contained no explicit research question. Forty percent of the statements made were about "teaching methods" and 17% about "teaching content," 8% referred to "practical value," and 10% to "side effects" of anatomy education. Ten percent of the statements were "positional," five percent "traditional," four percent "self-evident," and two percent referred to "quality of care." Fifty-six percent of the statements had no foundation, 17% were founded on empirical data, and 27% by references. These results substantiated the critical comments about the anecdotal nature of the literature. However, it is encouraging to see that between 1985 and 2009 the number of publications is rising that these publications increasingly focus on teaching methods and that an academic writing style is developing. This suggests a growing body of empirical literature about anatomy education. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  16. Penile Embryology and Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny H. Yiee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7thand 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile skin sensation and lie within Buck's fascia. These nerves are notably absent at the 12 o'clock position. Perineal nerves supply skin sensation to the ventral shaft skin and frenulum. Cavernosal nerves lie within the corpora cavernosa and are responsible for sexual function. Paired cavernosal, dorsal, and bulbourethral arteries have extensive anastomotic connections. During erection, the cavernosal artery causes engorgement of the cavernosa, while the deep dorsal artery leads to glans enlargement. The majority of venous drainage occurs through a single, deep dorsal vein into which multiple emissary veins from the corpora and circumflex veins from the spongiosum drain. The corpora cavernosa and spongiosum are all made of spongy erectile tissue. Buck's fascia circumferentially envelops all three structures, splitting into two leaves ventrally at the spongiosum. The male urethra is composed of six parts: bladder neck, prostatic, membranous, bulbous, penile, and fossa navicularis. The urethra receives its blood supply from both proximal and distal directions.

  17. Diastasis recti: clinical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauman, Daniel

    2008-11-01

    Enduring diastasis repair is one of the yardsticks by which a successful abdominoplasty is measured, because the presence and size of diastasis recti are thought to be reliable indicators of abdominal wall laxity and protrusion. The author's study of the "normal" anatomy of diastasis challenges these concepts about diastasis recti. Ninety-two consecutive abdominoplasty patients, in whom intraoperative measurements of the linea alba were taken, were included in this study. The degree of abdominal wall protrusion was quantified by estimating the intra-abdominal fat volume in the upright patient as large, medium, or small. The most striking anatomical finding was that the linea alba has a limited range of stretch, most commonly between 1 and 2 inches, regardless of the extent of the abdominal girth. Moreover, eight patients with diastasis did not manifest abdominal protrusion, and in five patients, diastasis was absent, although a significant protrusion was present. Also, the site of the widest diastasis (supraumbilical/infraumbilical) frequently did not correspond to the site of the protrusion. Contrary to current thought, abdominal wall protrusions are caused by the stretching of the entire abdominal wall and not only the linea alba. Thus, significant abdominal wall protrusions may occur without diastasis and flat abdomens may exhibit a diastasis. Abdominal protrusion should replace diastasis as the prime indicator of abdominal wall laxity; stretching and the decision to perform diastasis repair should be influenced primarily by the evaluation of the protrusion rather than the diastasis.

  18. Ontology-driven education: Teaching anatomy with intelligent 3D games on the web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Trond

    Human anatomy is a challenging and intimidating subject whose understanding is essential to good medical practice, taught primarily using a combination of lectures and the dissection of human cadavers. Lectures are cheap and scalable, but do a poor job of teaching spatial understanding, whereas dissection lets students experience the body's interior first-hand, but is expensive, cannot be repeated, and is often imperfect. Educational games and online learning activities have the potential to supplement these teaching methods in a cheap and relatively effective way, but they are difficult for educators to customize for particular curricula and lack the tutoring support that human instructors provide. I present an approach to the creation of learning activities for anatomy called ontology-driven education, in which the Foundational Model of Anatomy, an ontological representation of knowledge about anatomy, is leveraged to generate educational content, model student knowledge, and support learning activities and games in a configurable web-based educational framework for anatomy.

  19. The place of surface anatomy in the medical literature and undergraduate anatomy textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this review were to examine the place of surface anatomy in the medical literature, particularly the methods and approaches used in teaching surface and living anatomy and assess commonly used anatomy textbooks in regard to their surface anatomy contents. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were searched using the following keywords "surface anatomy," "living anatomy," "teaching surface anatomy," "bony landmarks," "peer examination" and "dermatomes". The percentage of pages covering surface anatomy in each textbook was calculated as well as the number of images covering surface anatomy. Clarity, quality and adequacy of surface anatomy contents was also examined. The search identified 22 research papers addressing methods used in teaching surface anatomy, 31 papers that can help in the improvement of surface anatomy curriculum, and 12 anatomy textbooks. These teaching methods included: body painting, peer volunteer surface anatomy, use of a living anatomy model, real time ultrasound, virtual (visible) human dissector (VHD), full body digital x-ray of cadavers (Lodox(®) Statscan(®) images) combined with palpating landmarks on peers and the cadaver, as well as the use of collaborative, contextual and self-directed learning. Nineteen of these studies were published in the period from 2006 to 2013. The 31 papers covered evidence-based and clinically-applied surface anatomy. The percentage of surface anatomy in textbooks' contents ranged from 0 to 6.2 with an average of 3.4%. The number of medical illustrations on surface anatomy varied from 0 to 135. In conclusion, although there has been a progressive increase in publications addressing methods used in teaching surface anatomy over the last six to seven years, most anatomy textbooks do not provide students with adequate information about surface anatomy. Only three textbooks provided a solid explanation and foundation of understanding surface anatomy. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  20. Papilian's anatomy - celebrating six decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitraşcu, Dinu Iuliu; Crivii, Carmen Bianca; Opincariu, Iulian

    2017-01-01

    Victor Papilian was born an artist, during high school he studied music in order to become a violinist in two professional orchestras in Bucharest. Later on he enrolled in the school of medicine, being immediately attracted by anatomy. After graduating, with a briliant dissertation, he became a member of the faculty and continued to teach in his preferred field. His masters, Gh. Marinescu and Victor Babes, proposed him for the position of professor at the newly established Faculty of Medicine of Cluj. Here he reorganized the department radically, created an anatomy museum and edited the first dissection handbook and the first Romanian anatomy (descriptive and topographic) treatise, both books received with great appreciation. He received the Romanian Academy Prize. His knowledge and skills gained him a well deserved reputation and he created a prestigious school of anatomy. He published over 250 scientific papers in national and international journals, ranging from morphology to functional, pathological and anthropological topics. He founded the Society of Anthropology, with its own newsletter; he was elected as a member of the French Society of Anatomy. In parallel he had a rich artistic and cultural activity as writer and playwright: he was president of the Transylvanian Writers' Society, editor of a literary review, director of the Cluj theater and opera, leader of a book club and founder of a symphony orchestra.

  1. Rowing Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, W. L.

    This review of the literature discusses and examines the methods used in physiological assessment of rowers, results of such assessments, and future directions emanating from research in the physiology of rowing. The first section discusses the energy demands of rowing, including the contribution of the energy system, anaerobic metabolism, and the…

  2. Promoting Metacognition in First Year Anatomy Laboratories Using Plasticine Modeling and Drawing Activities: A Pilot Study of the "Blank Page" Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naug, Helen L.; Colson, Natalie J.; Donner, Daniel G.

    2011-01-01

    Many first year students of anatomy and physiology courses demonstrate an inability to self-regulate their learning. To help students increase their awareness of their own learning in a first year undergraduate anatomy course, we piloted an exercise that incorporated the processes of (1) active learning: drawing and plasticine modeling and (2)…

  3. The integrated anatomy practical paper: A robust assessment method for anatomy education today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire F; McManus, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Assessing anatomy in a way that tests higher cognitive domains and clinical application is not always straightforward. The old "spotter" examination has been criticized for only testing low level "identify" knowledge, whereas other assessment modalities such as multiple choice questions do not reflect the three dimensional and application nature of clinical anatomy. Medical curricula are frequently integrated and subject specific examinations do not reflect the case based, spiral, integrative nature of the curricula. The integrated anatomy practical paper (IAPP) is a hybrid of the old "spotter" and an objective structured clinical examination but it demonstrates how higher levels of taxonomy can be assessed, together with clinical features and integrates well with other disciplines. Importantly, the IAPP has shown to be reliable and practical to administer. Data gathered from the Bachelor of Medicine five-year program over two academic years for four IAPP examinations, each being 40 minutes with (K = 60 items) based on 440 students revealed consistently strong reliability coefficients (Cronbach alpha) of up to 0.923. Applying Blooms taxonomy to questions has shown a marked shift resulting in an increase in the complexity level being tested; between 2009 and 2013 a reduction of 26% in the number of low level "remember knowledge" domain questions was noted with up to an increase of 15% in "understanding" domain and 12% increase in the "applying" knowledge domain. Our findings highlight that it is possible to test, based in a laboratory, anatomy knowledge and application that is integrated and fit for practice. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  4. Fish cardiovascular physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Johanna; Weber, E Scott; Marty, Gary D; Hernandez-Divers, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Fish patients with cardiovascular disorders present a challenge in terms of diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic options. Veterinarians can approach these cases in fish using methods similar to those employed for other companion animals. Clinicians who evaluate and treat fish in private, aquarium, zoologic, or aquaculture settings need to rely on sound clinical judgment after thorough historical and physical evaluation. Pharmacokinetic data and treatments specific to cardiovascular disease in fish are limited; thus, drug types and dosages used in fish are largely empiric. Fish cardiovascular anatomy, physiology, diagnostic evaluation, monitoring, common diseases, cardiac pathologic conditions, formulary options, and comprehensive references are presented with the goal of providing fish veterinarians with clinically relevant tools.

  5. Coronary artery anatomy and variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagò, Roberto; Pezzato, Andrea; Barbiani, Camilla; Alfonsi, Ugolino; Nicolì, Lisa; Caliari, Giuliana; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto

    2011-12-01

    Variants and congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries are usually asymptomatic, but may present with severe chest pain or cardiac arrest. The introduction of multidetector CT coronary angiography (MDCT-CA) allows the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis. Improved performance with isotropic spatial resolution and higher temporal resolution provides a valid alternative to conventional coronary angiography (CCA) in many patients. MDCT-CA is now considered the ideal tool for three-dimensional visualization of the complex and tortuous anatomy of the coronary arteries. With multiplanar and volume-rendered reconstructions, MDCT-CA may even outperform CCA in determining the relative position of vessels, thus providing a better view of the coronary vascular anatomy. The purpose of this review is to describe the normal anatomy of the coronary arteries and their main variants based on MDCT-CA with appropriate reconstructions.

  6. Coronary artery anatomy and variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malago, Roberto; Pezzato, Andrea; Barbiani, Camilla; Alfonsi, Ugolino; Nicoli, Lisa; Caliari, Giuliana; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto [Policlinico G.B. Rossi, University of Verona, Department of Radiology, Verona (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Variants and congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries are usually asymptomatic, but may present with severe chest pain or cardiac arrest. The introduction of multidetector CT coronary angiography (MDCT-CA) allows the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis. Improved performance with isotropic spatial resolution and higher temporal resolution provides a valid alternative to conventional coronary angiography (CCA) in many patients. MDCT-CA is now considered the ideal tool for three-dimensional visualization of the complex and tortuous anatomy of the coronary arteries. With multiplanar and volume-rendered reconstructions, MDCT-CA may even outperform CCA in determining the relative position of vessels, thus providing a better view of the coronary vascular anatomy. The purpose of this review is to describe the normal anatomy of the coronary arteries and their main variants based on MDCT-CA with appropriate reconstructions. (orig.)

  7. Radiological anatomy - evaluation of integrative education in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, S; Schmiedl, A; Meyer, S; Giesemann, A; Pabst, R; Weidemann, J; Wacker, F K; Kirchhoff, T

    2013-09-01

    Evaluation and analysis of the integrative course "Radiological Anatomy" established since 2007 at the Medical School Hannover (MHH) in comparison with conventional education. Anatomy and radiology are usually taught separately with a considerable time lag. Interdisciplinary teaching of these associated subjects seems logical for several reasons. Therefore, the integrative course "Radiological Anatomy" was established in the second year of medical education, combining these two closely related subjects. This interdisciplinary course was retrospectively evaluated by consideration of a student questionnaire and staff observations. The advantages and disadvantages of integrative teaching in medical education are discussed. The course ratings were excellent (median 1; mean 1.3 on a scale of 1 to 6). This is significantly (p radiology increased during the course (88 %). According to the students' suggestions the course was enhanced by a visitation in the Department of Radiology and the additional topic central nervous system. Integrative teaching of anatomy and radiology was well received by the students. Both, anatomical and radiological comprehension and the motivation to learn were improved. However, it should be considered, that the amount of work and time required by the teaching staff is considerably increased compared to traditional teaching. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. The functionality of the anatomy in the physical education career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel D. Buffone

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Historically, the teaching of anatomy within the area of Physical Education has not focused its content on the practice of the course of studies; it has not been contextualized in its difficulties. This is an attempt to show that the subject that is offered to us could answer the needs of a dynamic Physical Education, and because of this, it is important to highlight the functional contribution which adapts in a more realistic sense to our teaching practice. The functional anatomy that is proposed goes beyond the static description of the different regions of the human body, having a wider and more dynamic vision of the body in motion. From this idea, we try to see the contents of the subject not as something rigid or invariable, but to use them to think and to create spaces of discussion on our practice and to wonder, how a descriptive anatomy reduced to only its descriptive contents may helps us. The anatomy, in this aspect, must begin from its own field and here lies our main concern as regards focusing on its functions, starting from the movement and not from the dead bodies where we observe the lack of dynamics

  9. A Three-Year Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study of Medical Students' Attitudes toward Anatomy Teaching and Their Career Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhangu, Aneel; Boutefnouchet, Tarek; Yong, Xu; Abrahams, Peter; Joplin, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Today's medical students are faced with numerous learning needs. Continuously developing curricula have reduced time for basic science subjects such as anatomy. This study aimed to determine the students' views on the relevance of anatomy teaching, anatomical knowledge, and the effect these have on their career choices. A Likert scale…

  10. [Imaging anatomy of cranial nerves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermier, M; Leal, P R L; Salaris, S F; Froment, J-C; Sindou, M

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of the cranial nerves is mandatory for optimal radiological exploration and interpretation of the images in normal and pathological conditions. CT is the method of choice for the study of the skull base and its foramina. MRI explores the cranial nerves and their vascular relationships precisely. Because of their small size, it is essential to obtain images with high spatial resolution. The MRI sequences optimize contrast between nerves and surrounding structures (cerebrospinal fluid, fat, bone structures and vessels). This chapter discusses the radiological anatomy of the cranial nerves.

  11. Medical Holography for Basic Anatomy Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    and anatomy course directors. Clinical Anatomy , 12(1), 55-65. de Jong, T. (2010). Cognitive load theory , educational research, and instructional design...Interservicel!ndustry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (l/ITSEC) 2013 Medical Holography for Basic Anatomy Training Matthew Hackett...to the complex 3D structures inherent in human anatomy . One potential solution to this problem is to present medical content in three dimensions

  12. The Anatomy of Anatomy: A Review for Its Modernization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugand, Kapil; Abrahams, Peter; Khurana, Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of nation or specialty. Until recently, dissection and didactic lectures were its sole pedagogy. Teaching methodology has been revolutionized with more reliance on models, imaging, simulation, and the Internet to further consolidate and enhance the learning experience.…

  13. Anatomy Adventure: A Board Game for Enhancing Understanding of Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, Emeka G.

    2014-01-01

    Certain negative factors such as fear, loss of concentration and interest in the course, lack of confidence, and undue stress have been associated with the study of anatomy. These are factors most often provoked by the unusually large curriculum, nature of the course, and the psychosocial impact of dissection. As a palliative measure, Anatomy…

  14. Surgical anatomy of the profunda brachii artery | Pulei | Anatomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variations in the origin and termination of the profunda brachii artery (PBA) are rarely described in literature. Knowledge of this unusual anatomy is important during brachial artery catheterization and harvesting of lateral arm flaps. One hundred and forty four arms from 72 cadavers of black Kenyans were dissected and ...

  15. Water Uptake along the Length of Grapevine Fine Roots: Developmental Anatomy, Tissue-Specific Aquaporin Expression, and Pathways of Water Transport

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gregory A. Gambetta; Jiong Fei; Thomas L. Rost; Thorsten Knipfer; Mark A. Matthews; Ken A. Shackel; M. Andrew Walker; Andrew J. McElrone

    2013-01-01

    To better understand water uptake patterns in root systems of woody perennial crops, we detailed the developmental anatomy and hydraulic physiology along the length of grapevine (Vitis berlandieri × Vitis rupestris...

  16. Improving gross anatomy learning using reciprocal peer teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyama, Mange; Stafford, Renae; Mazyala, Erick; Lukanima, Anthony; Magele, Ndulu; Kidenya, Benson R; Kimwaga, Emmanuel; Msuya, Sifael; Kauki, Julius

    2016-03-22

    The use of cadavers in human anatomy teaching requires adequate number of anatomy instructors who can provide close supervision of the students. Most medical schools are facing challenges of lack of trained individuals to teach anatomy. Innovative techniques are therefore needed to impart adequate and relevant anatomical knowledge and skills. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the traditional teaching method and reciprocal peer teaching (RPT) method during anatomy dissection. Debriefing surveys were administered to the 227 first year medical students regarding merits, demerits and impact of both RPT and Traditional teaching experiences on student's preparedness prior to dissection, professionalism and communication skills. Out of this, 159 (70 %) completed the survey on traditional method while 148 (65.2 %) completed survey on RPT method. An observation tool for anatomy faculty was used to assess collaboration, professionalism and teaching skills among students. Student's scores on examinations done before introduction of RPT were compared with examinations scores after introduction of RPT. Our results show that the mean performance of students on objective examinations was significantly higher after introduction of RPT compared to the performance before introduction of RPT [63.7 ± 11.4 versus 58.6 ± 10, mean difference 5.1; 95 % CI = 4.0-6.3; p-value learning environment of the dissection groups was very active learning during RPT sessions and that professionalism was observed by most students during discussions. Introduction of RPT in our anatomy dissection laboratory was generally beneficial to both students and faculty. Both objective (student performance) and subjective data indicate that RPT improved student's performance and had a positive learning experience impact. Our future plan is to continue RPT practice and continually evaluate the RPT protocol.

  17. 3D virtual table in anatomy education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mads Ronald; Simonsen, Eivind Ortind

    The ‘Anatomage’ is a 3D virtual human anatomy table, with touchscreen functionality, where it is possible to upload CT-scans and digital. Learning the human anatomy terminology requires time, a very good memory, anatomy atlas, books and lectures. Learning the 3 dimensional structure, connections...

  18. Physiology and ecology of forest trees. ; Nitrogen nutrition and metabolism (inorganic nitrogen anabolism) of tree plants as main subject. Shinrin jumoku no seiri to seitai. ; Mokuhon shokubutsu no chisso eiyo to taisha (muki chisso doka) wo chushin ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, T. (Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Textile Science)

    1993-09-25

    This paper summarizes physiology and ecology of forest trees, with inorganic nitrogen anabolism as the main subject. It was revealed that leaves of extensive species of tree plants have an important nitric acid anabolic capability. In the anabolism of NH4[sup +] absorbed into roots of plants, the glutamine generated by a glutamine synthetic enzyme/glutamic acid synthetic enzyme system plays an important role. The largest significance of plants utilizing NO3[sup -] is that they keep independent nutrition function using NO3[sup -] and NH4[sup +] as the nitrogen sources to use them for their own growth. A nitric acid reducing enzyme (NR) activity was discovered in soft cells in tree trunks of Tsuga heterophylla, which is thought as one of the reasons for the major commutation pattern of nitrogen into leaves being an organic pattern. The NR activity in leaves of Tsuga heterophylla utilizes NOx in the atmosphere emitted from factories and automobiles directly for the growth of the above-ground part of trees. The resultant excessive growth of trees and the presence of excessive nitrogen are thought as an important factor of forest decays as they cause the imbalance with nitrogen supply from soil and the depletion of inorganic nutrients. 38 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Anatomy of the thymus gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safieddine, Najib; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2011-05-01

    In the case of the thymus gland, the most common indications for resection are myasthenia gravis or thymoma. The consistency and appearance of the thymus gland make it difficult at times to discern from mediastinal fatty tissues. Having a clear understanding of the anatomy and the relationship of the gland to adjacent structures is important. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Wood anatomy of the Rhizophoraceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van G.J.C.M.

    1976-01-01

    The wood anatomy of 127 samples of 65 species of all 18 genera of the Rhizophoraceae is described in detail; features not observed here, but recorded in the literature are added. Wood anatomically several groups can be recognized. Three distinct groups are very homogeneous, coinciding with the

  1. Soul Anatomy: A virtual cadaver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaz Bambi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional science of medicine and medical education, teaching human anatomy in the class has always been done using human cadavers. Not only does this violate human sanctity, but according to our research, it is not adequate to provide students with the alleged educational value that it is supposed to deliver. It is very cumbersome to organise all the aspects of cadaver care. Cadavers are also very limited when it comes to controlling their structures and any benefit is almost completely altered the first time the cadaver is used (dissected, and ironically, it is very weak at delivering actual real-life scenarios of a human body to students. Virtual anatomy has been a promising solution that many are counting on. But even today, we have not found a complete solution that combines all the benefits of using human cadavers and those introduced by its technical counterparts. "Soul Anatomy" aims to do just that. It brings the best of all worlds, from a natural intuitive control system, life-like feel of organs, precise accuracy in moving and controlling bodily structures, to the smallest details of being able to show medical information overlays from various medical databases connected to the internet; thus making use of technology in teaching human anatomy by providing a modern learning experience.

  2. Anorectal anatomy and imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solan, Patrick; Davis, Bradley

    2013-12-01

    The rectum and anus are two anatomically complex organs with diverse pathologies. This article reviews the basic anatomy of the rectum and anus. In addition, it addresses the current radiographic techniques used to evaluate these structures, specifically ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and defecography. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Curriculum Guidelines for Microscopic Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1993

    1993-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for curricula in microscopic anatomy offer an overview of the histology curriculum, note primary educational goals, outline specific content for general and oral histology, suggest prerequisites, and make recommendations for sequencing. Appropriate faculty and facilities are also suggested.…

  4. Wood anatomy of the Combretaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van G.J.C.M.

    1979-01-01

    The wood anatomy of all genera of the Combretaceae (Meiostemon excepted) is described in detail on the basis of 120 samples representing 90 species from 19 genera. Additional data from the literature are added. The structural variation of the vestured pits is described and classified. There are two

  5. Anatomy Journal of Africa: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No paper that has been published or is under consideration for publication elsewhere will be considered for publication by ANATOMY JOURNAL OF AFRICA. A statement to this effect must accompany the manuscript. The editors and the publisher reserve the right to return manuscripts and illustrations that are not in proper ...

  6. Physiological determinants of human acute hypoxia tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    AbstractIntroduction. We investigated possible physiological determinants of variability in hypoxia tolerance in subjects given a 5-minute normobaric exposure to 25,000 ft equivalent. Physiological tolerance to hypoxia was defined as the magnitude of...

  7. Performance of students in anatomy in the 2 nd MBSS examinations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The aim of our study was to compare the pass rates of medical students in anatomy with those of medical biochemistry and physiology. Method: The 2nd MBBS (Part I MBBS) examination results of some medical schools in Eastern Nigeria over a variable period of 3-5 years were obtained. The schools were those of ...

  8. An extension of the plant ontology project supporting wood anatomy and development research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federic Lens; Laurel Cooper; Maria Alejandra Gandolfo; Andrew Groover; Pankaj Jaiswal; Barbara Lachenbruch; Rachel Spicer; Margaret E. Staton; Dennis W. Stevenson; Ramona L. Walls; Jill. Wegrzyn

    2012-01-01

    A wealth of information on plant anatomy and morphology is available in the current and historical literature, and molecular biologists are producing massive amounts of transcriptome and genome data that can be used to gain better insights into the development, evolution, ecology, and physiological function of plant anatomical attributes. Integrating anatomical and...

  9. Anatomy of Teaching Anatomy: Do Prosected Cross Sections Improve Students Understanding of Spatial and Radiological Anatomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Samarakoon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cadaveric dissections and prosections have traditionally been part of undergraduate medical teaching. Materials and Methods. Hundred and fifty-nine first-year students in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, were invited to participate in the above study. Students were randomly allocated to two age and gender matched groups. Both groups were exposed to identical series of lectures regarding anatomy of the abdomen and conventional cadaveric prosections of the abdomen. The test group (n=77, 48.4% was also exposed to cadaveric cross-sectional slices of the abdomen to which the control group (n=82, 51.6% was blinded. At the end of the teaching session both groups were assessed by using their performance in a timed multiple choice question paper as well as ability to identify structures in abdominal CT films. Results. Scores for spatial and radiological anatomy were significantly higher among the test group when compared with the control group (P<0.05, CI 95%. Majority of the students in both control and test groups agreed that cadaveric cross section may be useful for them to understand spatial and radiological anatomy. Conclusion. Introduction of cadaveric cross-sectional prosections may help students to understand spatial and radiological anatomy better.

  10. Anatomy of a Bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, an international team of astronomers [1] has discovered a stunning rare case of a triple merger of galaxies. This system, which astronomers have dubbed 'The Bird' - albeit it also bears resemblance with a cosmic Tinker Bell - is composed of two massive spiral galaxies and a third irregular galaxy. ESO PR Photo 55a/07 ESO PR Photo 55a/07 The Tinker Bell Triplet The galaxy ESO 593-IG 008, or IRAS 19115-2124, was previously merely known as an interacting pair of galaxies at a distance of 650 million light-years. But surprises were revealed by observations made with the NACO instrument attached to ESO's VLT, which peered through the all-pervasive dust clouds, using adaptive optics to resolve the finest details [2]. Underneath the chaotic appearance of the optical Hubble images - retrieved from the Hubble Space Telescope archive - the NACO images show two unmistakable galaxies, one a barred spiral while the other is more irregular. The surprise lay in the clear identification of a third, clearly separate component, an irregular, yet fairly massive galaxy that seems to be forming stars at a frantic rate. "Examples of mergers of three galaxies of roughly similar sizes are rare," says Petri Väisänen, lead author of the paper reporting the results. "Only the near-infrared VLT observations made it possible to identify the triple merger nature of the system in this case." Because of the resemblance of the system to a bird, the object was dubbed as such, with the 'head' being the third component, and the 'heart' and 'body' making the two major galaxy nuclei in-between of tidal tails, the 'wings'. The latter extend more than 100,000 light-years, or the size of our own Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 55b/07 ESO PR Photo 55b/07 Anatomy of a Bird Subsequent optical spectroscopy with the new Southern African Large Telescope, and archive mid-infrared data from the NASA Spitzer space observatory, confirmed the separate nature of the 'head', but also added

  11. A stochastic large deformation model for computational anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnaudon, Alexis; Holm, Darryl D.; Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru

    2017-01-01

    In the study of shapes of human organs using computational anatomy, variations are found to arise from inter-subject anatomical differences, disease-specific effects, and measurement noise. This paper introduces a stochastic model for incorporating random variations into the Large Deformation...... registering the landmarks, by applying bridge sampling using a stochastically perturbed version of the large deformation gradient flow algorithm. The method and the estimation algorithms are experimentally validated on synthetic examples and shape data of human corpora callosa....

  12. Mathematical physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Sneyd, James

    2009-01-01

    There has been a long history of interaction between mathematics and physiology. This book looks in detail at a wide selection of mathematical models in physiology, showing how physiological problems can be formulated and studied mathematically, and how such models give rise to interesting and challenging mathematical questions. With its coverage of many recent models it gives an overview of the field, while many older models are also discussed, to put the modern work in context. In this second edition the coverage of basic principles has been expanded to include such topics as stochastic differential equations, Markov models and Gibbs free energy, and the selection of models has also been expanded to include some of the basic models of fluid transport, respiration/perfusion, blood diseases, molecular motors, smooth muscle, neuroendrocine cells, the baroreceptor loop, turboglomerular oscillations, blood clotting and the retina. Owing to this extensive coverage, the second edition is published in two volumes. ...

  13. Regulatory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  14. Reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Russman, S.E.; Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M.

    1996-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the general pattern of avian physiology applies to cranes, we have identified many physiological mechanisms (e.g., effects of disturbance) that need further study. Studies with cranes are expensive compared to those done with domestic fowl because of the crane's larger size, low reproductive rate, and delayed sexual maturity. To summarize, the crane reproductive system is composed of physiological and anatomical elements whose function is controlled by an integrated neural-endocrine system. Males generally produce semen at a younger age than when females lay eggs. Eggs are laid in clutches of two (1 to 3), and females will lay additional clutches if the preceding clutches are removed. Both sexes build nests and incubate the eggs. Molt begins during incubation and body molt may be completed annually in breeding pairs. However, remiges are replaced sequentially over 2 to 3 years, or abruptly every 2 to 3 years in other species. Most immature birds replace their juvenal remiges over a 2 to 3 year period. Stress interferes with reproduction in cranes by reducing egg production or terminating the reproductive effort. In other birds, stress elevates corticosterone levels and decreases LHRH release. We know little about the physiological response of cranes to stress.

  15. Exercise physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The passing of Professor Bengt Saltin on September 12, 2014 truly marks the end of an era. As editor of the Journal of Applied Physiology and one of Bengt’s many collaborators and colleagues, I wanted the Journal to celebrate his many seminal contributions by means of an Editorial. Professor Bente...

  16. The weak relationship between anatomy competence and clinical skills in junior medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, Scarpa; Chandratilake, Madawa

    2012-01-01

    In modern curricula, the early integration of anatomy and clinical skills education at undergraduate level is seen as important. However, the direct relationship between medical students' competence in anatomy, and their clinical proficiency during early undergraduate years, has scarcely been studied. In this study, the marks for anatomy and clinical skills of three consecutive cohorts of medical students (n = 538 in total) during their first two years were correlated. The anatomy competence was measured using a new marker, the Anatomy Competence Score (ACS) which was calculated with equal contributions from theory knowledge and its practical and clinical application. Proficiency in clinical skills was determined by OSCE performance marks for stations which examined physical examination and practical procedural skills. The possible compounding effect of students' general academic ability was investigated by using the overall performance mark for each student based on their performance in all subjects over the first two years of the medical curriculum. We found that the correlation between anatomy and clinical skills marks was weak to moderate. However, this correlation was virtually nullified once the effect of academic ability was accounted for. Although these findings suggest that anatomy education does not compliment early clinical education, the lack of complexity of clinical problems used in clinical skills assessments (OSCEs) during the early stages may well be the primary contributing factor to this finding. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

  17. Magkänslans anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    Varför dog 1500 personer i onödan i biltrafiken efter den 11 september 2001? Vad har FBI-agenter gemensamt med barn till alkoholister? Och vad fick författaren George Orwell att börja utöva svart magi? Magkänslans anatomi är en fascinerande kartläggning av de psykologiska mekanismer som ligger...

  18. Ecological anatomy of ferns fronds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina M. Derzhavina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Structural types of frond anatomy are distinguished on the basis of investigation of 30 species of homosporous ferns and with regard for literature: hydromorphic, hygromorphic, mesomorphic, subxeromorphic, and subsucculent (cryptic succulent. Following frond traits are of highest adaptive value: their area and thickness, type of mesophyll, dry weight of an area unit – specific superficial density, cellular volume, and number of cells per unit of frond area.

  19. Venous chest anatomy: clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasen, M H; Charnsangavej, C

    1998-03-01

    This article provides a practical approach to the clinical implications and importance of understanding the collateral venous anatomy of the thorax. Routine radiography, conventional venography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies provide correlative anatomic models for the demonstration of how interconnecting collateral vascular networks within the thorax maintain venous stability at all times. Five major systems comprise the collateral venous network of the thorax (Fig. 1). These include the paravertebral, azygos-hemiazygos, internal mammary, lateral thoracic, and anterior jugular venous systems (AJVS). The five systems are presented in the following sequence: (a) a brief introduction to the importance of catheter position and malposition in understanding access to the thoracic venous system, (b) the anatomy of the azygos-hemiazygos systems and their relationship with the paravertebral plexus, (c) the importance of the AJVS, (d) 'loop' concepts interconnecting the internal mammary and azygos-hemiazygos systems by means of the lateral thoracic and intercostal veins, and (e) the interconnecting venous networks on the thoracic side of the thoracoabdominal junction. Certain aspects of the venous anatomy of the thorax will not be discussed in this chapter and include (a) the intra-abdominal anastomoses between the superior and inferior vena cavae (IVC) via the internal mammary, lateral thoracic, and azygos-hemiazygos systems (beyond the scope of this article), (b) potential collateral vessels involving vertebral, parascapular, thyroidal, thymic, and other smaller veins that might anastomose with the major systems, and (c) anatomic variants and pitfalls that may mimic pathologic conditions (space limitations).

  20. Surgical anatomy of the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destrieux, C; Bourry, D; Velut, S

    2013-01-01

    Hippocampectomy is an efficient procedure for medial temporal lobe epilepsy. Nevertheless, hippocampus anatomy is complex, due to a deep location, and a complex structure. In this didactic paper, we propose a description of the hippocampus that should help neurosurgeons to feel at ease in this region. Embryological data was obtained from the literature, whereas adult anatomy was described after dissecting 8 human hemispheres (with and without vascular injection) and slicing 3 additional ones. The hippocampus is C-shaped and made of 2 rolled-up laminae, the cornu Ammonis and the gyrus dentatus. Its ventricular aspect is covered by the choroid plexus of the inferior horn excepted at the head level. Its cisternal aspect faces the mesencephalon from which it is limited by the transverse fissure. Its rostral part (head) curves dorso-caudally to form the uncus, located at the medial aspect of the temporal lobe. Its caudal part (tail) splits into the fimbria and the gyrus fasciolaris that respectively run ventral and dorsal to the corpus callosum, to become the fornix and indusium griseum. Consequences of this complex anatomy are presented, and the authors stress the need for a subpial resection. Important landmarks are provided to avoid lesions of the surrounding structures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Cone beam computed tomography of plastinated hearts for instruction of radiological anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Atkinson, Gregory; Gandhi, Niket; Farrell, Michael L; Labrash, Steven; Smith, Alice B; Norton, Neil S; Matsui, Takashi; Lozanoff, Scott

    2016-09-01

    Radiological anatomy education is an important aspect of the medical curriculum. The purpose of this study was to establish and demonstrate the use of plastinated anatomical specimens, specifically human hearts, for use in radiological anatomy education. Four human hearts were processed with routine plastination procedures at room temperature. Specimens were subjected to cone beam computed tomography and a graphics program (ER3D) was applied to generate 3D cardiac models. A comparison was conducted between plastinated hearts and their corresponding computer models based on a list of morphological cardiac features commonly studied in the gross anatomy laboratory. Results showed significant correspondence between plastinations and CBCT-generated 3D models (98 %; p anatomy education.

  2. Modelling of the Human Inner Ear Anatomy and Variability for Cochlear Implant Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjer, Hans Martin

    that without underselling it provides hearing for the deaf. The technology faces a number of challenges, and a part of the solution to those is closely connected with an improved understanding of the inner ear anatomy, both with regards to the individual patient but also to the variation in the population....... The inner ear is a relatively small structure and even with modern medical scanners only the coarsest details are revealed about the specific patient anatomy. To study the anatomy it is required to work on specimens from deceased subjects scanned with for instance μCT. The anatomy is complex and presents...... of statistical deformation models. The thesis results in a series of applications relating to CIs. The shape model can be used by CI-manufacturers for virtual product development and testing. At the same time, it can be applied to estimate the detailed inner ear shape from a clinical patient CT scan. This opens...

  3. How useful is YouTube in learning heart anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikos, Athanasios; Waidyasekara, Pasan

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays more and more modern medical degree programs focus on self-directed and problem-based learning. That requires students to search for high quality and easy to retrieve online resources. YouTube is an emerging platform for learning human anatomy due to easy access and being a free service. The purpose of this study is to make a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the available human heart anatomy videos on YouTube. Using the search engine of the platform we searched for relevant videos using various keywords. Videos with irrelevant content, animal tissue, non-English language, no sound, duplicates, and physiology focused were excluded from further elaboration. The initial search retrieved 55,525 videos, whereas only 294 qualified for further analysis. A unique scoring system was used to assess the anatomical quality and details, general quality, and the general data for each video. Our results indicate that the human heart anatomy videos available on YouTube conveyed our anatomical criteria poorly, whereas the general quality scoring found borderline. Students should be selective when looking up on public video databases as it can prove challenging, time consuming, and the anatomical information may be misleading due to absence of content review. Anatomists and institutions are encouraged to prepare and endorse good quality material and make them available online for the students. The scoring rubric used in the study comprises a valuable tool to faculty members for quality evaluation of heart anatomy videos available on social media platforms. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  4. LAPAROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF ESO-GASTRIC REGION

    OpenAIRE

    E. Târcoveanu; C. Bradea; R. Moldovanu; A. Vasilescu

    2008-01-01

    Successful surgery starts in the anatomy laboratory. Unfortunately for surgeons, anatomy is not constant and operations are designed for the most common anatomical consideration. Even more, in some regions the laparoscopic anatomy seems to be „different” as in open approach. During the laparoscopic surgery the anatomical landmarks are more important than in open surgery (due to the lack of palpation). We describe the anatomical landmarks of the diaphragm, liver and eso-cardial junction import...

  5. Using Ultrasound to Teach Medical Students Cardiac Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Floyd E., III; Wilson, L. Britt; Hoppmann, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound is being incorporated more into undergraduate medical education. Studies have shown that medical students have positive perceptions about the value of ultrasound in teaching courses like anatomy and physiology. The purpose of the present study was to provide objective evidence of whether ultrasound helps students learn cardiac…

  6. Quantitative Wood Anatomy-Practical Guidelines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    von Arx, Georg; Crivellaro, Alan; Prendin, Angela L; Čufar, Katarina; Carrer, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative wood anatomy analyzes the variability of xylem anatomical features in trees, shrubs, and herbaceous species to address research questions related to plant functioning, growth, and environment...

  7. Brachial Plexus Anatomy: Normal and Variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. Orebaugh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective brachial plexus blockade requires a thorough understanding of the anatomy of the plexus, as well as an appreciation of anatomic variations that may occur. This review summarizes relevant anatomy of the plexus, along with variations and anomalies that may affect nerve blocks conducted at these levels. The Medline, Cochrane Library, and PubMed electronic databases were searched in order to compile reports related to the anatomy of the brachial plexus using the following free terms: "brachial plexus", "median nerve", "ulnar nerve", "radial nerve", "axillary nerve", and "musculocutanous nerve". Each of these was then paired with the MESH terms "anatomy", "nerve block", "anomaly", "variation", and "ultrasound". Resulting articles were hand searched for additional relevant literature. A total of 68 searches were conducted, with a total of 377 possible articles for inclusion. Of these, 57 were found to provide substantive information for this review. The normal anatomy of the brachial plexus is briefly reviewed, with an emphasis on those features revealed by use of imaging technologies. Anomalies of the anatomy that might affect the conduct of the various brachial plexus blocks are noted. Brachial plexus blockade has been effectively utilized as a component of anesthesia for upper extremity surgery for a century. Over that period, our understanding of anatomy and its variations has improved significantly. The ability to explore anatomy at the bedside, with real-time ultrasonography, has improved our appreciation of brachial plexus anatomy as well.

  8. Remediation Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course and Assessment of an Anatomy Supplemental Study Skills Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Audra Faye

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy A215: Basic Human Anatomy (Anat A215) is an undergraduate human anatomy course at Indiana University Bloomington (IUB) that serves as a requirement for many degree programs at IUB. The difficulty of the course, coupled with pressure to achieve grades for admittance into specific programs, has resulted in high remediation rates. In an…

  9. Learning to be a doctor while learning anatomy!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Ingeborg; Kayser, Lars

    2008-01-01

    are in their third and fifth semester. Anatomy plays a significant role in the medical student's educational process, on both a cognitive and emotional level. It seems that students in learning the subject matter adapt to fundamental values in the medical profession and are thus transformed into real medical......This article presents results from a longitudinal study following a cohort of medical students. Semistructured interviews are conducted every year, in which the students tell about their experiences learning medicine, their daily life, and their social activities in relation to university. The aim...... of the study is to analyze how medical students develop their professional competencies, values, and attitudes. This article focuses on the medical student's professional development in relation to the process of studying and learning anatomy. We analyze interviews conducted while the students...

  10. Temporomandibular Joint Anatomy Assessed by CBCT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Caruso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Since cone beam computed tomography (CBCT has been used for the study of craniofacial morphology, the attention of orthodontists has also focused on the mandibular condyle. The purpose of this brief review is to summarize the recent 3D CBCT images of mandibular condyle. Material and Methods. The eligibility criteria for the studies are (a studies aimed at evaluating the anatomy of the temporomandibular joint; (b studies performed with CBCT images; (c studies on human subjects; (d studies that were not clinical case-reports and clinical series; (e studies reporting data on children, adolescents, or young adults (data from individuals with age ≤ 30 years. Sources included PubMed from June 2008 to June 2016. Results. 43 full-text articles were initially screened for eligibility. 13 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. 11 articles were finally included in qualitative synthesis. The main topics treated in the studies are the volume and surface of the mandibular condyle, the bone changes on cortical surface, the facial asymmetry, and the optimum position of the condyle in the glenoid fossa. Conclusion. Additional studies will be necessary in the future, constructed with longitudinal methodology, especially in growing subjects. The limits of CBCT acquisitions are also highlighted.

  11. Occupational physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Toomingas, Allan; Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus

    2011-01-01

    In a clear and accessible presentation, Occupational Physiology focuses on important issues in the modern working world. Exploring major public health problems-such as musculoskeletal disorders and stress-this book explains connections between work, well-being, and health based on up-to-date research in the field. It provides useful methods for risk assessment and guidelines on arranging a good working life from the perspective of the working individual, the company, and society as a whole.The book focuses on common, stressful situations in different professions. Reviewing bodily demands and r

  12. Venous chest anatomy: clinical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chasen, M.H.; Charnsangavej, C. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, The University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    1998-03-01

    This article provides a practical approach to the clinical implications and importance of understanding the collateral venous anatomy of the thorax. Routine radiography, conventional venography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies provide correlative anatomic models for the demonstration of how interconnecting collateral vascular networks within the thorax maintain venous stability at all times. Five major systems comprise the collateral venous network of the thorax ( Fig. 1 ). These include the paravertebral, azygos-hemiazygos, internal mammary, lateral thoracic, and anterior jugular venous systems (AJVS). The five systems are presented in the following sequence: (a) a brief introduction to the importance of catheter position and malposition in understanding access to the thoracic venous system, (b) the anatomy of the azygos-hemiazygos systems and their relationship with the paravertebral plexus, (c) the importance of the AJVS, (d) 'loop' concepts interconnecting the internal mammary and azygos-hemiazygos systems by means of the lateral thoracic and intercostal veins, and (e) the interconnecting venous networks on the thoracic side of the thoracoabdominal junction. Certain aspects of the venous anatomy of the thorax will not be discussed in this chapter and include (a) the intra-abdominal anastomoses between the superior and inferior vena cavae (IVC) via the internal mammary, lateral thoracic, and azygos-hemiazygos systems (beyond the scope of this article), (b) potential collateral vessels involving vertebral, parascapular, thyroidal, thymic, and other smaller veins that might anastomose with the major systems, and (c) anatomic variants and pitfalls that may mimic pathologic conditions (space limitations). (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  13. Anatomy of the Corrugator Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Lee, Jung Hun; Lim, Hee Joong

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this article is to systematically review the anatomy and action of the corrugator muscle. PubMed and Scopus were searched using the terms "corrugator" AND "anatomy." Among the 60 full texts from the 145 relevant abstracts, 34 articles without sufficient content were excluded and 4 articles drawn from the reference lists were added. Among the 30 articles analyzed (721 hemifaces), 28% classified by oblique head and transverse head, and 72% did not. Corrugator originated mostly from the medial supraorbital rim (45%), followed by the medial frontal bone (31%), the medial infraorbital rim (17%), and the upper nasal process (7%). Corrugator extended through the frontalis and orbicularis oculi (41%), only the frontalis (41%), or only the orbicularis oculi (18%). Corrugator ran superolaterally (59%), or laterally (41%). Corrugators inserted mostly to the middle of the eyebrow (57%), or the medial half of the eyebrow (36%), but also to the glabella region (7%). The length of the corrugator ranged 38 to 53 mm. The transverse head (23.38 mm) was longer than the oblique head (19.75 mm). Corrugator was thicker at the medial canthus than at the midpupillary line. Corrugator was innervated by the temporal branch of the facial nerve (66%), the zygomatic branch (17%), or the angular nerve (zygomatic branch and buccal branch, 17%). Supraorbital nerve (60%) or supratrochlear nerve (40%) penetrated the corrugator. The action was depressing, pulling the eyebrow medially (91%), or with medial eyebrow elevation and lateral eyebrow depression (9%). Surgeons must keep this anatomy in mind during surgical procedures.

  14. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  15. [Surgical anatomy of the nose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, P S; Bardot, J; Duron, J B; Jallut, Y; Aiach, G

    2014-12-01

    Thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the nose is an essential prerequisite for preoperative analysis and the understanding of surgical techniques. Like a tent supported by its frame, the nose is an osteo-chondral structure covered by a peri-chondroperiosteal envelope, muscle and cutaneous covering tissues. For didactic reasons, we have chosen to treat this chapter in the form of comments from eight key configurations that the surgeon should acquire before performing rhinoplasty. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. ZBrush Digital Sculpting Human Anatomy

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Taking into account that many of today?s digital artists?particularly 3D character animators?lack foundational artistic instruction, this book teaches anatomy in a coherent and succinct style. A clear writing style explains how to sculpt an accurate human figure, starting with the skeleton and working out to muscle, fat, and skin. Insightful explanations enable you to quickly and easily create and design characters that can be used in film, game, or print, and allows you to gain a strong understanding of the foundational artistic concepts.

  17. The benefits of the Atlas of Human Cardiac Anatomy website for the design of cardiac devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Julianne H; Quill, Jason L; Bateman, Michael G; Eggen, Michael D; Howard, Stephen A; Goff, Ryan P; Howard, Brian T; Quallich, Stephen G; Iaizzo, Paul A

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes how the Atlas of Human Cardiac Anatomy website can be used to improve cardiac device design throughout the process of development. The Atlas is a free-access website featuring novel images of both functional and fixed human cardiac anatomy from over 250 human heart specimens. This website provides numerous educational tutorials on anatomy, physiology and various imaging modalities. For instance, the 'device tutorial' provides examples of devices that were either present at the time of in vitro reanimation or were subsequently delivered, including leads, catheters, valves, annuloplasty rings and stents. Another section of the website displays 3D models of the vasculature, blood volumes and/or tissue volumes reconstructed from computed tomography and magnetic resonance images of various heart specimens. The website shares library images, video clips and computed tomography and MRI DICOM files in honor of the generous gifts received from donors and their families.

  18. Upper limb vein anatomy before hemodialysis fistula creation: cross-sectional anatomy using MR venography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laissy, Jean-Pierre; Fernandez, Pedro; Karila-Cohen, Pascale; Chillon, Sylvie; Schouman-Claeys, Elisabeth [Department of Radiology, Hopital Bichat, 46 rue Henri Huchard, 75877 Paris Cedex 18 (France); Delmas, Vincent [Department of Urology, Hopital Bichat, 46 rue Henri Huchard, 75877 Paris Cedex 18 (France); Dupuy, Emmanuel; Mignon, Francoise [Department of Nephrology, Hopital Bichat, 46 rue Henri Huchard, 75877 Paris Cedex 18 (France)

    2003-02-01

    Preoperative imaging is indicated to discriminate patent, adequate superficial veins of the upper limbs undetectable by clinical inspection that could be anastomosed for the creation of a durable and functional hemodialysis fistula. The aim of this pictorial review is to provide a venous anatomic map of the upper limbs using MR venography (MRV) which could help surgeons before creation of hemodialysis access fistulas (AVF). At the level of the forearm, the antebrachial cephalic vein is the most commonly identified as patent. At the level of the elbow and distal arm, the cephalic vein is patent in 80% of normal subjects, and less often patent (23-26%) than basilic vein (33-38%) in patients. Overall, reading transaxial MR views can help for assessing upper limb vein anatomy before creation of a hemodialysis access fistula. (orig.)

  19. The Physiology of Female Sexual Function and the Pathophysiology of Female Sexual Dysfunction (Committee 13A)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levin, Roy J.; Both, Stephanie; Georgiadis, Janniko; Kukkonen, Tuuli; Park, Kwangsung; Yang, Claire C.

    Introduction: The article consists of six sections written by separate authors that review female genital anatomy, the physiology of female sexual function, and the pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunction but excluding hormonal aspects. Aim: To review the physiology of female sexual function

  20. The Application of Programmed Instruction in Fulfilling the Physiology Course Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisavljevic, Jelena; Djuric, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of models of programmed instruction and conventional (informative-illustrative) expository teaching in terms of fulfilling the aims of the course "Human anatomy and physiology" which is included in the physiology programme and designed for undergraduate students majoring in biology…

  1. The Role of Flipped Learning in Managing the Cognitive Load of a Threshold Concept in Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaraju, Shylaja

    2016-01-01

    To help students master challenging, threshold concepts in physiology, I used the flipped learning model in a human anatomy and physiology course with very encouraging results in terms of student motivation, preparedness, engagement, and performance. The flipped learning model was enhanced by pre-training and formative assessments that provided…

  2. New focus on anatomy for surgical trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standring, Susan

    2009-03-01

    The demise of anatomy teaching in the undergraduate medical curriculum has inevitably reduced the general level of applied anatomical knowledge displayed by junior doctors. Initiatives such as the European Working Time Directive have exacerbated the problem by reducing trainees' opportunities to acquire appropriate anatomical knowledge and clinical skills through workplace training. Medical Schools and postgraduate Colleges and Schools of Surgery must work together to design and deliver quality-assured courses in core and non-core anatomy, that cross the undergraduate/postgraduate interface. All medical students should learn a core syllabus of anatomy, agreed by a panel of clinicians and anatomists but delivered according to the pedagogic style favoured by individual Medical Schools. This core will define the anatomy, that all F1 doctors should know, particularly the anatomy associated with clinical procedures: it will be assessed across all years of the undergraduate medical programme. Medical Schools should also offer modules in non-core surgical and/or radiological anatomy, some of which may be designed and delivered in partnership with Colleges of Surgery and Radiology: these modules would be particularly attractive to students contemplating a career in surgery or interventional radiology, but would not be offered exclusively to this cohort. At present, the inadequate anatomical knowledge of Foundation doctors must be addressed by ensuring that early postgraduate training programmes include explicit, formal teaching in anatomy, for example, the Core Surgical Anatomy course currently being piloted at the Royal College of Surgeons of England.

  3. Frontal anatomy and reaction time in Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Nicole; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Declan

    2007-01-01

    Widespread frontal lobe abnormalities, encompassing anatomy and function, are known to be implicated in Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The correlation between neurobiology and behaviour, however, is poorly understood in ASD. The aim of this study was to investigate frontal lobe anatomy and

  4. Frank Netter's Legacy: Interprofessional Anatomy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niekrash, Christine E.; Copes, Lynn E.; Gonzalez, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Several medical schools have recently described new innovations in interprofessional interactions in gross anatomy courses. The Frank H. Netter MD School of Medicine at Quinnipiac University in Hamden, CT has developed and implemented two contrasting interprofessional experiences in first-year medical student gross anatomy dissection laboratories:…

  5. Wood anatomy of the Neotropical Melastomataceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welle, ter Ben J.H.; Koek-Noorman, Jifke

    1981-01-01

    The wood anatomy of 47 genera of the neotropical Melastomataceae is described in detail. The wood anatomy of the neotropical part of this pantropical family supports the subdivision into two groups: the subfamily Memecyloideae (the genus Mouriri) and the subfamily Melastomatoideae (all other

  6. Comparative leaf anatomy of Trigonobalanus Forman (Fagaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, P.

    1982-01-01

    The leaf anatomy of the recently discovered Neotropical species Trigonobalanus excelsa is described and compared with that of the Old World species T. doichangensis and T. verticillata. Trigonobalanus excelsa appears to be very similar in its leaf anatomy to T. verticillata from Borneo and Sumatra.

  7. Thoracic radiographic anatomy in sheep | Makungu | Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The right pulmonary cupula pleura was more radiolucent, wide and extended further cranially than the left pulmonary cupula pleura. Knowledge of the normal thoracic radiographic anatomy of individual species is important for accurate interpretation of thoracic radiographs. Keywords: sheep, thorax, radiography, anatomy ...

  8. Shark Attack! Sinking Your Teeth into Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Herbert

    2002-01-01

    Presents a real life shark attack story and studies arm reattachment surgery to teach human anatomy. Discusses how knowledge of anatomy can be put to use in the real world and how the arm functions. Includes teaching notes and suggestions for classroom management. (YDS)

  9. Anatomy Journal of Africa: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Anatomy Journal of Africa is the Official Journal for the Association of Anatomical Societies of Africa. This journal has its editorial office based at the department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, and has biannual issues (January and July issues). We accept and publish a wide variety of papers ...

  10. An introduction to human brain anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forstmann, B.U.; Keuken, M.C.; Alkemade, A.; Forstmann, B.U.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial chapter provides an overview of the human brain anatomy. Knowledge of brain anatomy is fundamental to our understanding of cognitive processes in health and disease; moreover, anatomical constraints are vital for neurocomputational models and can be important for psychological

  11. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? ... Center Competition Guidance I Would Like To... Submit a Consumer Complaint to the FTC Apply for a ...

  12. Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Ismail K.

    2009-01-01

    Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…

  13. Wood anatomy of the Palaeotropical Melastomataceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van G.J.C.M.

    1981-01-01

    The wood anatomy of the palaeotropical Melastomataceae is described in detail on the basis of 134 samples of 107 species from 36 genera. On the wood anatomy, three subfamilies are recognized, Memecyloideae, Melastomatoideae, and Crypteronioideae. The Memecyloideae stand out through their

  14. Porcine Tricuspid Valve Anatomy and Human Compatibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waziri, Farhad; Lyager Nielsen, Sten; Hasenkam, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    before clinical use. The study aim was to evaluate and compare the tricuspid valve anatomy of porcine and human hearts. METHODS: The anatomy of the tricuspid valve and the surrounding structures that affect the valve during a cardiac cycle were examined in detail in 100 fresh and 19 formalin...

  15. Mapping selection within Drosophila melanogaster embryo's anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvador-Martínez, Irepan; Coronado-Zamora, Marta; Castellano, David

    2018-01-01

    We present a survey of selection across Drosophila melanogaster embryonic anatomy. Our approach integrates genomic variation, spatial gene expression patterns and development, with the aim of mapping adaptation over the entire embryo's anatomy. Our adaptation map is based on analyzing spatial gene...

  16. MAINTAINING EXCELLENCE IN TEACHING OF HUMAN ANATOMY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kevin Wangwe Ongeti

    2013-01-02

    Jan 2, 2013 ... have resulted in wide disparities in curriculum design teaching methods, number and composition of instructors. Inspite of the challenges, the Department of Human Anatomy of the University of Nairobi. (UON) maintained excellence of teaching for over 40yrs. This article describes the teaching of anatomy.

  17. Physiology of in vitro culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jesús Cañal

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The culture procedures described up to the eighties, did not made any mention to the environmental control of in vitro plant development. However, growth rate, development and many of the physiologic-morphologic features of the in vitro grown plants are influenced by the culture vessel. The increasing knowledge about the environmental control of culture vessels under sterile conditions, is helping to change micorpropagation procedures. The in vitro environment with lower rate ventilation, brings about low flow rates of matter and energy, with minimum variations of temperature, high relative humidity and large daily changes of the concentration of CO2 inside the culture vessel. The type of culture vessel (size, shape, fabric and closing system can influence the evolution of the atmosphere along the time of culture. Although submitted to different stresses factors plant can be grown in vitro, but plants can be faulty in their anatomy, morphology and physiology. As a consequence, these plants shown a phenotype unable to survive to ex vitro conditions. Different strategies can be used to control the atmosphere along the different phases of micropropagation, in heterotrophic, mixotrophic or autotrophic cultures. The election of the best strategy will be based on different factors as species, number of transplantes required, or quality-price relationship. enviromental control, tissue culture, micropropagation Keywords: in vitro enviromental, characteristic physiology,

  18. On making nursing undergraduate human reproductive physiology content meaningful and relevant: discussion of human pleasure in its biological context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClusky, Leon Mendel

    2012-01-01

    The traditional presentation of the Reproductive Physiology component in an Anatomy and Physiology course to nursing undergraduates focuses on the broad aspects of hormonal regulation of reproduction and gonadal anatomy, with the role of the higher centres of the brain omitted. An introductory discussion is proposed which could precede the lectures on the reproductive organs. The discussion gives an overview of the biological significance of human pleasure, the involvement of the neurotransmitter dopamine, and the role of pleasure in the survival of the individual and even species. Pleasure stimuli (positive and negative) and the biological significance of naturally-induced pleasurable experiences are briefly discussed in the context of reproduction and the preservation of genetic material with an aim to foster relevancy between subject material and human behaviour in any type of society. The tenderness of this aspect of the human existence is well-understood because of its invariable association with soul-revealing human expressions such as love, infatuation, sexual flirtations, all of which are underpinned by arousal, desire and/or pleasure. Assuming that increased knowledge correlates with increased confidence, the proposed approach may provide the nurse with an adequate knowledge base to overcome well-known barriers in communicating with their patients about matters of sexual health and intimacy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anatomy as the Backbone of an Integrated First Year Medical Curriculum: Design and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klement, Brenda J.; Paulsen, Douglas F.; Wineski, Lawrence E

    2011-01-01

    Morehouse School of Medicine chose to restructure its first year medical curriculum in 2005. The anatomy faculty had prior experience in integrating courses, stemming from the successful integration of individual anatomical sciences courses into a single course called Human Morphology. The integration process was expanded to include the other first year basic science courses (Biochemistry, Physiology, and Neurobiology) as we progressed toward an integrated curriculum. A team, consisting of the course directors, a curriculum coordinator and the Associate Dean for Educational and Faculty Affairs, was assembled to build the new curriculum. For the initial phase, the original course titles were retained but the lecture order was reorganized around the Human Morphology topic sequence. The material from all four courses was organized into four sequential units. Other curricular changes included placing laboratories and lectures more consistently in the daily routine, reducing lecture time from 120 to 90 minute blocks, eliminating unnecessary duplication of content, and increasing the amount of independent study time. Examinations were constructed to include questions from all courses on a single test, reducing the number of examination days in each block from three to one. The entire restructuring process took two years to complete, and the revised curriculum was implemented for the students entering in 2007. The outcomes of the restructured curriculum include a reduction in the number of contact hours by 28%, higher or equivalent subject examination average scores, enhanced student satisfaction, and a first year curriculum team better prepared to move forward with future integration. PMID:21538939

  20. The Clinical Anatomy of Fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Shehzad; Simonds, Emily; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-12-02

    Fibromyalgia is a disorder characterized by pain and a spectrum of psychological comorbidities, rendering treatment difficult and often a financial burden. Findings regarding diagnosis, prevalence, comorbidities, and potential pathophysiological links are discussed herein. Fibromyalgia is a complex disorder and there are specific criteria that patients must meet for diagnosis, including scores on fibromyalgia questionnaires, commonalities of age, gender, menopause status, sleep disturbances, and mood symptoms. The close relationship between fibromyalgia and other chronic disorders should alert the physician to explore for comorbid illnesses. In this review of the clinical anatomy of fibromyalgia, we uncover new studies that could be significant for the current use of clinical interventions for patients with symptoms. Using standard search engines, the clinical anatomy of fibromyalgia is investigated and many related studies are mentioned herein. Fibromyalgia is considered a prototypical central chronic pain syndrome and is associated with widespread pain that fluctuates spontaneously. There is also substantial lifetime psychiatric comorbidity in individuals with fibromyalgia, resulting in a low health-related quality of life. These results have important clinical and theoretical implications, including the possibility that fibromyalgia could share underlying pathophysiological links with some psychiatric disorders. This reveals that patients with fibromyalgia have findings compatible with tissue injury pain, the pain mechanisms involving both the primary afferent neuron and the nociceptive systems in the central nervous system. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.