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Sample records for subjectively experienced hunger

  1. Comparison of verbal and pictorial measures of hunger during fasting in normal weight and obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, M R; Friedman, M I; Mattes, R; Kopyt, D; Gayda, C

    2000-11-01

    Friedman, Ulrich, and Mattes described a new pictorial instrument for assessing hunger wherein respondents outline areas on a drawing of a human figure to depict the location of their hunger sensations. The present study compared normal weight and obese individuals on the pictorial measure and on more traditional verbal hunger measures during a 22-hour fast. The pictorial measure, along with 13 verbal items assessing hunger and hunger-related symptoms, was administered to 29 normal weight college students and 46 overweight clinic patients four times during a 22-hour fast. Factor analyses of verbal hunger items produced Hunger, Somatic Symptoms, and Stomach Symptoms factors. The pictorial measure was divided into peripheral (arms, legs, head) and central (trunk) body areas. The increases in hunger during the fast were greater when measured using the pictorial as opposed to the verbal instrument. Correlations between and within the three verbal hunger measures and two pictorial measures were generally few in number and modest in size. The overall pattern of correlations suggested that the verbally based hunger measures more adequately reflected the experience of hunger in normal weight than in obese individuals. A significant interaction between weight status and assessment period was found for the pictorial measure, indicating that normal weight subjects experienced more bodily hunger than overweight subjects initially but experienced less hunger than obese subjects after a prolonged period of food deprivation. Although more testing is needed, these results suggest that the pictorial hunger assessment provides information about the experience of hunger that could complement information provided by traditional verbally based hunger measures.

  2. Being anorexic: hunger, subjectivity, and embodied morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooldin, Sigal

    2008-09-01

    This article explores the embodied process of being anorexic and the moral repertoires within which this process is entangled. The point of departure for this discussion is that, while critical feminist epistemology plays an important role in politicizing anorexia as a symbolic cluster of meanings, it has provided us with limited analytical tools for an in-depth understanding of an anorexic's lived experiences and of the embodied realities involved in being anorexic. At the same time, autobiographical accounts of anorexia provide insightful emic perspectives on being anorexic but are not engaged with symbolic and theoretical etic perspectives on anorexia. This article attempts to bridge this gap through an anthropological exploration of anorexia from within; that is, as a situated embodied knowledge of anorexic women anchored in concrete lived experiences. Findings from an ethnographic study of young women who were diagnosed with anorexia and admitted to an outpatient hospital unit in Israel suggest that anorexic women actively construct a "heroic moral subjectivity," in which the experience of hunger plays a crucial role, and in which everyday (mundane) practices gain "out-of-the-ordinary" meanings. While these findings partially accord with feminist philosophical explorations of anorexia, I argue that it is only via a detailed ethnographic account that we can follow the ongoing phenomenological and semiotic process through which such heroic subjectivity actually develops. Using an anthropological perspective to bear on the phenomenology of anorexia as an embodied experience contributes toward extending our understanding of the concrete ways in which "culture" becomes present in anorexia. The concluding section discusses gaps between feminist and anorexic narratives of anorexia in terms of therapeutic encounters.

  3. Unpleasant subjective emotional experiencing of pain

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    Nandini Vallath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of pain medicine that once began as a supportive and compassionate care, adding value to the management of acute and chronic ailments, has now transformed into a vital and essential specialty with structured training programs and service units with professionals dedicating their careers to it. The expansion of understanding of the direct relationship of pain relief to the quality of life, uncovering of neuronal pathways, and technological advances in imaging as well as in interventional techniques have all contributed to this phenomenal growth. However, there is a growing concern whether the training programs and the specialized practitioners are gradually limiting their skilled inputs primarily within the sensory realm of the pain experience with sophisticated interventional techniques and relegating its subjective and emotional dimensions to perfunctory realms within the schema of service provision. While the specialty is still young, if we can understand the inherent aspect of these dimensions within the pain experience and acknowledge the gaps in service provision, it may be possible to champion development of truly comprehensive pain relief programs that responds effectively and ethically to a patient′s felt needs. This article attempts to position the subjectivity of pain experience in context and surface the need to design complete systems of pain relief services inclusive of this dimension. It presents authors′ review of literature on perspectives of ′unpleasant subjective emotional experiencing of the pain" to elucidate possible clinical implications based on the evidences presented on neuro-biology and neuro-psychology of the pain experience; the aim being to inspire systems of care where this dimension is sufficiently evaluated and managed.

  4. Stress augments food 'wanting' and energy intake in visceral overweight subjects in the absence of hunger.

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    Lemmens, Sofie G; Rutters, Femke; Born, Jurriaan M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2011-05-03

    Stress may induce eating in the absence of hunger, possibly involving changes in food reward, i.e. 'liking' and 'wanting'. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of acute psychological stress on food reward, and on energy intake, in visceral overweight (VO) vs. normal weight (NW) subjects. Subjects (27 NW, age=26 ± 9 yrs, BMI=22 ± 2 kg/m²; 15 VO, age=36 ± 12 yrs, BMI=28 ± 1 kg/m²) came to the university twice, fasted, for either a rest or stress condition (randomized cross-over design). Per test-session 'liking' and 'wanting' for 72 items divided in six categories (bread, filling, drinks, dessert, snacks, and stationery (control)) were measured twice, each time followed by a wanted meal. Appetite profile (visual analogue scales, VAS), heart rate, mood state and level of anxiety (POMS/STAI questionnaires) were measured. High hunger and low satiety (64 ± 19, 22 ± 20 mmVAS) confirmed the fasted state. Elevated heart rate, anger and confusion scores (p ≤ 0.03) confirmed the stress vs. rest condition. Consumption of the first meal decreased hunger, increased satiety, and decreased ranking of 'liking' of bread vs. increased ranking of 'liking' of the control (psnacks, energy intake, carbohydrate and fat intake for the second meal stress vs. rest relatively increased in VO vs. decreased in NW (pstress vs. rest VO showed a 6 ± 9% increase in percentage of daily energy requirements consumed over the two meals (p=0.01). To conclude, visceral overweight subjects showed stress-induced food intake in the absence of hunger, resulting in an increased energy intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hyperglycaemia attenuates the gastrokinetic effect of erythromycin and affects the perception of postprandial hunger in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K.L.; Berry, M.; Kong, M.F.; Kwiatek, M.; Samsom, M.; Horowitz, M. [University of South Australia, SA (Australia). School of Medicine Radiation]|[Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA (Australia). Department of Medicine

    1998-06-01

    Full text: Recent studies have demonstrated that acute changes in the blood glucose concentration may affect gastrointestinal motor function and the perception of sensations arising from the gastrointestinal tract. Erythromycin has been shown to accelerate gastric emptying in both normal subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus. The major aims of this study were to determine in normal subjects whether the effects of erythromycin on gastric emptying, and perceptions of hunger and fullness are modified by the blood glucose concentration. 10 normal subjects (aged 20-39 yr) underwent concurrent measurement of gastric emptying, blood glucose, hunger and fullness on four separate occasions: twice during euglycaemia ({approx}4 mmol/L) and twice during hyperglycaemia ({approx}15 mmol/L). Either erythromycin (3 mg/kg) or saline (0.9%) was administered intravenously immediately before ingestion of a radioisotopically labelled solid meal. Gastric emptying was slower (P<0.0001) during hyperglycaemia when compared to euglycaemia after both erythromycin and saline administration. Erythromycin accelerated the post-lag emptying rate during euglycaemia (P<0.05), but not hyperglycaemia. Hunger decreased (P<0.001) and fullness increased (P<0.001) after the meal Postprandial hunger was less (P<0.05) and fullness greater (P<0.05) during hyperglycaemia after saline infusion, but not after erythromycin. Hunger was greater after erythromycin when compared to saline during both hyperglycaemia and euglycaemia (P<0.05). In conclusion, at a blood glucose concentration of {approx}15 mmol/L when compared to euglycaemia: (i) after administration of erythromycin (3 mg/kg IV) gastric emptying of a solid meal is much slower, (ii) the effect of erythromycin on gastric emptying of a solid meal is attenuated and (iii) the perception of postprandial hunger is reduced and that of fullness increased

  6. Subjective expansion of extended time-spans in experienced meditators

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    Marc eWittmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experienced meditators typically report that they experience time slowing down in meditation practise as well as in everyday life. Conceptually this phenomenon may be understood through functional states of mindfulness, i.e. by attention regulation, body awareness, emotion regulation, and enhanced memory. However, hardly any systematic empirical work exists regarding the experience of time in meditators. In the current cross-sectional study, we investigated whether 42 experienced mindfulness meditation practitioners (with on average 10 years of experience showed differences in the experience of time as compared to 42 controls without any meditation experience matched for age, sex and education. The perception of time was assessed with a battery of psychophysical tasks assessing the accuracy of prospective time judgments in duration discrimination, duration reproduction and time estimation in the milliseconds to minutes range as well with several psychometric instruments related to subjective time such as the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, the Barrett Impulsivity Scale and the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory. In addition, subjective time judgments on the current passage of time and retrospective time ranges were assessed. While subjective judgements of time were found to be significantly different between the two groups on several scales, no differences in duration estimates in the psychophysical tasks were detected. Regarding subjective time, mindfulness meditators experienced less time pressure, more time dilation, and a general slower passage of time. Moreover, they felt that the last week and the last month passed more slowly. Overall, although no intergroup differences in psychophysical tasks were detected, the reported findings demonstrate a close association between mindfulness meditation and the subjective feeling of the passage of time captured by psychometric instruments.

  7. Hunger among Inuit children in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Leanne C; Langlois, Kellie A; Kohen, Dafna E

    2013-01-01

    Inuit populations may be at increased risk for experiencing poor nutrition or hunger due to limited access and availability to food. The prevalence and correlates of parental perceptions of hunger among a nationally representative sample of Inuit children in Canada have not yet been reported. Data are from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS). Sociodemographic information, dietary behaviours and hunger status were parent-reported via a household interview for Inuit children aged 2-5 years (n=1,234). Prevalence of hunger was calculated among Inuit children by sociodemographic factors and by dietary behaviours. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was conducted to determine factors associated with parental perception of ever experiencing hunger. The prevalence of Inuit children in Canada aged 2-5 years ever experiencing hunger was 24.4%. Children who were reported to have experienced hunger consumed milk and milk products (p0.05). The majority (81%) of Inuit parents/guardians of ever-hungry children sought help from family or friends. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing hunger include sociodemographic characteristics (such as income and household size), living in an Inuit region and living in a community with cultural activities. About 1 in 4 Inuit children were reported by their parents to have experienced hunger, and hunger was associated with region, sociodemographic and community factors. Future research could further examine the impact of ever experiencing hunger on the health status of Inuit children and their families in Canada.

  8. Hunger and Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Voice in Health Care Decisions Hunger and Malnutrition KidsHealth > For Parents > Hunger and Malnutrition Print A ... to meet their needs. What Are Hunger and Malnutrition? Everyone feels hungry at times. Hunger is the ...

  9. Hunger among Inuit children in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne C. Findlay

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives. Inuit populations may be at increased risk for experiencing poor nutrition or hunger due to limited access and availability to food. The prevalence and correlates of parental perceptions of hunger among a nationally representative sample of Inuit children in Canada have not yet been reported. Design. Data are from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS. Sociodemographic information, dietary behaviours and hunger status were parent-reported via a household interview for Inuit children aged 2–5 years (n=1,234. Prevalence of hunger was calculated among Inuit children by sociodemographic factors and by dietary behaviours. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was conducted to determine factors associated with parental perception of ever experiencing hunger. Results. The prevalence of Inuit children in Canada aged 2–5 years ever experiencing hunger was 24.4%. Children who were reported to have experienced hunger consumed milk and milk products (p<0.001; fish, eggs and meat (p<0.05; fruits (p<0.001; and vegetables (p<0.001 significantly less often than never-hungry children. Fast food and processed foods, soft drinks and juice, and salty snacks, sweets and desserts were consumed as often as never-hungry children (all p>0.05. The majority (81% of Inuit parents/guardians of ever-hungry children sought help from family or friends. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing hunger include sociodemographic characteristics (such as income and household size, living in an Inuit region and living in a community with cultural activities. Conclusion. About 1 in 4 Inuit children were reported by their parents to have experienced hunger, and hunger was associated with region, sociodemographic and community factors. Future research could further examine the impact of ever experiencing hunger on the health status of Inuit children and their families in Canada.

  10. Hunger among Inuit children in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Leanne C.; Langlois, Kellie A.; Kohen, Dafna E.

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives Inuit populations may be at increased risk for experiencing poor nutrition or hunger due to limited access and availability to food. The prevalence and correlates of parental perceptions of hunger among a nationally representative sample of Inuit children in Canada have not yet been reported. Design Data are from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS). Sociodemographic information, dietary behaviours and hunger status were parent-reported via a household interview for Inuit children aged 2–5 years (n=1,234). Prevalence of hunger was calculated among Inuit children by sociodemographic factors and by dietary behaviours. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was conducted to determine factors associated with parental perception of ever experiencing hunger. Results The prevalence of Inuit children in Canada aged 2–5 years ever experiencing hunger was 24.4%. Children who were reported to have experienced hunger consumed milk and milk products (psweets and desserts were consumed as often as never-hungry children (all p>0.05). The majority (81%) of Inuit parents/guardians of ever-hungry children sought help from family or friends. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing hunger include sociodemographic characteristics (such as income and household size), living in an Inuit region and living in a community with cultural activities. Conclusion About 1 in 4 Inuit children were reported by their parents to have experienced hunger, and hunger was associated with region, sociodemographic and community factors. Future research could further examine the impact of ever experiencing hunger on the health status of Inuit children and their families in Canada. PMID:23620871

  11. Homelessness and Hunger*

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    Lee, Barrett A; Greif, Meredith J

    2014-01-01

    We employ data from the National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients to examine the character and correlates of hunger among homeless people. Our analysis, couched in an adaptation framework, finds more support for the differentiation hypothesis than for the leveling hypothesis: Complex patterns of food insecurity exist at the individual level, and they vary with the resources available (e.g., higher monthly income, regular shelter use) and obstacles faced (e.g., alcohol, drug, and physical and mental health problems). The chronically homeless, who suffer from multiple deficits, appear particularly food-insecure, a finding that favors the desperation hypothesis over its street-wisdom alternative. We conclude that hunger is not uniformly experienced by members of the homeless population. Rather, some individuals are better situated than others to cope with the stressful nature of homelessness when addressing their sustenance needs. PMID:18418982

  12. Neuromodulation directed at the prefrontal cortex of subjects with obesity reduces snack food intake and hunger in a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinitz, Sascha; Reinhardt, Martin; Piaggi, Paolo; Weise, Christopher M; Diaz, Enrique; Stinson, Emma J; Venti, Colleen; Votruba, Susanne B; Wassermann, Eric M; Alonso-Alonso, Miguel; Krakoff, Jonathan; Gluck, Marci E

    2017-12-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with reduced activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), a region of the brain that plays a key role in the support of self-regulatory aspects of eating behavior and inhibitory control. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive technique used to modulate brain activity. Objectives: We tested whether repeated anodal tDCS targeted at the left DLPFC (compared with sham tDCS) has an immediate effect on eating behavior during ad libitum food intake, resulting in weight change, and whether it might influence longer-term food intake-related appetite ratings in individuals with obesity. Design: In a randomized parallel-design study combining inpatient and outpatient assessments over 31 d, 23 individuals with obesity [12 men; mean ± SD body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ): 39.3 ± 8.42] received 15 sessions of anodal (i.e., enhancing cortical activity) or sham tDCS aimed at the left DLPFC. Ad libitum food intake was assessed through the use of a vending machine paradigm and snack food taste tests (SFTTs). Appetite was evaluated with a visual analog scale (VAS). Body weight was measured. We examined the effect of short-term (i.e., 3 sessions) and long-term (i.e., 15 sessions) tDCS on these variables. Results: Relative to sham tDCS, short-term anodal tDCS did not influence ad libitum intake of food from the vending machines. Accordingly, no effect on short-term or 4-wk weight change was observed. In the anodal tDCS group, compared with the sham group, VAS ratings for hunger and the urge to eat declined significantly more ( P = 0.01 and P = 0.05, respectively), and total energy intake during an SFTT was relatively lower in satiated individuals ( P = 0.01), after long-term tDCS. Conclusions: Short-term anodal tDCS of the left DLPFC did not have an immediate effect on ad libitum food intake or thereby weight change, relative to sham tDCS. Hunger and snack food intake were reduced only after a longer period

  13. The influence of ethnicity and glucose tolerance status on subjective hunger sensations and prospective food intake in overweight and obese Asian and European Australians.

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    Muhardi, Leilani; Zhao, Yun; Solah, Vicky; Fyfe, Susan; Soares, Mario J

    2017-11-01

    To examine the influence of ethnicity and glucose tolerance status on subjective sensations and food intake in overweight/obese Asian and European Australians. 18 Asians and 26 Europids were classified as normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) based on serial measures of finger-prick glucose following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Subjective sensations of hunger and satiety were measured before and every 15min after the OGTT using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Food intake was measured covertly from consumption of a buffet style lunch and from self-maintained 24h food records. All serial measurements were converted into total area under the curve (TAUC) and comparisons adjusted for age, fat and fat-free mass. There was a significant difference interaction between ethnicity (ETH) and glucose tolerance (GTT) for subjective fullness, desire for food and prospective food intake. IGT Asians had significantly greater sensations of fullness, but lesser prospective food and desire to eat, as compared to other groups. However there were no differences in calorie and macronutrient intake at buffet lunch or over 24-h. Interactions between ethnicity and glucose tolerance status in subjective sensations did not transcribe to differences in prospective food intake. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Experienced and Perceived Stress in Females With Schizophrenia and Healthy Subjects

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    Khodadadi Mogadam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder characterized by chronic disturbances of thought and perception. Objectives The current study aimed to compare perceived stress in females with schizophrenia and that of healthy people. Patients and Methods The study sample included 50 patients with schizophrenia in Tuba rehabilitation center in Ardabil selected by available sampling method. Healthy group participants were selected through cloning by age, gender and marital status of the patient group. The data were collected by the questionnaire of Holmes-Rahe scale and Cohen et al. Data were analyzed by multivariate ANOVA (MANOVA using SPSS software. Results Compared with the normal subjects, patients with schizophrenia had a higher mean score in negative perceived and experienced stresses, but had a lower mean score in positive perceived stress as well as in total perceived stress. Conclusions Results showed the levels of perceived stress and negative stress play important role in the creation and maintenance of schizophrenia.

  15. Experiencing menopause in the context of cancer: Women's constructions of gendered subjectivities.

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    Parton, Chloe; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette

    2017-09-01

    Many women experience premature menopause following cancer treatment, accompanied by psychological distress, and poor health-related quality of life. In this qualitative study, we examined how women construct their gendered subjectivities - their sense of self as a woman - in the context of premature menopause after cancer. We analysed data from open-ended survey items and semi-structured interviews with women who had experienced cancer. Six hundred and ninety-five women completed the online survey and 61 took part in a semi-structured interview. A thematic decomposition was conducted to identify the subject positions associated with menopause taken up by the women. Three overall themes were identified: 'The Incomplete Woman,' 'The Abject, Asexual Woman' and 'Out of Time and Social Isolation.' Menopause was predominantly constructed as a negative experience, similar to older post-menopausal women and dissimilar to peers, contributing to experiences of social isolation. Menopause also signified the presence of a medically diagnosed cancer condition, and uncertainty around cancer prognosis. It is important for cancer support group leaders and other service providers to be sensitive to women's negotiation of menopause following cancer, in the context of broader cultural constructions, in order to provide appropriate information and support.

  16. Understanding Holiday Hunger

    OpenAIRE

    MACHIN, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The All-Party Parliamentary (APP) Inquiry into Hunger in the United Kingdom concluded that hunger will be an enduring part of the fabric of society unless urgent action is taken (APP Inquiry into Hunger, 2014). \\ud As part of the Inquiry’s examination of the extent and causes of food poverty attention was drawn to hunger among school-age children and young people, particularly during the school holidays. The relationship between hunger and free school meals (FSM) is an important element of th...

  17. The relationship between subjective experiences during first use of tobacco and cannabis and the effect of the substance experienced first.

    OpenAIRE

    Baggio, S. (Sebastián); Studer, J.; Deline, S.; Mohler-Kuo, M.; Daeppen, J.B.; Gmel, G.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We examined the positive and negative subjective feelings associated with initial tobacco and cannabis use as well as the role of these experiences in regular use. Additionally, we investigated the effect of the first substance experienced on initial subjective experiences and later regular use. METHODS: Baseline data from a representative sample of young Swiss men were obtained from an ongoing Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors, which includes 2,321 lifetime tobacco ...

  18. The Relationship Between Subjective Experiences During First Use of Tobacco and Cannabis and the Effect of the Substance Experienced First

    OpenAIRE

    Baggio S.; Studer J.; Deline S.; Mohler-Kuo M.; Daeppen J.-B.; Gmel G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In the present study we examined the positive and negative subjective feelings associated with initial tobacco and cannabis use as well as the role of these experiences in regular use. Additionally we investigated the effect of the first substance experienced on initial subjective experiences and later regular use.Methods: Baseline data from a representative sample of young Swiss men were obtained from an ongoing Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors which includes 2321 lif...

  19. Subjective sleep quality in women experiencing intimate partner violence: contributions of situational, psychological, and physiological factors.

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    Woods, Stephanie J; Kozachik, Sharon L; Hall, Rosalie J

    2010-02-01

    This study, guided by an adaptation of the theory of unpleasant symptoms, examined the complex relationships of childhood maltreatment, intimate partner violence (IPV), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and physical health symptoms with global sleep quality and disruptive nighttime behaviors. Data were analyzed using covariance structure analysis. A convenience sample of 157 women currently experiencing IPV was recruited from crisis shelters and community agencies. Findings provide empirical support that women concurrently experiencing PTSD, depression, and stress-related physical health symptoms demonstrated poor global sleep quality and frequent disruptive nighttime behaviors. Posttraumatic stress disorder and stress health symptoms functioned as mediators of childhood maltreatment and IPV effects on both global sleep quality and disruptive nighttime behaviors, but depression did not.

  20. Hunger was never absent”: How residential school diets shaped current patterns of diabetes among Indigenous peoples in Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ian Mosby; Tracey Galloway

    2017-01-01

    ...) was the common experience of hunger at residential schools. In his statement to the TRC, survivor Andrew Paul spoke of the unrelenting hunger he experienced during his time at Aklavik Roman Catholic Residential School...

  1. Switch to Dolutegravir plus Rilpivirine Dual Therapy in cART-Experienced Subjects: An Observational Cohort.

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    Amedeo F Capetti

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the efficacy and safety of the dual combination of ripivirine plus dolutegravir. This work aims at beginning to fill this gap.All HIV-1 infected subjects treated with ripivirine plus dolutegravir between October 2014 and September 2015 in eight Italian centres were included in an observational cohort. Data were collected at baseline and at weeks 4, 12, 24 and 48.One hundred and thirty-two subjects were followed for a median of 24 months, mean 33 months. One subject discontinued the study drug at week 24 for headache, one for drug interaction and one died after week 24 of illicit drug abuse. The mean age was 51.8, females 31.7% and non-caucasians 10%. Fifty-seven (43.2% had at least one failure in their treatment history. Reasons for switching were simplification (53.0%, toxicity (34.8%, drug interactions (n = 7, persistent low-level viremia (n = 4, non-adherence (n = 3 and viral failure (n = 2. Sixty patients (45.5% had reverse transcriptase (RT mutations and 69 (44,7% had protease (PR mutations. Sixteen had baseline viral replication, 27 had < 50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL and in 89 (67.4% no virus was detected (NVD, 0 copies/mL. At w4, 114 (86.4% had NVD, 15 had 1 to 49 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL and 3 had 50 to 57 copies/mL. At week 24 one subject had viral rebound without mutations due to missed drug refill, 19 had 1 to 49 copies/mL, and 112 had NVD. All 132 subjects were tested at weeks 4 and 24. Of the 50 subjects who had a 48-week follow-up, one had a treatment interruption, four had 1 to 49 copies/mL and 45 had NVD. Among the entire population, one subject had low-level, one intermediate and 4 high-level resistance to rilpivirine: none failed by week 48. Mean serum creatinine increased by +0.1 mg/dL. During the follow-up one patient reported headache and insomnia.Ripivirine plus dolutegravir proved safe and effective in this cohort of non-naïve HIV-1 infected subjects.

  2. How (in)variant are subjective representations of described and experienced risk and rewards?

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    Kellen, David; Pachur, Thorsten; Hertwig, Ralph

    2016-12-01

    Decisions under risk have been shown to differ depending on whether information on outcomes and probabilities is gleaned from symbolic descriptions or gathered through experience. To some extent, this description-experience gap is due to sampling error in experience-based choice. Analyses with cumulative prospect theory (CPT), investigating to what extent the gap is also driven by differences in people's subjective representations of outcome and probability information (taking into account sampling error), have produced mixed results. We improve on previous analyses of description-based and experience-based choices by taking advantage of both a within-subjects design and a hierarchical Bayesian implementation of CPT. This approach allows us to capture both the differences and the within-person stability of individuals' subjective representations across the two modes of learning about choice options. Relative to decisions from description, decisions from experience showed reduced sensitivity to probabilities and increased sensitivity to outcomes. For some CPT parameters, individual differences were relatively stable across modes of learning. Our results suggest that outcome and probability information translate into systematically different subjective representations in description- versus experience-based choice. At the same time, both types of decisions seem to tap into the same individual-level regularities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Experiencing Extended Point-of-View Shots : A Film-Phenomenological Perspective on Extreme Character Subjectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanich, Julian; Reinerth, Maike Sarah; Thon, Jan-Noel

    2017-01-01

    The wish to accurately represent the subjective perceptual experience of a filmic character and to intimately connect these character perceptions with the viewer’s experience has a long history. However, this history of extreme first-person perspectives in film—from the inside out, so to speak—is a

  4. Cultural, social and personal ways of experiencing love - an analysis of the perception of subjectivity.

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    Gori, Claudia

    2011-11-01

    This article is based on analysis of 4 couple's personal and public documents, in order to integrate personal choices, values and ideas with cultural representations and social attitudes. Moreover, being based on Italian sources from the nineteenth century, the study offers an historical insight on the Italian nation-building process and its political and social foundations. This study is based on archival and printed primary sources from: Gianna Maffei and Ercole Trotti Mosti (Museo Centrale del Risorgimento - Roma - MCRR); Augusto Pierantoni and Grazia Mancini (Museo Centrale del Risorgimento - Roma); Luigi Majno and Ersilia Bronzini (Archivio Unione Femminile Nazionale - Milano); Angiolo Orvieto and Laura Cantoni (Archivio Contemporaneo Bonsanti del Gabinetto Vieuesseux - Firenze - ACGV). This study reflects on love as a political and moral issue, by linking the personal sphere of subjectivity to the public dimension of the political community. An extensive understanding of the role played by the perception and the expression of sentiments can be considered as the central issue of this analysis.

  5. Cultural, social and personal ways of experiencing love – an analysis of the perception of subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Summary This article is based on analysis of 4 couple’s personal and public documents, in order to integrate personal choices, values and ideas with cultural representations and social attitudes. Moreover, being based on Italian sources from the nineteenth century, the study offers an historical insight on the Italian nation-building process and its political and social foundations. This study is based on archival and printed primary sources from: Gianna Maffei and Ercole Trotti Mosti (Museo Centrale del Risorgimento – Roma – MCRR); Augusto Pierantoni and Grazia Mancini (Museo Centrale del Risorgimento – Roma); Luigi Majno and Ersilia Bronzini (Archivio Unione Femminile Nazionale – Milano); Angiolo Orvieto and Laura Cantoni (Archivio Contemporaneo Bonsanti del Gabinetto Vieuesseux – Firenze – ACGV). This study reflects on love as a political and moral issue, by linking the personal sphere of subjectivity to the public dimension of the political community. An extensive understanding of the role played by the perception and the expression of sentiments can be considered as the central issue of this analysis. PMID:22037756

  6. The relationship between subjective experiences during first use of tobacco and cannabis and the effect of the substance experienced first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, Stéphanie; Studer, Joseph; Deline, Stéphane; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    We examined the positive and negative subjective feelings associated with initial tobacco and cannabis use as well as the role of these experiences in regular use. Additionally, we investigated the effect of the first substance experienced on initial subjective experiences and later regular use. Baseline data from a representative sample of young Swiss men were obtained from an ongoing Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors, which includes 2,321 lifetime tobacco and cannabis users. We assessed the age of first tobacco and cannabis use along with the subjective experiences associated with initial use. Additionally, subjective experiences related to regular use of both substances were analyzed. The initial subjective experiences were divided into positive and negative for each substance, and we found that the feelings associated with first use of tobacco and cannabis were similar. Moreover, the participants who used cannabis before tobacco reported fewer negative experiences associated with first tobacco use, whereas the participants who initially used tobacco reported more negative experiences related to first cannabis use. Also, we identified that regular use was encouraged by positive experiences and that negative experiences were more adverse for regular use of cannabis compared with tobacco. Taken together, these results indicate that similar subjective experiences were associated with the first use of tobacco and cannabis. Also, the use of cannabis before tobacco, which occurred in only a minority of users, had the potential to enhance the effects of initial tobacco use.

  7. Medical management of hunger strikers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalela, Julio A; Lopez, J Ivan

    2013-02-01

    Hunger strikes are not infrequent occurrences in military and civilian prisons. Although practicing clinicians are familiar with the management of patients who have limited oral intake, managing hunger strikers is unfamiliar to most. The psychological, physiological, and social events that surround hunger strikes are very complex and need to be understood by those caring for hunger strike patients. To provide adequate medical care to hunger strike patients, clinicians most understand the physiological events that ensue after prolonged starvation. Careful vigilance for development of refeeding syndrome is of key importance. A multidisciplinary approach to hunger strikes is of utmost importance, and involvement of a multidisciplinary clinical team as well as prison officials is essential.

  8. Hunger: Passion of the militant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lynch, John

    2014-01-01

    This is a study of the 2008 film Hunger made by the British director Steve McQueen, a film that dramatises events in the Maze Prison in the period leading up to the 1981 Irish Republican hunger strike...

  9. Hunger and Development [Issue Packet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Freedom from Hunger Foundation, Washington, DC.

    A variety of informational materials is compiled in this issue packet concentrating on hunger and development. They have been assembled to understand the issues associated with the facts of world hunger and to try to invent new forms of action and thought necessary to find the possibilities hidden in the hunger issue. Items include: (1) a fact and…

  10. Use of flax seed mucilage or its active component for increasing suppression of hunger, increasing reduction of prospective consumption, increasing reduction of appetite in a subject during or between meals or feedings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    of a mammal in order to prevent a positive not-fat energy balance, weight gain, overweight and obesity, and to induce a negative non-fat energy balance and weight loss in subjects who wish to reduce their body weight. In particular, feed, food and/or beverages and dietary supplements of the present......The present invention relates to methods for increasing the suppression of hunger and/or increasing the reduction of prospective consumption and/or increasing the reduction of appetite and/or increasing the feeling of satiety and/or reducing non-fat energy uptake in the gastrointestinal tract....../or reducing the digestibility of non-fat energy in the gastrointestinal tract of mammal....

  11. Envelope statistics of self-motion signals experienced by human subjects during everyday activities: Implications for vestibular processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriot, Jérome; Jamali, Mohsen; Cullen, Kathleen E; Chacron, Maurice J

    2017-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that the brain's neural coding strategies are constrained by natural stimulus statistics. Here we investigated the statistics of the time varying envelope (i.e. a second-order stimulus attribute that is related to variance) of rotational and translational self-motion signals experienced by human subjects during everyday activities. We found that envelopes can reach large values across all six motion dimensions (~450 deg/s for rotations and ~4 G for translations). Unlike results obtained in other sensory modalities, the spectral power of envelope signals decreased slowly for low (2 Hz) temporal frequencies and thus was not well-fit by a power law. We next compared the spectral properties of envelope signals resulting from active and passive self-motion, as well as those resulting from signals obtained when the subject is absent (i.e. external stimuli). Our data suggest that different mechanisms underlie deviation from scale invariance in rotational and translational self-motion envelopes. Specifically, active self-motion and filtering by the human body cause deviation from scale invariance primarily for translational and rotational envelope signals, respectively. Finally, we used well-established models in order to predict the responses of peripheral vestibular afferents to natural envelope stimuli. We found that irregular afferents responded more strongly to envelopes than their regular counterparts. Our findings have important consequences for understanding the coding strategies used by the vestibular system to process natural second-order self-motion signals.

  12. Envelope statistics of self-motion signals experienced by human subjects during everyday activities: Implications for vestibular processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriot, Jérome; Jamali, Mohsen; Cullen, Kathleen E.

    2017-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that the brain’s neural coding strategies are constrained by natural stimulus statistics. Here we investigated the statistics of the time varying envelope (i.e. a second-order stimulus attribute that is related to variance) of rotational and translational self-motion signals experienced by human subjects during everyday activities. We found that envelopes can reach large values across all six motion dimensions (~450 deg/s for rotations and ~4 G for translations). Unlike results obtained in other sensory modalities, the spectral power of envelope signals decreased slowly for low (2 Hz) temporal frequencies and thus was not well-fit by a power law. We next compared the spectral properties of envelope signals resulting from active and passive self-motion, as well as those resulting from signals obtained when the subject is absent (i.e. external stimuli). Our data suggest that different mechanisms underlie deviation from scale invariance in rotational and translational self-motion envelopes. Specifically, active self-motion and filtering by the human body cause deviation from scale invariance primarily for translational and rotational envelope signals, respectively. Finally, we used well-established models in order to predict the responses of peripheral vestibular afferents to natural envelope stimuli. We found that irregular afferents responded more strongly to envelopes than their regular counterparts. Our findings have important consequences for understanding the coding strategies used by the vestibular system to process natural second-order self-motion signals. PMID:28575032

  13. An acceptance-based intervention for children and adolescents with cancer experiencing acute pain - a single-subject study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsell Cederberg, Jenny; Dahl, JoAnne; von Essen, Louise; Ljungman, Gustaf

    2017-01-01

    Children and adolescents with cancer report pain as one of their most recurrent and troublesome symptoms throughout the cancer trajectory. Pain evokes psychological distress, which in turn has an amplifying effect on the pain experience. Acceptance-based interventions for experimentally induced acute pain predict increased pain tolerance, decreased pain intensity and decreased discomfort of pain. The aim of this study was to preliminarily evaluate an acceptance-based intervention for children and adolescents with cancer experiencing acute pain, with regard to feasibility and effect on pain intensity and discomfort of pain. This is a single-subject study with an AB design with a nonconcurrent multiple baseline. Children and adolescents aged four to 18 years undergoing cancer treatment at the Children's University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden, reporting sustained acute pain were offered participation. Pain intensity and discomfort of pain were measured during baseline and at post-intervention. The intervention consisted of a pain exposure exercise lasting approximately 15 minutes. Five children participated in the study. All participants completed the intervention and reported that it had helped them to cope with the pain in the moment. All participants reported decreased discomfort of pain at post-measurement, three of whom also reported decreased pain intensity. The results suggest that an acceptance-based intervention may help children and adolescents with cancer to cope with the pain that is often associated with cancer treatment in spite of pharmacological pain management. The results are tentative but promising and warrant further investigation.

  14. The Hunger Games: Using hunger to promote healthy choices in self-control conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Tracy T L; Kroese, Floor M; Fennis, Bob M; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2017-09-01

    The majority of existing research and conventional wisdom would advise against shopping on an empty stomach as hunger is assumed to encourage impulsive choices that typically lead to self-control failure (i.e., favouring short-term gratifications at the expense of long-term goals). Nonetheless, through two studies the current research aims to demonstrate that hungry consumers would not always be disadvantaged when encountering a self-control conflict involving a trade-off choice between a healthy vs. a more palatable but unhealthy choice. Particularly we posit that the choice outcome of the self-control conflict is dependent on contextual cues, such that hungry consumers with the tendency to make fast decisions could benefit from following a social proof heuristic promoting the healthy options. In Study 1, we indeed observed participants' self-reported hunger to be negatively associated with state self-control, but as most participants generally experienced low levels of hunger we did not observe apparent effects of hunger on food choice (DV), and correspondingly the potential influence of the social proof heuristic in moderating the choice outcome. However, in Study 2 where hunger was manipulated, we found hungry participants making significantly less healthy choices than satiated participants, but a social proof heuristic mitigated this effect (i.e., in the presence of social proof heuristic hungry participants made just as many healthy food choices as satiated participants; and hungry participants made more healthy choices in the social proof condition than in the no heuristic condition). These findings support our approach of providing contextual cues in the environment in order to work with, rather than against, the impulsivity triggered by hunger to promote successful self-control behaviours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities, 2002: A 25-City Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Eugene T.

    To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in U.S. cities during 2002, 25 major cities completed surveys regarding demand for emergency food assistance and emergency shelter and capacity of local agencies to meet the demand; causes of hunger and homelessness and demographics of populations experiencing these problems; exemplary programs or…

  16. A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities, 2001: A 27-City Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Eugene T.

    To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in U.S. cities during 2001, data were collected from 27 cities on demands for emergency food assistance and shelter and the capacity of local agencies to meet that demand; causes of hunger and homelessness and demographics of populations experiencing them; exemplary responses; availability of…

  17. An acceptance-based intervention for children and adolescents with cancer experiencing acute pain – a single-subject study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsell Cederberg, Jenny; Dahl, JoAnne; von Essen, Louise; Ljungman, Gustaf

    2017-01-01

    Background Children and adolescents with cancer report pain as one of their most recurrent and troublesome symptoms throughout the cancer trajectory. Pain evokes psychological distress, which in turn has an amplifying effect on the pain experience. Acceptance-based interventions for experimentally induced acute pain predict increased pain tolerance, decreased pain intensity and decreased discomfort of pain. The aim of this study was to preliminarily evaluate an acceptance-based intervention for children and adolescents with cancer experiencing acute pain, with regard to feasibility and effect on pain intensity and discomfort of pain. Methods This is a single-subject study with an AB design with a nonconcurrent multiple baseline. Children and adolescents aged four to 18 years undergoing cancer treatment at the Children’s University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden, reporting sustained acute pain were offered participation. Pain intensity and discomfort of pain were measured during baseline and at post-intervention. The intervention consisted of a pain exposure exercise lasting approximately 15 minutes. Results Five children participated in the study. All participants completed the intervention and reported that it had helped them to cope with the pain in the moment. All participants reported decreased discomfort of pain at post-measurement, three of whom also reported decreased pain intensity. Conclusion The results suggest that an acceptance-based intervention may help children and adolescents with cancer to cope with the pain that is often associated with cancer treatment in spite of pharmacological pain management. The results are tentative but promising and warrant further investigation. PMID:28919815

  18. Communism and Hunger: Preface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    From the Guest Editors

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, researchers have made significant progress in studying the great political famines of the twentieth century. As a result of increased access to formerly closed archives and the collective efforts of the international scholarly community, we now have a rather accurate picture of the causes, dynamics, demographic impact, and consequences of the pan-Soviet famines of 1931-33, the Ukrainian Holodomor, the Kazakh great hunger, and the terrible famine of 1959-61 in China produced by the Great Leap Forward...

  19. Effect of Acute Exercise on Hunger in Healthy Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcin OLCUCU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of different acute exercise mode on subjective hunger rating. Ten healthy woman subjects participated voluntarily in the study and written informed consent was obtained from all subjects before participation. Subjects undertook four, 1,5 h trials (3exercises and 1 control in a randomized crossover design. In the exercise trials subjects were performed three different exercise protocol (resistance, resistance+endurance, endurance. In the control trial, subjects rested for 1,5 h. Ratings of subjective feelings of hunger was reported on 100 mm visual analogue scales (VAS at baseline (-20 and at 0, 20, 40, 60 and 90 mins after baseline. Repeated-measures, two factor ANOVA was used to examine differences between the four trials over time for hunger change. Between-trial differences at each time point were examined using repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests when significant interactions were found. Two-way ANOVAs revealed significant trial (p=0.047 trial x time effects (p=0.041 and time (p=0.000 effects for hunger. Endurance+resistance exercise trial increases the feeling of hunger more than resistance exercises trial (p=0.021 and control trial (p=0.046. In conclusion, acute resistance+endurance exercise increases appetite in healthy woman.

  20. Alliances in "The Hunger Games"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Judith

    2012-01-01

    This lesson plan is based on "The Hunger Games" by Suzanne Collins. Characters in "The Hunger Games" form alliances both inside and outside the arena. Katniss and Gale form alliances within District 12. Katniss, Peeta, and the other tributes form alliances for a variety of reasons during the Games. An alliance means that "someone's got your back"…

  1. Hunger, escaping excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, G; Halweil, B

    2000-01-01

    According to the WHO, in spite of decades of global food surpluses, half of humanity, in both rich and poor nations, is still malnourished. Malnutrition has become a significant impediment to development in rich and poor countries, alike. At the individual level, both hunger and poor eating habits reduce a person's physical fitness, increase susceptibility to illness, and shorten lifespan. In addition, children deprived of adequate nutrients during development can suffer from permanently reduced mental capacity. At the national level, poor eating hampers educational performance, curtails economic productivity, increases the burden on health care, and reduces well-being. Confronting this epidemic of poor eating will have widespread benefits, but the myths and misconceptions permeating humanity¿s understanding of malnutrition should be addressed first. It is noted that the major cause of hunger is poverty, not scarcity of food; it is the lack of access to the goods and services essential for a healthy life. On the other hand, for those who have access to plenty of food, dietary intake includes meat, dairy products, and highly processed items loaded with fat and sugar. This leads to the problem of obesity, a condition that increases susceptibility to disease and disability, reduces worker productivity, and shortens lifespan. In view of this, efforts to improve nutrition should focus on poverty eradication, health education, agricultural change, and policy change towards promotion of good nutrition.

  2. Hunger can be taught: Hunger Recognition regulates eating and improves energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampolini, Mario; Lovell-Smith, H David; Kenealy, Timothy; Bianchi, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    A set of spontaneous hunger sensations, Initial Hunger (IH), has been associated with low blood glucose concentration (BG). These sensations may arise pre-meal or can be elicited by delaying a meal. With self-measurement of BG, subjects can be trained to formally identify and remember these sensations (Hunger Recognition). Subjects can then be trained to ensure that IH is present pre-meal for most meals and that their pre-meal BG is therefore low consistently (IH Meal Pattern). IH includes the epigastric Empty Hollow Sensation (the most frequent and recognizable) as well as less specific sensations such as fatigue or light-headedness which is termed inanition. This report reviews the method for identifying IH and the effect of the IH Meal Pattern on energy balance. In adults, the IH Meal Pattern has been shown to significantly decrease energy intake by one-third, decrease preprandial BG, reduce glycosylated hemoglobin, and reduce insulin resistance and weight in those who are insulin resistant or overweight. Young children as well as adults can be trained in Hunger Recognition, giving them an elegant method for achieving energy balance without the stress of restraint-type dieting. The implications of improving insulin sensitivity through improved energy balance are as wide as improving immune activity.

  3. Hunger can be taught: Hunger Recognition regulates eating and improves energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampolini, Mario; Lovell-Smith, H David; Kenealy, Timothy; Bianchi, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    A set of spontaneous hunger sensations, Initial Hunger (IH), has been associated with low blood glucose concentration (BG). These sensations may arise pre-meal or can be elicited by delaying a meal. With self-measurement of BG, subjects can be trained to formally identify and remember these sensations (Hunger Recognition). Subjects can then be trained to ensure that IH is present pre-meal for most meals and that their pre-meal BG is therefore low consistently (IH Meal Pattern). IH includes the epigastric Empty Hollow Sensation (the most frequent and recognizable) as well as less specific sensations such as fatigue or light-headedness which is termed inanition. This report reviews the method for identifying IH and the effect of the IH Meal Pattern on energy balance. In adults, the IH Meal Pattern has been shown to significantly decrease energy intake by one-third, decrease preprandial BG, reduce glycosylated hemoglobin, and reduce insulin resistance and weight in those who are insulin resistant or overweight. Young children as well as adults can be trained in Hunger Recognition, giving them an elegant method for achieving energy balance without the stress of restraint-type dieting. The implications of improving insulin sensitivity through improved energy balance are as wide as improving immune activity. PMID:23825928

  4. Maintenance of subjective health during a merger : the role of experienced change and pre-merger social support at work in white- and blue-collar workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaananen, A; Pahkin, K; Kalimo, R; Buunk, BP; Väänänen, A.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    Prospective research on psychosocial effects on employees' health associated with organizational mergers has been scarce. The first aim of this study was to explore the subjective health effects (exhaustion and functional incapacity) of an organizational merger among employees who had experienced a

  5. Hunger strike for science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    Lamenting the degenerating working conditions for scientists in Russia, geophysicist Vladimir Strakhov and physicist Igor Naumenko-Bondarenko of the United Institute of Physics of the Earth (UIPE) at the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) have begun a hunger strike. Strakhov is General Director of UIPE, and Naumenko-Bondarenko is chairman of the Trade Union Committee of UIPE.In a press statement released on September 30 in Moscow, the geophysicists stated that they are striking to “protest the policy of the Government of the Russian Federation with regard to Russian science in general and to the Russian Academy of Sciences in particular.” They blame governmental neglect and, specifically, “the non-payment of funds that were in the 1996 budget” for the “virtual collapse of Russian science.”

  6. The evolutionary psychology of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shawaf, Laith

    2016-10-01

    An evolutionary psychological perspective suggests that emotions can be understood as coordinating mechanisms whose job is to regulate various psychological and physiological programs in the service of solving an adaptive problem. This paper suggests that it may also be fruitful to approach hunger from this coordinating mechanism perspective. To this end, I put forward an evolutionary task analysis of hunger, generating novel a priori hypotheses about the coordinating effects of hunger on psychological processes such as perception, attention, categorization, and memory. This approach appears empirically fruitful in that it yields a bounty of testable new hypotheses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hunger can be taught: Hunger Recognition regulates eating and improves energy balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciampolini M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mario Ciampolini,1 David Lovell-Smith,2 Timothy Kenealy,3 Riccardo Bianchi4 1Unit of Preventive Gastroenterology, Department of Pediatrics, Università di Firenze, Florence, Italy; 2Department of General Practice, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand; 3Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 4Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA Abstract: A set of spontaneous hunger sensations, Initial Hunger (IH, has been associated with low blood glucose concentration (BG. These sensations may arise pre-meal or can be elicited by delaying a meal. With self-measurement of BG, subjects can be trained to formally identify and remember these sensations (Hunger Recognition. Subjects can then be trained to ensure that IH is present pre-meal for most meals and that their pre-meal BG is therefore low consistently (IH Meal Pattern. IH includes the epigastric Empty Hollow Sensation (the most frequent and recognizable as well as less specific sensations such as fatigue or light-headedness which is termed inanition. This report reviews the method for identifying IH and the effect of the IH Meal Pattern on energy balance. In adults, the IH Meal Pattern has been shown to significantly decrease energy intake by one-third, decrease preprandial BG, reduce glycosylated hemoglobin, and reduce insulin resistance and weight in those who are insulin resistant or overweight. Young children as well as adults can be trained in Hunger Recognition, giving them an elegant method for achieving energy balance without the stress of restraint-type dieting. The implications of improving insulin sensitivity through improved energy balance are as wide as improving immune activity. Keywords: energy intake, hunger, energy balance, food intake regulation, prevention, insulin resistance, obesity, diabetes, inflammation, risks

  8. Coffee, hunger, and peptide YY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, James A; Geliebter, Allan

    2012-06-01

    There is evidence from several empirical studies suggesting that coffee may help people control body weight. Our objective was to assess the effects of caffeine, caffeinated coffee, and decaffeinated coffee, both alone and in combination with 75 g of glucose, on perceived hunger and satiety and related peptides. We conducted a placebo-controlled single-blinded randomized 4-way crossover trial. Eleven healthy male volunteers (mean age, 23.5 ± 5.7 years; mean BMI, 23.6 ± 4.2 kg/m(2)) ingested 1 of 3 test beverages (caffeine in water, caffeinated coffee, or decaffeinated coffee) or placebo (water), and 60 minutes later they ingested the glucose. Eight times during each laboratory visit, hunger and satiety were assessed by visual analog scales, and blood samples were drawn to measure 3 endogenous peptides associated with hunger and satiety: ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), and leptin. Compared to placebo, decaffeinated coffee yielded significantly lower hunger during the whole 180-minute study period and higher plasma PYY for the first 90 minutes (p hunger or PYY. Caffeinated coffee showed a pattern between that of decaffeinated coffee and caffeine in water. These findings suggest that one or more noncaffeine ingredients in coffee may have the potential to decrease body weight. Glucose ingestion did not change the effects of the beverages. Our randomized human trial showed that decaffeinated coffee can acutely decrease hunger and increase the satiety hormone PYY.

  9. HIV-1 Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Mutations in Treatment Naïve and Experienced Panamanian Subjects: Impact on National Use of EFV-Based Schemes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaxelis Mendoza

    Full Text Available The use of antiretroviral therapy in HIV infected subjects prevents AIDS-related illness and delayed occurrence of death. In Panama, rollout of ART started in 1999 and national coverage has reached 62.8% since then. The objective of this study was to determine the level and patterns of acquired drug resistance mutations of clinical relevance (ADR-CRM and surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRMs from 717 HIV-1 pol gene sequences obtained from 467 ARV drug-experienced and 250 ARV drug-naïve HIV-1 subtypes B infected subjects during 2007-2013, respectively. The overall prevalence of SDRM and of ADR-CRM during the study period was 9.2% and 87.6%, respectively. The majority of subjects with ADR-CRM had a pattern of mutations that confer resistance to at least two classes of ARV inhibitors. The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI mutations K103N and P225H were more prevalent in both ARV drug-naïve and ARV drug-experienced subjects. The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI mutation M184V was more frequent in ARV drug-experienced individuals, while T215YFrev and M41L were more frequent in ARV drug-naïve subjects. Prevalence of mutations associated to protease inhibitors (PI was lower than 4.1% in both types of subjects. Therefore, there is a high level of resistance (>73% to Efavirenz/Nevirapine, Lamivudine and Azidothymidine in ARV drug-experienced subjects, and an intermediate to high level of resistance (5-10% to Efavirenz/Nevirapine in ARV drug-naïve subjects. During the study period, we observed an increasing trend in the prevalence of ADR-CRM in subjects under first-line schemes, but not significant changes in the prevalence of SDRM. These results reinforce the paramount importance of a national surveillance system of ADR-CRM and SDRM for national management policies of subjects living with HIV.

  10. HIV-1 Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Mutations in Treatment Naïve and Experienced Panamanian Subjects: Impact on National Use of EFV-Based Schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Yaxelis; Castillo Mewa, Juan; Martínez, Alexander A; Zaldívar, Yamitzel; Sosa, Néstor; Arteaga, Griselda; Armién, Blas; Bautista, Christian T; García-Morales, Claudia; Tapia-Trejo, Daniela; Ávila-Ríos, Santiago; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo; Bello, Gonzalo; Pascale, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    The use of antiretroviral therapy in HIV infected subjects prevents AIDS-related illness and delayed occurrence of death. In Panama, rollout of ART started in 1999 and national coverage has reached 62.8% since then. The objective of this study was to determine the level and patterns of acquired drug resistance mutations of clinical relevance (ADR-CRM) and surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRMs) from 717 HIV-1 pol gene sequences obtained from 467 ARV drug-experienced and 250 ARV drug-naïve HIV-1 subtypes B infected subjects during 2007-2013, respectively. The overall prevalence of SDRM and of ADR-CRM during the study period was 9.2% and 87.6%, respectively. The majority of subjects with ADR-CRM had a pattern of mutations that confer resistance to at least two classes of ARV inhibitors. The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutations K103N and P225H were more prevalent in both ARV drug-naïve and ARV drug-experienced subjects. The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) mutation M184V was more frequent in ARV drug-experienced individuals, while T215YFrev and M41L were more frequent in ARV drug-naïve subjects. Prevalence of mutations associated to protease inhibitors (PI) was lower than 4.1% in both types of subjects. Therefore, there is a high level of resistance (>73%) to Efavirenz/Nevirapine, Lamivudine and Azidothymidine in ARV drug-experienced subjects, and an intermediate to high level of resistance (5-10%) to Efavirenz/Nevirapine in ARV drug-naïve subjects. During the study period, we observed an increasing trend in the prevalence of ADR-CRM in subjects under first-line schemes, but not significant changes in the prevalence of SDRM. These results reinforce the paramount importance of a national surveillance system of ADR-CRM and SDRM for national management policies of subjects living with HIV.

  11. HIV-1 Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Mutations in Treatment Naïve and Experienced Panamanian Subjects: Impact on National Use of EFV-Based Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Yaxelis; Castillo Mewa, Juan; Martínez, Alexander A.; Zaldívar, Yamitzel; Sosa, Néstor; Arteaga, Griselda; Armién, Blas; Bautista, Christian T.; García-Morales, Claudia; Tapia-Trejo, Daniela; Ávila-Ríos, Santiago; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo; Bello, Gonzalo; Pascale, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    The use of antiretroviral therapy in HIV infected subjects prevents AIDS-related illness and delayed occurrence of death. In Panama, rollout of ART started in 1999 and national coverage has reached 62.8% since then. The objective of this study was to determine the level and patterns of acquired drug resistance mutations of clinical relevance (ADR-CRM) and surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRMs) from 717 HIV-1 pol gene sequences obtained from 467 ARV drug-experienced and 250 ARV drug-naïve HIV-1 subtypes B infected subjects during 2007–2013, respectively. The overall prevalence of SDRM and of ADR-CRM during the study period was 9.2% and 87.6%, respectively. The majority of subjects with ADR-CRM had a pattern of mutations that confer resistance to at least two classes of ARV inhibitors. The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutations K103N and P225H were more prevalent in both ARV drug-naïve and ARV drug-experienced subjects. The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) mutation M184V was more frequent in ARV drug-experienced individuals, while T215YFrev and M41L were more frequent in ARV drug-naïve subjects. Prevalence of mutations associated to protease inhibitors (PI) was lower than 4.1% in both types of subjects. Therefore, there is a high level of resistance (>73%) to Efavirenz/Nevirapine, Lamivudine and Azidothymidine in ARV drug-experienced subjects, and an intermediate to high level of resistance (5–10%) to Efavirenz/Nevirapine in ARV drug-naïve subjects. During the study period, we observed an increasing trend in the prevalence of ADR-CRM in subjects under first-line schemes, but not significant changes in the prevalence of SDRM. These results reinforce the paramount importance of a national surveillance system of ADR-CRM and SDRM for national management policies of subjects living with HIV. PMID:27119150

  12. Hunger state affects both olfactory abilities and gustatory sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanci, Deniz; Altun, Huseyin

    2016-07-01

    Chemical senses such as odor, taste and appearance are directly related with appetite. Understanding the relation between appetite and flavor is getting more important due to increasing number of obese patients worldwide. The literature on the studies investigating the change in olfactory abilities and gustatory sensitivity mostly performed using food-related odors and tastes rather than standardized tests were developed to study olfaction and gustation. Therefore, results are inconsistent and the relationship between olfactory and gustatory sensitivity with respect to the actual state of human satiety is still not completely understood. Here, for the first time in literature, we investigated the change in both olfactory abilities and gustatory sensitivity in hunger and in satiety using 123 subjects (37 men, 86 women; mean age 31.4 years, age range 21-41 years). The standardized Sniffin' Sticks Extended Test and Taste Strips were used for olfactory testing and gustatory sensitivity, respectively. TDI score (range 1-48) was calculated as the collective scores of odor threshold (T), odor discrimination (D) and odor identification (I). The evaluation was performed in two successive days where the hunger state of test subjects was confirmed by blood glucose test strips (mean blood glucose level 90.0 ± 5.6 mg/dl in hunger and 131.4 ± 8.1 mg/dl in satiety). The results indicated statistically significant decrease in olfaction in satiety compared to hunger (mean TDI 39.3 ± 1.1 in hunger, 37.4 ± 1.1 in satiety, p hunger (p hunger state.

  13. Motivation for choosing teaching as a career - the perspective of pre-service teachers, novices and experienced subject teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since motivation for choosing the teaching profession figures as one of the most important determinants of the successfulness of teachers and even their students, this paper is aimed at investigating the factors of choosing teaching as a career. For that purpose, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the students of “teacher training” faculties, novices and subject teachers with more than five years of work experience (N=76. Thematic analysis was used to identify nine categories of motivational factors: Working with young people (the desire to have a dynamic and creative job in the surroundings of young people, Influence on students (the motivation to exert influence on students’ socio-emotional development, values and education, Dealing with the subject (the motivation for dealing with the science that the person studied, Class teacher/Teacher/Parents as a role model (the motivation stemming from the influence of significant others, Lecturing (the desire to “transfer knowledge”, Lifelong learning (the desire for permanent learning in different fields, Working hours and holidays (the motivation due to working hours and holidays, Fit with the abilities (the desire to realise the “naturally given” abilities and Reputation (the desire to be appreciated in the society. In keeping with the results of other studies, it has been found that altruistic motivation for the choice of teaching as a career is dominant, while extrinsic motivation is least present. The findings are interpreted in the light of the current models of motivation for choosing teaching as a career and the characteristics of teachers’ education and status in Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018: Identifikacija, merenje i razvoj kognitivnih i emocionalnih kompetencija važnih društvu orijentisanom na evropske integracije

  14. Hunger 1990: A Report on the State of World Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bread for the World Inst. on Hunger and Development, Washington, DC.

    This report describes the extent and causes of widespread hunger in Asia, the Middle East, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean using case studies of Bangladesh, Brazil, and Mozambique and profiles of 42 other countries. Current evidence points to more than half a billion people who chronically lack enough food for a normal life and an equal…

  15. Personal Concepts on "Hunger in Africa"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermaier, Gabriele; Schrufer, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    When discussing the topic "Hunger in Africa" with students, incorrect and biased ideas on the causes for hunger are revealed. In order to change the students' personal concepts it is necessary to become acquainted with their mental models. Therefore, a survey of Geography students' different personal theories concerning "Hunger in…

  16. Neurophysiology of Hunger and Satiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pauline M.; Ferguson, Alastair V.

    2008-01-01

    Hunger is defined as a strong desire or need for food while satiety is the condition of being full or gratified. The maintenance of energy homeostasis requires a balance between energy intake and energy expenditure. The regulation of food intake is a complex behavior. It requires discrete nuclei within the central nervous system (CNS) to detect…

  17. Bioethics in the Hunger Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kristin; Keller, Donna; Myers, Alyce

    2014-01-01

    In this guided inquiry, students investigate advantages and disadvantages of genetic engineering by integrating popular fiction into their study of bioethics. What are the effects of artificially created hybrid creatures on characters in "The Hunger Games" and in our society? What are the effects on and basic rights of the organisms…

  18. American Food and World Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarra, Fred R.; Long, Cathryn J., Eds.

    1983-01-01

    Describes activities to help students in grades 7-9 learn about American food production and distribution. Students learn about the American diet over the centuries; the production of American Corn; the meaning of the term hunger; and the need for protein. (CS)

  19. Differences in self-reported importance of elements of health and subjectively experienced health among outpatients in community mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jormfeldt, Henrika; Hansson, Lars; Svensson, Bengt

    2011-10-01

    Positive dimensions of mental health are strong protective factors against physical and mental illness in general population. A cross-sectional study including a randomly selected sample of 141 outpatients was performed to explore differences in patients' self-reported importance of elements of health and subjective experiences of health related to sociodemographic background variables. The examination of differences in self-reported importance of elements of health showed differences regarding gender, and the analyses of subjectively experienced health showed differences regarding age and diagnosis. Clinical interventions aiming at strengthening positive dimensions of health are required in community mental health services to meet the patients' individual needs of enhanced health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Causes of Hunger: Hunger 1995. Fifth Annual Report on the State of World Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marc J., Ed.

    This comprehensive report shows how hunger is interrelated with other social ills, including powerlessness, violence, poverty, environmental destruction, and discrimination. More than a billion people are too poor to afford an adequate diet and other essential of life such as health care, housing, sanitation, safe water, and education. In the…

  1. Avaliação da taxa de sudorese de atletas de judô e sua associação com escores subjetivos de fome e apetite Evaluation of water Loss in judo training and its relationship with subjective hunger and appetite scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline de Barros

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O judô, assim como outros esportes que envolvem categorias de pesos, é uma modalidade em que os atletas apresentam grande risco de hipo-hidratação devido aos processos de desidratação involuntária e/ou voluntária. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a taxa de sudorese (ml/min de judocas em um dia de treino e associar o grau de desidratação com alterações subjetivas de fome e apetite. A amostra foi composta por 14 atletas (nove homens e cinco mulheres, com idade média de 19,6 ± 5,9 anos. Para a realização do estudo, foram mensuradas a massa corporal e as taxas subjetivas de fome, apetite e esforço, expressas em uma escala de zero a 10, antes e logo após o treino. A massa corporal foi significantemente menor após o treino (68,8 ± 18,1kg versus 66,9 ± 17,3kg; p Judo, as well as other types of sports involving weight categories, is a modality in which athletes have high risk of hypohydration due to involuntary /voluntary dehydration. Therefore, the aim of this study was evaluate the sweating rate (ml/min of judokas in a training day and verify the impact of the dehydration degree upon subjective hunger and appetite rates. The sample was composed of 14 athletes (nine men and five women with mean age of 19.6 ± 5.9 years. Body mass and subjective rates of hunger, appetite and effort were measured in a scale ranging from zero to 10, before and after training. Body mass was significantly lower after training (68.8 ± 18.1kg versus 66.9 ± 17.3kg; p < 0,01, with reduction of 2.6 ± 1.1%. Hunger and effort rates were significantly higher after exercise (2.1 ± 2.2 versus 4.8 ± 3.6, p = 0.02 and 0 versus 7.2 ± 1.3; p < 0,01, likewise craving for fruit rate (4.3 ± 3.8 versus 8.0 ± 2.8; p = 0.01. Positive correlations were obtained between: 1 effort scale and post-training craving for dairy products (r = 0.63; p < 0.05; 2 percentage of body mass reduction and hunger rate the in post-training period (r = 0.55, p < 0

  2. Greater hunger and less restraint predict weight loss success with phentermine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Elizabeth A; Mcnair, Bryan; Bechtell, Jamie L; Ferland, Annie; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Eckel, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Phentermine is thought to cause weight loss through a reduction in hunger. It was hypothesized that higher hunger ratings would predict greater weight loss with phentermine. This is an observational pilot study in which all subjects were treated with phentermine for 8 weeks and appetite and eating behaviors were measured at baseline and week 8. Outcomes were compared in subjects with ≥5% vs. hunger (P = 0.017), desire to eat (P =0.003), and prospective food consumption (0.006) and lower baseline cognitive restraint (P = 0.01). In addition, higher baseline home prospective food consumption (P = 0.002) and lower baseline cognitive restraint (P hunger and less restraint are more likely to achieve significant weight loss with phentermine. This information can be used clinically to determine who might benefit most from phentermine treatment. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  3. The MDG on poverty and hunger : how reliable are the hunger estimates?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.; Nubé, M.; Rutten, M.M.E.M.; Leliveld, A.H.M.; Foeken, D.W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Two hunger-related indicators are used for tracking progress towards the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG), the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger, with one of the targets being to halve the proportion of people suffering from hunger by 2015 as compared to 1990. The prevalence of people

  4. The Status of Hunger in Cities, April 1985. Task Force on Joblessness and Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States Conference of Mayors, Washington, DC.

    A survey by the U.S. Conference of Mayors of its 22 member Task Force on Joblessness on Hunger to determine the current status of hunger in cities revealed the following facts among others: (1) Despite 15 months of economic recovery, the problem of hunger has grown and is expected to increase over the next year; (2) Two-thirds of the cities…

  5. The relationship between hunger and mental health outcomes among school-going Ecuadorian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Matthew L; Abril-Ulloa, Victoria; Kelvin, Elizabeth A

    2016-06-01

    Mental health and food insecurity are major public health issues among adolescents in Ecuador. Our objective was to determine the relationship between hunger, symptoms of depression, and suicidal ideation among school-going Ecuadorian adolescents. We conducted crude and multivariable logistic regression models using data from the 2007 Global School-based Student Health Survey from Quito, Guayaquil, and Zamora, Ecuador (N = 5524). Hunger was defined as having gone hungry in the past 30 days due to lack of food in the home. Outcomes of interest were symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation with or without planning in the past year. Overall, 41.2 % (2200/5467) of students reported experiencing hunger. In multivariable logistic regression models, hunger had an increasing exposure-response relationship with symptoms of depression [sometimes hungry odds ratio (OR) 1.80, P = 0.0001; most of the time or always hungry OR 2.01, P Hunger was associated with increased odds of symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation with planning. Strategies to improve mental health among adolescents in Ecuador should consider the potential contribution of hunger and food insecurity.

  6. Concern About Hunger May Increase Receptivity to GMOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B Elijah; Conn, Caitlin C; Wiles, Jason R

    2016-07-01

    Due to a phenomenon known as the 'backfire effect', intuition-based opinions can be inadvertently strengthened by evidence-based counterarguments. Students' views on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) may be subject to this effect. We explored the impact of an empathetically accessible topic, world hunger, on receptivity to GMO technology as an alternative to direct evidence-based approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. How the Daily Press Looks at Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sondra G.

    Utilizing both content analysis of 139 editorials appearing in 19 United States daily newspapers and the results of a survey of 146 newspaper editors, a study asked three questions: (1) To what extent is hunger covered in the news and editorial columns of U.S. daily newspapers? (2) How is hunger defined as a problem in terms of its causes in those…

  8. Hunger promotes acquisition of nonfood objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Alison Jing; Schwarz, Norbert; Wyer, Robert S

    2015-03-03

    Hunger motivates people to consume food, for which finding and acquiring food is a prerequisite. We test whether the acquisition component spills over to nonfood objects: Are hungry people more likely to acquire objects that cannot satisfy their hunger? Five laboratory and field studies show that hunger increases the accessibility of acquisition-related concepts and the intention to acquire not only food but also nonfood objects. Moreover, people act on this intention and acquire more nonfood objects (e.g., binder clips) when they are hungry, both when these items are freely available and when they must be paid for. However, hunger does not influence how much they like nonfood objects. We conclude that a basic biologically based motivation can affect substantively unrelated behaviors that cannot satisfy the motivation. This presumably occurs because hunger renders acquisition-related concepts and behaviors more accessible, which influences decisions in situations to which they can be applied.

  9. Food security and child hunger among recently resettled Liberian refugees and asylum seekers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Craig; Sellen, Daniel

    2006-10-01

    Little is known about the food insecurity situation among families resettled into the United States as part of the refugee resettlement program. This paper reports on a pilot study examining food insecurity among recently arrived refugee families (n=33). Objectives were to evaluate the usefulness and feasibility of methods to assess the prevalence of food insecurity and child hunger, and to examine associations between child hunger and measures of socio-economic status and measures of acculturation. Results indicated that 85% of households were food insecure, and 42% experienced child hunger. Hunger was more likely to be indicated in households using foods stamps, with lower income, and lower education. Hunger was also more likely to be indicated in households where the primary shopper experienced difficulty shopping and with language. Results are in broad agreement with those reported in other studies and highlight economic and information barriers to achieving food security. These data suggest that further study of food insecurity is warranted among recently resettled refugee communities resettled in the United States.

  10. Experiencing control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monaci, G.; Braspenning, R.A.C.; Meerbeek, B.W.; Bingley, P.; Rajagopalan, R.; Triki, M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the activities carried out in the first part of the Experiencing Control project (2008-324). The guiding idea of the project is to make control part of the experience, exploring new interaction solutions for complex, engaging interactions with Philips devices in the living

  11. Experiencing variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, Sofie; Berge, Maria; Grout, Brian William Wilson

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes towards a better understanding of learning dynamics in doctoral supervision by analysing how learning opportunities are created in the interaction between supervisors and PhD students, using the notion of experiencing variation as a key to learning. Empirically, we have bas...... were discussed, created more complex patterns of variation. Both PhD students and supervisors can learn from this. Understanding of this mechanism that creates learning opportunities can help supervisors develop their competences in supervisory pedagogy....

  12. The pervasive effect of youth self-report of hunger on depression over 6 years of follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Lynn; Wu, Xiuyun; Kwok, Cynthia; Patten, Scott B

    2017-05-01

    We used longitudinal data to clarify the association between self-report of hunger and subsequent depression risk among youth and young adults, accounting for other risk factors. Youth self-report of ever experiencing hunger data were collected from cycles 4-6 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth cohort of Canadian youth 16 years and older (n = 4139). Data on depressive symptoms (CES-D 12) were collected over three cycles (2004-2009, cycles 6-8). We used multivariable regression based on generalized estimating equations (GEE) to examine prior youth hunger on later depression risk, adjusting for time-stable, time-varying, and lagged variables (e.g., depressive symptoms in previous cycle), thereby clarifying the temporal relationship. The prevalence of youth hunger experience and depression risk reached 5.9 and 15.0%, respectively. The adjusted odds ratio of depression for participants reporting hunger was 2.31 (95% CI 1.54, 3.46) and changed little [2.17 (95% CI 1.29, 3.67)] after accounting for previous CES-D 12 scores, suggesting a temporal relationship in which hunger contributes to depression risk. Unlike never-hungry youth, depression in ever-hungry youth remained comparatively elevated over time. Our models support an independent and temporal relationship between youth self-report of hunger and depression in adolescence and young adulthood.

  13. 'Nothing less than its eradication'? Ireland's hunger task force and the production of hunger

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, Alistair

    2011-01-01

    A wide range of actors have intervened in the debate about the causes of hunger and what can be done to eradicate it. One example is a 2008 report by the Hunger Task Force, a group of development experts mandated by the Irish government to explain the root causes of hunger and identify ways for Ireland to play a leading role in eradicating it. In this paper, I present a critical review of what the HTF report says about the causes of hunger. I argue the report fails to live up to its aim of co...

  14. Childhood hunger and depressive symptoms in adulthood: Findings from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Leinsalu, Mall

    2018-01-15

    Several studies have linked childhood hunger to an increased risk for later depression. However, as yet, there has been little research on this relation in adults of all ages or whether there are sex differences in this association. The current study examined these issues using data from a national population-based sample. Data were analyzed from 5095 adults aged 25-84 collected during the Estonian Health Interview Survey 2006. Information was obtained on the frequency of going to bed hungry in childhood and on depressive symptoms using the Emotional State Questionnaire (EST-Q). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between hunger and depression while controlling for other demographic, socioeconomic and health-related variables. In a fully adjusted model, going to bed hungry in childhood either sometimes or often was associated with significantly increased odds for depressive symptoms. When the analysis was stratified by sex the association was more evident in men where any frequency of childhood hunger was linked to adult depression while only women who had experienced hunger often had higher odds for depressive symptoms in the final model. Data on childhood hunger were retrospectively reported and may have been affected by recall bias. We also lacked information on potentially relevant variables such as other childhood adversities that might have been important for the observed associations. Childhood hunger is associated with an increased risk for depressive symptoms among adults. Preventing hunger in childhood may be important for mental health across the life course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  16. New Mexico Campaigns Against Hunger and Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Shami

    1972-01-01

    Describes the nutritional needs of individuals in New Mexico, and the efforts of the Nutrition Improvement Program (NIP) of the University of New Mexico School of Medicine at Albuquerque to remove hunger and malnutrition. (DM)

  17. Hunger, inhibitory control and distress-induced emotional eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Strien, Tatjana; Ouwens, Machteld A; Engel, Carmen; de Weerth, Carolina

    2014-08-01

    Self-reported emotional eating has been found to significantly moderate distress-induced food intake, with low emotional eaters eating less after a stress task than after a control task and high emotional eaters eating more. The aim of the present study was to explore possible underlying mechanisms by assessing possible associations with (1) ability to experience the typical post-stress reduction of hunger and (2) inhibitory control. We studied these effects in 54 female students who were preselected on the basis of extremely high or low scores on an emotional eating questionnaire. Using a within subject design we measured the difference of actual food or snack intake after a control or a stress task (Trier Social Stress Test). As expected, the moderator effect of emotional eating on distress-induced food intake was found to be only present in females with a failure to report the typical reduction of hunger immediately after a stress task (an a-typical hunger stress response). Contrary to our expectations, this moderator effect of emotional eating was also found to be only present in females with high ability to stop motor impulses (high inhibitory control). These findings suggest that an a-typical hunger stress response but not poor inhibitory control may underlie the moderator effect of emotional eating on distress-induced food intake. However, inhibitory control may play a role whether or not there is a moderator effect of self-reported emotional eating on distress-induced food intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Hunger perception and stunting among children living in poor conditions from the north of Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzán, Andrés; Mercer, Raúl

    2009-06-01

    Nutritional status depicts not only the nourishing balance but also the conditions of life. Proper food availability, in form and amount, are aspects of food security. To determine the relationships between hunger perception and stunting. Stratified and multiple step sample from nine provinces from the north of Argentina (n= 3630, children between 6 months to 6 years old living under poor conditions). Hunger perception was explored according to the methodology of the Service of Economic Investigation of the Department of Agriculture of the United States. Row data were converted to z scores and compared against Argentinean growth standard. The comparison took into account the -2 standard deviation cut of point and the standardized prevalence of low height. 69.5% of the population experienced hunger, varying severe hunger between 38.0 to 48.0% according to provinces. The prevalence of stunting (standardized prevalence of low height. There was no association between jurisdiction and perception of hunger. For children, food insecurity conditions and structural poverty conditions were associated with stunting.

  19. Fetal response to maternal hunger and satiation - novel finding from a qualitative descriptive study of maternal perception of fetal movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Billie; Maude, Robyn

    2014-08-26

    Maternal perception of decreased fetal movements is a specific indicator of fetal compromise, notably in the context of poor fetal growth. There is currently no agreed numerical definition of decreased fetal movements, with the subjective perception of a decrease on the part of the mother being the most significant definition clinically. Both qualitative and quantitative aspects of fetal activity may be important in identifying the compromised fetus.Yet, how pregnant women perceive and describe fetal activity is under-investigated by qualitative means. The aim of this study was to explore normal fetal activity, through first-hand descriptive accounts by pregnant women. Using qualitative descriptive methodology, interviews were conducted with 19 low-risk women experiencing their first pregnancy, at two timepoints in their third trimester. Interview transcripts were later analysed using qualitative content analysis and patterns of fetal activity identified were then considered along-side the characteristics of the women and their birth outcomes. This paper focuses on a novel finding; the description by pregnant women of fetal behaviour indicative of hunger and satiation. Full findings will be presented in later papers. Most participants (74% 14 of 19) indicated mealtimes were a time of increased fetal activity. Eight participants provided detailed descriptions of increased activity around meals, with seven (37% 7 of 19) of these specifying increased fetal activity prior to meals or in the context of their own hunger. These movements were interpreted as a fetal demand for food often prompting the mother to eat. Interestingly, the women who described increased fetal activity in the context of hunger subsequently gave birth to smaller infants (mean difference 364 gm) than those who did not describe a fetal response to hunger. Food seeking behaviour may have a pre-birth origin. Maternal-fetal interaction around mealtimes could constitute an endocrine mediated

  20. A Survey of Childhood Hunger in the United States. Community Childhood Hunger Identification Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehler, Cheryl A.; And Others

    This report presents results from the Community Childhood Hunger Identification Project (CCHIP), a research project that used survey techniques to document the extent of hunger among low-income families with at least one child under the age of 12. The report's six chapters provide: (1) an overview of the project, identifying its major components;…

  1. Genetic associations with acute stress-related changes in eating in the absence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutters, Femke; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Born, Jurriaan M; Bouwman, Freek; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G; Mariman, Edwin; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2010-06-01

    Acute psychological stress is associated with eating in the absence of hunger. To investigate if BclI and FTO polymorphisms are associated with eating in the absence of hunger as a result of acute psychological stress. FTO (rs9939609) and BclI were genotyped in 98 subjects (BMI=23.9+/-3.3kg/m(2)). In a randomized crossover design, the 'eating in absence of hunger' protocol was measured as a function of acute stress vs. a control task and of STAI (State Trait Anxiety Index) state scores. In comparison with the FTO T allele, the A allele was associated with an increased feelings of hunger after food intake in the stress (11+/-10 vs. 18+/-15, pstress condition (30.8+/-6.4 vs. 36.3+/-8.2; 28.3+/-5.5 vs. 32.3+/-7.5; 27.7+/-6.1 vs. 31.2+/-7.5, pstress and control condition, in comparison with the BclI C/C genotype (136.6+/-220.4 vs. 29.4+/-176.3kJ, phunger after a standardized meal. For the first time, the BclI G/G genotype is shown to be associated with increased sensitivity to psychological stress, and increased eating in the absence of hunger after stress. Interventions to reduce body weight should consider the subjects' genetic background. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Longitudinal Trends in Hedonic Hunger following Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Christopher C.; Benoit, Stephen C.; Peugh, James L.; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Inge, Thomas H.; Zeller, Meg H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Initial outcome studies have demonstrated that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is safe and efficacious for adolescents with extreme obesity. While rapid weight loss is seen initially, data also show that modest weight regain typically occurs as early as the second post-operative year. The contribution of various psychological factors, including hedonic hunger to postoperative weight regain has not previously been studied in adolescents. Objectives To examine the variability in hedonic hunger and Body Mass Index (BMI) over the initial two-year period of weight loss and modest weight regain in adolescent RYGB recipients. Setting Academic Children’s Hospital, United States Methods A total of 16 adolescents completed the Power of Food Scale prior to surgery, and at 3-, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-months postoperatively. Height and weight were measured at each time point, from which BMI was calculated. Results Nonlinear trends were observed for time on both overall hedonic hunger and hedonic hunger specifically related to food available in the adolescent’s environment. The BMI reduction during the first 18-months postoperatively was paralleled by reduction in hedonic hunger; increases in hedonic hunger also paralleled the modest BMI increase at 24-months. In growth analysis, significant power gains are available to models using 4 or more points of data. However, only large effect sizes that are > .85 were detectable with a sample of 16 subjects. Conclusion These data provide preliminary evidence that hedonic hunger is in need of further study in adolescent patients receiving RYGB both pre- and post-operatively. PMID:24135561

  3. High-Sequence Diversity and Rapid Virus Turnover Contribute to Higher Rates of Coreceptor Switching in Treatment-Experienced Subjects with HIV-1 Viremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedellec, Rebecca; Herbeck, Joshua T; Hunt, Peter W; Deeks, Steven G; Mullins, James I; Anton, Elizabeth D; Reeves, Jacqueline D; Mosier, Donald E

    2017-03-01

    Coreceptor switching from CCR5 to CXCR4 is common during chronic HIV-1 infection, but is even more common in individuals who have failed antiretroviral therapy (ART). Prior studies have suggested rapid mutation and/or recombination of HIV-1 envelope (env) genes during coreceptor switching. We compared the functional and genotypic changes in env of viruses from viremic subjects who had failed ART just before and after coreceptor switching and compared those to viruses from matched subjects without coreceptor switching. Analysis of multiple unique functional env clones from each subject revealed extensive diversity at both sample time points and rapid diversification of sequences during the 4-month interval in viruses from both 9 subjects with coreceptor switching and 15 control subjects. Only two subjects had envs with evidence of recombination. Three findings distinguished env clones from subjects with coreceptor switching from controls: (1) lower entry efficiency via CCR5; (2) longer V1/V2 regions; and (3), lower nadir CD4 T cell counts during prior years of infection. Most of these subjects harbored virus with lower replicative capacity associated with protease (PR) and/or reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutations, and the extensive diversification tended to lead either to improved entry efficiency via CCR5 or the gain of entry function via CXCR4. These results suggest that R5X4 or X4 variants emerge from a diverse, low-fitness landscape shaped by chronic infection, multiple ART resistance mutations, the availability of target cells, and reduced entry efficiency via CCR5.

  4. Effect of aerobic exercise on hunger feelings and satiety regulating hormones in obese teenage girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Wagner L; Balagopal, P Babu; Lofrano-Prado, Mara C; Oyama, Lila M; Tenório, Thiago Ricardo; Botero, João Paulo; Hill, James O

    2014-11-01

    Exercise is implicated in modifying subsequent energy intake (EI) through alterations in hunger and/or satiety hormones. Our aim was to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on hunger, satiety regulatory peptides, and EI in obese adolescents. Nine obese girls (age: 13-18 years old, BMI: 33.74 ± 4.04 kg/m2) participated in this randomized controlled crossover study. Each participant randomly underwent 2 experimental protocols: control (seated for 150 min) and exercise (exercised for 30 min on a treadmill performed at ventilatory threshold [VT] intensity and then remained seated for 120 min). Leptin, peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)), and subjective hunger were measured at baseline as well as 30 min and 150 min, followed by 24-hr EI measurement. Exercise session resulted in an acute increase in PYY(3-36) (p hunger scores. The control session increased hunger scores (p < .01) and decreased circulating leptin levels (p = .03). There was a strong effect size for carbohydrate intake (d = 2.14) and a modest effect size for protein intake (d = 0.61) after the exercise compared with the control session. Exercise performed at VT intensity in this study appears to provoke a state of transient anorexia in obese girls. These changes may be linked to an increase in circulating PYY3-36 and maintenance of leptin levels.

  5. Obesity and hunger among Mexican-Indian migrant children on the US-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Cruz, A; Bacardí-Gascón, M; Spindler, A A

    2003-06-01

    Although Mexican-Indian migrant workers live under precarious conditions in both Mexico and the USA, they have more access to food than they did in their original communities. The nutritional status and food security among the children of these workers have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of overweight, obesity, undernutrition and hunger among migrant children in a city on the US-Mexico border. During 2001-2002, a total of 1767 children from six schools from the Tijuana Indian school system was measured to assess anthropometric status. Third and fifth grade children were also interviewed for their perception of hunger experience and dietary intake by 24-h recall method. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 38%. Abdominal obesity was found in 26% of subjects, while 43% had both obesity and abdominal obesity. The prevalence of undernutrition according to weight-for-age was 1.2%, and by height-for-age it was 4.8%. The prevalence of hunger was 2.5%, and at risk of hunger was 44%. Daily intake of food groups in servings was: 8.7 grains, 1.2 fruit, 1.0 vegetable, 2.1 milk and 2.6 meat. Only one child (0.07%) consumed The Apple of Health recommended portions. This study confirmed the coexistence of obesity, hunger, undernutrition and limited food group consumption among Indian children living in a prosperous and the largest US-Mexico border city.

  6. Hunger, ethics and the right to food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Srijit

    2012-01-01

    The management of hunger has to look into the issues of availability, accessibility and adequacy of food supply. From an ethical perspective, this paper argues in favour of the right to food. But, for this to become viable, the state has to come up with an appropriate and effective bill on food and nutrition security, address the issue of inadequate provisioning of storage space by state agencies leading to rotting of food grains--a criminal waste when people are dying of hunger; and rely on local level institutions involving the community, that complement the administrative structure to identify the poor and reduce exclusion and inclusion errors.

  7. Analyzing perceived hunger across states in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Slottje, Daniel J; Ryu, Hang K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on the problem of analyzing how factors impact hunger across states when hunger is ill-defined. Hunger (which is a latent variable) is presumed to depend on macroeconomic, legislation, policy, and demographic variables. Based on the Bayesian method of a posterior odds ratios, we find that the high school graduation rate appears to be the single most important factor we identify which affects the perceived hunger measure.

  8. [Hunger striking in prisons: ethics and the ethical and legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Guerrero, J

    2013-01-01

    Hunger strike is a common form of protest in prisons and is a potential cause of many types of problems, both for the prison administration and the doctors who care for prisoners who participate in one. Issues of conflict of rights and obligations involved, and how to treat people who are subject to the Administration, which in this case takes the position of guarantor, have created major controversies over doctrine. Conscientious objection and the conflict of dual loyalty of doctors working in prisons are also issues closely linked to a prison hunger strike. In this paper we review the solution given to the problem of treatment of a prison hunger strike from three perspectives: ethics, ethical and legal.

  9. Secukinumab efficacy in anti-TNF-naive and anti-TNF-experienced subjects with active ankylosing spondylitis: results from the MEASURE 2 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieper, Joachim; Deodhar, Atul; Marzo-Ortega, Helena; Aelion, Jacob A; Blanco, Ricardo; Jui-Cheng, Tseng; Andersson, Mats; Porter, Brian; Richards, Hanno B

    2017-03-01

    There is significant unmet need in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) who have inadequate response or intolerance to anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) treatment. Secukinumab, an anti-interleukin-17A monoclonal antibody, significantly improved signs and symptoms of AS in the MEASURE 2 study (NCT01649375). Subjects with active AS (N=219) received secukinumab (150 or 75 mg) or placebo at baseline, weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4, and every 4 weeks thereafter. Randomisation was stratified by prior anti-TNF use: anti-TNF-naive or inadequate response/intolerance to one anti-TNF (anti-TNF-IR). The primary endpoint was Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society criteria (ASAS) 20 at week 16. At week 16, 68.2% of anti-TNF-naive subjects treated with secukinumab 150 mg achieved ASAS20 compared with 31.1% treated with placebo (pTNF-IR group, 50.0% of subjects treated with secukinumab 150 mg achieved an ASAS20 response compared with 24.1% treated with placebo (pTNF-naive and anti-TNF-IR subjects through 52 weeks of therapy. NCT01649375. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Hunger in the U.S.--Developing Educational Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Connie F.; And Others

    A pilot hunger awareness program was developed for fourth graders in a low-income elementary school. Objectives were to provide students with information that would increase their awareness of hunger in their communities by helping them identify signs of hunger, food pantries located within their school zip code area, and a resource person in…

  11. Seasonal Bushmeat Hunger in the Congo Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dounias, Edmond; Ichikawa, Mitsuo

    2017-09-01

    Unlike the Sudano-sahelian regions, which are confronted to severe periods of food shortage, tropical rainforests are known to provide a constant supply of a great diversity of food resources that mitigates the risk of food starvation for omnivorous humans. Nevertheless, several African forest ethnic groups suffer from a seasonal hunger induced by depletion in the procurement of bushmeat, which is a food of paramount importance. Although the diet remains well balanced and meets all the nutritional needs, the bushmeat cravers loose weight and experience a stress that affects their well-being. Bushmeat hunger is a psychocultural form of hunger that generates several mental disorders. We present results from nutritional anthropology studies carried out among various Congo Basin forest peoples, which regularly suffer from bushmeat hunger. We expose the physiological risks that result from this psychological unrest, we argue that this type of unsatisfied compiling desire for meat should be considered as a factor of food insecurity and we conclude on its incidence on bushmeat trade. The immoderate craving for bushmeat compromises the attempts to replace bushmeat by other sources of meat and is a persisting obstacle to conservation initiatives that fail to take the psychocultural values of bushmeat into consideration.

  12. Hunger Games: What Are the Chances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Sarah B.; Karp, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an activity based on the popular book and movie "The Hunger Games." The activity was designed to engage middle school students in using the mathematics found in the book. This activity provides a meaningful way to connect probability to a work of adolescent literature that related to, was interesting to, and…

  13. Musical Hunger: A Philosophical Testimonial of Miseducation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Reflecting upon Simone Weil's conception of beauty as food, this essay proposes musical hunger as a metaphoric way of understanding a particular species of "cultural miseducation" as conceived by Jane Roland Martin, that disadvantages children musically and perhaps therefore also spiritually. It examines such musical miseducation with regard to an…

  14. Teaching About World Hunger. No. 5419.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY. United States Committee.

    This secondary-level resource unit surveys hunger and malnutrition in developing countries and the interdependent factors affecting world food supplies. The main part of the unit is divided into four sections which examine the historical and geographical, economic and political, health and nutritional, and environmental and ecological factors…

  15. Ghrelin: much more than a hunger hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin is a multifaceted gut hormone that activates its receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin's hallmark functions are its stimulatory effects on growth hormone release, food intake and fat deposition. Ghrelin is famously known as the 'hunger hormone'. However, ample recen...

  16. Progress Toward Eliminating Hunger in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, William T.; And Others

    This report assesses the impact of Federal food assistance programs on hunger in America between the years 1967 and 1976. Data indicate that assistance to persons residing in counties with the highest infant mortality rate and counties with the lowest per capita income rose since 1967. Assistance to counties with lower infant mortality rates and…

  17. [Socio-demographic characteristics, subjective well-being, and homophobia experienced by a sample of gay men from three cities in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos-Delgado, Jaime; Cárdenas-Castro, Manuel; Gómez-Ojeda, Fabiola

    2014-06-01

    This article describes the socio-demographic characteristics of a sample of gay men in three cities in Chile, as well as experience with homophobia and subjective well-being. Snowball sampling was used to interview 325 gay men. The main findings included high levels of perceived discrimination and victimization, but interviewees reported higher levels of social well-being compared to studies elsewhere in the country. Age was related to differences in levels of social well-being, but not other variables. Individuals with university education reported higher levels of victimization and greater impact of discrimination on their lives. Gay men in Santiago reported a higher relative impact from incidents of aggression, but better levels of social well-being and happiness compared to those in other regions of Chile.

  18. Global hunger: a challenge to agricultural, food, and nutritional sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shiuan-Huei; Ho, Chi-Tang; Nah, Sui-Lin; Chau, Chi-Fai

    2014-01-01

    Hunger has been a concern for generations and has continued to plague hundreds of millions of people around the world. Although many efforts have been devoted to reduce hunger, challenges such as growing competitions for natural resources, emerging climate changes and natural disasters, poverty, illiteracy, and diseases are posing threats to food security and intensifying the hunger crisis. Concerted efforts of scientists to improve agricultural and food productivity, technology, nutrition, and education are imperative to facilitate appropriate strategies for defeating hunger and malnutrition. This paper provides some aspects of world hunger issues and summarizes the efforts and measures aimed to alleviate food problems from the food and nutritional sciences perspectives. The prospects and constraints of some implemented strategies for alleviating hunger and achieving sustainable food security are also discussed. This comprehensive information source could provide insights into the development of a complementary framework for dealing with the global hunger issue.

  19. The motilin receptor agonist erythromycin stimulates hunger and food intake through a cholinergic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloose, Eveline; Vos, Rita; Janssen, Pieter; Van den Bergh, Omer; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Depoortere, Inge; Tack, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Motilin-induced phase III contractions have been identified as a hunger signal. These phase III contractions occur as part of the migrating motor complex (MMC), a contractility pattern of the gastrointestinal tract during fasting. The mechanism involved in this association between subjective hunger feelings and gastrointestinal motility during the MMC is largely unknown, however, as is its ability to stimulate food intake. We sought to 1) investigate the occurrence of hunger peaks and their relation to phase III contractions, 2) evaluate whether this relation was cholinergically driven, and 3) assess the ability of the motilin receptor agonist erythromycin to induce food intake. An algorithm was developed to detect hunger peaks. The association with phase III contractions was studied in 14 healthy volunteers [50% men; mean ± SEM age: 25 ± 2 y; mean ± SEM body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 23 ± 1]. The impact of pharmacologically induced phase III contractions on the occurrence of hunger peaks and the involvement of a cholinergic pathway were assessed in 14 healthy volunteers (43% men; age: 29 ± 3 y; BMI: 23 ± 1). Last, the effect of erythromycin administration on food intake was examined in 15 healthy volunteers (40% men; age: 28 ± 3 y; BMI: 22 ± 1). The occurrence of hunger peaks and their significant association with phase III contractions was confirmed (P erythromycin significantly stimulated food intake compared with placebo (53% ± 13% compared with 10% ± 5%; P erythromycin stimulated food intake, suggesting a physiologic role of motilin as an orexigenic signal from the gastrointestinal tract. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02633579. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Leptin and hunger levels in young healthy adults after one night of sleep loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejovic, Slobodanka; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Basta, Maria; Tsaoussoglou, Marina; Zoumakis, Emmanuel; Vgontzas, Angeliki; Bixler, Edward O; Chrousos, George P

    2010-12-01

    Short-term sleep curtailment associated with activation of the stress system in healthy, young adults has been shown to be associated with decreased leptin levels, impaired insulin sensitivity, and increased hunger and appetite. To assess the effects of one night of sleep loss in a less stressful environment on hunger, leptin, adiponectin, cortisol and blood pressure/heart rate, and whether a 2-h mid-afternoon nap reverses the changes associated with sleep loss, 21 young healthy individuals (10 men, 11 women) participated in a 7-day sleep deprivation experiment (four consecutive nights followed by one night of sleep loss and two recovery nights). Half of the subjects were randomly assigned to take a mid-afternoon nap (14:00-16:00 hours) the day following the night of total sleep loss. Serial 24-h blood sampling and hunger scales were completed on the fourth (predeprivation) and sixth day (postdeprivation). Leptin levels were significantly increased after one night of total sleep loss, whereas adiponectin, cortisol levels, blood pressure/heart rate, and hunger were not affected. Daytime napping did not influence the effects of sleep loss on leptin, adiponectin, or hunger. Acute sleep loss, in a less stressful environment, influences leptin levels in an opposite manner from that of short-term sleep curtailment associated with activation of the stress system. It appears that sleep loss associated with activation of the stress system but not sleep loss per se may lead to increased hunger and appetite and hormonal changes, which ultimately may lead to increased consumption of 'comfort' food and obesity. © 2010 European Sleep Research Society.

  1. Intragastric infusion of denatonium benzoate attenuates interdigestive gastric motility and hunger scores in healthy female volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloose, Eveline; Janssen, Pieter; Corsetti, Maura; Biesiekierski, Jessica; Masuy, Imke; Rotondo, Alessandra; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Depoortere, Inge; Tack, Jan

    2017-03-01

    Background: Denatonium benzoate (DB) has been shown to influence ongoing ingestive behavior and gut peptide secretion.Objective: We studied how the intragastric administration of DB affects interdigestive motility, motilin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, hunger and satiety ratings, and food intake in healthy volunteers.Design: Lingual bitter taste sensitivity was tested with the use of 6 concentrations of DB in 65 subjects. A placebo or 1 μmol DB/kg was given intragastrically to assess its effect on fasting gastrointestinal motility and hunger ratings, motilin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, satiety, and caloric intake.Results: Women (n = 39) were more sensitive toward a lingual bitter stimulus (P = 0.005) than men (n = 26). In women (n = 10), intragastric DB switched the origin of phase III contractions from the stomach to the duodenum (P = 0.001) and decreased hunger ratings (P = 0.04). These effects were not observed in men (n = 10). In women (n = 12), motilin (P = 0.04) plasma concentrations decreased after intragastric DB administration, whereas total and octanoylated ghrelin were not affected. The intragastric administration of DB decreased hunger (P = 0.008) and increased satiety ratings (P = 0.01) after a meal (500 kcal) in 13 women without affecting gastric emptying in 6 women. Caloric intake tended to decrease after DB administration compared with the placebo (mean ± SEM: 720 ± 58 compared with 796 ± 45 kcal; P = 0.08) in 20 women.Conclusions: Intragastric DB administration decreases both antral motility and hunger ratings during the fasting state, possibly because of a decrease in motilin release. Moreover, DB decreases hunger and increases satiety ratings after a meal and shows potential for decreasing caloric intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02759926. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Subjective discomfort in children receiving 3 T MRI and experienced adults' perspective on children's tolerability of 7 T: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I-Jun; Tench, Christopher R; Gowland, Penny; Jaspan, Tim; Dineen, Rob A; Evangelou, Nikos; Abdel-Fahim, Rasha; Whitehouse, William P; Constantinescu, Cris S

    2014-10-15

    To explore the possible discomfort perceived by children participating in 7 T MRI research, and the age range in which children are most likely to tolerate it well. A cross-sectional survey using age-appropriate questionnaires containing six measures of subjective discomfort (general discomfort, dizziness, noisiness, claustrophobia and feeling of cold or warm). For children, 3 T clinical scanner in a tertiary referral teaching hospital; for adults, 3 and 7 T scanner in a university research building. Non-sedated children and young people under 18 years of age who underwent 3 T clinical MRI for brain or musculoskeletal scans and adult volunteers attending 7 T with or without 3 T for brain scans. 83% (89/107) of involved individuals returned questionnaires. The most common discomfort among 31 children receiving 3 T MRI was noisiness (39%), followed by cold (19%), general discomfort (16%), dizziness (13%) and claustrophobia (10%). The noise was reported more frequently in children younger than 12 years than those older (p=0.021). The most common discomfort for 58 adults receiving 7 T MRI was noisiness (43%). In adults, there was a higher frequency of general discomfort during 7 than 3 T scans (p=0.031). More than 85% of adult respondents thought children aged 12-17 years would tolerate 7 T scans well, but only 35% and 15% thought children aged 10-11 and 8-9 years, respectively, would. Noisiness was the most common discomfort across all ages in 3 and 7 T scanners. Although general discomfort was more common during 7 than 3 T scans in adults, most adults thought children aged 12 years or more would tolerate 7 T MRI well. Cautious enrolment of children in 7 T MRI study is warranted, but until there is more evidence of how well those aged 12 years or more tolerate 7 T MRI, we would caution against enrolling younger children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  3. A Subset of Serotonergic Neurons Evokes Hunger in Adult Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, Stephanie D; Kaun, Karla R; Knapp, Jon-Michael; Chung, Phuong; Heberlein, Ulrike; Simpson, Julie H

    2015-09-21

    Hunger is a complex motivational state that drives multiple behaviors. The sensation of hunger is caused by an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. One immediate response to hunger is increased food consumption. Hunger also modulates behaviors related to food seeking such as increased locomotion and enhanced sensory sensitivity in both insects and vertebrates. In addition, hunger can promote the expression of food-associated memory. Although progress is being made, how hunger is represented in the brain and how it coordinates these behavioral responses is not fully understood in any system. Here, we use Drosophila melanogaster to identify neurons encoding hunger. We found a small group of neurons that, when activated, induced a fed fly to eat as though it were starved, suggesting that these neurons are downstream of the metabolic regulation of hunger. Artificially activating these neurons also promotes appetitive memory performance in sated flies, indicating that these neurons are not simply feeding command neurons but likely play a more general role in encoding hunger. We determined that the neurons relevant for the feeding effect are serotonergic and project broadly within the brain, suggesting a possible mechanism for how various responses to hunger are coordinated. These findings extend our understanding of the neural circuitry that drives feeding and enable future exploration of how state influences neural activity within this circuit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of two breakfasts, different in carbohydrate composition, on hunger and satiety and mood in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Blokdijk, V.M.; Bertina, F.M.; Hopman, W.P.M.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of simple vs complex carbohydrates (SCHO and CCHO respectively) containing breakfasts on blood parameters, hunger and satiety and mood. DESIGN: A 2-day, open, randomised, cross-over trial. SUBJECTS: A total of 26 male subjects (34±6y; BMI 23.4±2.2 kg m-2).

  5. Randomized placebo-controlled study of the safety, tolerability, antiviral activity, and pharmacokinetics of 10-day monotherapy with BMS-986001, a novel HIV NRTI, in treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotte, Laurent; Dellamonica, Pierre; Raffi, Francois; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Molina, Jean-Michel; Boué, François; Urata, Yasuo; Chan, H Phyllis; Zhu, Li; Chang, Ih; Bertz, Richard; Hanna, George J; Grasela, Dennis M; Hwang, Carey

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and antiviral activity of BMS-986001 (a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor) in treatment-experienced, HIV-1-infected subjects not exposed to antiretroviral treatment in the previous 3 months. Thirty-two HIV-1-infected subjects were randomized (3:1) to receive BMS-986001 or placebo once daily for 10 days in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating monotherapy phase IIa study. There were 4 treatment groups (100, 200, 300, and 600 mg, all once daily) of 8 subjects each (BMS-986001, n = 6/placebo n = 2). BMS-986001 was generally well tolerated, with no discontinuations due to adverse events and no deaths occurring. Adverse events were experienced by 22 of 24 BMS-986001-treated subjects and did not seem to be dose related. The majority were mild and considered unrelated or unlikely to be related to the study drug. The pharmacokinetics of BMS-986001 were dose proportional. Median decrease in plasma HIV-1 RNA from baseline to day 11 was 0.97, 1.15, 1.28, and 1.15 log10 copies/mL for BMS-986001 at 100, 200, 300, and 600 mg, respectively. Plasma area under the curve correlated with the antiviral activity of BMS-986001, indicating that area under the curves produced by 100-600 mg doses were on the upper end of the exposure-response curve. One subject with a single thymidine analog mutation at baseline responded well to BMS-986001. Administration of BMS-986001 for 10 days resulted in substantial decreases in plasma HIV-1 RNA levels for all dose groups and was generally well tolerated. These data support continued clinical development of BMS-986001 at a dose of 100 mg, once daily or greater. EUDRACT Number 2008-004810-29.

  6. Acute stress-related changes in eating in the absence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutters, Femke; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Born, Jurriaan M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2009-01-01

    Obesity results from chronic deregulation of energy balance, which may in part be caused by stress. Our objective was to investigate the effect of acute and psychological stress on food intake, using the eating in the absence of hunger paradigm, in normal and overweight men and women (while taking dietary restraint and disinhibition into account). In 129 subjects (BMI = 24.5 +/- 3.4 kg/m(2) and age = 27.6 +/- 8.8 years), scores were determined on the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (dietary restraint = 7.2 +/- 4.4; disinhibition = 4.5 +/- 2.6; feeling of hunger = 3.9 +/- 2.6) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (trait score = 31.7 +/- 24.2). In a randomized crossover design, the "eating in absence of hunger" protocol was measured as a function of acute stress vs. a control task and of state anxiety scores. Energy intake from sweet foods (708.1 kJ vs. 599.4 kJ, P stress condition compared to the control condition. Differences in energy intake between the stress and control condition were a function of increase in state anxiety scores during the stress task (Delta state anxiety scores) (R(2) = 0.05, P stress is associated with eating in the absence of hunger, especially in vulnerable individuals characterized by disinhibited eating behavior and sensitivity to chronic stress.

  7. Effects of gustatory stimulation on brain activity during hunger and satiety in females with restricting-type anorexia nervosa: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocks, Silja; Herpertz, Stephan; Rosenberger, Christina; Senf, Wolfgang; Gizewski, Elke R

    2011-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated altered neuronal responses to visual stimulation with food in anorexia nervosa, varying with the motivational state of hunger or satiety. The aim of the present fMRI study was to assess hunger- and satiety-dependent alterations in the gustatory processing of stimulation with food in anorexia nervosa. After food abstention (hunger condition) and after eating bread rolls with cheese (satiety condition), 12 females with restricting-type anorexia nervosa and 12 healthy females drank chocolate milk and water via a tube in a blocked design during image acquisition. Additionally, heart rate was registered during the measurements, and subjective ratings of hunger/satiety and of the valence of chocolate milk were assessed using a Likert scale. In participants with anorexia nervosa, drinking chocolate milk in the hunger condition induced significant activations in the right amygdala and in the left medial temporal gyrus relative to healthy controls. When contrasting neuronal responses to drinking chocolate milk during satiety with those evoked during hunger, a significant activation was found in the left insula in healthy controls, whereas in participants with anorexia nervosa, neuronal activity in the inferior temporal gyrus, covering the extrastriate body area, was observed. Neuronal responses evoked by gustatory stimulation differ depending on hunger and satiety. Activations located in the amygdala and in the extrastriate body area might reflect fear of weight gain, representing one of the core symptoms of anorexia nervosa. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Practical Problem Approach to World Hunger: Universities Fighting World Hunger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the profession's history, family and consumer sciences professionals have worked to consider what should be done about various social issues affecting individuals, families, and communities across the world. Hunger is a global issue pertaining to the right to life, human survival, sustainable communities, and promotion of healthy…

  9. The Hunger Games : Using hunger to promote healthy choices in self-control conflicts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, Tracy T.L.; Kroese, Floor M.; Fennis, Bob M.; de Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2017-01-01

    The majority of existing research and conventional wisdom would advise against shopping on an empty stomach as hunger is assumed to encourage impulsive choices that typically lead to self-control failure (i.e., favouring short-term gratifications at the expense of long-term goals). Nonetheless,

  10. Everybody Eats: Using Hunger Banquets to Teach about Issues of Global Hunger and Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Deborah A.; Harris, Whitney M.; Fondren, Kristi M.

    2015-01-01

    Experiential and active learning exercises can benefit students in sociology courses, particularly, courses in which issues of inequality are central. In this paper, we describe using hunger banquets-an active learning exercise where participants are randomly stratified into three global classes and receive food based upon their class position-to…

  11. The Faces of Hunger: The Educational Impact of Hunger on Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Tracy G.; Morgan, Joseph John; Matsuura, Miki

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between students' living in poverty and academic underachievement challenges schools across the nation. Poverty is particularly prevalent among children with disabilities. One detrimental condition of poverty that directly affects student development and academic achievement is food insecurity and hunger. With the increasing…

  12. Community Childhood Hunger Identification Project: A Survey of Childhood Hunger in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehler, Cheryl A.; And Others

    The Community Childhood Identification Project (CCHIP) is regarded as a model for measuring hunger in low-income families. This second and final CCHIP study was the result of surveys conducted at 11 sites in 9 states and the District of Columbia between 1992 and 1994. A total of 5,282 households were interviewed. Chapters in the report are as…

  13. Hunger in the United States: A Summary of Recent Studies on Hunger and Emergency Food Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ashley F.

    This is an annotated resource guide for those interested in recent hunger and food insecurity studies. Objectives, methods, and key findings of each study are summarized, and contact information for obtaining the report is given. Studies are grouped by survey location and listed chronologically by publication or release date within each geographic…

  14. Depressed Affect and Dietary Restraint in Adolescent Boys’ and Girls’ Eating in the Absence of Hunger

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Nichole R.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Pickworth, Courtney K.; Grygorenko, Mariya V.; Radin, Rachel M.; Vannucci, Anna; Shank, Lisa M.; Brady, Sheila M; Courville, Amber B.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A

    2015-01-01

    Data suggest that depressed affect and dietary restraint are related to disinhibited eating patterns in children and adults. Yet, experimental research has not determined to what extent depressed affect acutely affects eating in the absence of physiological hunger (EAH) in adolescents. In the current between-subjects experimental study, we measured EAH in 182 adolescent (13-17y) girls (65%) and boys as ad libitum palatable snack food intake after youth ate to satiety from a buffet meal. Just ...

  15. Global Update and Trends of Hidden Hunger, 1995-2011: The Hidden Hunger Index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie C Ruel-Bergeron

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in essential vitamins and minerals-also termed hidden hunger-are pervasive and hold negative consequences for the cognitive and physical development of children.This analysis evaluates the change in hidden hunger over time in the form of one composite indicator-the Hidden Hunger Index (HHI-using an unweighted average of prevalence estimates from the Nutrition Impact Model Study for anemia due to iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency, and stunting (used as a proxy indicator for zinc deficiency. Net changes from 1995-2011 and population weighted regional means for various time periods are measured.Globally, hidden hunger improved (-6.7 net change in HHI from 1995-2011. Africa was the only region to see a deterioration in hidden hunger (+1.9 over the studied time period; East Asia and the Pacific performed exceptionally well (-13.0, while other regions improved only slightly. Improvements in HHI were mostly due to reductions in zinc and vitamin A deficiencies, while anemia due to iron deficiency persisted and even increased.This analysis is critical for informing and tracking the impact of policy and programmatic efforts to reduce micronutrient deficiencies, to advance the global nutrition agenda, and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. However, there remains an unmet need to invest in gathering frequent, nationally representative, high-quality micronutrient data as we renew our efforts to scale up nutrition, and as we enter the post-2015 development agenda.Preparation of this manuscript was funded by Sight and Life. There was no funding involved in the study design, data collection, analysis, or decision to publish.

  16. Resection of the large bowel suppresses hunger and food intake and modulates gastrointestinal fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, Priyadarshika; Wickremasinghe, A Rajitha; Frost, Gary S; Deen, Kemal I; Pathirana, Ajith A; Murphy, Kevin G; Jayaratne, SriLal D

    2016-08-01

    To assess appetite and gut hormone levels in patients following partial (PR) or total resection (TR) of the large bowel. A comparative cross sectional study was carried out with healthy controls (n = 99) and patients who had undergone PR (n = 64) or TR (n = 12) of the large bowel. Participants consumed a standard (720 kcal) breakfast meal at 0830 (t = 0) h followed by lactulose (15 g) and a buffet lunch (t = 210 min). Participants rated the subjective feelings of hunger at t = -30, 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min. Breath hydrogen (BH) concentrations were also evaluated. In a matched subset (11 controls, 11 PR and 9 TR patients) PYY and GLP-1 concentrations were measured following breakfast. The primary outcome measure was appetite, as measured using visual analogue scales and the buffet lunch. The secondary outcome was BH concentrations following a test meal. PR and TR participants had lower hunger and energy intake at the buffet lunch meal compared to controls. PR subjects had higher BH concentrations compared to controls and TR subjects. BH levels correlated with circulating GLP-1 levels at specific time points. PR or TR of the large bowel reduced feelings of hunger and energy intake, and PR increased gastrointestinal fermentation. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  17. Position of the American Dietetic Association: food insecurity and hunger in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holben, David H

    2006-03-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that systematic and sustained action is needed to bring an end to domestic food insecurity and hunger and to achieve food and nutrition security for all in the United States. The Association believes that immediate and long-range interventions are needed, including adequate funding for and increased utilization of food and nutrition assistance programs, the inclusion of food and nutrition education in all programs providing food and nutrition assistance, and innovative programs to promote and support the economic self-sufficiency of individuals and families, to end food insecurity and hunger in the United States. Food insecurity continues to exist in the United States, with over 38 million people experiencing it sometime in 2004. Negative nutritional and nonnutritional outcomes have been associated with food insecurity in adults, adolescents, and children, including poor dietary intake and nutritional status, poor health, increased risk for the development of chronic diseases, poor psychological and cognitive functioning, and substandard academic achievement. Dietetics professionals can play a key role in ending food insecurity and hunger and are uniquely positioned to make valuable contributions through provision of comprehensive food and nutrition education, competent and collaborative practice, innovative research related to accessing a safe and secure food supply, and advocacy efforts at the local, state, regional, and national levels.

  18. Prevalence and correlates of hunger among primary and secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Education is important in improving economies and creating literate, self-reliant and healthy societies. However, hunger is a barrier to basic education in Malawi. Hunger is also associated with a number of health risk behaviours, such as bullying, suicide ideation and unhygienic behaviours that may jeopardize ...

  19. Chrysostom on hunger and famine | Stander | HTS Teologiese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article looked at hunger and famine in Chrysostom's time. It has always been tragic and ironic that hunger should exist in a world of plenty. This topic has been discussed from an economic, social, theological, philosophical, medical, humanitarian and exegetical perspective. Chrysostom's statements on this issue are ...

  20. Tasting calories differentially affects brain activation during hunger and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Inge; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-02-15

    An important function of eating is ingesting energy. Our objectives were to assess whether oral exposure to caloric and non-caloric stimuli elicits discriminable responses in the brain and to determine in how far these responses are modulated by hunger state and sweetness. Thirty women tasted three stimuli in two motivational states (hunger and satiety) while their brain responses were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a randomized crossover design. Stimuli were solutions of sucralose (sweet, no energy), maltodextrin (non-sweet, energy) and sucralose+maltodextrin (sweet, energy). We found no main effect of energy content and no interaction between energy content and sweetness. However, there was an interaction between hunger state and energy content in the median cingulate (bilaterally), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus. This indicates that the anterior insula and thalamus, areas in which hunger state and taste of a stimulus are integrated, also integrate hunger state with caloric content of a taste stimulus. Furthermore, in the median cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, tasting energy resulted in more activation during satiety compared to hunger. This finding indicates that these areas, which are known to be involved in processes that require approach and avoidance, are also involved in guiding ingestive behavior. In conclusion, our results suggest that energy sensing is a hunger state dependent process, in which the median cingulate, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus play a central role by integrating hunger state with stimulus relevance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Parameters for quantification of hunger in broiler breeders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Voorst, van A.S.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    The commercial restricted feeding programme of broiler breeders has a major negative effect on welfare, as the birds are continuously hungry. Objective parameters of hunger are needed to evaluate new management or feeding systems that may alleviate hunger and thus improve broiler breeder welfare.

  2. Tasting calories differentially affects brain activation during hunger and satiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Inge; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304817740

    2015-01-01

    Our objectives were to assess whether oral exposure to caloric and non-caloric stimuli elicits discriminable responses in the brain and to determine in how far these responses are modulated by hunger state and sweetness. Thirty women tasted three stimuli in two motivational states (hunger and

  3. Intervals of confidence: Uncertain accounts of global hunger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yates-Doerr, E.

    2015-01-01

    Global health policy experts tend to organize hunger through scales of ‘the individual’, ‘the community’ and ‘the global’. This organization configures hunger as a discrete, measurable object to be scaled up or down with mathematical certainty. This article offers a counter to this approach, using

  4. Hunger-Driven Motivational State Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, C Joseph; Li, Chia; Webber, Emily; Tsaousidou, Eva; Xue, Stephen Y; Brüning, Jens C; Krashes, Michael J

    2016-10-05

    Behavioral choice is ubiquitous in the animal kingdom and is central to goal-oriented behavior. Hypothalamic Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons are critical regulators of appetite. Hungry animals, bombarded by multiple sensory stimuli, are known to modify their behavior during times of caloric need, rapidly adapting to a consistently changing environment. Utilizing ARC(AgRP) neurons as an entry point, we analyzed the hierarchical position of hunger related to rival drive states. Employing a battery of behavioral assays, we found that hunger significantly increases its capacity to suppress competing motivational systems, such as thirst, anxiety-related behavior, innate fear, and social interactions, often only when food is accessible. Furthermore, real-time monitoring of ARC(AgRP) activity revealed time-locked responses to conspecific investigation in addition to food presentation, further establishing that, even at the level of ARC(AgRP) neurons, choices are remarkably flexible computations, integrating internal state, external factors, and anticipated yield. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Motilin-induced gastric contractions signal hunger in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, J; Deloose, E; Ang, D; Scarpellini, E; Vanuytsel, T; Van Oudenhove, L; Depoortere, I

    2016-02-01

    Hunger is controlled by the brain, which receives input from signals of the GI tract (GIT). During fasting, GIT displays a cyclical motor pattern, the migrating motor complex (MMC), regulated by motilin. To study the relationship between hunger and MMC phases (I-III), focusing on spontaneous and pharmacologically induced phase III and the correlation with plasma motilin and ghrelin levels. The role of phase III was also studied in the return of hunger after a meal in healthy individuals and in patients with loss of appetite. In fasting healthy volunteers, mean hunger ratings during a gastric (62.5±7.5) but not a duodenal (40.4±5.4) phase III were higher (phunger scores from 29.2±7 to 61.7±8. The somatostatin analogue octreotide induced a premature intestinal phase III without a rise in hunger scores. Hunger ratings significantly correlated (β=0.05; p=0.01) with motilin plasma levels, and this relationship was lost after erythromycin administration. Motilin, but not ghrelin administration, induced a premature gastric phase III and a rise in hunger scores. In contrast to octreotide, postprandial administration of erythromycin induced a premature gastric phase III accompanied by an early rise in hunger ratings. In patients with unexplained loss of appetite, gastric phase III was absent and hunger ratings were lower. Motilin-induced gastric phase III is a hunger signal from GIT in man. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Global Update and Trends of Hidden Hunger, 1995-2011: The Hidden Hunger Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Gretchen A.; Ezzati, Majid; Black, Robert E.; Kraemer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Background Deficiencies in essential vitamins and minerals–also termed hidden hunger–are pervasive and hold negative consequences for the cognitive and physical development of children. Methods This analysis evaluates the change in hidden hunger over time in the form of one composite indicator–the Hidden Hunger Index (HHI)–using an unweighted average of prevalence estimates from the Nutrition Impact Model Study for anemia due to iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency, and stunting (used as a proxy indicator for zinc deficiency). Net changes from 1995–2011 and population weighted regional means for various time periods are measured. Findings Globally, hidden hunger improved (-6.7 net change in HHI) from 1995–2011. Africa was the only region to see a deterioration in hidden hunger (+1.9) over the studied time period; East Asia and the Pacific performed exceptionally well (-13.0), while other regions improved only slightly. Improvements in HHI were mostly due to reductions in zinc and vitamin A deficiencies, while anemia due to iron deficiency persisted and even increased. Interpretation This analysis is critical for informing and tracking the impact of policy and programmatic efforts to reduce micronutrient deficiencies, to advance the global nutrition agenda, and to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, there remains an unmet need to invest in gathering frequent, nationally representative, high-quality micronutrient data as we renew our efforts to scale up nutrition, and as we enter the post-2015 development agenda. Funding Preparation of this manuscript was funded by Sight and Life. There was no funding involved in the study design, data collection, analysis, or decision to publish. PMID:26673631

  7. Association between sleep stages and hunger scores in 36 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, R; Pina, P; Rubin, D; Erichsen, D

    2016-10-01

    Childhood obesity is a growing health challenge. Recent studies show that children with late bedtime and late awakening are more obese independent of total sleep time. In adolescents and adults, a delayed sleep phase has been associated with higher caloric intake. Furthermore, an adult study showed a positive correlation between REM sleep and energy balance. This relationship has not been demonstrated in children. However, it may be important as a delayed sleep phase would increase the proportion of REM sleep. This study investigated the relationship between hunger score and sleep physiology in a paediatric population. Thirty-six patients referred for a polysomnogram for suspected obstructive sleep apnoea were enrolled in the study. Sleep stages were recorded as part of the polysomnogram. Hunger scores were obtained using a visual analogue scale. Mean age was 9.6 ± 3.5 years. Mean hunger scores were 2.07 ± 2.78. Hunger scores were positively correlated with percentage of total rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (r = 0.438, P hunger score (r = -0.360, P hunger scores. These findings suggest that delayed bedtime, which increases the proportion of REM sleep and decreases the proportion of SWS, results in higher hunger levels in children. © 2015 World Obesity.

  8. Effects of electric stimulation of the hunger center in the lateral hypothalamus on slow electric activity and spike activity of fundal and antral stomach muscles in rabbits under conditions of hunger and satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromin, A A; Zenina, O Yu

    2013-09-01

    In chronic experiments on rabbits, the effect of electric stimulation of the hunger center in the lateral hypothalamus on myoelectric activity of the fundal and antral parts of the stomach was studied under conditions of hunger and satiation in the absence of food. Stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus in rabbits subjected to 24-h food deprivation and in previously fed rabbits produced incessant seeking behavior, which was followed by reorganization of the structure of temporal organization of slow wave electric activity of muscles of the stomach body and antrum specific for hungry and satiated animals. Increased hunger motivation during electric stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus manifested in the structure of temporal organization of slow wave electric activity of the stomach body and antrum muscles in rabbits subjected to 24-h food deprivation in the replacement of bimodal distribution of slow wave periods to a trimodal type typical of 2-day deprivation, while transition from satiation to hunger caused by electric stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus was associated with a shift from monomodal distributions of slow wave periods to a bimodal type typical of 24-h deprivation. Reorganization of the structure of temporal organization of slow wave electric activity of the stomach body and antrum muscles during electric stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus was determined by descending inhibitory influences of food motivational excitation on activity of the myogenic pacemaker of the lesser curvature of the stomach.

  9. [Functional asymmetry of electric processes in the rabbit brain cortex at formation of the hunger dominant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusinova, E V

    2011-01-01

    The motivational condition of hunger and formation of the hunger dominant after daily food deprivation was studied in the conditions of chronic experiments on rabbits. It was shown, that the hunger condition was accompanied by left sided interhemispher asymmetry on indicators of spectral capacity of EEG frontal and right-hand asymmetry sensorimotor areas of the cortex. A hunger dominant was accompanied by falling of spectral capacity of EEG of areas of both hemispheres. The condition of hunger and a hunger dominant were characterized by right-hand asymmetry on average level of EEG coherence of frontal and sensorimotor areas. At transition of a condition of hunger in a hunger dominant there was an average level of EEG coherence decrease in areas of the right hemisphere. Electric processes of the cortex of the brain at a motivational condition of hunger and a hunger dominant were different.

  10. Aberrant Cerebral Blood Flow in Response to Hunger and Satiety in Women Remitted from Anorexia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E. Wierenga

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of pathological eating in anorexia nervosa (AN remains poorly understood. Cerebral blood flow (CBF is an indirect marker of neuronal function. In healthy adults, fasting increases CBF, reflecting increased delivery of oxygen and glucose to support brain metabolism. This study investigated whether women remitted from restricting-type AN (RAN have altered CBF in response to hunger that may indicate homeostatic dysregulation contributing to their ability to restrict food. We compared resting CBF measured with pulsed arterial spin labeling in 21 RAN and 16 healthy comparison women (CW when hungry (after a 16-h fast and after a meal. Only remitted subjects were examined to avoid the confounding effects of malnutrition on brain function. Compared to CW, RAN demonstrated a reduced difference in the Hungry − Fed CBF contrast in the right ventral striatum, right subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (pcorr < 0.05 and left posterior insula (punc < 0.05; RAN had decreased CBF when hungry versus fed, whereas CW had increased CBF when hungry versus fed. Moreover, decreased CBF when hungry in the left insula was associated with greater hunger ratings on the fasted day for RAN. This represents the first study to show that women remitted from AN have aberrant resting neurovascular function in homeostatic neural circuitry in response to hunger. Regions involved in homeostatic regulation showed group differences in the Hungry − Fed contrast, suggesting altered cellular energy metabolism in this circuitry that may reduce motivation to eat.

  11. Changing perceptions of hunger on a high nutrient density diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background People overeat because their hunger directs them to consume more calories than they require. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in experience and perception of hunger before and after participants shifted from their previous usual diet to a high nutrient density diet. Methods This was a descriptive study conducted with 768 participants primarily living in the United States who had changed their dietary habits from a low micronutrient to a high micronutrient diet. Participants completed a survey rating various dimensions of hunger (physical symptoms, emotional symptoms, and location) when on their previous usual diet versus the high micronutrient density diet. Statistical analysis was conducted using non-parametric tests. Results Highly significant differences were found between the two diets in relation to all physical and emotional symptoms as well as the location of hunger. Hunger was not an unpleasant experience while on the high nutrient density diet, was well tolerated and occurred with less frequency even when meals were skipped. Nearly 80% of respondents reported that their experience of hunger had changed since starting the high nutrient density diet, with 51% reporting a dramatic or complete change in their experience of hunger. Conclusions A high micronutrient density diet mitigates the unpleasant aspects of the experience of hunger even though it is lower in calories. Hunger is one of the major impediments to successful weight loss. Our findings suggest that it is not simply the caloric content, but more importantly, the micronutrient density of a diet that influences the experience of hunger. It appears that a high nutrient density diet, after an initial phase of adjustment during which a person experiences "toxic hunger" due to withdrawal from pro-inflammatory foods, can result in a sustainable eating pattern that leads to weight loss and improved health. A high nutrient density diet provides benefits for long-term health

  12. Changing perceptions of hunger on a high nutrient density diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaser Dale

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People overeat because their hunger directs them to consume more calories than they require. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in experience and perception of hunger before and after participants shifted from their previous usual diet to a high nutrient density diet. Methods This was a descriptive study conducted with 768 participants primarily living in the United States who had changed their dietary habits from a low micronutrient to a high micronutrient diet. Participants completed a survey rating various dimensions of hunger (physical symptoms, emotional symptoms, and location when on their previous usual diet versus the high micronutrient density diet. Statistical analysis was conducted using non-parametric tests. Results Highly significant differences were found between the two diets in relation to all physical and emotional symptoms as well as the location of hunger. Hunger was not an unpleasant experience while on the high nutrient density diet, was well tolerated and occurred with less frequency even when meals were skipped. Nearly 80% of respondents reported that their experience of hunger had changed since starting the high nutrient density diet, with 51% reporting a dramatic or complete change in their experience of hunger. Conclusions A high micronutrient density diet mitigates the unpleasant aspects of the experience of hunger even though it is lower in calories. Hunger is one of the major impediments to successful weight loss. Our findings suggest that it is not simply the caloric content, but more importantly, the micronutrient density of a diet that influences the experience of hunger. It appears that a high nutrient density diet, after an initial phase of adjustment during which a person experiences "toxic hunger" due to withdrawal from pro-inflammatory foods, can result in a sustainable eating pattern that leads to weight loss and improved health. A high nutrient density diet provides

  13. Changing perceptions of hunger on a high nutrient density diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Joel; Sarter, Barbara; Glaser, Dale; Acocella, Steve

    2010-11-07

    People overeat because their hunger directs them to consume more calories than they require. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in experience and perception of hunger before and after participants shifted from their previous usual diet to a high nutrient density diet. This was a descriptive study conducted with 768 participants primarily living in the United States who had changed their dietary habits from a low micronutrient to a high micronutrient diet. Participants completed a survey rating various dimensions of hunger (physical symptoms, emotional symptoms, and location) when on their previous usual diet versus the high micronutrient density diet. Statistical analysis was conducted using non-parametric tests. Highly significant differences were found between the two diets in relation to all physical and emotional symptoms as well as the location of hunger. Hunger was not an unpleasant experience while on the high nutrient density diet, was well tolerated and occurred with less frequency even when meals were skipped. Nearly 80% of respondents reported that their experience of hunger had changed since starting the high nutrient density diet, with 51% reporting a dramatic or complete change in their experience of hunger. A high micronutrient density diet mitigates the unpleasant aspects of the experience of hunger even though it is lower in calories. Hunger is one of the major impediments to successful weight loss. Our findings suggest that it is not simply the caloric content, but more importantly, the micronutrient density of a diet that influences the experience of hunger. It appears that a high nutrient density diet, after an initial phase of adjustment during which a person experiences "toxic hunger" due to withdrawal from pro-inflammatory foods, can result in a sustainable eating pattern that leads to weight loss and improved health. A high nutrient density diet provides benefits for long-term health as well as weight loss. Because our

  14. Changing perceptions of hunger on a high nutrient density diet

    OpenAIRE

    Glaser Dale; Sarter Barbara; Fuhrman Joel; Acocella Steve

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background People overeat because their hunger directs them to consume more calories than they require. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in experience and perception of hunger before and after participants shifted from their previous usual diet to a high nutrient density diet. Methods This was a descriptive study conducted with 768 participants primarily living in the United States who had changed their dietary habits from a low micronutrient to a high micronutrie...

  15. Crisis, poverty and hunger. Food sovereignty as an alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HIDALGO MORATAL, Moisés

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the causes behind the recent food crises (2008, 2011 through the study of the evolution of neo-liberal globalisation and the current world crisis. We seek the causes of hunger in factors such as the growing inequalities in income and the evolution of prices in world agricultural markets. We also analyse certain methods for measuring under-nourishment, with the aim of selecting those that we consider most coherent in order to to achieve this end, by making a number of critical observations on the subject. In accordance with various widely proven theories, we hold that food crises occur as a consequence of structural lack of the right to access to food, and not as a result of a non existent food shortage. In this context, we examine the alternative possibilities currently offered by food sovereignty, a concept that originates in international social movements and which has been found in the daily life of various rural areas, and is, at the same time, consistent with several critical theories originating from the academic world

  16. MRI findings of Wernicke encephalopathy revisited due to hunger strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, Ercument; Cakir, Bilge; Asil, Talip

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings among a group of patients who presented with Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) due to the neurological complications of a long-term hunger strike (HS). MRI studies also including the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of six male patients with WE aged from 25 to 38 years (mean age 31 years) were evaluated. In all subjects, T2-weighted sequences, FLAIR and DWI revealed a signal hyperintensity within the posteromedial thalami and surrounding the third ventricle. In particular, on coronal images, the hyperintense areas around the third ventricle showed a suggestive "double wing" configuration. We observed an increased signal on proton-density and T2-weighted images in the mamillary bodies of three patients. Four patients demonstrated additional hyperintensities within the periaqueductal region and/or the tectal plate. At least one lesion area in five of six patients demonstrated contrast enhancement. The consistent imaging findings of our study suggest that MRI is a reliable means of diagnosing WE. Acute WE is sometimes underdiagnosed, yet early diagnosis and treatment of WE is crucial in order to avoid persistent brain damage. MRI, including postcontrast T1-weighted imaging, DWI beneath standardized T2-weighted imaging, and FLAIR sequences may prove to be a valuable adjunct to clinical diagnosis and to provide additional information in acute and/or subacute WE.

  17. MRI findings of Wernicke encephalopathy revisited due to hunger strike

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unlu, Ercument [Department of Radiology, Trakya University School of Medicine, Mimar Sinan m, Muammer Aksoy c, Yorulmaz apt, No 50, D-1 22030 Edirne (Turkey)]. E-mail: drercument@yahoo.com; Cakir, Bilge [Department of Radiology, Trakya University School of Medicine, Mimar Sinan m, Muammer Aksoy c, Yorulmaz apt, No 50, D-1 22030 Edirne (Turkey); Asil, Talip [Department of Neurology, Trakya University School of Medicine, Edirne (Turkey)

    2006-01-15

    Background and Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings among a group of patients who presented with Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) due to the neurological complications of a long-term hunger strike (HS). Methods: MRI studies also including the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of six male patients with WE aged from 25 to 38 years (mean age 31 years) were evaluated. Results: In all subjects, T2-weighted sequences, FLAIR and DWI revealed a signal hyperintensity within the posteromedial thalami and surrounding the third ventricle. In particular, on coronal images, the hyperintense areas around the third ventricle showed a suggestive 'double wing' configuration. We observed an increased signal on proton-density and T2-weighted images in the mamillary bodies of three patients. Four patients demonstrated additional hyperintensities within the periaqueductal region and/or the tectal plate. At least one lesion area in five of six patients demonstrated contrast enhancement. Conclusion: The consistent imaging findings of our study suggest that MRI is a reliable means of diagnosing WE. Acute WE is sometimes underdiagnosed, yet early diagnosis and treatment of WE is crucial in order to avoid persistent brain damage. MRI, including postcontrast T1-weighted imaging, DWI beneath standardized T2-weighted imaging, and FLAIR sequences may prove to be a valuable adjunct to clinical diagnosis and to provide additional information in acute and/or subacute WE.

  18. Acute hunger modifies responses on the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire hunger and disinhibition, but not restraint, scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Martin R; McCrickerd, Keri

    2017-03-01

    It is widely assumed that responses on the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) represent long-term (trait) attitudes to eating behaviour. However, the questionnaire requires agreement with a number of food related statements, and it is possible that some are easier to agree with when assessed hungry than sated. To test this potential state-dependency, participants completed a 100 mm visual analogue scale rating of their current hunger at the time they completed the TFEQ. Data were collected from two cohorts: Cohort 1 (507 women and 119 men) completed both measures on paper, while the hunger rating was computerised in Cohort 2 (179 women). Regression analysis revealed significant effects of rated hunger on scores on the hunger (TFEQ-H) and disinhibition (TFEQ-D) but not restraint (TFEQ-R) subscales, with higher TFEQ-H and TFEQ-D scores when participants were more hungry. In addition, 61 women and two men from Cohort 1 completed the measures on two separate occasions. Here, scores on TFEQ-H were higher on days when these participants were hungrier, but no differences in TFEQ-D or TFEQ-R were found. Overall these data suggest TFEQ-H could be interpreted as an indirect measure of current hunger, that scores on TFEQ-D are partly moderated by hunger but TFEQ-R is a more trait-like measure of restraint. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of high- and low-energy meals on hunger, physiological processes and reactions to emotional stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macht, M

    1996-02-01

    The effects of a reduced energy content of two meals on hunger motivation, physiological variables and reactions to emotional stress were investigated. Healthy normal-weight male students received breakfast and lunch in the laboratory. Half of the subjects (n = 28) received meals with normal energy content (1700 kcal), and half received meals with reduced energy content (260 kcal). Psychological and physiological variables were obtained for 8 h from morning to afternoon, including during a period of emotional stress in the afternoon. Psychophysical state was altered by the reduction of energy in food (e.g. increased subjective motivation to eat, decreased systolic blood pressure). Noise decrease feelings of relaxation in subjects who had received low-energy meals, but not in subjects who had received high-energy meals. This enhanced emotional reactivity after low-energy intake is interpreted as a biologically meaningful consequence of the heightened hunger motivation. Furthermore, subjective hunger motivation was potentiated by stress when energy intake in the preceding hours was low. The latter result may be due to increased emotional reactions and/or an augmentation of deprivation-induced physiological changes by noise-induced emotional stress.

  20. Redefining the functional roles of the gastrointestinal migrating motor complex and motilin in small bacterial overgrowth and hunger signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloose, Eveline; Tack, Jan

    2016-02-15

    During the fasting state the upper gastrointestinal tract exhibits a specific periodic migrating contraction pattern that is known as the migrating motor complex (MMC). Three different phases can be distinguished during the MMC. Phase III of the MMC is the most active of the three and can start either in the stomach or small intestine. Historically this pattern was designated to be the housekeeper of the gut since disturbances in the pattern were associated with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth; however, its role in the involvement of hunger sensations was already hinted in the beginning of the 20th century by both Cannon (Cannon W, Washburn A. Am J Physiol 29: 441-454, 1912) and Carlson (Carlson A. The Control of Hunger in Health and Disease. Chicago, IL: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1916). The discovery of motilin in 1973 shed more light on the control mechanisms of the MMC. Motilin plasma levels fluctuate together with the phases of the MMC and induce phase III contractions with a gastric onset. Recent research suggests that these motilin-induced phase III contractions signal hunger in healthy subjects and that this system is disturbed in morbidly obese patients. This minireview describes the functions of the MMC in the gut and its regulatory role in controlling hunger sensations. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Management of patients during hunger strike and refeeding phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, M; Joray, M L; Perrig, M; Bodmer, M; Stanga, Z

    2014-01-01

    Hunger strikers resuming nutritional intake may develop a life-threatening refeeding syndrome (RFS). Consequently, hunger strikers represent a core challenge for the medical staff. The objective of the study was to test the effectiveness and safety of evidence-based recommendations for prevention and management of RFS during the refeeding phase. This was a retrospective, observational data analysis of 37 consecutive, unselected cases of prisoners on a hunger strike during a 5-y period. The sample consisted of 37 cases representing 33 individual patients. In seven cases (18.9%), the hunger strike was continued during the hospital stay, in 16 episodes (43.2%) cessation of the hunger strike occurred immediately after admission to the security ward, and in 14 episodes (37.9%) during hospital stay. In the refeed cases (n = 30), nutritional replenishment occurred orally, and in 25 (83.3%) micronutrients substitutions were made based on the recommendations. The gradual refeeding with fluid restriction occurred over 10 d. Uncomplicated dyselectrolytemia was documented in 12 cases (40%) within the refeeding phase. One case (3.3%) presented bilateral ankle edemas as a clinical manifestation of moderate RFS. Intensive medical treatment was not necessary and none of the patients died. Seven episodes of continued hunger strike were observed during the entire hospital stay without medical complications. Our data suggested that seriousness and rate of medical complications during the refeeding phase can be kept at a minimum in a hunger strike population. This study supported use of recommendations to optimize risk management and to improve treatment quality and patient safety in this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Does Hunger Contribute to Socioeconomic Gradients in Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has uncovered many examples of socioeconomic gradients in behavior and psychological states. As yet there is no theoretical consensus on the nature of the causal processes that produce these gradients. Here, I present the hunger hypothesis, namely the claim that part of the reason that people of lower socioeconomic position behave and feel as they do is that they are relatively often hungry. The hunger hypothesis applies in particular to impulsivity-hyperactivity, irritability-aggression, anxiety, and persistent narcotic use, all of which have been found to show socioeconomic gradients. I review multiple lines of evidence showing that hunger produces strong increases in these outcomes. I also review the literatures on food insufficiency and food insecurity to show that, within affluent societies, the poor experience a substantial burden of hunger, despite obtaining sufficient or excess calories on average. This leads to the distinctive prediction that hunger is an important mediator of the relationships between socioeconomic variables and the behavioral/psychological outcomes. This approach has a number of far-reaching implications, not least that some behavioral and psychological differences between social groups, though persistent under current economic arrangements, are potentially highly reversible with changes to the distribution of financial resources and food. PMID:28344567

  3. Loneliness predicts postprandial ghrelin and hunger in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremka, Lisa M; Fagundes, Christopher P; Peng, Juan; Belury, Martha A; Andridge, Rebecca R; Malarkey, William B; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K

    2015-04-01

    Loneliness is strongly linked to poor health. Recent research suggests that appetite dysregulation provides one potential pathway through which loneliness and other forms of social disconnection influence health. Obesity may alter the link between loneliness and appetite-relevant hormones, one unexplored possibility. We examined the relationships between loneliness and both postmeal ghrelin and hunger, and tested whether these links differed for people with a higher versus lower body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)). During this double-blind randomized crossover study, women (N=42) ate a high saturated fat meal at the beginning of one full-day visit and a high oleic sunflower oil meal at the beginning of the other. Loneliness was assessed once with a commonly used loneliness questionnaire. Ghrelin was sampled before the meal and postmeal at 2 and 7h. Self-reported hunger was measured before the meal, immediately postmeal, and then 2, 4, and 7h later. Lonelier women had larger postprandial ghrelin and hunger increases compared with less lonely women, but only among participants with a lower BMI. Loneliness and postprandial ghrelin and hunger were unrelated among participants with a higher BMI. These effects were consistent across both meals. These data suggest that ghrelin, an important appetite-regulation hormone, and hunger may link loneliness to weight gain and its corresponding negative health effects among non-obese people. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hungers that Need Feeding: On the Normativity of Mindful Nourishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Else

    2017-08-01

    Drawing on participant observation in a 'mindful weight loss' course offered in the Netherlands, this paper explores the normative register through which mindfulness techniques cast people in relation to concerns with overeating and body weight. The women seeking out mindfulness use eating to cope with troubles in their lives and are hindered by a preoccupation with the size of their bodies. Mindfulness coaches aim to help them let go of this 'struggle with eating' by posing as the central question: 'what do I really hunger after?' The self's hungers include 'belly hunger' but also stem from mouths, hearts, heads, noses and eyes. They cannot all be fed by food. The techniques detailed in this paper focus on recognizing and disentangling one's hungers; developing self-knowledge of and a sensitivity to what 'feeds' one's life; and the way one positions oneself in relation to oneself and the world. While introducing new norms, the course configures 'goods' and 'bads' in different ways altogether, shaping the worlds people come to inhabit through engaging in self-care. In particular, the hungering body is foregrounded as the medium through which life is lived. Taking a material semiotic approach, this paper makes an intervention by articulating the normative register of nourishment in contrast to normalization. Thus, it highlights anthropologists' potential strengthening of different ways of doing normativity.

  5. Effects of a high-protein ketogenic diet on hunger, appetite, and weight loss in obese men feeding ad libitum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Alexandra M; Horgan, Graham W; Murison, Sandra D; Bremner, David M; Lobley, Gerald E

    2008-01-01

    Altering the macronutrient composition of the diet influences hunger and satiety. Studies have compared high- and low-protein diets, but there are few data on carbohydrate content and ketosis on motivation to eat and ad libitum intake. We aimed to compare the hunger, appetite, and weight-loss responses to a high-protein, low-carbohydrate [(LC) ketogenic] and those to a high-protein, medium-carbohydrate [(MC) nonketogenic] diet in obese men feeding ad libitum. Seventeen obese men were studied in a residential trial; food was provided daily. Subjects were offered 2 high-protein (30% of energy) ad libitum diets, each for a 4-wk period-an LC (4% carbohydrate) ketogenic diet and an MC (35% carbohydrate) diet-randomized in a crossover design. Body weight was measured daily, and ketosis was monitored by analysis of plasma and urine samples. Hunger was assessed by using a computerized visual analogue system. Ad libitum energy intakes were lower with the LC diet than with the MC diet [P=0.02; SE of the difference (SED): 0.27] at 7.25 and 7.95 MJ/d, respectively. Over the 4-wk period, hunger was significantly lower (P=0.014; SED: 1.76) and weight loss was significantly greater (P=0.006; SED: 0.62) with the LC diet (6.34 kg) than with the MC diet (4.35 kg). The LC diet induced ketosis with mean 3-hydroxybutyrate concentrations of 1.52 mmol/L in plasma (P=0.036 from baseline; SED: 0.62) and 2.99 mmol/L in urine (Pketogenic diets reduce hunger and lower food intake significantly more than do high-protein, medium-carbohydrate nonketogenic diets.

  6. Hunger neurons drive feeding through a sustained, positive reinforcement signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiming; Lin, Yen-Chu; Zimmerman, Christopher A; Essner, Rachel A; Knight, Zachary A

    2016-08-24

    The neural mechanisms underlying hunger are poorly understood. AgRP neurons are activated by energy deficit and promote voracious food consumption, suggesting these cells may supply the fundamental hunger drive that motivates feeding. However recent in vivo recording experiments revealed that AgRP neurons are inhibited within seconds by the sensory detection of food, raising the question of how these cells can promote feeding at all. Here we resolve this paradox by showing that brief optogenetic stimulation of AgRP neurons before food availability promotes intense appetitive and consummatory behaviors that persist for tens of minutes in the absence of continued AgRP neuron activation. We show that these sustained behavioral responses are mediated by a long-lasting potentiation of the rewarding properties of food and that AgRP neuron activity is positively reinforcing. These findings reveal that hunger neurons drive feeding by transmitting a positive valence signal that triggers a stable transition between behavioral states.

  7. HUNGER STRIKES AND FORCE-FEEDING IN PRISONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Florin GEAMĂNU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study will try to give an overview and assess the international and European standards regarding the management of hunger strikes. We will analyse the international and European standards regarding the force-feeding a prisoner on a hunger strike. The paper will focus on the study of the ECtHR judgements regarding the force-feeding of hunger strikers. Also, we will address the U.S. case and the force-feeding of prisoners which is considered to be, in certain cases, an act of torture based on the international human rights standards. To close with, the study will attempt to go through the recent developments in the Romanian legislation, analysing the legislation and its conformity with the European principles and recommendations, bearing in mind the prohibition, in absolute terms, of torture or inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

  8. Hunger and Behavioral Risk Factors for Noncommunicable Diseases in School-Going Adolescents in Bolivia, 2012

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Romo, Matthew L

    2016-01-01

    Hunger may play a role in noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk. This study used the 2012 Global School-based Student Health Survey from Bolivia to determine the association between hunger and risk factors for NCDs among adolescents...

  9. Indignity, exclusion, pain and hunger: the impact of musculoskeletal impairments in the lives of children in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Yasmene; Jumbe, Vincent; Hartley, Sally; Smith, Sarah; Lamping, Donna; Muhit, Mohammad; Masiye, Francis; Lavy, Chris

    2012-01-01

    To develop a conceptual model representing the impact of musculoskeletal impairments (MSIs) in the lives of children in Malawi. A total of 169 children with MSIs (CMSIs), family and other community members participated in 57 interviews, focus groups and observations. An inductive approach to data analysis was used to conceptualise the impact of MSIs in children's day-to-day lives. The main themes that emerged were Indignity, Exclusion, Pain and Hunger. Indignity represents various affronts to children's sense of inherent equal worth as human beings, for example when bullied by peers. Exclusion refers to CMSIs being excluded from three core daily activities: school, play and household chores. Some CMSIs experienced Pain, for example as an outcome of striving to participate. Children with severe mobility impairments were at increased risk of Hunger, having less access to food outside the home and placing a burden of care on the family that could restrict household productivity. Household Poverty was therefore included in the model, as this household impact was inseparable from the impact on CMSIs. It is recommended that rehabilitation interventions are planned and evaluated with consideration to their impact on Exclusion, Indignity, Pain, Hunger and Household Poverty using multi-faceted partnerships.

  10. M. Paryz on Gavin Jones’s American Hungers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Gavin Jones. American Hungers. The Problem of Poverty in U.S. Literature, 1840-1945. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2008. 20/21 Series. ISBN: 978-0-691-12753-8.American Hungers. The Problem of Poverty in U.S. Literature, 1840-1945 by Gavin Jones is an insightful study of the ways of representing poverty in selected works by Herman Melville, Edith Wharton, Theodore Dreiser, James Agee, and Richard Wright.  The choice of authors for discussion perhaps suggests a limited scope...

  11. [Can gene technology in agriculture prevent hunger in the world?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goewie, E A

    2002-03-01

    The world population grows rapidly: the number of mouths to feed increases. Is an agriculture without gene technology able to produce sufficiently in order to prevent hunger? Research indicates that hunger is not the result of short comings in agricultural outputs. It is however the result of poverty. This problem will not be solved by gene technology based agricultural production. This article explains the basic principles of mainstream and organic farming. Literature shows that the production potentials of both kinds of farming are, by far most, not yet exhausted. Gene technology is therefore unnecessary.

  12. Hunger in America 2010 National Report Prepared for Feeding America

    OpenAIRE

    James Mabli; Rhoda Cohen; Frank Potter; Zhanyun Zhao

    2010-01-01

    Hunger in America 2010, conducted for Feeding America, is the largest, most comprehensive study to date on domestic hunger. Using data collected at food pantries, soup kitchens, and other programs nationwide, the study found that one in eight Americans—more than 37 million—received emergency food assistance in 2009 through Feeding America, an increase of 46 percent since four years ago. Recipients represented a broad cross-section of America, including 14 million children and 3 million se...

  13. Hunger and Behavioral Risk Factors for Noncommunicable Diseases in School-Going Adolescents in Bolivia, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Matthew L

    2016-04-21

    Hunger may play a role in noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk. This study used the 2012 Global School-based Student Health Survey from Bolivia to determine the association between hunger and risk factors for NCDs among adolescents. Hunger was associated with increased odds of nondaily fruit and vegetable consumption (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.21; P Bolivia should address hunger, in addition to traditional behavioral risk factors.

  14. 77 FR 37869 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-National Hunger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Request--National Hunger Clearinghouse Database Form AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA... collection is a revision of a currently approved collection for the National Hunger Clearinghouse. DATES... 703-305-2657. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: National Hunger Clearinghouse Database Form. Form: FNS...

  15. Hunger and binge eating: a meta-analysis of studies using ecological momentary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haedt-Matt, Alissa A; Keel, Pamela K

    2011-11-01

    Binge eating has been associated with increased hunger, suggesting a role for impaired appetite regulation. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is ideally suited to examine whether hunger is a precipitant of binge eating but results from such studies have not been systematically reviewed. This study provides a meta-analysis of EMA studies that have examined hunger as an antecedent of binge eating. Electronic database and manual searches produced seven EMA studies with N = 180 participants. Meta-analyses were conducted to compare: (1) pre-binge eating hunger to average ratings of hunger, and (2) pre-binge eating hunger to hunger before regular eating. Across studies, hunger was significantly greater before binge eating compared with average hunger ratings, but was significantly lower before binge eating compared with before other eating episodes. Excessive hunger does not appear to be a precipitant of binge eating because higher levels of hunger are observed before regular eating episodes. However, lower hunger before food consumption may contribute to the experience of a particular eating episode as a binge. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities, 2000: A 25-City Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Eugene T.

    To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in U.S. cities during the year 2000, the U.S. Conference of Mayors surveyed 25 major cities whose mayors were members of its Task Force on Hunger and Homelessness. The survey sought information and estimates from each city on emergency food supplies and services, the causes of hunger and…

  17. Do hunger and exposure to food affect scores on a measure of hedonic hunger? An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Ashley A; Raggio, Greer A; Butryn, Meghan L; Lowe, Michael R

    2014-03-01

    Research suggests that visceral bodily states, such as hunger, can affect participants' responses on self-report measures of eating behavior. The present study evaluated the influence of hunger and exposure to palatable food on self-reported hedonic appetite, measured using the Power of Food Scale (PFS). A secondary aim was to evaluate the effects of these manipulations on self-reported external eating and disinhibition. Participants (N=67) ate a standardized meal followed by a 4-h fast. Participants were randomized to one of four groups (Fasted/Food Absence, Fasted/Food Exposure, Fed/Food Absence, or Fed/Food Exposure). In Phase I of the experiment (Hunger Manipulation), participants randomized to the "Fed" group drank a protein shake, while those in the "Fasted" group did not receive a shake. In Phase II (Palatable Food Exposure), participants in the "Food Exposure" group were visually exposed to palatable food items, while "Food Absence" participants were not. All participants completed the PFS, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire External Eating subscale, and the Disinhibition subscale from the Eating Inventory during Phase II. Results showed no significant main or interactive effects of Hunger condition or Food Exposure condition on PFS, External Eating, or Disinhibition scores (all p'shunger and exposure interventions were successful. Results suggest that relatively short fasting periods (e.g., 4h) analogous to typical breaks between meals are not associated with changes in scores on the PFS, External Eating, or Disinhibition scales. Hedonic hunger, at least as measured by the PFS, may represent a relatively stable construct that is not substantially affected by daily variations in hunger. In addition, individual differences in exposure to food in the immediate environment are unlikely to confound research using these measures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hunger-Dependent Enhancement of Food Cue Responses in Mouse Postrhinal Cortex and Lateral Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Christian R; Ramesh, Rohan N; Sugden, Arthur U; Levandowski, Kirsten M; Minnig, Margaret A; Fenselau, Henning; Lowell, Bradford B; Andermann, Mark L

    2016-09-07

    The needs of the body can direct behavioral and neural processing toward motivationally relevant sensory cues. For example, human imaging studies have consistently found specific cortical areas with biased responses to food-associated visual cues in hungry subjects, but not in sated subjects. To obtain a cellular-level understanding of these hunger-dependent cortical response biases, we performed chronic two-photon calcium imaging in postrhinal association cortex (POR) and primary visual cortex (V1) of behaving mice. As in humans, neurons in mouse POR, but not V1, exhibited biases toward food-associated cues that were abolished by satiety. This emergent bias was mirrored by the innervation pattern of amygdalo-cortical feedback axons. Strikingly, these axons exhibited even stronger food cue biases and sensitivity to hunger state and trial history. These findings highlight a direct pathway by which the lateral amygdala may contribute to state-dependent cortical processing of motivationally relevant sensory cues. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Mild cold effects on hunger, food intake, satiety and skin temperature in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Langeveld

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Mild cold exposure increases energy expenditure and can influence energy balance, but at the same time it does not increase appetite and energy intake. Objective To quantify dermal insulative cold response, we assessed thermal comfort and skin temperatures changes by infrared thermography. Methods We exposed healthy volunteers to either a single episode of environmental mild cold or thermoneutrality. We measured hunger sensation and actual free food intake. After a thermoneutral overnight stay, five males and five females were exposed to either 18°C (mild cold or 24°C (thermoneutrality for 2.5 h. Metabolic rate, vital signs, skin temperature, blood biochemistry, cold and hunger scores were measured at baseline and for every 30 min during the temperature intervention. This was followed by an ad libitum meal to obtain the actual desired energy intake after cold exposure. Results We could replicate the cold-induced increase in REE. But no differences were detected in hunger, food intake, or satiety after mild cold exposure compared with thermoneutrality. After long-term cold exposure, high cold sensation scores were reported, which were negatively correlated with thermogenesis. Skin temperature in the sternal area was tightly correlated with the increase in energy expenditure. Conclusions It is concluded that short-term mild cold exposure increases energy expenditure without changes in food intake. Mild cold exposure resulted in significant thermal discomfort, which was negatively correlated with the increase in energy expenditure. Moreover, there is a great between-subject variability in cold response. These data provide further insights on cold exposure as an anti-obesity measure.

  20. Situating Hunger and Fullness Through the Lived Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillersdal, Line

    at a food performance theatre. Methodological and theoretically the thesis proposes a combination of a phenomenological account of eating, hunger and fullness with basic tenets from Actor-Network Theory to analyse the specific social and material circumstances that construct or enact those experiences......, and the material properties of food that affect all of us humans....

  1. Norman Borlaug and a Hunger-Free World

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    during the early 1930s gave him a first-hand view of the ills of low farm productivity, poverty and hunger. After completing his PhD degree in plant pathology at the University of Minnesota in 1942, he joined the Rockefeller Foundation's agricultural programme in Mexico, which led to the birth of the International Maize and.

  2. Research plays an important role in achieving Zero Hunger | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-11-23

    Nov 23, 2017 ... Research plays an important role in achieving Zero Hunger ... This innovation not only frees up time for women to take up other work, but with access to financial credit they can also invest in more efficient fish processing, thereby increasing incomes and the quality of nutritious fish as a source of protein and ...

  3. Alleviating poverty and hunger in Nigeria: Lessons from the United ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unless, these twin problems are tacked urgently, they are likely to undermine the survival of Nigeria as a nation. In this regard Nigeria can learn from the experience of the United States of America, which has been able to reduce its poverty and hunger to a minimum level. Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research Vol.

  4. Hunger, A Scientists' Institute for Public Information Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Margaret

    The first section of this workbook gives data on hunger and malnutrition in the United States, and outlines immediate community and national action needed to meet the emergency and provide against its recurrence. The second section discusses problems of world food supply, spreading technology, the population explosion, and the handling of…

  5. Zero Hidden Hunger: From Nariño to Colombia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Zero Hidden Hunger: From Nariño to Colombia. Did you know that in Nariño...? • Children under five have twice the nutritional deficiencies in zinc and iron than the rest of the country (ENSIN 2010). • The menus in government meal programmes include yellow potatoes twice a week and white potatoes three times a week.

  6. Seasonal Hunger and Public Policies : Evidence from Northwest Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Khandker, Shahidur R.; Mahmud, Wahiduddin

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal hunger induced by agricultural seasonality is often a characteristic feature of rural poverty. The evidence of seasonal distress in many agrarian societies can be found in the narratives of economic historians. With agricultural diversification made possible through technological breakthroughs in many parts of the developing world, the severity of seasonal stress and adversities h...

  7. "The Hunger Games" and Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Horizons, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Mary Mobley teaches English and Michael Chambers teaches world history at Manor New Technology High School, a STEM school, in Manor, Texas. In this article, they talk about how they used "The Hunger Games" by Suzanne Collins to teach their students about forms of government between World War I and World War II, and "Edutopia"…

  8. "The Hunger Games": Literature, Literacy, and Online Affinity Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curwood, Jen Scott

    2013-01-01

    This article examines adolescent literacy practices related to "The Hunger Games," a young adult novel and the first of a trilogy. By focusing on the interaction of social identities, discourses, and media paratexts within an online affinity space, this ethnographic study offers insight into how young adults engage with contemporary…

  9. The Political Economy of Hunger in South Africa: Theoretical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent global trends have inflated food prices, exacerbating household hunger, poverty and inequality. The paper relies on methodological approaches sourced from international databases like the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) and the World Bank. The author takes cognisance of the fact that both institutions advance ...

  10. Review of The Last Hunger Season | Zarembka | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of The Last Hunger Season. D Zarembka. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  11. What Catholic Schools Can Do about World Hunger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The main contribution that Catholic schools can make towards the elimination of world hunger is to help their students understand the problem and then motivate them to assist as best they can once they are out of school. The basic cause of the problem is poverty. The ultimate solution is production of food in the food-deficit nations, or where…

  12. Prevalence and correlates of hunger among primary and secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    behaviours, such as bullying, suicide ideation and unhygienic behaviours that may jeopardize the future of children. ... location, eating fruits, having been bullied, suicide ideation, and washing hands with soap were significantly ... little to eat that hunger negatively affects their behavior and choices today, to the point that ...

  13. For Hunger-proof Cities: Sustainable Urban Food Systems | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It explores what existing marketing and distribution structures can do to improve accessibility and what the emerging forms of food-distribution systems are, and how they can contribute to alleviating hunger in the cities. Finally, the book discusses the underlying structures that create poverty and inequality and examines the ...

  14. The Year of the Rat ends: time to fight hunger!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerburg, B.G.; Singleton, G.R.; Leirs, H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the importance of ecologically based rodent management in the light of the current food crisis, and the potential effects of this approach on the position of the undernourished. Hunger and food prices are on the rise owing to shortages that can be traced to reasons such as

  15. Hunger in young children of Mexican immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, Margaret; Geppert, Joni; Cutts, Diana B

    2007-04-01

    To measure rates of hunger and food insecurity among young US-born Latino children with Mexican immigrant parents (Latinos) compared with a non-immigrant non-Latino population (non-Latinos) in a low-income clinic population. A repeated cross-sectional survey of 4278 caregivers of children parent born in Mexico. They were compared with a reference group comprised of non-Latino US-born participants (n = 1805). Child hunger and household food insecurity were determined with the US Household Food Security Scale. Young Latino children had much higher rates of child hunger than non-Latinos, 6.8 versus 0.5%. Latino families also had higher rates of household food insecurity than non-Latinos, 53.1 versus 15.6%. Latino children remained much more likely to be hungry (odds ratio (OR) = 13.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 5.9-28.7, P education level, single-headed household status, family size, young maternal age ( participation, TANF (Temporary Assistance to Needy Families, or 'welfare') programme participation and WIC (Women, Infants, and Children) usage, and reason for clinic visit (sick visit versus well-child). Young children in Mexican immigrant families are at especially high risk for hunger and household food insecurity compared with non-immigrant, non-Latino patients in a low-income paediatric clinic.

  16. Real and metaphorical hunger: the case of The Divergent Trilogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Paravano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution investigates how the issue of hunger becomes a means of expressing and communicating personal and social identity in Veronica Roth’s best seller trilogy Divergent (2011-13. Roth portrays a dystopian future developing a multifaceted concept of hunger, both real and figurative, and using food as a cultural metaphor. The trilogy is set in a post-apocalyptic Chicago, whose population is divided into five allegorical factions, according to a number of personal and social characteristics. The life of each faction seems to be based on a form of metaphorical hunger: those who pursue selflessness and altruism belong to Abnegation, peace and harmony to Amity, honesty and truth to Candor, danger and adventure to Dauntless, and knowledge and power to Erudite. Those people who are excluded become factionless: they are outcasts who live their life in extreme poverty and experience real physical hunger. On the other hand, I will show how the numerous references to food and eating pervading the novels help to map the characters’ personalities and identities as single individuals and as groups.

  17. Tasting calories differentially affects brain activation during hunger and satiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, van I.; Graaf, de C.; Smeets, P.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    An important function of eating is ingesting energy. Our objectives were to assess whether oral exposure to caloric and non-caloric stimuli elicits discriminable responses in the brain and to determine in how far these responses are modulated by hunger state and sweetness. Thirty women tasted three

  18. Relationships of Hunger and Malnutrition to Learning Ability and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Citrus, Lakeland.

    This survey of scientific literature briefly overviews findings on the relations between learning and behavior and hunger, undernutrition, and malnutrition. Topics examined include chronic undernutrition in the U.S., iron deficiency, obesity, and hyperactivity. School feeding programs, including school breakfast programs, are described. The list…

  19. Norman Borlaug and a Hunger-Free World

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 2. Norman Borlaug and a Hunger-Free World. M S Swaminathan. General Article Volume 19 Issue 2 February 2014 pp 109-115. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/02/0109-0115 ...

  20. HIV/AIDS, the Disease and Hunger Complications Causing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV/AIDS, the Disease and Hunger Complications Causing Confusion in Rural Western Kenya: A Case Study of Katolo. ... The PCR test is more reliable, because it is capable of looking at the viral DNA, which neither Western Blot nor Elisa methods can do. (Af. J. of Food and Nutritional Security: 2001 1(1): 60-70) ...

  1. Did the Gamemakers Fix the Lottery in the Hunger Games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudle, Kyle; Daniels, Erica

    2015-01-01

    The Hunger Games is an annual event in the fictional country of Panem. Each year, 24 children (tributes) are chosen by lottery from 12 districts to fight to the death in the arena for the entertainment of the Capitol citizens. Using statistical analysis and computer simulations, we will explore the possibility that the Gamemakers, those in charge…

  2. Discontinuation of tube feeding in young children by hunger provocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindermann, Angelika; Kneepkens, Corneille Marie Francois; Stok, Anita; van Dijk, Elisabeth Maria; Engels, Michelle; Douwes, Adriaan Cornelis

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Pathological food refusal (PFR) is not rare in young children with chronic conditions requiring prolonged tube feeding. We investigated whether these children could be weaned from tube feeding with a multidisciplinary hunger provocation program. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included

  3. Hunger and memory; CRTC coordinates long-term memory with the physiological state, hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yukinori; Saitoe, Minoru

    2013-09-01

    Animals form and store memory, which advantageously adjusts their behavior later on. Although the growing body of evidences suggests the basic mechanisms of memory, it is not clear whether and in which physiological state memory functions can be altered. Here we discuss our recent study that mild fasting facilitates long-term memory (LTM) formation in Drosophila.(1) Canonical LTM in flies is induced by multiple training with rest intervals, and is mediated by a transcription factor, CREB and its binding protein, CBP. However, fasting allows LTM formation (fLTM) only by single-cycle training, in a manner dependent on another CREB binding protein, CRTC. Although it has been controversial, we are convinced that gene expression in a specific neural structure, called mushroom body (MB), is required for LTMs. We also showed data suggesting that reduced insulin signaling during fasting activates CRTC, thereby inducing fLTM formation. These data provides the conceptual advance that flies adapt their mechanisms for LTM formation according to their internal condition, hunger state. Due to limited food resources in the wild, fLTM could be one of the major form of LTM in natural environment. Furthermore, our data also indicate a novel conception that improvement of memory deficit might be achieved by activation of CRTC.

  4. A systematic review and meta-analysis examining the effect of eating rate on energy intake and hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Rutters, Femke; de Graaf, Cees; Forde, Ciarán G; Tudur Smith, Catrin; Nolan, Sarah J; Jebb, Susan A

    2014-07-01

    Reductions in eating rate are recommended to prevent and treat obesity; yet, the relation between eating rate and energy intake has not been systematically reviewed, with studies producing mixed results. Our main objective was to examine how experimentally manipulated differences in eating rate influence concurrent energy intake and subjective hunger ratings. We systematically reviewed studies that experimentally manipulated eating rate and measured concurrent food intake, self-reported hunger, or both. We combined effect estimates from studies by using inverse variance meta-analysis, calculating the standardized mean difference (SMD) in food intake between fast and slow eating rate conditions. Twenty-two studies were eligible for inclusion. Evidence indicated that a slower eating rate was associated with lower energy intake in comparison to a faster eating rate (random-effects SMD: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.65; P eating rate, although there was a large amount of heterogeneity between studies. There was no significant relation between eating rate and hunger at the end of the meal or up to 3.5 h later. Evidence to date supports the notion that eating rate affects energy intake. Research is needed to identify effective interventions to reduce eating rate that can be adopted in everyday life to help limit excess consumption. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Influence of two breakfast meals differing in glycemic load on satiety, hunger, and energy intake in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganji Vijay

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycemic load (GL is the product of glycemic index of a food and amount of available carbohydrate in that food divided by 100. GL represents quality and quantity of dietary carbohydrate. Little is known about the role of GL in hunger, satiety, and food intake in preschool children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two breakfast meals differing in GL on hunger, satiety, and subsequent food intake at lunch in preschool children aged 4-6 y. Methods Twenty three subjects consumed low-GL (LGL and high-GL (HGL breakfast meals according to a randomized crossover design followed by an ad libitum lunch 4 h after consumption of breakfast. Children were asked to consume meals until they are full. Each treatment was repeated twice in non-consecutive days and data were averaged. Results Children in LGL group consumed significantly lower amounts of GL, total carbohydrate, energy, energy density, and dietary fiber and higher amounts of protein and fat at the breakfast compared to those in HGL group. Prior to lunch, children were hungrier in the HGL intervention group compared to the LGL intervention group (P Conclusions Decreased hunger in children prior to lunch in LGL group is likely due to higher protein and fat content of LGL breakfast. Diets that are low in GL can be recommended as part of healthy diet for preschool children.

  6. Are you experienced?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael Slavensky; Reichstein, Toke

    . We also find that spin-offs from parent companies that exit are less likely to survive than either spin-offs from surviving parents or other start-ups. These findings support the theoretical arguments that organizational heritage is important for the survival of new organizations. We found no similar...... ranked members of start-ups prior to their founding, and follow the fate of these firms. More specifically, we compare the survival of spin-offs from surviving parents, spin-offs from exiting parents, and other start-ups. Moreover, we investigate whether firms managed and founded by more experienced...... teams with higher levels of industry-specific experience are more likely to survive. Distinguishing between survivors and firms that have been acquired, we find that spin-offs from a surviving parent company combined with and industry-specific experience, positively affects the likelihood of survival...

  7. Hunger, U.S.A.: A Report by the Citizens' Board of Inquiry into Hunger and Malnutrition in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968

    The findings of the Citizen's Board of Inquiry are that: (1) hunger and malnutrition affect millions of Americans and are increasing in severity each year; (2) infant deaths, organic brain damage, retarded growth and learning rates, increased vulnerability to disease, withdrawal, apathy, alienation, frustration, and violence result from hunger and…

  8. Differential regulation of metabolic parameters by energy deficit and hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitka, Tamás; Tuza, Sebestyén; Varga, Balázs; Horváth, Csilla; Kovács, Péter

    2015-10-01

    Hypocaloric diet decreases both energy expenditure (EE) and respiratory exchange rate (RER), affecting the efficacy of dieting inversely. Energy deficit and hunger may be modulated separately both in human and animal studies by drug treatment or food restriction. Thus it is important to separate the effects of energy deficit and hunger on EE and RER. Three parallel and analogous experiments were performed using three pharmacologically distinct anorectic drugs: rimonabant, sibutramine and tramadol. Metabolic parameters of vehicle- and drug-treated and pair-fed diet-induced obese mice from the three experiments underwent common statistical analysis to identify effects independent of the mechanisms of action. Diet-induced obesity (DIO) test of tramadol was also performed to examine its anti-obesity efficacy. RER was decreased similarly by drug treatments and paired feeding throughout the experiment irrespective of the cause of reduced food intake. Contrarily, during the passive phase, EE was decreased more by paired feeding than by both vehicle and drug treatment irrespective of the drug used. In the active phase, EE was influenced by the pharmacological mechanisms of action. Tramadol decreased body weight in the DIO test. Our results suggest that RER is mainly affected by the actual state of energy balance; conversely, EE is rather influenced by hunger. Therefore, pharmacological medications that decrease hunger may enhance the efficacy of a hypocaloric diet by maintaining metabolic rate. Furthermore, our results yield the proposal that effects of anorectic drugs on EE and RER should be determined compared to vehicle and pair-fed groups, respectively, in animal models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    84 pages The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 Legislation (Public Law 111-296) represents a federal statute signed into existence by President Barack Obama in December 2010. The bill funds nutrition and free lunch programs in public schools through 2014, and sets new nutrition standards for these schools. This new statute closely relates to First Lady Michelle Obama's advocacy efforts in reducing childhood obesity in America and for creating a healthier generation of children.

  10. Soccer kick kinematic differences between experienced and non-experienced soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz López, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to examine kinematic differences of instep soccer kick between experienced and non-experienced soccer players. Subjects: 17 men between 17 and 21 years old. Methodology: a 3D film system with 4 cameras was used. Maximum power instep kicks were executed. It was analyzed feet velocity in the impact, maximum hip extension, maximum knee flexion and kick phases duration. Results: were found significant differences in feet velocity with non-dominant leg in the impact moment (m/s (Experienced: 14.5±.52, Non-experienced: 12.5±.5; p<.001 and maximum hip extension (degrees (Experienced: 39.2 ± 1.3, Non-experienced: 34.28±3.2; p<.001. Also were significant differences in the second phase duration in both legs (p<.05. Conclusions: Maximum instep soccer kick show significant differences between groups of different level only in non-dominant leg.

  11. Food Insecurity, Hunger, and Obesity Among Informal Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner-Johnson, Willi; Dobbertin, Konrad; Kulkarni-Rajasekhara, Sheetal; Beilstein-Wedel, Erin; Andresen, Elena M

    2015-10-08

    Increasing numbers of US residents rely on informal caregiving from friends and family members. Caregiving can have substantial health and financial impacts on caregivers. This study addressed whether those impacts include adverse nutritional states. Specifically, we examined household food insecurity, individual hunger, and obesity among caregivers compared with noncaregivers. We analyzed 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from Oregon. The Caregiving Module was administered to a random subset of 2,872 respondents. Module respondents included 2,278 noncaregivers and 594 caregivers providing care or assistance to a friend or family member with a health problem or disability. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess associations between caregiving status and each of our dependent variables. Caregivers had significantly greater odds of reporting household food insecurity (odds ratio [OR] = 2.10, P = .003) and personal hunger (OR = 2.89, P = .002), even after controlling for income and other correlates of food insecurity. There were no significant differences in obesity between caregivers and noncaregivers. Caregiving is associated with increased risk of food insecurity and hunger in Oregon, suggesting that careful attention to the nutritional profile of households with family caregivers is needed in this population.

  12. Hunger neurons drive feeding through a sustained, positive reinforcement signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiming; Lin, Yen-Chu; Zimmerman, Christopher A; Essner, Rachel A; Knight, Zachary A

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying hunger are poorly understood. AgRP neurons are activated by energy deficit and promote voracious food consumption, suggesting these cells may supply the fundamental hunger drive that motivates feeding. However recent in vivo recording experiments revealed that AgRP neurons are inhibited within seconds by the sensory detection of food, raising the question of how these cells can promote feeding at all. Here we resolve this paradox by showing that brief optogenetic stimulation of AgRP neurons before food availability promotes intense appetitive and consummatory behaviors that persist for tens of minutes in the absence of continued AgRP neuron activation. We show that these sustained behavioral responses are mediated by a long-lasting potentiation of the rewarding properties of food and that AgRP neuron activity is positively reinforcing. These findings reveal that hunger neurons drive feeding by transmitting a positive valence signal that triggers a stable transition between behavioral states. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18640.001 PMID:27554486

  13. Predicting Hunger: The Effects of Appetite and Delay on Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read; van Leeuwen B

    1998-11-01

    Preferences often fluctuate as a result of transient changes in hunger and other visceral states. When current decisions have delayed consequences, the preferences that should be relevant are those that will prevail when the consequences occur. However, consistent with the notion of an intrapersonal empathy gap (Loewenstein, 1996) we find that an individual's current state of appetite has a significant effect on choices that apply to the future. Participants in our study made advance choices between healthy and unhealthy snacks (i.e., fruit and junk food) that they would receive in 1 week when they were either hungry (late in the afternoon) or satisfied (immediately after lunch). In 1 week, at the appointed time, they made an immediate choice, an opportunity to change their advance choice. Our main predictions were strongly confirmed. First, advance choices were influenced by current hunger as well as future hunger: hungry participants chose more unhealthy snacks than did satisfied ones. Second, participants were dynamically inconsistent: they chose far more unhealthy snacks for immediate choice than for advance choice. An additional hypothesis related to gender differences was also confirmed. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  14. Beyond nutrition: hunger and its impact on the health of young Canadians

    OpenAIRE

    Pickett, William; Michaelson, Valerie; Davison, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In a large Canadian study, we examined: (1) the prevalence of hunger due to an inadequate food supply at home; (2) relations between this hunger and a range of health outcomes, and; (3) contextual explanations for any observed associations. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 25,912 students aged 11?15?years from 436 Canadian schools. Analyses were descriptive and also involved hierarchical logistic regression models. Results Hunger was reported by 25?% of participant...

  15. Insulin degludec/insulin aspart versus biphasic insulin aspart 30 twice daily in insulin-experienced Japanese subjects with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes: Subgroup analysis of a Pan-Asian, treat-to-target Phase 3 Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneda, Shinji; Hyllested-Winge, Jacob; Gall, Mari-Anne; Kaneko, Shizuka; Hirao, Koichi

    2017-03-01

    The present study was a subgroup analysis of a Pan-Asian Phase 3 open-label randomized treat-to-target trial evaluating insulin degludec/insulin aspart (IDegAsp) and biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30) in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on insulin. Eligible subjects (n = 178) were randomized (2: 1) to twice-daily (b.i.d.) IDegAsp or BIAsp 30 with or without metformin for 26 weeks, titrated to a blood glucose target of between 3.9 and <5.0 mmol/L. Changes in HbA1c , the proportion of responders reaching the HbA1c target, and changes in fasting plasma glucose, nine-point self-monitored plasma glucose profiles, and body weight were assessed. At 26 weeks, the decrease in HbA1c was similar in both groups. Fasting plasma glucose was lower with IDegAsp than BIAsp 30 (estimated treatment difference -1.50 mmol/L; 95 % confidence interval [CI] -1.98, -1.01). Overall confirmed hypoglycemia rates were similar; the nocturnal confirmed hypoglycemia rate was lower with IDegAsp than BIAsp 30 (estimated rate ratio 0.44; 95 % CI 0.20, 0.99). No severe hypoglycemic episodes were reported. The results indicate that IDegAsp b.i.d. improves glycemic control and, compared with BIAsp 30, lowers the rate of nocturnal confirmed hypoglycemia. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes published John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd and Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine.

  16. Types of Stresses Experienced by Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzella, Bernadette M.; And Others

    This study was conducted to examine the types of stresses experienced by professionals. Subjects were 56 persons enrolled in graduate classes who completed the Tennessee Stress Scale-L, Work Related Stress Inventory for Professionals. Besides the Total stress score, the instrument produced three subscale scores: Stress Producers, Coping…

  17. Night eating syndrome: effects of brief relaxation training on stress, mood, hunger, and eating patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlow, L A; O'Neil, P M; Malcolm, R J

    2003-08-01

    Night eating syndrome (NES) is characterized by a lack of appetite in the morning, consumption of 50% or more of daily food intake after 6:00 p.m., and difficulty falling and/or staying asleep. It has been associated with stress and with poor results at attempts to lose weight. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relaxation intervention (Abbreviated Progressive Muscle Relaxation Therapy, APRT) that has been shown to significantly reduce stress levels in normal, healthy adults would also benefit an NES sample. A total of 20 adults with NES were randomly assigned to either a relaxation training (APRT) or a Control (quietly sitting for the same amount of time) group, and all subjects attended two laboratory sessions 1 week apart. Pre- and postsession indices of stress, anxiety, relaxation, and salivary cortisol were obtained, as well as Day 1 and Day 8 indices of mood. Food diaries and hunger ratings were also obtained. The results indicated that 20 min of a muscle relaxation exercise significantly reduced stress, anxiety, and salivary cortisol immediately postsession. After practicing these exercises daily for a week, subjects exhibited lowered stress, anxiety, fatigue, anger, and depression on Day 8. APRT was also associated with significantly higher a.m. and lower p.m. ratings of hunger, and a trend of both more breakfast and less night-time eating. These data support the role of stress and anxiety in NES and suggest that practicing relaxation may be an important component of treatment for this condition.

  18. Increased hunger and speed of eating in obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slyper, Arnold H; Kopfer, Kim; Huang, Wei-Min; Re'em, Yochai

    2014-05-01

    This quality improvement program examined self-reported hunger, over-eating, and eating speed in obese and normal-weight children and adolescents prior to an interventional component. Food frequency questionnaires were presented to 127 obese and 42 normal-weight patients, and perceived hunger, food intake and eating speed were rated. Obese patients reported significantly greater hunger than normal-weight patients (62.2% vs. 21.4%, pHunger and speed of eating were also highly associated (phunger and eating speed were highly prevalent in these obese pediatric patients and may reflect abnormalities of satiety and satiation.

  19. [Physiological and biochemical effects of intermittent fasting combined with hunger-resistant food on mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Dong; Hua, Wei-Guo; Chu, Wei-Zhong; Xu, Feng; Wang, Yu-Ying; Chen, Hui-Ju

    2006-11-01

    To observe the physiological and biochemical effects of intermittent fasting combined with hunger-resistant food on mice, and to evaluate the safety and beneficial effects of this regimen. One hundred and forty-four adult ICR mice were divided into 4 groups: standard feed AL group (ad libitum intake of standard feed), hunger-resistant food AL group (ad libitum intake of hunger-resistant food), standard feed IF group (feeding standard feed and fasting on alternate days), and hunger-resistant food IF group (feeding hunger-resistant food and fasting on alternate days). The experiment lasted for 4-8 weeks and all mice drank water freely. The quality of life, body weight, fasting blood glucose, serum lipid, blood routine test, liver and kidney functions as well as the viscera indexes were examined. Compared to the standard feed AL group, the caloric taking and the increment of body-weight were reduced (Pfood AL group and the hunger-resistant food IF group, the values of fasting blood glucose were reduced in standard feed IF group and hunger-resistant food IF group (Pfood IF group (Pfood AL group, standard feed IF group and hunger-resistant food IF group. The regimen of intermittent fasting combined with hunger-resistant food is safe and beneficial to metabolic regulation, such as controlling body-weight and adjusting blood glucose and serum lipid. It is expected that development of this regimen will be helpful to the control of obesity and diabetes, etc.

  20. Hunger and Behavioral Risk Factors for Noncommunicable Diseases in School-Going Adolescents in Bolivia, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Romo, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    Hunger may play a role in noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk. This study used the 2012 Global School-based Student Health Survey from Bolivia to determine the association between hunger and risk factors for NCDs among adolescents. Hunger was associated with increased odds of nondaily fruit and vegetable consumption (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.21; P < .001), inadequate physical activity (AOR = 1.21; P = .001), and current tobacco use (hunger sometimes [AOR = 1.83; P < .001] or most of the t...

  1. Measuring hunger and satiety in primary school children. Validation of a new picture rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Carmel; Blissett, Jackie

    2014-07-01

    Measuring hunger and satiety in children is essential to many studies of childhood eating behaviour. Few validated measures currently exist that allow children to make accurate and reliable ratings of hunger/satiety. Three studies aimed to validate the use of a new categorical rating scale in the context of estimated and real eating episodes. Forty-seven 6- to 8-year-olds participated in Study 1, which used a between-participant design. Results indicated that the majority of children were able to make estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character using the scale. No significant differences in the ratings of hunger/satiety of children measured before and after lunch were observed and likely causes are discussed. To account for inter-individual differences in hunger/satiety perceptions Study 2 employed a within-participant design. Fifty-four 5- to 7-year-olds participated and made estimated hunger/satiety ratings for a story character and real hunger/satiety ratings before and after lunch. The results indicated that the majority of children were able to use the scale to make estimated and real hunger and satiety ratings. Children were found to be significantly hungrier before compared to after lunch. As it was not possible to establish the types and quantities of food children ate for lunch a third study was carried out in a controlled laboratory environment. Thirty-six 6- to 9-year-olds participated in Study 3 and made hunger/satiety ratings before and after ingesting an ad libitum snack of known composition and quantity. Results indicated that children felt hungrier before than after the snack and that pre-snack hunger/satiety, and changes in hunger/satiety, were associated with snack intake. Overall, the studies indicate that the scale has potential for use with primary school children. Implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reliability of hunger-related assessments during 24-hour fasts and their relationship to body composition and subsequent energy compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Grant M; Moore, M Lane; Graybeal, Austin J

    2018-02-10

    % compensation). Compensation was significantly correlated with changes in PFC (r = 0.72, p = 0.01), hunger (r = 0.63, p = 0.04) and DTE (r = 0.60, p = 0.05), but not fullness (r = 0.58, p = 0.06) or energy (r = 0.35, p = 0.29). Compensation and body fat percentage were not correlated (r = 0.03, p = 0.94). The percent of energy intake from fat and protein increased after the fast (29.9 to 37.3% and 13.8 to 16.8%; p energy intake from carbohydrate decreased (56.4 to 46.0%; p = 0.02). These results may have implications for IF programs. It is possible that the implementation of multiple "test fasts," in which subjective variables and subsequent energy intake are evaluated, could be used to identify candidates who may be more likely to benefit from an IF program. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Proportion of insoluble fibre in the diet affects behaviour and hunger in broiler breeders growing at similar rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm; Thodberg, Karen; Malmkvist, Jens

    2011-01-01

    in birds fed C1 and almost none in birds fed L2, whereas birds fed H2 were intermediate. Stereotypic pecking at fixtures was seen twice as frequently in birds fed C1. Birds on diet L2 displayed behavioural signs indicative of discomfort, and the high water usage on this diet created problems with litter......% insoluble fibre (ISF); H2: 2 × fibre content, 89% ISF; and L2: 2 × fibre content, 71% ISF) were each fed to 10 groups of 16 broiler breeder chickens. Similar growth rates were obtained on different quantities of food with all birds reaching commercial target weight at 15 weeks of age. In a hunger test......, birds fed C1 ate significantly faster and showed a higher compensatory feed intake than birds on diets H2 and L2, indicating that the two high-fibre diets did reduce the level of hunger experienced by the birds. Behavioural observations carried out at 14 weeks of age showed high levels of tail pecking...

  4. Hunger Games: Interactive Ultrasound Imaging for Learning Gastrointestinal Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafer, Ilana; Rennie, William; Noor, Ali; Pellerito, John S

    2017-02-01

    Ultrasound is playing an increasingly important role in medical student education. Although most uses of ultrasound have focused on learning purely anatomic relationships or augmentation of the physical examination, there is little documentation of the value of ultrasound as a learning tool regarding physiology alone or in association with anatomy. We devised an interactive learning session for first-year medical students using ultrasound to combine both anatomic and physiologic principles as an integration of gastrointestinal and vascular function. The incorporation of our activity, The Hunger Games, provides the foundation for a powerful integration tool for medical student education. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  5. Gender Performativity in The Handmaid's Tale and The Hunger Games

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkvik, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Oppgaven publiseres nå i Munin etter ønske fra kandidaten- 2015-09-17 ma This thesis is about female characters and gender in two dystopian novels, The Handmaid’s Tale and the contemporary phenomenon The Hunger Games, and how they relate to each other and to men. The larger focus will be on individual freedom through gender performance through the references to the romance plot, thus emphasizing gender as a social construct. Further this work explores how the gender performance we see in b...

  6. Dietary restraint, dietary disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger of normal weight and overweight women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabethe Adriana Esteves

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eating behavior is a strong predictor of weight gain in adults. Research characterizing differences in components of dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger between overweight and normal weight subjects is insuffi cient.Objective: To evaluate and to compare scores of dietary restraint (DR, disinhibition (DD, and hunger (H between women at normal weight (NW, n=32 and overweight (WW, n=32. We evaluated correlations between these scores with adiposity and food intake variables.Material and methods: It was a cross-sectional comparison of two groups (overweight and normal weight women, at ages between 20 and 40 years. We measured body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, body composition (BC, energy and macronutrient intake (EMI, DR, DD and H. The differences between groups were analyzed using Student’s T or Mann-Whitney tests. Correlations among DR, DD or H and all other variables in each group were also evaluated.Results: Mean values of BMI, CC, BC, EMI, DR, DD and H were higher for WW (P<.05. Half or more of WW women had moderate or high levels of DR, DD or H. Mean scores of these variables were higher for this group (P<.05 and tended to “high level”. There was a positive correlation between the H and the EMI (P<.05 in the WW group.Conclusions: Eating behavior was associated with weight and body composition in these women, especially for WW. Strategies that address changes in cognitive control of food intake can become useful tools in controlling body weight.

  7. Female Focalizers and Masculine Ideals: Gender as Performance in Twilight and the Hunger Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanio-Uluru, Lykke

    2016-01-01

    Stephenie Meyer's "Twilight" series (2005-2008) and Suzanne Collins' "The Hunger Games" series (2008-2010) have been hugely successful and influential texts, both as best-selling literary works and as action movie franchises. (To avoid confusion, "Twilight" and "The Hunger Games" in this essay refer to the…

  8. The independent and interacting effects of hedonic hunger and executive function on binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasse, Stephanie M; Espel, Hallie M; Forman, Evan M; Ruocco, Anthony C; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Butryn, Meghan L; Zhang, Fengqing; Lowe, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Poor executive function (EF; pre-frontal cognitive control processes governing goal-directed behavior) and elevated hedonic hunger (i.e., preoccupation with palatable foods in the absence of physiological hunger) are theoretical risk and maintenance factors for binge eating (BE) distinct from general obesity. Recent theoretical models posit that dysregulated behavior such as BE may result from a combination of elevated appetitive drive (e.g., hedonic hunger) and decreased EF (e.g., inhibitory control and delayed discounting). The present study sought to test this model in distinguishing BE from general obesity by examining the independent and interactive associations of EF and hedonic hunger with BE group status (i.e., odds of categorization in BE group versus non-BE group). Treatment-seeking overweight and obese women with BE (n = 31) and without BE (OW group; n = 43) were assessed on measures of hedonic hunger and EF (inhibitory control and delay discounting). Elevated hedonic hunger increased the likelihood of categorization in the BE group, regardless of EF. When hedonic hunger was low, poor EF increased the likelihood of categorization in the BE group. Results indicate that the interplay of increased appetitive drives and decreased cognitive function may distinguish BE from overweight/obesity. Future longitudinal investigations of the combinatory effect of hedonic hunger and EF in increasing risk for developing BE are warranted, and may inform future treatment development to target these factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Always gamble on an empty stomach : Hunger is associated with advantageous decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ridder, Denise|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070706174; Kroese, Floor|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313869871; Adriaanse, Marieke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823023; Evers, Catharine|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/280594232

    2014-01-01

    Three experimental studies examined the counterintuitive hypothesis that hunger improves strategic decision making, arguing that people in a hot state are better able to make favorable decisions involving uncertain outcomes. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that participants with more hunger or greater

  10. [The Geography of Hunger: clinical interpretation of landscapes or critical epidemiology?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo Filho, Djalma Agripino de

    2008-11-01

    This article provides a new interpretation of Geografia da Fome [The Geography of Hunger], by Josué de Castro, focusing on the convergence of three fields of knowledge: geography, clinical science, and epidemiology. Although there is a certain commonality in the methodological procedures, the book offers multiple configurations of objects and a cross-disciplinary theoretical framework for explaining the phenomenon of hunger.

  11. Alimentary Epigenetics: A Developmental Psychobiological Systems View of the Perception of Hunger, Thirst and Satiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshaw, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Hunger, thirst and satiety have an enormous influence on cognition, behavior and development, yet we often take for granted that they are simply inborn or innate. Converging data and theory from both comparative and human domains, however, supports the conclusion that the phenomena hunger, thirst and satiety are not innate but rather emerge…

  12. A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities: 1991. A 28-City Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Laura DeKoven

    To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in urban America during 1991, The U.S. Conference of Mayors surveyed 28 major cities whose mayors are members of its Task Force on Hunger and Homelessness. The survey sought information and estimates from each city on: (1) the demand for emergency food assistance and emergency shelter and the…

  13. Hunger and Food Insecurity in the Fifty States: 1998-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ashley F.; Choi, Eunyoung

    Noting that the persistence of hunger and food insecurity in the United States is an issue of pressing social and public health concern, this study examined the magnitude and severity of hunger and food insecurity in U.S. households in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Data were obtained from the August 1998, April 1999, and…

  14. A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities: 1990. A 30-City Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Laura DeKoven; Reyes, Lilia M.

    To assess the status of hunger and homelessness in urban America during 1990, the U.S. Conference of Mayors surveyed the 30 major cities whose mayors are members of its Task Force on Hunger and Homelessness. This report summarizes survey findings. The survey sought information from each city on the following questions: (1) the demand for emergency…

  15. A Status Report on Hunger and Homelessness in America's Cities: 1989. A 27-City Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States Conference of Mayors, Washington, DC.

    This document comprises a report on the status of hunger and homelessness during 1989 in 27 major American cities. A survey was used to gather the following information: (1) demand for emergency food and shelter assistance and the capacity to meet the demand; (2) causes of hunger and homelessness and the demographics of the affected populations;…

  16. Dynamics of Gut-Brain Communication Underlying Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutler, Lisa R; Chen, Yiming; Ahn, Jamie S; Lin, Yen-Chu; Essner, Rachel A; Knight, Zachary A

    2017-10-11

    Communication between the gut and brain is critical for homeostasis, but how this communication is represented in the dynamics of feeding circuits is unknown. Here we describe nutritional regulation of key neurons that control hunger in vivo. We show that intragastric nutrient infusion rapidly and durably inhibits hunger-promoting AgRP neurons in awake, behaving mice. This inhibition is proportional to the number of calories infused but surprisingly independent of macronutrient identity or nutritional state. We show that three gastrointestinal signals-serotonin, CCK, and PYY-are necessary or sufficient for these effects. In contrast, the hormone leptin has no acute effect on dynamics of these circuits or their sensory regulation but instead induces a slow modulation that develops over hours and is required for inhibition of feeding. These findings reveal how layers of visceral signals operating on distinct timescales converge on hypothalamic feeding circuits to generate a central representation of energy balance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Direction of post-prandial ghrelin response associated with cortisol response, perceived stress and anxiety, and self-reported coping and hunger in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Marjana R; Franks, Susan; Caffrey, James

    2013-11-15

    The neurobiological mechanisms modulating stress may share common pathways with appetite regulation and consequent obesity. The orexigenic hormone, ghrelin may moderate anxiety and stress-related eating behavior. This study was designed to investigate humoral (ghrelin, cortisol) and psychological/behavioral characteristics (subjective hunger, anxiety, and stress; eating behavior; coping ability) among obese subjects in a fasting state and after eating a standard meal. Subjects included 18 obese but otherwise healthy adult women. Subjects were divided into two groups based on the relative direction of ghrelin response to a standard meal. A meal mediated suppression in serum ghrelin (post/pre1.0) was designated as faulty ghrelin response (FG) (n=9). Ghrelin and cortisol responses were correlated, r(18)=0.558, p=.016. FG subjects had lower ratings of coping ability [t(2,16)=2.437, p=.027 and higher ratings of hunger cues in the expected direction [t(2,16)=-2.061, p=.056] compared to NG subjects. Meal mediated declines in subjective hunger were observed for both NG [t(1,8)=4.141, p=.003] and FG [t(1,8)=2.718, p=.026]. NG also showed declines in subjective anxiety [t(1,8)=2.977, p=.018], subjective stress [t(1,8)=2.321, p=.049], and cortisol [t(1,8)=4.214, p=.003]. In conclusion, changes in ghrelin, cortisol and selected psychological and behavioral indices are closely associated with one another suggesting that ghrelin may influence stress related eating and thus, the consequent observed relationship among stress, mood and obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 77 FR 30294 - Award of a Single Source Cooperative Agreement Grant to the Congressional Hunger Center in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Grant to the Congressional Hunger Center in Washington, DC AGENCY: Office of Policy, Research and... single source cooperative agreement to the Congressional Hunger Center in Washington, DC to support a Bill Emerson National Hunger Fellow. C.F.D.A. Number: 93.647. Statutory Authority: The award is...

  19. The Daily Relationship Between Aspects of Food Insecurity and Medication Adherence Among People Living with HIV with Recent Experiences of Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellowski, Jennifer A; Kalichman, Seth C; Cherry, Sabrina; Conway-Washington, Christopher; Cherry, Chauncey; Grebler, Tamar; Krug, Larissa

    2016-12-01

    Limited access to resources can significantly impact health behaviors. Previous research on food insecurity and HIV has focused on establishing the relationship between lacking access to nutritious food and antiretroviral (ARV) medication non-adherence in a variety of social contexts. This study aims to determine if several aspects of food insecurity co-occur with missed doses of medication on a daily basis among a sample of people living with HIV who have recently experienced hunger. The current study utilized a prospective, observational design to test the daily relationship between food insecurity and medication non-adherence. Participants were followed for 45 days and completed daily assessments of food insecurity and alcohol use via interactive text message surveys and electronic medication adherence monitoring using the Wisepill. Fifty-nine men and women living with HIV contributed a total of 2,655 days of data. Results showed that severe food insecurity (i.e., hunger), but not less severe food insecurity (i.e., worrying about having food), significantly predicted missed doses of medication on a daily level. Daily alcohol use moderated this relationship in an unexpected way; when individuals were hungry and drank alcohol on a given day, they were less likely to miss a dose of medication. Among people living with HIV with recent experiences of hunger, this study demonstrates that there is a daily relationship between hunger and non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Future research is needed to test interventions designed to directly address the daily relationship between food insecurity and medication non-adherence.

  20. Witnesses to hunger: participation through photovoice to ensure the right to food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Mariana; Rabinowich, Jenny; Council, Christina; Breaux, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Currently 30.2% of female-headed households with children in the United States experience food insecurity, defined as the lack of access to enough food for an active and healthy life. In 2007, approximately 12.4 million children were at risk for hunger. When female-headed households and households with children have the highest prevalence of food insecurity and hunger in the US, the participation of low-income mothers in the development and administration of policies and programs related to nutrition and poverty are fundamental to the process of ending hunger and improving child well-being. In this article, we describe the Witnesses to Hunger program, a participatory advocacy project that uses the "photovoice" technique to engage mothers to take photos and record their stories about poverty and hunger with the intent to inform social welfare policy in the US. Witnesses to Hunger is grounded in the human rights framework that is supported by international conventions on the rights of women, the rights of the child, and economic, social, and cultural rights. The Witnesses to Hunger program works to increase civic participation of low-income women and to maintain a strategic public awareness campaign. After introducing the Witnesses to Hunger program, this article describes the past decade of unchanging food insecurity disparities, demonstrates the lack of participatory dialogue in health and welfare programs, and provides examples of how Witnesses to Hunger counters the conventional dialogue about welfare. Throughout, this paper demonstrates how the participatory approach of the Witnesses to Hunger program improves our understanding of basic human needs and the social determinants of health, and informs legislators on how to improve health and welfare policy.

  1. Preparing Empirical Methodologies to Examine Enactive Subjects Experiencing Musical Emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Justin

    2016-01-01

    in listeners. Many of these theories search for universal emotional essences and cause-and-effect relationships that often result in erasing the body from these experiences. Still, after reducing these emotional responses to discrete categories or localized brain functions, these theories have not been very...

  2. 'Expected satiety' changes hunger and fullness in the inter-meal interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Brown, Steven; Hinton, Elanor C; Rogers, Peter J; Fay, Stephanie H

    2011-04-01

    Previously, we have shown that foods differ markedly in the satiety that they are expected to confer (compared calorie-for-calorie). In the present study we tested the hypothesis that 'expected satiety' plays a causal role in the satiety that is experienced after a food has been consumed. Before lunch, participants (N=32) were shown the ingredients of a fruit smoothie. Half were shown a small portion of fruit and half were shown a large portion. Participants then assessed the expected satiety of the smoothie and provided appetite ratings, before, and for three hours after its consumption. As anticipated, expected satiety was significantly higher in the 'large portion' condition. Moreover, and consistent with our hypothesis, participants reported significantly less hunger and significantly greater fullness in the large-portion condition. Importantly, this effect endured throughout the test period (for three hours). Together, these findings confirm previous reports indicating that beliefs and expectations can have marked effects on satiety and they show that this effect can persist well into the inter-meal interval. Potential explanations are discussed, including the prospect that satiety is moderated by memories of expected satiety that are encoded around the time that a meal is consumed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Deprivation as un-experienced harm?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keerus, Külli; Gjerris, Mickey; Röcklinsberg, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Tom Regan encapsulated his principle of harm as a prima facie direct duty not to harm experiencing subjects of a life. However, his consideration of harm as deprivation, one example of which is loss of freedom, can easily be interpreted as a harm, which may not be experienced by its subject....... This creates a gap between Regan’s criterion for moral status and his account of what our duties are. However, in comparison with three basic paradigms of welfare known in nonhuman animal welfare science, Regan’s understanding coheres with a modified version of a feelings-based paradigm: not only the immediate...... feelings of satisfaction, but also future opportunities to have such feelings, must be taken into account. Such an interpretation is compatible with Regan’s understanding of harm as deprivation. The potential source of confusion, however, lies in Regan’s own possible argumentative mistakes....

  4. Women experiencing the intergenerationality of conjugal violence

    OpenAIRE

    Paixão,Gilvânia Patrícia do Nascimento; Gomes,Nadirlene Pereira; Diniz,Normélia Maria Freire; Lira,Margaret Ollinda de Souza Carvalho e; Carvalho,Milca Ramaiane da Silva; Silva,Rudval Souza da

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to analyze the family relationship, in childhood and adolescence, of women who experience conjugal violence. Method: qualitative study. Interviews were held with 19 women, who were experiencing conjugal violence, and who were resident in a community in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (N. 42/2011). Results: the data was organized using the Discourse of the Collective Subject, identifying the summary central ideas: they witnessed vio...

  5. A single night of sleep deprivation increases ghrelin levels and feelings of hunger in normal-weight healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Sebastian M; Hallschmid, Manfred; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Born, Jan; Schultes, Bernd

    2008-09-01

    Sleep loss is currently proposed to disturb endocrine regulation of energy homeostasis leading to weight gain and obesity. Supporting this view, a reduction of sleep duration to 4 h for two consecutive nights has recently been shown to decrease circulating leptin levels and to increase ghrelin levels, as well as self-reported hunger. We hypothesized that similar endocrine alterations occur even after a single night of sleep restriction. In a balanced order, nine healthy normal-weight men spent three nights in our sleep laboratory separated by at least 2 weeks: one night with a total sleep time of 7 h, one night with a total sleep time of 4.5 h and one night with total sleep deprivation (SD). On a standard symptom-rating scale, subjects rated markedly stronger feelings of hunger after total SD than after 7 h sleep (3.9 +/- 0.7 versus 1.7 +/- 0.3; P = 0.020) or 4.5 h sleep (2.2 +/- 0.5; P = 0.041). Plasma ghrelin levels were 22 +/- 10% higher after total SD than after 7 h sleep (0.85 +/- 0.06 versus 0.72 +/- 0.04 ng mL(-1); P = 0.048) with intermediate levels of the hormone after 4.5 h sleep (0.77 +/- 0.04 ng mL(-1)). Serum leptin levels did not differ between conditions. Feelings of hunger as well as plasma ghrelin levels are already elevated after one night of SD, whereas morning serum leptin concentrations remain unaffected. Thus, our results provide further evidence for a disturbing influence of sleep loss on endocrine regulation of energy homeostasis, which on the long run may result in weight gain and obesity.

  6. Acute stress and food-related reward activation in the brain during food choice during eating in the absence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, J M; Lemmens, S G T; Rutters, F; Nieuwenhuizen, A G; Formisano, E; Goebel, R; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2010-01-01

    Stress results in eating in the absence of hunger, possibly related to food reward perception. Stress decreases food reward perception. Determine the effect of acute stress on food choice and food choice reward-related brain activity. Nine females (BMI = 21.5 + or - 2.2 kg/m(2), age = 24.3 + or - 3.5 years). Fasted subjects came twice to randomly complete either a rest or stress condition. Per session, two functional MRI scans were made, wherein the subjects chose the subsequent meal (food images). The rewarding value of the food was measured as liking and wanting. Food characteristics (for example, crispiness, fullness of taste and so on), energy intake, amount of each macronutrient chosen, plasma cortisol and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) hunger and satiety were measured. Fasted state was confirmed by high hunger (80 + or - 5 mm VAS). Breakfast energy intake (3 + or - 1 MJ) and liking were similar in all conditions. Wanting was lower postprandially (Delta = -0.3 items/category, Pstress condition (Area under the curve of cortisol: DeltaAUC = +2.2 x 10(4) nmol min(-1) l(-1), Pstress, coinciding with increased energy intake from food choice for more crispiness and fullness of taste. The changes in putamen activation may reflect specifically decreased reward prediction sensitivity.

  7. Collective Hunger in the Vision of Amartya Sen as One of the Impeditive Factors of Sustainable Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Torres Roberti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at collective hunger in the vision of Amartya Sen as one of the impeding factors of Sustainable Human Development. In the economist's view, collective hunger goes beyond chronic hunger, involves a sudden outbreak of deprivation for a portion of the population. To eliminate hunger in the modern world, it is crucial to understand the cause of collective hunger in a broad way, and not just because of some mechanical imbalance between food and population. By illustrating the deprivation of liberty, child labor is included as one of the impediments to sustainable human development.

  8. Coping with child hunger in Canada: have household strategies changed over a decade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Lynn; Bartoo, Aaron C; Pow, Jody; Potestio, Melissa L

    2012-11-05

    To determine if household coping strategies for child hunger in Canada have changed over a decade (1996-2007). We applied t-tests to data derived from Cycle 2 (1996-1997; n=8165) and Cycle 7 (2006-2007; n=15,961) of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) to determine changes in household coping strategies for child hunger. Data were restricted to households with children aged 2-9 years, allowing for cross-sectional analysis of two independent samples. Logistic regression was employed to estimate the odds of reporting child hunger for socio-demographic characteristics and the odds of using different coping strategies. The national prevalence of child hunger fell from 1.5% in 1997 to 0.7% in 2007 (pbanks and other community resources as a method of coping with child hunger remained static despite an increase in national food banks/affiliated agencies in Canada (2,141 in 1998 to 3,540 in 2007). In contrast, there was an increased reliance on reducing household food variety, an internal coping mechanism, to manage child hunger (17.6% Cycle 2 to 35.1% Cycle 7; p=0.03). Community outreach programs between 1997 and 2007 had little impact on coping strategies utilized by households facing child hunger. Our results indicate that current initiatives fail to reach these families.

  9. Death House Desiderata: A Hunger for Justice, Unsated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Johnson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The death penalty lives on in America, with some 1350 prisoners put to death since 1976, when the modern American death penalty was reborn. Most prisoners get a last meal of their choice, though that choice is constrained by cost and, often, the stock in the prison kitchen. Last meals can be thought of as brief moments of autonomy in a relentlessly dehumanizing execution process. They also entail a distinctive cruelty. At their lowest point, prisoners seek comfort food but are never comforted. This meal is no entre to a relationship, but instead a recipe for abandonment. Dignity is nowhere to be found on the death house menu. Yet hope lingers, even here; human beings, it seems, cannot live or die without hope. Justice, the most profound human hunger, goes unsated by design.

  10. Depression and suicide ideation in late adolescence and early adulthood are an outcome of child hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Lynn; Williams, Jeanne V A; Lavorato, Dina H; Patten, Scott

    2013-08-15

    Child hunger represents an adverse experience that could contribute to mental health problems in later life. The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine the long-term effects of the reported experience of child hunger on late adolescence and young adult mental health outcomes; and (2) model the independent contribution of the child hunger experience to these long-term mental health outcomes in consideration of other experiences of child disadvantage. Using logistic regression, we analyzed data from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth covering 1994 through 2008/2009, with data on hunger and other exposures drawn from NLSCY Cycle 1 (1994) through Cycle 7 (2006/2007) and mental health data drawn from Cycle 8 (2008/2009). Our main mental health outcome was a composite measure of depression and suicidal ideation. The prevalence of child hunger was 5.7% (95% CI 5.0-6.4). Child hunger was a robust predictor of depression and suicidal ideation [crude OR=2.9 (95% CI 1.4-5.8)] even after adjustment for potential confounding variables, OR=2.3 (95% CI 1.2-4.3). A single question was used to assess child hunger, which itself is a rare extreme manifestation of food insecurity; thus, the spectrum of child food insecurity was not examined, and the rarity of hunger constrained statistical power. Child hunger appears to be a modifiable risk factor for depression and related suicide ideation in late adolescence and early adulthood, therefore prevention through the detection of such children and remedy of their circumstances may be an avenue to improve adult mental health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hedonic hunger and binge eating among women with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Ashley A; Lowe, Michael R

    2014-04-01

    Hedonic hunger, the appetitive drive to eat to obtain pleasure in the absence of an energy deficit, is associated with overeating and with loss of control over eating, but has not been investigated among individuals with eating disorders. (1) to compare participants with anorexia nervosa, restricting type (AN-R), anorexia nervosa, binge-purge type (AN-B/P), and bulimia nervosa (BN) on scores on the Power of Food Scale (PFS), a self-report measure of hedonic hunger; (2) to examine the relation between PFS scores and frequency of binge eating; and (3) to examine whether pre-treatment PFS scores predict weight change during treatment. The PFS and measures of eating disorder symptomatology were administered to female patients with AN (N = 119) and BN (N = 144) at admission to residential treatment. Participants with BN scored higher on the PFS compared to participants with AN-R or AN-B/P; there was a trend for those with AN-B/P to score higher than those with AN-R. PFS scores were positively associated with binge eating frequency among participants with BN; these associations remained significant when controlling for restraint and weight suppression. A similar pattern was found among participants with AN. PFS scores predicted weight change in AN but not BN. Results suggest that hedonic processes may be important in stimulating binge eating. Furthermore, hedonic appetite may facilitate weight restoration in AN. Further research should investigate whether pre-treatment PFS scores have prognostic significance with respect to eating disorder symptoms. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Eating with our eyes: From visual hunger to digital satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Charles; Okajima, Katsunori; Cheok, Adrian David; Petit, Olivia; Michel, Charles

    2016-12-01

    One of the brain's key roles is to facilitate foraging and feeding. It is presumably no coincidence, then, that the mouth is situated close to the brain in most animal species. However, the environments in which our brains evolved were far less plentiful in terms of the availability of food resources (i.e., nutriments) than is the case for those of us living in the Western world today. The growing obesity crisis is but one of the signs that humankind is not doing such a great job in terms of optimizing the contemporary food landscape. While the blame here is often put at the doors of the global food companies - offering addictive foods, designed to hit 'the bliss point' in terms of the pleasurable ingredients (sugar, salt, fat, etc.), and the ease of access to calorie-rich foods - we wonder whether there aren't other implicit cues in our environments that might be triggering hunger more often than is perhaps good for us. Here, we take a closer look at the potential role of vision; Specifically, we question the impact that our increasing exposure to images of desirable foods (what is often labelled 'food porn', or 'gastroporn') via digital interfaces might be having, and ask whether it might not inadvertently be exacerbating our desire for food (what we call 'visual hunger'). We review the growing body of cognitive neuroscience research demonstrating the profound effect that viewing such images can have on neural activity, physiological and psychological responses, and visual attention, especially in the 'hungry' brain. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Experiencing sexuality after intestinal stoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Boccara de Paula

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Identify the Social Representations (SR of ostomized people in terms of sexuality after the stoma. METHODS: An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study using the Social Representation Theory with 15 ostomized people (8 females, mean age of 57.9 years, between August and September 2005. Data obtained from transcribed interviews were submitted to content analysis, resulting in the thematic unit "Giving new meaning to sexuality" and subthemes. RESULTS: The study demonstrated that the intestinal stoma interferes in the sexuality experience, showing that the meanings attributed to this experience are based on individual life stories, quality of personal relationships established in practice and perception of sexuality, despite the stoma. CONCLUSIONS: The Social Representations, in terms of experiencing sexuality after the stoma, are based on meanings attributed to the body, associated with daily life and present in the social imaginary. It is influenced by other factors, such as physiological changes resulting from the surgery and the fact of having or not a partner. Care taken during sexual practices provide greater security and comfort in moments of intimacy, resembling the closest to what ostomized people experienced before the stoma. The self-irrigation technique associated or not with the use of artificial occluder, has been attested by its users as a positive element that makes a difference in sexual practice after the stoma. The support to ostomized people should be comprehensive, not limited to technical care and disease, which are important, but not sufficient. The interdisciplinary health team should consider all aspects of the person, seeking a real meeting between subjects.OBJETIVO: Identificar as Representações Sociais (RS da pessoa estomizada intestinal sobre vivência da sexualidade após confecção do estoma. MÉTODOS: Estudo exploratório, descritivo, qualitativo do ponto de vista do referencial da Representa

  14. Effect of two breakfasts, different in carbohydrate composition, on hunger and satiety and mood in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasman, W J; Blokdijk, V M; Bertina, F M; Hopman, W P M; Hendriks, H F J

    2003-06-01

    To study the effect of simple vs complex carbohydrates (SCHO and CCHO respectively) containing breakfasts on blood parameters, hunger and satiety and mood. A 2-day, open, randomised, cross-over trial. A total of 26 male subjects (34+/-6 y; BMI 23.4+/-2.2 kg m(-2)). Blood glucose, insulin, triacylglycerols (TG), free fatty acids (FFA) and cholecystokinin (CCK) were determined repeatedly for 4 h on both test days after a breakfast containing SCHO or CCHO. Feelings of hunger and satiety were determined at similar time points as well. Mood state was examined 3 h after breakfast consumption. Consumption of a SCHO breakfast resulted in higher glucose and insulin levels at 30 min after breakfast consumption. TG at 180 min, and FFA at 180 and 240 min were higher after SCHO breakfast than after CCHO breakfast. Satiety scores were higher after CCHO breakfast consumption for the first 90 min after intake. Furthermore, the item 'fatigue' was scored higher after SCHO breakfast than after CCHO breakfast intake. Consumption of a CCHO breakfast is favourable in comparison to a SCHO breakfast, because of the lower perception of 'fatigue' and the higher degree of satiety after consumption.

  15. Hunger and food insecurity in Nairobi's slums: an assessment using IRT models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Faye, Ousmane; Baschieri, Angela; Falkingham, Jane; Muindi, Kanyiva

    2011-01-01

    Although linked to poverty as conditions reflecting inadequate access to resources to obtain food, issues such as hunger and food insecurity have seldom been recognized as important in urban settings...

  16. Leptin and Hunger Levels in Young Healthy Adults After One Night of Sleep Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Pejovic, Slobodanka; Alexandros N. Vgontzas; Basta, Maria; Tsaoussoglou, Marina; Zoumakis, Emanuel; Vgontzas, Angeliki; Bixler, Edward O.; Chrousos, George P

    2010-01-01

    Short-term sleep curtailment associated with activation of the stress system in healthy, young adults has been shown to be associated with decreased leptin levels, impaired insulin sensitivity and increased hunger and appetite.

  17. Narratives of Food Insecurity in Tippecanoe County, Indiana: Economic Constraints in Local Meanings of Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Mohan Jyoti; Hingson, LaReina; Anaele, Agaptus; Sen, Soumitro; Jones, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Food insecurity and its most extreme form, hunger, have increased exponentially in the United States since 2006. This essay seeks to contribute to our understanding of hunger by attending to the context of the financial crisis as an organizing frame for understanding local meanings of hunger. Within a broader framework of the culture-centered approach (CCA) that works to identify and develop locally rooted solutions to food insecurity, we describe through locally grounded stories of food insecurity the financial climate where large percentages of U.S. households have been cast into poverty because of the crash of an unregulated economy. These local understandings of hunger in the context of the economy offer entry points for organizing a food-insecure coalition that seeks to address the stigma around food insecurity.

  18. Scenarios for the risk of hunger in the twenty-first century using Shared Socioeconomic Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tomoko; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Masui, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) are being developed internationally for cross-sectoral assessments of climate change impacts, adaptation, and mitigation. These are five scenarios that include both qualitative and quantitative information for mitigation and adaptation challenges to climate change. In this study, we quantified scenarios for the risk of hunger in the 21st century using SSPs, and clarified elements that influence future hunger risk. There were two primary findings: (1) risk of hunger in the 21st-century greatly differed among five SSPs; and (2) population growth, improvement in the equality of food distribution within a country, and increases in food consumption mainly driven by income growth greatly influenced future hunger risk and were important elements in its long-term assessment.

  19. Hunger and Food Insecurity in Nairobi’s Slums: An Assessment Using IRT Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Faye, Ousmane; Baschieri, Angela; Falkingham, Jane; Muindi, Kanyiva

    2011-01-01

    Although linked to poverty as conditions reflecting inadequate access to resources to obtain food, issues such as hunger and food insecurity have seldom been recognized as important in urban settings...

  20. Circadian and ultradian components of hunger in human non-homeostatic meal-to-meal eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuorinen, Elizabeth C; Borer, Katarina T

    2013-10-02

    A unifying physiological explanation of the urge to initiate eating is still not available as human hunger in meal-to-meal eating may not be under homeostatic control. We hypothesized that a central circadian and a gastrointestinal ultradian timing mechanism coordinate non-deprivation meal-to-meal eating. We examined hunger as a function of time of day, inter-meal (IM) energy expenditure (EE), and concentrations of proposed hunger-controlling hormones ghrelin, leptin, and insulin. In two crossover studies, 10 postmenopausal women, BMI 23-26 kg/m(2) engaged in exercise (EX) and sedentary (SED) trials. Weight maintenance meals were provided at 6h intervals with an ad libitum meal at 13 h in study 1 and 21 h snack in study 2. EE during IM intervals was measured by indirect calorimetry and included EX EE of 801 kcal in study 1, and 766-1,051 kcal in study 2. Hunger was assessed with a visual analog scale and blood was collected for hormonal determination. Hunger displayed a circadian variation with acrophase at 13 and 19 h and was unrelated to preceding EE. Hunger was suppressed by EX between 10 and 16 h and bore no relationship to either EE during preceding IM intervals or changes in leptin, insulin, and ghrelin; however leptin reflected IM energy changes and ghrelin and insulin, prandial events. During non-deprivation meal-to-meal eating, hunger appears to be under non-homeostatic central circadian control as it is unrelated to EE preceding meals or concentrations of proposed appetite-controlling hormones. Gastrointestinal meal processing appears to intermittently suppress this control and entrain an ultradian hunger pattern. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors associated with child hunger among food insecure households in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Ahshanul; Farzana, Fahmida Dil; Sultana, Sabiha; Raihan, Mohammad Jyoti; Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur; Waid, Jillian L; Choudhury, Nuzhat; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2017-02-16

    Hunger is associated with food insecurity at the household level and is considered as a global public health problem with long term adverse consequences on children's health. This study aims to determine the factors associated with child hunger from a nationally representative sample in Bangladesh among food insecure households. Data was derived from the Food Security and Nutritional Surveillance Project; 14,712 children aged 6-59 months belonging to food insecure households contributed to the analysis. Information on food security at the household level was collected for 30 days preceding the survey. Descriptive statistics served to illustrate the variables studied and multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the significant risk factors for child hunger. Overall 10% of the children were found to be hungry. After adjusting for seasonality, residence type and education level of household head, the variables - female headed households [OR: 1.87 (1.43-2.45); p hunger. Out of the potential risk factors examined, our study found significant and independent association of five variables with child hunger: sex of the household head, household food insecurity status, educational status of household women and asset index. Despite all sampled household being food insecure, degree of household food insecurity status appeared to be the strongest predictor of child hunger.

  2. Beyond nutrition: hunger and its impact on the health of young Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, William; Michaelson, Valerie; Davison, Colleen

    2015-07-01

    In a large Canadian study, we examined: (1) the prevalence of hunger due to an inadequate food supply at home; (2) relations between this hunger and a range of health outcomes, and; (3) contextual explanations for any observed associations. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 25,912 students aged 11-15 years from 436 Canadian schools. Analyses were descriptive and also involved hierarchical logistic regression models. Hunger was reported by 25 % of participants, with 4 % reporting this experience "often" or "always". Its prevalence was associated with socio-economic disadvantage and family-related factors, but not with whether or not a student had access to school-based food and nutrition programs. The consistency of hunger's associations with the health outcomes was remarkable. Relations between hunger and health were partially explained when models controlled for family practices, but not the socio-economic or school measures. Societal responses to hunger certainly require the provision of food, but may also consider family contexts and basic essential elements of care that children need to thrive.

  3. Prenatal exposure to the 1944-45 Dutch 'hunger winter' and addiction later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzek, Ernst J; Sprangers, Niels; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Van Duijn, Cornelia M; Van De Wetering, Ben J M

    2008-03-01

    Prenatal exposure to severe famine has been associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia and affective disorders. We studied the relationship between prenatal exposure to famine during the Dutch hunger winter of 1944-45 and addiction later in life. A case-control study. The Rotterdam city area during the Dutch hunger winter lasting from mid-October 1944 to mid-May 1945. From February 1945 to mid-May 1945 the hunger winter was characterized by a famine peak. Patients are native Dutch addicted patients from the Rotterdam Addiction Treatment Program and controls are native Dutch inhabitants of Rotterdam, born between 1944 and 1947. Exposure to the whole hunger winter (men (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.05-1.72), but not among women (OR = 1.26, 95% CI 0.88-1.81). The odds of exposure to the peak of the hunger winter during the first trimester of gestation were also significantly higher among addiction treatment patients (OR = 1.61, 95% CI 1.22-2.12). We did not find any significant differences for the second and third trimesters of gestation. First-trimester prenatal exposure to famine appears to be associated with addiction later in life. The study confirms the adverse influence of severe malnutrition on brain development and maturation, confirms the influence of perinatal insults on mental health in later life and gives rise to great concern about the possible future consequences for the hunger regions in our world.

  4. Role of resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure in hunger and appetite control: a new formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, John E; Caudwell, Phillipa; Gibbons, Catherine; Hopkins, Mark; Naslund, Erik; King, Neil; Finlayson, Graham

    2012-09-01

    A long-running issue in appetite research concerns the influence of energy expenditure on energy intake. More than 50 years ago, Otto G. Edholm proposed that "the differences between the intakes of food [of individuals] must originate in differences in the expenditure of energy". However, a relationship between energy expenditure and energy intake within any one day could not be found, although there was a correlation over 2 weeks. This issue was never resolved before interest in integrative biology was replaced by molecular biochemistry. Using a psychobiological approach, we have studied appetite control in an energy balance framework using a multi-level experimental system on a single cohort of overweight and obese human subjects. This has disclosed relationships between variables in the domains of body composition [fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM)], metabolism, gastrointestinal hormones, hunger and energy intake. In this Commentary, we review our own and other data, and discuss a new formulation whereby appetite control and energy intake are regulated by energy expenditure. Specifically, we propose that FFM (the largest contributor to resting metabolic rate), but not body mass index or FM, is closely associated with self-determined meal size and daily energy intake. This formulation has implications for understanding weight regulation and the management of obesity.

  5. Eating in the absence of hunger during childhood predicts self-reported binge eating in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balantekin, Katherine N; Birch, Leann L; Savage, Jennifer S

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of the current study were to examine whether eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) at age 7 predicted reports of self-reported binge eating at age 15 and to identify factors among girls with high-EAH that moderated risk of later binge eating. Subjects included 158 girls assessed at age 7 and age 15. Logistic regression was used to predict binge eating at age 15 from calories consumed during EAH at age 7. A series of logistic regressions were used to examine the odds of reporting binge eating given levels of risk factors (e.g., anxiety) among those with high-EAH in childhood. Girls' EAH intake predicted reports of binge eating at age 15; after adjusting for age 7 BMI, for each additional 100kcal consumed, girls were 1.7 times more likely to report binge eating in adolescence. Among those with high-EAH, BMI, anxiety, depression, dietary restraint, emotional disinhibition, and body dissatisfaction all predicted binge eating. EAH during childhood predicted reports of binge eating during adolescence; girls with elevated BMI, negative affect, and maladaptive eating- and weight-related cognitions were at increased risk. High-EAH in childhood may be useful for indicating those at risk for developing binge eating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. "Hunger Hurts, but Starving Works". The Moral Conversion to Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Gisella

    2017-03-01

    This article aims to shed light on the self-perceptions of people with eating disorders in Malta and Italy through a deep understanding of their narratives. In contrast to the biomedical perception of the phenomenon and in opposition with the prevalent feminist theories on the subject, I consider eating disorders as the result of self-transformative processes. I suggest that anorexics, bulimics and binge eaters are actively and deliberately engaged in a project of moral self-transformation that is culturally defined. The moral transformations of women with eating disorders in Malta and Italy, the two considered contexts of this research, reflect the social expectations of women in these societies. The drastic changes in personal attitudes towards both food and the body that characterise eating disorders are the result of a complete dedication to the moral values embodied in thinness, namely the control of bodily needs and pleasure. The self-transformative process of people with eating disorders can be understood as a form of moral conversion along a continuum of increasing control over hunger: the higher the control, the higher the level of satisfaction and the degree of moral conversion achieved. Considering the general low recovery rates of people with eating disorders, this approach helps in the understanding of why people who are diagnosed with an eating disorder accept medical definitions and treatments to different extents.

  7. Depressed Affect and Dietary Restraint in Adolescent Boys’ and Girls’ Eating in the Absence of Hunger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Nichole R.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Pickworth, Courtney K.; Grygorenko, Mariya V.; Radin, Rachel M.; Vannucci, Anna; Shank, Lisa M.; Brady, Sheila M.; Courville, Amber B.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2015-01-01

    Data suggest that depressed affect and dietary restraint are related to disinhibited eating patterns in children and adults. Yet, experimental research has not determined to what extent depressed affect acutely affects eating in the absence of physiological hunger (EAH) in adolescents. In the current between-subjects experimental study, we measured EAH in 182 adolescent (13-17y) girls (65%) and boys as ad libitum palatable snack food intake after youth ate to satiety from a buffet meal. Just prior to EAH, participants were randomly assigned to view either a sad or neutral film clip. Dietary restraint was measured with the Eating Disorder Examination. Adolescents who viewed the sad film clip reported small but significant increases in state depressed affect relative to adolescents who viewed the neutral film clip (p girls, but not boys (p girls’ propensity to report restrained eating is associated with their greater disinhibited eating in the laboratory. Additional experimental research, perhaps utilizing a more potent laboratory stressor and manipulating both affective state and dietary restraint, is required to elucidate how state affect may interact with dietary restraint to influence EAH during adolescence. PMID:25936291

  8. Depressed affect and dietary restraint in adolescent boys' and girls' eating in the absence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Nichole R; Shomaker, Lauren B; Pickworth, Courtney K; Grygorenko, Mariya V; Radin, Rachel M; Vannucci, Anna; Shank, Lisa M; Brady, Sheila M; Courville, Amber B; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A

    2015-08-01

    Data suggest that depressed affect and dietary restraint are related to disinhibited eating patterns in children and adults. Yet, experimental research has not determined to what extent depressed affect acutely affects eating in the absence of physiological hunger (EAH) in adolescents. In the current between-subjects experimental study, we measured EAH in 182 adolescent (13-17 y) girls (65%) and boys as ad libitum palatable snack food intake after youth ate to satiety from a buffet meal. Just prior to EAH, participants were randomly assigned to view either a sad or neutral film clip. Dietary restraint was measured with the Eating Disorder Examination. Adolescents who viewed the sad film clip reported small but significant increases in state depressed affect relative to adolescents who viewed the neutral film clip (p girls, but not boys (p girls' propensity to report restrained eating is associated with their greater disinhibited eating in the laboratory. Additional experimental research, perhaps utilizing a more potent laboratory stressor and manipulating both affective state and dietary restraint, is required to elucidate how state affect may interact with dietary restraint to influence EAH during adolescence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS – A SOLUTION TO WORLD HUNGER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, GM crops were grown on 160 million hectares spread over 29 countries, on all continents, marking a 94-fold increase in the area since their first commercialization in 1996, and making it the fastest adopted crop technology in recent history. Main reasons for this expansion are, by the proponents of GM food, its safety, potential to revolutionize agriculture and benefit the farmers and consumers alike. On the other hand, there are indications that GMOs are harmful to the biodiversity and become eco-contaminants, and can, especially in the long terms, negatively affect the human health. Authors think that patenting of living organisms by the multinational companies is unacceptable and unfair from the bioethical perspective, not only because they tend to hold monopolies in production and trade of GM plants, but also because of their efforts to gain domination over the very life. Finally, analyses made by many scientists show that the thesis that "Gene Revolution" will resolve the problem of hunger in the world was not justified in the previous decade.

  10. Cold and hunger induce diurnality in a nocturnal mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vinne, Vincent; Riede, Sjaak J; Gorter, Jenke A; Eijer, Willem G; Sellix, Michael T; Menaker, Michael; Daan, Serge; Pilorz, Violetta; Hut, Roelof A

    2014-10-21

    The mammalian circadian system synchronizes daily timing of activity and rest with the environmental light-dark cycle. Although the underlying molecular oscillatory mechanism is well studied, factors that influence phenotypic plasticity in daily activity patterns (temporal niche switching, chronotype) are presently unknown. Molecular evidence suggests that metabolism may influence the circadian molecular clock, but evidence at the level of the organism is lacking. Here we show that a metabolic challenge by cold and hunger induces diurnality in otherwise nocturnal mice. Lowering ambient temperature changes the phase of circadian light-dark entrainment in mice by increasing daytime and decreasing nighttime activity. This effect is further enhanced by simulated food shortage, which identifies metabolic balance as the underlying common factor influencing circadian organization. Clock gene expression analysis shows that the underlying neuronal mechanism is downstream from or parallel to the main circadian pacemaker (the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus) and that the behavioral phenotype is accompanied by phase adjustment of peripheral tissues. These findings indicate that nocturnal mammals can display considerable plasticity in circadian organization and may adopt a diurnal phenotype when energetically challenged. Our previously defined circadian thermoenergetics hypothesis proposes that such circadian plasticity, which naturally occurs in nocturnal mammals, reflects adaptive maintenance of energy balance. Quantification of energy expenditure shows that diurnality under natural conditions reduces thermoregulatory costs in small burrowing mammals like mice. Metabolic feedback on circadian organization thus provides functional benefits by reducing energy expenditure. Our findings may help to clarify relationships between sleep-wake patterns and metabolic phenotypes in humans.

  11. Changing the conversation about hunger: the process of developing Freshplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Katie; Shuckerow, Maryellen; O'Rourke, Christine; Schmitz, Allison

    2012-01-01

    Despite public and private food assistance programs, food insecurity and hunger are persistent public health problems. Freshplace is an innovative food pantry collaborative whose goal is to build long-term food security and self-sufficiency among residents of the North End of Hartford, Connecticut. Freshplace was founded by Foodshare (FS), the Chrysalis Center (CC), Inc., and the Junior League of Hartford (JLH), Inc., who then partnered with the University of Connecticut to design and evaluate the program. This article describes the community-based participatory research process involved with developing and evaluating Freshplace. We are conducting a randomized, controlled study to compare 100 Freshplace members with 100 people who receive food from traditional food pantries. Main outcome measures include food security, self-sufficiency, and diet quality. Change scores are compared from baseline to 3 months using independent t tests. Freshplace opened in July 2010. We have recruited 233 people to participate in the study. Over 3 months, Freshplace members had larger change scores than the comparison group in food security scores (1.6 vs. 0.7 points; p food pantry intervention to be evaluated, and preliminary results are promising.

  12. Food price volatility and hunger alleviation – can Cannes work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajkowicz Stefan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent years have seen global food prices rise and become more volatile. Price surges in 2008 and 2011 held devastating consequences for hundreds of millions of people and negatively impacted many more. Today one billion people are hungry. The issue is a high priority for many international agencies and national governments. At the Cannes Summit in November 2011, the G20 leaders agreed to implement five objectives aiming to mitigate food price volatility and protect vulnerable persons. To succeed, the global community must now translate these high level policy objectives into practical actions. In this paper, we describe challenges and unresolved dilemmas before the global community in implementing these five objectives. The paper describes recent food price volatility trends and an evaluation of possible causes. Special attention is given to climate change and water scarcity, which have the potential to impact food prices to a much greater extent in coming decades. We conclude the world needs an improved knowledge base and new analytical capabilities, developed in parallel with the implementation of practical policy actions, to manage food price volatility and reduce hunger and malnutrition. This requires major innovations and paradigm shifts by the global community.

  13. Social Welfare and the Psychology of Food Sharing: Short-Term Hunger Increases Support for Social Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Aarøe, Lene; Jensen, Niels Holm

    2014-01-01

    Do politically irrelevant events influence important policy opinions? Previous research on social welfare attitudes has emphasized the role of political factors such as economic self-interest and ideology. Here, we demonstrate that attitudes to social welfare are also influenced by short...... of sharing such as social welfare. We test these predictions using self-reported hunger data as well as comparisons of subjects who participated in relevant online studies before and after eating lunch. Across four studies collected in two different welfare regimes—the United Kingdom and Denmark......—we consistently find that hungry individuals act in a greedier manner but describe themselves as more cooperative and express greater support for social welfare....

  14. Effect of hunger level and time of day on boldness and aggression in the zebrafish Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyomo, T O; Watt, P J

    2015-06-01

    The effect of two environmental variables, hunger level (fed or not fed before behavioural assays) and time of day (morning or afternoon), on the boldness and aggressiveness of male and female zebrafish Danio rerio, was tested. The results showed that neither hunger level nor time of testing influenced boldness in males and females, but hunger level significantly affected aggression in females when compared with males. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. Role of Educational Institutions in Helping to Alleviate World Hunger. Hearing before the Select Committee on Hunger, House of Representatives. Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session (Davis, California).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Hunger.

    Hearings on the role of higher education in reducing hunger and malnutrition are presented. Within this country a key concern is nutrition and consumer education, especially of low-income people, as well as nutrition education for health and other professionals. In addition to providing food and feed grains to Third World countries, the United…

  16. Changes in weight control behaviors and hedonic hunger during a 12-week commercial weight loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Patrick M; Theim, Kelly R; Boeka, Abbe; Johnson, Gail; Miller-Kovach, Karen

    2012-12-01

    Greater use of key self-regulatory behaviors (e.g., self-monitoring of food intake and weight) is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments, although this association is less established within widely-available commercial weight loss programs. Further, high hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may present a barrier to successful behavior change and weight loss, although this has not yet been examined. Adult men and women (N=111, body mass index M±SD=31.5±2.7kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after participating in a 12-week commercial weight loss program. From pre- to post-treatment, reported usage of weight control behaviors improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely associated. A decrease in hedonic hunger was associated with better weight loss. An improvement in reported weight control behaviors (e.g., self-regulatory behaviors) was associated with better weight loss, and this association was even stronger among individuals with high baseline hedonic hunger. Findings highlight the importance of specific self-regulatory behaviors within weight loss treatment, including a commercial weight loss program developed for widespread community implementation. Assessment of weight control behavioral skills usage and hedonic hunger may be useful to further identify mediators of weight loss within commercial weight loss programs. Future interventions might specifically target high hedonic hunger and prospectively examine changes in hedonic hunger during other types of weight loss treatment to inform its potential impact on sustained behavior change and weight control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The time-varying association between perceived stress and hunger within and between days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jimi; Shiyko, Mariya; Keller, Stefan; Dunton, Genevieve; Schembre, Susan M

    2015-06-01

    Examine the association between perceived stress and hunger continuously over a week in free-living individuals. Forty five young adults (70% women, 30% overweight/obese) ages 18 to 24 years (Mean = 20.7, SD = 1.5), with BMI between 17.4 and 36.3 kg/m(2) (Mean = 23.6, SD = 4.0) provided between 513 and 577 concurrent ratings of perceived stress and hunger for 7 days via hourly, text messaging assessments and real-time eating records. Time-varying effect modeling was used to explore whether the within-day fluctuations in stress are related to perceived hunger assessed on a momentary basis. A generally positive stress-hunger relationship was confirmed, but we found that the strength of the relationship was not linear. Rather, the magnitude of the association between perceived stress and hunger changed throughout the day such that only during specific time intervals were stress and hunger significantly related. Specifically, the strength of the positive association peaked during late afternoon hours on weekdays (β = 0.31, p hunger associations that peak in the afternoon or evening hours. While we are unable to infer causality from these analyses, our findings provide empirical evidence for a potentially high-risk time of day for stress-induced eating. Replication of these findings in larger, more diverse samples will aid with the design and implementation of real-time intervention studies aimed at reducing stress-eating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Longitudinal trends in hedonic hunger after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Christopher C; Benoit, Stephen C; Peugh, James L; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Inge, Thomas H; Zeller, Meg H

    2014-01-01

    Initial outcome studies have reported that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is safe and efficacious for adolescents with extreme obesity. Although rapid weight loss is seen initially, data also show that modest weight regain typically occurs as early as the second postoperative year. The contribution of various psychological factors, including hedonic hunger, to postoperative weight regain has not previously been studied in adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the variability in hedonic hunger and body mass index (BMI) over the initial 2-year period of weight loss and modest weight regain in adolescent RYGB recipients. A total of 16 adolescents completed the Power of Food Scale before surgery and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postoperatively. Height and weight were measured at each time point, from which BMI was calculated. Nonlinear trends were observed for time on both overall hedonic hunger and hedonic hunger specifically related to food available in the adolescent's environment. The BMI reduction during the first 18 months postoperatively was paralleled by reduction in hedonic hunger; increases in hedonic hunger also paralleled the modest BMI increase at 24 months. In growth analysis, significant power gains are available to models using 4 or more points of data. However, only large effect sizes that are>.85 were detectable with a sample of 16 patients. These data provide preliminary evidence that hedonic hunger is in need of further study in adolescent patients receiving RYGB both preoperatively and postoperatively. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Contextual factors associated with eating in the absence of hunger among adults with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Pearson, Carolyn M; Utzinger, Linsey M; Pacanowski, Carly R; Mason, Tyler B; Berner, Laura A; Engel, Scott G; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Peterson, Carol B

    2017-08-01

    Eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) is under-explored in adults with obesity. In this study, 50 adults with obesity recorded eating episodes and theoretically-relevant environmental, perceptual, and emotional correlates in the natural environment for 2weeks via ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Generalized linear models and mixed models were used to characterize correlates and consequences of EAH vs. non-EAH episodes/tendencies (within-subjects and between-subjects effects, respectively), time of day, and time of day×EAH interactions. Approximately 21% of EMA-recorded eating episodes involved EAH, and 70% of participants reported at least 1 EAH episode. At the within-person level, participants' EAH episodes were associated with greater self-labeled overeating than their non-EAH episodes. At the between-person level, participants who tended to engage in more EAH reported less self-labeled overeating than those who engaged in less EAH. Across EAH and non-EAH episodes, eating in the evening was associated with overeating, expecting eating to be more rewarding, greater alcoholic beverage consumption, eating alone, eating because others are eating, and eating while watching television. Significant EAH×time of day interactions were also observed but the pattern of findings was not consistent. Findings suggest that EAH may be a relevant target for reducing food intake in individuals with obesity given its high prevalence and association with perceptions of overeating, although results should be extended using objective measures of food intake. Associations between evening eating episodes and perceptual and environmental factors should be further explored. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. An excitatory paraventricular nucleus to AgRP neuron circuit that drives hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krashes, Michael J; Shah, Bhavik P; Madara, Joseph C; Olson, David P; Strochlic, David E; Garfield, Alastair S; Vong, Linh; Pei, Hongjuan; Watabe-Uchida, Mitsuko; Uchida, Naoshige; Liberles, Stephen D; Lowell, Bradford B

    2014-03-13

    Hunger is a hard-wired motivational state essential for survival. Agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) at the base of the hypothalamus are crucial to the control of hunger. They are activated by caloric deficiency and, when naturally or artificially stimulated, they potently induce intense hunger and subsequent food intake. Consistent with their obligatory role in regulating appetite, genetic ablation or chemogenetic inhibition of AgRP neurons decreases feeding. Excitatory input to AgRP neurons is important in caloric-deficiency-induced activation, and is notable for its remarkable degree of caloric-state-dependent synaptic plasticity. Despite the important role of excitatory input, its source(s) has been unknown. Here, through the use of Cre-recombinase-enabled, cell-specific neuron mapping techniques in mice, we have discovered strong excitatory drive that, unexpectedly, emanates from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, specifically from subsets of neurons expressing thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, also known as ADCYAP1). Chemogenetic stimulation of these afferent neurons in sated mice markedly activates AgRP neurons and induces intense feeding. Conversely, acute inhibition in mice with caloric-deficiency-induced hunger decreases feeding. Discovery of these afferent neurons capable of triggering hunger advances understanding of how this intense motivational state is regulated.

  1. Impulsivity and overeating in children in the absence and presence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederkoorn, Chantal; Dassen, Fania C M; Franken, Loes; Resch, Christine; Houben, Katrijn

    2015-10-01

    Overweight children appear to be more responsive to environmental, hedonic cues and easily overeat in the current obesogenic environment. They are also found to overeat in the absence of hunger, and this overeating seems related to impulsivity: impulsive participants are more prone to external eating. However, some studies showed that impulsive adults are also more prone to hunger cues: impulsive participants overate especially when feeling hungry. This would mean impulsive people are more reactive to both external and internal cues. The overeating was limited to palatable high energy-dense foods: hunger made them fancy a snack. In the current study, we wanted to test the interaction between impulsivity, hunger and consumption of food type in children. Impulsivity was measured in 88 children between the ages of 7 and 9. Next, half of the participants performed a taste test before their own regular lunch and half of the participants immediately after their lunch. During the taste test, low, medium and high energy-dense food items were presented. Results showed that impulsive children ate more high energy-dense foods than low impulsive children, both before and after their lunch. No differences were found on low or medium energy-dense foods. Impulsive children therefore showed normal sensitivity for internal hunger and satiety cues, but abnormal response to high energy-dense foods. This might render them vulnerable to tasty temptation in the environment and to weight gain in their future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hunger effects on foraging responses to perceptual cues in immature and adult wolf spiders (Lycosidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons

    1999-01-01

    The wolf spider, Schizocosa ocreata (Hentz), varies foraging patch residence time in the presence of different sensory cues from prey, even without food rewards. This study examines the influence and interaction of hunger state, age and sex on the use of different types of sensory information to determine foraging patch sampling duration. In a series of two-chambered artificial foraging patches, I tested 26 S. ocreata once as immatures, and again as adults, under two hunger states (satiated and 7 days without food). Patches varied in the type of sensory information provided by live prey (crickets) as follows: visual cues alone; vibratory cues alone; combined visual/vibratory cues; and control (no prey). Without feeding in patches, the type of sensory stimuli available from prey strongly affected patch residence time, with spiders using primarily visual rather than vibratory cues. Hunger level as a main effect had no influence on residence time, but hunger state did mediate the importance of visual or vibratory information. Significant age- and sex-related differences in patch residence time in the presence of different sensory cues were found.These data suggest that ontogenetic and sex-specific foraging strategies are influenced by use of prefeeding perceptual cues rather than hunger state in wolf spiders. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  3. Strategies to Reduce Hunger in America. Hearing before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-ninth Congress, Second Session on Oversight on Strategies to Reduce Hunger in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This document is a transcript of testimony given to the Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources. Strategies to reduce hunger in America are described and analyzed in the wake of proposed legislation, the Hunger Relief Act of 1986. Testimony is given on the following topics: (1) the Food Stamp Program; (2) supplemental food programs; (3)…

  4. Antiretroviral Therapy and Nutrition in Southern Africa: Citizenship and the Grammar of Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    How might we understand and respond to the new forms of hunger that arise with the massive rollout of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV in southern Africa? Rather than 'merely' a technical problem of measurement, medicine or infrastructure, I suggest that a philosophical question arises concerning the relationship between the experience of hunger, the utterances that communicate that experience, and the bodily regimes of well-being and ill-being indexed by such utterances. Taking the gut as a particular kind of mediator of experience, I draw on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa to open up a set of questions on acknowledgment and avoidance. The central question concerns the divergent concepts of 'grammar' that confront the relationship between hunger and ART.

  5. Effects of hunger level and tube diameter on thefeeding behavior of teat-fed dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Mette S; Skjøth, Flemming; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2010-01-01

    a 40-min period after morning milk feeding on d 7, 9, and 11 of testing is reported. No significant interactions between tube diameter and hunger level on behavior were found. Reduced tube diameter led to increased latency to empty the teat bucket, increased duration of nutritive sucking, and decreased......Behavioral changes caused by variation in hunger have a great potential in health monitoring in dairy cattle. The present experiment used 48 Danish Holstein bull calves with a median age of 33 d. We examined the effect of different levels of hunger (reduced, in which calves were fed 1.5 L of milk...... via esophageal tube before feeding; increased, in which calves were fed half milk ration at the previous feeding, or control, in which calves were fed normal ration at the previous feeding) on feeding behavior of calves fed via different tube diameters (6.0, 3.0, or 1.5 mm). Behavior observed during...

  6. [Josué de Castro and The Geography of Hunger in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes de

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this article is to reinterpret the classic work Geografia da Fome [The Geography of Hunger], first published in 1946. The article provides a summary of the five food area maps and the main nutritional deficiencies in Brazil, based on Josué de Castro's original conception. Currently, the nutritional epidemiological profile identified by Josué de Castro, characterized by nutritional deficiencies (malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies, endemic goiter, iron deficiency anemia, etc.), overlap with chronic non-communicable diseases (obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemias, etc.). However, the complex and paradoxical issue of hunger is a persistently recurrent theme in Brazil. Given a series of current dilemmas, including the planet's ecological sustainability and the need to guarantee the human right to adequate, healthy nutrition, it is urgent to reawaken the struggle led by Josué de Castro for the adoption of a sustainable economic development model and a society free of poverty and hunger.

  7. Regulation of plasma agouti-related protein and its relationship with hunger in lean and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Tom J; Sawula, Laura; Edgett, Brittany A; Walsh, Jeremy J; Gurd, Brendon J

    2016-12-01

    Agouti-related protein (AgRP) is an orexigenic (appetite stimulating) neuropeptide suggested to exert tonic control over long-term energy balance. While some have speculated AgRP is not involved in the episodic (i.e. meal to meal energy intake) control, acute decreases in plasma agouti-related protein (AgRP) following a meal have been observed in humans in a role consistent with episodic control for AgRP. Whether changes in plasma AgRP are associated with episodic, and/or tonic changes in appetite has yet to be directly examined. The present study examined the relationship between agouti-related protein (AgRP), leptin and the regulation of appetite following a 48-h fast and an acute meal challenge. Blood samples were obtained from young lean and obese men before and after a 48 h fast (lean n = 10; obese n = 7). Fasting resulted in an increase in AgRP and a decrease in leptin with these changes being greater in lean than obese. In addition, blood samples were obtained from lean men before and 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after a meal (n = 8). Following a meal, AgRP was reduced from 2 to 4 h, a change that was dissociated from both leptin and subjective measures of hunger and satiety. These results demonstrate that AgRP is not associated with changes in hunger or satiety, and can change without corresponding changes in leptin. This suggests that AgRP may not be involved in the episodic control of appetite and the release of AgRP may involve signals other than leptin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Experiencing Security in Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Niels Raabjerg; Bødker, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Security is experienced differently in different contexts. This paper argues that in everyday situations, users base their security decisions on a mix of prior experiences. When approaching security and interaction design from an experience approach, tools that help bring out such relevant...... experiences for design are needed. This paper reports on how Prompted exploration workshops and Acting out security were developed to target such experiences when iteratively designing a mobile digital signature solution in a participatory design process. We discuss how these tools helped the design process...... and illustrate how the tangibility of such tools matters. We further demonstrate how the approach grants access to non-trivial insights into people's security experience. We point out how the specific context is essential for exploring the space between experience and expectations, and we illustrate how people...

  9. The experienced temperature sensitivity and regulation survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Dekker, Kim; Te Lindert, Bart H. W.; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Moens, Sarah; Migliorati, Filippo; Aarts, Emmeke; van der Sluis, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Individuals differ in thermosensitivity, thermoregulation, and zones of thermoneutrality and thermal comfort. Whereas temperature sensing and -effectuating processes occur in part unconsciously and autonomic, awareness of temperature and thermal preferences can affect thermoregulatory behavior as well. Quantification of trait-like individual differences of thermal preferences and experienced temperature sensitivity and regulation is therefore relevant to obtain a complete understanding of human thermophysiology. Whereas several scales have been developed to assess instantaneous appreciation of heat and cold exposure, a comprehensive scale dedicated to assess subjectively experienced autonomic or behavioral thermoregulatory activity has been lacking so far. We constructed a survey that specifically approaches these domains from a trait-like perspective, sampled 240 volunteers across a wide age range, and analyzed the emergent component structure. Participants were asked to report their thermal experiences, captured in 102 questions, on a 7-point bi-directional Likert scale. In a second set of 32 questions, participants were asked to indicate the relative strength of experiences across different body locations. Principal component analyses extracted 21 meaningful dimensions, which were sensitive to sex-differences and age-related changes. The questions were also assessed in a matched sample of 240 people with probable insomnia to evaluate the sensitivity of these dimensions to detect group differences in a case-control design. The dimensions showed marked mean differences between cases and controls. The survey thus has discriminatory value. It can freely be used by anyone interested in studying individual or group differences in thermosensitivity and thermoregulation. PMID:27227080

  10. Communicating hunger and satiation in the first 2 years of life: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Janet; Hugh-Jones, Siobhan; Caton, Samantha; Vereijken, Carel; Weenen, Hugo; Hetherington, Marion

    2016-04-01

    Responsive feeding has been identified as important in preventing overconsumption by infants. However, this is predicated on an assumption that parents recognise and respond to infant feeding cues. Despite this, relatively little is understood about how infants engage parental feeding responses. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to identify what is known about infant communication of hunger and satiation and what issues impact on the expression and perception of these states. A search of Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Science Direct and Maternal and Infant care produced 27 papers. Eligibility criteria included peer reviewed qualitative and/or quantitative publications on feeding behaviours, hunger, and satiation/satiety cues of typically developing children in the first 2 years of life. Papers published between 1966 and 2013 were included in the review. The review revealed that feeding cues and behaviours are shaped by numerous issues, such as infants' physical attributes, individual psychological factors and environmental factors. Meanwhile, infant characteristics, external cues and mothers' own characteristics affect how feeding cues are perceived. The existing literature provides insights into many aspects of hunger and satiation in infancy; however, there are significant gaps in our knowledge. There is a lack of validated tools for measuring hunger and satiation, a need to understand how different infant characteristics impact on feeding behaviour and a need to extricate the respective contributions of infant and maternal characteristics to perceptions of hunger and satiation. Further research is also recommended to differentiate between feeding driven by liking and that driven by hunger. © The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Hunger does not motivate reward in women remitted from anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierenga, Christina E; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Melrose, A James; Irvine, Zoe; Torres, Laura; Bailer, Ursula F; Simmons, Alan; Fudge, Julie L; McClure, Samuel M; Ely, Alice; Kaye, Walter H

    2015-04-01

    Hunger enhances sensitivity to reward, yet individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) are not motivated to eat when starved. This study investigated brain response to rewards during hunger and satiated states to examine whether diminished response to reward could underlie food restriction in AN. Using a delay discounting monetary decision task known to discriminate brain regions contributing to processing of immediate rewards and cognitive control important for decision making regarding future rewards, we compared 23 women remitted from AN (RAN group; to reduce the confounding effects of starvation) with 17 healthy comparison women (CW group). Monetary rewards were used because the rewarding value of food may be confounded by anxiety in AN. Interactions of Group (RAN, CW) × Visit (hunger, satiety) revealed that, for the CW group, hunger significantly increased activation in reward salience circuitry (ventral striatum, dorsal caudate, anterior cingulate cortex) during processing of immediate reward, whereas satiety increased activation in cognitive control circuitry (ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, insula) during decision making. In contrast, brain response in reward and cognitive neurocircuitry did not differ during hunger and satiety in the RAN group. A main effect of group revealed elevated response in the middle frontal gyrus for the RAN group compared with the CW group. Women remitted from AN failed to increase activation of reward valuation circuitry when hungry and showed elevated response in cognitive control circuitry independent of metabolic state. Decreased sensitivity to the motivational drive of hunger may explain the ability of individuals with AN to restrict food when emaciated. Difficulties in valuating emotional salience may contribute to inabilities to appreciate the risks inherent in this disorder. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Drosophila SLC5A11 Mediates Hunger by Regulating K(+) Channel Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Yong; Dus, Monica; Kim, Seonil; Abu, Farhan; Kanai, Makoto I; Rudy, Bernardo; Suh, Greg S B

    2016-08-08

    Hunger is a powerful drive that stimulates food intake. Yet, the mechanism that determines how the energy deficits that result in hunger are represented in the brain and promote feeding is not well understood. We previously described SLC5A11-a sodium/solute co-transporter-like-(or cupcake) in Drosophila melanogaster, which is required for the fly to select a nutritive sugar over a sweeter nonnutritive sugar after periods of food deprivation. SLC5A11 acts on approximately 12 pairs of ellipsoid body (EB) R4 neurons to trigger the selection of nutritive sugars, but the underlying mechanism is not understood. Here, we report that the excitability of SLC5A11-expressing EB R4 neurons increases dramatically during starvation and that this increase is abolished in the SLC5A11 mutation. Artificial activation of SLC5A11-expresssing neurons is sufficient to promote feeding and hunger-driven behaviors; silencing these neurons has the opposite effect. Notably, SLC5A11 transcript levels in the brain increase significantly when flies are starved and decrease shortly after starved flies are refed. Furthermore, expression of SLC5A11 is sufficient for promoting hunger-driven behaviors and enhancing the excitability of SLC5A11-expressing neurons. SLC5A11 inhibits the function of the Drosophila KCNQ potassium channel in a heterologous expression system. Accordingly, a knockdown of dKCNQ expression in SLC5A11-expressing neurons produces hunger-driven behaviors even in fed flies, mimicking the overexpression of SLC5A11. We propose that starvation increases SLC5A11 expression, which enhances the excitability of SLC5A11-expressing neurons by suppressing dKCNQ channels, thereby conferring the hunger state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The relationship between mother to child calories served and maternal perception of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, S E; Janicke, D M

    2016-06-01

    Research has examined self-serving portions in adults and children and has shown that larger portion size is related to more calories consumed. The present study examines factors that may influence the portion sizes a mother serves her child at a mealtime. The present observational study included a community-based sample of 29 mother-child dyads. Dyads attended a 1-h session in which they shared a meal together. A buffet of food was provided and the mother was asked to serve her child and herself. The amount of food served and consumed by the child was recorded. Main independent variables of interest included maternal body mass index (BMI), child BMI Z-score, and maternal perception of personal and child hunger. The primary dependent variable was the total calories the mother served her child. Regression models and a moderated mediation were used to examine the relation between variables. Calories served to the child was positively associated with calories consumed by the child. Maternal perception of her own hunger was related to her perception of her child's hunger. Furthermore, maternal perception of child hunger explained the relationship between maternal perception of personal hunger and total calories served to the child, although only for obese mothers. Mothers may be serving their children larger portion sizes based on their personal weight and their perception of their child's hunger. To help children obtain or maintain a healthy weight, obesity prevention and intervention programmes should help mothers serve more appropriate serving sizes to their children. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  14. Household food insecurity and hunger among households in Sidama district, southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regassa, Nigatu; Stoecker, Barbara J

    2012-07-01

    To examine household food insecurity and hunger in Sidama Zone, one of the most populous zones in southern Ethiopia. Cross-sectional survey administered individually by trained interviewers. Food insecurity was calculated with both the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) and the Household Hunger Scale (HHS), developed by the Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project. Rural households from ten kebeles (the smallest administrative district) selected from two agro-climatic zones in Sidama, southern Ethiopia, from December 2010 to January 2011. Men and women respondents from 1094 rural households were selected using multistage sampling techniques. Using the HFIAS, 17·7 % of households were food secure. The percentage of households that were mildly, moderately and severely food insecure was 6·8 %, 27·7 % and 47·8 %, respectively. Using the HHS, 29·0 % and 5·6 % of households fell into the moderate and severe household hunger categories. Using multivariate statistical techniques, five variables were significant predictors of both food insecurity and hunger. These variables were migration of a household member, agro-climatic zone, and younger age, less education and lower radio access for the woman. Being eligible for safety-net credit programmes also was a predictor of hunger, while limited animal ownership and household wealth as well as alcohol use by the household head added to the prediction of food insecurity. The study documented that food insecurity is a major concern of smallholder farming households in the study area. A substantial majority of the households were facing mild to severe food insecurity and hunger for an extended period of time.

  15. Communicating hunger and satiation in the first 2 years of life: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh‐Jones, Siobhan; Caton, Samantha; Vereijken, Carel; Weenen, Hugo; Hetherington, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Responsive feeding has been identified as important in preventing overconsumption by infants. However, this is predicated on an assumption that parents recognise and respond to infant feeding cues. Despite this, relatively little is understood about how infants engage parental feeding responses. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to identify what is known about infant communication of hunger and satiation and what issues impact on the expression and perception of these states. A search of Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Science Direct and Maternal and Infant care produced 27 papers. Eligibility criteria included peer reviewed qualitative and/or quantitative publications on feeding behaviours, hunger, and satiation/satiety cues of typically developing children in the first 2 years of life. Papers published between 1966 and 2013 were included in the review. The review revealed that feeding cues and behaviours are shaped by numerous issues, such as infants' physical attributes, individual psychological factors and environmental factors. Meanwhile, infant characteristics, external cues and mothers' own characteristics affect how feeding cues are perceived. The existing literature provides insights into many aspects of hunger and satiation in infancy; however, there are significant gaps in our knowledge. There is a lack of validated tools for measuring hunger and satiation, a need to understand how different infant characteristics impact on feeding behaviour and a need to extricate the respective contributions of infant and maternal characteristics to perceptions of hunger and satiation. Further research is also recommended to differentiate between feeding driven by liking and that driven by hunger. PMID:26620159

  16. Factors associated with child hunger among food insecure households in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Ahshanul Haque

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hunger is associated with food insecurity at the household level and is considered as a global public health problem with long term adverse consequences on children’s health. This study aims to determine the factors associated with child hunger from a nationally representative sample in Bangladesh among food insecure households. Methods Data was derived from the Food Security and Nutritional Surveillance Project; 14,712 children aged 6–59 months belonging to food insecure households contributed to the analysis. Information on food security at the household level was collected for 30 days preceding the survey. Descriptive statistics served to illustrate the variables studied and multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the significant risk factors for child hunger. Results Overall 10% of the children were found to be hungry. After adjusting for seasonality, residence type and education level of household head, the variables - female headed households [OR: 1.87 (1.43–2.45; p < 0.001], severely food insecure households [OR: 10.5 (1.43–76.6; p < 0.05], households having women with no education [OR: 1.56 (1.27–1.92; p < 0.05], poorest asset quintile [OR: 1.50 (1.11–2.15; p < 0.05] and the amount of rice consumed per household per week [OR: 0.94 (0.92–0.96; p < 0.001] were found to be significantly and independently associated with child hunger. Conclusions Out of the potential risk factors examined, our study found significant and independent association of five variables with child hunger: sex of the household head, household food insecurity status, educational status of household women and asset index. Despite all sampled household being food insecure, degree of household food insecurity status appeared to be the strongest predictor of child hunger.

  17. Short-term consumption of sucralose, a nonnutritive sweetener, is similar to water with regard to select markers of hunger signaling and short-term glucose homeostasis in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew W; Bohan Brown, Michelle M; Onken, Kristine L; Beitz, Donald C

    2011-12-01

    Nonnutritive sweeteners have been used to lower the energy density of foods with the intention of affecting weight loss or weight maintenance. However, some epidemiological and animal evidence indicates an association between weight gain or insulin resistance and artificial sweetener consumption. In the present study, we hypothesized that the nonnutritive sweetener sucralose, a trichlorinated sucrose molecule, would elicit responses similar to water but different from sucrose and sucrose combined with sucralose on subjective and hormonal indications of hunger and short-term glucose homeostasis. Eight female volunteers (body mass index, 22.16 ± 1.71 kg/m(2); age, 21.75 ± 2.25 years) consumed sucrose and/or sucralose in water in a factorial design. Blood samples were taken at fasting and 30 and 60 minutes after treatment followed by a standardized breakfast across treatments, and blood samples were taken 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after breakfast. Plasma was analyzed for glucose, insulin, glucagon, triacylglycerols (TAG), and acylated ghrelin. Perceptions of hunger and other subjective measurements were assessed before each blood sample. No differences were detected in subjective responses, circulating triacylglycerol, or glucagon concentrations among treatments over time. Significant differences were observed in insulin, glucose, and acylated ghrelin concentrations over time only between sucrose-containing treatments and non-sucrose-containing treatments regardless of sucralose consumption. Therefore, sucralose may be a relatively inert nonnutritive sweetener with regard to hunger signaling and short-term glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hunger at Home: A Higher Education Service Learning Course of Appraisal and Action in Community Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01

    Service learning and civic engagement are playing an increasingly larger role in higher education. Unity College's Hunger at Home course could serve as a model for service learning in disciplines such as nutrition, sociology, and food and agriculture. The class worked with local partners to get a better understanding of hunger in the area, recent…

  19. Dietary fibre added to very low calorie diet reduces hunger and alleviates constipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Vrist, E; Quaade, F

    1990-01-01

    ), and dietary fibre did not improve this result. During VLCD with fibre hunger ratings were significantly lower than during VLCD without fibre (fibre effect, ANOVA; P less than 0.01). Bowel movements decreased from 1.9/day on habitual diet to 0.7/day on VLCD without fibre, but increased to 1.0/day by fibre...... on plasma glucose, cholesterol or triglyceride to that of VLCD. In conclusion, the supplement of dietary fibre to VLCD may improve compliance by reducing hunger and increasing the number of bowel movements, without impairment of absorption of divalent cations....

  20. Rated salience of internal and external cues in cases of self-reported hunger and illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barklamb, Kelly; Cassaday, Helen J

    2007-09-01

    An event contingent diary method compared the rated salience of ambient external and internal cues reported in association with instances of feeling hungry and ill, to test whether environmental and psychological factors might be differentially identified in conjunction with these states. In cases of hunger but not illness, external and internal events were equally salient cues. However, within the general category of external cues, for those feeling hungry, smells were rated more salient than sounds. Within the category of internal cues, in both cases of hunger and illness, cognitions were rated as more salient than moods. We consider Pavlovian conditioning as a mechanism for these effects.

  1. The association between anxiety, hunger, the enjoyment of eating foods and the satiety after food intake in individuals working a night shift compared with after taking a nocturnal sleep: A prospective and observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Cecília Silva, Ane Andrade; Lopes, Tássia do Vale Cardoso; Teixeira, Kely Raspante; Mendes, Jordane Amaral; de Souza Borba, Matheus Eduardo; Mota, Maria Carliana; Waterhouse, Jim; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida

    2017-01-01

    Subjective responses to meals are altered by shortened sleep time and anxiety state, but this effect has been poorly studied in shift workers - who act as a typical model concerning sleep restriction and present high levels of anxiety. The objective of this study was to compare subjective perceptions of meals and the levels of anxiety in the same subjects after working night shifts and after taking a nocturnal sleep, and to investigate associations between the responses to meals and the levels of anxiety under these two conditions. The study evaluated 34 male permanent night-shift workers who worked a 12-h shift followed by a 36-h rest period. Evaluations included: sleep pattern (on three days after working night shifts and after sleeping at night); hunger, enjoyment of eating foods and satiety after a meal (evaluated by visual analogue scales on three non-consecutive days after working night shifts and after nocturnal sleeps); and state of anxiety (on a day after working a night shift and a day after a nocturnal sleep). In the days following a night shift, workers had higher mean hunger scores before lunch and higher anxiety scores than when they had slept at night (p = 0.007 and 0.001, respectively). Linear regression indicated that, after a night shift, anxiety scores were negatively associated with hunger before breakfast (p = 0.04) and lunch (p = 0.03), the enjoyment of eating foods (p = 0.03) and the number of meals eaten during the course of the 24 h (p = 0.03). It is concluded that night shifts increase mean hunger and anxiety scores. Anxiety levels seem to interfere with the responses associated with food consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of adiposity, age, sex and maternal feeding practices on eating in the absence of hunger and caloric compensation in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, E; Issanchou, S; Chabanet, C; Boggio, V; Nicklaus, S

    2015-06-01

    Between the ages of 3 and 5 years, children may become less responsive to internal cues of satiation and more responsive to external cues, which may induce overeating and lead to weight gain. This study aimed to compare eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) and caloric compensation in 3- to 6-year-old children, and to relate the measurements with children's adiposity, age, sex and maternal feeding practices. According to a within-subject three sequential condition design, food intake in children (n=236) was measured at lunch during three sessions, once a week. The same meal (565 kcal) was offered at each session. The first session (control) was only composed of the meal. Thirty minutes before the second meal, children were offered an energy preload (137 kcal; caloric compensation condition). Ten minutes after the third meal, children were exposed to a post-meal snack (430 kcal; EAH condition). Individual caloric compensation score (COMPX) and EAH score were calculated. Maternal characteristics were measured by questionnaire. Child anthropometrics were measured by a medical doctor. On average, children compensated 52±4% of the energy preload and ate 24±1% of the energy provided by their meal in the absence of hunger. COMPX and EAH score were not correlated and did not vary with children's adiposity or age. EAH score was higher in boys (P=0.006). Maternal use of food as reward was associated with higher EAH score (P=0.01) but greater COMPX (P=0.005). As early as the age of 3 years children did not fully compensate the energy brought by a snack and ate in the absence of hunger. Parents should be advised to avoid these situations where overeating may occur and to limit the use of food as reward.

  3. Marketing actions can modulate neural representations of experienced pleasantness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plassmann, Hilke; O'Doherty, John; Shiv, Baba; Rangel, Antonio

    2008-01-22

    Despite the importance and pervasiveness of marketing, almost nothing is known about the neural mechanisms through which it affects decisions made by individuals. We propose that marketing actions, such as changes in the price of a product, can affect neural representations of experienced pleasantness. We tested this hypothesis by scanning human subjects using functional MRI while they tasted wines that, contrary to reality, they believed to be different and sold at different prices. Our results show that increasing the price of a wine increases subjective reports of flavor pleasantness as well as blood-oxygen-level-dependent activity in medial orbitofrontal cortex, an area that is widely thought to encode for experienced pleasantness during experiential tasks. The paper provides evidence for the ability of marketing actions to modulate neural correlates of experienced pleasantness and for the mechanisms through which the effect operates.

  4. Insects, Food, and Hunger: The Paradox of Plenty for U.S. Entomology, 1920-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, John H.

    1983-01-01

    Explores the relationship between invention/innovation in pest control practices, food supply, and hunger in the United States from 1920-1970. Includes discussions of the nature, development, and use of insecticides, control of specific pests, and public arguments over the safety of residues leading to search for nonchemical methods of control.…

  5. Adrenocortical regulation, eating in the absence of hunger and BMI in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, L A; Granger, D A; Susman, E J

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relations among adrenocortical regulation, eating in the absence of hunger, and body mass index (BMI) in children ages 5-9years (N=43). Saliva was collected before and after the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C), and was later assayed for cortisol. Area under the curve with respect to increase (AUCi) was used as a measure of changes in cortisol release from baseline to 60min post-TSST-C. Age- and sex-specific BMI scores were calculated from measured height and weight, and eating in the absence of hunger was assessed using weighed food intake during a behavioral procedure. We also included a measure of parents' report of child impulsivity, as well as family demographic information. Participants were stratified by age into younger (5-7years) and older (8-9years) groups. In younger children, parents' reports of child impulsivity were significantly and positively associated with BMI; cortisol AUCi was not associated with BMI or eating in the absence of hunger. In older children, however, greater stress-related cortisol AUCi was related to higher BMI scores and greater energy intake in the absence of hunger. The results suggest that cortisol AUCi in response to psychosocial stress may be linked to problems with energy balance in children, with some variation by age. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Hunger and Thirst: Issues in measurement and prediction of eating and drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    Associations between hunger and eating and between thirst and drinking are generally weak. This stems, in part, from limitations in the measurement of these sensations which generally rely on temporal, motivational, metabolic and/or self-reported descriptive indices. Each is critically reviewed. Also problematic is the fact that the deterministic depletion-repletion concept of ingestive behavior fails to account for influences of a multitude of contravening cognitive, social, sensory and logistical factors. Although hunger and thirst serve some parallel purposes, sharp distinctions are also present with health implications. Of particular note are the observations that thirst ratings are higher and more stable over the day compared to hunger and thirst may be more motivating to drink than hunger is to eat. Coupling these observations with evidence that beverages have limited satiety value, they pose particular challenges and opportunities. Beverages can facilitate the delivery of nutrients to those desiring or requiring them, but also to those where they are not desired or required. The benefits and risks are a function of their use rather than their inherent properties. PMID:20060847

  7. Dwelling in Possibilities: Our Students' Spectacular Hunger for Life Makes Them Radically Vulnerable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmundson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how today's student generation has a spectacular hunger for life and more life. They want to study, travel, make friends, make more friends, read everything (superfast), take in all the movies, listen to every hot band, keep up with everyone they've ever known. They live to multiply possibilities. The author…

  8. Responsible Grammar Rebels: Using the Hunger Games Trilogy to Teach the Intentional Sentence Fragment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Amber M.

    2016-01-01

    Building off of students' interest in popular apocalyptic/dystopian literature, this article explores how passages from Suzanne Collins's "The Hunger Games" trilogy aided in teaching students how to successfully rebel against traditional grammar rules, looking at fragments as intentional stylistic choices. Employing the values of…

  9. The Hunger Stones: a new source for more objective identification of historical droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleder, Libor

    2016-04-01

    Extreme droughts recorded recently more frequently in different parts of the world represent the most serious environmental problem. Our contribution identifies periods of hydrological drought. The extreme drought period in summer 2015 enabled the levelling of historical watermarks on the „Hunger Stone" (Hungerstein) in the Elbe in Czech town of Děčín. The comparison of the obtained levels of earlier palaeographic records with systematic measurements in the Děčín profile confirmed the hypothesis that the old watermarks represent the minimal water levels. Moreover, we present a review of so far known Hunger Stones in the Elbe River with their low-level watermarks. For identification of the drought period duration we used the oldest water level records from the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI) database archive: Magdeburg (since 1727), Dresden (since 1801), Prague (since 1825) and Decin (since 1851) time-series. We obtained more objective and complex information on all historical droughts between 1727 and 2015. The low water-marks on Hunger Stones give us a possibility for augmentation of systematic records and extended our knowledge's back to 1616. The Hunger Stones in the Elbe River with old watermarks are unique testimony for studying of hydrological extremes, and last but not least also of anthropogenic changes in the riverbed of the Elbe.

  10. Class on Fire: Using the Hunger Games Trilogy to Encourage Social Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Amber M.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores ways to utilize students' interest in fantasy literature to support critical literacy. Focusing on Suzanne Collins's The Hunger Games series (2008, 2009, 2010), the author addresses how elements of the trilogy relate to violent acts in our world, helping student understand that violence and brutality toward children is not…

  11. Effects of hunger state on food-related brain responses across the lifespan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charbonnier, L

    2016-01-01

    Thesis aims The studies conducted in this thesis were part of the Full4Health project. The aims of the Full4Health project were to assess the differences in the brain responses to food presentation and food choice and how these responses are modulated by hunger and gut signals in lean and obese

  12. The Games People Play: Information and Media Literacies in the Hunger Games Trilogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Don; Hollister, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Katniss Everdeen, the narrator and protagonist of Suzanne Collins' Hunger Games Trilogy, survives the grueling ordeal of forced participation in two games to the death through both physical prowess and mental agility. Both within and outside of the Games, she demonstrates information and media literacies. By becoming adept at interpreting and…

  13. School Lunch Quality Following Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine; Bergman, Ethan A.; Englund, Tim; Ogan, Dana; Barbee, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study investigates the effect of meal component changes by the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) on school lunch quality and consumption in elementary school students, grade 2-5 before and after the HHFKA guidelines were implemented in July 2012 using the Healthy Eating Index. Methods: In Spring 2012, before…

  14. Professional ethics in extreme circumstances: responsibilities of attending physicians and healthcare providers in hunger strikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmak, Nurbay

    2015-08-01

    Hunger strikes potentially present a serious challenge for attending physicians. Though rare, in certain cases, a conflict can occur between the obligations of beneficence and autonomy. On the one hand, physicians have a duty to preserve life, which entails intervening in a hunger strike before the hunger striker loses his life. On the other hand, physicians' duty to respect autonomy implies that attending physicians have to respect hunger strikers' decisions to refuse nutrition. International medical guidelines state that physicians should follow the strikers' unpressured advance directives. When physicians encounter an unconscious striker, in the absence of reliable advance directives, the guidelines advise physicians to make a decision on the basis of the patient's values, previously expressed wishes, and best interests. I argue that if there are no advance directives and the striker has already lost his competence, the physician has the responsibility to resuscitate the striker. Once the striker regains his decision-making capacity, he should be asked about his decision. If he is determined to continue fasting and refuses treatment, the physician has a moral obligation to respect this decisions and follow his advance directives.

  15. Individual Variation in Hunger, Energy Intake, and Ghrelin Responses to Acute Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, James A; Deighton, Kevin; Broom, David R; Wasse, Lucy K; Douglas, Jessica A; Burns, Stephen F; Cordery, Philip A; Petherick, Emily S; Batterham, Rachel L; Goltz, Fernanda R; Thackray, Alice E; Yates, Thomas; Stensel, David J

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to characterize the immediate and extended effect of acute exercise on hunger, energy intake, and circulating acylated ghrelin concentrations using a large data set of homogenous experimental trials and to describe the variation in responses between individuals. Data from 17 of our group's experimental crossover trials were aggregated yielding a total sample of 192 young, healthy males. In these studies, single bouts of moderate to high-intensity aerobic exercise (69% ± 5% V˙O2 peak; mean ± SD) were completed with detailed participant assessments occurring during and for several hours postexercise. Mean hunger ratings were determined during (n = 178) and after (n = 118) exercise from visual analog scales completed at 30-min intervals, whereas ad libitum energy intake was measured within the first hour after exercise (n = 60) and at multiple meals (n = 128) during the remainder of trials. Venous concentrations of acylated ghrelin were determined at strategic time points during (n = 118) and after (n = 89) exercise. At group level, exercise transiently suppressed hunger (P hunger and circulating acylated ghrelin concentrations with notable diversity between individuals. Care must be taken to distinguish true interindividual variation from random differences within normal limits.

  16. The relation of hedonic hunger and restrained eating to lateralized frontal activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, S R; Feig, E H; Kounios, J; Erickson, B; Berkowitz, S; Lowe, M R

    2016-09-01

    Asymmetrical alpha activation in the prefrontal cortex (frontal asymmetry) in electroencephalography (EEG) has been related to eating behavior. Prior studies linked dietary restraint with right frontal asymmetry [1] and disinhibition with left frontal asymmetry [2]. The current study simultaneously assessed restrained eating and hedonic hunger (drive for food reward in the absence of hunger) in relation to frontal asymmetry. Resting-state EEG and measures of restrained eating (Revised Restraint Scale; RRS) and hedonic hunger (Power of Food Scale; PFS) were assessed in 61 non-obese adults. Individually, hedonic hunger predicted left asymmetry. However, PFS and RRS were correlated (r=0.48, phunger exhibited left asymmetry irrespective of RRS scores; among those low in PFS, only those high in RRS showed right asymmetry. Results were consistent with literature linking avoidant behaviors (restraint) with right-frontal asymmetry and approach behaviors (binge eating) with left-frontal asymmetry. It appears that a strong drive toward palatable foods predominates at a neural level even when restraint is high. Findings suggest that lateralized frontal activity is an indicator of motivation both to consume and to avoid consuming highly palatable foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Over – Population and the Crises of Hunger and Poverty in Sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thesis of this paper, however, is that taken together, these social twin are sure channels to hunger in sub-saharan Africa. Our forebears procreated profusely in their attempt to have enough hands to work on the land. With the change in the general trend of children preferring education and other endeavours to farming, ...

  18. Putting a Face on Hunger: A Community-Academic Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Nancy; Canales, Mary K.; Moore, Emily; Gullickson, Melissa; Kaczmarski, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Food insecurity is a growing concern for Eau Claire County residents in Western Wisconsin. A community-academic partnership studied food insecurity through the voices of families struggling to access food and institutions that assist with hunger related problems. Data were collected through focus groups held in urban and rural parts of the county.…

  19. A larval hunger signal in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Duchateau, Marie-Jose

    2006-01-01

    Larvae of Bombus terrestris, a pollen-storing bumblebee, are dependent on progressive provisioning by workers. We test the hypothesis that larval cuticular chemicals can act as a hunger signal. We first show with a new classical conditioning experiment, using a Y-shaped tube, that workers can...

  20. Coordinating Hunger: The Evacuation of Children During the Dutch Food Crisis, 1945

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zwarte, I.

    2016-01-01

    The evacuation of Dutch children during the so-called ‘Hunger Winter’ of 1944/1945 is one of the canonized stories of the German occupation of the Netherlands. In the most common version of the story, a Dutch interdenominational organization managed to evacuate 40,000 to 50,000 starving children

  1. Japans and Chinas Economic Growth and Energy Hunger in Comparative and Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Globalisation ,” in The Political Economy Reader: Markets and Institutions, eds. Naazneen H. Barma and Steven K. Vogel (New York: Taylor and Francis...future growth and methods of feeding its hunger for resources and its impact on international relations. 10 II. INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS...East,” 52. 76 Ibid. 24 its impacts on the Japanese economy, Japan started its “resource

  2. Just a bite: Considerably smaller snack portions satisfy delayed hunger and craving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Shimizu, M.; Wansink, B.

    2013-01-01

    Could smaller snack portions be similarly effective in decreasing cravings or feelings of hunger as larger portions? To answer this, three common snack foods – chocolate, apple pie, potato chips – were given to 104 participants as either a small portion (x) or a substantially larger portion (5–10x).

  3. The Continuing Growth of Hunger, Homelessness, and Poverty in America's Cities: 1987. A 26-City Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Lilia M.; Waxman, Laura DeKoven

    This survey assesses the status of hunger, homelessness, and poverty in cities in the United States during 1987. The findings include the following: (1) the number of the homeless and the poor had increased and was expected to continue to increase; (2) the demand for emergency food assistance and emergency shelter assistance had increased and was…

  4. Who's Involved with Hunger: An Organization Guide for Education and Advocacy. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, Patricia L.; Lagoudakis, Nickola

    Organizations that concern themselves with the problems of hunger and food distribution are listed in this directory. Each listing includes a U.S. address, phone number, contact person, brief description, and publications. The first category, "Governmental Organizations," is further divided under the headings: United Nations System;…

  5. School Lunch before and after Implementation of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Ethan A.; Englund, Tim; Taylor, Katie Weigt; Watkins, Tracee; Schepman, Stephen; Rushing, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study compares the mean nutrients selected and consumed in National School Lunch Program (NSLP) meals before and after implementation of the new nutrition standards mandated by the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) in July 2012. Four elementary schools achieving Healthier US Schools Challenge awards serving…

  6. Professional Networks among Rural School Food Service Directors Implementing the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubker Cornish, Disa; Askelson, Natoshia M.; Golembiewski, Elizabeth H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study was designed to explore the professional networks of rural school food service directors (FSD), the resources they use for implementing the Healthy, Hunger-free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA), and their needs for information and support to continue to implement successfully. Methods: Rural FSD participated in an in-depth…

  7. Summary of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (by program)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    10 pages This document summarizes the major provisions of the Healthy, Hunger Free Kids Act of 2010 (Public Law 111-296). Specifically, it looks at the statute section by section in order to clarify the statute's impact on school meal programs around the country.

  8. Clinical tube weaning supported by hunger provocation in fully-tube-fed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartdorff, Caroline M; Kneepkens, C M Frank; Stok-Akerboom, Anita M; van Dijk-Lokkart, Elisabeth M; Engels, Michelle A H; Kindermann, Angelika

    2015-04-01

    Children with congenital malformations, mental retardation, and complex early medical history frequently have feeding problems. Although tube feeding is effective in providing the necessary energy and nutrients, it decreases the child's motivation to eat and may lead to oral aversion. In this study, we sought to confirm our previous results, showing that a multidisciplinary clinical hunger provocation program may lead to quick resumption of oral feeding. In a crossover study, 22 children of 9 to 24 months of age who were fully dependent on tube feeding were randomly assigned to one of two groups: group A, intervention group (2-week multidisciplinary clinical hunger provocation program); and group B, control group (4-week outpatient treatment by the same multidisciplinary team). Patients failing one treatment were reassigned to the other treatment group. Primary outcome measures were at least 75% orally fed at the conclusion of the intervention and fully orally fed and gaining weight 6 months after the intervention. In group A, 9/11 patients were successfully weaned from tube feeding (2 failures: 1 developed ulcerative colitis, 1 drop-out). In group B, only 1 patient was weaned successfully; 10/11 were reassigned to the clinical hunger provocation program, all being weaned successfully. Six months after the intervention, 1 patient had to resume tube feeding. In total, in the control group, 1/11 (9%) was weaned successfully as compared with 18/21 (86%) in the hunger provocation group (P hunger provocation is an effective short-term intervention for weaning young children from tube feeding.

  9. Acute effect of exercise intensity and duration on acylated ghrelin and hunger in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, David R; Miyashita, Masashi; Wasse, Lucy K; Pulsford, Richard; King, James A; Thackray, Alice E; Stensel, David J

    2017-03-01

    Acute exercise transiently suppresses the orexigenic gut hormone acylated ghrelin, but the extent to which exercise intensity and duration determine this response is not fully understood. The effects of manipulating exercise intensity and duration on acylated ghrelin concentrations and hunger were examined in two experiments. In experiment one, nine healthy males completed three, 4-h conditions (control, moderate-intensity running (MOD) and vigorous-intensity running (VIG)), with an energy expenditure of ~2.5 MJ induced in both MOD (55-min running at 52% peak oxygen uptake (V.O2peak)) and VIG (36-min running at 75% V.O2peak). In experiment two, nine healthy males completed three, 9-h conditions (control, 45-min running (EX45) and 90-min running (EX90)). Exercise was performed at 70% V.O2peak In both experiments, participants consumed standardised meals, and acylated ghrelin concentrations and hunger were quantified at predetermined intervals. In experiment one, delta acylated ghrelin concentrations were lower than control in MOD (ES = 0.44, P = 0.01) and VIG (ES = 0.98, P Hunger ratings were similar across the conditions (P = 0.35). In experiment two, delta acylated ghrelin concentrations were lower than control in EX45 (ES = 0.77, P Hunger ratings were lower than control in EX45 (ES = 0.20, P = 0.01) and EX90 (ES = 0.27, P = 0.001); EX45 and EX90 were similar (ES = 0.07, P = 0.34). Hunger and delta acylated ghrelin concentrations remained suppressed at 1.5 h in EX90 but not EX45. In conclusion, exercise intensity, and to a lesser extent duration, are determinants of the acylated ghrelin response to acute exercise. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  10. Functional MRI of Challenging Food Choices: Forced Choice between Equally Liked High- and Low-Calorie Foods in the Absence of Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Lisette; van der Laan, Laura N; Viergever, Max A; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    We are continuously exposed to food and during the day we make many food choices. These choices play an important role in the regulation of food intake and thereby in weight management. Therefore, it is important to obtain more insight into the mechanisms that underlie these choices. While several food choice functional MRI (fMRI) studies have been conducted, the effect of energy content on neural responses during food choice has, to our knowledge, not been investigated before. Our objective was to examine brain responses during food choices between equally liked high- and low-calorie foods in the absence of hunger. During a 10-min fMRI scan 19 normal weight volunteers performed a forced-choice task. Food pairs were matched on individual liking but differed in perceived and actual caloric content (high-low). Food choice compared with non-food choice elicited stronger unilateral activation in the left insula, superior temporal sulcus, posterior cingulate gyrus and (pre)cuneus. This suggests that the food stimuli were more salient despite subject's low motivation to eat. The right superior temporal sulcus (STS) was the only region that exhibited greater activation for high versus low calorie food choices between foods matched on liking. Together with previous studies, this suggests that STS activation during food evaluation and choice may reflect the food's biological relevance independent of food preference. This novel finding warrants further research into the effects of hunger state and weight status on STS, which may provide a marker of biological relevance.

  11. Functional MRI of Challenging Food Choices: Forced Choice between Equally Liked High- and Low-Calorie Foods in the Absence of Hunger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette Charbonnier

    Full Text Available We are continuously exposed to food and during the day we make many food choices. These choices play an important role in the regulation of food intake and thereby in weight management. Therefore, it is important to obtain more insight into the mechanisms that underlie these choices. While several food choice functional MRI (fMRI studies have been conducted, the effect of energy content on neural responses during food choice has, to our knowledge, not been investigated before. Our objective was to examine brain responses during food choices between equally liked high- and low-calorie foods in the absence of hunger. During a 10-min fMRI scan 19 normal weight volunteers performed a forced-choice task. Food pairs were matched on individual liking but differed in perceived and actual caloric content (high-low. Food choice compared with non-food choice elicited stronger unilateral activation in the left insula, superior temporal sulcus, posterior cingulate gyrus and (precuneus. This suggests that the food stimuli were more salient despite subject's low motivation to eat. The right superior temporal sulcus (STS was the only region that exhibited greater activation for high versus low calorie food choices between foods matched on liking. Together with previous studies, this suggests that STS activation during food evaluation and choice may reflect the food's biological relevance independent of food preference. This novel finding warrants further research into the effects of hunger state and weight status on STS, which may provide a marker of biological relevance.

  12. Brief communication: Sleep curtailment in healthy young men is associated with decreased leptin levels, elevated ghrelin levels, and increased hunger and appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Karine; Tasali, Esra; Penev, Plamen; Van Cauter, Eve

    2004-12-07

    Total sleep deprivation in rodents and in humans has been associated with hyperphagia. Over the past 40 years, self-reported sleep duration in the United States has decreased by almost 2 hours. To determine whether partial sleep curtailment, an increasingly prevalent behavior, alters appetite regulation. Randomized, 2-period, 2-condition crossover clinical study. Clinical Research Center, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. 12 healthy men (mean age [+/-SD], 22 +/- 2 years; mean body mass index [+/-SD], 23.6 +/- 2.0 kg/m2). Daytime profiles of plasma leptin and ghrelin levels and subjective ratings of hunger and appetite. 2 days of sleep restriction and 2 days of sleep extension under controlled conditions of caloric intake and physical activity. Sleep restriction was associated with average reductions in the anorexigenic hormone leptin (decrease, 18%; P = 0.04), elevations in the orexigenic factor ghrelin (increase, 28%; P sleep duration in young, healthy men is associated with decreased leptin levels, increased ghrelin levels, and increased hunger and appetite.

  13. Alterations of sensory perceptions in healthy elderly subjects during fasting and refeeding. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Catherine; Moreau, Karine; Brandolini, Marion; Livingstone, Barbara; Beaufrère, Bernard; Boirie, Yves

    2002-01-01

    Sensory perception losses may contribute to age-related malnutrition by affecting food selection and consumption. To determine the effects of a 36-hour fast followed by a 6-hour refeeding period on sensory perceptions in 7 healthy elderly subjects (65-80 years of age) and 6 healthy young subjects (18-35 years of age). Self-perceived hunger and olfactory ratings were recorded on visual analogue scales in response to three different classes of odorant stimuli (salt, sweet and sour). Odorant stimuli were administered three times during the study, twice during the fasting period (12 and 24 h fasted) and once at the end of the re-nutrition period. A significant difference was found between the two groups for the self-perceived hunger ratings in response to the sour stimuli. A significant difference was observed between the two groups for olfactory ratings as regards the salt and sour odorant stimuli. Among the metabolic changes associated with fasting and refeeding, blood glucose was significantly related (r(2) = 0.97, p = 0.001) to the perception of hunger in the control group subjects, but no such relationship was found for the elderly subjects (r(2) = 0.16, p = NS). (1) Self-perceived hunger and olfactory ratings are specifically affected in healthy elderly. (2) Nutritional status can modulate sensory perceptions in elderly and young during the transition from fasting to refeeding. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Women experiencing the intergenerationality of conjugal violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvânia Patrícia do Nascimento Paixão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the family relationship, in childhood and adolescence, of women who experience conjugal violence.Method: qualitative study. Interviews were held with 19 women, who were experiencing conjugal violence, and who were resident in a community in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (N. 42/2011.Results: the data was organized using the Discourse of the Collective Subject, identifying the summary central ideas: they witnessed violence between their parents; they suffered repercussions from the violence between their parents: they were angry about the mother's submission to her partner; and they reproduced the conjugal violence. The discourse showed that the women witnessed, in childhood and adolescence, violence between their parents, and were injured both physically and psychologically. As a result of the mother's submission, feelings of anger arose in the children. However, in the adult phase of their own lives, they noticed that their conjugal life resembled that of their parents, reproducing the violence.Conclusion: investment is necessary in strategies designed to break inter-generational violence, and the health professionals are important in this process, as it is a phenomenon with repercussions in health. Because they work in the Family Health Strategy, which focuses on the prevention of harm and illness, health promotion and interdepartmentality, the nurses are essential in the process of preventing and confronting this phenomenon.

  15. Women experiencing the intergenerationality of conjugal violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, Gilvânia Patrícia do Nascimento; Gomes, Nadirlene Pereira; Diniz, Normélia Maria Freire; Carvalho e Lira, Margaret Ollinda de Souza; Carvalho, Milca Ramaiane da Silva; da Silva, Rudval Souza

    2015-01-01

    to analyze the family relationship, in childhood and adolescence, of women who experience conjugal violence. qualitative study. Interviews were held with 19 women, who were experiencing conjugal violence, and who were resident in a community in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (N. 42/2011). the data was organized using the Discourse of the Collective Subject, identifying the summary central ideas: they witnessed violence between their parents; they suffered repercussions from the violence between their parents: they were angry about the mother's submission to her partner; and they reproduced the conjugal violence. The discourse showed that the women witnessed, in childhood and adolescence, violence between their parents, and were injured both physically and psychologically. As a result of the mother's submission, feelings of anger arose in the children. However, in the adult phase of their own lives, they noticed that their conjugal life resembled that of their parents, reproducing the violence. investment is necessary in strategies designed to break inter-generational violence, and the health professionals are important in this process, as it is a phenomenon with repercussions in health. Because they work in the Family Health Strategy, which focuses on the prevention of harm and illness, health promotion and interdepartmentality, the nurses are essential in the process of preventing and confronting this phenomenon.

  16. A single night of sleep deprivation increases ghrelin levels and feelings of hunger in normal‐weight healthy men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SCHMID, SEBASTIAN M; HALLSCHMID, MANFRED; JAUCH‐CHARA, KAMILA; BORN, JAN; SCHULTES, BERND

    2008-01-01

    .... Supporting this view, a reduction of sleep duration to 4 h for two consecutive nights has recently been shown to decrease circulating leptin levels and to increase ghrelin levels, as well as self‐reported hunger...

  17. Measuring food insecurity and hunger in the United States: development of a national benchmark measure and prevalence estimates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carlson, S J; Andrews, M S; Bickel, G W

    1999-01-01

    Since 1992, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) has led a collaborative effort to develop a comprehensive benchmark measure of the severity and prevalence of food insecurity and hunger in the United States...

  18. Food insecurity with hunger is associated with obesity among HIV-infected and at risk women in Bronx, NY

    OpenAIRE

    Weiser, Sheri; Sirotin, N; HOOVER, DR; Shi, Q; Anastos, K; Weiser, SD

    2014-01-01

    Background: Food insecurity, insufficient quality and quantity of nutritionally adequate food, affects millions of people in the United States (US) yearly, with over 18 million Americans reporting hunger. Food insecurity is associated with obesity in the g

  19. Experienced biology teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) on photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, Ari

    2017-05-01

    Teacher certification program raises a question of whether certified teachers really more competence than non-certified teachers. However, since the notion of teachers' competence is measure in terms of content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge instead of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK). Teacher' PCK as the essence of teachers' competence is somehow ignored. The study presented here analyses experienced biology teachers' PCK. Subjects are experienced biology teachers who teach at the formerly called Pioneered Standardized Schools (RSBI). They are purposively chosen since they are certified teachers who have received very intensive training organized by the education authorities (national, province and district) as well as by the schools. Therefore, this group of teachers can be considered as experienced and well-prepared for teaching science.

  20. Higher plasma motilin levels in obese patients decrease after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery and regulate hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloose, E; Janssen, P; Lannoo, M; Van der Schueren, B; Depoortere, I; Tack, J

    2016-07-01

    Motilin-induced phase III contractions of the migrating motor complex (MMC) signal hunger in healthy volunteers. The current aim was to study the role of motilin as a hunger-inducing factor in obese patients and to evaluate the effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on plasma motilin levels and hunger scores. Motilin and ghrelin plasma levels were determined during a complete MMC cycle in controls and obese patients selected for RYGB before, 6 months and 1 year after surgery. 20 min after the end of the second phase III, obese patients received an intravenous infusion of 40 mg erythromycin. Hunger was scored every 5 min. Hedonic hunger was assessed in obese patients with the Power of Food Scale questionnaire. Obesity caused a switch in the origin of phase III from antrum to duodenum. Obese patients had significantly higher motilin levels compared with controls during the MMC but tended to lack the motilin peak prior to phase III necessary to trigger hunger. Hunger scores during phase III were significantly lower in obese patients, but could be restored to control levels through the administration of a low dose of the motilin agonist, erythromycin. After RYGB surgery motilin, but not ghrelin, levels decreased in parallel with hedonic hunger scores. Motilin may be an important regulator involved in the pathogenesis of obesity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Prevalence and correlates of hunger among primary and secondary school children in Malawi: results from the 2009 Global School-based Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwambene, J B; Muula, A S; Leo, J C

    2013-06-01

    Education is important in improving economies and creating literate, self-reliant and healthy societies. However, hunger is a barrier to basic education in Malawi. Hunger is also associated with a number of health risk behaviours, such as bullying, suicide ideation and unhygienic behaviours that may jeopardize the future of children. There are, however, limited data on the prevalence and associated factors of hunger among school children in Malawi. The study used data from the Malawi Global School-Based Health Survey conducted in 2009 to estimate the prevalence of self-reported hunger within the last 30 days among primary and secondary school age group. It also assessed the association between self-reported hunger and some selected list of independent variables using frequency distribution, chi-squared test and logistic regression. A total of 2359 students were available for analysis. The overall self-reported prevalence of hunger within the last 30 days was 12.5% (18.9% (172) in the rural and 8.3% (115) in urban areas; and 11.9%(123) for male and 12.5(148) for female children). In the final analysis, geographical location, eating fruits, having been bullied, suicide ideation, and washing hands with soap were significantly associated with hunger. Hunger in both primary and secondary school children in Malawi is a major social problem. The design of school feeding programmes aimed to reduce hunger should incorporate the factors identified as associated with hunger.

  2. Hunger and Satiety Mechanisms and Their Potential Exploitation in the Regulation of Food Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Tehmina; Mercer, Julian G

    2016-03-01

    Effective strategies to combat recent rises in obesity levels are limited. The accumulation of excess body fat results when energy intake exceeds that expended. Energy balance is controlled by hypothalamic responses, but these can be overridden by hedonic/reward brain systems. This override, combined with unprecedented availability of cheap, energy-dense, palatable foods, may partly explain the increase in overweight and obesity. The complexity of the processes that regulate feeding behaviour has driven the need for further fundamental research. Full4Health is an EU-funded project conceived to advance our understanding of hunger and satiety mechanisms. Food intake has an impact on and is also affected by the gut-brain signalling which controls hunger and appetite. This review describes selected recent research from Full4Health and how new mechanistic findings could be exploited to adapt and control our physiological responses to food, potentially providing an alternative solution to addressing the global problems related to positive energy balance.

  3. Always gamble on an empty stomach: hunger is associated with advantageous decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Ridder

    Full Text Available Three experimental studies examined the counterintuitive hypothesis that hunger improves strategic decision making, arguing that people in a hot state are better able to make favorable decisions involving uncertain outcomes. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that participants with more hunger or greater appetite made more advantageous choices in the Iowa Gambling Task compared to sated participants or participants with a smaller appetite. Study 3 revealed that hungry participants were better able to appreciate future big rewards in a delay discounting task; and that, in spite of their perception of increased rewarding value of both food and monetary objects, hungry participants were not more inclined to take risks to get the object of their desire. Together, these studies for the first time provide evidence that hot states improve decision making under uncertain conditions, challenging the conventional conception of the detrimental role of impulsivity in decision making.

  4. Hunger strikers: ethical and legal dimensions of medical complicity in torture at Guantanamo Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Sarah M; Leaning, Jennifer; Greenough, P Gregg; Burkle, Frederick M

    2013-12-01

    Physicians and other licensed health professionals are involved in force-feeding prisoners on hunger strike at the US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay (GTMO), Cuba, the detention center established to hold individuals captured and suspected of being terrorists in the wake of September 11, 2001. The force-feeding of competent hunger strikers violates medical ethics and constitutes medical complicity in torture. Given the failure of civilian and military law to end the practice, the medical profession must exert policy and regulatory pressure to bring the policy and operations of the US Department of Defense into compliance with established ethical standards. Physicians, other health professionals, and organized medicine must appeal to civilian state oversight bodies and federal regulators of medical science to revoke the licenses of health professionals who have committed prisoner abuses at GTMO.

  5. Leptin deficiency due to lipid apheresis: a possible reason for ravenous hunger and weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, G C; Roob, J M; Bahadori, B; Wallner, S; Wascher, T C

    2000-02-01

    To investigate how extracorporal cholesterol lowering therapy affects circulating leptin levels in patients with ravenous hunger after treatment and permanent weight gain. A case report. 51 y old caucasian male patient with moderate chronic renal failure. Serum Leptin concentration (RIA, Linco Research Inc, St. Louis, MO, USA), total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood glucose levels, calorie intake by food records. During treatment total cholesterol was reduced by 50%. Serum Leptin levels showed a 42% reduction at the end of treatment, that by far exceeds the physiological diurnal variation. Calorie intake was significantly increased on days of treatment. We conclude that this artificial reduction in circulating leptin plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ravenous hunger and weight gain under extracorporal cholesterol lowering therapy in this case.

  6. Does Short-Term Hunger Increase Trust and Trustworthiness in a High Trust Society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantapuska, Elias; Freese, Riitta; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Hytönen, Kaisa

    2017-01-01

    We build on the social heuristics hypothesis, the literature on the glucose model of self-control, and recent challenges on these hypotheses to investigate whether individuals exhibit a change in degree of trust and reciprocation after consumption of a meal. We induce short-term manipulation of hunger followed by the trust game and a decision on whether to leave personal belongings in an unlocked and unsupervised room. Our results are inconclusive. While, we report hungry individuals trusting and reciprocating more than those who have just consumed a meal in a high trust society, we fail to reject the null with small number of observations (N = 101) and experimental sessions (N = 8). In addition, we find no evidence of short-term hunger having an impact on charitable giving or decisions in public good game.

  7. Daily Rhythms of Hunger and Satiety in Healthy Men during One Week of Sleep Restriction and Circadian Misalignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Charli; Zhou, Xuan; Matthews, Raymond W; Darwent, David; Roach, Gregory D

    2016-01-29

    The impact of sleep restriction on the endogenous circadian rhythms of hunger and satiety were examined in 28 healthy young men. Participants were scheduled to 2 × 24-h days of baseline followed by 8 × 28-h days of forced desynchrony during which sleep was either moderately restricted (equivalent to 6 h in bed/24 h; n = 14) or severely restricted (equivalent to 4 h in bed/24 h; n = 14). Self-reported hunger and satisfaction were assessed every 2.5 h during wake periods using visual analogue scales. Participants were served standardised meals and snacks at regular intervals and were not permitted to eat ad libitum. Core body temperature was continuously recorded with rectal thermistors to determine circadian phase. Both hunger and satiety exhibited a marked endogenous circadian rhythm. Hunger was highest, and satiety was lowest, in the biological evening (i.e., ~17:00-21:00 h) whereas hunger was lowest, and satiety was highest in the biological night (i.e., 01:00-05:00 h). The results are consistent with expectations based on previous reports and may explain in some part the decrease in appetite that is commonly reported by individuals who are required to work at night. Interestingly, the endogenous rhythms of hunger and satiety do not appear to be altered by severe--as compared to moderate--sleep restriction.

  8. Daily Rhythms of Hunger and Satiety in Healthy Men during One Week of Sleep Restriction and Circadian Misalignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charli Sargent

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of sleep restriction on the endogenous circadian rhythms of hunger and satiety were examined in 28 healthy young men. Participants were scheduled to 2 × 24-h days of baseline followed by 8 × 28-h days of forced desynchrony during which sleep was either moderately restricted (equivalent to 6 h in bed/24 h; n = 14 or severely restricted (equivalent to 4 h in bed/24 h; n = 14. Self-reported hunger and satisfaction were assessed every 2.5 h during wake periods using visual analogue scales. Participants were served standardised meals and snacks at regular intervals and were not permitted to eat ad libitum. Core body temperature was continuously recorded with rectal thermistors to determine circadian phase. Both hunger and satiety exhibited a marked endogenous circadian rhythm. Hunger was highest, and satiety was lowest, in the biological evening (i.e., ~17:00–21:00 h whereas hunger was lowest, and satiety was highest in the biological night (i.e., 01:00–05:00 h. The results are consistent with expectations based on previous reports and may explain in some part the decrease in appetite that is commonly reported by individuals who are required to work at night. Interestingly, the endogenous rhythms of hunger and satiety do not appear to be altered by severe—as compared to moderate—sleep restriction.

  9. Daily Rhythms of Hunger and Satiety in Healthy Men during One Week of Sleep Restriction and Circadian Misalignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Charli; Zhou, Xuan; Matthews, Raymond W.; Darwent, David; Roach, Gregory D.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of sleep restriction on the endogenous circadian rhythms of hunger and satiety were examined in 28 healthy young men. Participants were scheduled to 2 × 24-h days of baseline followed by 8 × 28-h days of forced desynchrony during which sleep was either moderately restricted (equivalent to 6 h in bed/24 h; n = 14) or severely restricted (equivalent to 4 h in bed/24 h; n = 14). Self-reported hunger and satisfaction were assessed every 2.5 h during wake periods using visual analogue scales. Participants were served standardised meals and snacks at regular intervals and were not permitted to eat ad libitum. Core body temperature was continuously recorded with rectal thermistors to determine circadian phase. Both hunger and satiety exhibited a marked endogenous circadian rhythm. Hunger was highest, and satiety was lowest, in the biological evening (i.e., ~17:00–21:00 h) whereas hunger was lowest, and satiety was highest in the biological night (i.e., 01:00–05:00 h). The results are consistent with expectations based on previous reports and may explain in some part the decrease in appetite that is commonly reported by individuals who are required to work at night. Interestingly, the endogenous rhythms of hunger and satiety do not appear to be altered by severe—as compared to moderate—sleep restriction. PMID:26840322

  10. [Hunger and satiety factors in the regulation of pleasure associated with feeding behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2016-01-01

    Feeding is an instinctive behavior accompanied by rewarding feeling of pleasure during obtaining and ingesting food, corresponding to the preparatory and consummatory phases of motivated behavior, respectively. Perception of this emotional state together with alternating feelings of hunger and satiety drives the feeding behavior. Because alterations of feeding behavior including either overeating or anorexia may lead to obesity and cachexia, respectively, understanding the neurochemical mechanisms of regulation of feeding pleasure may help to develop new therapies of these diseases. The dopamine (DA) system of the mesolimbic projections plays a key role in behavioral reward in general and is also involved in regulating feeding-associated pleasure in the forebrain including the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). It suggests that this DA system can be selectively activated by factors specific to different types of motivated behavior including hunger- and satiety- related hormones. Indeed, central administrations of either orexigenic ghrelin or anorexigenic α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) increase DA release in the NAc. However, DA has also been shown to inhibit food intake when injected into the LHA, historically known as a « hunger center », indicating DA functional involvement in regulation of both appetite and feeding pleasure. Although both NAc and LHA contain neurons expressing melanocortin receptors, only the LHA receives the α-MSH containing nerve terminals from the α-MSH producing neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, the main relay of the peripheral hunger and satiety signals to the brain. A recent study showed that α-MSH in the LHA enhances satiety and inhibits feeding pleasure while potently stimulating DA release in this area during both preparatory and consummatory phases of feeding. It suggests that altered signaling by α-MSH to the DA system in the LHA may be involved in the pathophysiology of

  11. Hunger and overweight in Canadian school-aged children: A propensity score matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentenac, Mariane; Gariepy, Geneviève; McKinnon, Britt; Elgar, Frank J

    2016-12-27

    The last decade saw a higher prevalence of overweight reported among food-insecure families in Canada, but no robust evidence exists on the covariate-adjusted association in children. In this study, we examined the association between hunger and overweight in Canadian students, using a propensity score matching analysis to reduce confounding. This research used data from the 2009/2010 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study on a representative national sample of students in Grades 6 through 10. Students self-reported their height and weight and how often they have gone to school or to bed hungry due to a lack of food at home. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was conducted on the total sample (N = 17,694) and on the sample matched on propensity scores (n = 7,788). The overall prevalence of overweight among students was 20.2% with a significant difference between students who reported hunger (24.0%; 95% CI: 22.1-26.0) and students who did not (19.0%; 95% CI: 17.9-20.2). Analysis on the matched sample revealed a significant association between hunger and overweight in children (adjusted odds ratio: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.12-1.50). A substantial number of Canadian students have reported being hungry because of a lack of food at home. These students are at increased risk of overweight, regardless of their social class. Child hunger and household food insecurity exist in Canada and constitute a call for policy action at a national level.

  12. The Global Hidden Hunger Indices and Maps: An Advocacy Tool for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthayya, Sumithra; Rah, Jee Hyun; Sugimoto, Jonathan D.; Roos, Franz F.; Kraemer, Klaus; Black, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The unified global efforts to mitigate the high burden of vitamin and mineral deficiency, known as hidden hunger, in populations around the world are crucial to the achievement of most of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). We developed indices and maps of global hidden hunger to help prioritize program assistance, and to serve as an evidence-based global advocacy tool. Two types of hidden hunger indices and maps were created based on i) national prevalence data on stunting, anemia due to iron deficiency, and low serum retinol levels among preschool-aged children in 149 countries; and ii) estimates of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) attributed to micronutrient deficiencies in 136 countries. A number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as India and Afghanistan, had an alarmingly high level of hidden hunger, with stunting, iron deficiency anemia, and vitamin A deficiency all being highly prevalent. The total DALY rates per 100,000 population, attributed to micronutrient deficiencies, were generally the highest in sub-Saharan African countries. In 36 countries, home to 90% of the world’s stunted children, deficiencies of micronutrients were responsible for 1.5-12% of the total DALYs. The pattern and magnitude of iodine deficiency did not conform to that of other micronutrients. The greatest proportions of children with iodine deficiency were in the Eastern Mediterranean (46.6%), European (44.2%), and African (40.4%) regions. The current indices and maps provide crucial data to optimize the prioritization of program assistance addressing global multiple micronutrient deficiencies. Moreover, the indices and maps serve as a useful advocacy tool in the call for increased commitments to scale up effective nutrition interventions. PMID:23776712

  13. The Hunger Games Viral Marketing Campaign : A Study of Viral Marketing and Fan Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Ilar, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    This essay examines Lionsgate’s viral marketing campaign for The Hunger Games (Gary Ross, 2012) and the marketing teams’ use of new marketing techniques and the online fan base. The essay also asks the question to what extent the fans’ participation in Lionsgate’s marketing campaign can be called fan labor. The study is based on a film industrial perspective and academic literature that deals with film marketing, the film industry, fandom and digital labor. The material used for the analysis ...

  14. Maternal perceptions of infant hunger, satiety, and pressuring feeding styles in an urban Latina WIC population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Rachel S; Fierman, Arthur H; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Chiasson, Mary Ann; Rosenberg, Terry J; Scheinmann, Roberta; Messito, Mary Jo

    2010-01-01

    Controlling feeding styles in which parents regulate feeding without responding to child cues have been associated with poor self-regulation of feeding and increased weight, but have not been well studied in infancy. We sought to assess maternal perception of infant feeding cues and pressuring feeding styles in an urban Latina Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) population. Secondary analysis of a larger study of Latina mothers participating in New York City WIC programs. We examined maternal perception of infant feeding cues and pressuring feeding style. Using logistic regression, we assessed: 1) characteristics associated with perceptions of cues and pressuring to feed, including sociodemographics, breastfeeding, and maternal body mass index; and 2) whether perceptions of cues were associated with pressuring feeding style. We surveyed 368 mothers (84% response rate). Most mothers perceived that babies sense their own satiety. However, 72% believed that infant crying must indicate hunger. Fifty-three percent believed that mothers should always make babies finish the bottle ("pressure to feed"). Pressuring feeding style was associated with foreign maternal country of birth (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66-5.60) and less than a high school education (AOR 1.81; 95% CI, 1.12-2.91). Two perceptions of feeding cues were related to pressuring feeding style: belief that infant crying must indicate hunger (AOR 2.59; 95% CI, 1.52-4.42) and infant hand sucking implies hunger (AOR 1.83; 95% CI, 1.10-3.03). Maternal characteristics influence perception of infant hunger and satiety. Interpretation of feeding cues is associated with pressuring feeding style. Improving responsiveness to infant cues should be a component of early childhood obesity prevention. 2010 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Unexpected effect of the appetite-stimulating hormone ghrelin on ENaC: hunger for sodium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, George

    2013-09-01

    The orexigenic hormone ghrelin acts like a hunger signal, released by the stomach in response to nutritional status. However, ghrelin and its receptor in the kidney may play other biological roles. Kemp and colleagues identify that ghrelin stimulates renal Na+ absorption through cAMP-dependent trafficking of ENaC in the cortical collecting duct. While ghrelin seems to be a physiological regulator of ENaC, future studies are necessary to clarify its physiological and pathological roles in sodium homeostasis.

  16. Stress and hunger alter the anorectic efficacy of fluoxetine in binge-eating rats with a history of caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placidi, Rachel J; Chandler, Paula C; Oswald, Kimberly D; Maldonado, Christine; Wauford, Pamela K; Boggiano, Mary M

    2004-11-01

    We examined the effect of fluoxetine to suppress binge eating in rats with a history of caloric restriction (CR) and the extent to which this effect was altered by stress and hunger. To detect heightened sensitivity to fluoxetine, young female rats were used to determine a subthreshold anorectic dose (2 mg/kg, intraperitonally). Another group of rats was either fed ad libitum or given multiple CR (to 90% body weight) and refeeding-to-satiety cycles. One half of the rats were then either spared or subjected to foot shock stress before fluoxetine treatment. A history of CR alone produced bingelike eating on palatable food (p stress did not affect intake, it rendered CR rats hypersensitive to the satiety effect of fluoxetine. The feeding-suppression was mainly for chow (p < .05) and the effect was abolished if the rats were in negative energy balance. Results support the utility of this animal model to elucidate serotonergic changes linking dieting to binge eating. The diverse effects of fluoxetine on the type of food, and in hungry versus sated rats, suggest alternate brain mechanisms should be concomitantly targeted for improved treatment of binge eating disorders.

  17. TRANSLATION AND THE FORMATION OF CULTURAL IDENTITIES: A BRAZILIAN CONTRIBUTION TO THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS - ERADICATE HUNGER AND EXTREME POVERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Noce

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the influence of the translation in the formation of cultural identities, following a text of Lawrence Venuti, in which he explains the process of translation and its effects, the representation of foreign cultures and the creation of domestic subjects, and argues on the ethics of translation under the ethnocentric perspective. Based on the teachings of Venuti, this paper presents the example of the influence of some Brazilian texts in international terminology referring to the first of the eight Millennium Development Goals - “eradicate hunger and extreme poverty.” The emphasis of the article is mainly on the influence that translation can have in collective identities, when it is authorized and supported by institutions. Moreover, it ascertains, under a contrastive perspective to the Venuti’s text, that in the Presidency of the Federative Republic of Brazil the translator does not choose the texts to be translated, and translations published by that institution do not mention their authorship.

  18. Hunger games: fluctuations in blood glucose levels influence support for social welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarøe, Lene; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2013-12-01

    Social-welfare policies are a modern instantiation of a phenomenon that has pervaded human evolutionary history: resource sharing. Ancestrally, food was a key shared resource in situations of temporary hunger. If evolved human psychology continues to shape how individuals think about current, evolutionarily novel conditions, this invites the prediction that attitudes regarding welfare politics are influenced by short-term fluctuations in hunger. Using blood glucose levels as a physiological indicator of hunger, we tested this prediction in a study in which participants were randomly assigned to conditions in which they consumed soft drinks containing either carbohydrates or an artificial sweetener. Analyses showed that participants with experimentally induced low blood glucose levels expressed stronger support for social welfare. Using an incentivized measure of actual sharing behavior (the dictator game), we further demonstrated that this increased support for social welfare does not translate into genuinely increased sharing motivations. Rather, we suggest that it is "cheap talk" aimed at increasing the sharing efforts of other individuals.

  19. Hunger and associated harms among injection drug users in an urban Canadian setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anema Aranka

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food insufficiency is often associated with health risks and adverse outcomes among marginalized populations. However, little is known about correlates of food insufficiency among injection drug users (IDU. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to examine the prevalence and correlates of self-reported hunger in a large cohort of IDU in Vancouver, Canada. Food insufficiency was defined as reporting "I am hungry, but don't eat because I can't afford enough food". Logistic regression was used to determine independent socio-demographic and drug-use characteristics associated with food insufficiency. Results Among 1,053 participants, 681 (64.7% reported being hungry and unable to afford enough food. Self-reported hunger was independently associated with: unstable housing (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20 - 2.36, spending ≥ $50/day on drugs (AOR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.06 - 1.91, and symptoms of depression (AOR: 3.32, 95% CI: 2.45 - 4.48. Conclusion These findings suggest that IDU in this setting would likely benefit from interventions that work to improve access to food and social support services, including addiction treatment programs which may reduce the adverse effect of ongoing drug use on hunger.

  20. Consuming pork proteins at breakfast reduces the feeling of hunger before lunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinert, Lene; Kehlet, Ursula; Aaslyng, Margit Dall

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of pork proteins consumed at breakfast on the subsequent feeling of hunger until the evening meal. The study involved 136 students at a local boarding school, which meant that the study could be carried out in the test persons' normal environment. All students consumed the control breakfast on one of the two test days, and then half the students consumed the medium-protein breakfast and the other half the high-protein breakfast on the other test day, thereby acting as his/her own control. It was clearly shown that consuming a medium- or high-protein breakfast decreased the hunger ratings until lunch (4 h) compared with a control breakfast. A dose-response relationship related to the amount of proteins consumed at breakfast was observed, the high-protein breakfast leading to feelings of being less hungry compared with consuming a medium-protein breakfast. However, there was no direct link between hunger ratings and actual energy intake at lunch. The self-reported snacking during the whole day showed no clear relationship with the type of breakfast consumed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Experienced General Music Teachers' Instructional Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Daniel C.; Matthews, Wendy K.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore experienced general music teachers' decision-making processes. Participants included seven experienced, American general music teachers who contributed their views during two phases of data collection: (1) responses to three classroom scenarios; and (2) in-depth, semi-structured, follow-up…

  2. Experienced discrimination amongst European old citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.; van Santvoort, Marc M.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the experienced age discrimination of old European citizens and the factors related to this discrimination. Differences in experienced discrimination between old citizens of different European countries are explored. Data from the 2008 ESS survey are used. Old age is defined as

  3. Hunger and Food Insecurity Among Patients in an Urban Emergency Departmnent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roma Patel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To determine the prevalence of hunger and food insecurity among patients presenting to the emergency department (ED over 3 consecutive years.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of patients presenting to the ED at Hennepin County Medical Center, and urban, Level I trauma center. We prospectively screened adult (age >18 patients presenting to the ED during randomized daily 8-hour periods between June 1 and August 31, 2007 and 2008, and randomized every-other-day periods between June 1 and August 31, 2009. We excluded patients with high acuity complaints, altered mental status, prisoners, those who did not speak Spanish or English, or those considered to be vulnerable. Consenting participants completed a brief demographic survey. The main outcome measures included age, gender, ethnicity, employment, housing status, insurance, access to food, and having to make choices between buying food and buying medicine. All responses were self reported.Results: 26,211 patients presented during the study; 15,732 (60% were eligible, 8,044 (51% were enrolled, and 7,852 (98% were included in the analysis. The rate of patients reporting hunger significantly increased over the 3-year period [20.3% in 2007, 27.8% in 2008, and 38.3% in 2009 (P < 0.001]. The rate of patients reporting ever having to choose between food and medicine also increased [20.0% in 2007, 18.5% in 2008, and 22.6% in 2009 (P = 0.006].Conclusion: A significant proportion of our ED patients experience food insecurity and hunger. Hunger and food insecurity have become more prevalent among patients seen in this urban county ED over the past 3 years. Emergency physicians should be aware of the increasing number of patients who must choose between obtaining food and their prescribed medications, and should consider the contribution of hunger and food insecurity to the development of health conditions for which ED treatment is sought. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(3:253–262.

  4. Supplementation by thylakoids to a high carbohydrate meal decreases feelings of hunger, elevates CCK levels and prevents postprandial hypoglycaemia in overweight women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Montelius, Caroline; Östbring, Karolina

    2013-01-01

    Thylakoids are chlorophyll-containing membranes in chloroplasts that have been isolated from green leaves. It has been previously shown that thylakoids supplemented with a high-fat meal can affect cholecystokinin (CCK), ghrelin, insulin and blood lipids in humans, and can act to suppress food...... intake and prevent body weight gain in rodents. This study investigates the addition of thylakoids to a high carbohydrate meal and its effects upon hunger motivation and fullness, and the levels of glucose, insulin, CCK, ghrelin and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in overweight women. Twenty...... moderately overweight female subjects received test meals on three different occasions; two thylakoid enriched and one control, separated by 1 week. The test meals consisted of a high carbohydrate Swedish breakfast, with or without addition of thylakoids. Blood samples and VAS-questionnaires were evaluated...

  5. The role of rumination in the occurrence of positive effects of experienced traumatic events

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Ogińska-Bulik

    2016-01-01

    Background Cognitive processes play a significant role in both the negative and positive consequences of traumatic experiences. The aim of this research was to investigate the role of rumination in the occurrence of positive effects, in the form of posttraumatic growth, of experienced traumatic events. Participants and procedure Data were collected from 227 subjects who had experienced traumatic events, including cancer patients (31.30%), women who had experienced domestic...

  6. Hunger modulates behavioral disinhibition and attention allocation to food-associated cues in normal-weight controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, Sabine; Grosshans, Martin; Herpertz, Stephan; Kiefer, Falk; Herpertz, Sabine C

    2013-12-01

    Overeating, weight gain and obesity are considered as a major health problem in Western societies. At present, an impairment of response inhibition and a biased salience attribution to food-associated stimuli are considered as important factors associated with weight gain. However, recent findings suggest that the association between an impaired response inhibition and salience attribution and weight gain might be modulated by other factors. Thus, hunger might cause food-associated cues to be perceived as more salient and rewarding and might be associated with an impairment of response inhibition. However, at present, little is known how hunger interacts with these processes. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether hunger modulates response inhibition and attention allocation towards food-associated stimuli in normal-weight controls. A go-/nogo task with food-associated and control words and a visual dot-probe task with food-associated and control pictures were administered to 48 normal-weight participants (mean age 24.5 years, range 19-40; mean BMI 21.6, range 18.5-25.4). Hunger was assessed twofold using a self-reported measure of hunger and a measurement of the blood glucose level. Our results indicated that self-reported hunger affected behavioral response inhibition in the go-/nogo task. Thus, hungry participants committed significantly more commission errors when food-associated stimuli served as distractors compared to when control stimuli were the distractors. This effect was not observed in sated participants. In addition, we found that self-reported hunger was associated with a lower number of omission errors in response to food-associated stimuli indicating a higher salience of these stimuli. Low blood glucose level was not associated with an impairment of response inhibition. However, our results indicated that the blood glucose level was associated with an attentional bias towards food-associated cues in the visual dot probe task

  7. Expected usability is not a valid indicator of experienced usability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meinald T. Thielsch

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Usability is a core construct of website evaluation and inherently defined as interactive. Yet, when analysing first impressions of websites, expected usability, i.e., before use, is of interest. Here we investigate to what extend ratings of expected usability are related to (a experienced usability, i.e., ratings after use, and (b objective usability measures, i.e., task performance. Furthermore, we try to elucidate how ratings of expected usability are correlated to aesthetic judgments. In an experiment, 57 participants submitted expected usability ratings after the presentation of website screenshots in three viewing-time conditions (50, 500, and 10,000 ms and after an interactive task (experienced usability. Additionally, objective usability measures (task completion and duration and subjective aesthetics evaluations were recorded for each website. The results at both the group and individual level show that expected usability ratings are not significantly related either to experienced usability or objective usability measures. Instead, they are highly correlated with aesthetics ratings. Taken together, our results highlight the need for interaction in empirical website usability testing, even when exploring very early usability impressions. In our study, user ratings of expected usability were no valid proxy neither for objective usability nor for experienced website usability.

  8. Social Networks as a Coping Strategy for Food Insecurity and Hunger for Young Aboriginal and Canadian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benita Y. Tam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional foods and food sharing are important components of Aboriginal culture, helping to create, maintain, and reinforce social bonds. However, limitations in food access and availability may have contributed to food insecurity among Aboriginal people. The present article takes a closer examination of coping strategies among food insecure households in urban and rural settings in Canada. This includes a comparative analysis of the role of social networks, institutional resources, and diet modifications as strategies to compensate for parent-reported child hunger using national sources of data including the Aboriginal Children’s Survey and the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth. Descriptive statistical analyses revealed that a majority of food insecure urban and rural Inuit, Métis, and off-reserve First Nations children and rural Canadian children coped with hunger through social support, while a majority of urban food insecure Canadian children coped with hunger through a reduction in food consumption. Seeking institutional assistance was not a common means of dealing with child hunger, though there were significant urban-rural differences. Food sharing practices, in particular, may be a sustainable reported mechanism for coping with hunger as such practices tend to be rooted in cultural and social customs among Aboriginal and rural populations.

  9. Do drives drive the train of thought?-Effects of hunger and sexual arousal on mind-wandering behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Jan; Nied, Laura

    2017-10-01

    Physiological needs that are currently unfulfilled are known to affect human cognition and behavior. The present study investigates whether and how the temporary activation of two primary physiological needs, namely hunger and sexual arousal, influence both the frequency and the contents of mind-wandering episodes. To induce hunger, one group of participants fasted for a minimum of five hours whereas another group of participants was exposed to audio material with explicit sexual content to provoke sexual arousal. Both groups as well as an additional control group, which had not received hunger instructions and had not been exposed to arousing material of any kind beforehand, performed a reading task during which mind wandering was assessed using a standard experience-sampling method. Results showed that acute hunger but not elevated sexual arousal renders the occurrence of mind-wandering episodes more likely. Induction of both hunger and sexual arousal rendered the occurrence of need-related off-task thoughts more likely and changed time orientations of mind wandering. The present findings are well in line with the assumption that unfulfilled needs regularly achieve cognitive priority and extend the cognitive-priority idea to self-generated thoughts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to very low calorie diets (VLCDs) and reduction in body weight (ID 1410), reduction in the sense of hunger (ID 1411), reduction in body fat mass while maintaining lean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to very low calorie diets (VLCDs) and reduction in body weight, reduction in the sense of hunger, reduction in body fat mass while maintaining lean body mass, reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses, and maintenance of normal blood lipid profile. The scientific substantiation...... is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The diet that is the subject of the claims is "very low calorie diet (VLCD) program". The Panel considers...... that whereas the diet that is the subject of the claim, very low calorie diet, is sufficiently characterised in relation to the following claimed effects: reduction in body weight (ID 1410), reduction in the sense of hunger (ID 1411), and reduction in body fat mass while maintaining lean body mass (ID 1412...

  11. Adrenocortical Regulation, Eating in the Absence of Hunger and BMI in Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, L. A.; Granger, D.A.; Susman, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relations among adrenocortical regulation, eating in the absence of hunger, and body mass index (BMI) in children ages 5 to 9 years (N = 43). Saliva was collected before and after the Trier Social Stress Test for children (TSST-C), and was later assayed for cortisol. Area under the curve with respect to increase (AUCi) was used as a measure of changes in cortisol release from baseline to 60 minutes post-TSST-C. Age- and sex-specific BMI scores were cal...

  12. Do in-car devices affect experienced users' driving performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allert S. Knapper

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Distracted driving is considered to be an important factor in road safety. To investigate how experienced user's driving behaviour is affected by in-vehicle technology, a fixed-base driving simulator was used. 20 participants drove twice in a rich simulated traffic environment while performing secondary, i.e. mobile phone and navigation system tasks. The results show that mean speed was lower in all experimental conditions, compared to baseline driving, while subjective effort increased. Lateral performance deteriorated only during visual–manual tasks, i.e. texting and destination entry, in which the participants glanced off the forward road for a substantial amount of time. Being experienced in manipulating in-car devices does not solve the problem of dual tasking when the primary task is a complex task like driving a moving vehicle. The results and discussion may shed some light on the current debate regarding phone use hazards.

  13. Consumption of thylakoid-rich spinach extract reduces hunger, increases satiety and reduces cravings for palatable food in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Landin-Olsson, Mona; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2015-08-01

    Green-plant membranes, thylakoids, have previously been found to increase postprandial release of the satiety hormone GLP-1, implicated in reward signaling. The purpose of this study was to investigate how treatment with a single dose of thylakoids before breakfast affects homeostatic as well as hedonic hunger, measured as wanting and liking for palatable food (VAS). We also examined whether treatment effects were correlated to scores for eating behavior. Compared to placebo, intake of thylakoids significantly reduced hunger (21% reduction, p hunger, associated with overeating and obesity. Individuals scoring higher for emotional eating behavior may have enhanced treatment effect on cravings for palatable food. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Hunger in the absence of caloric restriction improves cognition and attenuates Alzheimer's disease pathology in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J Dhurandhar

    Full Text Available It has been shown that caloric restriction (CR delays aging and possibly delays the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD. We conjecture that the mechanism may involve interoceptive cues, rather than reduced energy intake per se. We determined that hunger alone, induced by a ghrelin agonist, reduces AD pathology and improves cognition in the APP-SwDI mouse model of AD. Long-term treatment with a ghrelin agonist was sufficient to improve the performance in the water maze. The treatment also reduced levels of amyloid beta (Aβ and inflammation (microglial activation at 6 months of age compared to the control group, similar to the effect of CR. Thus, a hunger-inducing drug attenuates AD pathology, in the absence of CR, and the neuroendocrine aspects of hunger also prevent age-related cognitive decline.

  15. Motherhood and the "Madness of Hunger": "...Want Almal Vra vir My vir 'n Stukkie Brood" ("...Because Everyone Asks Me for a Little Piece of Bread").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Lou-Marié; Lourens, Marleen

    2016-03-01

    It is widely assumed that the social and economic conditions of poverty can be linked to common mental disorders in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Despite the considerable increase in quantitative studies investigating the link between poverty and mental health, the nature of the connection between poverty and emotional well-being/distress is still not fully comprehended. In this qualitative study, exploring how one group of Coloured South African women, diagnosed with depression and residing in a semi-rural low-income South African community, subjectively understand and experience their emotional distress, data was collected by means of in-depth semi-structured interviews and social constructionist grounded theory was used to analyse the data. We will attempt to show (1) that the depressed women in this group of respondents frequently refer to the emotional distress caused by hungry children and (2) that the emotional distress described by the respondents included emotions typically associated with depression (such as sadness, hopelessness and guilt), but also included emotions not necessarily associated with depression (such as anxiety, anger and anomie). In our attempt to understand (both psychologically and politically) the complex emotional response of mothers to their children's hunger, we argue that powerful gender and neo-liberal discourses within which mothers are interpellated to care for children, and more specifically, to make sure that children are not hungry, mean that the mothers of hungry children felt that they were not fulfilling their responsibilities and thus felt guilty and ashamed. This shame seemed, in turn, to lead to anger and/or anomie, informing acting out behaviours ranging from verbal and physical aggression to passive withdrawal. A vicious cycle of hunger, sadness and anxiety, shame, anger and anomie, aggression and withdrawal, negative judgement, and more shame, are thus maintained. As such, the unbearable rebukes of hungry

  16. Reduced leptin level is independently of fat mass changes and hunger scores from high-intensity intermittent plus strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Daniela S; Gonçalves Panissa, Valéria L; Mello Antunes, Barbara; Poleto de Oliveira, Flaviane; Bernardes Malta, Raoni; Santos Caldeira, Renan; Zapaterra Campos, Eduardo; Duarte Pimentel, Gustavo; Franchini, Emerson; Santos Lira, Fábio

    2017-05-09

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) plus strength training on body composition, hormone related to energetic balance (leptin), and hunger scores in physically active non-obese men. Sixteen men were allocated in two different groups, training group (n=10) performed a combined HIIT (5 km, 1 min of effort interspersed by 1 min of rest in passive recovery) followed by strength exercise session (three sets, with load of 8-12 repetition maximum) twice a week, during 8 weeks, while control group (n=6) did not suffer any intervention. Hunger scores, leptin concentrations and body composition were assessed. Body composition, fasting leptin and hunger score were compared through two-way analysis (group and period) with repeated measures in the second factor while leptin and hunger scores in exercise session pre- and post-8weeks through two-way analysis (period and time of measurement) with repeated measures in the second factor. The fasting leptin decreased pre- to post-8week in training group (7.7 ± 4.9 to 2.9 ± 2.1 ng/ml; p = 0.012). For leptin response to exercise session there was main effect of training period, with higher values pre- (6.5 ± 3.9 ng/ml) than post-training (2.6 ± 2.1 ng/ml; p < 0.001). For hunger scores there was effect of time of measurement (p <0.001), decreasing after breakfast and increasing over the experiment. Combined HIIT plus strength training were able to promote alterations in a hormone related to energy balance independent of body composition and hunger index alterations in physically active non-obese men.

  17. The Role of Food Assistance Programs and Employment Circumstances in Helping Households with Children Avoid Hunger. Discussion Paper No. 1280-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabbani, Nader S.; Yazbeck, Myra

    2004-01-01

    Households with children in the United States are more likely to experience food insecurity than households with no children. However, households with children are less likely to experience hunger. This finding suggests that food insecure households with children may be drawing on personal and/or public resources to help them avoid hunger. In this…

  18. Basic Education in Developing Countries. Hearing before the International Task Force of the Select Committee on Hunger. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Hunger.

    The responsibility of the U.S. House of Representatives Task Force on Hunger is to investigate the causes and dimensions of world hunger and to develop legislative recommendations addressing the issues raised. At this hearing, the issue discussed was of basic education as a crucial link in expanding opportunities for poor and hungry people to…

  19. Delayed discounting and hedonic hunger in the prediction of lab-based eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Alice V; Howard, Janna; Lowe, Michael R

    2015-12-01

    Research suggests that characteristics identified in obese individuals, such as impulsive decision-making and hedonic hunger, may exist in nonobese populations. This study examined the independent and interactive effects of impulsive decision-making (measured via delay discounting, DD) and hedonic hunger (assessed with the Power of Food Scale, PFS) on food intake. Female participants (N=78) ate a self-determined amount of plain oatmeal, completed self-report measures and the delay discounting task, and participated in a sham taste test of palatable sweet and salty foods. Unexpectedly, PFS and DD scores interacted to predict consumption of the total amount of food consumed, and of oatmeal alone, but not of snack food alone. High-PFS participants consumed more when also high in DD, while low-PFS participants showed the opposite pattern of consumption. The findings identify variables that may increase propensity toward overconsumption and potential weight gain; future research is necessary to evaluate the utility of these constructs to predict increases in BMI over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chemoreception of hunger levels alters the following behaviour of a freshwater snail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcher, Marie; Crane, Adam L

    2015-12-01

    Chemically-mediated orientation is essential for many animals that must locate sites containing resources such as mates or food. One way to find these areas is by using publically-available information from other individuals. We tested a freshwater snail, Physa gyrina, for chemoreception of conspecific cues and predicted they could discriminate between cues based on information regarding hunger levels. We placed 'tracker' snails into a 2-arm arena where they could either follow or avoid an area previously used by a 'marker' snail. The hunger levels of both trackers and markers was manipulated, being either starved or fed. Starved and fed trackers did not differ in their following response when markers were hungry, but starved trackers were significantly more likely to follow fed markers, compared to fed trackers that tended to avoid areas used by fed markers. This outcome suggests that P. gyrina uses conspecific chemical cues to find food and potentially in some situations to avoid intra-specific food competition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Evolution and follow-up of hunger strikers: experience from an interregional hospital secured unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, F; Sudre, E; Porte, A; Bédry, R; Gromb, S

    2011-11-01

    A hunger strike is a voluntary fast, performed to protest publicly against an issue deemed unfair. In the case of French prisoners, hospitalization in an interregional hospital secured units (UHSI) may be necessary. A retrospective epidemiological study based on one UHSI medical records was performed on the period of May, 2006 to December, 2008, and focused on symptoms, outcomes and ethical problems encountered. Seven men and one woman with a mean age of 32.6 years were hospitalized in an UHSI, with nine episodes of hunger strike of a median duration of 57 days. Clinical symptoms began after two weeks of voluntary deprivation in the form of dizziness, weakness, muscle pain and headache. Laboratory tests showed hypoglycemia (daily basis. The special problem encountered in the medical management of these strikers was to convince them to accept treatments in order to avoid a coercive life-saving treatment as requested by French law. Copyright © 2011 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. [Integrating society and nature in the struggle against hunger in the 21st century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovay, Ricardo

    2008-11-01

    Understanding the contemporary world requires a naturalist view, wherein the work of Josué de Castro is one of the most important expressions: taking a comprehensive approach to social life and reproduction of the natural environment that supports it - including the nature of humans themselves, their bodies - is the cornerstone of the geographic method practiced in Geografia da Fome [The Geography of Hunger]. This method is important for studying regions where hunger severely afflicts the populations, and also offers an important key for interpreting the food problems that are forecast for the 21st century, when the world population is expected to increase by nearly 50%. The food production challenges in the coming years--and which this article discusses briefly--cannot be solved with the techniques that characterized the so-called Green Revolution. Rather, they require a more refined understanding of the links between the social and ecological systems, an interface in which the work of Josué de Castro provides fundamental inspiration.

  3. Latino Autobiography, the Aesthetic, and Political Criticism: The Case of Hunger of Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Durán

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This 2003 essay, entitled “Latino Autobiography, the Aesthetic, and Political Criticism: The Case of Hunger of Memory,” was previously published in Nor Shall Diamond Die: American Studies in Honour of Javier Coy, edited by Carme Manuel and Paul Scott Derrick (Valencia: Biblioteca Javier Coy d’estudis nord-americans, Universitat de València. In a fierce defense of the aesthetic properties of the ethnic autobiography, Isabel Durán, “as an outsider” to the politics of “Chicano” critics working in the US (“I am Spanish, and live in Spain”, argues that certain politicized critical approaches to ethnic autobiography inside the US have insisted on an identity politics that reads ethnic or minority writing as “good” if and only if it is “obedient” to the critic’s political ideology, regardless of its aesthetic value as art. Proposing a “renewed theory of the aesthetic,” Durán offers a strong refutation of Ramón Saldívar’s critical assessment of Richard Rodriguez’s Hunger of Memory, while simultaneously demonstrating how a transnational American Studies produces very different intellectual concerns.

  4. Administering the "AHSP Questionnaire" (appetite, hunger, sensory perception) in a geriatric rehabilitation care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savina, C; Donini, L M; Anzivino, R; De Felice, M R; De Bernardini, L; Cannella, C

    2003-01-01

    Frail elderly people, living in nursing homes, usually show a malnutrition state caused by an increased need of energy or an inadequate food intake. Among the causes leading to reduction of food intake in elderly people and consequently to malnutrition, is the loss of appetite, often marker of depression and alterations of taste and smell perception. The aim of this research is to verify the application of the AHSP Questionnaire and relate its score to nutritional state of a frail elderly population hospitalized in a geriatric rehabilitation care. All patients of the "3rd Rehabilitation Department" of the Istituto Geriatrico "Villa delle Querce" Nemi (Rome-Italy). Informations, number and type of medical conditions, prescribed drugs, other parameters that can affect taste, smell, hunger and nutritional status, mood, cognitive and nutritional status have been collected from the clinical folders. To assess appetite, hunger smell and taste perception had been submitted the AHSP Questionnaire. The AHSP Questionnaire had been administered only to 44 of the 103 patients present at the survey because of the high prevalence of cognitive impairment. AHSP score is lower in presence of malnutrition assessed with MNA (Mini Nutritional Assessment). MNA, expressed as proportional score, seems to present a clear correlation with AHSP's (r=0.59; p=0.000). The results achieved show the scarce adaptability of the AHSP Questionnaire to frail elderly people living in geriatric rehabilitation care. MNA is at the moment the most reliable tool to single out dietary deficiency on geriatrics population.

  5. Relations of hedonic hunger and behavioral change to weight loss among adults in a behavioral weight loss program utilizing meal-replacement products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theim, Kelly R; Brown, Joshua D; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Malcolm, Robert R; O'Neil, Patrick M

    2013-11-01

    Greater self-regulatory behavior usage is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments. Hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may impede successful behavior change and weight loss. Adult men and women (N = 111, body mass index M ± SD = 35.89 ± 6.97 kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after a 15-week lifestyle change weight loss program with a partial meal-replacement diet. From pre- to post-treatment, reported weight control behavior usage improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely related. Individuals with higher hedonic hunger scores at baseline showed the greatest weight loss. Similarly, participants with lower baseline use of weight control behaviors lost more weight, and increased weight control behavior usage was associated with greater weight loss-particularly among individuals with low baseline hedonic hunger. Further study is warranted regarding the significance of hedonic hunger in weight loss treatments.

  6. Experiencing Variation: Learning Opportunities in Doctoral Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Sofie; Berge, Maria; Grout, Brian W. W.; Rump, Camilla Østerberg

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes towards a better understanding of learning dynamics in doctoral supervision by analysing how learning opportunities are created in the interaction between supervisors and PhD students, using the notion of experiencing variation as a key to learning. Empirically, we have based the study on four video-recorded sessions, with…

  7. Psychological demands experienced by recreational endurance athletes

    OpenAIRE

    McCormick, Alister; Meijen, Carla; Marcora, Samuele

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify psychological demands that are commonly experienced by endurance athletes so that these demands could inform the design of performance-enhancement psychological interventions for endurance athletes. Focus group interviews were conducted with 30 recreational endurance athletes of various sports (running, cycling, and triathlon), distances, and competitive levels to explore the psychological demands of training, competition preparation, and competition participation...

  8. Activity limitations and participation restrictions experienced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cite as: Urimubenshi G. Activity limitations and participation restrictions experienced by people with stroke in Musanze district in Rwanda. Afri Health ..... analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse Education To- day 2004, 24(2), 105–112. 20. Lincoln YS, Guba EA.

  9. Perceived and experienced restrictions in participation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived and experienced restrictions in participation and autonomy among adult survivors of stroke in Ghana. ... There were significant differences in two domains between survivors who received physiotherapy and those who received traditional rehabilitation. Over half of the survivors also perceived they would ...

  10. Children's Actions when Experiencing Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overlien, Carolina; Hyden, Margareta

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is, by analysing children's discourses, to investigate their actions or absence of actions during a domestic violence episode. The empirical data are recorded group therapy sessions and individual interviews with children who have grown up experiencing their fathers' violence against their mothers. The analysis shows that…

  11. Experienced and physiological fatigue in neuromuscular disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schillings, M.L.; Kalkman, J.S.; Janssen, H.M.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Bleijenberg, G.; Zwarts, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fatigue has been described as a typical symptom of neurological diseases. It might be caused both by changes at the peripheral and at the central level. This study measured the level of experienced fatigue and physiological correlates of fatigue in three genetically defined neuromuscular

  12. Novice and experienced teachers’ views on professionalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okas, Anne; van der Schaaf, Marieke; Krull, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses teachers’ practical knowledge and beliefs of their profession based on reflective writings of twenty Estonian teachers.Ten novice and ten experienced teachers participated in the study. They put together their professional portfolios, which among other documents included

  13. [Sense of agency: experiencing is not judging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulot, V; Thomas, P; Delevoye-Turrell, Y

    2007-09-01

    Experiencing oneself as the author of an action defines the sense of agency, which is a component of the self. A deficit affecting this process is thought to cause the principle symptoms characterizing schizophrenia - e.g. delusions of control and auditive hallucinations would exist because patients do not experience themselves as the author of their own actions. To explore this specific problem of the sense of agency in schizophrenia, Frith et al. collected a serie of experimental data that lead them to propose that the sense of agency relied on the automatic motor system, processes that enable the predictive adjustment of action. An impairment in these processes (called in the literature) would lead to the problem of dissociation between our own actions and those performed by others. More specifically, the problem would lay in the comparison between the predicted state and the desired state (figure 1). Jeannerod et al. from Lyon used attribution judgements that suggested that the sense of agency would not depend uniquely on the motor mechanisms but would also involve conscious processes. Recently, Frith et al. have published new data that integrates both preceding models. According to this theory, the sense of agency would depend on the processes involved in the predictive control of action but at a conscious level: the attenuation of the sensory feedback, specific of our own actions. This attenuation would depend on the accuracy of comparison between the predicted state and the actual state. Moreover, the sense of agency would also imply the management of social frame, which normally gives the means to cope with human interaction. The conception of the sense of agency has greatly evolved over the years, mainly because of the various experimental methods employed. The consequences of this are the various theoretical interpretations given to the characteristics of the sense of agency. They can be explained in two main points: a non-unified definition of the sense

  14. Poverty and Hunger in America. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Public Assistance and Unemployment Compensation of the Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session. Serial No. 99-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Ways and Means.

    This is a transcript of a hearing held to examine the extent and causes of hunger in the United States. Witnesses presenting testimony included a Boston pediatrician, two representatives from the Physician Task Force on Hunger in America, the Chairman of the House Select Committee on Hunger, and a professor at the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene…

  15. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  16. Poverty and Hunger in Hispanic America: The Inadequacy of Data for Policy Planning. Hearing before the Select Committee on Hunger. United States House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session (March 30, 1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Hunger.

    This hearing addresses issues of health, hunger, and malnutrition among Hispanic Americans. Health and poverty agency officials made statements before the committee and expressed difficulty in examining the health- and poverty-related problems among Hispanics because of a lack of data. Testimony indicated that previous data regarding the health of…

  17. La huelga de hambre en el ámbito penitenciario: aspectos éticos, deontológicos y legales Hunger striking in prisons: ethics and the ethical and legal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. García-Guerrero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La huelga de hambre es una forma de reivindicación frecuente en prisiones y puede llegar a ocasionar multitud de problemas de todo tipo, tanto a la Administración penitenciaria como a los médicos encargados de la asistencia a los presos que la hacen. Asuntos como el conflicto de derechos y obligaciones en juego, así como la forma de tratarla en personas que están sujetas a la Administración, que en este caso adopta una posición de garante, han generado no poca polémica doctrinal. La objeción de conciencia y el conflicto de doble fidelidad de los médicos que trabajan en las prisiones son también asuntos muy ligados a una huelga de hambre penitenciaria. En este trabajo se revisará la solución que se da al problema del tratamiento de la huelga de hambre penitenciaria desde tres perspectivas: ética, deontológica y legal.Hunger strike is a common form of protest in prisons and is a potential cause of many types of problems, both for the prison administration and the doctors who care for prisoners who participate in one. Issues of conflict of rights and obligations involved, and how to treat people who are subject to the Administration, which in this case takes the position of guarantor, have created major controversies over doctrine. Conscientious objection and the conflict of dual loyalty of doctors working in prisons are also issues closely linked to a prison hunger strike. In this paper we review the solution given to the problem of treatment of a prison hunger strike from three perspectives: ethics, ethical and legal.

  18. Experiencing the enchantment of place and mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærenholdt, Jørgen Ole

    2016-01-01

    Experiences of place and mobility play central roles not only in what was traditionally understood as tourism, but also in the broader practices of travelling and visiting sites and sights. On the one hand, such experiences are performed to an extent where it is difficult to isolate the sites...... and movements experienced per se, since visitors and travellers take part in ‘doing’ places and mobility. On the other, experience sites and routes stand out with specific traces and characteristics affording some – and not other – experiences. This paper discusses conceptual understandings that may help...... to better analyse what it takes to perform tourist sites. Following a discussion of Walter Benjamin’s way of understanding experiences as Erlebnisse, I suggest that ideas about multiplicity and absence-presence in Actor-Network Theory can develop new insights into how place and mobility are experienced...

  19. Effect of scattered feeding and feeding twice a day during rearing on indicators of hunger and frustration in broiler breeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Wolthuis-Fillerup, M.; Blokhuis, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Broiler breeders are routinely fed restricted during rearing which has a major negative effect on their welfare. They suffer from hunger and frustration from thwarting of feeding. The aim of this experiment was therefore to study if broiler breeder welfare can be improved by changes in the feeding

  20. Cortisol, hunger, and desire to binge eat following a cold stress test in obese women with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, Marci E; Geliebter, Allan; Hung, Jennifer; Yahav, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Increased basal cortisol levels have been found in bulimia nervosa. After stress, increased cortisol levels have been associated with increased food intake in healthy women. Therefore, we assessed cortisol, hunger, and desire to binge eat after a cold pressor test (CPT) among women with binge eating disorder (BED). Twenty-two obese (body mass index [BMI] = 36.7 +/- 6.5 SD) females (11 non-BED, 11 BED) completed the Zung depression scale and underwent the CPT, hand submerged in ice water for 2 minutes. Over 60 minutes, periodic ratings of hunger and desire to binge eat were obtained, just before blood draws for cortisol, as well as insulin. On a separate day, participants had a 1-mg oral dexamethasone suppression test (DST). The BED group had higher depression scores than the non-BED (p = .04), but depression was not a significant covariate for the cortisol response or to DST. After controlling for contraceptive use (n = 3), the BED group had higher basal cortisol than the non-BED group (p = .03), but cortisol did not differ after DST (p = .40). The BED group had nearly significant greater cortisol AUC after the CPT (p = .057) after controlling for insulin AUC and contraceptive use (p = .057). The BED group also had greater AUC for hunger (p = .03) and desire to binge eat (p = .02) after the CPT. These findings support our hypothesis of a hyperactive HPA-axis in BED, which may contribute to greater hunger and binge eating.

  1. The histological examination of Mus musculus' stomach which was exposed to hunger and thirst stress: a study with light microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Nazan Deniz; Muslu, M Nezih

    2007-09-01

    In this study, the histological changes observed in Mus musculus' stomach mucosa which was exposed to hunger and thirst were examined. Pieces from chest and stomach cavities were taken in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th days following last feeding. These tissue specimens were fixed by using 10% neutral formalin which was compressed. After routine tissue checks, the tissue pieces were sunk into paraffin and some blocs were prepared. With the aim to examine histological structures of the pieces taken, they were colored with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E). An increase in the number of blood cells taken part in stomach tissue was observed in the first twenty four hours. A widening in glandular epithelium lumen was seen after two days. A tendency to slim was observed in mucosa layer of the surface and glandular lumen during hunger. In the stomach mucosa, structural changes were caused by hunger and thirst. It was found that these changes were in direct proportion with hunger and thirst duration.

  2. "Reforms Looked Really Good on Paper": Rural Food Service Responses to the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Disa; Askelson, Natoshia; Golembiewski, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHKA) required schools to make changes to meals provided to children. Rural school districts have limited resources, with increased obesity rates and local food insecurity. In this study we sought to understand the perceptions of rural food service directors and the barriers to implementing…

  3. Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010: An Opportunity for School Nurses to Make a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Jessica L.; Galon, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Implementation of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 will provide an opportunity for school nurses to intervene in the serious childhood obesity problem in the United States. Major changes in the management of the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) will likely challenge schools yet may provide the impetus for a collaborative effort by the…

  4. Baby's Gone A-Hunting: "The Hunger Games," "Bully," and Struggling to Grow Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Movies that treat the imagined future and that deal with issues of adolescence coming to adulthood are represented by "The Hunger Games." The role of movies that present a dystopic view of the future in our actual attempts to deal with contemporary adolescence is discussed in this article. The use of images of the future as…

  5. "The Capitol Accent Is so Affected Almost Anything Sounds Funny in It": The "Hunger Games" Trilogy, Queerness, and Paranoid Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Michelle Ann

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the "Hunger Games" trilogy, the residents of the Capitol are associated with an array of physical, behavioral, and sartorial traits that have stereotypically been associated with homosexuality in general and gay men in particular. Although none of these characters is explicitly identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual,…

  6. The Backpack Food Program's Effects on U.S. Elementary Students' Hunger and On-Task Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Meghan E.; Sifers, Sarah K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the BackPack Food Program's effectiveness in combating students' hunger over the weekends and school breaks, as well as analyze the program's effects on students' on-task behavior in the classroom. Additionally, this study examined program satisfaction from students, parents, and…

  7. La faim dans les pays occidentaux développés / Hunger in Western developed societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Chenillé

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Comment la faim dans les pays occidentaux développés est-elle traitée au cinéma ? Si le cinéma se montre sensible à la faim exprimée chez les enfants ou dans des pays hors de la sphère occidentale, même quand il ne s’agit pas d’une faim qui dure sur plusieurs jours, le cinéma se montre incrédule et méfiant par rapport à la faim éprouvée par les adultes. Ainsi la faim est-elle le plus souvent confinée dans un passé révolu, dans des conditions de vie tout à fait exceptionnelles d’isolement géographique, ou liée à un choix d’existence marginale qui peut se révéler criminelle.This article examines the cinematographic treatment of hunger in developed countries. Western filmmakers tend to be sympathetic towards the hunger endured by children and people in developing countries (even for brief periods but seem dismissive and suspicious of adult hunger. Hunger is portrayed as a thing of the past, linked to such exceptional circumstances as extreme geographical or social isolation and the choice of a marginalised, sometimes criminal lifestyle.

  8. The Occupational Wellbeing of People Experiencing Homelessness

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Yvonne; Gray, M.; McGinty, S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports findings of a study that utilised an occupational perspective to explore how wellbeing was achieved and sustained by the occupations of people experiencing homelessness in Australia. Thirty three in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with homeless individuals in a regional city in Australia. Data from the interviews were thematically analysed to understand the relationship between wellbeing, as defined by the individual, and the occupations engaged in by people exp...

  9. Security Selection Factors: Novice Versus Experienced Investors

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Freund; Dev Prasad; Frank Andrews

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examine the differences in the factors perceived to be significant in the security selection process between novice and experienced investors. We apply the direct inquiry approach to two distinct groups: One group is composed of students enrolled in traditional face-to-face introductory investments classes, while the other group consists of students enrolled in the online sections of the same course. The online students tend to be generally older part-time students with grea...

  10. Burnout among Low and High Experienced Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedehhava Mousavy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Burnout is a serious psychological syndrome that can affect not only an individual’s well-being, but also the functioning of whole organisations, such as schools. It is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and decreased personal accomplishment.The level of burnout among teachers in the field of education has a negative impact on student success. The present investigation examines the level of burn out among high and low experienced teachers. It focused on a group of English teachers from different nationalities: Iranian, and Malaysian at UPM to examine if there is any relation between burnout and experience level. The sample consisted of 30 English teachers. Two instruments namely, The Maslach Burnout Inventory and Demographic Questionnaire were used to collect data. Data analysis revealed that there is no significant difference in depersonalization and personal accomplishment scores between low and high experienced teachers. But the result of this study also revealed that there is a significant difference in Emotional Exhaustion scores between low and high experienced teachers. Further research is required to explore the roots and the causes of burnout.

  11. Stigma experienced by persons under psychiatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struch, Naomi; Levav, Itzhak; Shereshevsky, Yechiel; Baidani-Auerbach, Alona; Lachman, Max; Daniel, Noga; Zehavi, Tali

    2008-01-01

    Mental health-related stigma causes suffering and interferes with care and social inclusion. This study explored stigma as experienced by mental health service users. Particular attention is given to their use of coping mechanisms. Interviews were held with 167 adults undergoing outpatient psychiatric treatment; two-thirds of them had previously been hospitalized. Examples of frequency of stigma-related situations included the following: Over half of service users expect people to refuse to have a person with a mental disorder as a co-worker or neighbor, or to engage in other types of social contact. A sizeable group acknowledged that they feared or had experienced rejection. A third of respondents reported they feared or had experienced inappropriate treatment by their doctor. Service users utilize several coping mechanisms to deal with stigma, among them: education, withdrawal, secrecy, and positive distinctiveness. Although we studied a convenience sample of service users, our findings provide sufficient basis to suggest different types of intervention, i.e., to address stigma in the course of treatment in the specialist settings, to promote the establishment of mutual support groups, and to raise family physicians' awareness with regard to the stigma that may be present when caring for persons with mental disorders.

  12. Sleeve gastrectomy effects on hunger, satiation, and gastrointestinal hormone and motility responses after a liquid meal test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Esther; Serra-Prat, Mateu; Palomera, Elisabet; Suñol, Xavier; Clavé, Pere

    2015-09-01

    The relation between hunger, satiation, and integrated gastrointestinal motility and hormonal responses in morbidly obese patients after sleeve gastrectomy has not been determined. The objective was to assess the effects of sleeve gastrectomy on hunger, satiation, gastric and gallbladder motility, and gastrointestinal hormone response after a liquid meal test. Three groups were studied: morbidly obese patients (n = 16), morbidly obese patients who had had sleeve gastrectomy (n = 8), and nonobese patients (n = 16). The participants fasted for 10 h and then consumed a 200-mL liquid meal (400 kcal + 1.5 g paracetamol). Fasting and postprandial hunger, satiation, hormone concentrations, and gastric and gallbladder emptying were measured several times over 4 h. No differences were observed in hunger and satiation curves between morbidly obese and nonobese groups; however, sleeve gastrectomy patients were less hungry and more satiated than the other groups. Antrum area during fasting in morbidly obese patients was statistically significant larger than in the nonobese and sleeve gastrectomy groups. Gastric emptying was accelerated in the sleeve gastrectomy group compared with the other 2 groups (which had very similar results). Gallbladder emptying was similar in the 3 groups. Sleeve gastrectomy patients showed the lowest ghrelin concentrations and higher early postprandial cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide 1 peaks than did the other participants. This group also showed an improved insulin resistance pattern compared with morbidly obese patients. Sleeve gastrectomy seems to be associated with profound changes in gastrointestinal physiology that contribute to reducing hunger and increasing sensations of satiation. These changes include accelerated gastric emptying, enhanced postprandial cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide 1 concentrations, and reduced ghrelin release, which together may help patients lose weight and improve their glucose metabolism after

  13. Hunger and thirst numeric rating scales are not valid estimates for gastric content volumes: a prospective investigation in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehrer, Sabin; Hanke, Ursula; Klaghofer, Richard; Fruehauf, Melanie; Weiss, Markus; Schmitz, Achim

    2014-03-01

    A rating scale for thirst and hunger was evaluated as a noninvasive, simple and commonly available tool to estimate preanesthetic gastric volume, a surrogate parameter for the risk of perioperative pulmonary aspiration, in healthy volunteer school age children. Numeric scales with scores from 0 to 10 combined with smileys to rate thirst and hunger were analyzed and compared with residual gastric volumes as measured by magnetic resonance imaging and fasting times in three settings: before and for 2 h after drinking clear fluid (group A, 7 ml/kg), before and for 4 vs 6 h after a light breakfast followed by clear fluid (7 ml/kg) after 2 vs 4 h (crossover, group B), and before and for 1 h after drinking clear fluid (crossover, group C, 7 vs 3 ml/kg). In 30 children aged 6.4-12.8 (median 9.8) years, participating on 1-5 (median two) study days, 496 sets of scores and gastric volumes were determined. Large inter- and intra-individual variations were seen at baseline and in response to fluid and food intake. Significant correlations were found between hunger and thirst ratings in all groups, with children generally being more hungry than thirsty. Correlations between scores and duration of fasting or gastric residual volumes were poor to moderate. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that thirst and hunger rating scales cannot predict gastric content. Hunger and thirst scores vary considerably inter- and intra-individually and cannot predict gastric volume, nor do they correlate with fasting times in school age children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Relationship of cravings with weight loss and hunger. Results from a 6 month worksite weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Payal; Das, Sai Krupa; Salinardi, Taylor; Robinson, Lisa; Saltzman, Edward; Scott, Tammy; Pittas, Anastassios G; Roberts, Susan B

    2013-10-01

    We examined the association of food cravings with weight loss and eating behaviors in a lifestyle intervention for weight loss in worksites. This research was part of a randomized controlled trial of a 6-month weight loss intervention versus a wait-listed control in 4 Massachusetts worksites. The intervention emphasized reducing energy intake by adherence to portion-controlled menu suggestions, and assessments were obtained in 95 participants at baseline and 6 months including non-fasting body weight, food cravings (Craving Inventory and Food Craving Questionnaire for state and trait) and the eating behavior constructs restraint, disinhibition and hunger (Eating Inventory). There were statistically significant reductions in all craving variables in the intervention group compared to the controls. Within the intervention group, changes in craving-trait were significantly associated with weight loss after controlling for baseline weight, age, gender and worksite. However, in a multivariate model with craving-trait and eating behaviors (restraint, disinhibition and hunger), hunger was the only significant predictor of weight change. In contrast to some previous reports of increased food cravings with weight loss in lifestyle interventions, this study observed a broad reduction in cravings associated with weight loss. In addition, greater reductions in craving-trait were associated with greater weight change, but craving-trait was not a significant independent correlate of weight change when hunger was included in statistical models. Studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of hunger suppressing versus craving-suppressing strategies in lifestyle interventions for obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hunger, food and drink in Brazilian popular music: a brief overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes; Vasconcelos, Mariana Perrelli; de Vasconcelos, Iris Helena Guedes

    2015-01-01

    The article reflects on how the themes of hunger, consumption of soft drinks and consumption of beans and rice are addressed in Brazilian popular music. We investigate the years of military dictatorship (1964-1985). The focus of the analysis is on the so-called protest song, a musical genre characterized by aesthetic, cultural, political, ideological and social criticism to military rule. The study of the ideology and philosophy of language of Mikhail Bakhtin is the theoretical reference; especially his concepts of "ideological sign" and "word." Analysis reveals that the protest song portrayed elements of the economic, political and social contexts and led to the diffusion of healthy or unhealthy eating habits or ideologies, contributing to the construction of the Brazilian dietary identity.

  16. Hunger strikers: historical perspectives from the emergency management of refugee camp asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M; Chan, Jimmy T S; Yeung, Richard D S

    2013-12-01

    The treatment of hunger strikers is always contentious, chaotic and complex. The management is particularly difficult for health professionals as it raises unprecedented clinical, ethical, moral, humanitarian, and legal questions. There are never any easy answers. The current situation of prisoners from the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars currently at the Guantanamo Bay Detention Center in Cuba demands unprecedented transparency, accountability and multilevel coordination to ensure that the rights of the strikers are properly met. There are scant references available in the scientific literature on the emergency management of these tragedies. This historical perspective documents the complex issues faced by emergency physicians in Hong Kong surrounding refugee camp asylum seekers from Vietnam in 1994 and is offered as a useful adjunct in understanding the complex issues faced by emergency health providers and managers.

  17. Violence in Pop-Culture Media and The Hunger Games as a Prime Artifact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Benson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA methodology to analyze the meanings conveyed in relation to violence in Suzanne Collins' popular novel The Hunger Games and its film. As a representational popular­culture artifact marketed to young adults and teens, it is a primary example for the exposure of this age group to the levels of violence regularly displayed in contemporary popular media. This analysis seeks to critique the assertion that the types of violent exposure in the novel and the film are possibly inappropriate for the audience targeted. A new wave of attention and awareness on the part of producers of popular media and people of contemporary society alike is necessary.

  18. Spatialities of Hunger: Post-National Spaces, Assemblages and Fragmenting Liabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Gertel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This contribution addresses the casual structure and spatialities of food insecurity. Drawing from scholarly debates on periphery, I illustrate the limited explana- tory range of state-centered periphery- approaches in order to comprehend the recent constellations of conflict and hunger. I argue that increasingly dynamic and post-national spaces of food insecurity emerge. Due to complex power geometries, these spaces are driven by realigning and territorially-stretched arrangements of action (e.g. global producer-consumer relations, by technologically enhanced new temporal config- urations (e.g. speculation and high frequency trade in food, by the performances of metrics (e.g. models of food price and value-constructions shaping food security, and by the reflexive effects of knowledge production. In order to comprehend these dynamics, concepts capable of cap- turing new assemblages are required.

  19. Ethical Conflicts Experienced by Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Mendes Menezes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The current study aimed to identify and analyze the prevalence of ethical conflicts experienced by medical students. This study is a cross-sectional and analytical research that was conducted in a public school in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The instrument used for the data collection was a self-administered questionnaire. The data collected were presented in absolute and percentage values. For the analytical statistical treatment of the data, the level of significance was considered p <0.05. The outcome variables were: Experiences of ethical conflicts in interpersonal relations within the medical course and Ethical conduct in health care. The identification of the prevalence of ethical conflicts in the undergraduate program adopted the perspective of different interpersonal relations (academic-teaching, academic-academic, academic-employee, academic-patient, teacher-teacher, teacher-patient, teacher-employee and employee-patient. (Importance of identifying themselves to the health services user and requesting consent to perform the physical examination, assistance without the supervision of the teacher, issuance of health documents without the signature of the professional responsible and use of social networks to share data Of patient. It was verified the association of the outcome variables with sex, year of graduation and course evaluation. A total of 281 undergraduate students enrolled in all undergraduate courses in Medicine of both sexes, with a predominance of female (52.7%. The students reported having experienced conflicting situations in interpersonal relations with teachers (59.6%, provided assistance without proper supervision of a teacher (62.6%, reported having issued health documents without the accompaniment of teachers (18, 5%. The highest frequency was observed among those enrolled in the most advanced years of the undergraduate program (p <0.05. The use of social networks for the purpose of sharing patient

  20. Hunger in America: Hearings on Hunger and Related Nutritional Issues, before the Subcommittee on Nutrition and Investigations of the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate, and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate. One Hundredth Congress, Second Session (Cedar Rapids, Iowa, January 30, 1988; Washington, D.C., March 1 and 28, 1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    This report presents the testimony of numerous expert witnesses who appeared at three hearings on the following topics: (1) Hunger and Related Nutritional Issues; (2) U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Assistance Programs; and (3) Domestic Hunger and Related Nutritional Issues. The following major issues were discussed: (1) the number of…

  1. Hunger Relief Act of 1986. Joint Hearing on H.R. 4990 before the Subcommittee on Domestic Marketing, Consumer Relations, and Nutrition...the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education and the Subcommittee on Human Resources...and the Subcommittee on Science, Research and Technology...and the Select Committee on Hunger. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    The Hunger Relief Act of 1986 shows the broad concern in Congress and among the American people for the elimination of hunger and malnutrition in America. Four Congressional committees participated in advancing this legislation, which provides a 12-point plan for improving the nutrition programs serving low-income Americans. The committees heard…

  2. The gingival biotype assessed by experienced and inexperienced clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghbali, Aryan; De Rouck, Tim; De Bruyn, Hugo; Cosyn, Jan

    2009-11-01

    A recent cluster analysis has identified three gingival biotypes among 100 periodontally healthy subjects based on different combinations of morphometric data related to maxillary front teeth and surrounding soft tissues. Patients with a thin-scalloped biotype are considered at risk because they have been associated with a compromised soft tissue response following surgical and/or restorative therapy. Hence, an accurate identification of these high-risk patients is warranted. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the precision of simple visual inspection as a method to identify the gingival biotype by experienced and inexperienced clinicians. Fifteen clinicians (five Restorative Dentists, five Periodontists and five Students) were invited to assess the gingival biotype (thin-scalloped, thick-flat, thick-scalloped) of 100 periodontally healthy subjects based on clinical slides. Cluster analysis on these subjects was used as the gold standard and the accuracy in identifying the gingival biotype was determined using percentile agreement and kappa statistics. Intra- and inter-examiner reliability were also calculated. The gingival biotype was accurately identified only in about half of the cases irrespective of the clinician's experience. The thick-flat biotype was mostly recognized especially by experienced clinicians (> or =70% of the cases). Nearly half of the thin-scalloped cases were misclassified. The intra-examiner repeatability was fair to substantial (kappa: 0.328-0.670) and the inter-examiner reproducibility was slight to moderate (kappa: 0.127-0.547). Simple visual inspection may not be considered a valuable method to identify the gingival biotype as nearly half of the high-risk patients are overlooked.

  3. Subjection, subjectivity, and agency: the power, meaning, and practice of mothering among women experiencing intimate partner abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, Ingrid; Jasinski, Jana L; Bubriski-McKenzie, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on in-depth interviews with mothers who were abused by intimate partners, we argue that mothering can be a source of empowerment that helps battered women both care for their children and survive and assert themselves. Women in the study sample described a violation of some aspect of their mothering as the reason they left their partners. However, narrative analysis exposed contradictions in participants' stories, revealing multiple factors that shaped their decisions to leave. Although motherhood was significant for the women who participated in the study, it was not their only motivation for ending their relationships with abusive partners.

  4. Physics Climate as Experienced by LGBT+ Physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Elena

    2012-02-01

    In 2009, Elena Long created the LGBT+ Physicists website (http://lgbtphysicists.x10hosting.com) as a warehouse for resources useful for sexual and gender minorities working in physics. This resource has grown to include networking resources, lists of LGBT-friendly universities and localities, recommendations for enacting positive change in physics communities, and out-reach to other STEM-oriented LGBT organizations. This has been possible in large part by the dynamic community of LGBT+ physicists and allies looking to make physics more welcoming towards our community. In 2011, Elena used hir position as Member at Large on the executive committee of the Forum of Graduate Student Affairs (FGSA) to conduct a climate survey that included, among other things, the first serious look at LGBT+ demographics in physics. The survey focused particularly on issues of language heard and harassment experienced by physicists and was broken down into categories based on race, physical and mental ability, gender, and sexuality. Furthermore, it examined the outcomes of experienced harassment and the reasons for when harassment was not reported. Due to the nature of the study, overlapping demographics, especially ``multiple minorities,'' were also explored. This talk will give a brief history of the LGBT+ Physicists resource as well as an overview of the FGSA study.

  5. Ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, Kely Regina; Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira; Schmidtt, Pablo Henrique; Barlem, Edison Luiz Devos; Tomaschewski-Barlem, Jamila Geri; da Rosa, Luciana Martins

    2015-01-01

    To know the ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses. Descriptive and exploratory study with a qualitative approach, performed in inpatient units and in chemotherapy out-patients units that provide assistance to oncological patients in two capitals in the South region of Brazil. Eighteen nurses participated in this study, selected by snowball sampling type. For data collection, semi-structured interviews were carried out, which were recorded and transcribed, and then analyzed by thematic analysis. Two categories were established: when informing or not becomes a dilemma - showing the main difficulties related to oncological treatment information regarding health staff, health system, and infrastructure; to invest or not - dilemmas related to finitude - showing situations of dilemmas related to pain and confrontation with finitude. For the effective confrontation of the ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses to occur, it is important to invest in the training of these professionals, preparing them in an ethical and human way to act as lawyers of the patient with cancer, in a context of dilemmas related mainly to the possibility of finitude.

  6. Ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kely Regina da Luz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to know the ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses. Method: descriptive and exploratory study with a qualitative approach, performed in inpatient units and in chemotherapy out-patients units that provide assistance to oncological patients in two capitals in the South region of Brazil. Eighteen nurses participated in this study, selected by snowball sampling type. For data collection, semi-structured interviews were carried out, which were recorded and transcribed, and then analyzed by thematic analysis. Results: two categories were established: when informing or not becomes a dilemma - showing the main difficulties related to oncological treatment information regarding health staff, health system, and infrastructure; to invest or not - dilemmas related to finitude - showing situations of dilemmas related to pain and confrontation with finitude. Conclusion: for the effective confrontation of the ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses to occur, it is important to invest in the training of these professionals, preparing them in an ethical and human way to act as lawyers of the patient with cancer, in a context of dilemmas related mainly to the possibility of finitude.

  7. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  8. Experienced poker players are emotionally stable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakasuo, Michael; Palomäki, Jussi; Salmela, Mikko

    2014-10-01

    Online poker and poker subcultures have become exceedingly popular. Previous studies assessing experience and skill in poker have revealed that proficiency in emotion regulation is a consequential factor in explaining financial success in the game. We assessed (N=478) the associations between poker players' (recruited from online poker forums) level of poker experience and HEXACO-PI-R personality traits. The results indicate that a predisposition for emotional stability-that is, lower scores on emotionality-is linked to high levels of poker experience. Thus, in order to become a successful and experienced poker player, it helps to be able to "keep cool" under pressure. Further exploratory analyses suggest that players who prefer live play to online play are more likely to be extroverted and open to experiences. The results contribute to the extant literature on individual differences in personality in poker players, and in particular help to fill the interdisciplinary gap between personality and gambling research.

  9. Experienced discrimination in home mortgage lending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secchi, Davide; Seri, Raffaello

    2017-01-01

    the applicant’s nationality is considered. In addition to its findings, the study (a) provides an original econometric model on a two-step procedure to test perceived discrimination and (b) suggests a method and approach that may constitute a point of reference for those willing to study perceived......This article proposes a framework for the analysis of experienced discrimination in home mortgages. It addresses the problem of home mortgage lending discrimination in one of the richest areas of northern Italy. Employees of a local hospital were interviewed to study their perception (or experience......) of discriminatory behavior related to home financing. The analysis follows two steps. The first evaluates self-selection (the probability that individuals apply) and the second focuses on the likelihood that applications are accepted by the bank. Findings show that discrimination is likely to appear when...

  10. Challenges experienced by debt counsellors in Gauteng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kgomotso Masilo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gauteng, Province of South Africa is experiencing a decreasing number of registered and practising debt counsellors. This paper investigates and assesses the challenges that debt counsellors in Gauteng experiences. Fifteen debt counsellors from three municipalities of Gauteng were interviewed. Data was analysed using ATLAS ti. The paper concluded that though debt counsellors are complying with the regulations in rendering debt counselling service, they still had challenges regarding backlogs in debt review. The paper recommends that debt counsellors should be adequately trained and should restructure their rehabilitation methods on the one hand and the National Credit Regulator should monitor debt counsellors’ practices and assist them with their queries on the other hand.

  11. Reflections of hunger and satiation in the structure of temporal organization of slow electrical and spike activities of fundal and antral stomach muscles in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromin, A A; Zenina, O Yu

    2012-11-01

    Manifestations of hunger and satiation in myoelectric activity patterns in different portions of the stomach were studied in chronic experiments. The state of hunger manifested in the structure of temporal organization of slow electric activity of muscles in the stomach body and antrum in the form of bimodal distributions of slow electric wave periods, while satiation as unimodal distribution. In hunger-specific bimodal distribution of slow electric wave periods generated by muscles of the stomach body and antrum, the position of the first maximum carries the information about oncoming food reinforcement, since this particular range of slow wave fluctuations determines temporal parameters of slow electric activity of muscles in all stomach regions in the course of subsequent successive food-procuring behavior. Under conditions of hunger, the pacemaker features of muscles in the lesser curvature are realized incompletely. Complete realization is achieved in the course of food intake and at the state of satiation.

  12. Towards a satiety map of common foods: Associations between perceived satiety value of 100 foods and their objective and subjective attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, Nicola J; James Stubbs, R; Finlayson, Graham

    2015-12-01

    Hunger is one of the main reasons given by people experiencing problems in managing their weight. Identifying the types and properties of foods that enhance satiety may help consumers improve appetite control and weight management. However the attributes of foods associated with their perceived satiety value have been largely unexamined. The current research examined a range of objective and subjective attributes of foods and sought to map them onto ratings of their perceived satiety value. Participants (n=1127) rated 100 individual food images, through online surveys, based on subjective (e.g. perceived energy content, control over eating, healthiness, palatability) and objective (e.g. actual energy content, macronutrient composition, cost/kcal) attributes. Perceived satiety value was quantified from ratings of how filling each food was judged to be. Results showed that when controlling for perceived total energy content, perceived satiety value was associated with lower energy density (r=-.74), lower %fat (r=-.47), higher %protein (r=.31) and higher cost (r=.48). In terms of subjective attributes, perceived satiety value was associated with greater healthiness (r=.90), weight management (r=.91), frequency of consumption (r=.58) and greater control over eating (r=.76). Linear regression models indicated that the objective attributes of energy density, %fat, fibre content, %carbohydrate and cost (R(2)=.69) and the subjective attribute of utility for weight management and frequency of consumption (R(2)=.83) accounted for the most variance in the perceived satiety value of food. These findings may help towards a 'satiety map' of the diet with implications for public health promotion and the development of satiety enhancing foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. GODAN Local Farming Challenge 2017 - Encourage Geo-Innovation Solutions for Zero Hunger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Suchith; Hogan, Patrick; Brovelli, Maria; Schaap, Ben; Musker, Ruthie; Laperrière, André

    2017-04-01

    The initial ideas for Open Geospatial Science [1] were presented nearly a decade ago. They build upon the proposition of Open science which argues that scientific knowledge develops more rapidly and productively if openly shared (as early as is practical in the discovery process). The key ingredients that make Open Geospatial Science possible are enshrined in Open Principles, i.e.: open source geospatial software, open data, open standards, open educational resources, and open access to research publications. OpenCitySmart[2] is an initiative of Geo for All [3] that aims to develop a suite of tools for city-related infrastructure management (utilities, traffic, services, etc.). Its purpose will be to continually refine and add functionality that not only streamlines operational efficiency but also considers the need for sustainability and quality of urban life. OpenCitySmart employs Open solutions to build richer tools that empower organisations and individuals to utilizespatial and non-spatial data alike. This will create opportunities for innovation both globally and locally. As the population of cities grow, the concern of food security will shift from rural to urban areas. Currently, nearly 800 million people struggle with debilitating hunger and malnutrition and can be found in every corner of the globe. That's one in every nine people, with the majority being women and children. The Global Open Data for Agriculture and Nutrition (GODAN) [4] supports the proactive sharing of open data to make information about agriculture and nutrition available, accessible and usable to deal with the urgent challenge of ensuring world food security. A core principle behind GODAN is that a solution to Zero Hunger lies within existing, but often unavailable, agriculture and nutrition data. Through an online survey, GODAN found that the most needed data type across its 430+ partner network was geospatial data. Through the GODAN Europa Challenge we want to bring together

  14. Doing the counter-regulation shuffle: The importance of flexibility and hunger for predicting food consumption following a preload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Jaclyn; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Dennerstein, Michelle; Greenwood, Jesse; Hancock, Naomi; Thavapalan, Nithyyaa; White, Melissa

    This study utilised the preload paradigm to evaluate whether trait-like dieting attitudes and behaviours (dietary restraint and flexibility in dieting rules) and context-specific factors (negative mood and hunger) predict food consumption among male and female participants. Following a high calorie preload, 79 participants aged 18-40 completed a deceptive taste test in which they were encouraged to eat as much of the taste test foods as desired, and this ad libitum intake was measured. Although each predictor (except negative mood) predicted consumption when tested individually, regression analyses revealed that dieting flexibility and current hunger were the strongest unique predictors of intake. Mood failed to directly predict food consumption, nor did it moderate the relationship between restraint and food intake. Collectively, findings suggest that emphasis on dietary restraint in preload studies may be misplaced, as other proximal and stable factors may better predict food consumption. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Safety and efficacy of coffee enriched with inulin and dextrin on satiety and hunger in normal volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Joelle; Grinev, Milana; Silva, Veronica; Cohen, Jonathan; Singer, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the safety and efficacy of a new beverage on suppressing hunger and improving feelings of satiety in healthy volunteers. In the safety study, participants (n = 269) received either 1) a control beverage-coffee alone (group C); 2) the study beverage-coffee, whey protein, inulin, and dextrin (group S); or 3) an inulin-enriched beverage (I group). The study was held over a 7-d period during which participants were required to consume 2 cups of coffee a day. There were no significant differences between the groups in any reported adverse effects, apart from more abdominal pain after the first cup in group I versus S (P inulin, dextrin, and whey is safe and has possible benefits with regard to feelings of hunger and satiety 2 h after ingestion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Characteristics of rabbit food-procuring behavior as an indicator of changes in the level of hunger motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoenko, E E; Kromin, A A; Maslov, A N

    2012-05-01

    We proposed new method for measuring dynamic changes in hunger motivation in rabbits in the course of satisfaction of nutritional need by weight, time, and rate parameters of effective food-procuring behavior. Transformation of the amount of food eaten into the electric signals was performed using electronic weighing machine incorporated into hardware and software system. The most conclusive characteristic for decrease in hunger motivation in the course of first effective food-procuring act was the period of food-procuring cycles, which values increase significantly as animal satisfies its nutritional need, whereas amount of the food consumed for each food-procuring cycle remains constant. Integral characteristics of food-procuring behavior reflect higher level of food motivation in the course of first effective food-procuring act in comparison to the subsequent ones.

  17. Reflection of the State of Hunger in Impulse Activity of Nose Wing Muscles and Upper Esophageal Sphincter during Search behavior in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromin, A A; Dvoenko, E E; Zenina, O Yu

    2016-07-01

    Reflection of the state of hunger in impulse activity of nose wing muscles and upper esophageal sphincter muscles was studied in chronic experiments on rabbits subjected to 24-h food deprivation in the absence of locomotion and during search behavior. In the absence of apparent behavioral activity, including sniffing, alai nasi muscles of hungry rabbits constantly generated bursts of action potentials synchronous with breathing, while upper esophageal sphincter muscles exhibited regular aperiodic low-amplitude impulse activity of tonic type. Latent form of food motivation was reflected in the structure of temporal organization of impulse activity of alai nasi muscles in the form of bimodal distribution of interpulse intervals and in temporal structure of impulse activity of upper esophageal sphincter muscles in the form of monomodal distribution. The latent form of food motivation was manifested in the structure of temporal organization of periods of the action potentials burst-like rhythm, generated by alai nasi muscles, in the form of monomodal distribution, characterized by a high degree of dispersion of respiratory cycle periods. In the absence of physical activity hungry animals sporadically exhibited sniffing activity, manifested in the change from the burst-like impulse activity of alai nasi muscles to the single-burst activity type with bimodal distribution of interpulse intervals and monomodal distribution of the burst-like action potentials rhythm periods, the maximum of which was shifted towards lower values, which was the cause of increased respiratory rate. At the same time, the monomodal temporal structure of impulse activity of the upper esophageal sphincter muscles was not changed. With increasing food motivation in the process of search behavior temporal structure of periods of the burst-like action potentials rhythm, generated by alai nasi muscles, became similar to that observed during sniffing, not accompanied by animal's locomotion, which is

  18. How to feed environmental studies with soil information to address SDG 'Zero hunger'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Chantal; Stoorvogel, Jetse; Claessens, Lieven

    2017-04-01

    As pledged by UN Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2, there should be zero hunger, food security, improved food nutrition and sustainable agriculture by 2030. Environmental studies are essential to reach SDG 2. Soils play a crucial role, especially in addressing 'Zero hunger'. This study aims to discuss the connection between the supply and demand of soil data for environmental studies and how this connection can be improved illustrating different methods. As many studies are resource constrained, the options to collect new soil data are limited. Therefore, it is essential to use existing soil information, auxiliary data and collected field data efficiently. Existing soil data are criticised in literature as i) being dominantly qualitative, ii) being often outdated, iii) being not spatially exhaustive, iv) being only available at general scales, v) being inconsistent, and vi) lacking quality assessments. Additional field data can help to overcome some of these problems. Outdated maps can, for example, be improved by collecting additional soil data in areas where changes in soil properties are expected. Existing soil data can also provide insight in the expected soil variability and, as such, these data can be used for the design of sampling schemes. Existing soil data are also crucial input for studies on digital soil mapping because they give information on parent material and the relative age of soils. Digital soil mapping is commonly applied as an efficient method to quantitatively predict the spatial variation of soil properties. However, the efficiency of digital soil mapping may increase if we look at functional soil properties (e.g. nutrient availability, available water capacity) for the soil profile that vary in a two-dimensional space rather than at basic soil properties of individual soil layers (e.g. texture, organic matter content, nitrogen content) that vary in a three-dimensional space. Digital soil mapping techniques are based on statistical

  19. Experiencing Past and Future Personal Events: Functional Neuroimaging Evidence on the Neural Bases of Mental Time Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botzung, Anne; Denkova, Ekaterina; Manning, Lilianne

    2008-01-01

    Functional MRI was used in healthy subjects to investigate the existence of common neural structures supporting re-experiencing the past and pre-experiencing the future. Past and future events evocation appears to involve highly similar patterns of brain activation including, in particular, the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior regions and the…

  20. A step towards developing the expertise to control hunger and satiety: regulatory role of satiomem--a membrane proteoglycan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upreti, R K; Kidwai, A M

    1995-04-01

    Regulation of hunger and satiety is a complex process thought to be controlled by a complex interplay of neurotransmitters in the hypothalamic region of the brain. Reduced food intake or anorexia has also been observed under various disease or disorder conditions including AIDS and cancer. On the other hand, increased appetite because of some impairment of central mechanisms regulating the food intake could also cause/obesity. A large number of substances including neuropeptides, hormones, drugs, and synthetic peptides have been implicated in the regulation of appetite and food intake behavior in normal as well as disease or disorder conditions. Most of these substances are not directly involved in the regulation of normal hunger and satiety but exert their effect indirectly via other media. Some of them are involved under certain pathologic conditions and during the course they become involved directly or indirectly in the triggering of hunger and satiety regulatory mechanism. Recently, we have been able to isolate and purify an endogenous proteoglycan from membranes of animal and plant sources. This membrane anchored proteoglycan termed as 'Satiomem' reduces food intake without any rebound effects and has no apparent toxicity. It also fulfils all the criteria of a true satiety or anorexigenic substance. The release of satiomem from the cell surface could be mediated by a specific phospholipase-C. Satiomem seems to be involved in transducing activating signals and may also act as a source of second messenger for the regulatory mechanism of appetite. This article summarizes the regulatory aspects of hunger and satiety mechanisms controlled by endogenous substances with the emphasis on our present knowledge about satiomem.

  1. Food insecurity with hunger is associated with obesity among HIV-infected and at risk women in Bronx, NY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotin, Nicole; Hoover, Donald R; Shi, Qiuhu; Anastos, Kathryn; Weiser, Sheri D

    2014-01-01

    Food insecurity, insufficient quality and quantity of nutritionally adequate food, affects millions of people in the United States (US) yearly, with over 18 million Americans reporting hunger. Food insecurity is associated with obesity in the general population. Due to the increasing prevalence of obesity and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among HIV-infected women, we sought to determine the relationship between food insecurity and obesity in this cohort of urban, HIV-infected and -uninfected but at risk women. Using a cross-sectional design, we collected data on food insecurity, body mass index and demographic and clinical data from 231 HIV-infected and 119 HIV-negative women enrolled in Bronx site of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). We used multivariate logistic regression to identify factors associated with obesity. Food insecurity was highly prevalent, with almost one third of women (110/350, 31%) reporting food insecurity over the previous six months and over 13% of women reported food insecurity with hunger. Over half the women were obese with a Body Mass Index (BMI) of ≥ 30. In multivariate analyses, women who were food insecure with hunger had higher odds of obesity (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] =  2.56, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]  =  1.27, 5.20) after adjusting for HIV status, age, race, household status, income, drug and alcohol use. Food insecurity with hunger was associated with obesity in this population of HIV-infected and -uninfected, urban women. Both food insecurity and obesity are independent markers for increased mortality; further research is needed to understand this relationship and their role in adverse health outcomes.

  2. Food insecurity with hunger is associated with obesity among HIV-infected and at risk women in Bronx, NY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Sirotin

    Full Text Available Food insecurity, insufficient quality and quantity of nutritionally adequate food, affects millions of people in the United States (US yearly, with over 18 million Americans reporting hunger. Food insecurity is associated with obesity in the general population. Due to the increasing prevalence of obesity and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among HIV-infected women, we sought to determine the relationship between food insecurity and obesity in this cohort of urban, HIV-infected and -uninfected but at risk women.Using a cross-sectional design, we collected data on food insecurity, body mass index and demographic and clinical data from 231 HIV-infected and 119 HIV-negative women enrolled in Bronx site of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS. We used multivariate logistic regression to identify factors associated with obesity.Food insecurity was highly prevalent, with almost one third of women (110/350, 31% reporting food insecurity over the previous six months and over 13% of women reported food insecurity with hunger. Over half the women were obese with a Body Mass Index (BMI of ≥ 30. In multivariate analyses, women who were food insecure with hunger had higher odds of obesity (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] =  2.56, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]  =  1.27, 5.20 after adjusting for HIV status, age, race, household status, income, drug and alcohol use.Food insecurity with hunger was associated with obesity in this population of HIV-infected and -uninfected, urban women. Both food insecurity and obesity are independent markers for increased mortality; further research is needed to understand this relationship and their role in adverse health outcomes.

  3. Hunger--1973; Prepared by the Staff of the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs, United States Senate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    This report, prepared by the staff of the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the U. S. Senate, is intended as a profile of the "half-full, half-empty plate which the Federal food programs represent to the nation's poor." The report focuses on various aspects of poverty and hunger such as: (1) poverty in the nation--the poverty line,…

  4. Promotion of the feeding minds and fighting hunger initiative in selected rural schools in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamji, Mahtab S; Murthy, P V V S

    2006-06-01

    Schoolchildren are good agents of change and need to be educated and sensitized to specific issues of hunger and malnutrition through a question-and-answer process. Feeding Minds and Fighting Hunger (FMFH), a global project initiated by the Food and Agriculture Organization and partner organizations, attempts to help schoolchildren learn about these issues by introducing concepts in the prevention of hunger and malnutrition to teachers, and by facilitating transfer of knowledge to the children through a set of model lessons. To test the feasibility of the FMFH approach to improve the nutrition knowledge of rural schoolchildren in three rural schools in Medak District of the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Participatory workshops for teachers were conducted to facilitate knowledge transfer to the children through interactive classroom teaching and other activities. The change in knowledge and thinking of children in the seventh and eighth grades was assessed by a ques- tionnaire administered before and after the intervention. The questionnaire also assessed, in part, the status of local food security based on the sources of different food items in the households. The responses to the questionnaire suggested that the children's knowledge of nutrients and their functions was not good initially but improved after the intervention. However, their understanding of the social factors responsible for hunger and malnutrition was fairly good prior to the intervention. Improvement in responses to the question of what should be done to combat malnutrition also occurred after intervention. The community had village-level food security for rice and maize but depended partially or fully on outside sources for pulses, fruits and vegetables, and animal products. The FMFH approach can be applied in rural schools where "the poorest of the poor" children can improve their understanding of balanced diets, better nutrition, the causes of malnutrition, and approaches to combat

  5. Eating behaviour in treatment-seeking obese subjects - Influence of sex and BMI classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Barbara; Wilms, Britta; Thurnheer, Martin; Schultes, Bernd

    2015-12-01

    Obese subjects frequently show an adversely altered eating behaviour. However, little is known on differences in eating behaviour across different degree of obesity. We analysed data on the three factor eating questionnaire assessing cognitive restraint, disinhibition, and hunger that were filled in by 664 obese patients (469 women) who seeked treatment in our Interdisciplinary Obesity Center. Patients were divided in five BMI classes (30 - 50 kg/m(2)). Multivariate regression analyses revealed that sex was significantly related to all three eating behaviour traits (all P eating behaviour variables between the remaining BMI classes. Data indicate profound differences in eating behaviour between women and men that persist across a wide range of obesity. Furthermore, data suggest that while grade I obese patients show higher cognitive restraint and less disinhibition and hunger scores than more severe obese patients these dimensions of eating behaviour do not systematically vary across higher BMI classes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of palatable food and hunger as trigger factors in an animal model of stress induced binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Mary M; Chandler, Paula C; Wauford, Pamela K; Rybak, Rachel J; Oswald, Kimberly D

    2003-09-01

    Dieting and stress are etiological factors in eating disorders, and dieting strongly predicts stress-induced overeating in the nonclinical population. We developed an animal model of binge eating in sated rats that is evoked by stress, but only in rats with a history of caloric restriction and only if highly palatable food (HPF) is available after stress. This study investigated the effect of known binge triggers, a taste of HPF and of hunger, on this type of binge eating. Female rats were cycled through the R/S protocol but this time were given just a taste of HPF with ad lib regular chow. After another R/S cycle, rats were stressed during restriction (while hungry) and were given HPF and chow. Although binge eating did not occur if only chow was available after stress, just a taste of HPF sufficed to increase chow intake to more than 160% (p stress-only, or neither. Hunger increased the proportion of chow consumed by both restricted groups, but stress magnified this hunger-induced overeating by increasing HPF intake to 137% of restriction-only rats (p stress. Copyright 2003 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Associations of Parental Control of Feeding with Eating in the Absence of Hunger and Food Sneaking, Hiding, and Hoarding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Haines, Jess; Gortmaker, Steven; Mitchell, Kathleen F.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Overweight children as young as 5 years old exhibit disturbances in eating behaviors. Methods Using follow-up data from 419 participants in High Five for Kids, a randomized controlled trial of overweight children, the prevalence of (1) eating in the absence of hunger and (2) food sneaking, hiding, and hoarding was estimated and cross-sectional associations of parental control of feeding and these behaviors were examined using covariate-adjusted logistic regression models. Results At follow-up, mean [standard deviation (SD)] age of the children was 7.1 (1.2) years; 49% were female; 16% were healthy weight, 35% were overweight, and 49% were obese. On the basis of parental report, 16.5% of children were eating in the absence of hunger and 27.2% were sneaking, hiding, or hoarding food; 57.5% of parents endorsed parental control of feeding. In adjusted models, children exposed to parental control of feeding were more likely to eat in the absence of hunger [odds ratio (OR) 3.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.66, 6.86], but not to sneak, hide, or hoard food (OR 1.43, 95% CI 0.87, 2.36). Conclusions Disturbances in eating behaviors are common among overweight children. Future research should be dedicated to identifying strategies that normalize eating behaviors and prevent excess weight gain among overweight children. PMID:23806073

  8. The internal circadian clock increases hunger and appetite in the evening independent of food intake and other behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Frank A J L; Morris, Christopher J; Shea, Steven A

    2013-03-01

    Despite the extended overnight fast, paradoxically, people are typically not ravenous in the morning and breakfast is typically the smallest meal of the day. We assessed whether this paradox could be explained by an endogenous circadian influence on appetite with a morning trough, while controlling for sleep/wake and fasting/feeding effects. Twelve healthy non-obese adults (six males; age, 20-42 years) were studied throughout a 13-day laboratory protocol that balanced all behaviors, including eucaloric meals and sleep periods, evenly across the endogenous circadian cycle. Participants rated their appetite and food preferences by visual analog scales. There was a large endogenous circadian rhythm in hunger, with the trough in the biological morning (8 AM) and peak in the biological evening (8 PM; peak-to-trough amplitude = 17%; P = 0.004). Similarly-phased significant endogenous circadian rhythms were present in appetites for sweet, salty and starchy foods, fruits, meats/poultry, food overall, and for estimates of how much food participants could eat (amplitudes 14-25%; all P < 0.05). In people who sleep at night, the intrinsic circadian evening peak in appetite may promote larger meals before the fasting period necessitated by sleep, whereas the circadian morning trough would theoretically facilitate the extended overnight fast. Furthermore, the circadian decline in hunger across the night would theoretically counteract the fasting-induced hunger increase that could otherwise disrupt sleep. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  9. Sexually Experienced Adolescents' Thoughts About Sexual Pleasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliares, Ellen; Wilkerson, J Michael; Sieving, Renee E; Brady, Sonya S

    Little research on adolescents has examined developmentally normative facets of sexuality that are not obviously linked to physical health. The purpose of this secondary data analysis was to qualitatively analyze adolescents' thoughts about and experiences with sexual pleasure. The study sample consisted of 56 sexually experienced, ethnically diverse, predominantly female adolescents who were participating in a Web-based intervention to promote healthy sexual decision making. Comments on one message board, "Sexual Pleasure: Does It Matter to You?," provided an opportunity to examine adolescents' thoughts about and experiences with sexual pleasure, as well as their communication with partners about that topic. Adolescents' comments demonstrated that they experience difficulties with pleasure in their sexual relationships. Adolescents generally believed that men are more likely than women to feel pleasure due to differences that include biology, understanding of one's body, and control over partnered sexual behavior. Adolescents defined inequality of received pleasure differently and discussed contexts in which inequality may be acceptable. Adolescents expressed motivation to communicate with partners about sexual pleasure. However, their statements suggested they often lack the skills to do so. Future prevention and intervention programs should equip adolescents with skills to communicate with partners about sexual pleasure.

  10. Underdiagnosis of malnutrition in infants and young children in Rwanda: implications for attainment of the Millennium Development Goal to end poverty and hunger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binagwaho Agnès

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Progress towards the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG1 to end poverty and hunger has lagged behind attainment of other MDGs due to chronic poverty and worldwide inequity in access to adequate health care, food, clean water, and sanitation. Despite ongoing challenges, Rwanda has experienced economic progress and the expansion of the national public health system during the past 20 years. However, protein-energy malnutrition in children under five is still a major concern for physicians and government officials in Rwanda. Approximately 45% of children under the age of five in Rwanda suffer from chronic malnutrition, and one in four is undernourished. For years, health facilities in Rwanda have used incorrect growth references for measuring nutritional status of children despite the adoption of new standards by the World Health Organization in 2006. Under incorrect growth references used in Rwanda, a number of children under five who were severely underweight were not identified, and therefore were not treated for malnutrition, thus potentially contributing to the under five mortality rate. Given that one in ten children suffer from malnutrition worldwide, it is imperative that all countries with a burden of malnutrition adopt the most up-to-date international standards for measuring malnutrition, and that the problem is brought to the forefront of international public health initiatives. For low income countries in the process of improving economic conditions, as Rwanda is, increasing the identification and treatment of malnutrition can promote the advancement of MDG1 as well as physical and cognitive development in children, which is imperative for advancing future economic progress.

  11. Pituitary Adenylate-Cyclase Activating Polypeptide Regulates Hunger- and Palatability-Induced Binge Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Matthew M; Maunze, Brian; Block, Megan E; Frenkel, Mogen M; Reilly, Michael J; Kim, Eugene; Chen, Yao; Li, Yan; Baker, David A; Liu, Qing-Song; Choi, SuJean

    2016-01-01

    While pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) signaling in the hypothalamic ventromedial nuclei (VMN) has been shown to regulate feeding, a challenge in unmasking a role for this peptide in obesity is that excess feeding can involve numerous mechanisms including homeostatic (hunger) and hedonic-related (palatability) drives. In these studies, we first isolated distinct feeding drives by developing a novel model of binge behavior in which homeostatic-driven feeding was temporally separated from feeding driven by food palatability. We found that stimulation of the VMN, achieved by local microinjections of AMPA, decreased standard chow consumption in food-restricted rats (e.g., homeostatic feeding); surprisingly, this manipulation failed to alter palatable food consumption in satiated rats (e.g., hedonic feeding). In contrast, inhibition of the nucleus accumbens (NAc), through local microinjections of GABA receptor agonists baclofen and muscimol, decreased hedonic feeding without altering homeostatic feeding. PACAP microinjections produced the site-specific changes in synaptic transmission needed to decrease feeding via VMN or NAc circuitry. PACAP into the NAc mimicked the actions of GABA agonists by reducing hedonic feeding without altering homeostatic feeding. In contrast, PACAP into the VMN mimicked the actions of AMPA by decreasing homeostatic feeding without affecting hedonic feeding. Slice electrophysiology recordings verified PACAP excitation of VMN neurons and inhibition of NAc neurons. These data suggest that the VMN and NAc regulate distinct circuits giving rise to unique feeding drives, but that both can be regulated by the neuropeptide PACAP to potentially curb excessive eating stemming from either drive.

  12. The Work of Hunger: Security, Development and Food-for-Work in Post-crisis Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamey Essex

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Food-for-work programs distribute food aid to recipients in exchange for labor, and are an important mode of aid delivery for both public and private aid providers. While debate continues as to whether food-for-work programs are socially just and economically sensible, governments, international institutions, and NGOs continue to tout them as a flexible and cost-effective way to deliver targeted aid and promote community development. This paper critiques the underlying logic of food-for-work, focusing on how this approach to food aid and food security promote labor force participation by leveraging hunger against poverty, and how the ideological and practical assumptions of food-for-work become enmeshed within discourses of geopolitical security. I rely on a case study examination of US-funded food-for-work programs implemented in Jakarta, Indonesia following the 1997 financial crisis. The crisis produced acute food insecurity and poverty in Indonesia, provoking fears of mob violence by the hungry poor and the spread of radical Islamism in the post-crisis political vacuum. Food-for-work programs were, in this context, meant to resolve the problems of both food insecurity and geopolitical insecurity by providing food to targeted populations, employment to those otherwise thrown out of work, and resituating the hungry poor in relation to broader scales of local, national, and global power.

  13. Transmedia Communication to Erradicate Hunger: ProjecteFAM, a Cross-Media Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Zareceansky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Projecte FAM (project FAMINE in Catalan is the name of a living experience and ongoing research, innovation, testing and redefinition on the design of a strategy of political, social and cultural impact that uses communication as a core tool within the framework of transmedia narrative. This paper explores the innovative aspects of the diffrent narrative products that constitute this communication project of Social Change and it also addresses the conceptualization derived from the research on the collective imagination of hunger as a starting point for creating diffrent hybridizations of storytelling and the logic of audiovisual source code. This essay describes the design and formulation of the project from the perspective of communication for global citizenship and its necessary adaptation to the practice and critical theory of the communication of the Third Sector. All in all, it analyzes the diffrent products from a strategic logic, its main audiences or publics and its consequent objectives.

  14. Temperament and hunger interact to determine the emergence of leaders in pairs of foraging fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinnosuke Nakayama

    Full Text Available Studies on leadership have focused either on physiological state as the key predictor (i.e. "leading according to need", or else on temperamental asymmetries among group members (i.e. intrinsic leadership. In this paper, we explore how both factors interact in determining the emergence of leaders. We observed pairs of sticklebacks with varying degrees of temperamental difference, and recorded their movements back and forth between a safe covered area and a risky foraging area, both before and after satiating one of the two pair members (but not the other. Before satiation, when the fish had similar hunger levels, temperament was a good predictor of social roles, with the bolder member of a pair leading and the shyer member following. The effect of satiation depended on which fish received the additional food. When the shyer member of a pair was fed, and consequently became less active, the bolder fish did not change its behaviour but continued to lead. By contrast, when the bolder member of a pair was fed, and consequently initiated fewer trips out of cover, the shyer partner compensated by initiating trips more frequently itself. In pairs that differed only a little in temperament, feeding the bolder fish actually led to a role reversal, with the shyer fish emerging as a leader in the majority of joint trips out of cover. Our results show that leadership emerges as the consequence of multiple factors, and that their interaction can be complex.

  15. Plasma acyl ghrelin and nonesterified fatty acids are the best predictors for hunger status in pregnant gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, P; Yang, X J; Kim, J S; Menon, D; Pangeni, D; Manu, H; Tekeste, A; Baidoo, S K

    2017-12-01

    Sows are usually restricted fed during pregnancy to maximize their reproductive efficiency, which may predispose sows to a state of hunger. However, an objective measurement of hunger status has not been established. In the present study, we examined the correlation of plasma hormones and NEFA and selected the best predictors for hunger status using pregnant gilts. Three different levels of feed intake (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 × maintenance energy intake [0.5M, 1.0M and 2.0M, respectively]) were imposed from Day 28 to 34 of gestation to create different hunger statuses in pregnant gilts. Plasma hormones related to energy homeostasis and NEFA were analyzed to quantify their response to different levels of feed intake. A total of 18 gilts (197.53 ± 6.41 kg) were allotted to 1 of 3 dietary treatments using a completely randomized design. Results showed that BW change, ADG, and G:F from Day 28 to 34 of gestation were higher ( gilts on the 2.0M feeding level than for gilts on the 0.5M feeding level. Plasma acyl ghrelin concentrations showed a relatively flat pattern during the 24-h period. Plasma acyl ghrelin and NEFA concentrations and areas under the curve (AUC) were greater ( gilts on the 0.5M level of feed intake than in those on the 2.0M level of feed intake. No differences were observed among the 3 feeding levels in terms of plasma glucagon-like peptide 1 and leptin concentrations. Additionally, consumption time for 1.82 kg feed on Day 35 of gestation was longer ( gilts fed the 2.0M level of feed intake from Day 28 to 34 of gestation than in those on the 0.5M level of feed intake. Simple linear regression results showed that the AUC of acyl ghrelin was the best predictor for consumption time ( = 0.82), whereas the AUC of NEFA was the best predictor for BW ( = 0.55) or backfat change ( = 0.42) from Day 28 to 34 of gestation. In conclusion, our data suggested that a relative flat pattern existed in pregnant gilts in terms of the diurnal plasma profile of acyl ghrelin and

  16. Body composition and somatotype of experienced mountain climbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Davide; Zaccagni, Luciana; Cogo, Annalisa; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2012-03-01

    In order to evaluate body composition and somatotype, 10 Italian experienced mountain climbers were assessed from an anthropometric point of view, before a high altitude ascent. Body mass, height, girths, skinfolds, and bone breadths were gathered and used to calculate body composition and somatotype of each subject. Means and standard deviations of the subjects' anthropometric characteristics were calculated. Mesomorphism (5.28±1.10) is the dominant somatotype component in all but one the participants, endomorphism (1.55±0.49) is low, and body fat percentage (11.76%±2.93) is low. Comparisons with athletes involved in other climbing subdisciplines highlight the specificity of elite mountain climbers anthropometry. The elite mountain climbers in our sample were predominantly mesomorphic with somatotype attitudinal mean values lower than reported for male athletes participating in free-climbing, volleyball, gymnastics, and soccer. Anthropometric characteristics may therefore play a role in mountain climbing, even though the trainable components may be more relevant than the nontrainable ones.

  17. Virtual Distance and Soundstage, and their Impacts on Experienced Emotional Valence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Research from animal ethology and affective neuroscience suggest that a listener’s perceived distance from a signal source can alter their experienced emotional valence of the music. Furthermore, appraisal theories of emotion suggest that emotionally valenced responses will diverge according...... to the type of emotion presented. For these exploratory investigations, subjects listen to selected musical excerpts on speakers in combination with a tactile transducer attached to their chair. The listening sessions are recorded on EEG supported by subject feedback responses. My hypothesis is that musical...... stimuli should cause stronger valenced responses in the nearfield than at a distance. Thus, music experienced as being negatively valenced at a distance should be more negatively valenced in nearfield, and music that is experienced as having a positive valence at a distance should be more positively...

  18. "Sad, Just Sad": A Woman with a Learning Disability Experiencing Bereavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Alison; Bell, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    This case study considers the psychological assessment, formulation and treatment of Hannah, a woman with a learning disability who recently experienced the death of her mother. Death still remains a challenging and often taboo subject. Moreover, when the grief is of a person with a learning disability, this combines with underlying difficulties…

  19. Hedonic Hunger Is Related to Increased Neural and Perceptual Responses to Cues of Palatable Food and Motivation to Consume: Evidence from 3 Independent Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kyle S; Sanders, Abigail J; Gilbert, Jennifer R

    2016-09-01

    The Power of Food Scale (PFS) seeks to identify individuals who experience high appetitive drive in response to food cues, which is a construct termed "hedonic hunger." The purpose of this study was to assess cross-sectional correlates and predictive power of PFS scores to probe the construct of hedonic hunger. Separate data from 3 studies (study 1, n = 44; study 2, n = 398; study 3, n = 100) were used to evaluate the construct of hedonic hunger. We examined the correlations between the PFS and neural responsivity during intake and anticipated intake of palatable foods, behavioral food reinforcement, perceptual hedonic ratings of food images, and change in body mass index (BMI) and binge eating over time. Hedonic hunger was strongly related to bilateral brain response in regions implicated in oral somatosensory processing during cue-elicited anticipation of food intake (study 1; right postcentral gyrus: r = 0.67, P hunger was not associated with baseline BMI (studies 1-3: P = 0.14, 0.21, and 0.37, respectively) or change in BMI over the 2-y follow-up (studies 1 and 2: P = 0.14 and 0.37, respectively) but was significantly correlated with baseline binge eating in 2 samples (study 1: r = 0.58, P = 0.001; study 2: r = 0.31, P = 0.02; and study 3: P = 0.02). Hedonic hunger was not predictive of weight regulation. However, individuals who report high hedonic hunger are likely to show increased neural and perceptual responses to cues of palatable foods, increased motivation to consume such foods, and a greater likelihood of current binge eating. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. THE CONGENITAL MOTOR DISABILITY EXPERIENCED AS COMMONSENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolita Viluckienė

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article applies Alfred Schutz’s phenomenologically grounded sociological perspective to explore how persons with a congenital motor disability or having a disability ever since their childhood construct and maintain their significant social reality through subjective meanings and how they interpret their disabled bodies. Their personal narratives are based on qualitative in-depth interviews and suggest that these persons face the disability only during secondary socialization, after internalization of social typifications of disabled body of negative meaning, the overcoming of which and successful socialization requires the involvement into new social group or community, i.e., into a positive social structure, confirming their identity. This article performs cognitive function and contributes to the social workers‘ understanding and knowledge building in order to get a re-evaluating the social needs of people with congenital physical disability.

  1. Stress Management Training for Employees Experiencing Corporate Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Timothy R.; Maples, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Describes a stress management seminar for employees experiencing corporate acquisition which was attended by 40 men and 16 women. Presents information regarding specific types of stressors experienced by these employees. Notes that participant reactions support the design and utility of this type of program for employees experiencing corporate…

  2. Randomized Exposure to Food Advertisements and Eating in the Absence of Hunger Among Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansigan, Reina K.; Ramanujam, Archana; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preschoolers in the United States are heavily exposed to unhealthy food advertisements. Whether such exposure promotes cued eating has not been documented in this age group. METHODS: Randomized experiment among 60 children, aged 2 to 5 years, recruited in 2015–2016 from New Hampshire and Vermont. Children completed the experiment at a behavioral laboratory. Children were provided with a healthy snack to consume upon arrival then randomized to view a 14-minute TV program embedded with advertisements for either a food or a department store. Children were provided 2 snack foods to consume ad libitum while viewing the TV program; 1 of those snacks was the food advertised. Eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) was operationalized as the kilocalories of snack foods consumed. t tests were used to compare EAH by advertisement condition; linear regression models assessed effect modification by the child’s age, sex, BMI percentile, and parental feeding restriction. RESULTS: Mean age was 4.1 (SD 0.9) years, 55% of children were male, 80% were non-Hispanic white, and 20% were overweight or obese. There were no differences in child or socioeconomic characteristics by advertisement condition. Child BMI was not related to EAH. Mean kilocalories consumed during the EAH phase was greater among children exposed to the food advertisements (126.8, SD: 58.5) versus those exposed to the nonfood advertisements (97.3, SD: 52.3; P = .04), an effect driven by greater consumption of the advertised food (P advertisement exposure may encourage obesogenic-eating behaviors among the very young. PMID:27940713

  3. Pituitary Adenylate-Cyclase Activating Polypeptide Regulates Hunger- and Palatability-Induced Binge Eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M. Hurley

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available While pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP signaling in the hypothalamic ventromedial nuclei (VMN has been shown to regulate feeding, a challenge in unmasking a role for this peptide in obesity is that excess feeding can involve numerous mechanisms including homeostatic (hunger and hedonic-related (palatability drives. In these studies, we first isolated distinct feeding drives by developing a novel model of binge behavior in which homeostatic-driven feeding was temporally separated from feeding driven by food palatability. We found that stimulation of the VMN, achieved by local microinjections of AMPA, decreased standard chow consumption in food-restricted rats (e.g., homeostatic feeding; surprisingly, this manipulation failed to alter palatable food consumption in satiated rats (e.g., hedonic feeding. In contrast, inhibition of the nucleus accumbens (NAc, through local microinjections of GABA receptor agonists baclofen and muscimol, decreased hedonic feeding without altering homeostatic feeding. PACAP microinjections produced the site-specific changes in synaptic transmission needed to decrease feeding via VMN or NAc circuitry. PACAP into the NAc mimicked the actions of GABA agonists by reducing hedonic feeding without altering homeostatic feeding. In contrast, PACAP into the VMN mimicked the actions of AMPA by decreasing homeostatic feeding without affecting hedonic feeding. Slice electrophysiology recordings verified PACAP excitation of VMN neurons and inhibition of NAc neurons. These data suggest that the VMN and NAc regulate distinct circuits giving rise to unique feeding drives, but that both can be regulated by the neuropeptide PACAP to potentially curb excessive eating stemming from either drive.

  4. Randomized Exposure to Food Advertisements and Eating in the Absence of Hunger Among Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Jennifer A; Lansigan, Reina K; Ramanujam, Archana; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane

    2016-12-01

    Preschoolers in the United States are heavily exposed to unhealthy food advertisements. Whether such exposure promotes cued eating has not been documented in this age group. Randomized experiment among 60 children, aged 2 to 5 years, recruited in 2015-2016 from New Hampshire and Vermont. Children completed the experiment at a behavioral laboratory. Children were provided with a healthy snack to consume upon arrival then randomized to view a 14-minute TV program embedded with advertisements for either a food or a department store. Children were provided 2 snack foods to consume ad libitum while viewing the TV program; 1 of those snacks was the food advertised. Eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) was operationalized as the kilocalories of snack foods consumed. t tests were used to compare EAH by advertisement condition; linear regression models assessed effect modification by the child's age, sex, BMI percentile, and parental feeding restriction. Mean age was 4.1 (SD 0.9) years, 55% of children were male, 80% were non-Hispanic white, and 20% were overweight or obese. There were no differences in child or socioeconomic characteristics by advertisement condition. Child BMI was not related to EAH. Mean kilocalories consumed during the EAH phase was greater among children exposed to the food advertisements (126.8, SD: 58.5) versus those exposed to the nonfood advertisements (97.3, SD: 52.3; P = .04), an effect driven by greater consumption of the advertised food (P advertisement exposure may encourage obesogenic-eating behaviors among the very young. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Chick Begging Calls Reflect Degree of Hunger in Three Auk Species (Charadriiformes: Alcidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V Klenova

    Full Text Available Begging behaviour is an important element in the parent-offspring conflict; it has been studied in many avian species. However, the majority of the studies have been entirely based on the call counts, and they agreed that vocal activity was a good indicator of chick's nutritional need and/or condition. Fewer researches were dedicated to the temporal-frequency variables of the begging calls themselves and they showed contrary results. Here begging behaviour in three burrow nested, uniparous species of auks (Alcidae was studied. These objects provide an opportunity to study the signalling value of begging calls in the absence of important confounding factors such as nestling competition and predation pressure. I recorded calls of individual chicks in two conditions: during natural feeding and after experimental four-hour food deprivation. I found that almost all measured acoustic variables contain information about the chick's state in all studied species. The hungry chicks produced calls higher in fundamental frequency and power variables and at higher calling rate compared to naturally feeding chicks. The effect of food deprivation on most acoustic variables exceeded both the effects of individuality and species. In all studied species, the frequency variables were stronger affected by hunger than the calling rate and call durations. I suppose that such strong change of acoustic variables after food deprivation can be explained by absence of vocal individual identification in these birds. As parents do not need to check individuality of the chick in the burrow, which they find visually during the day time, the chicks could use all of the acoustic variables to communicate about their nutritional needs.

  6. Effects of electrical stimulation of the hunger center in the lateral hypothalamus and food reinforcement on impulse activity of the stomach in rabbits under conditions of hunger and satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenina, O Yu; Kromin, A A

    2012-10-01

    Stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus in preliminary fed animals in the presence of the food is associated with successful food-procuring behavior, accompanied by regular generation of high-amplitude slow electrical waves by muscles of the lesser curvature, body, and antrum of the stomach, which was reflected in the structure of temporal organization of slow electrical activity in the form of unimodal distribution of slow wave periods typical of satiation state. Despite increased level of food motivation caused by stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus, the additional food intake completely abolished the inhibitory effects of hunger motivation excitement on slow electrical muscle activity in the lesser curvature, body, and antrum of the stomach of satiated rabbits. Changes in slow electrical activity of the stomach muscles in rabbits deprived of food over 24 h and offered food and associated food-procuring behavior during electrical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus have a two-phase pattern. Despite food intake during phase I of electrical stimulation, the downstream inhibitory effect of hunger motivation excitement on myogenic pacemaker of the lesser curvature of stomach abolishes the stimulating effect of food reinforcement on slow electrical muscle activity in the lesser curvature, body, and antrum of the stomach. During phase II of electrical stimulation, the food reinforcement decreases inhibitory effect of hunger motivation excitement on myogenic pacemaker of the lesser curvature that paces maximal rhythm of slow electrical waves for muscles activity in the lesser curvature, body, and antrum of the stomach, which is reflected by unimodal distribution of slow electrical wave periods. Our results indicated that the structure of temporal organization of slow electrical activity of the stomach muscles reflects convergent interactions of food motivation and reinforcement excitations on the dorsal vagal complex neurons in medulla oblongata.

  7. Adherence to Hunger Training over 6 Months and the Effect on Weight and Eating Behaviour: Secondary Analysis of a Randomised Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachael W.; Athens, Josie; Brown, Rachel C.

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring blood glucose prior to eating can teach individuals to eat only when truly hungry, but how adherence to ‘hunger training’ influences weight loss and eating behaviour is uncertain. This exploratory, secondary analysis from a larger randomized controlled trial examined five indices of adherence to ‘hunger training’, chosen a priori, to examine which adherence measure best predicted weight loss over 6 months. We subsequently explored how the best measure of adherence influenced eating behavior in terms of intuitive and emotional eating. Retention was 72% (n = 36/50) at 6 months. Frequency of hunger training booklet entry most strongly predicted weight loss, followed by frequency of blood glucose measurements. Participants who completed at least 60 days of booklet entry (of recommended 63 days) lost 6.8 kg (95% CI: 2.6, 11.0; p hunger training and focusing on simply recording ratings of hunger on a regular basis can produce clinically significant weight loss and clinically relevant improvements in eating behaviour. PMID:29149038

  8. Resting metabolic rate is associated with hunger, self-determined meal size, and daily energy intake and may represent a marker for appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudwell, Phillipa; Finlayson, Graham; Gibbons, Catherine; Hopkins, Mark; King, Neil; Näslund, Erik; Blundell, John E

    2013-01-01

    There are strong logical reasons why energy expended in metabolism should influence the energy acquired in food-intake behavior. However, the relation has never been established, and it is not known why certain people experience hunger in the presence of large amounts of body energy. We investigated the effect of the resting metabolic rate (RMR) on objective measures of whole-day food intake and hunger. We carried out a 12-wk intervention that involved 41 overweight and obese men and women [mean ± SD age: 43.1 ± 7.5 y; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 30.7 ± 3.9] who were tested under conditions of physical activity (sedentary or active) and dietary energy density (17 or 10 kJ/g). RMR, daily energy intake, meal size, and hunger were assessed within the same day and across each condition. We obtained evidence that RMR is correlated with meal size and daily energy intake in overweight and obese individuals. Participants with high RMRs showed increased levels of hunger across the day (P hunger. These results may have implications for additional research possibilities in appetite, energy homeostasis, and obesity. This trial was registered under international standard identification for controlled trials as ISRCTN47291569.

  9. Adherence to Hunger Training over 6 Months and the Effect on Weight and Eating Behaviour: Secondary Analysis of a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jospe, Michelle R; Taylor, Rachael W; Athens, Josie; Roy, Melyssa; Brown, Rachel C

    2017-11-17

    Monitoring blood glucose prior to eating can teach individuals to eat only when truly hungry, but how adherence to 'hunger training' influences weight loss and eating behaviour is uncertain. This exploratory, secondary analysis from a larger randomized controlled trial examined five indices of adherence to 'hunger training', chosen a priori, to examine which adherence measure best predicted weight loss over 6 months. We subsequently explored how the best measure of adherence influenced eating behavior in terms of intuitive and emotional eating. Retention was 72% ( n = 36/50) at 6 months. Frequency of hunger training booklet entry most strongly predicted weight loss, followed by frequency of blood glucose measurements. Participants who completed at least 60 days of booklet entry (of recommended 63 days) lost 6.8 kg (95% CI: 2.6, 11.0; p eating scores than those who completed 30 days or less of booklet entry; a difference (95% CI) of 0.73 (0.12, 1.35) in body-food choice congruence and 0.79 (0.06, 1.51) for eating for physical rather than emotional reasons. Adherent participants also reported significantly lower scores for emotional eating of -0.70 (-1.13, -0.27). Following hunger training and focusing on simply recording ratings of hunger on a regular basis can produce clinically significant weight loss and clinically relevant improvements in eating behaviour.

  10. Climate change: A threat towards achieving ‘Sustainable Development Goal number two’ (end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingirai S. Mugambiwa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to assess the impacts of climate change towards the achievement of Sustainable Development Goal number two (SDG 2 as well as examining the poverty alleviation strategies by subsistence farmers in South Africa. Widespread hunger and poverty continue to be among the most life-threatening problems confronting mankind. Available statistics show that global poverty remains a serious challenge around the world. Across the globe, one in five people lives on less than $1 a day and one in seven suffers from chronic hunger. Similarly, the developing world is adversely affected by poverty and hunger. In the sub-Saharan Africa, research has revealed a higher prevalence of hunger, malnutrition, poverty and food insecurity. SDG 2 focuses more on eliminating hunger and promoting sustainable agriculture. The study employed an exploratory design and a qualitative method. Snowball sampling was used in selecting relevant sources which led the researchers to other research work on the same field through keywords and reference lists. The researchers employed discourse analysis to analyse data. The study discovered that there are numerous potential effects climate change could have on agriculture. It affects crop growth and quality and livestock health. Farming practices could also be affected as well as animals that could be raised in particular climatic areas. The impact of climate change as well as the susceptibility of poor communities is very immense. The article concludes that climate change reduces access to drinking water, negatively affects the health of people and poses a serious threat to food security.

  11. Effect of periodized high intensity interval training (HIIT) on body composition and attitudes towards hunger in active men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Heath, Brendyn; Bandong, Jason; Ordille, Gina M; Contreras, Ramon; Montell, Matthew; Schubert, Matthew M

    2017-06-21

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) increases maximal oxygen uptake similar to aerobic exercise. However, changes in body composition are equivocal in response to HIIT. We examined changes in body composition and dietary restraint in response to 20 sessions of HIIT varying in structure. Thirty nine active men and women (age and VO2max = 22.5 ± 4.4 yr and 40.1 ± 5.6 mL/kg/min) were randomized to one of three periodized HIIT regimes performed on a cycle ergometer. Before and after training, body composition was assessed using skinfolds (SKF), circumference measures, and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) following standardized procedures. Hunger, restraint, and disinhibition were also measured using the 3-Factor Eating Questionnaire and Power of Food Survey. Control participants (n = 32, age and VO2max = 25.6 ± 4.4 yr and 40.6 ± 4.9 mL/kg/min) matched for age and fitness level underwent all testing but did not complete HIIT. There was no change (p > 0.05) in body mass, circumferences, or BIA-derived body fat in response to HIIT. However, SKF-derived body fat declined (p = 0.04) with HIIT, and genderXtime (p = 0.03) and genderXtimeXregimen interactions (p = 0.04) were shown in that women but not men exhibited significant reductions in body fat. Hunger was reduced from baseline to post-training (p = 0.028), but this response was not different in response to HIIT compared to controls. Twenty sessions of low-volume HIIT reduce body fat in women but not men, but do not alter perceptions of hunger.

  12. Ghrelin increases hunger and food intake in patients with restricting-type anorexia nervosa: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Mari; Ohwada, Rina; Akamizu, Takashi; Shibasaki, Tamotsu; Takano, Kazue; Kangawa, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Ghrelin increases hunger sensation and food intake in various patients with appetite loss. Anorexia nervosa (AN) begins with psychological stress-induced anorexia and some patients cannot increase their food intake partly because of malnutrition-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction. The effects of ghrelin on appetite, food intake and nutritional parameters in anorexia nervosa (AN) patients were examined. Five female restricting- type AN patients (age: 14-35 y; body mass index: 10.2-14.6 kg/m(2)) had persistently complained of gastrointestinal symptoms and failed to increase body weight. They were hospitalized for 26 days (6 days' pretreatment, 14 days' ghrelin-treatment, and 6 days' post-treatment) and received an intravenous infusion of 3 microg/kg ghrelin twice a day. Ghrelin infusion improved epigastric discomfort or constipation in 4 patients, whose hunger scores evaluated by visual analogue scale questionnaires also increased significantly after ghrelin infusion. Daily energy intake during ghrelin infusion increased by 12-36 % compared with the pre-treatment period. Serum levels of total protein and triglyceride as nutritional parameters significantly increased after ghrelin treatment. There were no serious adverse effects including psychological symptoms. We found that ghrelin decreases gastrointestinal symptoms and increases hunger sensation and daily energy intake without serious adverse events in AN patients. Although the present study had major limitations of the lack of a randomized, placebo-controlled group, non-blindness of the investigators and the small number of patients recruited, it would contribute to further investigations for therapeutic potential of ghrelin in AN patients.

  13. Hunger States Control the Directions of Synaptic Plasticity via Switching Cell Type-Specific Subunits of NMDA Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yong; Yang, Yunlei

    2015-09-23

    It remains largely unknown whether and how hunger states control activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). We here report that both LTP and LTD of excitatory synaptic strength within the appetite control circuits residing in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) behave in a manner of hunger states dependence and cell type specificity. For instance, we find that tetanic stimulation induces LTP at orexigenic agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons in ad libitum fed mice, whereas it induces LTD in food-deprived mice. In an opposite direction, the same induction protocol induces LTD at anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in fed mice but weak LTP in deprived mice. Mechanistically, we also find that food deprivation increases the expressions of NR2C/NR2D/NR3-containing NMDA receptors (NMDARs) at AgRP neurons that contribute to the inductions of LTD, whereas it decreases their expressions at POMC neurons. Collectively, our data reveal that hunger states control the directions of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity by switching NMDA receptor subpopulations in a cell type-specific manner, providing insights into NMDAR-mediated interactions between energy states and associative memory. Significance statement: Based on the experiments performed in this study, we demonstrate that activity-dependent synaptic plasticity is also under the control of energy states by regulating NMDAR subpopulations in a cell type-specific manner. We thus propose a reversible memory configuration constructed from energy states-dependent cell type-specific bidirectional conversions of LTP and LTD. Together with the distinct functional roles played by NMDAR signaling in the control of food intake and energy states, these findings reveal a new reciprocal interaction between energy states and associative memory, one that might serve as a target for therapeutic treatments of the energy-related memory disorders or vice versa

  14. Experiencing stigma as a nurse with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, A L

    2017-06-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Stigma involves connecting individuals with a particular label to negative characteristics; this is based not on the stigmatized condition itself, but cultural reactions to it. Stigma exists towards nurses with mental illness. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This paper offers a first-person account of experiencing stigma as a nurse with a mental illness. This paper incorporates the existing literature to offer a broader cultural perspective on the experiences of a nurse with a mental illness. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Nurses are likely to encounter a nurse with a mental illness at some point in their practice. Nurses' reactions towards colleagues with mental illness can have significant implications for those colleague(s)' wellbeing. Nurses with mental illness will have to navigate their person and professional journey while giving consideration to the attitudes of their nursing peers and leaders. Limited research has been done on the stigma faced by nurses with mental illness from their nursing peers. Mental illness is not generally considered acceptable within the context of nursing culture, so when nurses do experience mental illness, their experiences in a professional context may be influenced by stereotypes, particularly those relating to dangerousness. Using autoethnography as a research method, the author examines her own subjective experiences of stigma as a nurse with a mental illness, and draws upon existing literature on stigma, deviance and the phenomenon of mental illness in nurses to analyse broader cultural implications for nursing. Assessment of suitability to return to work arises throughout the narratives, and consideration is given to the way that risk assessment by nursing leaders is impacted by negative stereotypes that surround mental illness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Over 2.2 Million Low-Income California Adults are Food Insecure; 658,000 Suffer Hunger

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Gail G.; DiSogra, Charles A.; Manolo-LeClair, George; Aguayo, Jennifer; Al., Et

    2002-01-01

    More than 2.24 million low-income adults in California cannot always afford to put food on the table and, as a result, almost one out of three of these adults, 658,000, experiences episodes of hunger. This is a sad reality in a state that has the largest agricultural economy in the United States and produces an abundance of high-quality fruits and vegetables for much of the nation. The ranks of "food insecure" Californians include not just the most impoverished individuals but working adults,...

  16. Can environmental conditions experienced in early life influence future generations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Tim; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of early developmental conditions for performance in later life are now subjected to convergent interest from many different biological sub-disciplines. However, striking data, largely from the biomedical literature, show that environmental effects experienced even before conception can be transmissible to subsequent generations. Here, we review the growing evidence from natural systems for these cross-generational effects of early life conditions, showing that they can be generated by diverse environmental stressors, affect offspring in many ways and can be transmitted directly or indirectly by both parental lines for several generations. In doing so, we emphasize why early life might be so sensitive to the transmission of environmentally induced effects across generations. We also summarize recent theoretical advancements within the field of developmental plasticity, and discuss how parents might assemble different ‘internal’ and ‘external’ cues, even from the earliest stages of life, to instruct their investment decisions in offspring. In doing so, we provide a preliminary framework within the context of adaptive plasticity for understanding inter-generational phenomena that arise from early life conditions. PMID:24807254

  17. Women experiencing the intergenerationality of conjugal violence1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, Gilvânia Patrícia do Nascimento; Gomes, Nadirlene Pereira; Diniz, Normélia Maria Freire; Lira, Margaret Ollinda de Souza Carvalho e; Carvalho, Milca Ramaiane da Silva; da Silva, Rudval Souza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to analyze the family relationship, in childhood and adolescence, of women who experience conjugal violence. Method: qualitative study. Interviews were held with 19 women, who were experiencing conjugal violence, and who were resident in a community in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (N. 42/2011). Results: the data was organized using the Discourse of the Collective Subject, identifying the summary central ideas: they witnessed violence between their parents; they suffered repercussions from the violence between their parents: they were angry about the mother's submission to her partner; and they reproduced the conjugal violence. The discourse showed that the women witnessed, in childhood and adolescence, violence between their parents, and were injured both physically and psychologically. As a result of the mother's submission, feelings of anger arose in the children. However, in the adult phase of their own lives, they noticed that their conjugal life resembled that of their parents, reproducing the violence. Conclusion: investment is necessary in strategies designed to break inter-generational violence, and the health professionals are important in this process, as it is a phenomenon with repercussions in health. Because they work in the Family Health Strategy, which focuses on the prevention of harm and illness, health promotion and interdepartmentality, the nurses are essential in the process of preventing and confronting this phenomenon. PMID:26487137

  18. Atopic asthmatic subjects but not atopic subjects without ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is a known risk factor for acute ozone-associated respiratory disease. Ozone causes an immediate decrease in lung function and increased airway inflammation. The role of atopy and asthma in modulation of ozone-induced inflammation has not been determined. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether atopic status modulates ozone response phenotypes in human subjects. METHODS: Fifty volunteers (25 healthy volunteers, 14 atopic nonasthmatic subjects, and 11 atopic asthmatic subjects not requiring maintenance therapy) underwent a 0.4-ppm ozone exposure protocol. Ozone response was determined based on changes in lung function and induced sputum composition, including airway inflammatory cell concentration, cell-surface markers, and cytokine and hyaluronic acid concentrations. RESULTS: All cohorts experienced similar decreases in lung function after ozone. Atopic and atopic asthmatic subjects had increased sputum neutrophil numbers and IL-8 levels after ozone exposure; values did not significantly change in healthy volunteers. After ozone exposure, atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly increased sputum IL-6 and IL-1beta levels and airway macrophage Toll-like receptor 4, Fc(epsilon)RI, and CD23 expression; values in healthy volunteers and atopic nonasthmatic subjects showed no significant change. Atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly decreased IL-10 levels at baseline compared with healthy volunteers; IL-10 levels did not significa

  19. The antagonistic metabolite of GLP-1, GLP-1 (9-36)amide, does not influence gastric emptying and hunger sensations in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagell, Carl Frederic; Pedersen, Jan F; Holst, Jens Juul

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 (7-36)amide) is an intestinal hormone that is released in response to meal ingestion. GLP-1 reduces postprandial gastric and exocrine pancreatic secretion and is believed to inhibit gastric emptying. Furthermore, GLP-1 may play a role in hunger and thirst...... regulation. In vivo, GLP-1 is rapidly (within minutes) converted into a metabolite, GLP-1 (9-36)amide, which has been shown to act as a GLP-1 receptor antagonist in vitro and in anaesthetized pigs. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of infusion of GLP-1 (9-36)amide on hunger ratings...... and antral emptying of a meal. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six healthy volunteers were tested in a double-blind, placebo-controlled fashion. Antral emptying of a liquid meal and hunger ratings were determined using ultrasound technology and visual analogue scale scoring during infusions of saline or GLP-1 (9...

  20. Child hunger and the protective effects of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and alternative food sources among Mexican-origin families in Texas border colonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Dean, Wesley R; Nalty, Courtney C

    2013-09-13

    Nutritional health is essential for children's growth and development. Many Mexican-origin children who reside in limited-resource colonias along the Texas-Mexico border are at increased risk for poor nutrition as a result of household food insecurity. However, little is known about the prevalence of child hunger or its associated factors among children of Mexican immigrants. This study determines the prevalence of child hunger and identifies protective and risk factors associated with it in two Texas border areas. This study uses 2009 Colonia Household and Community Food Resource Assessment (C-HCFRA) data from 470 mothers who were randomly recruited by promotora-researchers. Participants from colonias near two small towns in two South Texas counties participated in an in-home community and household assessment. Interviewer-administered surveys collected data in Spanish on sociodemographics, federal food assistance program participation, and food security status. Frequencies and bivariate correlations were examined while a random-effects logistic regression model with backward elimination was used to determine correlates of childhood hunger. Hunger among children was reported in 51% (n = 239) of households in this C-HCFRA sample. Bivariate analyses revealed that hunger status was associated with select maternal characteristics, such as lower educational attainment and Mexican nativity, and household characteristics, including household composition, reliance on friend or neighbor for transportation, food purchase at dollar stores and from neighbors, and participation in school-based nutrition programs. A smaller percentage of households with child hunger participated in school-based nutrition programs (51%) or used alternative food sources, while 131 households were unable to give their child or children a balanced meal during the school year and 145 households during summer months. In the random effects model (RE = small town), increased household

  1. When hunger does (or doesn't) increase unhealthy and healthy food consumption through food wanting: The distinctive role of impulsive approach tendencies toward healthy food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Boris; Audrin, Catherine; Sarrazin, Philippe; Pelletier, Luc

    2017-09-01

    Hunger indirectly triggers unhealthy high-calorie food consumption through its positive effect on the incentive value (or "wanting") for food. Yet, not everyone consumes unhealthy food in excess, suggesting that some individuals react differently when they are exposed to unhealthy high-calorie food, even when they are hungry. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether individual differences in impulsive approach tendencies toward food may explain how, and for whom, hunger will influence unhealthy food consumption through its effect on food wanting. A complementary goal was to explore whether these individual differences also influence healthy food consumption. Students (N = 70) completed a questionnaire measuring their hunger and food wanting. Then, they performed a manikin task designed to evaluate their impulsive approach tendencies toward unhealthy food (IAUF) and healthy food (IAHF). The main outcomes variables were the amount of sweets (i.e., unhealthy food) and raisins (i.e., healthy food) consumed during a product-testing task. A moderated mediation analysis revealed that the indirect effect of hunger on unhealthy consumption through food wanting was moderated by IAHF. Specifically, hunger positively predicted sweets consumption through wanting for food among individuals with a low or moderate, but not high IAHF. The moderated mediation pattern was, however, not confirmed for IAUF. Finally, results revealed a direct and positive effect of IAHF on raisins consumption. These findings showed that IAHF play a protective role by preventing hunger to indirectly increase unhealthy food consumption through wanting for food. It confirms the importance of considering how individuals may differ in their impulsive approach tendencies toward food to better understand why some individuals will increase their unhealthy food intake when they are hungry, whereas other will not. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate, Ninety-Third Congress, First Session. Federal Food Programs--1973. Part 2--Hunger in 1973. Hearings Held Washington, D.C., June 4, 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    The "Hunger-1973" committee report, details the continuing hunger problem in the country. The report shows that the administration and participation of the Food Stamp and Surplus Food Program vary widely across the country. It shows that the benefits available under both programs are being severely restricted by the current food cost…

  3. Exercise dependence, social physique anxiety, and social support in experienced and inexperienced bodybuilders and weightlifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, R.; Hale, B.; Smith, D.; Collins, D.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To investigate psychological correlates of exercise dependence in experienced and inexperienced bodybuilders and weightlifters. Secondary objectives included measuring social physique anxiety, bodybuilding identity, and social support among bodybuilders and weightlifters. Methods—Thirty five experienced bodybuilders, 31 inexperienced bodybuilders, and 23 weightlifters completed the bodybuilding dependence scale, a bodybuilding version of the athletic identity measurement scale, the social physique anxiety scale, and an adapted version of the social support survey-clinical form. Results—A between subjects multivariate analysis of variance was calculated on the scores of the three groups of lifters for the four questionnaires. Univariate F tests and follow up tests indicated that experienced bodybuilders scored significantly higher than inexperienced bodybuilders and weightlifters on bodybuilding dependence (pbodybuilding identity (pbodybuilders exhibit more exercise dependence, show greater social support behaviour, and experience less social physique anxiety than inexperienced bodybuilders and weightlifters. Key Words: bodybuilding; exercise dependence; social physical anxiety; social support; athletic identity PMID:11131230

  4. Sustained Self-Regulation of Energy Intake: Initial Hunger Improves Insulin Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ciampolini

    2010-01-01

    Results. In trained subjects, significant decreases were found in insulin sensitivity index, insulin and BG peaks, glycated haemoglobin, mean pre-meal BG, standard deviation of diary BG (BG as recorded by subjects' 7-day diary, energy intake, BMI, and body weight when compared to control subjects. Conclusion. The IHMP improved insulin sensitivity and other cardiovascular risk factors over a 5-month period.

  5. The Economics of Colonialism: Hunger, Expropriation and Mendicancy in Mohammed Dib's Algerian Trilogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Sparks

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The colonial endeavor as argued by Aimé Césaire in his Discourse on Colonialism is neither an evangelization, nor a philanthropic enterprise, nor an aid system to combat systems of ignorance, sickness, and tyranny (32. It is a system of power relations based on exploitation and violence without concern for the Other. To borrow Césaire’s term, colonialism is nothing other than chosification ; it makes objects of people, tearing them from their land, home, and families, depriving them of essential, life-providing commodities. Colonization’s social and economic policies disrupted traditional society and the Algerian way of life more so than the physical military conquests had done. Albert Camus, as a Pied-Noir author, provides an outsider’s perspective on the suffering of the Algerian population, declaring, “Pour aujourd’hui, j’arrête ici cette promenade à travers la souffrance et la faim d’un peuple. On aura senti du moins que la misère ici n’est pas une formule ni un thème de méditation. Elle est. Elle crie et elle désespère. Encore une fois, qu’avons-nous fait pour elle et avons-nous le droit de nous détourner d’elle ?” (Camus 40 ‘For now, I must end this survey of the suffering and hunger of an entire population. The reader will have seen, at least, that misery here is not just a word or a theme for meditation. It exists. It cries out in desperation. What have we done about it, and do we have the right to avert our eyes.’ Mohammed Dib’s Algerian trilogy gives flesh to Camus’s statement; misery in these novels shouts and despairs, it shows itself through the characters and narration. This literature shows, as only literature can, the Algerians’ misery, and their desperation; it creates a collective trauma to be shared and understood by many through the act of storytelling. This collective trauma brings out the emotions of the characters and allows the reader to feel empathy toward the plight of the

  6. When snacks become meals: How hunger and environmental cues bias food intake

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    Shimizu Mitsuru

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While environmental and situational cues influence food intake, it is not always clear how they do so. We examine whether participants consume more when an eating occasion is associated with meal cues than with snack cues. We expect their perception of the type of eating occasion to mediate the amount of food they eat. In addition, we expect the effect of those cues on food intake to be strongest among those who are hungry. Methods One-hundred and twenty-two undergraduates (75 men, 47 women; mean BMI = 22.8, SD = 3.38 were randomly assigned to two experimental conditions in which they were offered foods such as quesadillas and chicken wings in an environment that was associated with either meal cues (ceramic plates, glasses, silverware, and cloth napkins at a table, or snack cues (paper plates and napkins, plastic cups, and no utensils. After participants finished eating, they were asked to complete a questionnaire that assessed their hunger, satiety, perception of the foods, and included demographic and anthropometric questions. In addition, participants' total food intake was recorded. Results Participants who were in the presence of meal-related cues ate 27.9% more calories than those surrounded with snack cues (416 versus 532 calories. The amount participants ate was partially mediated by whether they perceived the eating occasion to be a meal or a snack. In addition, the effect of the environmental cues on intake was most pronounced among participants who were hungry. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that environmental and situational cues associated with an eating occasion could influence overall food intake. People were more likely to eat foods when they were associated with meal cues. Importantly, the present study reveals that the effect of these cues is uniquely intertwined with cognition and motivation. First, people were more likely to eat ambiguous foods when they perceived them as a meal rather than a

  7. Changes in body fluid and energy compartments during prolonged hunger strike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faintuch Joel

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged total food deprivation in non-obese adults is rare, and few studies have documented body composition changes in this setting. In a group of eight hunger strikers who refused alimentation for 43 days, water and energy compartments were estimated, aiming to assess the impact of progressive starvation. Measurements included body mass index (BMI, triceps skinfold (TSF, arm muscle circumference (AMC, and bioimpedance (BIA determinations of water, fat, lean body mass (LBM, and total resistance. Indirect calorimetry was also performed in one occasion. The age of the group was 43.3±6.2 years (seven males, one female. Only water, intermittent vitamins and electrolytes were ingested, and average weight loss reached 17.9%. On the last two days of the fast (43rd-44th day rapid intravenous fluid, electrolyte, and vitamin replenishment were provided before proceeding with realimentation. Body fat decreased approximately 60% (BIA and TSF, whereas BMI reduced only 18%. Initial fat was estimated by BIA as 52.2±5.4% of body weight, and even on the 43rd day it was still measured as 19.7±3.8% of weight. TSF findings were much lower and commensurate with other anthropometric results. Water was comparatively low with high total resistance, and these findings rapidly reversed upon the intravenous rapid hydration. At the end of the starvation period, BMI (21.5±2.6 kg/m² and most anthropometric determinations were still acceptable, suggesting efficient energy and muscle conservation. Conclusions: 1 All compartments diminished during fasting, but body fat was by far the most affected; 2 Total water was low and total body resistance comparatively elevated, but these findings rapidly reversed upon rehydration; 3 Exaggerated fat percentage estimates from BIA tests and simultaneous increase in lean body mass estimates suggested that this method was inappropriate for assessing energy compartments in the studied population; 4 Patients were not morphologically

  8. Lateral hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and ventral pallidum roles in eating and hunger: interactions between homeostatic and reward circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Charles Castro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of the neural bases of eating behavior, hunger, and reward has consistently implicated the lateral hypothalamus (LH and its interactions with mesocorticolimbic circuitry, such as mesolimbic dopamine projections to nucleus accumbens (NAc and ventral pallidum (VP, in controlling motivation to eat. The NAc and VP play special roles in mediating the hedonic impact (‘liking’ and motivational incentive salience (‘wanting’ of food rewards, and their interactions with LH help permit regulatory hunger/satiety modulation of food motivation and reward. Here, we review some progress that has been made regarding this circuitry and its functions: the identification of localized anatomical hedonic hotspots within NAc and VP for enhancing hedonic impact; interactions of NAc/VP hedonic hotspots with specific LH signals such as orexin; an anterior-posterior gradient of sites in NAc shell for producing intense appetitive eating versus intense fearful reactions; and anatomically distributed appetitive functions of dopamine and mu opioid signals in NAc shell and related structures. Such findings help improve our understanding of NAc, VP, and LH interactions in mediating affective and motivation functions, including ‘liking’ and ‘wanting’ for food rewards.

  9. Association of obesity and eating in the absence of hunger among college students in a Mexican-USA border city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Morales, Eugenia; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Alcántara-Jurado, Luis; Armendáriz-Anguiano, Ana; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat

    2014-06-01

    Few studies have examined disinhibited eating behaviors in Mexico. However eating in the absence of hunger (EAH), defined as eating in response to the presence of palatable foods in the absence of physiological hunger, is one of the more frequently examined behaviors. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between obesity and EAH among college students in a large Mexican-USA border city. Two-hundred and one sophomore college students completed the EAH questionnaire (EAH-C). Weight and height were measured. To assess reproducibility a test-retest was conducted in a subset sample (n = 20). Test-retest correlations ranged from ρ = 0.44 to 0.86, p eating (α = 0.83), negative affect (α = 0.92) and fatigue/boredom (α = 0.86). Principal component analysis generated four subscales for the EAH-C: external eating, negative affect, fatigue and boredom. Comparing normal weight students versus obese students, normal weight students (57.1%) had higher scores on boredom subscale than obese students (p < 0.008). Female students had higher scores in the negative affect subscale than the males (p < 0.001). We conclude that the EAH-C had internal consistent subscales with good convergent validity. In this study population we found no association between EAH and obesity.

  10. Repeated sense of hunger leads to the development of visceral obesity and metabolic syndrome in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Min Han

    Full Text Available Obesity-related disorders, especially metabolic syndrome, contribute to 2.8 million deaths each year worldwide, with significantly increasing morbidity. Eating at regular times and proper food quantity are crucial for maintaining a healthy status. However, many people in developed countries do not follow a regular eating schedule due to a busy lifestyle. Herein, we show that a repeated sense of hunger leads to a high risk of developing visceral obesity and metabolic syndrome in a mouse model (both 3-week and 6-week-old age, 10 mice in each group. The ad libitum (AL group (normal eating pattern and the food restriction (FR group (alternate-day partially food restriction by given only 1/3 of average amount were compared after 8-week experimental period. The total food consumption in the FR group was lower than in the AL group, however, the FR group showed a metabolic syndrome-like condition with significant fat accumulation in adipose tissues. Consequently, the repeated sense of hunger induced the typical characteristics of metabolic syndrome in an animal model; a distinct visceral obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and hepatic steatosis. Furthermore, we found that specifically leptin, a major metabolic hormone, played a major role in the development of these pathological disorders. Our study indicated the importance of regular eating habits besides controlling calorie intake.

  11. "Geografia da Fome": da lógica regional à universalidade "The Geography of Hunger": from regional logic to universality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertoldo Kruse Grande de Arruda

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Geografia da Fome revela a associação harmoniosa da capacidade de argumentar com a segurança científica, um novo modo de pensar e de agir frente à realidade alimentar e nutricional e também uma abordagem pioneira no dimensionamento da fome coletiva como um fenômeno geograficamente universal. Admitiu, com base nas especificidades regionais, que as contribuições parciais poderiam compor um mapeamento caracterizador da universalidade do problema, permitindo construir uma imagem diferente do Brasil e do mundo, possibilitando a estruturação de um plano universal de combate à fome, abrindo novos caminhos para aqueles que buscam a correção de desequilíbrios regionais e a eliminação do subdesenvolvimento. Nesse livro-manifesto, Josué de Castro reinterpretou o papel da geografia clássica, incorporando uma das dimensões explicativas mais importantes, que é a da análise política, para desvendar a significação e conseqüências do desenvolvimento espacial desigual. A releitura de Geografia da Fome mostra que seus delineamentos conceituais e propositivos continuam vivos e constituem instrumentos indispensáveis para repensar criticamente a realidade brasileira e, em particular, a nordestina. Geografia da Fome, no seu cinqüentenário, torna-se um livro atual pela sua mensagem estimuladora e perturbadora.The Geography of Hunger, now the target of reflective reading 50 years after it was first published, shows the author' elegant combination of argumentative skill and scientific confidence. Josué de Castro's provocative focus is both a new way of thinking and acting towards the food and nutritional situation in Brazil and a pioneering approach to the issue of collective hunger as a geographically universal phenomenon. Based on regional specificities, the book admits that partial contributions may help establish a characteristic map of the problem's universal nature, thus helping build a different image of Brazil and the world and

  12. Answering the Call: Facilitating Responsive Services for Students Experiencing Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothaus, Tim; Lorelle, Sonya; Anderson, Kie; Knight, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    After a review of the literature elucidating the status quo for students experiencing homelessness, this article shares the results of a mixed methods study. With a phenomenological qualitative emphasis, the mixed methods study explored the perceptions of parents and children experiencing homelessness regarding their academic needs and the…

  13. Young Children Experiencing Homelessness: The Overlooked Medium of Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlembach, Sue

    2017-01-01

    The number of mothers with young children experiencing homelessness and seeking shelter has increased in the USA over the past decade. Shelters are often characterized as environments offering few opportunities for appropriate play experiences. This article delineates the important role of play for young children experiencing homelessness and…

  14. Emotions Experienced by Students Taking Online and Classroom Quizzes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Jeffrey R.; Allan, Wesley D.; Teoro, Samantha M.

    2012-01-01

    Emotions experienced during online academic examinations may differ from emotions experienced in the traditional classroom testing situation. Students in a "Psychology of Learning" course (n = 61) completed assessments of emotions before and after a quiz in each of the following settings: online at their own choice of time and location; online in…

  15. Self-motion perception compresses time experienced in return travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seno, Takeharu; Ito, Hiroyuki; Shoji, Sunaga

    2011-01-01

    It is often anecdotally reported that time experienced in return travel (back to the start point) seems shorter than time spent in outward travel (travel to a new destination). Here, we report the first experimental results showing that return travel time is experienced as shorter than the actual time. This discrepancy is induced by the existence of self-motion perception.

  16. Problems experienced by women re-entering the education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problems experienced by women re-entering the education profession in South Africa were focused on. A review of the literature revealed that problems are experienced at five different levels: within the women themselves, in their work situation, at management level, within their career, and within society.

  17. Five Years on: Leadership Challenges of an Experienced CEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarros, James C.; Sarros, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    Experienced leaders face challenges that demand different leadership approaches to those of inexperienced leaders. The purposes of this article are to: (1) explore the leadership initiatives prominent for experienced leaders compared with inexperienced leaders; (2) examine the relationship between transformational leadership and these initiatives;…

  18. "Are You Done?" Child Care Providers' Verbal Communication at Mealtimes that Reinforce or Hinder Children's Internal Cues of Hunger and Satiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Samantha A.; Branen, Laurel J.; Fletcher, Janice; Price, Elizabeth; Johnson, Susan L.; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the verbal communication of child care providers regarding preschool children's internal and non-internal hunger and satiation cues. Methods: Video observation transcripts of Head Start staff (n=29) at licensed child care centers in Colorado, Idaho, and Nevada were analyzed for common themes. Results: Adults' verbal…

  19. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: VI. Impact of short-term graded calorie restriction on transcriptomic responses of the hypothalamic hunger and circadian signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derous, Davina; Mitchell, Sharon E; Green, Cara L; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jing-Dong J; Wang, Yingchun; Promislow, Daniel E L; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R; Douglas, Alex

    2016-04-01

    Food intake and circadian rhythms are regulated by hypothalamic neuropeptides and circulating hormones, which could mediate the anti-ageing effect of calorie restriction (CR). We tested whether these two signaling pathways mediate CR by quantifying hypothalamic transcripts of male C57BL/6 mice exposed to graded levels of CR (10 % to 40 %) for 3 months. We found that the graded CR manipulation resulted in upregulation of core circadian rhythm genes, which correlated negatively with circulating levels of leptin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). In addition, key components in the hunger signaling pathway were expressed in a manner reflecting elevated hunger at greater levels of restriction, and which also correlated negatively with circulating levels of insulin, TNF-α, leptin and IGF-1. Lastly, phenotypes, such as food anticipatory activity and body temperature, were associated with expression levels of both hunger genes and core clock genes. Our results suggest modulation of the hunger and circadian signaling pathways in response to altered levels of circulating hormones, that are themselves downstream of morphological changes resulting from CR treatment, may be important elements in the response to CR, driving some of the key phenotypic outcomes.

  20. Identifying Factors that Influence State-Specific Hunger Rates in the U.S.: A Simple Analytic Method for Understanding a Persistent Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark Evan; Weber, Bruce; Bernell, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    An existing measure of food insecurity with hunger in the United States may serve as an effective indicator of quality of life. State level differences in that measure can reveal important differences in quality of life across places. In this study, we advocate and demonstrate two simple methods by which analysts can explore state-specific…

  1. Wings and Flying in Immersive VR - Controller Type, Sound Effects and Experienced Ownership and Agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sikström, Erik; Götzen, Amalia De; Serafin, Stefania

    An experiment investigated the subjective experiences of ownership and agency of a pair of virtual wings attached to a motion controlled avatar in an immersive virtual reality setup. A between groups comparison of two ways of controlling the movement of the wings and flight ability. One where...... the subjects achieved the wing motion and flight ability by using a hand-held video game controller and the other by moving the shoulder. Through four repetitions of a flight task with varying amounts of self-produced audio feedback (from the movement of the virtual limbs), the subjects evaluated...... their experienced embodiment of the wings on a body ownership and agency questionnaire. The results shows significant differences between the controllers in some of the questionnaire items and that adding self-produced sounds to the avatar, slightly changed the subjects evaluations....

  2. Peran Experienced Stigma terhadap Self Esteem pada Suku Nias

    OpenAIRE

    Hutauruk, Lucy Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to determine the role of experienced stigma against self esteem in Nias ethnic. The study involved 151 people of Nias ethnic who lived in Medan. Sampling was done by incidental sampling and processed by simple linear regression test with an SPSS 17.0 Software Program. The instrument in this research are the scale of experienced stigma and self-esteem scale developed by the researchers.These results indicate there is the role of experienced stigma against self esteem in Nias et...

  3. Relationship between hunger, adherence to antiretroviral therapy and plasma HIV RNA suppression among HIV-positive illicit drug users in a Canadian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anema, Aranka; Kerr, Thomas; Milloy, M-J; Feng, Cindy; Montaner, Julio S G; Wood, Evan

    2014-04-01

    Food insecurity may be a barrier to achieving optimal HIV treatment-related outcomes among illicit drug users. This study therefore, aimed to assess the impact of severe food insecurity, or hunger, on plasma HIV RNA suppression among illicit drug users receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). A cross-sectional Multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the potential relationship between hunger and plasma HIV RNA suppression. A sample of n = 406 adults was derived from a community-recruited open prospective cohort of HIV-positive illicit drug users, in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), Canada. A total of 235 (63.7%) reported "being hungry and unable to afford enough food," and 241 (59.4%) had plasma HIV RNA hunger was associated with lower odds of plasma HIV RNA suppression (Odds Ratio = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.39-0.90, p = 0.015). In multivariate analyses, this association was no longer significant after controlling for socio-demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics, including 95% adherence (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.37-1.10, p = 0.105). Multivariate models stratified by 95% adherence found that the direction and magnitude of this association was not significantly altered by the adherence level. Hunger was common among illicit drug users in this setting. Although, there was an association between hunger and lower likelihood of plasma HIV RNA suppression, this did not persist in adjusted analyses. Further research is warranted to understand the social-structural, policy, and physical factors shaping the HIV outcomes of illicit drug users.

  4. Adherence to Hunger Training over 6 Months and the Effect on Weight and Eating Behaviour: Secondary Analysis of a Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R. Jospe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring blood glucose prior to eating can teach individuals to eat only when truly hungry, but how adherence to ‘hunger training’ influences weight loss and eating behaviour is uncertain. This exploratory, secondary analysis from a larger randomized controlled trial examined five indices of adherence to ‘hunger training’, chosen a priori, to examine which adherence measure best predicted weight loss over 6 months. We subsequently explored how the best measure of adherence influenced eating behavior in terms of intuitive and emotional eating. Retention was 72% (n = 36/50 at 6 months. Frequency of hunger training booklet entry most strongly predicted weight loss, followed by frequency of blood glucose measurements. Participants who completed at least 60 days of booklet entry (of recommended 63 days lost 6.8 kg (95% CI: 2.6, 11.0; p < 0.001 more weight than those who completed fewer days. They also had significantly higher intuitive eating scores than those who completed 30 days or less of booklet entry; a difference (95% CI of 0.73 (0.12, 1.35 in body-food choice congruence and 0.79 (0.06, 1.51 for eating for physical rather than emotional reasons. Adherent participants also reported significantly lower scores for emotional eating of −0.70 (−1.13, −0.27. Following hunger training and focusing on simply recording ratings of hunger on a regular basis can produce clinically significant weight loss and clinically relevant improvements in eating behaviour.

  5. Local School Wellness Policy Implementation Under the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-29

    This final rule requires all local educational agencies that participate in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs to meet expanded local school wellness policy requirements consistent with the requirements set forth in section 204 of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. The final rule requires each local educational agency to establish minimum content requirements for the local school wellness policies, ensure stakeholder participation in the development and updates of such policies, and periodically assess and disclose to the public schools' compliance with the local school wellness policies. These regulations are expected to result in local school wellness policies that strengthen the ability of a local educational agency to create a school nutrition environment that promotes students' health, well-being, and ability to learn. In addition, these regulations will increase transparency for the public with regard to school wellness policies and contribute to integrity in the school nutrition program.

  6. Impact of experienced professionalism on professional culture in probation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butter, R.; Hermanns, J.

    2011-01-01

    The level of work engagement is an important aspect of organizational culture. In this empirical study the relation between engagement and experienced professionalism of probation officers is investigated. Starting from ideal-typical theories on professionalism, a psychometric instrument for

  7. Active Experiencing Training Improves Episodic Memory Recall in Older Adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarah E. Banducci; Ana M. Daugherty; John R. Biggan; Gillian E. Cooke; Michelle Voss; Tony Noice; Helga Noice; Arthur F. Kramer

    2017-01-01

    Active experiencing (AE) is an intervention aimed at attenuating cognitive declines with mindfulness training via an immersive acting program, and has produced promising results in older adults with limited formal education...

  8. Advance Selling in the Presence of Experienced Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Loginova; X. Hnery Wang; Chenhang Zeng

    2011-01-01

    The advance selling strategy is implemented when a firm offers consumers the opportunity to order its product in advance of the regular selling season. Advance selling reduces uncertainty for both the firm and the buyer and enables the firm to update its forecast of future demand. The distinctive feature of the present theoretical study of advance selling is that we divide consumers into two groups, experienced and inexperienced. Experienced consumers know their valuations of the product in a...

  9. Early oral refeeding based on hunger in moderate and severe acute pancreatitis: a prospective controlled, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xian L; Zhu, Shi F; Xue, Gui J; Li, Juan; Liu, Yi L; Wan, Mei H; Huang, Wei; Xia, Qing; Tang, Wen F

    2015-01-01

    Early enteral nutrition is beneficial for acute pancreatitis (AP), but the optimal timing and criteria remain unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility and safety of early oral refeeding (EORF) based on hunger in patients with moderate or severe AP. In a prospective, single-center, controlled, randomized clinical trial (ChiCTR-TRC-12002994), eligible patients with moderate or severe AP were randomized to either EORF or conventional oral refeeding (CORF). Patients in the EORF group restarted an oral diet when they felt hungry, regardless of laboratory parameters. Those in the CORF group restarted an oral diet only when clinical and laboratory symptoms had resolved. Clinical outcomes were compared between the two groups. In all, 146 eligible patients with moderate or severe AP were included and randomized to the EORF (n = 70) or CORF (n = 76) group. There were eight dropouts after randomization (three in EORF group; five in CORF group). The groups had similar baseline characteristics. The total length of hospitalization (13.7 ± 5.4 d versus 15.7 ± 6.2 d; P = 0.0398) and duration of fasting (8.3 ± 3.9 d versus 10.5 ± 5.1 d; P = 0.0047) were shorter in the EORF group than in the CORF group. There was no difference in the number of adverse events or complications between the two groups. The mean blood glucose level after oral refeeding was higher in the EORF group than in the CORF group (P = 0.0030). This controlled, randomized clinical trial confirmed the effectiveness and feasibility of EORF based on hunger in patients with moderate or severe AP. EORF could shorten the length of hospitalization in patients with moderate or severe AP. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdok, Hilde; Cronie, Doug; van der Speld, Cecile; van Dillen, Jeroen; de Jonge, Ank; Rijnders, Marlies; de Graaf, Irene; Schellevis, François G; Verhoeven, Corine J

    2017-11-01

    High levels of experienced job autonomy are found to be beneficial for healthcare professionals and for the relationship with their patients. The aim of this study was to assess how maternity care professionals in the Netherlands perceive their job autonomy in the Dutch maternity care system and whether they expect a new system of integrated maternity care to affect their experienced job autonomy. A cross-sectional survey. The Leiden Quality of Work Life Questionnaire was used to assess experienced job autonomy among maternity care professionals. Data were collected in the Netherlands in 2015. 799 professionals participated of whom 362 were primary care midwives, 240 obstetricians, 93 clinical midwives and 104 obstetric nurses. The mean score for experienced job autonomy was highest for primary care midwives, followed by obstetricians, clinical midwives and obstetric nurses. Primary care midwives scored highest in expecting to lose their job autonomy in an integrated care system. There are significant differences in experienced job autonomy between maternity care professionals. When changing the maternity care system it will be a challenge to maintain a high level of experienced job autonomy for professionals. A decrease in job autonomy could lead to a reduction in job related wellbeing and in satisfaction with care among pregnant women. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Experienced and potential medical tourists' service quality expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiry, Michael; Scott, Jeannie J; Vequist, David G

    2013-01-01

    The paper's aim is to compare experienced and potential US medical tourists' foreign health service-quality expectations. Data were collected via an online survey involving 1,588 US consumers engaging or expressing an interest in medical tourism. The sample included 219 experienced and 1,369 potential medical tourists. Respondents completed a SERVQUAL questionnaire. Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to determine significant differences between experienced and potential US medical tourists' service-quality expectations. For all five service-quality dimensions (tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy) experienced medical tourists had significantly lower expectations than potential medical tourists. Experienced medical tourists also had significantly lower service-quality expectations than potential medical tourists for 11 individual SERVQUAL items. Results suggest using experience level to segment medical tourists. The study also has implications for managing medical tourist service-quality expectations at service delivery point and via external marketing communications. Managing medical tourists' service quality expectations is important since expectations can significantly influence choice processes, their experience and post-consumption behavior. This study is the first to compare experienced and potential US medical tourist service-quality expectations. The study establishes a foundation for future service-quality expectations research in the rapidly growing medical tourism industry.

  12. Older people experiencing homelessness show marked impairment on tests of frontal lobe function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogoz, Astrid; Burke, David

    2016-03-01

    Reported rates of mild and moderate cognitive impairment in older people experiencing homelessness range from 5-80%. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of cognitive impairment in older people experiencing homelessness in the inner city of Sydney, Australia. Men and women experiencing homelessness aged 45 years and over in the inner city were screened for cognitive impairment. Participants who scored 26 or below on the mini-mental state examination and/or were impaired on any one of the clock-drawing test, the verbal fluency test and the trail-making test, part B were then assessed with a semi-structured interview, including the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Screening of 144 men and 27 women aged between 45 years and 93 years identified cognitive impairment in 78%. Subsequently, high rates of mental and physical illness were identified, and 75% of subjects who were cognitively impaired performed poorly on frontal lobe tests. The trail-making test, part B was the most sensitive measure of frontal function. This study demonstrated that a large majority of older people experiencing homelessness, in the inner city of a high-income country, showed impairment on tests of frontal lobe function, a finding that could have significant implications for any medical or psychosocial intervention. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Acute effects of ayahuasca on neuropsychological performance: differences in executive function between experienced and occasional users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouso, José Carlos; Fábregas, Josep Maria; Antonijoan, Rosa Maria; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Riba, Jordi

    2013-12-01

    Ayahuasca, a South American psychotropic plant tea containing the psychedelic 5-HT2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine, has been shown to increase regional cerebral blood flow in prefrontal brain regions after acute administration to humans. Despite interactions at this level, neuropsychological studies have not found cognitive deficits in abstinent long-term users. Here, we wished to investigate the effects of acute ayahuasca intake on neuropsychological performance, specifically on working memory and executive function. Twenty-four ayahuasca users (11 long-term experienced users and 13 occasional users) were assessed in their habitual setting using the Stroop, Sternberg, and Tower of London tasks prior to and following ayahuasca intake. Errors in the Sternberg task increased, whereas reaction times in the Stroop task decreased and accuracy was maintained for the whole sample following ayahuasca intake. Interestingly, results in the Tower of London showed significantly increased execution and resolution times and number of movements for the occasional but not the experienced users. Additionally, a correlation analysis including all subjects showed that impaired performance in the Tower of London was inversely correlated with lifetime ayahuasca use. Acute ayahuasca administration impaired working memory but decreased stimulus-response interference. Interestingly, detrimental effects on higher cognition were only observed in the less experienced group. Rather than leading to increased impairment, greater prior exposure to ayahuasca was associated with reduced incapacitation. Compensatory or neuromodulatory effects associated with long-term ayahuasca intake could underlie preserved executive function in experienced users.

  14. The role of rumination in the occurrence of positive effects of experienced traumatic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ogińska-Bulik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Cognitive processes play a significant role in both the negative and positive consequences of traumatic experiences. The aim of this research was to investigate the role of rumination in the occurrence of positive effects, in the form of posttraumatic growth, of experienced traumatic events. Participants and procedure Data were collected from 227 subjects who had experienced traumatic events, including cancer patients (31.30%, women who had experienced domestic violence (39.20%, and medical rescue workers exposed to traumatic events at work (29.50%. The age of participants ranged from 19 to 67 years (M = 40.12, SD = 13.28. The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory was used to measure positive changes, and the Event Related Rumination Inventory was used to assess the two types of ruminations (intrusive and deliberate. Results Both types of ruminations (intrusive and deliberate were positively correlated with the level of posttraumatic growth in the group of cancer patients, and deliberate ruminations were associated with posttraumatic growth in the group of women who had experienced domestic violence and in the medical rescue workers. The results of regression analysis confirmed a significant role of deliberate rumination. Conclusions The study of ruminations allows us to better explain the mechanisms underlying the consequences of traumatic experiences.

  15. Breaking up Romantic Relationships: Costs Experienced and Coping Strategies Deployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carin Perilloux

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined differences between men and women, and between individuals experiencing rejection (Rejectees and individuals doing the rejecting (Rejectors in romantic relationship break-ups. We tested fourteen evolution-based predictions about romantic breakups using data from 193 participants; ten received support. Women more than men, for example, experienced costly sequelae such as the loss of a mate's physical protection and harmful post-breakup stalking by the ex-partner. Both men and women who were rejected, compared with those who did the rejecting, experienced more depression, loss of self-esteem, and rumination. Rejectors, on the other hand, experienced the reputational cost of being perceived by others as cruel. Exploratory data analyses revealed that women more than men reported experiencing negative emotions after a breakup, particularly feeling sad, confused, and scared. Both sexes used an array of strategies to cope with the breakup, ranging from high base-rate strategies such as discussing the breakup with friends to low base-rate strategies such as threatening suicide. The largest sex difference in coping strategies centered on the act of shopping, used by women Rejectors as well as women Rejectees, likely a strategy of appearance enhancement prior to reentering the mating market. Discussion focuses on the adaptive significance of sex differences and individual differences based on rejection status.

  16. Experienced drug users assess the relative harms and benefits of drugs: a web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin Lester; Nutt, David John

    2013-01-01

    A web-based survey was used to consult the opinions of experienced drug users on matters related to drug harms. We identified a rare sample of 93 drug users with personal experience with 11 different illicit drugs that are widely used in the UK. Asked to assess the relative harms of these drugs, they ranked alcohol and tobacco as the most harmful, and three "Class A" drugs (MDMA, LSD, and psilocybin) and one class B (cannabis) were ranked as the four least harmful drugs. When asked to assess the relative potential for benefit of the 11 drugs, MDMA, LSD, psilocybin, and cannabis were ranked in the top four; and when asked why these drugs are beneficial, rather than simply report hedonic properties, they referred to potential therapeutic applications (e.g., as tools to assist psychotherapy). These results provide a useful insight into the opinions of experienced drug users on a subject about which they have a rare and intimate knowledge.

  17. Leaving or Staying in Teaching: A "Vignette" of an Experienced Urban Teacher "Leaver" of A London Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, Emma; Maguire, Meg

    2017-01-01

    In the field of teacher attrition, there is a significant body of literature on why teachers leave high-needs urban schools and particularly why beginning teachers leave their schools and the profession. However, there is little research on the reasons why experienced teachers leave the teaching profession. This paper examines this subject by…

  18. Use of analogies by novice and experienced design engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema; Christensen, Bo T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a study to understand the use of analogies by design engineers with different levels of experience. Protocol analyses of twelve design engineers have been analysed to understand the functions and reasoning of the analogies. The protocols are real world data from the aerospace...... industry. The findings indicate a significant difference in both the functions and reasoning by novices and experienced designers. Novices were found to predominantly transfer information without explicit reference to design issues, whereas experienced designers tended to either solve or identify problems....... Experienced designers were found to reason about the function of a component and to some degree the predicted behaviour of the component, whereas the novices seem to lack such reasoning processes....

  19. Mapping Discrimination Experienced by Indonesian Trans* FtM Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Danny; Pratama, Mario Prajna

    2017-01-01

    This work sought to document how Indonesian trans* FtM persons experienced discrimination across the interlinked domains of social networks, religious and educational institutions, employment and the workplace, and health care institutions. Objectives were (1) to map the discrimination experienced by trans* FtM individuals in Indonesia, and (2) to establish the specific priorities of the Indonesian trans* FtM community. In-depth interviews, focus groups, and participant observation was used involving 14 respondents. Findings revealed that respondents experienced othering through rejection, misidentification, harassment, "correction," and bureaucratic discrimination across the five preestablished domains. Health care and a lack of information emerged as areas of particular concern for respondents. This work calls for health care that is sensitive to the needs of trans* FtM people coupled with high-quality information to alleviate the cycles through which discrimination is sustained.

  20. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other.