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Sample records for subjectively assessed sleep

  1. ASSESSING SUBJECTIVE SLEEP QUALITY IN SENIORS

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    Iveta Kukliczová

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed at assessing the quality of sleep in seniors. Another objective was to determine the impact of gender, age, type of residence and taking sleeping medication on the quality of sleep. Design: A cross-sectional study. Methods: Data were collected using the standardized Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI questionnaire. The sample comprised 146 seniors living in the Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic. The survey was conducted from January 2014 to the end of October 2014 in a long-term chronic care department of a selected hospital, two retirement homes and among seniors living in their own homes. Results: Thirty-five (24% seniors had their global PSQI scores of 5 (i.e. the highest score indication good sleep quality or less. The remaining 111 (76% participants were shown to suffer from impaired sleep quality as their global PSQI scores were 6 or higher. There were statistically significant differences in component scores between seniors with the global PSQI scores of 5 or less and those with higher scores. The best quality of sleep was observed in females, seniors in the 65–74 age category and those sharing their own homes with their spouses or partners. Conclusion: Subjective sleep quality assessment varies significantly with respect to gender, age, type of residence and use of sleeping medication. Keywords: sleep quality, PSQI, subjective assessment, senior.

  2. Assessing sleep consciousness within subjects using a serial awakening paradigm

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    Francesca eSiclari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dreaming - a particular form of consciousness that occurs during sleep - undergoes major changes in the course of the night. We aimed to outline state-dependent features of consciousness using a paradigm with multiple serial awakenings/questionings that allowed for within as well as between subject comparisons. Seven healthy participants who spent 44 experimental study nights in the laboratory were awakened by a computerized sound at 15-30 minute intervals, regardless of sleep stage, and questioned for the presence or absence of sleep consciousness. Recall without content (‘I was experiencing something but do not remember what’ was considered separately. Subjects had to indicate the content of the most recent conscious experience prior to the alarm sound and to estimate its duration and richness. We also assessed the degree of thinking and perceiving, self- and environment-relatedness and reflective consciousness of the experiences. Of the 778 questionings, 5% were performed during wakefulness, 2% in stage N1, 42% in N2, 33% in N3 and 17% in rapid eye movement (REM sleep. Recall with content was reported in 34% of non-REM and in 77% of REM sleep awakenings. Sleep fragmentation inherent to the study design appeared to only minimally affect the recall of conscious experiences. Each stage displayed a unique combination of characteristic features of sleep consciousness. In conclusion, our serial awakening paradigm allowed us to collect a large and representative sample of conscious experiences across states of being. It represents a time-efficient method for the study of sleep consciousness that may prove particularly advantageous when combined with techniques such as functional MRI and high-density EEG.

  3. Subjective and objective assessment of sleep in adolescents with mild traumatic brain injury.

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    Tham, See Wan; Fales, Jessica; Palermo, Tonya M

    2015-06-01

    There is increased recognition that sleep problems may develop in children and adolescents after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). However, few studies have utilized both subjective and objective measures to comprehensively assess sleep problems in the pediatric population following the acute post-TBI period. The aims of this study were to compare sleep in adolescents with mTBI to healthy adolescents using subjective and objective measures, and to identify the clinical correlates associated with sleep problems. One hundred adolescents (50 adolescents with mTBI recruited from three to twelve months post-injury and 50 healthy adolescents) completed questionnaires assessing sleep quality, depression, and pain symptoms, and underwent 10 day actigraphic assessment of sleep patterns. Adolescents with mTBI reported poorer sleep quality and demonstrated significantly shorter actigraphic-measured sleep duration, poorer sleep efficiency, and more wake time after onset of sleep, compared with healthy adolescents (all, padolescents, poorer self-reported sleep quality was predicted by greater depressive symptoms. Poorer actigraphic sleep efficiency was predicted by membership in the mTBI group after controlling for age, sex, depressive symptoms, and presence of pain. Our findings suggest that adolescents may experience subjective and objective sleep disturbances up to one year following mTBI. These findings require further replication in larger samples. Additionally, research is needed to identify possible mechanisms for poor sleep in youth with mTBI.

  4. Assessment of subjective sleep quality in iron deficiency anaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HAD) scale and pittsburgh sleep quality index. (PSQI). ... sleeping. Conclusion: IDA affects sleep quality irrespective of psychological symptoms such as depression and anxiety. ..... sleep: genetics, cellular physiology and subcortical net- works.

  5. Assessment of subjective sleep quality in iron deficiency anaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All participants were requested to fill 3 forms: a socio-demographic form (age, gender, marital status, income level and educational status), hospital anxiety and depression (HAD) scale and pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). Results: According to the HAD scale, the average anxiety score was found 9.24±4.37 in patients ...

  6. Short-Term Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy on Subjective and Actigraphy-Assessed Sleep Parameters in Severely Depressed Inpatients

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    Alexander Hoogerhoud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sleep disturbances are a key feature of major depression. Electroconvulsive treatment (ECT may improve polysomnography-assessed sleep characteristics, but its short-term effects on actigraphy-assessed and subjective sleep characteristics are unknown. We therefore aimed to assess the effects of ECT on subjective and objective sleep parameters in a proof-of-principle study. Methods. We assessed subjective and objective sleep parameters in 12 severely depressed patients up to 5 consecutive days during their ECT course, corresponding to a total of 43 nights (including 19 ECT sessions. The 12 patients were 83% female and on average 62 (standard deviation (SD 14 years old and had an average MADRS score of 40 at baseline (SD 21. Results. Subjective and objective sleep parameters were not directly affected by ECT. The subjective sleep efficiency parameter was similar on the day after ECT and other days. ECT did not affect the number of errors in the Sustained Attention to Response Task. Patients subjectively underestimated their total sleep time by 1.4 hours (P<0.001 compared to actigraphy-assessed sleep duration. Conclusion. ECT did not affect subjective and actigraphy-assessed sleep in the short term. Depressed patients profoundly underestimated their sleep duration.

  7. Effect of Daytime Exercise on Sleep Eeg and Subjective Sleep

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    Sasazawa, Y.; Kawada, T.; Kiryu, Y.

    1997-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of daytime physical exercise on the quality of objective and subjective sleep by examining all-night sleep EEGs. The subjects were five male students, aged 19 to 20 years, who were in the habit of performing regular daytime exercise. The sleep polygraphic parameters in this study were sleep stage time as a percentage of total sleep time (%S1, %S2, %S(3+4), %SREM, %MT), time in bed (TIB), sleep time (ST), total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), waking from sleep, sleep efficiency, number of awakenings, number of stage shifts, number of spindles, and percentages of α and δ waves, all of which were determined by an automatic computer analysis system. The OSA questionnaire was used to investigate subjective sleep. The five scales of the OSA used were sleepiness, sleep maintenance, worry, integrated sleep feeling, and sleep initiation. Each sleep parameter was compared in the exercise and the non-exercise groups. Two-way analysis of variance was applied using subject factor and exercise factor. The main effect of the subject was significant in all parameters and the main effect of exercise in %S(3+4), SOL and sleep efficiency, among the objective sleep parameters. The main effects of the subject, except sleepiness, were significant, as was the main effect of exercise on sleep initiation, among the subjective sleep parameters. These findings suggest that daytime exercise shortened sleep latency and prolonged slow-wave sleep, and that the subjects fell asleep more easily on exercise days. There were also significant individual differences in both the objective and subjective sleep parameters.

  8. Sleep-wake difficulties in community-dwelling cancer patients receiving palliative care: subjective and objective assessment.

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    Bernatchez, Marie Solange; Savard, Josée; Savard, Marie-Hélène; Aubin, Michèle; Ivers, Hans

    2017-09-21

    Prevalence rates of sleep difficulties in advanced cancer patients have varied widely across studies (12 to 96%), and none of these employed a diagnostic interview to distinguish different types of sleep-wake disorders. Moreover, very limited information is available on subjective and objective sleep parameters in this population. Our study was conducted in palliative cancer patients and aimed to assess rates of sleep-wake disorders and subsyndromal symptoms and to document subjective and objective sleep-wake parameters across various types of sleep-wake difficulties. The sample was composed of 51 community-dwelling cancer patients receiving palliative care and having an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score of 2 or 3. Relevant sections of the Duke Interview for Sleep Disorders were administered over the phone. An actigraphic recording and a daily sleep diary were completed for 7 consecutive days. Overall, 68.6% of the sample had at least one type of sleep-wake difficulty (disorder or symptoms): 31.4% had insomnia and 29.4% had hypersomnolence as their main sleep-wake problem. Participants with insomnia as their main sleep difficulty had greater disruptions of subjective sleep parameters, while objectively-assessed sleep was more disrupted in patients with hypersomnolence comorbid with another sleep-wake difficulty. Significance of the Results: The high rates of sleep-wake difficulties found in this study indicate a need to screen more systematically for sleep-wake disorders, including insomnia and hypersomnolence, in both palliative care research and clinical practice, and to develop effective nonpharmacological interventions specifically adapted to this population.

  9. Subjective assessment of facial aesthetics after maxillofacial orthognathic surgery for obstructive sleep apnoea.

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    Islam, Shofiq; Aleem, Fahd; Ormiston, Ian W

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the subjective perception of facial appearance by patients after maxillofacial surgery for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), and explored the possible correlation between satisfaction and surgical outcome. A total of 26 patients, 24 men and 2 women (mean (SD) age 45 (7) years), subjectively assessed their facial appearance before and after operation using a visual analogue scale (VAS). To investigate a possible association between postoperative facial appearance and surgical outcome, we analysed postoperative scores for the apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI) and Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS). Postoperatively, 14 (54%) indicated that their facial appearance had improved, 4 (15%) recorded a neutral score, and 8 (31%) a lower score. The rating of facial appearance did not correlate with changes in the AHI or ESS following surgery. This study supports the view that most patients are satisfied with their appearance after maxillofacial orthognathic surgery for OSA. The subjective perception of facial aesthetics was independent of the surgical outcome. Copyright © 2014 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Total sleep time in Muslim football players is reduced during Ramadan: a pilot study on the standardized assessment of subjective sleep-wake patterns in athletes.

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    Herrera, Christopher P

    2012-01-01

    Ramadan is a period in which Muslims fast during daylight hours and is associated with disturbances in sleep-wake behaviour and adverse effects on physical and mental health in normal volunteers. Studies using athletes are rare and remain equivocal as to whether Ramadan influences sleep-wake patterns. Notably, the standardized assessment of subjective sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in athletes has not been established. This study employed the Arabic version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale in nine football players aged 20-35 years (mean ± s: 26 ± 4) one week before and during the last week of Ramadan. Compliance rates with self-administration were high (71%) and the results demonstrated a robust decline in total sleep time (before Ramadan: 6.6 ± 2 h; at the end of Ramadan: 5.3 ± 1 h; P effect size 0.81). Compared with previous research, the study questionnaires offer improved methodology, including less time constraints plus standardization in scoring. Thus, this study demonstrates a framework for greater reproducibility and reliability in the assessment of subjective sleep-wake patterns in athletes before and during Ramadan.

  11. Objective and subjective assessment of sleep in chronic low back pain patients compared with healthy age and gender matched controls: a pilot study

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    Heneghan Conor

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While approximately 70% of chronic low back pain (CLBP sufferers complain of sleep disturbance, current literature is based on self report measures which can be prone to bias and no objective data of sleep quality, based exclusively on CLBP are available. In accordance with the recommendations of The American Sleep Academy, when measuring sleep, both subjective and objective assessments should be considered as the two are only modestly correlated, suggesting that each modality assesses different aspects of an individual's sleep experience. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to expand previous research into sleep disturbance in CLBP by comparing objective and subjective sleep quality in participants with CLBP and healthy age and gender matched controls, to identify correlates of poor sleep and to test logistics and gather information prior to a larger study. Methods 15 CLBP participants (mean age = 43.8 years (SD = 11.5, 53% female and 15 healthy controls (mean age = 41.5 years (SD = 10.6, 53% female consented. All participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Diary and the SF36v2. CLBP participants also completed the Oswestry Disability Index. Sleep patterns were assessed over three consecutive nights using actigraphy. Total sleep time (TST, sleep efficiency (SE, sleep latency onset (SL and number of awakenings after sleep onset (WASO were derived. Statistical analysis was conducted using unrelated t-tests and Pearson's product moment correlation co-efficients. Results CLBP participants demonstrated significantly poorer overall sleep both objectively and subjectively. They demonstrated lower actigraphic SE (p = .002 and increased WASO (p = .027 but no significant differences were found in TST (p = .43 or SL (p = .97. Subjectively, they reported increased insomnia (p = Conclusion CLBP participants demonstrated poorer overall sleep, increased insomnia symptoms and

  12. Objective and subjective sleep quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    and subjective sleep quality during benzodiazepine discontinuation and whether sleep variables were associated with benzodiazepine withdrawal. Eligible patients included adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder and long-term use of benzodiazepines in combination...... with antipsychotics. All participants gradually tapered the use of benzodiazepines after randomization to add-on treatment with melatonin versus placebo. Here we report a subsample of 23 patients undergoing sleep recordings (one-night polysomnography) and 55 patients participating in subjective sleep quality ratings....... Melatonin had no effect on objective sleep efficiency, but significantly improved self-reported sleep quality. Reduced benzodiazepine dosage at the 24-week follow-up was associated with a significantly decreased proportion of stage 2 sleep. These results indicate that prolonged-release melatonin has some...

  13. Subjective Sleep Measures in Children: Self-Report

    OpenAIRE

    Erwin, Andrea M.; Bashore, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) recently published a consensus statement on the recommended number of hours of sleep in infants and children. The AASM expert panel identified seven health categories in children influenced by sleep duration, a component of sleep quality. For optimal health and general function, children require a certain number of hours of sleep each night. Limited data exist to subjectively assess sleep in this population. Practitioners must evaluate overall sle...

  14. Effects of Sleep Loss on Subjective Complaints and Objective Neurocognitive Performance as Measured by the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing.

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    Stocker, Ryan P J; Khan, Hassen; Henry, Luke; Germain, Anne

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the effects of total and partial sleep deprivation on subjective symptoms and objective neurocognitive performance, as measured by the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) in a sample of healthy adults. One-hundred and two, right-handed, healthy participants (between ages 18 and 30 years old) completed three consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory with concurrent continuous polysomnography monitoring. Night 1 served as a baseline night. Prior to Night 2, they were randomly assigned to one of three sleep conditions: undisrupted normal sleep (N = 34), sleep restriction (50% of habitual sleep, N = 37), or total sleep deprivation (N = 31). Participants slept undisturbed on Night 3. ImPACT was administered on three separate occasions. Sleep loss was associated with increased severity of subjectively reported affective, cognitive, physical, and sleep symptoms. Although objective neurocognitive task scores derived from the ImPACT battery did not corroborate subjective complaints, sleep loss was associated with significant differences on tasks of visual memory, reaction time, and visual motor speed over time. While self-report measures suggested marked impairments following sleep loss, deficits in neurocognitive performance were observed only on three domains measured with ImPACT. ImPACT may capture subtle changes in neurocognitive performance following sleep loss; however, independent and larger validation studies are needed to determine its sensitivity to acute sleep loss and recovery sleep. Neurocognitive screening batteries may be useful for detecting the effects of more severe or chronic sleep loss under high-stress conditions that mimic high-risk occupations.

  15. Subjective Sleep Experience During Shuttle Missions

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    Whitmire, Alexandra; Slack, Kelley; Locke, James; Patterson, Holly; Faulk, Jeremy; Keeton, Kathryn; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    It is now known that for many astronauts, sleep is reduced in spaceflight. Given that sleep is intimately tied to performance, safety, health, and well being, it is important to characterize factors that hinder sleep in space, so countermeasures can be implemented. Lessons learned from current spaceflight can be used to inform the development of space habitats and mitigation strategies for future exploration missions. The purpose of this study was to implement a survey and one-on-one interviews to capture Shuttle flyers' subjective assessment of the factors that interfered with a "good nights sleep" during their missions. Strategies that crewmembers reported using to improve their sleep quality during spaceflight were also discussed. Highlights from the interview data are presented here.

  16. Subjective Sleep Measures in Children: Self-Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Andrea M; Bashore, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) recently published a consensus statement on the recommended number of hours of sleep in infants and children. The AASM expert panel identified seven health categories in children influenced by sleep duration, a component of sleep quality. For optimal health and general function, children require a certain number of hours of sleep each night. Limited data exist to subjectively assess sleep in this population. Practitioners must evaluate overall sleep quality not simply sleep duration. The purpose of this article is to provide a mini-review of the self-report sleep measures used in children. The authors individually completed a review of the literature for this article via an independent review followed by collaborative discussion. The subjective measures included in this mini-review have been used in children, but not all measures have reported psychometrics. Several tools included in this mini-review measure subjective sleep in children but with limited reliabilities or only preliminary psychometrics. Accurate measurement of self-reported sleep in children is critical to identify sleep problems in this population and further detect associated health problems. Ongoing studies are warranted to establish reliable and valid measures of self-reported sleep in children to accurately detect health problems associated with poor sleep quality. This mini-review of the literature is an important first step to identify the most reliable subjective sleep measures in children.

  17. Increased objectively assessed vigorous-intensity exercise is associated with reduced stress, increased mental health and good objective and subjective sleep in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    The role of physical activity as a factor that protects against stress-related mental disorders is well documented. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of research using objective measures of physical activity. The present study examines whether objectively assessed vigorous physical activity (VPA) is associated with mental health benefits beyond moderate physical activity (MPA). Particularly, this study examines whether young adults who accomplish the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM) vigorous-intensity exercise recommendations differ from peers below these standards with regard to their level of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, perceived pain, and subjective and objective sleep. A total of 42 undergraduate students (22 women, 20 men; M=21.24years, SD=2.20) volunteered to take part in the study. Stress, pain, depressive symptoms, and subjective sleep were assessed via questionnaire, objective sleep via sleep-EEG assessment, and VPA via actigraphy. Meeting VPA recommendations had mental health benefits beyond MPA. VPA was associated with less stress, pain, subjective sleep complaints and depressive symptoms. Moreover, vigorous exercisers had more favorable objective sleep pattern. Especially, they had increased total sleep time, more stage 4 and REM sleep, more slow wave sleep and a lower percentage of light sleep. Vigorous exercisers also reported fewer mental health problems if exposed to high stress. This study provides evidence that meeting the VPA standards of the ACSM is associated with improved mental health and more successful coping among young people, even compared to those who are meeting or exceeding the requirements for MPA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of Subjective and Objective Sleep Estimations in Patients with Bipolar Disorder and Healthy Control Subjects

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    Philipp S. Ritter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several studies have described but not formally tested discrepancies between subjective and objective measures of sleep. Study Objectives. To test the hypothesis that patients with bipolar disorder display a systematic bias to underestimate sleep duration and overestimate sleep latency. Methods. Actimetry was used to assess sleep latency and duration in 49 euthymic participants (bipolar = 21; healthy controls = 28 for 5–7 days. Participants simultaneously recorded estimated sleep duration and sleep latency on a daily basis via an online sleep diary. Group differences in the discrepancy between subjective and objective parameters were calculated using t-tests and corrected for multiple comparisons. Results. Patients with bipolar disorder significantly underestimated their sleep duration but did not overestimate their sleep latency compared to healthy controls. Conclusions. Studies utilizing diaries or questionnaires alone in patients with bipolar disorders may systematically underestimate sleep duration compared to healthy controls. The additional use of objective assessment methods such as actimetry is advisable.

  19. Poor sleep maintenance and subjective sleep quality are associated with postpartum maternal depression symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eliza M; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Stickgold, Robert

    2013-12-01

    Women are at increased risk of developing mood disorders during the postpartum period, and poor postpartum sleep may be a modifiable risk factor for the development of depression. This longitudinal study investigated the relationship between sleep variables and postpartum depression symptoms using wrist actigraphy and self-report surveys. Twenty-five healthy primiparous women were recruited from their outpatient obstetricians' offices from July 2009 through March 2010. Subjects wore wrist actigraphs for 1 week during the third trimester of pregnancy and again during the 2nd, 6th, 10th, and 14th weeks postpartum while completing sleep logs and sleep surveys. Subjective assessments of mood were collected at the end of each actigraph week. Subjective sleep assessments were strongly predictive of depression severity scores as measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) across all weeks (p sleep maintenance, such as sleep fragmentation, sleep efficiency, and wake time after sleep onset, were also significantly correlated with EPDS scores postpartum. However, there was no relationship between nocturnal sleep duration and EPDS scores. This study provides additional evidence that poor sleep maintenance as measured by wrist actigraphy, rather than lesser amounts of sleep, is associated with EPDS scores during the postpartum period and that subjective assessments of sleep may be more accurate predictors of postpartum depression symptoms than wrist actigraphy. It also supports the hypothesis that disrupted sleep may contribute to the development and extent of postpartum depression symptoms.

  20. Validation of the post sleep questionnaire for assessing subjects with restless legs syndrome: results from two double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled clinical trials

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    Bharmal Murtuza

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the subjective nature of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS symptoms and the impact of these symptoms on sleep, patient-reported outcomes (PROs play a prominent role as study endpoints in clinical trials investigating RLS treatments. The objective of this study was to validate a new measure, the Post Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ, to assess sleep dysfunction in subjects with moderate-to-severe RLS symptoms. Methods Pooled data were analyzed from two 12-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of gabapentin enacarbil (N = 540. At baseline and Week 12, subjects completed the PSQ and other validated health surveys: IRLS Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression of Improvement (CGI-I, Profile of Mood States (POMS, Medical Outcomes Study Scale-Sleep (MOS-Sleep, and RLS-Quality of Life (RLSQoL. Pooled data were used post hoc to examine the convergent, divergent, known-group validity and the responsiveness of the PSQ. Results Convergent validity was demonstrated by significant correlations between baseline PSQ items and total scores of IRLS, POMS, RLSQoL, and the MOS-Sleep Scale (p ≤ 0.007 each. Divergent validity was demonstrated through the lack of significant correlations between PSQ items and demographic characteristics. Correlations (p Conclusions Although these analyses were potentially limited by the use of clinical trial data and not prospective data from a study conducted solely for validation purposes, the PSQ demonstrated robust psychometric properties and is a valid instrument for assessing sleep and sleep improvements in subjects with moderate-to-severe RLS symptoms. Trial Registration This study analyzed data from two registered trials, NCT00298623 and NCT00365352.

  1. Assessing sleep architecture and continuity measures through the analysis of heart rate and wrist movement recordings in healthy subjects: comparison with results based on polysomnography.

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    Muzet, Alain; Werner, Sandra; Fuchs, Gil; Roth, Thomas; Saoud, Jay B; Viola, Antoine U; Schaffhauser, Jean-Yves; Luthringer, Rémy

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the reliability of a new methodology for assessing sleep architecture descriptors based on heart rate and body movement recordings. Twelve healthy male and female subjects between 18 and 40 years of age, without sleep disorders and not taking any drug or medication that could affect sleep, were recorded continuously during five consecutive nights. Together with the standard polysomnography, heart rate was recorded with a Holter and wrist movements by actimetry. Of the 60 recorded nights, 48 artifact-free nights were analyzed by two independent and well-trained visual scorers according to the rules of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Sleep stages were assigned to every 30-s epoch. In parallel, the same nights were analyzed by the new methodology using only heart rate and actimetry data, allowing a 1-s epoch sleep stage classification. Sleep architecture was measured for 48 nights, independently for the two manual scorings and the automatic analysis. Over 42 nights, the intra-class correlation coefficient, used to assess the consistency or reproducibility of quantitative measurements made by different observers, was classified as excellent when all 12 descriptors were combined. Analyses of the individual descriptors showed excellent interclass correlation for eight and good for four of the 12. The automatic analysis of heart rate and body movement during sleep allows for the evaluation of sleep architecture and continuity that is equivalent to those obtained by manual scoring of polysomnography. The technique used here is simple and robust to allow for home sleep monitoring. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Subjectively impaired bed mobility in Parkinson disease affects sleep efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louter, M.; Sloun, R.J. van; Pevernagie, D.A.; Arends, J.B.; Cluitmans, P.J.; Bloem, B.R.; Overeem, S.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Impaired bed mobility (IBM) may be an important reason for the high prevalence of sleep insomnia in Parkinson disease (PD). Here we assessed the influence of subjectively IBM on both subjective and objective sleep parameters in insomnia PD patients with (PD+IBM) and without (PD-IBM)

  3. Effects of Sleep Hygiene Education on Subjective Sleep Quality and Academic Performance

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    Erkan Sahin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sleep problems are common in students with one third of university students reporting insufficient sleep. It is known that sleep quality and daytime sleepiness cause decrasing academic performans. For this reason we aimed to investigate the effects of a sleep hygiene education on sleep quality and academic performance of first year medical students. Material and Method: Self-reported sleep data and academic performance of 131 first grade medical students were collected. To all students enrolled Pittsburg Sleep Quality Scale in the assessment of sleep quality and Epworth Sleepiness Scale for assessment of daytime sleepiness in the evaluation.The students were divided into two subgroups and the intervention group received a 30 minute structured sleep hygiene education. Global academic performance was assessed by grade point average at the end of the year. Results: Mean Pittsburgh sleep quality index score of the students was 7.9±3.5 and 106 (82.8% of then had a score %u22655.After intervention, .the worse the initial sleep quality, the more improvement by the sleep hygiene education on sleep quality and academic performance. Discussion: An education on sleep hygiene might improve subjective sleep quality and academic performance of medical students.

  4. Disturbed subjective sleep characteristics in adult patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, M.; Donga, E.; van Dijk, J. G.; Lammers, G. J.; van Kralingen, K. W.; Dekkers, O. M.; Corssmit, E. P. M.; Romijn, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Decreased sleep duration and/or impaired sleep quality negatively influence glucoregulation. The aim of this study was to assess subjective sleep characteristics in patients with type 1 diabetes, to relate sleep characteristics to long-term glycaemic control and to assess possible risk factors for

  5. Assessment of sleep quality in powernapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kooravand Takht Sabzy, Bashaer; Thomsen, Carsten E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the Sleep Quality (SQ) in powernapping. The contributed factors for SQ assessment are time of Sleep Onset (SO), Sleep Length (SL), Sleep Depth (SD), and detection of sleep events (K-complex (KC) and Sleep Spindle (SS)). Data from daytime nap for 10 subjects, 2...... days each, including EEG and ECG were recorded. The SD and sleep events were analyzed by applying spectral analysis. The SO time was detected by a combination of signal spectral analysis, Slow Rolling Eye Movement (SREM) detection, Heart Rate Variability (HRV) analysis and EEG segmentation using both...... Autocorrelation Function (ACF), and Crosscorrelation Function (CCF) methods. The EEG derivation FP1-FP2 filtered in a narrow band and used as an alternative to EOG for SREM detection. The ACF and CCF segmentation methods were also applied for detection of sleep events. The ACF method detects segment boundaries...

  6. Subjective sleep quality in urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Alimohamad; Farhadi, Mohammad; Kamrava, Seyed Kamran; Ghalehbaghi, Babak; Nojomi, Marzieh

    2012-02-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among adult populations and can have a significant effect on daytime activities. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of sleep problems and subjective sleep quality in the adult population of Tehran, Iran. From an urban community of Tehran, a random sample of 3400 adult men and women were selected by a cross-sectional design. Using the Persian version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), subjects were interviewed face-to-face. There were 3114 completed questionnaires returned and analyzed. The mean age of the subjects was 43.57 (± SD 17.5) years. Overall 37% (95% CI: 35-39) of the population were categorized as poor sleepers. The PSQI > 5 showed 27% were males versus 35% among females. The global PSQI scores ranged from 4.20 ± 2.67 to 5.60 ± 3.74 for males and 5.03 ± 3.00 to 7.97 ± 4.31 for females by age groups. The difference across age groups for global PSQI score was significant in females (P rate of sleep complaints in this population-based study was high. Females, older adults, widows and separated couple were the most important risk factors for sleep disturbances.

  7. [Objective and subjective measures of sleep of shift-working nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro; Lee, Bumsuk; Tozato, Fusae; Gennai, Kazuko; Shiihara, Yasufumi

    2014-01-01

    To objectively evaluate sleep quality of shift-working nurses, we used an Actiwatch 2, a watch-like actigraphy device designed to measure sleep and wakefulness based on the amount of movement. Subjective sleep quality was also assessed using the St. Mary's Hospital Sleep Questionnaire. Nineteen shift-working nurses wore the Actiwatch 2 for 5 days. The monitoring began with 2 days of the morning shift, which were followed by a 16-hour night shift and a rest day. Sleep recordings were obtained four times: night sleep after the second morning shift ("sleep 1"), napping on the night shift ("nap 1"), daytime napping after the night shift ("nap 2") and night sleep after the night shift ("sleep 2"). Actiwatch 2 sleep measures include sleep onset latency, snooze time, sleep efficiency, and percent sleep. In addition, the perceived quality of sleep was obtained using five questions of the St. Mary's Hospital Sleep Questionnaire. Objective and subjective sleep quality were compared between different sleep/nap times: sleep 1 vs. sleep 2, and nap 1 vs. nap 2. Percent sleep of sleep 2 was higher than that of sleep 1. In almost all responses to the St. Mary's Hospital Sleep Questionnaire, the perceived quality of sleep on sleep 2 was better than those of sleep 1, and that of nap 2 was better than nap 1. A significant negative correlation was found between the perceived sleep quality of nap 2 and the characteristics of participants (age, number of children, and length of career). There were positive correlations between the perceived sleep quality of sleep and percent sleep, and between the perceived sleep quality of nap and sleep efficiency. Moreover, the perceived sleep quality of nap 2 tended to decrease in participants whose bedtime deviated from the mean value on morning shift days and the rest day. We found that perceived sleep quality is related to percent sleep, and that the perceived sleep quality of nap is related to sleep efficiency. The results suggest that improving

  8. Objective and subjective sleep during pregnancy: links with depressive and anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkovich, Ella; Tikotzky, Liat; Manber, Rachel

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this paper are to study the associations between objective and subjective sleep in pregnant women, to examine which specific aspects of women's sleep are associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms and to test the moderating role of depressive and anxiety symptoms in the relations between objective and subjective sleep. The sample included 148 pregnant women. Objective sleep was measured by actigraphy for five nights at the participants' home, and subjective sleep was measured with the Pittsburgh sleep quality index. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale and anxiety symptoms with the Beck anxiety inventory. Significant associations were found between the subjective sleep measures and the depressive and anxiety scores, but there were no significant associations between actigraphic sleep measures and the depressive and anxiety scores. Depressive and anxiety scores emerged as significant moderators of the links between objective and subjective sleep. The findings suggest that emotional distress (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms severity) during pregnancy is associated with subjective sleep disturbances but not with objective sleep disturbances. Importantly, only among women with higher levels of emotional distress was subjective sleep quality associated with objective sleep quality. These findings may suggest that women with higher levels of emotional distress are not necessarily biased in their perception of sleep quality. However, they may perceive fragmented sleep as more detrimental to their wellbeing.

  9. No Effects of Successful Bidirectional SMR Feedback Training on Objective and Subjective Sleep in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binsch, Olaf; Wilschut, Ellen S; Arns, Martijn; Bottenheft, Charelle; Valk, Pierre J L; Vermetten, Eric H G J M

    2017-10-31

    There is a growing interest in the application of psychophysiological signals in more applied settings. Unidirectional sensory motor rhythm-training (SMR) has demonstrated consistent effects on sleep. In this study the main aim was to analyze to what extent participants could gain voluntary control over sleep-related parameters and secondarily to assess possible influences of this training on sleep metrics. Bidirectional training of SMR as well as heart rate variability (HRV) was used to assess the feasibility of training these parameters as possible brain computer interfaces (BCI) signals, and assess effects normally associated with unidirectional SMR training such as the influence on objective and subjective sleep parameters. Participants (n = 26) received between 11 and 21 training sessions during 7 weeks in which they received feedback on their personalized threshold for either SMR or HRV activity, for both up- and down regulation. During a pre- and post-test a sleep log was kept and participants used a wrist actigraph. Participants were asked to take an afternoon nap on the first day at the testing facility. During napping, sleep spindles were assessed as well as self-reported sleep measures of the nap. Although the training demonstrated successful learning to increase and decrease SMR and HRV activity, no effects were found of bidirectional training on sleep spindles, actigraphy, sleep diaries, and self-reported sleep quality. As such it is concluded that bidirectional SMR and HRV training can be safely used as a BCI and participants were able to improve their control over physiological signals with bidirectional training, whereas the application of bidirectional SMR and HRV training did not lead to significant changes of sleep quality in this healthy population.

  10. Habitual sleep durations and subjective sleep quality predict white matter differences in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakh Khalsa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-imposed short sleep durations are increasingly commonplace in society, and have considerable health and performance implications for individuals. Reduced sleep duration over multiple nights has similar behavioural effects to those observed following acute total sleep deprivation, suggesting that lack of sleep affects brain function cumulatively. A link between habitual sleep patterns and functional connectivity has previously been observed, and the effect of sleep duration on the brain's intrinsic functional architecture may provide a link between sleep status and cognition. However, it is currently not known whether differences in habitual sleep patterns across individuals are related to changes in the brain's white matter, which underlies structural connectivity. In the present study we use diffusion–weighted imaging and a group comparison application of tract based spatial statistics (TBSS to investigate changes to fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD in relation to sleep duration and quality, hypothesising that white matter metrics would be positively associated with sleep duration and quality. Diffusion weighted imaging data was acquired from a final cohort of 33 (23–29 years, 10 female, mean 25.4 years participants. Sleep patterns were assessed for a 14 day period using wrist actigraphs and sleep diaries, and subjective sleep quality with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Median splits based on total sleep time and PSQI were used to create groups of shorter/longer and poorer/better sleepers, whose imaging data was compared using TBSS followed by post-hoc correlation analysis in regions identified as significantly different between the groups. There were significant positive correlations between sleep duration and FA in the left orbito-frontal region and the right superior corona radiata, and significant negative correlations between sleep duration and MD in right orbito-frontal white matter and the right

  11. New assessment tools that measure sleep vital signs: the SleepMed Insomnia Index and the Sleep Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Bogan, Richard K.; Turner, Jo Anne

    2007-01-01

    Insomnia is the leading sleep disorder in the US; however, diagnosis is often problematic. This pilot study assessed the clinical value of a novel diagnostic insomnia questionnaire. The SleepMed Insomnia Index (SMI) was administered to 543 consecutive patients and 50 normal control subjects during a pilot study. Mean SMI scores were assessed based on subsequent sleep-related diagnoses. The SMI scores for patients with sleep-related disorders were significantly higher than those for the contro...

  12. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Daniel B; Buysse, Daniel J; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H

    2015-02-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement reported by older adults with insomnia. Participants were 63 adults >60 years of age with insomnia, and 51 controls. At baseline, participants completed sleep diaries for 7 days while wearing wrist actigraphs. After receiving cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia, insomnia patients repeated this sleep assessment. Sleep discrepancy variables were calculated by subtracting actigraphic sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset from respective self-reported estimates, pre- and post-treatment. Mean level and night-to-night variability in sleep discrepancy were investigated. Baseline sleep discrepancies were compared between groups. Pre-post-treatment changes in Insomnia Severity Index score and sleep discrepancy variables were investigated within older adults with insomnia. Sleep discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable across nights in older adults with insomnia than controls, P ≤ 0.001 for all. Treatment with cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia was associated with significant reduction in the Insomnia Severity Index score that correlated with changes in mean level and night-to-night variability in wake after sleep onset discrepancy, P insomnia. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  13. Subjective sleep disturbances and quality of life in chronic tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, J; Graco, M; Brown, D J; Schembri, R; Berlowitz, D J

    2015-08-01

    This is a cross-sectional survey. The objective of this study was to evaluate the subjective sleep disturbances and quality of life in chronic tetraplegia. This study was conducted in a community sample from Victoria, Australia. People with tetraplegia were mailed a survey battery including the following: demographic questions; Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS); Basic Nordic Sleepiness Questionnaire; Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ); Multivariate Apnoea Prediction Index and Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL) Questionnaire. Scores were compared with the best available normative data. A total of 163 of 424 (38%) surveys were returned (77% male; 39% sensory and motor complete; mean age±s.d.=46±14 years; mean years since injury=11±8 years). The AQoL health utility score (0.31±0.29) was significantly lower than published population norms. FOSQ total (17.55±2.57) and KSS (3.93±2.27) scores were no different from the best available population data. People with tetraplegia reported worse sleep habits, symptoms and quality than a normal population, as indicated on 17 of 21 questions on the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire. Multivariate analysis found that greater injury severity (coefficient (95% CI)=0.14 (0.10, 0.18)), increasing age (-0.004 (-0.008, -0.001)) and worse sleep symptoms (-0.005 (-0.009, -0.0003)) were all significantly associated with reduced quality of life. People with chronic tetraplegia experience more subjective sleep problems and worse quality of life than their able-bodied counterparts. Quality of life is related to injury severity, age and sleep symptoms. Treating the sleep disorders experienced by people living with tetraplegia has the potential to improve their health and well-being.

  14. The role of perceived sleep norms in subjective sleep appraisals and sleep-related illness behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulla, Mazheruddin M; Lewis, Jerome A; Hamilton, James C; Tutek, Joshua; Emert, Sarah E; Witte, Tricia H; Lichstein, Kenneth L

    2017-06-23

    The present investigation sought to extend extant research on subjective sleep complaints by examining their relation to perceived sleep norms. Results from two studies showed that individuals' distress and illness behavior in response to symptoms of fatigue and non-restorative sleep was influenced by their perceptions of peer norms for those symptoms. Individuals who believed they experienced a greater degree of fatigue and non-restorative sleep than their peers reported more distress arising from those symptoms, and were also more likely to seek social support and medical treatment for them. Furthermore, participants who scored higher in neuroticism were more likely to believe they experienced worse fatigue and non-restorative sleep than their peers, and thus reported higher symptom-related distress, and higher likelihood of engaging in illness behaviors. These results provide preliminary evidence of the clinical relevance of perceived norms in the way individuals respond to and manage sleep related problems.

  15. Reduced Slow-Wave Rebound during Daytime Recovery Sleep in Middle-Aged Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafortune, Marjolaine; Gagnon, Jean-François; Latreille, Véronique; Vandewalle, Gilles; Martin, Nicolas; Filipini, Daniel; Doyon, Julien; Carrier, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Cortical synchronization during NREM sleep, characterized by electroencephalographic slow waves (SW 75 µV), is strongly related to the number of hours of wakefulness prior to sleep and to the quality of the waking experience. Whether a similar increase in wakefulness length leads to a comparable enhancement in NREM sleep cortical synchronization in young and older subjects is still a matter of debate in the literature. Here we evaluated the impact of 25-hours of wakefulness on SW during a daytime recovery sleep episode in 29 young (27y ±5), and 34 middle-aged (51y ±5) subjects. We also assessed whether age-related changes in NREM sleep cortical synchronization predicts the ability to maintain sleep during daytime recovery sleep. Compared to baseline sleep, sleep efficiency was lower during daytime recovery sleep in both age-groups but the effect was more prominent in the middle-aged than in the young subjects. In both age groups, SW density, amplitude, and slope increased whereas SW positive and negative phase duration decreased during daytime recovery sleep compared to baseline sleep, particularly in anterior brain areas. Importantly, compared to young subjects, middle-aged participants showed lower SW density rebound and SW positive phase duration enhancement after sleep deprivation during daytime recovery sleep. Furthermore, middle-aged subjects showed lower SW amplitude and slope enhancements after sleep deprivation than young subjects in frontal and prefrontal derivations only. None of the SW characteristics at baseline were associated with daytime recovery sleep efficiency. Our results support the notion that anterior brain areas elicit and may necessitate more intense recovery and that aging reduces enhancement of cortical synchronization after sleep loss, particularly in these areas. Age-related changes in the quality of wake experience may underlie age-related reduction in markers of cortical synchronization enhancement after sustained wakefulness. PMID

  16. Reduced slow-wave rebound during daytime recovery sleep in middle-aged subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolaine Lafortune

    Full Text Available Cortical synchronization during NREM sleep, characterized by electroencephalographic slow waves (SW 75 µV, is strongly related to the number of hours of wakefulness prior to sleep and to the quality of the waking experience. Whether a similar increase in wakefulness length leads to a comparable enhancement in NREM sleep cortical synchronization in young and older subjects is still a matter of debate in the literature. Here we evaluated the impact of 25-hours of wakefulness on SW during a daytime recovery sleep episode in 29 young (27 y ± 5, and 34 middle-aged (51 y ± 5 subjects. We also assessed whether age-related changes in NREM sleep cortical synchronization predicts the ability to maintain sleep during daytime recovery sleep. Compared to baseline sleep, sleep efficiency was lower during daytime recovery sleep in both age-groups but the effect was more prominent in the middle-aged than in the young subjects. In both age groups, SW density, amplitude, and slope increased whereas SW positive and negative phase duration decreased during daytime recovery sleep compared to baseline sleep, particularly in anterior brain areas. Importantly, compared to young subjects, middle-aged participants showed lower SW density rebound and SW positive phase duration enhancement after sleep deprivation during daytime recovery sleep. Furthermore, middle-aged subjects showed lower SW amplitude and slope enhancements after sleep deprivation than young subjects in frontal and prefrontal derivations only. None of the SW characteristics at baseline were associated with daytime recovery sleep efficiency. Our results support the notion that anterior brain areas elicit and may necessitate more intense recovery and that aging reduces enhancement of cortical synchronization after sleep loss, particularly in these areas. Age-related changes in the quality of wake experience may underlie age-related reduction in markers of cortical synchronization enhancement after

  17. Patients previously treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas have disturbed sleep characteristics, circadian movement rhythm, and subjective sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermasz, N R; Joustra, S D; Donga, E; Pereira, A M; van Duinen, N; van Dijk, M; van der Klaauw, A A; Corssmit, E P M; Lammers, G J; van Kralingen, K W; van Dijk, J G; Romijn, J A

    2011-05-01

    Fatigue and excessive sleepiness have been reported after treatment of nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFMA). Because these complaints may be caused by disturbed nocturnal sleep, we evaluated objective sleep characteristics in patients treated for NFMA. We conducted a controlled cross-sectional study. We studied 17 patients (8 women; mean age, 54 yr) in remission of NFMA during long-term follow-up (8 yr; range, 1-18 yr) after surgery (n = 17) and additional radiotherapy (n = 5) without comorbidity except for hypopituitarism and 17 controls matched for age, gender, and body mass index. Sleep was assessed by nocturnal polysomnography, sleep and diurnal movement patterns by actigraphy, and quality of life and subjective sleep characteristics by questionnaires. Compared to controls, patients had reduced sleep efficiency, less rapid eye movement sleep, more N1 sleep, and more awakenings in the absence of excessive apnea or periodic limb movements. Actigraphy revealed a longer sleep duration and profound disturbances in diurnal movement patterns, with more awakenings at night and less activity during the day. Patients scored higher on fatigue and reported impaired quality of life. Patients previously treated for NFMA suffer from decreased subjective sleep quality, disturbed distribution of sleep stages, and disturbed circadian movement rhythm. These observations indicate that altered sleep characteristics may be a factor contributing to impaired quality of life and increased fatigue in patients treated for NFMA.

  18. Sleeping problems in Chinese illicit drug dependent subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinsong; Liao, Yanhui; He, Haoyu; Deng, Qijian; Zhang, Guanbai; Qi, Chang; Cui, Hangtao; Jiao, Bin; Yang, Mei; Feng, Zhijuan; Chen, Xiaogang; Hao, Wei; Liu, Tieqiao

    2015-02-19

    Illicit drug use/dependence has been recognized as a major problem. Clinical studies demonstrate that poor sleep quality is associated with increased frequency of drug use and relapse. However, few studies have addressed the issue of sleep quality among illicit drug dependent subjects. This cross-sectional study explored sleep quality in drug dependent subjects in China. We studied 2178 illicit drug dependent subjects from drug rehabilitation centres in Changsha and 2236 non-drug-using subjects, all of whom completed the self-report Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). We found that the prevalence of sleep disturbance was much higher in drug users (68.5%, PSQI >5; specifically, 80.24% in heroin users, 54.16% in methamphetamine users and 81.98% in ketamine users with PSQI >5) than non-users (26.4%, PSQI >5). Drug users had approximately twice the sleep latency than nondrug users (37.7 minutes V.S 18.4 minutes). Although drug users and non-users reported similar sleep duration (about 7.4 hours), drug users showed poorer subjective sleep quality and habitual sleep efficiency. They reported more sleep disturbance and need for sleep medications, more daytime dysfunction and poorer subjective sleep quality compared with nondrug users. The total PSQI score positively correlated with the duration of drug use (rp = 0.164, p sleep problems and cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and duration of drug use. Poor sleep quality is common among illicit drug dependent subjects. Long-term substance users had more sleep problems. Future research aiming at quantifying the benefits of treatment interventions should not neglect the influence of sleep problems. Gaining more insight into the impact of sleep quality on the addiction treatment could also help to target future intervention measures more effectively.

  19. Subjective sleep quality and sleep duration of patients in a psychiatric hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Matthias J; Olschinski, Christiane; Kundermann, Bernd; Cabanel, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Sleep complaints and sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in patients with psychiatric disorders. During hospitalization the patients? condition may be even worse but little is known about the subjective sleep quality in psychiatric hospitals. Thus, we have investigated subjective sleep quality and mean sleep duration in patients with different psychiatric disorders at the end of hospitalization. For a period of one year, inpatients of a psychiatric hospital with diagnosis of substance use...

  20. Objective and Subjective Socioeconomic Gradients Exist for Sleep in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrin, Denise C.; McGrath, Jennifer J.; Quon, Elizabeth C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Socioeconomic position (SEP) is inversely associated with many health outcomes, yielding a socioeconomic gradient in health. In adults, low SEP is associated with short sleep duration, poorer sleep quality, and difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep. Relatively little is known about this relation in youth. The aim of the present study was to examine whether socioeconomic gradients exist for various sleep indices among a healthy sample of children and adolescents. Method Participants took part in the larger Healthy Heart Project and included 239 youth (69.6% Caucasian; 45.6% female), aged 8–17 years (M =12.6, SD =1.9). Parental income and education were used to measure objective SEP. The Subjective Social Status Scale-Youth Version was used to measure subjective SEP. Sleep duration, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and sleep disturbances were assessed through self- and parent-report. Results In children, objective SEP was related with sleep duration (β =.35, p <.01), although subjective SEP was related with daytime sleepiness (βavg =.33, p <.01) and parent-reported sleep duration (β =.23, p <.05). In adolescents, subjective SEPwas related with sleep quality (β =.28, p <.01) and parent-reported sleep duration (β = −.18, p <.05), even after controlling for objective SEP. Conclusions Socioeconomic gradients were observed for multiple sleep measures in youth. Objective parental SEP was related with sleep complaints (e.g., sleep disturbances), and subjective SEP was related with sleep quality and daytime sleepiness. Findings suggest sleep may be one pathway underlying the socioeconomic gradient in health. Future research should aim to elucidate how distinct sleep constructs may explain how socioeconomic status “gets under the skin” to affect health. PMID:23730721

  1. Subjective sleep complaints indicate objective sleep problems in psychosomatic patients: a prospective polysomnographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linden M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael Linden,1,2 Marie Dietz,1 Christian Veauthier,3 Ingo Fietze3 1Research Group Psychosomatic Rehabilitation, Charité University Medicine Berlin, 2Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Rehabilitation Centre Seehof, Teltow, 3Interdisciplinary Center of Sleep Medicine, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany Objective: To elucidate the relationship between subjective complaints and polysomnographical parameters in psychosomatic patients.Method: A convenience sample of patients from a psychosomatic inpatient unit were classified according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI as very poor sleepers (PSQI >10, n=80 and good sleepers (PSQI <6, n=19. They then underwent a polysomnography and in the morning rated their previous night’s sleep using a published protocol (Deutschen Gesellschaft für Schlafforschung und Schlafmedizin morning protocol [MP].Results: In the polysomnography, significant differences were found between very poor and good sleepers according to the PSQI with respect to sleep efficiency and time awake after sleep onset. When comparing objective PSG and subjective MP, the polysomnographical sleep onset latency was significantly positively correlated with the corresponding parameters of the MP: the subjective sleep onset latency in minutes and the subjective evaluation of sleep onset latency (very short, short, normal, long, very long were positively correlated with the sleep latency measured by polysomnography. The polysomnographical time awake after sleep onset (in minutes was positively correlated with the subjective time awake after sleep onset (in minutes, evaluation of time awake after sleep onset (seldom, normal often, and subjective restfulness. The polysomnographical total sleep time (TST was positively correlated with the subjective TST. Conversely, the polysomnographical TST was negatively correlated with the evaluation of TST (high polysomnographical TST was correlated with the subjective

  2. Differentiation chronic post traumatic stress disorder patients from healthy subjects using objective and subjective sleep-related parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasian, Masoud; Jamalabadi, Hamidreza; Abedini, Mina; Ghadami, Mohammad R; Sepehry, Amir A; Knight, David C; Khazaie, Habibolah

    2017-05-22

    Sleep disturbance is common in chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, prior work has demonstrated that there are inconsistencies between subjective and objective assessments of sleep disturbance in PTSD. Therefore, we investigated whether subjective or objective sleep assessment has greater clinical utility to differentiate PTSD patients from healthy subjects. Further, we evaluated whether the combination of subjective and objective methods improves the accuracy of classification into patient versus healthy groups, which has important diagnostic implications. We recruited 32 chronic war-induced PTSD patients and 32 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects to participate in this study. Subjective (i.e. from three self-reported sleep questionnaires) and objective sleep-related data (i.e. from actigraphy scores) were collected from each participant. Subjective, objective, and combined (subjective and objective) sleep data were then analyzed using support vector machine classification. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for subjective variables were 89.2%, 89.3%, and 89%, respectively. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for objective variables were 65%, 62.3%, and 67.8%, respectively. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for the aggregate variables (combination of subjective and objective variables) were 91.6%, 93.0%, and 90.3%, respectively. Our findings indicate that classification accuracy using subjective measurements is superior to objective measurements and the combination of both assessments appears to improve the classification accuracy for differentiating PTSD patients from healthy individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Behaviorally Assessed Sleep and Susceptibility to the Common Cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Aric A; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Hall, Martica H; Cohen, Sheldon

    2015-09-01

    Short sleep duration and poor sleep continuity have been implicated in the susceptibility to infectious illness. However, prior research has relied on subjective measures of sleep, which are subject to recall bias. The aim of this study was to determine whether sleep, measured behaviorally using wrist actigraphy, predicted cold incidence following experimental viral exposure. A total of 164 healthy men and women (age range, 18 to 55 y) volunteered for this study. Wrist actigraphy and sleep diaries assessed sleep duration and sleep continuity over 7 consecutive days. Participants were then quarantined and administered nasal drops containing the rhinovirus, and monitored over 5 days for the development of a clinical cold (defined by infection in the presence of objective signs of illness). Logistic regression analysis revealed that actigraphy- assessed shorter sleep duration was associated with an increased likelihood of development of a clinical cold. Specifically, those sleeping cold compared to those sleeping > 7 h per night; those sleeping 6.01 to 7 h were at no greater risk (OR = 1.66; 95% CI 0.40-6.95). This association was independent of prechallenge antibody levels, demographics, season of the year, body mass index, psychological variables, and health practices. Sleep fragmentation was unrelated to cold susceptibility. Other sleep variables obtained using diary and actigraphy were not strong predictors of cold susceptibility. Shorter sleep duration, measured behaviorally using actigraphy prior to viral exposure, was associated with increased susceptibility to the common cold. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  4. What subjective experiences determine the perception of falling asleep during sleep onset period?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chien-Ming; Han, Huei-Ya; Yang, Ming-Hsin; Su, Wei-Chen; Lane, Timothy

    2010-12-01

    Sleep onset is associated with marked changes in behavioral, physiological, and subjective phenomena. In daily life though subjective experience is the main criterion in terms of which we identify it. But very few studies have focused on these experiences. This study seeks to identify the subjective variables that reflect sleep onset. Twenty young subjects took an afternoon nap in the laboratory while polysomnographic recordings were made. They were awakened four times in order to assess subjective experiences that correlate with the (1) appearance of slow eye movement, (2) initiation of stage 1 sleep, (3) initiation of stage 2 sleep, and (4) 5 min after the start of stage 2 sleep. A logistic regression identified control over and logic of thought as the two variables that predict the perception of having fallen asleep. For sleep perception, these two variables accurately classified 91.7% of the cases; for the waking state, 84.1%. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sleep quality and obesity in young subjects: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima, Y.; Doi, S.A.R.; Mamun, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effect of poor sleep quality on Overweight/Obesity (Ow/Ob) in young subjects, and explore if this association is independent of sleep duration. Pubmed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE databases were searched for papers on sleep quality and overweight/obesity, focusing on children, adolescents, and young adults. Studies based on subjects with medical/psychological problems or published in languages other than English were excluded. Quality effects model was used to pool studies for meta-anal...

  6. The effects of aging on sleep architecture in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorffner, Georg; Vitr, Martin; Anderer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents normative data on healthy sleep, as measured by polysomnography (PSG), from "supernormal" subjects across the age range from 20 to about 90 years. The data originates from the SIESTA project database established in the late 1990s. While that data has been published and used in research in many ways, the novelty of the current analysis is (a) the focus on normative data following the latest sleep staging standard (AASM 2012), and (b) the results after narrowing down the data set by excluding outliers due to disturbed sleep pattern that can occur in a sleep lab and are thus not examples of "normal" sleep. Results demonstrate interesting dependencies of sleep architecture on age, in particular a reduction in total sleep time and changes in sleep stage distributions toward lighter sleep, which differ in detail between the two genders.

  7. Subjective and objective sleep disturbance and longitudinal risk of depression in a cohort of older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, Jeanne E; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Peters, Katherine W; Paudel, Misti L; Yaffe, Kristine; Ensrud, Kristine E; Stone, Katie L

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the longitudinal relationship between subjective and objective sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms. Longitudinal. Three US clinical centers. Nine hundred fifty-two community-dwelling older women (70 y or older). At baseline, subjective sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and objective sleep measures were assessed with wrist actigraphy. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) at baseline and approximately 5 y later. The analysis was restricted to women with few (GDS 0-2) depressive symptoms at baseline. There was an independent association between greater PSQI score (per standard deviation increase, indicating worse subjective sleep quality) at baseline and greater odds of worsening depressive symptoms (≥ 2-point increase in GDS) (Multivariate Odds Ratio [MOR] 1.19, confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.40, P = 0.036). Higher scores specifically on the sleep quality (MOR 1.41, CI 1.13-1.77, P sleep latency (MOR 1.21, CI 1.03-1.41, P = 0.018) PSQI subscales were also associated with greater odds for worsening depressive symptoms. Objective assessments revealed an association between baseline prolonged wake after sleep onset (WASO ≥ 60 min) and worsening depressive symptoms at follow-up (MOR 1.36, CI 1.01-1.84, P = 0.046). There were no associations between other objectively assessed sleep measures and worsening depressive symptoms. In older women with few or no depressive symptoms at baseline, those with more subjectively reported sleep disturbance and more objectively assessed fragmentation of sleep at baseline had greater odds of worsening depressive symptoms 5 y later. Future studies investigating this relationship in more detail are indicated. Maglione JE, Ancoli-Israel S, Peters KW, Paudel ML, Yaffe K, Ensrud KE, Stone KL, Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Subjective and objective sleep disturbance and longitudinal risk of depression in a cohort of older

  8. Effects on subjective and objective alertness and sleep in response to evening light exposure in older subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münch, M; Scheuermaier, K D; Zhang, R; Dunne, S P; Guzik, A M; Silva, E J; Ronda, J M; Duffy, J F

    2011-10-31

    Evening bright light exposure is reported to ameliorate daytime sleepiness and age-related sleep complaints, and also delays the timing of circadian rhythms. We tested whether evening light exposure given to older adults with sleep-wake complaints would delay the timing of their circadian rhythms with respect to their sleep timing, thereby reducing evening sleepiness and improving subsequent sleep quality. We examined the impact of evening light exposure from two different light sources on subjective alertness, EEG activity during wakefulness, and sleep stages. Ten healthy older adults with sleep complaints (mean age=63.3 years; 6F) participated in a 13-day study. After three baseline days, circadian phase was assessed. On the evening of days 5-8 the subjects were exposed for 2h to either polychromatic blue-enriched white light or standard white fluorescent light, and on the following day circadian phase was re-assessed. Subjects were allowed to leave the laboratory during all but the two days when the circadian phase assessment took place. Evening assessments of subjective alertness, and wake and sleep EEG data were analyzed. Subjective alertness and wake EEG activity in the alpha range (9.75-11.25 Hz) were significantly higher during light exposures when compared to the pre-light exposure evening (plight exposures produced circadian phase shifts and significantly prolonged latency to rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep for both light groups (plight exposures was negatively correlated with REM sleep duration (plight exposure could benefit older adults with early evening sleepiness, without negatively impacting the subsequent sleep episode. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sleep quality and obesity in young subjects: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Y; Doi, S A R; Mamun, A A

    2016-11-01

    To assess the effect of poor sleep quality on Overweight/Obesity (Ow/Ob) in young subjects, and explore if this association is independent of sleep duration. Pubmed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE databases were searched for papers on sleep quality and overweight/obesity, focusing on children, adolescents, and young adults. Studies based on subjects with medical/psychological problems or published in languages other than English were excluded. Quality effects model was used to pool studies for meta-analysis. Findings from the systematic review suggest a link between poor sleep quality and Ow/Ob in young subjects. Pooled estimate (from 26,553 subjects) suggest a role of inadequate sleep (including both short duration and poor quality) in Ow/Ob (OR: 1.27 95% CI: 1.05-1.53). Sub-group-analyses suggest considerably higher odds of Ow/Ob (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.24-1.72) in young subjects with poor sleep quality (independent of duration). Poor sleep quality seems to be associated with Ow/Ob, and some studies indicate this association to be independent of duration. Therefore, considering only sleep duration might not help in disentangling sleep-obesity association. However, this review is mostly composed of cross-sectional studies. Therefore, a causal link or the stability of the sleep quality and Ow/Ob association could not be established. © 2016 World Obesity.

  10. Sleep enhances nocturnal plasma ghrelin levels in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzaja, Andrea; Dalal, Mira A; Himmerich, Hubertus; Uhr, Manfred; Pollmächer, Thomas; Schuld, Andreas

    2004-06-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has been shown to promote slow-wave sleep (SWS, non-REM sleep stages 3 and 4). Plasma levels of ghrelin are dependent on food intake and increase in sleeping subjects during the early part of the night. It is unknown whether sleep itself affects ghrelin levels or whether circadian networks are involved. Therefore, we studied the effect of sleep deprivation on nocturnal ghrelin secretion. In healthy male volunteers, plasma levels of ghrelin, cortisol, and human growth hormone (hGH) were measured during two experimental sessions of 24 h each: once when the subjects were allowed to sleep between 2300 and 0700 and once when they were kept awake throughout the night. During sleep, ghrelin levels increased during the early part of the night and decreased in the morning. This nocturnal increase was blunted during sleep deprivation, and ghrelin levels increased only slightly until the early morning. Ghrelin secretion during the first hours of sleep correlated positively with peak hGH concentrations. We conclude that the nocturnal increase in ghrelin levels is more likely to be caused by sleep-associated processes than by circadian influences. During the first hours of sleep, ghrelin might promote sleep-associated hGH secretion and contribute to the promotion of SWS.

  11. A descriptive study to assess the impact of surgical stomas on individuals' sleep perceptions & response to sleep hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorbeck, Ellen; Willette-Murphy, Karen; Meiers, Sonja; Rudel, Rebecca; Alakhras, Mazen

    2010-01-01

    Multiple factors affect the sleep quality of individuals with surgically created stomas. Using Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation as the theoretical framework, a study was conducted to: 1) assess subjective sleep quality perceptions and objective sleep measurement in adults with stomas, 2) determine if there is a correlation between subjective and objective measurement of sleep in this group, and 3) implement a stoma-specific sleep hygiene intervention to improve these sleep quality perceptions. Subjective assessment focused on sleep subset questions from the Stoma Quality of Life Index (SQOLI) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Respondents' (n = 26) subjective sleep scores were 7.23 mean global score on seven questions (PSQI, range: 0 [no difficulty sleeping] to 3 [severe difficulty sleeping], total 0 to 21) with a mean score of 7.32 on three questions (SQOLI, range 1 [severe difficulty sleeping] to 4 [no difficulty sleeping], total 0 to 12) on sleep subset questions; composite scores of 5 or greater (PSQI) and 3 or less (SQOLI) indicating sleep problems. Scores showed that adults with stomas have increased sleep disruption and poor sleep quality. Five respondents who met intervention enrollment criteria participated in an objective sleep assessment using actigraphy, overnight oxygenation studies, and a 4-week sleep hygiene intervention. Mean PSQI score improved by 1.20 but the difference was not statistically significant. Because the results of this study confirm that sleep problems are common in older adults with a stoma, larger sample size studies of >4 weeks' duration are warranted. Until additional research results are available, the existence of sleep quality and overnight pouching concerns should be recognized and use of the low-cost, easy-to-use, stoma-specific sleep hygiene intervention considered.

  12. Mood Influences the Concordance of Subjective and Objective Measures of Sleep Duration in Older Adults

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    Marion Baillet

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective/Background: Sleep plays a central role in maintaining health and cognition. In most epidemiologic studies, sleep is evaluated by self-report questionnaires but several reports suggest that these evaluations might be less accurate than objective measures such as polysomnography or actigraphy. Determinants of the discrepancy between objective and subjective measures remain to be investigated. The aim of this pilot-study was to examine the role of mood states in determining the discrepancy observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration in older adults.Patients/Methods: Objective sleep quantity and quality were recorded by actigraphy in a sample of 45 elderly subjects over at least three consecutive nights. Subjective sleep duration and supplementary data, such as mood status and memory, were evaluated using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA.Results: A significant discrepancy was observed between EMA and actigraphic measures of sleep duration (p<0.001. The magnitude of this difference was explained by the patient’s mood status (p=0.020. No association was found between the magnitude of this discrepancy and age, sex, sleep quality or memory performance.Conclusion: The discrepancy classically observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration can be explained by mood status at the time of awakening. These results have potential implications for epidemiologic and clinical studies examining sleep as a risk factor for morbidity or mortality.

  13. Mood Influences the Concordance of Subjective and Objective Measures of Sleep Duration in Older Adults.

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    Baillet, Marion; Cosin, Charlotte; Schweitzer, Pierre; Pérès, Karine; Catheline, Gwenaëlle; Swendsen, Joel; Mayo, Willy

    2016-01-01

    Sleep plays a central role in maintaining health and cognition. In most epidemiologic studies, sleep is evaluated by self-report questionnaires but several reports suggest that these evaluations might be less accurate than objective measures such as polysomnography or actigraphy. Determinants of the discrepancy between objective and subjective measures remain to be investigated. The aim of this pilot-study was to examine the role of mood states in determining the discrepancy observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration in older adults. Objective sleep quantity and quality were recorded by actigraphy in a sample of 45 elderly subjects over at least three consecutive nights. Subjective sleep duration and supplementary data, such as mood status and memory, were evaluated using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). A significant discrepancy was observed between EMA and actigraphic measures of sleep duration (p sleep quality or memory performance. The discrepancy classically observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration can be explained by mood status at the time of awakening. These results have potential implications for epidemiologic and clinical studies examining sleep as a risk factor for morbidity or mortality.

  14. Subjectively and objectively measured sleep with and without posttraumatic stress disorder and trauma exposure.

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    Kobayashi, Ihori; Huntley, Edward; Lavela, Joseph; Mellman, Thomas A

    2012-07-01

    Although reports of sleep disturbances are common among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), results of polysomnographic (PSG) studies have inconsistently documented abnormalities and have therefore suggested "sleep state misperception." The authors' study objectives were to compare sleep parameters measured objectively and subjectively in the laboratory and at home in civilians with and without trauma exposure and PTSD. Cross-sectional study. PSG recordings in a sleep laboratory and actigraphic recordings in participants' homes. One hundred three urban-residing African Americans with and without trauma exposure and PTSD who participated in a larger study. N/A. Sleep parameters (total sleep time [TST], sleep onset latency [SOL], and wake after sleep onset [WASO]) were assessed using laboratory PSG and home actigraphy. A sleep diary was completed in the morning after PSG and actigraphy recordings. Habitual TST, SOL, and WASO were assessed using a sleep questionnaire. The Clinician Administered PTSD Scale was administered to assess participants' trauma exposure and PTSD diagnostic status. Participants, regardless of their trauma exposure/PTSD status, underestimated WASO in the diary and questionnaire relative to actigraphy and overestimated SOL in the diary relative to PSG. Among participants with current PTSD, TST diary estimates did not differ from the actigraphy measure in contrast with those without current PTSD who overestimated TST. No other significant group differences in discrepancies between subjective and objective sleep measures were found. Discrepancies between subjectively and objectively measured sleep parameters were not associated with trauma exposure or PTSD. This challenges prior assertions that individuals with PTSD overreport their sleep disturbances.

  15. REM Sleep Phase Preference in the Crepuscular Octodon degus Assessed by Selective REM Sleep Deprivation

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    Ocampo-Garcés, Adrián; Hernández, Felipe; Palacios, Adrian G.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine rapid eye movement (REM) sleep phase preference in a crepuscular mammal (Octodon degus) by challenging the specific REM sleep homeostatic response during the diurnal and nocturnal anticrepuscular rest phases. Design: We have investigated REM sleep rebound, recovery, and documented REM sleep propensity measures during and after diurnal and nocturnal selective REM sleep deprivations. Subjects: Nine male wild-captured O. degus prepared for polysomnographic recordings Interventions: Animals were recorded during four consecutive baseline and two separate diurnal or nocturnal deprivation days, under a 12:12 light-dark schedule. Three-h selective REM sleep deprivations were performed, starting at midday (zeitgeber time 6) or midnight (zeitgeber time 18). Measurements and Results: Diurnal and nocturnal REM sleep deprivations provoked equivalent amounts of REM sleep debt, but a consistent REM sleep rebound was found only after nocturnal deprivation. The nocturnal rebound was characterized by a complete recovery of REM sleep associated with an augment in REM/total sleep time ratio and enhancement in REM sleep episode consolidation. Conclusions: Our results support the notion that the circadian system actively promotes REM sleep. We propose that the sleep-wake cycle of O. degus is modulated by a chorus of circadian oscillators with a bimodal crepuscular modulation of arousal and a unimodal promotion of nocturnal REM sleep. Citation: Ocampo-Garcés A; Hernández F; Palacios AG. REM sleep phase preference in the crepuscular Octodon degus assessed by selective REM sleep deprivation. SLEEP 2013;36(8):1247-1256. PMID:23904685

  16. High cardiac vagal control is related to better subjective and objective sleep quality

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    Werner, Gabriela G.; Ford, Brett Q.; Mauss, Iris B.; Schabus, Manuel; Blechert, Jens; Wilhelm, Frank H.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac vagal control (CVC) has been linked to both physical and mental health. One critical aspect of health, that has not received much attention, is sleep. We hypothesized that adults with higher CVC – operationalized by high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) – will exhibit better sleep quality assessed both subjectively (i.e., with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and objectively (i.e., with polysomnography). HF-HRV was measured in 29 healthy young women during an extended neutral film clip. Participants then underwent full polysomnography to obtain objective measures of sleep quality and HF-HRV during a night of sleep. As expected, higher resting HF-HRV was associated with higher subjective and objective sleep quality (i.e., shorter sleep latency and fewer arousals). HF-HRV during sleep (overall or separated by sleep phases) showed less consistent relationships with sleep quality. These findings indicate that high waking CVC may be a key predictor of healthy sleep. PMID:25709072

  17. Subjective sleep quality, unstimulated sexual arousal, and sexual frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Costa

    Full Text Available Introduction: REM sleep deprivation increases unstimulated erections in rats, and total sleep deprivation increases erections during audiovisual sexual stimulation in men, but the effects of sleep problems on human unstimulated sexual arousal are unknown. Objective: We examined the associations of subjective sleep quality with unstimulated sexual arousal, satisfaction with sex life, and sexual frequency and desire over the past month. Methods: 275 Portuguese (169 women reported their anxiety, sexual arousal and sexual desire during a resting state, and completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the sexual satisfaction subscale of the LiSat scale, the Desire dimensions of the Female Sexual Function Index (women only and International Index of Erectile Function (men only. They additionally reported how many days in the past month they engaged in penile-vaginal intercourse, noncoital sex, and masturbation. Salivary testosterone (T was assayed by luminescence immunoassays. Results: Poorer sleep quality correlated with greater unstimulated sexual arousal in men with higher T levels and in women with higher T levels not taking oral contraceptives. In women with lower T, poorer subjective sleep quality correlated with greater sexual dissatisfaction. In both sexes, sleep quality was uncorrelated with sexual desire and sexual frequency over the past month. Discussion: Consistently with other studies in humans and animals, the findings are congruent with the notion that lack of sleep can increase sexual arousal, but not sexual frequency. T might play a role in the sexual arousal caused by lack of appropriate sleep.

  18. Subjective memory complaints in an elderly population with poor sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Suk-Hoon; Yoon, In-Young; Lee, Sang Don; Kim, Tae; Lee, Chung Suk; Han, Ji Won; Kim, Ki Woong; Kim, Chan-Hyung

    2017-05-01

    The association between sleep disturbances and cognitive decline in the elderly has been putative and controversial. We evaluated the relation between subjective sleep quality and cognitive function in the Korean elderly. Among 459 community-dwelling subjects, 352 subjects without depression or neurologic disorders (mean age 68.2 ± 6.1) were analyzed in this study. All the participants completed the Korean version of the consortium to establish a registry for Alzheimer's disease neuropsychological battery (CERAD-KN) as an objective cognitive measure and subjective memory complaints questionnaire (SMCQ). Based on the Pittsburgh sleep quality index, two types of sleepers were defined: 'good sleepers' and 'poor sleepers'. There were 192 good sleepers (92 men) and 160 poor sleepers (51 men). Poor sleepers reported more depressive symptoms and more use of sleep medication, and showed higher SMCQ scores than good sleepers, but there was no difference in any assessments of CERAD-KN. In the regression analysis, depressive symptoms and subjective sleep quality were associated with subjective memory complaints (β = 0.312, p poor sleep quality was associated with subjective memory complaints, but not with objective cognitive measures. As subjective memory complaints might develop into cognitive disorders, poor sleep quality in the elderly needs to be adequately controlled.

  19. Nightmare disorder, dream anxiety, and subjective sleep quality in patients with borderline personality disorder.

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    Semiz, Umit B; Basoglu, Cengiz; Ebrinc, Servet; Cetin, Mesut

    2008-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to examine the rate of nightmare disorder (ND) and to determine the levels of dream anxiety and subjective sleep quality in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Another aim was to determine whether dream anxiety was associated with childhood trauma, dissociative experiences, and subjective sleep disturbance in BPD patients. Finally, the hypothesis as to whether BPD patients with ND exhibited a more severe clinical profile than those without ND, was also tested. A total of 88 borderline patients and 100 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, Van Dream Anxiety Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Dissociative Experiences Scale, and Traumatic Experiences Checklist. Subjects with codiagnoses that could affect sleep were not included. BPD patients suffered a significantly greater rate of nightmares, elevated levels of dream anxiety, and disturbed sleep quality than did controls. In the borderline group, heightened dream anxiety was correlated with higher rates of early traumatic experiences and dissociative symptoms, and impaired sleep quality. Furthermore, borderline patients with ND exhibited greater psychopathology as compared to those without ND in terms of several clinical characteristics. The present study provides support for a strong association between BPD, distressing nightmares, and subjective sleep quality. Recognition and management of dream and sleep disturbances in BPD patients might lead to improvements in their global clinical picture.

  20. Subjective Mood in Young Unmedicated Depressed Women under High and Low Sleep Pressure Conditions

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    Angelina Birchler-Pedross

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal mood variations are one of the core symptoms in depression, and total sleep deprivation (SD can induce rapid, short-lasting clinical improvement in depressed patients. Here, we investigated if differential sleep pressure conditions impact on subjective mood levels in young women with major depressive disorder (MDD without sleep disturbances, and in healthy controls. Eight healthy and eight MDD women underwent 40-h SD (high sleep pressure and 40-h multiple NAP (low sleep pressure protocols under constant routine conditions during which subjective mood was assessed every 30-min. MDD women rated overall significantly worse mood than controls, with minimal values for both groups during the biological night (ca. 4 a.m., under high and low sleep pressure conditions. During SD, nighttime mood ratings in MDD women were lower than in controls and partially recovered during the second day of SD, but never attained control levels. The degree of this diurnal time-course in mood under SD correlated positively with sleep quality in MDD women. Our data indicate that MDD women without sleep disturbances did not exhibit a SD-induced antidepressant response, suggesting that the mood enhancement response to sleep deprivation might be related to the co-existence of sleep disturbances, which is an association that remains to be fully established.

  1. Subjective Mood in Young Unmedicated Depressed Women under High and Low Sleep Pressure Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchler-Pedross, Angelina; Frey, Sylvia; Götz, Thomas; Brunner, Patrick; Knoblauch, Vera; Wirz-Justice, Anna; Chellappa, Sarah L.; Cajochen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Diurnal mood variations are one of the core symptoms in depression, and total sleep deprivation (SD) can induce rapid, short-lasting clinical improvement in depressed patients. Here, we investigated if differential sleep pressure conditions impact on subjective mood levels in young women with major depressive disorder (MDD) without sleep disturbances, and in healthy controls. Eight healthy and eight MDD women underwent 40-h SD (high sleep pressure) and 40-h multiple NAP (low sleep pressure) protocols under constant routine conditions during which subjective mood was assessed every 30-min. MDD women rated overall significantly worse mood than controls, with minimal values for both groups during the biological night (ca. 4 a.m.), under high and low sleep pressure conditions. During SD, nighttime mood ratings in MDD women were lower than in controls and partially recovered during the second day of SD, but never attained control levels. The degree of this diurnal time-course in mood under SD correlated positively with sleep quality in MDD women. Our data indicate that MDD women without sleep disturbances did not exhibit a SD-induced antidepressant response, suggesting that the mood enhancement response to sleep deprivation might be related to the co-existence of sleep disturbances, which is an association that remains to be fully established. PMID:27941666

  2. Reactivity and sleep in infants: a longitudinal objective assessment.

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    De Marcas, Gali S; Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Dollberg, Shaul; Bar-Haim, Yair; Sadeh, Avi

    2015-03-01

    Sleep patterns and temperament in the first year of life are closely related. However, research utilizing objective, rather than subjective measurements of sleep and temperament is scarce and results are inconsistent. In addition, a relative lack of longitudinal data prevents inference of causality between the two constructs. In this study, infant sleep was objectively assessed among 95 infants at 3, 6, and 12 months-of-age with an actigraph in the home setting. Reactivity to sound, light, and touch, a specific aspect of temperament, was behaviorally assessed at 3 and 6 months, both during sleep (at home) and during waking (at the laboratory). Expected maturational trends were recorded in sleep, with a temporal increase in sleep efficiency and percent of motionless sleep. Quadratic (i.e., inverse U shape) relations were found, especially among girls, when predicting change in sleep by reactivity thresholds, suggesting that both hyposensitive and hypersensitive infants are at risk for poor sleep quality. These are the first research findings suggesting that low reactivity in infancy might be associated with compromised sleep quality. The observed nonlinear effects may account for null or inconsistent results in previous studies that explored only linear associations between temperament and sleep. Future studies should address both extremes of the temperament continuum when exploring relations with sleep patterns. © 2015 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  3. An investigation into the strength of the association and agreement levels between subjective and objective sleep duration in adolescents.

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    Teresa Arora

    Full Text Available STUDY OBJECTIVES: The majority of adolescent sleep research has utilized self-reported sleep duration and some have based information on a solitary question. Whilst some have claimed to have validated sleep survey data with objective actigraphy measures in adolescents, the statistical approach applied only demonstrates the strength of the association between subjective and objective sleep duration data and does not reflect if these different methods actually agree. METHODS: Data were collected as part of the Midlands Adolescents Schools Sleep Education Study (MASSES. Adolescents (n=225 aged 11-13 years provided estimates for weekday, weekend and combined sleep duration based on self-reported survey data, a 7-day sleep diary, and wrist-worn actigraphy. RESULTS: We assessed the strength of the relationship as well as agreement levels between subjective and objectively determined sleep duration (weekday, weekend and combined. Subjective diary sleep duration was significantly correlated with actigraphy estimates for weekday and weekend sleep duration r=0.30, p ≤ 0.001 and r=0.31, p ≤ 0.001 respectively. Pitman's test demonstrated no significant difference in the variance between weekend sleep duration (r=0.09, p=0.16 and combined sleep duration (r=0.12, p=0.08 indicating acceptable agreement between actigraphy and sleep diary sleep duration only. Self-reported sleep duration estimates (weekday, weekend and combined did not agree with actigraphy determined sleep duration. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep diaries are a cost-effective alternative to survey/questionnaire data. Self-reported measures of sleep duration in adolescents do not agree with actigraphy measures and should be avoided where possible. Previous adolescent sleep studies that have utilized self-reported survey data may not provide a complete representation of sleep on the outcome measure of interest.

  4. The impact of pain on anxiety and depression is mediated by objective and subjective sleep characteristics in fibromyalgia patients.

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    Diaz-Piedra, Carolina; Catena, Andres; Miro, Elena; Martinez, Maria P; Sanchez, Ana I; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2014-10-01

    Pain is the cardinal feature in fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) and increases the risk of anxiety and depression. Patients with FM frequently report sleep disturbances as well. Sleep may mediate the association between pain and emotional symptoms, an idea which has been scarcely studied. The objective of this study was to uncover the role of subjective and objective sleep characteristics as mediators of the relationship between pain and anxiety and depression in FM. Fifty-five female with FM (mean age, 47.62 ± 7.64 y) were assessed to obtain self-reported measures of pain, sleep quality, anxiety and depression levels, and self-efficacy to cope with pain. An ambulatory polysomnographic recording was performed to assess sleep architecture. Subjective poor sleep quality was found in all participtants. Pain correlated with subjective and objective sleep parameters, self-efficacy, anxiety, and, marginally, with depression. The mediated regression analysis suggested that the best models to explain the impact of pain on anxiety and depression included, as mediators, subjective sleep quality, objective sleep efficiency, and self-efficacy (these models explained 34% of the variance), with objective sleep efficiency being the mediator with the highest influence (Panxiety and depression. In fact, the impact of chronic pain on the later emotional variables was mediated not only by self-efficacy but also by subjective sleep quality and, especially, by objective sleep efficiency.

  5. Sleep quality assessment using polysomnography in children on regular hemodialysis

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    Ahmed M El-Refaey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies examining sleep patterns in children on hemodialysis (HD are lacking. This cross-sectional, control-matched group study was performed to assess the sleep quality in children on HD. The assessment was made using a subjective sleep assessment and sleep questionnaire and objective analysis was made using full night polysomnography. A total of 25 children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD on HD were compared with 15 age- and sex-matched controls. The average age of the cases was 14 ± 4 years, 52% were males and the mean body mass index was 20 ± 3.8 kg/m². The average duration on dialysis was 2.6 ± 2 years. Analysis of subjective data revealed markedly affected sleep quality in HD patients, as evidenced by excessive day time sleepiness (P <0.005, night awakening (P <0.005, difficult morning arousal (P <0.005 and limb pains (P <0.005. Objective analysis showed differences in sleep architecture, less slow wave sleep in HD children, similar rapid eye movement and non-rapid eye movement, more sleep disordered breathing (P <0.0001 and more periodic limb movement disorders (P <0.0001. Our study suggests that children on regular HD have markedly affected objective as well as subjective quality of sleep.

  6. Subjective sleep disturbance in Chinese adults with epilepsy: Associations with affective symptoms.

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    Shen, Yeru; Zhang, Mengmeng; Wang, Yu; Wang, Lanlan; Xu, Xiangjun; Xiao, Gairong; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Ting; Zhou, Nong

    2017-09-01

    As well as being a very common neurological disease worldwide, epilepsy significantly impairs patients' emotional, behavioral, and cognitive functioning. Sleep disturbances are the most frequent complaint in patients with epilepsy. The present study assesses the impact of a range of affective symptoms on subjective sleep quality and sleep disturbances in Chinese adults with epilepsy. Adults with epilepsy who visited our epilepsy clinic from July 2015 to March 2016 were enrolled in our study. Both patients and healthy controls completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE). Subjective sleep quality and sleep disturbances were examined with regard to self-reported symptoms of depression and anxiety, seizure-related factors, and demographic factors. The PSQI scores and ISI scores of patients were significantly higher (indicating lower quality sleep and more serious insomnia) than those of the control group. Symptoms associated with depression and anxiety were independently related to impaired subjective sleep quality and insomnia. Affective symptoms explained more of the variance in PSQI scores and ISI scores than did seizure-related or demographic variables. In addition, these variables also seemed to be less powerful contributing factors to subjective sleep quality and insomnia than affective symptoms, several seizure-related factors, such as seizure control, partial seizures and duration of epilepsy, which are also significantly associated with subjective sleep quality and insomnia. In addition, use of lamotrigine (LTG) was also associated with insomnia and use of clonazepam (CZP) and phenobarbital (PB) with daytime sleepiness in patients with epilepsy. Chinese adults with epilepsy have poorer self-reported subjective sleep quality and a higher prevalence of insomnia than the control group

  7. Association of poor subjective sleep quality with suicidal ideation among pregnant Peruvian women.

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    Gelaye, Bizu; Barrios, Yasmin V; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Rondon, Marta B; Borba, Christina P C; Sánchez, Sixto E; Henderson, David C; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-01-01

    To examine the independent and joint relationships of poor subjective sleep quality and antepartum depression with suicidal ideation among pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 641 pregnant women attending prenatal care clinics in Lima, Peru. Antepartum depression and suicidal ideation were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scale. Antepartum subjective sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Logistic regression procedures were performed to estimate odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) adjusted for confounders. Overall, the prevalence of suicidal ideation in this cohort was 16.8% and poor subjective sleep quality was more common among women endorsing suicidal ideation as compared to their counterparts who did not (47.2% vs. 24.8%, Ppoor subjective sleep quality (defined using the recommended criteria of PSQI global score of >5 vs. ≤5) was associated with a 1.7-fold increased odds of suicidal ideation (aOR=1.67; 95% CI 1.02-2.71). When assessed as a continuous variable, each 1-unit increase in the global PSQI score resulted in an 18% increase in odds for suicidal ideation, even after adjusting for depression (aOR=1.18; 95% CI 1.08-1.28). Women with both poor subjective sleep quality and depression had a 3.5-fold increased odds of suicidal ideation (aOR=3.48; 95% CI 1.96-6.18) as compared with those who had neither risk factor. Poor subjective sleep quality was associated with increased odds of suicidal ideation. Replication of these findings may promote investments in studies designed to examine the efficacy of sleep-focused interventions to treat pregnant women with sleep disorders and suicidal ideation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Subjective and Objective Sleep Disturbance and Longitudinal Risk of Depression in a Cohort of Older Women

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    Maglione, Jeanne E.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Peters, Katherine W.; Paudel, Misti L.; Yaffe, Kristine; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Stone, Katie L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the longitudinal relationship between subjective and objective sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms. Design: Longitudinal. Setting: Three US clinical centers. Participants: Nine hundred fifty-two community-dwelling older women (70 y or older). Measurements: At baseline, subjective sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and objective sleep measures were assessed with wrist actigraphy. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) at baseline and approximately 5 y later. The analysis was restricted to women with few (GDS 0-2) depressive symptoms at baseline. Results: There was an independent association between greater PSQI score (per standard deviation increase, indicating worse subjective sleep quality) at baseline and greater odds of worsening depressive symptoms (≥ 2-point increase in GDS) (Multivariate Odds Ratio [MOR] 1.19, confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.40, P = 0.036). Higher scores specifically on the sleep quality (MOR 1.41, CI 1.13-1.77, P sleep latency (MOR 1.21, CI 1.03-1.41, P = 0.018) PSQI subscales were also associated with greater odds for worsening depressive symptoms. Objective assessments revealed an association between baseline prolonged wake after sleep onset (WASO ≥ 60 min) and worsening depressive symptoms at follow-up (MOR 1.36, CI 1.01-1.84, P = 0.046). There were no associations between other objectively assessed sleep measures and worsening depressive symptoms. Conclusions: In older women with few or no depressive symptoms at baseline, those with more subjectively reported sleep disturbance and more objectively assessed fragmentation of sleep at baseline had greater odds of worsening depressive symptoms 5 y later. Future studies investigating this relationship in more detail are indicated. Citation: Maglione JE, Ancoli-Israel S, Peters KW, Paudel ML, Yaffe K, Ensrud KE, Stone KL, Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Subjective

  9. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves subjective sleep quality in COPD.

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    Lan, Chou-Chin; Huang, Hui-Chuan; Yang, Mei-Chen; Lee, Chih-Hsin; Huang, Chun-Yao; Wu, Yao-Kuang

    2014-10-01

    Poor sleep quality is often reported among patients with COPD. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is beneficial in improving exercise capacity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). However, its benefit in terms of sleep quality in patients with COPD remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of PR on sleep quality of patients with COPD. Thirty-four subjects with COPD were studied. All subjects participated in a 12-week (2 sessions/week) hospital-based out-patient PR study. Baseline and post-PR status were evaluated by spirometry, a sleep questionnaire (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]), a disease-specific questionnaire of HRQOL (St George Respiratory Questionnaire [SGRQ]), cardiopulmonary exercise testing, respiratory muscle strength, and the Borg dyspnea scale. Mean FEV1/FVC in the subjects was 0.49 ± 0.13, and the mean FEV1 was 1.06 ± 0.49 L/min (49.7 ± 18.0% of predicted). After PR, the PSQI score decreased from 9.41 ± 4.33 to 7.82 ± 3.90 (P 5 also decreased (85.3-64.7%, P = .006). There were significant improvements in HRQOL (SGRQ, P = .003), exercise capacity (peak oxygen uptake, P rate, P sleep quality, along with concurrent improvements in HRQOL and exercise capacity. PR is an effective nonpharmacologic treatment to improve sleep quality in patients with COPD and should be part of their clinical management. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  10. Subjective sleep quality in relation to inhibition and heart rate variability in patients with panic disorder.

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    Hovland, Anders; Pallesen, Ståle; Hammar, Asa; Hansen, Anita Lill; Thayer, Julian F; Sivertsen, Børge; Tarvainen, Mika P; Nordhus, Inger Hilde

    2013-08-15

    Patients with panic disorder (PD) are known to report impaired sleep quality and symptoms of insomnia. PD is an anxiety disorder characterised by deficient physiological regulation as measured by heart rate variability (HRV), and reduced HRV, PD and insomnia have all been related to impaired inhibitory ability. The present study aimed to investigate the interrelationships between subjectively reported sleep impairment, cognitive inhibition and vagally mediated HRV in a sample characterised by variability on measures of all these constructs. Thirty-six patients with PD with or without agoraphobia were included. Cognitive inhibition was assessed with the Color-Word Interference Test from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), HRV was measured using high frequency (HF) power (ms(2)), and subjectively reported sleep quality was measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Cognitive inhibition was related to both Sleep latency and Sleep disturbances, whereas HRV was only related to Sleep disturbances. These relationships were significant also after controlling for depression. Correlational design. Cognitive inhibition is related to key insomnia symptoms: sleep initiation and sleep maintenance. The data supports the psychobiological inhibition model of insomnia, and extends previous findings. Possible clinical implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Subjective Perception of Sleep, but not its Objective Quality, is Associated with Immediate Postpartum Mood Disturbances in Healthy Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Bei; Milgrom, Jeannette; Ericksen, Jennifer; Trinder, John

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study investigated whether there was a relationship between disrupted sleep and postpartum mood disturbances in women during the week after delivery. Design: Sleep and mood were measured during the third trimester (Time-1) and one week postpartum (Time-2) in a 2-stage longitudinal design. Setting: Participants were recruited from an antenatal clinic in a regional Melbourne hospital. Participants: Forty-four healthy women at low risk for postpartum depression. Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Objective sleep was measured by actigraphy and subjective sleep by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; mood was assessed by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Sleep and mood questionnaires were administered at Time-1 and Time-2. Wrist actigraphy was collected for one week at both times. After delivery, both objective and subjective nighttime sleep significantly worsened with decreased total sleep time and sleep efficiency, while daytime napping behavior significantly increased. On average, mood improved across all scales after delivery, although 45.95% of the sample experienced deterioration of mood. Regression analyses showed little relationship between Time-1 and Time-2 objective nighttime sleep, and postpartum mood. Variables that related to both Time-1 and Time-2 subjective perception of sleep, including subjective nighttime sleep, sleep-related daytime dysfunction, and daytime napping behavior, were significant predictors of postpartum mood. Conclusions: The perception of poor sleep, and the conscious awareness of its impact during wake-time, might share a stronger relationship with the occurrence of immediate postpartum mood disturbances than actual sleep quality and quantity. Citation: Bei B; Milgrom J; Ericksen J; Trinder J. Subjective perception of sleep, but not its objective quality, is associated with immediate postpartum mood disturbances in

  12. The effects of sleep quality and sleep quantity on concussion baseline assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalik, Jason P; Lengas, Eric; Register-Mihalik, Johna K; Oyama, Sakiko; Begalle, Rebecca L; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2013-09-01

    Proper concussion assessment is imperative for properly caring for athletes who sustain traumatic brain injuries. Decreased sleep quality and sleep quantity affect cognition and may threaten the validity of clinical measures often used as a part of the concussion assessment. The purpose of this study was to determine if sleep quality or sleep quantity affects performance on clinical measures of concussion. Prospective cohort design. Clinical research center. One hundred fifty-five college student-athletes (57 females, 98 males; age = 18.8 ± 0.8 years; mass = 78.4 ± 19.6 kg; height = 177.4 ± 12.3 cm). We performed preseason baseline testing by using a well-accepted and multifaceted protocol inclusive of neurocognition, balance performance, and symptom reporting. Information related to sleep quality and sleep quantity was also collected during preseason baseline testing. The CNS Vital Signs battery (computerized neurocognitive test), Sensory Organization Test (computerized dynamic posturography), and a Graded Symptom Checklist (symptom evaluation) were used. Subjects with a low sleep quantity the night before baseline reported both a greater number of symptoms and higher total symptom severity score. No clinically significant effects for sleep quality were observed. Sleep-deprived athletes reporting for baseline testing should be rescheduled for testing after a normal night's sleep.

  13. Short Sleep and Adolescents' Performance on a Concussion Assessment Battery: An Experimental Sleep Manipulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Dean W; Powers, Scott W; Slattery, Eric W; Gubanich, Paul J

    2017-07-21

    Correlational studies have linked short sleep to adolescents' report of postconcussion symptoms and cognitive performance during concussion assessments. This study tested whether those are cause-effect relationships. Three-week randomly counterbalanced, within-subjects, crossover experiment. Adolescents slept at home with weekly visits to an outpatient clinic for sleep monitor uploads and outcome assessments. Twenty-four healthy 14- to 17.9-year-olds. After an initial sleep-stabilization period, adolescents experienced 5-night spans of short sleep (SS; 6.5 hours/night in bed) versus Healthy Sleep Opportunity (HS; 9.5 hours/night in bed). Cognitive indexes and the postconcussion symptom scale (PCSS) from the Immediate PostConcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing. Adolescents reported significantly worse symptoms on the PCSS after SS than HS, even after excluding items manifestly related to sleep. Verbal memory was also worse after SS than HS, though the effect was small. The manipulation did not significantly affect other cognitive indexes. A realistic "dose" of short sleep, similar to what many adolescents experience regularly on school nights, can cause or contribute to symptom reports during concussion assessments. Consistent with previous sleep research, one-on-one cognitive tests seem to be less sensitive than measures of emotional and behavioral functioning to the effects of short sleep.

  14. Cardiac autonomic control and complexity during sleep are preserved after chronic sleep restriction in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobaldini, Eleonora; Covassin, Naima; Calvin, Andrew; Singh, Prachi; Bukartyk, Jan; Wang, Shiang; Montano, Nicola; Somers, Virend K

    2017-04-01

    Acute sleep deprivation (SD) alters cardiovascular autonomic control (CAC) and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disorders. However, the effects of partial SD on CAC are unclear. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of partial SD on CAC during sleep. We randomized seventeen healthy subjects to a restriction group (RES, n = 8, subjects slept two-thirds of normal sleep time based on individual habitual sleep duration for 8 days and 8 nights) or a Control group (CON, n = 9, subjects were allowed to sleep their usual sleep time). Attended polysomnographic (PSG) studies were performed every night; a subset of them was selected for the analysis at baseline (day 3-D3), the first night after sleep restriction (day 5-D5), at the end of sleep restriction period (day 11-D11), and at the end of recovery phase (day 14-D14). We extracted electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration from the PSG and divided into wakefulness (W), nonrapid eye movements (REM) sleep (N2 and N3) and REM sleep. CAC was evaluated by means of linear spectral analysis, nonlinear symbolic analysis and complexity indexes. In both RES and CON groups, sympathetic modulation decreased and parasympathetic modulation increased during N2 and N3 compared to W and REM at D3, D5, D11, D14. Complexity analysis revealed a reduction in complexity during REM compared to NREM sleep in both DEP and CON After 8 days of moderate SD, cardiac autonomic dynamics, characterized by decreased sympathetic, and increased parasympathetic modulation, and higher cardiac complexity during NREM sleep, compared to W and REM, are preserved. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  15. Sleep Quality Assessment and Daytime Sleepiness of Liver Transplantation Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, D M; Teixeira, H R S; Lopes, A R F; Martins-Pedersoli, T A; Ziviani, L C; Mente, Ê D; Castro-E-Silva, O; Galvão, C M; Mendes, K S

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the sleep quality and daytime sleepiness of patients eligible for liver transplants. A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted on liver transplant candidates from a transplant center in the interior of São Paulo State. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Epworth Sleepiness Scale questionnaires were applied to obtain demographic and clinical characteristics and to assess sleep quality and daytime sleepiness. The mean (±SD) score on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale of the 45 liver transplantation candidates was 7.00 ± 2.83 points, with 28.89% having scores >10 points, indicating excessive daytime sleepiness. The mean score on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was 6.64 ± 4.95 points, with 60% of the subjects showing impaired sleep quality, with scores >5 points. The average sleep duration was 07:16 h. Regarding sleep quality self-classification, 31.11% reported poor or very poor quality. It is noteworthy that 73.33% of patients had to go to the bathroom, 53.33% woke up in the middle of the night, and 40.00% reported pain related to sleeping difficulties. Comparison of subjects with good and poor sleep quality revealed a significant difference in time to sleep (P = .0002), sleep hours (P = .0003), and sleep quality self-classification (P = .000072). Liver transplant candidates have a compromised quality of sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness. In clinical practice, we recommend the evaluation and implementation of interventions aimed at improving the sleep and wakefulness cycle, contributing to a better quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Automatic detection of REM sleep in subjects without atonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kempfner, Jacob; Jennum, Poul; Nikolic, Miki

    2012-01-01

    hypnogram. In this study a full automatic REM sleep detector, using the EOG and EEG channels, is proposed. Based on statistical features, combined with subject specific feature scaling and post-processing of the classifier output, it was possible to obtain an mean accuracy of 0.96 with a mean sensititvity......Idiopathic Rapid-Rye-Movement (REM) sleep Behavior Disorder (iRBD) is a strong early marker of Parkinson's Disease and is characterized by REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) and increased phasic muscle activity. Current proposed methods for detecting RSWA assume the presence of a manually scored...

  17. Sleep in Schizophrenia: Exploring Subjective Experiences of Sleep Problems, and Implications for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Vivian W; Ree, Melissa; Janca, Aleksandar; Waters, Flavie

    2016-12-01

    Sleep dysfunction is a pervasive issue in schizophrenia and psychosis. Current knowledge is drawn almost exclusively from studies using quantitative research methodologies that include measures and tools developed in healthy population groups. Qualitative studies investigating the first-person perspectives of sleep problems are therefore important for designing better assessment and treatment tools to meet consumer needs. Focus groups were conducted to elicit detailed information regarding the personal experience of sleep problems, their antecedents and impact, in 14 individuals with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder who experienced insomnia during their illness. Thematic analysis was applied to examine the data and draw treatment implications for sleep management. Insomnia was ubiquitous and frequently co-occurred with other sleep difficulties (nightmares, sleep walking, acting out dreams, etc.) in this group. Discussions revealed themes common across insomnia populations (role of negative mood states and cognitive intrusions) and also new themes on factors contributing to sleep problems in schizophrenia: (1) beliefs that sleep problems cannot be changed; (2) trauma and adversity; (3) lifestyle choices and lack of motivation; and (4) medication side effects. Sleep problems also had profound impact on daytime dysfunctions and disability. The findings point to novel issues that may benefit from consideration in the treatment of sleep problems in schizophrenia. Unhelpful cognitions and behaviours about sleep can be addressed with psychological interventions, activity scheduling and motivational interviewing techniques. Seeking a first-person perspective is vital for identifying issues that will impact on treatment success and recovery.

  18. When a gold standard isn't so golden: Lack of prediction of subjective sleep quality from sleep polysomnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Katherine A; Hirshman, Jason; Hernandez, Beatriz; Stefanick, Marcia L; Hoffman, Andrew R; Redline, Susan; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Stone, Katie; Friedman, Leah; Zeitzer, Jamie M

    2017-02-01

    Reports of subjective sleep quality are frequently collected in research and clinical practice. It is unclear, however, how well polysomnographic measures of sleep correlate with subjective reports of prior-night sleep quality in elderly men and women. Furthermore, the relative importance of various polysomnographic, demographic and clinical characteristics in predicting subjective sleep quality is not known. We sought to determine the correlates of subjective sleep quality in older adults using more recently developed machine learning algorithms that are suitable for selecting and ranking important variables. Community-dwelling older men (n=1024) and women (n=459), a subset of those participating in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study and the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures study, respectively, completed a single night of at-home polysomnographic recording of sleep followed by a set of morning questions concerning the prior night's sleep quality. Questionnaires concerning demographics and psychological characteristics were also collected prior to the overnight recording and entered into multivariable models. Two machine learning algorithms, lasso penalized regression and random forests, determined variable selection and the ordering of variable importance separately for men and women. Thirty-eight sleep, demographic and clinical correlates of sleep quality were considered. Together, these multivariable models explained only 11-17% of the variance in predicting subjective sleep quality. Objective sleep efficiency emerged as the strongest correlate of subjective sleep quality across all models, and across both sexes. Greater total sleep time and sleep stage transitions were also significant objective correlates of subjective sleep quality. The amount of slow wave sleep obtained was not determined to be important. Overall, the commonly obtained measures of polysomnographically-defined sleep contributed little to subjective ratings of prior-night sleep quality

  19. Objective but Not Subjective Short Sleep Duration Associated with Increased Risk for Hypertension in Individuals with Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathgate, Christina J; Edinger, Jack D; Wyatt, James K; Krystal, Andrew D

    2016-05-01

    To examine the relationship between hypertension prevalence in individuals with insomnia who have short total sleep duration sleep duration ≥ 6 h, using both objective and subjective measures of total sleep duration. Using a cross-sectional, observational design, 255 adult volunteers (n = 165 women; 64.7%) meeting current diagnostic criteria for insomnia disorder (MAge = 46.2 y, SDAge = 13.7 y) participated in this study at two large university medical centers. Two nights of polysomnography, 2 w of sleep diaries, questionnaires focused on sleep, medical, psychological, and health history, including presence/absence of hypertension were collected. Logistic regressions assessed the odds ratios of hypertension among persons with insomnia with short sleep duration sleep duration ≥ 6 h, measured both objectively and subjectively. Consistent with previous studies using objective total sleep duration, individuals with insomnia and short sleep duration sleep duration ≥ 6 h. Increased risk for hypertension was independent of major confounding factors frequently associated with insomnia or hypertension. No significant risk was observed using subjectively determined total sleep time groups. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis found that the best balance of sensitivity and specificity using subjective total sleep time was at a 6-h cutoff, but the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve showed low accuracy and did not have good discriminant value. Objectively measured short sleep duration increased the odds of reporting hypertension more than threefold after adjusting for potential confounders; this relationship was not significant for subjectively measured sleep duration. This research supports emerging evidence that insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with an increased risk of comorbid hypertension. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  20. Subjective sleep quality in stable neuromuscular patients under non-invasive ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimanno, Grazia; Misuraca, Angela; Purrazzella, Giuseppina; Greco, Francesca; Marrone, Oreste

    2014-10-01

    Patients with neuromuscular diseases improve their sleep when treated with noninvasive ventilation (NIV), but their sleep architecture during NIV may still be disturbed by side effects of NIV or inadequacy of the ventilator setting. Little is known about subjective sleep quality during NIV. The aims of this study were to evaluate subjective sleep quality of stable neuromuscular patients under long-term NIV by using Pittsburgh questionnaire (PSQI), and to assess its possible determinants. Fifty stable neuromuscular patients under long-term NIV were administered PSQI and underwent polysomnography. Arterial blood gases, forced vital capacity, and respiratory muscular strength were measured. Thirty-three patients had global PSQI ≥ 5 and were classified as bad sleepers. Good and poor sleepers differed in age (P = 0.005), base excess (BE) (P = 0.02), NIV inspiratory pressure (P = 0.04), %N1 (P = 0.0006), and %N3 sleep stage (P = 0.02). Percent N3 duration and Arousal/Awakening Index were correlated with rate of patient-ventilator asynchronies (r = -0.41 and 0.37, respectively, P sleep quality is often poor in neuromuscular patients under long-term NIV. Amount of slow wave sleep and chronic hypoventilation resulting in increased BE are independent predictors of subjective sleep quality. Since inadequate NIV setting or application can influence sleep structure and alveolar ventilation, great care should be paid to the setting and the correct application of NIV to ensure a better subjective sleep quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of physical and mental health in male university students with varying sleep habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yuuki; Toyomasu, Kouji; Uchimura, Naohisa

    2011-01-01

    Healthy sleep habits entail not only sleeping for a sufficient period (quantity) but also regularity of the sleep cycle and getting sound sleep (quality). University students often have erratic schedules that cause irregular sleep patterns even though sleep durations remain relatively constant. This study compared the physical and mental health of 90 male university students with different sleep habits. We created sleep habit scales using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute for Neuroscience life habits inventory (TMIN-LHI; Miyashita, 1994) by performing a factor analysis and classifying sleeping habits based on regularity, quality, and quantity. Four types of sleep habits were identified by cluster analysis; good sleep was characterized by regular and high quality sleep but of relatively short sleep duration; long sleep was regular and relatively long but of low quality; short sleep was of high quality but short and irregular, while poor sleep was irregular, of low quality, and relatively long. The good sleep group had a significantly lower average waist circumference, and lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The long and poor sleep groups, which both had low quality sleep, scored lower than the national standard on the mental component summary (MCS) calculated from the Social Functioning-36 (SF-36) short-form health survey. Furthermore, the average MCS score of the poor sleep group was significantly lower than that of any other sleep habit group. Subjects with poor sleep also scored lowest on the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS). In addition, the short and poor sleep groups were prone to glucose or lipid metabolism disorders. Maintaining good physical and mental health without sound sleep and a regular sleep cycle is difficult, even if sleeping hours are kept constant. Therefore, we included the assessment of regularity and quality in addition to hours of sleep in order to develop appropriate sleep guidelines for improved physical and mental health.

  2. Association of Poor Subjective Sleep Quality with Suicidal Ideation among Pregnant Peruvian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaye, Bizu; Barrios, Yasmin V.; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Rondon, Marta B.; Borba, Christina P.C.; Sánchez, Sixto E.; Henderson, David C.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the independent and joint relationships of poor subjective sleep quality, and antepartum depression with suicidal ideation among pregnant women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 641 pregnant women attending prenatal care clinics in Lima, Peru. Antepartum depression and suicidal ideation were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scale. Antepartum subjective sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Logistic regression procedures were performed to estimate odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) adjusted for confounders. Results Overall, the prevalence of suicidal ideation in this cohort was 16.8% and poor subjective sleep quality was more common among women endorsing suicidal ideation as compared to their counterparts who did not (47.2%vs.24.8%, p5vs. ≤5) was associated with a 1.7-fold increased odds of suicidal ideation (aOR=1.67; 95%CI 1.02–2.71). When assessed as a continuous variable, each 1-unit increase in the global PSQI score resulted in an 18% increase in odds for suicidal ideation, even after adjusting for depression (aOR=1.18; 95%CI 1.08–1.28). Women with both poor subjective sleep quality and depression had a 3.5-fold increased odds of suicidal ideation (aOR=3.48; 95%CI 1.96–6.18) as compared with those who had neither risk factor. Conclusion Poor subjective sleep quality was associated with increased odds of suicidal ideation. Replication of these findings may promote investments in studies designed to examine the efficacy of sleep-focused interventions to treat pregnant women with sleep disorders and suicidal ideation. PMID:25983188

  3. Subjective and objective napping and sleep in older adults: are evening naps "bad" for nighttime sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautovich, Natalie D; McCrae, Christina S; Rowe, Meredeth

    2008-09-01

    To compare objective and subjective measurements of napping and to examine the relationship between evening napping and nocturnal sleep in older adults. For 12 days, participants wore actigraphs and completed sleep diaries. Community. One hundred individuals who napped, aged 60 to 89 (including good and poor sleepers with typical age-related medical comorbidities). Twelve days of sleep diary and actigraphy provided subjective and objective napping and sleep data. Evening naps (within 2 hours of bedtime) were characteristic of the sample, with peak nap time occurring between 20:30 and 21:00 (average nap time occurred between 14:30 and 15:00). Two categories of nappers were identified: those who took daytime and evening naps and daytime-only. No participants napped during the evening only. Day-and-evening nappers significantly underreported evening napping and demonstrated lower objectively measured sleep onset latencies (20.0 vs 26.5 minutes), less wake after sleep onset (51.4 vs 72.8 minutes), and higher sleep efficiencies (76.8 vs 82%) than daytime-only nappers. Day and evening napping was prevalent in this sample of community-dwelling good and poor sleepers but was not associated with impaired nocturnal sleep. Although the elimination or restriction of napping is a common element of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia, these results suggest that a uniform recommendation to restrict or eliminate napping (particularly evening napping) may not meet the needs of all older individuals with insomnia.

  4. Depressive Symptoms and Subjective And Objective Sleep In Community-Dwelling Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, Jeanne E.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Peters, Katherine W.; Paudel, Misti L.; Yaffe, Kristine; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Stone, Katie L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between depressive symptoms and subjective and objective sleep in older women. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Four US clinical centers. Participants 3045 community-dwelling women ≥70 years. Measurements Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale categorizing participants as “normal” (0–2, referent), “some depressive symptoms” (3–5), or “depressed” (≥6). Subjective sleep quality and daytime sleepiness were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Objective sleep measures were assessed with wrist actigraphy. Results In multivariable-adjusted models, there were graded associations between increased level of depressive symptoms and both worse subjective sleep quality and more subjective daytime sleepiness (p-trends depressive symptoms (OR 1.82, CI 1.48–2.24) and depressed (OR 2.84, CI 2.08–3.86) women had greater odds of reporting poor sleep (PSQI>5). Women with some depressive symptoms (OR 1.97, CI 1.47–2.64) and depressed women (OR 1.70, CI 1.12–2.58) had greater odds of reporting excessive daytime sleepiness (ESS>10). There were also graded associations between increased level of depressive symptoms and objectively measured wake after sleep onset (WASO) (p-trend = 0.030) and long wake episodes >5 minutes (p-trend 0.006). Depressed women had modestly increased odds of WASO ≥1 hour (OR 1.37, CI 1.03–1.83). Women with some depressive symptoms (OR 1.49, CI 1.19–1.86) and depressed women (OR 2.04, CI 1.52–2.74) had greater odds of being in the highest quartile for number of nap episodes >5 minutes. No associations between depressive symptom level and prolonged sleep latency, reduced sleep efficiency, or reduced or increased total sleep time were found. Conclusion Greater depressive symptom levels were associated with more subjective sleep disturbance and objective evidence of sleep fragmentation and napping. PMID

  5. Associations between subjective sleep quality and brain volume in Gulf War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Linda L; Mohlenhoff, Brian S; Weiner, Michael W; Neylan, Thomas C

    2014-03-01

    To investigate whether subjective sleep quality is associated with brain volume independent of comorbid psychiatric conditions. Cross-sectional. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center. One hundred forty-four Gulf War Veterans (mean age 45 years; range: 31-70 years; 14% female). None. Total cortical, lobar gray matter, and hippocampal volumes were quantified from 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance images using Freesurfer version 4.5. Subjective sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Multiple linear regressions were used to determine the association of sleep quality with total and regional brain volumes. The global PSQI score was positively correlated with lifetime and current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and current depressive symptoms (P sleep quality. Poorer subjective sleep quality was associated with reduced total cortical and regional frontal lobe volumes independent of comorbid psychiatric conditions. Future work will be needed to examine if effective treatment of disturbed sleep leads to improved structural and functional integrity of the frontal lobes.

  6. Gabapentin enacarbil in subjects with moderate to severe primary restless legs syndrome with and without severe sleep disturbance: an integrated analysis of subjective and novel sleep endpoints from two studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogan RK

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Richard K Bogan,1 Aaron Ellenbogen,2 Philip M Becker,3 Clete Kushida,4 Eric Ball,5 William G Ondo,6 Christine K Caivano,7 Sarah Kavanagh71SleepMed, Columbia, SC, 2Quest Research Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 3Sleep Medicine Associates of Texas, Dallas, TX, 4Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford Center for Human Sleep Research, Stanford, CA, 5Walla Walla Clinic, Walla Walla, WA, 6University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, 7Global Regulatory Affairs (CKC* and Neurosciences MDC (SK, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA*Development Sciences department at the time of the analysisPurpose: The aim of the study reported here was assessment of subjective and novel sleep endpoints, according to sleep disturbance severity at baseline, in adult subjects with moderate to severe primary restless legs syndrome (RLS treated with gabapentin enacarbil (GEn 1200 mg or placebo.Methods: Integrated analysis of two 12-week randomized trials in subjects with RLS was undertaken. Sleep outcomes from the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS Sleep Scale and the Post Sleep Questionnaire were evaluated. Novel sleep endpoints derived from the 24-Hour RLS Symptom Diary were compared with similar endpoints derived from the Pittsburgh Sleep Diary (PghSD. Subjects were divided into two subgroups based on their level of sleep disturbance (responses to item 4 of the International Restless Legs Scale at baseline. Data were analyzed using a last observation carried forward approach.Results: The modified intent-to-treat population comprised 427 subjects (GEn 1200 mg, n = 223; placebo, n = 204. GEn significantly improved all MOS Sleep Scale domain scores from baseline compared with placebo (P < 0.05 in both subgroups. Compared with placebo, GEn-treated subjects with very severe to severe sleep disturbance reported higher overall sleep quality, fewer nighttime awakenings, and fewer hours awake per night due to RLS

  7. Sleep assessment of children with cerebral palsy: Using validated sleep questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riad M Elsayed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: On the basis of clinical experience, it seems that sleep disturbances are common in children with cerebral palsy (CP; however, there is a lack of research and objective data to support this observation. Aim of Work: Our aim was to assess sleep of children with cerebral palsy, using validated sleep questionnaire. Subjects and Methods: one hundred children with diagnosis of CP were investigated via sleep questionnaires, with their ages from 2-12 years. The 100 children with CP were divided into two groups, pre-school group (52 children had a mean age 2.35 ± 1.04 years and school ages group (48 children had a mean age 10.21 ± 3.75 years. Results: We found high incidence of sleep problem in both pre-school and school age groups. We found that pre-school children have more prevalence of early insomnia (46.2%, P value 0.028 and sleep bruxism (50%, P value 0.000, while school group suffer more sleep disordered breathing (SDB (50%, P value 0.001, more nightmares (50%, P value 0.001, more sleep talking (12.5% P value 0.049, and more excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS (62.5%, P value 0.001. Conclusion: Results of our study indicate that CP children have high incidence of sleep problem in both pre-school and school age groups.

  8. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11–18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school

  9. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sam- ple of 561 adolescents aged 11–18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school

  10. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, A.; Krabbendam, L.; Dekker, S.; Lee, N.; Groot, R. de; Jolles, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school

  11. Subjective perception of sleep, but not its objective quality, is associated with immediate postpartum mood disturbances in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Bei; Milgrom, Jeannette; Ericksen, Jennifer; Trinder, John

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated whether there was a relationship between disrupted sleep and postpartum mood disturbances in women during the week after delivery. Sleep and mood were measured during the third trimester (Time-1) and one week postpartum (Time-2) in a 2-stage longitudinal design. Participants were recruited from an antenatal clinic in a regional Melbourne hospital. Forty-four healthy women at low risk for postpartum depression. N/A. Objective sleep was measured by actigraphy and subjective sleep by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; mood was assessed by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Sleep and mood questionnaires were administered at Time-1 and Time-2. Wrist actigraphy was collected for one week at both times. After delivery, both objective and subjective nighttime sleep significantly worsened with decreased total sleep time and sleep efficiency, while daytime napping behavior significantly increased. On average, mood improved across all scales after delivery, although 45.95% of the sample experienced deterioration of mood. Regression analyses showed little relationship between Time-1 and Time-2 objective nighttime sleep, and postpartum mood. Variables that related to both Time-1 and Time-2 subjective perception of sleep, including subjective nighttime sleep, sleep-related daytime dysfunction, and daytime napping behavior, were significant predictors of postpartum mood. The perception of poor sleep, and the conscious awareness of its impact during wake-time, might share a stronger relationship with the occurrence of immediate postpartum mood disturbances than actual sleep quality and quantity.

  12. Effect of nocturnal road traffic noise exposure and annoyance on objective and subjective sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Patrizia; Mohler, Evelyn; Röösli, Martin

    2014-03-01

    Various epidemiological studies have found an association between noise exposure and sleep quality, but the mediating role of annoyance is unclear for this association. To investigate the effects of both objectively modeled road traffic noise exposure as well as noise annoyance on subjective and objective sleep quality measures. 1375 randomly selected participants from Basel, Switzerland, were enrolled in a questionnaire survey in 2008 with follow-up one year later (1122 participants). We assessed sleep quality by using a standardized sleep disturbance score, as well as the level of annoyance with road traffic noise at home. Objective sleep efficiency data was collected in a nested diary study by means of actigraphy from 119 subjects for 1551 nights. Residential nocturnal exposure to road traffic noise was modeled using validated models. Data were analyzed with random intercept mixed-effects regression models. In the main study, self-reported sleep quality was strongly related to noise annoyance (p for trendnoise exposure (p=0.07). In the nested diary study objectively measured sleep efficiency was not related to annoyance (p=0.25) but correlated with modeled noise exposure (p=0.02). Strikingly, noise induced decreased sleep efficiency was even more significant for study participants who were not annoyed with traffic noise (p=0.001). This study indicates that effects of nocturnal traffic noise on objective sleep quality are independent of perceived noise annoyance, whereas the association between self-reported sleep quality and noise is mediated by noise annoyance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Association between seasonal affective disorder and subjective quality of the sleep/wake cycle in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonetti, Lorenzo; Fabbri, Marco; Erbacci, Alex; Martoni, Monica; Natale, Vincenzo

    2014-03-30

    The relationship between seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and subjective quality of sleep/wake cycle in adolescents was explored. The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (SPAQ-CA) and Mini Sleep Questionnaire (MSQ) were administered to 345 adolescents living in the city of Cesena (Emilia-Romagna region, Italy) (299 females; age range: 14-18 years), to determine SAD and perceived quality of the sleep/wake cycle. The response rate was 92% for females and 90.2% for males. The MSQ includes two factors, sleep and wake, with lower scores corresponding to a lower quality of sleep and wake. The MSQ includes cut-off criteria to detect a good or bad sleep and wake quality. Adolescents with SAD (16 ± 5.7) scored significantly lower than those not affected on wake factor (19.5 ± 4.3), while no effect has been observed on sleep factor. SAD was the only one significant predictor of good/bad wake quality, while it did not reach significant level with reference to good/bad sleep quality. Present results are indications of a possible influence of SAD on wake quality and further studies are necessary to confirm them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Subjective Sleep Complaints in Pediatric Depression: A Controlled Study and Comparison with EEG Measures of Sleep and Waking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertocci, Michele A.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Williamson, Douglas E.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Ryan, Neal D.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Children with major depressive disorder (MDD) often complain of sleep disturbances; however, polysomnographic studies have failed to find objective evidence of these disturbances. This article examines subjective sleep reports of children with MDD and healthy controls focusing on comparing subjective and objective sleep measures.…

  15. The study of subjective and objective evaluation of sleep disturbances in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Chun-feng

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Sleep disorder is one of the most common non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD patients. At present, there are subjective and objective tools to evaluate sleepdisorders. Nevertheless, previous studies commonly used single subjective questionnaires or objective examinations. Therefore, we used the combinations of subjective and objective tools to analyze clinical characteristics of sleep disturbances in PD and investigated differences and consistence between subjective and objective tools. Methods One hundred and sixteen PD patients were eligible to participate into this study. All participants were evaluated by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS in "on" condition, Hoehn-Yahr (H-Y stage, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD 24 items, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, and underwent a video-polysomnography (Video-PSG. Results According to PSQI score of 116 PD patients, the proportion of PD patients with sleep disturbances (PSQI ≥ 7 was 50% (N = 58. Compared to PD patients without sleep disturbances, PD patients with sleep disturbances had lower score of MoCA (23.34 ± 3.50 vs 24.89 ± 3.52; t = 2.377, P = 0.019, higher score of UPDRSⅠ[4.00 (2.00, 5.00 vs 3.00 (2.00, 5.00; U = - 2.306, P = 0.021], UPDRSⅡ[12.00 (9.00, 16.00 vs 10.00 (6.00, 13.00; U = - 1.995, P = 0.046], higher levodopa equivalent daily dose [LED, (508.14 ± 335.85 vs (394.06 ± 236.40 mg/d; t = - 2.115, P = 0.037]. Although PD patients with sleep disturbances had more score of UPDSR Ⅲ and higher H-Y stage, the differences were not significant (P > 0.05. On the other hand, decreased total sleep time (TST, reduced sleep efficiency (SE, increased sleep latency (SL, decreased non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep stage Ⅱ time were found for PD patients with sleep disturbances (P 0.05, for all. The score of PSQI was positively correlated with the score of ESS (r = 0.200, P = 0

  16. Impaired objective and subjective sleep in children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mählmann, Laura; Gerber, Markus; Furlano, Raoul I; Legeret, Corinne; Kalak, Nadeem; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2017-11-01

    Poor sleep and higher inflammation markers are associated, and impaired sleep quality is common among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, information on sleep among children and adolescents with IBD is currently lacking. The aims of the present study were to compare subjective and objective sleep of children and adolescents with IBD with healthy controls and to shed more light on the relationship between sleep and inflammation. We expected that poor sleep, as assessed via sleep electroencephalography recordings, would be observed among participants with IBD, but particularly among participants in an active state of disease. Furthermore, we expected that poor sleep and higher inflammatory markers would be associated. A total of 47 children and adolescents participated in the study; 23 were diagnosed with IBD (mean age: 13.88 years, 44% female). The IBD group was divided into a medically well adjusted "remission-group" (IBD-RE; n = 14) and a group with an "active state of disease" (IBD-AD; n = 8). Healthy controls (HC; n = 24) were age and gender matched. Participants completed self-rating questionnaires for subjective sleep disturbances. Anthropometric data, acute and chronic inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein [CRP] and erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR]) and objective sleep were considered. Compared to HC and IBD-RE, IBD-AD patients showed impaired objective sleep patterns (eg, more awakenings, longer sleep latency, and reduced stage 3 sleep). Linear relationships described the correlation between higher ESR and more stage 4 (minutes, percentage) sleep. Nonlinear relationships described the relation between ESR and subjective sleep quality (inverse U-shaped) and between CRP and sleep latency (U-shaped). In children and adolescents with an active IBD, objective sleep was impaired and overall sleep quality and inflammation indices were associated in a complex manner. It seems advisable to include assessment of subjective sleep

  17. Broadband Sound Administration Improves Sleep Onset Latency in Healthy Subjects in a Model of Transient Insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Ludovico Messineo; Ludovico Messineo; Ludovico Messineo; Luigi Taranto-Montemurro; Scott A. Sands; Scott A. Sands; Melania D. Oliveira Marques; Melania D. Oliveira Marques; Ali Azabarzin; David Andrew Wellman

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundInsomnia is a major public health problem in western countries. Previous small pilot studies showed that the administration of constant white noise can improve sleep quality, increase acoustic arousal threshold, and reduce sleep onset latency. In this randomized controlled trial, we tested the effect of surrounding broadband sound administration on sleep onset latency, sleep architecture, and subjective sleep quality in healthy subjects.MethodsEighteen healthy subjects were studied ...

  18. Recurrence analysis of the EEG during sleep accurately identifies subjects with mental health symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, David E; Punjabi, Naresh M; Kim, Paul Y; Frilot, Clifton; Marino, Andrew A

    2014-12-30

    Analysis of brain recurrence (ABR) is a novel computational method that uses two variables for sleep depth and two for sleep fragmentation to quantify temporal changes in non-random brain electrical activity. We postulated that ABR of the sleep-staged EEG could identify an EEG signature specific for the presence of mental health symptoms. Using the Mental Health Inventory Questionnaire (MHI-5) as ground truth, psychological distress was assessed in a study cohort obtained from the Sleep Heart Health Study. Subjects with MHI-5 50. Sixteen ABR markers derived from the EEG were analyzed using linear discriminant analysis to identify marker combinations that reliably classified individual subjects. A biomarker function computed from 12 of the markers accurately classified the subjects based on their MHI-5 scores (AUROC=82%). Use of additional markers did not improve classification accuracy. Subgroup analysis (20 highest and 20 lowest MHI-5 scores) improved classification accuracy (AUROC=89%). Biomarker values for individual subjects were significantly correlated with MHI-5 score (r=0.36, 0.54 for N=68, 40, respectively). ABR of EEGs obtained during sleep successfully classified subjects with regard to the severity of mental health symptoms, indicating that mood systems were reflected in brain electrical activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mood and objective and subjective measures of sleep during late pregnancy and the postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coo, Soledad; Milgrom, Jeannette; Trinder, John

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the association between measures of objective sleep (OS) and subjective sleep (SS) to postpartum mood in healthy women from the third trimester of pregnancy to 10 to 12 weeks postpartum. Twenty-nine pregnant women completed self-report measures of mood and SS, and wore actigraphs for 7 continuous days during the third trimester (Time 1), within 15 days (Time 2), and 10 to 12 weeks postpartum (Time 3). The subjective perception of marked daytime dysfunction was associated with low mood during Time 1 and Time 3. Poor nighttime SS was related to low mood only at Time 2, whereas poor nighttime OS influenced stress during the same assessment time. These data indicate a stronger association between postpartum mood and the subjective perception of sleep than with OS quality and duration in healthy, non-depressed women, and highlight the awareness of poor daytime functioning as a significant contributor to new mothers' emotional wellbeing.

  20. Sleep Duration of Inpatients With a Depressive Disorder: Associations With Age, Subjective Sleep Quality, and Cognitive Complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Matthias J; Olschinski, Christiane; Kundermann, Bernd; Cabanel, Nicole

    2017-02-01

    Sleep complaints and sleep disturbances are common in depression; however, the association of sleep duration and subjective sleep quality has been rarely investigated. Thus, subjective sleep quality and sleep duration were analyzed in depressed inpatients. Questionnaire data comprising clinical and sleep-related questions were sampled over a one-year period from adult inpatients with depressive syndromes. Sleep duration and items related to sleep quality were analyzed by means of group comparisons (sleep duration categories) and correlation analyses. Data of 154 patients (age 58.2±17.0 years, 63.6% women) were analyzed. Mean sleep duration was 7.2±2.1 h (16.9% of patients were below and 7.1% above age-specific recommendations), 25-40% of patients reported almost always daytime sleepiness, non-restorative sleep, attention deficits, or memory complaints with significant correlations between all variables (Pdepression, and both were associated with poor sleep quality and subjectively impaired cognitive functions. Clinicians should be aware of these relationships. During hospitalization, a more individualized sleep-wake schedule should be applied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Validation of a novel automatic sleep spindle detector with high performance during sleep in middle aged subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Sabrina Lyngbye; Christensen, Julie A. E.; Kempfner, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Many of the automatic sleep spindle detectors currently used to analyze sleep EEG are either validated on young subjects or not validated thoroughly. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a fast and reliable sleep spindle detector with high performance in middle aged subjects....... An automatic sleep spindle detector using a bandpass filtering approach and a time varying threshold was developed. The validation was done on sleep epochs from EEG recordings with manually scored sleep spindles from 13 healthy subjects with a mean age of 57.9 ± 9.7 years. The sleep spindle detector reached...... a mean sensitivity of 84.6 % and a mean specificity of 95.3 %. The sleep spindle detector can be used to obtain measures of spindle count and density together with quantitative measures such as the mean spindle frequency, mean spindle amplitude, and mean spindle duration....

  2. Circadian phase, dynamics of subjective sleepiness and sensitivity to blue light in young adults complaining of a delayed sleep schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moderie, Christophe; Van der Maren, Solenne; Dumont, Marie

    2017-06-01

    To assess factors that might contribute to a delayed sleep schedule in young adults with sub-clinical features of delayed sleep phase disorder. Two groups of 14 young adults (eight women) were compared: one group complaining of a delayed sleep schedule and a control group with an earlier bedtime and no complaint. For one week, each subject maintained a target bedtime reflecting their habitual sleep schedule. Subjects were then admitted to the laboratory for the assessment of circadian phase (dim light melatonin onset), subjective sleepiness, and non-visual light sensitivity. All measures were timed relative to each participant's target bedtime. Non-visual light sensitivity was evaluated using subjective sleepiness and salivary melatonin during 1.5-h exposure to blue light, starting one hour after target bedtime. Compared to control subjects, delayed subjects had a later circadian phase and a slower increase of subjective sleepiness in the late evening. There was no group difference in non-visual sensitivity to blue light, but we found a positive correlation between melatonin suppression and circadian phase within the delayed group. Our results suggest that a late circadian phase, a slow build-up of sleep need, and an increased circadian sensitivity to blue light contribute to the complaint of a delayed sleep schedule. These findings provide targets for strategies aiming to decreasing the severity of a sleep delay and the negative consequences on daytime functioning and health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sleep laboratory studies in restless legs syndrome patients as compared with normals and acute effects of ropinirole. 1. Findings on objective and subjective sleep and awakening quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletu, B; Gruber, G; Saletu, M; Brandstätter, N; Hauer, C; Prause, W; Ritter, K; Saletu-Zyhlarz, G

    2000-01-01

    Although the restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder with a relatively high prevalence rate (8% in Austria) and leads to insomnia and excessive daytime tiredness, there is a paucity of sleep laboratory data concerning objective and subjective sleep and awakening quality. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate 12 untreated RLS patients as compared with 12 normal controls and subsequently measure the acute effects of 0.5 mg ropinirole (Requip((R))) - a nonergoline dopamine agonist - as compared with placebo. In 3 nights (adaptation, placebo, ropinirole night) sleep induction, maintenance and architecture were measured objectively by polysomnography, subjective sleep and awakening quality were assessed by self-rating scales and visual-analog scales, and objective awakening quality was evaluated by a psychometric test battery. In polysomnography, RLS patients demonstrated, as compared with normal controls, a decreased total sleep time (TST) and sleep efficacy, increased wakefulness during the total sleep period and frequency of nocturnal awakenings, increased sleep stage S1, decreased S2 and increased stage shifts. Subjective sleep quality tended to decrease, and morning well-being, mood, affectivity and wakefulness were deteriorated. In the noopsyche, fine motor activity and reaction time performance were deteriorated. Ropinirole 0.5 mg induced, as compared with placebo, an increase in TST, sleep efficacy, S2 sleep and stage shifts. In the morning, somatic complaints increased slightly, while fine motor activity and reaction time performance improved. Our findings suggest a key-lock principle in the diagnosis/treatment of RLS and a dopaminergic mechanism in its pathogenesis, which is supported by the data on periodic leg movements during sleep and arousals of the subsequent paper. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: Associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, Daniel B.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H.

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement rep...

  5. The efficacy of objective and subjective predictors of driving performance during sleep restriction and circadian misalignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmadopoulos, Anastasi; Sargent, Charli; Zhou, Xuan; Darwent, David; Matthews, Raymond W; Dawson, Drew; Roach, Gregory D

    2017-02-01

    Fatigue is a significant contributor to motor-vehicle accidents and fatalities. Shift workers are particularly susceptible to fatigue-related risks as they are often sleep-restricted and required to commute around the clock. Simple assays of performance could provide useful indications of risk in fatigue management, but their effectiveness may be influenced by changes in their sensitivity to sleep loss across the day. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of several neurobehavioral and subjective tasks to sleep restriction (SR) at different circadian phases and their efficacy as predictors of performance during a simulated driving task. Thirty-two volunteers (M±SD; 22.8±2.9 years) were time-isolated for 13-days and participated in one of two 14-h forced desynchrony protocols with sleep opportunities equivalent to 8h/24h (control) or 4h/24h (SR). At regular intervals during wake periods, participants completed a simulated driving task, several neurobehavioral tasks, including the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), and subjective ratings, including a self-assessment measure of ability to perform. Scores transformed into standardized units relative to baseline were folded into circadian phase bins based on core body temperature. Sleep dose and circadian phase effect sizes were derived via mixed models analyses. Predictors of driving were identified with regressions. Performance was most sensitive to sleep restriction around the circadian nadir. The effects of sleep restriction around the circadian nadir were larger for simulated driving and neurobehavioral tasks than for subjective ratings. Tasks did not significantly predict driving performance during the control condition or around the acrophase during the SR condition. The PVT and self-assessed ability were the best predictors of simulated driving across circadian phases during SR. These results show that simple performance measures and self-monitoring explain a large proportion of the variance in

  6. Subjective sleep, burden, depression, and general health among caregivers of veterans poststroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittman, Maude; Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna; Findley, Kim

    2009-02-01

    The purposes of this article are to explore and describe subjective sleep experiences of informal caregivers of stroke survivors and to explore the relationships between subjective sleep experiences, caregiver burden, depression, and health to provide a broader portrait of the role that sleep plays in the stroke caregiving experience. A total of 276 caregivers and veterans participated in the study. Results indicate a greater risk of depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale) among caregivers who sleep less, have difficulty achieving daytime enthusiasm, use sleep medications, and have poor sleep quality. Caregivers who sleep less have difficulty achieving daytime enthusiasm and are at greater risk of poor health. Greater caregiver burden was associated with less sleep and use of sleep medications. This descriptive analysis demonstrates the important relationship between sleep, depression, health, and burden and can lead to interventions to diagnose and treat sleep difficulties in caregivers.

  7. The effectiveness of acupuncture on the sleep quality of elderly with dementia: a within-subjects trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Timothy; Leung, Ping Chung; Wing, Yun Kwok; Ip, Isaac; Wong, Bel; Ho, Daniel Wai Hung; Wong, Wai Ming; Ho, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Elderly with dementia are often afflicted with sleep problems. Recent studies have suggested that acupuncture may be a feasible alternative to traditional sleep medicine for treating sleep disturbance. This study investigated the effectiveness of acupuncture on sleep quality of elderly with dementia. Nineteen elders with dementia were followed through a control period and an acupuncture treatment period, each lasting 6 weeks. Outcome measures were subjects' sleep quality and cognitive function. Sleep parameters were recorded by wrist actigraphy. Cognitive function was assessed by the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive (ADAS-Cog). Pretests and posttests were conducted immediately before and after the control and treatment periods. Changes in the outcome measures between control and treatment periods were compared. Wilcoxon signed rank tests revealed that the subjects gained significantly more resting time and total sleep time in the treatment period than in the control period (P efficiency was observed. Improvement in cognitive function was not statistically significant. A total of 86% of the subjects completed the treatment regime. Results reveal that acupuncture was effective in improving some domains of sleep quality of elderly with dementia, and the subjects showed acceptance towards the intervention. Strengths and limitations of the present study as well as suggestions for further studies were considered.

  8. Subjective cognitive decline in patients with migraine and its relationship with depression, anxiety, and sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Hwa; Kang, Yeonwook; Cho, Soo-Jin

    2017-12-01

    Cognitive decline is a major concern in patients with migraine. Depression, anxiety, and/or poor sleep quality are well-known comorbidities of migraine, but available evidence on the subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is limited. This study aimed to investigate the presence and frequency of SCD and its relationship with anxiety, depression and sleep quality in patients with migraine. We enrolled patients with migraine who scored within the normal range of the Korean-Mini Mental State Examination and the Korean-Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Using the Subjective Cognitive Decline Questionnaire (SCD-Q), participants with ≥7 were assigned to the SCD group. The Headache Impact Test-6, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were used and analyzed between the two groups. A total of 188 patients with migraine, aged 38.1 ± 9.9 years, were enrolled. The mean SCD-Q score was 6.5 ± 5.5, and 44.7% of participants were identified as SCD. Migraineurs with SCD reported higher headache pain intensity and headache impact, as well as greater prevalence of anxiety, depression, reduced quality of sleep, and shorter sleep duration during weekdays compared to migraineurs without SCD. There were no significant differences in terms of age, sex, migraine type (chronic/episodic), medication, or sleep duration during weekends between the two groups. Upon multivariate logistic analysis adjusted for age, sex, headache characteristics, and psychological variables, depression was associated with increased risk of SCD (Odds ratio 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.16-1.49) and sleep duration during weekdays was associated with decreased risk of SCD (Odds ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.44-0.97). A non-negligible number of patients with migraine complained of SCD. Depression and short sleep duration during weekdays were related to SCD among adult migraineurs.

  9. More severe hypoxemia is associated with better subjective sleep quality in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Ni; Lai, Chiou-Lian; Liu, Ching-Kuan; Liou, Li-Min; Yen, Chen-Wen; Chen, Sharon Chia-Ju; Hsieh, Cheng-Fang; Hsieh, Sun-Wung; Lin, Feng-Cheng; Hsu, Chung-Yao

    2015-10-12

    Perceived sleep quality may play an important role in diagnosis and therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, few studies have assessed factors that are associated with perceived sleep quality in OSA patients. Hypoxemia depresses the central nervous system and attenuates the perceived respiratory load in asthmatic patients. This study aimed to investigate the factors related to perceived sleep quality, focusing on the role of hypoxemia. Polysomnography studies of 156 OSA patients were reviewed. Traditional polysomnographic parameters, including parameters of oxy-hemoglobin saturation (SpO2), were calculated, and the sleep questionnaire and scales were used. Considering the possible pitfalls of absolute values of SpO2 and individualized responses to hypoxemia, the amplitude of desaturation was further computed as "median SpO2 minus lowest 5 % SpO2 "and "highest 5 % SpO2 minus median 5 % SpO2". Correlations between these parameters and perceived sleep quality, represented as the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), were performed. Multiple linear regression analysis was also conducted to investigate the factors associated with the PSQI. Although the PSQI was not correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index (r = -0.113, p = 0.162) and oxygen desaturation index (r = -0.085, p = 0.291), the PSQI was negatively correlated with "median SpO2 minus lowest 5 % SpO2" (r = -0.161, p = 0.045). After adjusting for age, total sleep time, the periodic limb movements index, tendency of depression, and the lowest 5 % SpO2, the "median SpO2 minus lowest SpO2" was still a significant predictor for a lower PSQI (β = -0.357, p = 0.015). More severe hypoxemia is associated with better perceived sleep quality among OSA patients. This paradox may be associated with hypoxemia-related impairment of perception. The effect of hypoxemia did not appear to be significant in relatively mild hypoxemia but become significant in severe hypoxemia." Median SpO2 minus lowest 5 % SpO2" may also

  10. Increased self-reported and objectively assessed physical activity predict sleep quality among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Christin; Brand, Serge; Feldmeth, Anne Karina; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Gerber, Markus

    2013-08-15

    Both scientists and the general public assume that physical activity (PA) is an effective, non-pharmacological approach to improvement in sleep quality. However, objective and reliable data on this relationship are scarce, particularly for adolescents. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to test the relationship by assessing both PA and sleep subjectively and objectively. A total of 56 adolescent vocational school students (Mean age=17.98, SD=1.36; 28 males, 28 females) participated in the study. Sleep and PA were subjectively assessed via questionnaires. Accelerometers objectively assessed PA, while sleep-EEG devices objectively assessed sleep. The data supported our prediction that adolescents with high PA levels would have longer TST, fewer wakening at night (WASO), fewer symptoms of insomnia, and higher sleep quality. However, gender influenced this pattern of results in that significant findings were only found between high self-reported PA levels and shorter perceived sleep onset latency (SOL). Though self-reported PA levels were a better predictor of good sleep than objectively assessed PA levels, gender was associated with sleep complaints; females reported more sleep complaints. Results indicate that among a non-clinical sample of adolescents increased PA is favorably associated with restoring sleep. Therefore, PA seems beneficial not only for physical and mental health, but also for sleep restoration. © 2013.

  11. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    OpenAIRE

    Annemarie eBoschloo; Lydia eKrabbendam; Sanne eDekker; Lee, Nikki C.; Renate ede Groot; Jelle eJolles

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness – ‘I feel sleepy during the first hours at school’ – appeared to predict both school grades and self-repor...

  12. Subjective sleep quality and suggested immobilization test in restless leg syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuichi; Nanba, Kazuyoshi; Honda, Yutaka; Takahashi, Yasuro; Arai, Heii

    2002-06-01

    The severity of restless leg syndrome (RLS) and/or periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) was investigated by using a suggested immobilization test (SIT) and by measuring the influence of these disorders on the subjective sleep quality as assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Patients with RLS and those with both RLS and PLMD showed remarkably high values for PSQI and SIT, whereas patients with PLMD only showed normal values for PSQI. These findings suggest that there is only a small pathological significance for periodic limb movements, and demonstrate the efficacy of SIT and PSQI for evaluating the severity of these disorders.

  13. Subjective sensation on sleep, fatigue, and thermal comfort in winter shelter-analogue settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kazuki; Mochizuki, Yosuke; Tsuzuki, Kazuyo; Nabeshima, Yuki

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to examine sleep in shelter-analogue settings in winter to determine the subjective sensation and environmental conditions in evacuation shelters. Twelve young healthy students took part in the sleep study of two nights for seven hours from Midnight to 7 AM in the gymnasium. One night the subject used a pair of futons and on the other the subject used the emergency supplies of four blankets and a set of portable partitions. During the night, air temperature, humidity and air velocity were measured in the area around the sleeping subjects. Sleep parameters measured by actigraphy, skin temperature, microclimate temperature, rectal temperature, and the heart rates of the subjects were continuously measured and recorded during the sleeping period. The subjects completed questionnaires regarding their thermal comfort and subjective sleep before and after the sleep. The subjects felt more coldness on their head and peripheral parts of the body using the emergency blankets than the futon during the sleep. Moreover, fatigue was felt more on the lower back and lower extremities from using emergency blankets than the futon after sleep. However, the sleep efficiency index and subjective sleep evaluation by OSA questionnaire did not reveal any good correlationship. The emergency supplies should be examined for their suitability to provide comfortable and healthy sleep in the shelter-analogue settings.

  14. Assessing sleep in adolescents through a better understanding of sleep physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Nancy M; Davis, Jean E

    2013-06-01

    Adolescents need about nine hours of sleep per night, yet most teens get far less. Inadequate sleep has consequences not only for academic performance but also for mental and physical health; it has been linked to lowered resilience and an increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. It's imperative that assessment of sleep become a routine part of adolescent health care. An understanding of sleep physiology is essential to helping nurses better assess and manage sleep deprivation in this population. Sleep assessment involves evaluating the three main aspects of sleep: amount, quality, and architecture. The authors provide an overview of sleep physiology, describe sleep changes that occur during adolescence, and discuss the influence of these changes on adolescent health. They also provide simple questions that nurses can use to assess sleep and risk factors for disrupted sleep, and discuss patient education and other interventions.

  15. Developmental changes in brain connectivity assessed using the sleep EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarokh, L; Carskadon, M A; Achermann, P

    2010-12-01

    Adolescence represents a time of significant cortical restructuring. Current theories posit that during this period connections between frequently utilized neural networks are strengthened while underutilized synaptic connections are discarded. The aim of the present study was to examine the developmental evolution of connectivity between brain regions using the sleep EEG. All-night sleep EEG recordings in two longitudinal cohorts (children and teens) followed at 1.5-3 year intervals and one cross-sectional cohort (adults) were analyzed. The children and teen cohorts were 9/10 and 15/16 years at the initial assessment; ages of the adults were 20 to 23 years. Intrahemispheric, interhemispheric, and diagonal coherence was measured between all six possible pairings of two central (C3/A2 and C4/A1) and two occipital (O2/A1 and O1/A2) derivations during slow wave, stage 2, and, REM sleep. Within-subjects analyses were performed for the children and teen cohorts, and a linear regression analysis was performed across every assessment of all cohorts. Within-subject analyses revealed a maturational increase in coherence for both age cohorts, though the frequencies, sleep states, and regions differed between cohorts. Regression analysis across all age cohorts showed an overall linear increase in left and right intrahemispheric coherence for all sleep states across frequencies. Furthermore, coherence between diagonal electrode pairs also increased in a linear manner for stage 2 and REM sleep. No age-related trend was found in interhemispheric coherence. Our results indicate that sleep EEG coherence increases with age and that these increases are confined to specific brain regions. This analysis highlights the utility of the sleep EEG to measure developmental changes in brain maturation. Copyright © 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Subjective sleep characteristics associated with anxiety and depression in older adults: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Olivier; Lorrain, Dominique; Belleville, Geneviève; Grenier, Sébastien; Préville, Michel

    2014-12-01

    Sleep complaints are often associated with anxiety and depression, but the specific complaints related to each syndrome are poorly characterized, especially in older adults. The objective was to identify subjective sleep characteristics specific to anxiety and depression in this population. A random sample of 2393 individuals aged 65 years or older was used. Anxiety and depression were categorized using DSM-V criteria for phobias, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, unspecified anxiety disorder, major depressive episode, and depressive episode with insufficient symptoms. Subjective sleep characteristics were measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Logistic regression models predicting anxiety or depression were used to determine the independent sleep characteristics associated with each syndrome adjusting for age, sex, education level, cognitive functioning, anxiolytic/sedative/hypnotic use, antidepressants use, subjective health, chronic diseases, cardiovascular conditions, and anxiety or depression (as appropriate). Nearly all Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index subscales were significantly associated with anxiety, but these subscales shared variance and only sleep duration in hours, sleep disturbance score, and daytime functioning score were independently related to anxiety. Within these significant subscales, the main specific sleep complaints associated with anxiety were daytime sleepiness and sleep disturbances related to coughing/snoring, feeling cold, and bad dreams. The use of sleeping medication was the only specific sleep characteristic associated with depression. These results suggest that in older adults, symptoms of short sleep duration, daytime sleepiness and sleep disturbances are independently related to anxiety while the use of sleep medication is independently associated to depression. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Frequent nocturnal awakening in children: prevalence, risk factors, and associations with subjective sleep perception and daytime sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liwen; Ren, Jiwei; Shi, Lei; Jin, Xinming; Yan, Chonghuai; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming; Li, Shenghui

    2014-07-30

    Nocturnal awakening is the most frequent insomnia complaint in the general population. In contrast to a growing knowledge based on adults, little is known about its prevalence, correlated factors, and associations with subjective sleep perception and daytime sleepiness in children. This study was designed to assess the prevalence and the correlate factors of frequent nocturnal awakening (FNA) among Chinese school-aged children. Furthermore, the associations of FNA with subjective sleep perception and daytime sleepiness were examined. A random sample of 20,505 children aged 5.00 to 11.92 years old (boys: 49.5% vs. girls: 50.5%) participated in a cross-sectional survey, which was conducted in eight cities of China. Parent-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on children's sleep behaviors, sleep perception, and potential influential factors of FNA from six domains. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were performed. The prevalence of FNA was 9.8% (10.0% for boys vs. 8.9% for girls) in our sampled children. The prominent FNA-related factors inclued biological health problems, such as overweight/obesity (OR = 1.70), chronic pain during night (OR = 2.47), and chronic respiratory condition (OR = 1.23), poor psychosocial condition, such as poor mental and emotional functioning (OR = 1.34), poor sleep hygiene, such as frequently doing exciting activities before bedtime (OR = 1.24) and bedtime resistance (OR = 1.42), and parents' history of insomnia (OR = 1.31). FNA was associated with subjective poor sleep quality (OR = 1.24), subjective insufficient sleep (OR = 1.21), and daytime sleepiness (OR = 1.35). FNA was associated with poor sleep and daytime sleepiness. Compared to sleep environment and family susceptibility, chronic health problems, poor psychosocial condition, and poor sleep hygiene had greater impact on FNA, indicating childhood FNA could be partly prevented by health promotion, by psychological intervention, and by

  18. The effectiveness of acupuncture on the sleep quality of elderly with dementia: a within-subjects trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok T

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Kwok,1,2 Ping Chung Leung,3 Yun Kwok Wing,4 Isaac Ip,2 Bel Wong,2 Daniel Wai Hung Ho,2 Wai Ming Wong,3 Florence Ho2 1Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 2Jockey Club Centre for Positive Ageing, Hong Kong; 3Institute of Chinese Medicine, 4Department of Psychiatry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Purpose: Elderly with dementia are often afflicted with sleep problems. Recent studies have suggested that acupuncture may be a feasible alternative to traditional sleep medicine for treating sleep disturbance. This study investigated the effectiveness of acupuncture on sleep quality of elderly with dementia. Patients and methods: Nineteen elders with dementia were followed through a control period and an acupuncture treatment period, each lasting 6 weeks. Outcome measures were subjects' sleep quality and cognitive function. Sleep parameters were recorded by wrist actigraphy. Cognitive function was assessed by the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale – Cognitive (ADAS-Cog. Pretests and posttests were conducted immediately before and after the control and treatment periods. Changes in the outcome measures between control and treatment periods were compared. Results: Wilcoxon signed rank tests revealed that the subjects gained significantly more resting time and total sleep time in the treatment period than in the control period (P < 0.05. A nonsignificant trend for improvement in sleep efficiency was observed. Improvement in cognitive function was not statistically significant. A total of 86% of the subjects completed the treatment regime. Conclusion: Results reveal that acupuncture was effective in improving some domains of sleep quality of elderly with dementia, and the subjects showed acceptance towards the intervention. Strengths and limitations of the present study as well as suggestions for further studies were considered. Keywords: acupuncture, sleep disturbance, patients

  19. Comparison of Subjective Sleep Quality of Long-Term Residents at Low and High Altitudes: SARAHA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ravi; Ulfberg, Jan; Allen, Richard P; Goel, Deepak

    2018-01-15

    To study the effect of altitude on subjective sleep quality in populations living at high and low altitudes after excluding cases of restless legs syndrome (RLS). This population-based study was conducted at three different altitudes (400 m, 1,900-2,000 m, and 3,200 m above sea level). All consenting subjects available from random stratified sampling in the Himalayan and sub-Himalayan regions of India were included in the study (ages 18 to 84 years). Sleep quality and RLS status were assessed using validated translations of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Cambridge Hopkins RLS diagnostic questionnaire. Recent medical records were screened to gather data for medical morbidities. In the total sample of 1,689 participants included, 55.2% were women and average age of included subjects was 35.2 (± 10.9) years. In this sample, overall 18.4% reported poor quality of sleep (PSQI ≥ 5). Poor quality of sleep was reported more commonly at high altitude compared to low altitude (odds ratio [OR] = 2.65; 95% CI = 1.9-3.7; P quality of sleep were male sex, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and varicose veins. Binary logistic regression indicated that COPD (OR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.36-2.86; P quality of sleep. This study showed that poor quality of sleep was approximately twice as prevalent at high altitudes compared to low altitudes even after removing the potential confounders such as RLS and COPD.

  20. What does the sleeping brain say? Syntax and semantics of sleep talking in healthy subjects and in parasomnia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnulf, Isabelle; Uguccioni, Ginevra; Gay, Frederick; Baldayrou, Etienne; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Gayraud, Frederique; Devevey, Alain

    2017-10-05

    Speech is a complex function in humans, but the linguistic characteristics of sleep talking are unknown. We analyzed sleep-associated speech in adults, mostly (92%) during parasomnias. The utterances recorded during night-time video-polysomnography were analyzed for number of words, propositions and speech episodes, frequency, gaps and pauses (denoting turn-taking in the conversation), lemmatization, verbosity, negative/imperative/interrogative tone, first/second person, politeness and abuse. The 232 subjects (aged 49.5 ± 20 y old; 41% women; 129 with rapid eye movement [REM] sleep behavior disorder and 87 with sleepwalking/sleep terrors, 15 healthy subjects and 1 patient with sleep apnea speaking in non-REM sleep) uttered 882 speech episodes, containing 59% non-verbal utterance (mumbles, shouts, whispers, laughs) and 3349 understandable words. The most frequent word was "No": negations represented 21.4% of clauses (more in non-REM sleep). Interrogations were found in 26% of speech episodes (more in non-REM sleep), and subordinate clauses were found in 12.9% of speech episode. As many as 9.7% of clauses contained profanities (more in non-REM sleep). Verbal abuse lasted longer in REM sleep and was mostly directed towards insulting or condemning someone, whereas swearing predominated in non-REM sleep. Men sleep-talked more than women and used a higher proportion of profanities. Apparent turn-taking in the conversation respected the usual language gaps. Sleep talking parallels awake talking for syntax, semantics and turn- taking in conversation, suggesting that the sleeping brain can function at a high level. Language during sleep is mostly a familiar, tensed conversation with inaudible others, suggestive of conflicts.

  1. Subjective-Objective Sleep Discrepancy in Older Adults With MCI and Subsyndromal Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNapoli, Elizabeth A; Gebara, Marie Anne; Kho, Terry; Butters, Meryl A; Gildengers, Ariel G; Albert, Steven M; Dew, Mary Amanda; Erickson, Kirk I; Reynolds, Charles F; Karp, Jordan F

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the prevalence and correlates of discrepancies between self-reported sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and objective sleep efficiency (actigraphy) in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and subsyndromal depression. This was a secondary analysis of a clincial trial with 59 adults aged 60 years and older with MCI and subsyndromal depression. We included baseline data on participants' subjective sleep quality, objective sleep efficiency, depressive symptoms, insomnia diagnosis, and cognitive functioning. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index subjective sleep quality and actigraphy-measured sleep efficiency were not significantly correlated ( r = -.06; P = .64), with 61% of participants having subjective-objective sleep discrepancies. Correlates of subjective-objective sleep discrepancy included the presence of an insomnia diagnosis and impaired memory, particularly delayed memory. These findings are important because subjective underestimation of symptoms in older adults with memory impairments may result in sleep disturbances going unrecognized in clinical practice; on the other hand, an insomnia disorder may be a possible remediable contribution to subjective overestimation of sleep disturbances.

  2. Reduced sleep duration affects body composition, dietary intake and quality of life in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Lubrano, Carla; Gnessi, Lucio; Marocco, Chiara; Di Lazzaro, Luca; Polidoro, Giampaolo; Luisi, Federica; Merola, Gianluca; Mariani, Stefania; Migliaccio, Silvia; Lenzi, Andrea; Donini, Lorenzo M

    2016-09-01

    Sleep duration has emerged as a crucial factor affecting body weight and feeding behaviour. The aim of our study was to explore the relationship among sleep duration, body composition, dietary intake, and quality of life (QoL) in obese subjects. Body composition was assessed by DXA. "Sensewear Armband" was used to evaluate sleep duration. SF-36 questionnaire was used to evaluate quality of life (QoL). A 3-day dietary record was administered. Subjects were divided into 2 groups: sleep duration > and ≤300 min/day. 137 subjects (105 women and 32 men), age: 49.8 ± 12.4 years, BMI: 38.6 ± 6.7 kg/m(2), were enrolled. Sleep duration was ≤300 min in 30.6 % of subjects. Absolute and relative fat mass (FM) (40.5 ± 9 vs. 36.5 ± 9.1 kg; 40.2 ± 4.7 vs. 36.9 ± 5.6 %), and truncal fat mass (19.2 ± 6.1 vs. 16.6 ± 5 kg; 38.6 ± 5.3 vs. 35.2 ± 5.5 %) were higher in subjects sleeping ≤300 min when compared to their counterparts (all p BMI was observed (p = 0.077). Even though energy intake was not different between groups, subjects sleeping ≤300 min reported a higher carbohydrate consumption per day (51.8 ± 5.1 vs. 48.4 ± 9.2 %, p = 0.038). SF-36 total score was lower in subjects sleeping ≤300 min (34.2 ± 17.8 vs. 41.4 ± 12.9, p = 0.025). Sleep duration was negatively associated with FM (r = -0.25, p = 0.01) and SF-36 total score (r = -0.31, p sleep duration and SF-36 total score was confirmed by the regression analysis after adjustment for BMI and fat mass (R = 0.43, R (2) = 0.19, p = 0.012). Reduced sleep duration negatively influences body composition, macronutrient intake, and QoL in obese subjects.

  3. The impact of sleep duration and subject intelligence on declarative and motor memory performance: how much is enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Matthew A; Fishbein, William

    2009-09-01

    Recent findings clearly demonstrate that daytime naps impart substantial memory benefits compared with equivalent periods of wakefulness. Using a declarative paired associates task and a procedural motor sequence task, this study examined the effect of two lengthier durations of nocturnal sleep [either a half night (3.5 h) or a full night (7.5 h) of sleep] on over-sleep changes in memory performance. We also assessed whether subject intelligence is associated with heightened task acquisition and, more importantly, whether greater intelligence translates to greater over-sleep declarative and procedural memory enhancement. Across both tasks, we demonstrate that postsleep performance gains are nearly equivalent, regardless of whether subjects obtain a half night or a full night of sleep. Remarkably, the over-sleep memory changes observed on both tasks are very similar to findings from studies examining performance following a daytime nap. Consistent with previous research, we also observed a strong positive correlation between amount of Stage 2 sleep and motor skill performance in the full-night sleep group. This finding contrasts with a highly significant correlation between spectral power in the spindle frequency band (12-15 Hz) and motor skill enhancement only in the half-night group, suggesting that sigma power and amount of Stage 2 sleep are both important for optimal motor memory processing. While subject intelligence correlated positively with acquisition and retest performance on both tasks, it did not correlate with over-sleep changes in performance on either task, suggesting that intelligence may not be a powerful modulator of sleep's effect on memory performance.

  4. Cellular aging and restorative processes: subjective sleep quality and duration moderate the association between age and telomere length in a sample of middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribbet, Matthew R; Carlisle, McKenzie; Cawthon, Richard M; Uchino, Bert N; Williams, Paula G; Smith, Timothy W; Gunn, Heather E; Light, Kathleen C

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether subjective sleep quality and sleep duration moderate the association between age and telomere length (TL). Participants completed a demographic and sleep quality questionnaire, followed by a blood draw. Social Neuroscience Laboratory. One hundred fifty-four middle-aged to older adults (age 45-77 y) participated. Participants were excluded if they were on immunosuppressive treatment and/or had a disease with a clear immunologic (e.g., cancer) component. N/A. Subjective sleep quality and sleep duration were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and TL was determined using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). There was a significant first-order negative association between age and TL. Age was also negatively associated with the self-reported sleep quality item and sleep duration component of the PSQI. A significant age × self-reported sleep quality interaction revealed that age was more strongly related to TL among poor sleepers, and that good sleep quality attenuated the association between age and TL. Moreover, adequate subjective sleep duration among older adults (i.e. greater than 7 h per night) was associated with TL comparable to that in middle-aged adults, whereas sleep duration was unrelated to TL for the middle-aged adults in our study. The current study provides evidence for an association between sleep quality, sleep duration, and cellular aging. Among older adults, better subjective sleep quality was associated with the extent of cellular aging, suggesting that sleep duration and sleep quality may be added to a growing list of modifiable behaviors associated with the adverse effects of aging.

  5. Subjective Sleep Quality and hormonal modulation in long-term yoga practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Francisca M; Manzaneque, Juan M; Maldonado, Enrique F; Carranque, Gabriel A; Rodriguez, Francisco M; Blanca, Maria J; Morell, Miguel

    2009-07-01

    Yoga represents a fascinating mind-body approach, wherein body movements (asana), breathing exercises (pranayama) and meditation are integrated into a single multidimensional practice. Numerous beneficial mental and physical effects have been classically ascribed to this holistic ancient method. The purpose of the present study has been to examine the effects of long-term yoga practice on Subjective Sleep Quality (SSQ) and on several hormonal parameters of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Twenty-six subjects (16 experimental and 10 controls) were recruited to be part of the study. Experimental subjects were regular yoga practitioners with a minimum of 3 years of practice. Blood samples for the quantification of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) were drawn from all subjects. Likewise, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was employed to assess SSQ. As statistical analysis, Mann-Whitney U-test was performed. The yoga group displayed lower PSQI scores and higher blood cortisol levels than control subjects. Therefore, it can be concluded that long-term yoga practice is associated with significant psycho-biological differences, including better sleep quality as well as a modulatory action on the levels of cortisol. These preliminary results suggest interesting clinical implications which should be further researched.

  6. Sleep in healthy elderly subjects: a 24-hour ambulatory polysomnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigli, G L; Placidi, F; Diomedi, M; Maschio, M; Silvestri, G; Scalise, A; Marciani, M G

    1996-04-01

    It is still debated whether the deterioration of the sleep pattern, frequently reported by elderly subjects, is due only to aging per se. Other factors associated with aging or modifications of biological rhythms could also be involved. Elderly subjects frequently complain of daytime sleepiness, but it is not clear whether this actually represents a return to a polyphasic structure of sleep, or only a consequence of a disturbed night sleep. Ten healthy, independent and active elderly subjects (age > 72 years) were elevated by means of 24-hour ambulatory polysomnography. Findings of nocturnal sleep were compared with sleep of the same group in the 24-hour period and with sleep of young healthy controls. We observed a fragmentation of nocturnal sleep, but a fairly good representation of stages and a preservation of cyclicity. Except for three cases, with early or late times of sleep onset and wake-up, sleep disruption did not seem to be related to modification of circadian rhythms. Only three subjects presented undesired daytime naps, whereas the others either did not show daytime sleep at all, or were used to having their siesta after lunch since their young adulthood. In normal aging, daytime sleep does not constitute a social problem. Ambulatory polysomnography is a valid alternative to laboratory recordings in the identification of daytime sleep.

  7. Source-based subjective responses to sleep disturbance from transportation noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, O; Murphy, E

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that the use of subjective responses to questions concerning night-time environmental noise exposure is a robust method of assessing sleep disturbance from road traffic noise. However, there have only been a few studies exploring this issue in a real world context beyond controlled laboratory settings. This paper presents results from such a study. It utilises 208 household questionnaire surveys to assess subjective responses to levels of night-time sleep disturbance and annoyance from four different residential sites. Each residential site is characterised by a dominant noise source - road, light rail, and aircraft - and these sites are compared to a control site that is relatively free from transportation noise. The results demonstrate the inadequacy of continuous equivalent noise level measures as indicators of night-time disturbance. Furthermore, they suggest that the use of these measures alone is likely to result in inaccurate appraisals of night-time sleep disturbance from transportation noise. Ultimately, the research implies that measurement data should be used in conjunction with subjective response data to accurately gauge the level of night-time disturbance from transportation noise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie eBoschloo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness – ‘I feel sleepy during the first hours at school’ – appeared to predict both school grades and self-reported school performance. Sleep quality on the other hand – as a measure of (uninterrupted sleep and/or problems falling asleep or waking up – predicted parent-reported school performance. Self- and parent-reported school performance correlated only moderately with school grades. So it turns out that the measures used to measure either sleep or school performance impacts whether or not a relation is found. Further research on sleep and school performance should take this into account. The findings do underscore the notion that sleep in adolescence can be important for learning. They are compatible with the hypothesis that a reduced sleep quality can give rise to sleepiness in the first hours at school which results in lower school performance. This notion could have applied value in counseling adolescents and their parents in changing adolescents’ sleep behavior.

  9. Subjective Sleepiness and Sleep Quality in Adolescents are Related to Objective and Subjective Measures of School Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; de Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness - "I feel sleepy during the first hours at school" - appeared to predict both school grades and self-reported school performance. Sleep quality on the other hand - as a measure of (un)interrupted sleep and/or problems falling asleep or waking up - predicted parent-reported school performance. Self- and parent-reported school performance correlated only moderately with school grades. So it turns out that the measures used to measure either sleep or school performance impacts whether or not a relation is found. Further research on sleep and school performance should take this into account. The findings do underscore the notion that sleep in adolescence can be important for learning. They are compatible with the hypothesis that a reduced sleep quality can give rise to sleepiness in the first hours at school which results in lower school performance. This notion could have applied value in counseling adolescents and their parents in changing adolescents' sleep behavior.

  10. Effects of Sleep Hygiene Education on Subjective Sleep Quality and Academic Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Şahin, Erkan Melih

    .... It is known that sleep quality and daytime sleepiness cause decrasing academic performans. For this reason we aimed to investigate the effects of a sleep hygiene education on sleep quality and academic performance of first year medical students...

  11. Physical activity, subjective sleep quality and time in bed do not vary by moon phase in German adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maia P; Standl, Marie; Schulz, Holger; Heinrich, Joachim

    2017-06-01

    Lunar periodicity in human biology and behaviour, particularly sleep, has been reported. However, estimated relationships vary in direction (more or less sleep with full moon) if they exist at all, and studies tend to be so small that there is potential for confounding by weekly or monthly cycles. Lunar variation in physical activity has been posited as a driver of this relationship, but is likewise not well studied. We explore the association between lunar cycle, sleep and physical activity in a population-based sample of 1411 Germans age 14-17 years (46% male). Physical activity (daily minutes moderate-to-vigorous activity) was objectively assessed by accelerometry for a total of 8832 days between 2011 and 2014. At the same time, time in bed (h) and subjective sleep quality (1-6) were diaried each morning. In models corrected for confounding, we found that lunar phase was not significantly associated with physical activity, subjective sleep quality or time in bed in either sex, regardless of season. Observed relationships varied randomly in direction between models, suggesting artefact. Thus, this large, objectively-measured and well-controlled population of adolescents displayed no lunar periodicity in objective physical activity, subjective sleep quality or time in bed. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  12. Effects of Sleep Hygiene Education on Subjective Sleep Quality and Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Erkan Sahin

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Sleep problems are common in students with one third of university students reporting insufficient sleep. It is known that sleep quality and daytime sleepiness cause decrasing academic performans. For this reason we aimed to investigate the effects of a sleep hygiene education on sleep quality and academic performance of first year medical students. Material and Method: Self-reported sleep data and academic performance of 131 first grade medical students were collected. To all students e...

  13. Depressive Symptoms are the Main Predictor for Subjective Sleep Quality in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment--A Controlled Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Seidel

    Full Text Available Controlled data on predictors of subjective sleep quality in patients with memory complaints are sparse. To improve the amount of comprehensive data on this topic, we assessed factors associated with subjective sleep quality in patients from our memory clinic and healthy individuals.Between February 2012 and August 2014 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and subjective cognitive decline (SCD from our memory clinic and healthy controls were recruited. Apart from a detailed neuropsychological assessment, the subjective sleep quality, daytime sleepiness and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II.One hundred fifty eight consecutive patients (132 (84% MCI patients and 26 (16% SCD patients and 75 healthy controls were included in the study. Pairwise comparison of PSQI scores showed that non-amnestic MCI (naMCI patients (5.4 ± 3.5 had significantly higher PSQI scores than controls (4.3 ± 2.8, p = .003 Pairwise comparison of PSQI subscores showed that naMCI patients (1.1 ± 0.4 had significantly more "sleep disturbances" than controls (0.9 ± 0.5, p = .003. Amnestic MCI (aMCI (0.8 ± 1.2, p = .006 and naMCI patients (0.7 ± 1.2, p = .002 used "sleep medication" significantly more often than controls (0.1 ± 0.6 Both, aMCI (11.5 ± 8.6, p < .001 and naMCI (11.5 ± 8.6, p < .001 patients showed significantly higher BDI-II scores than healthy controls (6.1 ± 5.3. Linear regression analysis showed that the subjective sleep quality was predicted by depressive symptoms in aMCI (p < .0001 and naMCI (p < .0001 patients as well as controls (p < .0001. This means, that more depressive symptoms worsened subjective sleep quality. In aMCI patients we also found a significant interaction between depressive symptoms and global cognitive function (p = .002.Depressive symptoms were the main predictor of subjective sleep quality in MCI

  14. Subjective Sleepiness and Sleep Quality in Adolescents are Related to Objective and Subjective Measures of School Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11–18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness – “I feel sleepy during the first hours at school” – appeared to predict both school grades and self-repo...

  15. Protective effects of exercise training on endothelial dysfunction induced by total sleep deprivation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvet, Fabien; Arnal, Pierrick J; Tardo-Dino, Pierre Emmanuel; Drogou, Catherine; Van Beers, Pascal; Bougard, Clément; Rabat, Arnaud; Dispersyn, Garance; Malgoyre, Alexandra; Leger, Damien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2017-04-01

    Sleep loss is a risk factor for cardiovascular events mediated through endothelial dysfunction. To determine if 7weeks of exercise training can limit cardiovascular dysfunction induced by total sleep deprivation (TSD) in healthy young men. 16 subjects were examined during 40-h TSD, both before and after 7weeks of interval exercise training. Vasodilatation induced by ACh, insulin and heat (42°C) and pulse wave velocity (PWV), blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were assessed before TSD (controlday), during TSD, and after one night of sleep recovery. Biomarkers of endothelial activation, inflammation, and hormones were measured from morning blood samples. Before training, ACh-, insulin- and heat-induced vasodilatations were significantly decreased during TSD and recovery as compared with the control day, with no difference after training. Training prevented the decrease of ACh-induced vasodilation related to TSD after sleep recovery, as well as the PWV increase after TSD. A global lowering effect of training was found on HR values during TSD, but not on blood pressure. Training induces the decrease of TNF-α concentration after TSD and prevents the increase of MCP-1 after sleep recovery. Before training, IL-6 concentrations increased. Cortisol and testosterone decreased after TSD as compared with the control day, while insulin and E-selectin increased after sleep recovery. No effect of TSD or training was found on CRP and sICAM-1. In healthy young men, a moderate to high-intensity interval training is effective at improving aerobic fitness and limiting vascular dysfunction induced by TSD, possibly through pro-inflammatory cytokine responses.(ClinicalTrial:NCT02820649). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. To Assess Sleep Quality among Pakistani Junior Physicians (House Officers): A Cross-sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Surani, AA; Surani, A; Zahid, S; Ali, S; Farhan, R; Surani, S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sleep deprivation among junior physicians (house officers) is of growing concern. In developed countries, duty hours are now mandated, but in developing countries, junior physicians are highly susceptible to develop sleep impairment due to long working hours, on-call duties and shift work schedule. Aim: We undertook the study to assess sleep quality among Pakistani junior physicians. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at private and public hospitals in Kar...

  17. Objective but not subjective sleep predicts memory in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavuoto, Marina G; Ong, Ben; Pike, Kerryn E; Nicholas, Christian L; Bei, Bei; Kinsella, Glynda J

    2016-08-01

    Research on the relationship between habitual sleep patterns and memory performance in older adults is limited. No previous study has used objective and subjective memory measures in a large, older-aged sample to examine the association between sleep and various domains of memory. The aim of this study was to examine the association between objective and subjective measures of sleep with memory performance in older adults, controlling for the effects of potential confounds. One-hundred and seventy-three community-dwelling older adults aged 65-89 years in Victoria, Australia completed the study. Objective sleep quality and length were ascertained using the Actiwatch 2 Mini-Mitter, while subjective sleep was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Memory was indexed by tests of retrospective memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised), working memory (n-back, 2-back accuracy) and prospective memory (a habitual button pressing task). Compared with normative data, overall performance on retrospective memory function was within the average range. Hierarchical regression was used to determine whether objective or subjective measures of sleep predicted memory performances after controlling for demographics, health and mood. After controlling for confounds, actigraphic sleep indices (greater wake after sleep onset, longer sleep-onset latency and longer total sleep time) predicted poorer retrospective (∆R(2)  = 0.05, P = 0.016) and working memory (∆R(2)  = 0.05, P = 0.047). In contrast, subjective sleep indices did not significantly predict memory performances. In community-based older adults, objectively-measured, habitual sleep indices predict poorer memory performances. It will be important to follow the sample longitudinally to determine trajectories of change over time. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  18. Broadband Sound Administration Improves Sleep Onset Latency in Healthy Subjects in a Model of Transient Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messineo, Ludovico; Taranto-Montemurro, Luigi; Sands, Scott A; Oliveira Marques, Melania D; Azabarzin, Ali; Wellman, David Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Insomnia is a major public health problem in western countries. Previous small pilot studies showed that the administration of constant white noise can improve sleep quality, increase acoustic arousal threshold, and reduce sleep onset latency. In this randomized controlled trial, we tested the effect of surrounding broadband sound administration on sleep onset latency, sleep architecture, and subjective sleep quality in healthy subjects. Eighteen healthy subjects were studied with two overnight sleep studies approximately one week apart. They were exposed in random order to normal environmental noise (40.1 [1.3] dB) or to broadband sound administration uniformly distributed in the room by two speakers (46.0 [0.9] dB). To model transient insomnia, subjects went to bed ("lights out") 90 min before usual bedtime. Broadband sound administration reduced sleep onset latency to stage 2 sleep (time from lights out to first epoch of non-rapid eye movement-sleep stage 2) (19 [16] vs. 13 [23] min, p = 0.011; median reduction 38% baseline). In a subgroup reporting trouble initiating sleep at home (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index section 2 score ≥ 1), sound administration improved subjective sleep quality (p = 0.037) and the frequency of arousals from sleep (p = 0.03). In an experimental model of transient insomnia in young healthy individuals, broadband sound administration significantly reduced sleep onset latency by 38% compared to normal environmental noise. These findings suggest that broadband sound administration might be helpful to minimize insomnia symptoms in selected individuals.

  19. Broadband Sound Administration Improves Sleep Onset Latency in Healthy Subjects in a Model of Transient Insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Messineo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundInsomnia is a major public health problem in western countries. Previous small pilot studies showed that the administration of constant white noise can improve sleep quality, increase acoustic arousal threshold, and reduce sleep onset latency. In this randomized controlled trial, we tested the effect of surrounding broadband sound administration on sleep onset latency, sleep architecture, and subjective sleep quality in healthy subjects.MethodsEighteen healthy subjects were studied with two overnight sleep studies approximately one week apart. They were exposed in random order to normal environmental noise (40.1 [1.3] dB or to broadband sound administration uniformly distributed in the room by two speakers (46.0 [0.9] dB. To model transient insomnia, subjects went to bed (“lights out” 90 min before usual bedtime.ResultsBroadband sound administration reduced sleep onset latency to stage 2 sleep (time from lights out to first epoch of non-rapid eye movement-sleep stage 2 (19 [16] vs. 13 [23] min, p = 0.011; median reduction 38% baseline. In a subgroup reporting trouble initiating sleep at home (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index section 2 score ≥ 1, sound administration improved subjective sleep quality (p = 0.037 and the frequency of arousals from sleep (p = 0.03.ConclusionIn an experimental model of transient insomnia in young healthy individuals, broadband sound administration significantly reduced sleep onset latency by 38% compared to normal environmental noise. These findings suggest that broadband sound administration might be helpful to minimize insomnia symptoms in selected individuals.

  20. The Impact of Nocturnal Hypoglycemia on Sleep in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Stender-Petersen, Kirstine; Rabøl, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes caused a decrease in awakening response in the 4-8-h period following the event. These findings underscore the risks associated with nocturnal hypoglycemia because nocturnal hypoglycemia potentially affects the patient's ability to wake up and respond......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this trial was to investigate the impact of nocturnal hypoglycemia on sleep patterns (assessed by polysomnography) and counterregulatory hormones. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this single-blinded, crossover trial, 26 subjects with type 2 diabetes attended two experimental...... night visits (one normoglycemic and one hypoglycemic) in randomized order. Plasma glucose (PG) levels were controlled by hyperinsulinemic glucose clamping. On the hypoglycemic night, hypoglycemia was induced after reaching sleep stage N2 by turning off glucose infusion until the PG target of 2...

  1. Does Subjective Sleep Affect Bone Mineral Density in Older People with Minimal Health Disorders? The PROOF Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Martin, Magali; Labeix, Pierre; Garet, Martin; Thomas, Thierry; Barthélémy, Jean-Claude; Collet, Philippe; Roche, Frédéric; Sforza, Emilia

    2016-11-15

    Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest a relation between bone mineral density (BMD) and self-assessment of sleep with an effect on bone formation and osteoporosis (OS) risk in short and long sleepers. This study explores this association in a large sample of older subjects. We examined 500 participants without insomnia complaints aged 65.7 ± 0.8 y. Each participant had a full evaluation including anthropometric measurement, clinical examination and measurements of BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral sites by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The daily energy expenditure (DEE) was measured by the Population Physical Activity Questionnaire. Sleep duration and quality were evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The subjects were stratified into three groups according to sleep duration, i.e., short (sleep was the best predictor of OS risk at the femoral level. This finding suggests an association between OS and self-reported sleep duration in older subjects. NCT 00759304 and NCT 00766584.

  2. Assessment of sleep and circadian rhythm disorders in the very old: the Newcastle 85+ Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kirstie N; Catt, Michael; Collerton, Joanna; Davies, Karen; von Zglinicki, Thomas; Kirkwood, Thomas B L; Jagger, Carol

    2014-01-01

    to examine the association between subjective and objective measures of sleep and wake and other health parameters in a cohort of the very old. a population-based cohort study. primary care, North East England. four hundred and twenty-one men and women, aged 87-89, recruited to the Newcastle 85+ Study cohort. sleep questionnaires were administered and sleep-wake patterns were assessed over 5-7 days with a novel wrist triaxial accelerometer. Associations between sleep measures and various health parameters, including mortality at 24 months, were examined. only 16% of participants perceived their sleep as severely disturbed as assessed with questionnaire responses. Wrist accelerometry showed marked variation between normal and abnormal sleep-wake cycles that did not correlate with the participants' perception of sleep. Impaired sleep-wake cycles were significantly associated with cognitive impairment, disability, depression, increased falls, body mass index and arthritis but not with any other specific disease markers and with decreased survival. commonly used sleep questionnaires do not differentiate well between those with objectively determined disturbance of sleep-wake cycles and those with normal cycles. Abnormal sleep-wake patterns are associated with institutionalisation, cognitive impairment, disability, depression and arthritis but not with other diseases; there is also an association with reduced survival.

  3. The Association between Subjective Memory Complaints and Sleep within Older African American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Wright, Regina S; Aiken-Morgan, Adrienne T; Allaire, Jason C; Thorpe, Roland J; Whitfield, Keith E

    2017-06-13

    The purpose of the current study is to examine the association between subjective memory complaints and sleep (quantity and quality) in African American older adults. Participants from the Baltimore Study of Black Aging (BSBA; n = 351; mean age = 71.99) completed a self-report sleep scale, subjective memory complaint scale, global cognitive status measure, and demographic questionnaire. Worse overall sleep quality was significantly associated with subjective reports of difficulty recalling the placement of objects, recalling specific facts from reading materials, and worse memory currently compared to the past. Specific sleep parameters (e.g., longer sleep latency and shorter sleep duration) were associated with negative appraisals of participants' ability to do specific tasks involving memory (e.g., difficulty recalling placement of objects). Participants classified as poor sleepers (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI] total score > 5) were more likely to report worse memory now compared to the past than participants classified as good sleepers (PSQI total score ≤ 5). Evaluation of sleep may be warranted when older adults, particularly African Americans, communicate concerns regarding their memory. Insufficient sleep may be a useful marker of acute daytime dysfunction and, perhaps, cognitive decline. Given memory problems are the hallmark of dementia, our findings support further evaluation of whether poor sleep can aid in the diagnosis of cognitive impairment.

  4. Subjective and objective sleep and self-harm behaviors in young children: A general population study

    OpenAIRE

    Singareddy, Ravi; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh B.; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; FERNANDEZ-MENDOZA, Julio; Calhoun, Susan L.; Shaffer, Michele L.; Bixler, Edward O.

    2013-01-01

    Significant association between sleep disturbances and suicidal ideation and/or attempts is reported in adults and adolescents. However, there is paucity of studies exploring the association between sleep and self-harm behaviors (SHB) in young children and are limited to only subjective sleep measures. We examined the association between SHB and both subjective and objective sleep in a population-based sample of 5–12 yr. old. Parents of every student in 3 local school (K-5) districts (n=7,312...

  5. Individual Differences in Response to Sleep Deprivation: Assessment of Fatigue Following Sleep Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carskadon, Mary A.

    1997-01-01

    Previous work has indicated that a small but significant number of participants in sleep deprivation studies or in simulated shift work experiments manifests an exaggerated performance decrement when they reach a critical point in the experiment, usually near the trough of the circadian cycle or the middle of the night. Those who show this exaggerated response do not appear to differ from other normal volunteers in any substantial way according to usual screening criteria or baseline values. The present study aims to examine factors that may provide the basis for this extreme response. We propose that a preexisting sleep deficit-as manifested by low values on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT)-may account for extreme responders. Roth and colleagues (1993) have shown that among normal volunteers screened for a variety of studies, approximately 20 to 25 percent show low ( or = 13 minutes). Additionally, studies by this group have indicated that subjects with low MSLT scores may suffer from chronic insufficient sleep (Roth et al., 1993), as further substantiated by the finding that they have consistently higher nocturnal sleep efficiency and that their MSLT scores rise to normal values when sleep is extended (Roehrs et al., 1996). We hypothesize that the short MSLT subjects have a significant long-term sleep deficit that leads to a marked intolerance for sleep deprivation or shift work. We further suggest that this sleep debt may signify an increased sleep need in these individuals that is not met either due to personal preference or to societal pressures (or both). If this speculation is accurate, then we predict that the tolerance for sleep deprivation in such individuals can be increased by "pretreatment" with sleep extension. Thus, the present study is designed to test the following two hypotheses: subjects with nominal sleep patterns who have low MSLT scores (e.g., Sleepy subjects) will show an exaggerated response (performance decrement) to sleep loss

  6. Subjective sleep quality in relation to objective sleep estimates: comparison, gender differences and changes between the acute phase and the six-month follow-up after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Linda N; Kim, Hesook Suzie; Finset, Arnstein; Lerdal, Anners

    2014-03-01

    To describe sleep experiences after stroke using subjective and objective indicators and identify possible gender differences in sleep in the acute phase and at 6-month follow-up. Sleep disturbances after stoke are recognized, but poorly described. Gender differences in sleep exist in other populations, but have not been reported after stroke. A longitudinal cohort study. Subjective sleep quality was measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and objective sleep was estimated with actigraphy in 100 patients in the acute phase and six months after stroke, from April 2007-March 2009. Subjective sleep quality was better and objective wake percentage was lower at follow-up than in the acute phase after stroke. Actigraphy estimated low sleep efficiency and many awakenings at both time points. Subjective and objective measures were correlated at the 6-month follow-up, but not in the acute phase. Women's subjective sleep efficiency and total score on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were worse than men's in the acute phase, but actigraphy estimated that women slept more than men in the course of a day. Women's subjective sleep quality was better at follow-up than in the acute phase. Men reported worse subjective sleep quality, but better subjective sleep efficiency at follow-up than in the acute phase, and also had lower objective wake percentage at follow-up. Subjective sleep quality was poor and actigraphy indicated disturbed sleep-wake patterns in the acute phase and at 6-month follow-up. Gender differences existed in subjective and objective sleep in the acute phase, but not at follow-up. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Subjective and objective sleep and self-harm behaviors in young children: a general population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singareddy, Ravi; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh B; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Calhoun, Susan L; Shaffer, Michele L; Bixler, Edward O

    2013-10-30

    Significant association between sleep disturbances and suicidal ideation and/or attempts is reported in adults and adolescents. However, there is paucity of studies exploring the association between sleep and self-harm behaviors (SHB) in young children and are limited to only subjective sleep measures. We examined the association between SHB and both subjective and objective sleep in a population-based sample of 5-12 yr old. Parents of every student in 3 local school (K-5) districts (n=7312) was sent a screening questionnaire. Randomly selected children from this sample underwent a comprehensive history, physical examination, a 9-h overnight polysomnogram and completed several questionnaires. Among the final sample (n=693), 27 children had SHB with adjusted prevalence of 3%. There was no difference in age, gender, obesity, or socioeconomic status in subjects with or without SHB. Significantly more children with SHB had subjective sleep difficulty and depression. Difficulty maintaining sleep and frequent nightmares were associated with SHB independent of depression or demographics. Polysomnographic %REM-sleep was significantly higher in the SHB group after adjusting for demographics and depression. These data indicate that parent reported sleep disturbances are independently associated with SHB. It is possible that higher REM-sleep is a non-invasive biomarker for risk of self-harm behaviors in young children. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Disagreement between subjective and actigraphic measures of sleep duration in a population-based study of elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, J.F. van den; Rooij, F.J.A. van; Vos, H.; Tulen, J.H.M.; Hofman, A.; Miedema, H.M.E.; Neven, A.K.; Tiemeier, H.

    2008-01-01

    Sleep duration is an important concept in epidemiological studies. It characterizes a night's sleep or a person's sleep pattern, and is associated with numerous health outcomes. In most large studies, sleep duration is assessed with questionnaires or sleep diaries. As an alternative, actigraphy may

  9. Disagreement between subjective and actigraphic measures of sleep duration in a population-based study of elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. van den Berg (Julia); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); H. Vos; J.H.M. Tulen (Joke); A. Hofman (Albert); H.M. Miedema (Henk); A.K. Neven (Arie); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSleep duration is an important concept in epidemiological studies. It characterizes a night's sleep or a person's sleep pattern, and is associated with numerous health outcomes. In most large studies, sleep duration is assessed with questionnaires or sleep diaries. As an alternative,

  10. Development and Evaluation of a Wearable Device for Sleep Quality Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chih-En; Liu, Yi-Che; Chang, Da-Wei; Young, Chung-Ping; Shaw, Fu-Zen; Liang, Sheng-Fu

    2017-07-01

    In this study, a wearable actigraphy recording device with low sampling rate (1 Hz) for power saving and data reduction and a high accuracy wake-sleep scoring method for the assessment of sleep were developed. The developed actigraphy recorder was successfully applied to overnight recordings of 81 subjects with simultaneous polysomnography (PSG) measurements. The total length of recording reached 639.8 h. A wake-sleep scoring method based on the concept of movement density evaluation and adaptive windowing was proposed. Data from subjects with good (N = 43) and poor (N = 16) sleep efficiency (SE) in the range of 52.7-97.42% were used for testing. The Bland-Altman technique was used to evaluate the concordance of various sleep measurements between the manual PSG scoring and the proposed actigraphy method. For wake-sleep staging, the average accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and kappa coefficient of the proposed system were 92.16%, 95.02%, 71.30%, and 0.64, respectively. For the assessment of SE, the accuracy of classifying the subject with good or poor SE reached 91.53%. The mean biases of SE, sleep onset time, wake after sleep onset, and total sleep time were -0.95%, 0.74 min, 2.84 min, and -4.3 min, respectively. These experimental results demonstrate the robustness and reliability of our method using limited activity information to estimate wake-sleep stages during overnight recordings. The results suggest that the proposed wearable actigraphy system is practical for the in-home screening of objective sleep measurements and objective evaluation of sleep improvement after treatment.

  11. Auditory evoked responses upon awakening from sleep in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, M; De Gennaro, L; Ferlazzo, F; Curcio, G; Barattucci, M; Bertini, M

    2001-09-14

    The hypothesis that a state of hypoarousal upon awakening should lead to a decrease in amplitude and an increase in latency of the N1-P2 components of the Auditory Evoked Potentials (AEPs) as compared to presleep wakefulness levels, was evaluated after two nocturnal awakenings and after the final morning awakening from a 7.5-h night of sleep. The amplitude of the N1-P2 complex was reduced upon awakening as compared to presleep wakefulness levels, but only following the first nocturnal awakening, scheduled after the first 2 h of sleep. This result is interpreted as indicating a link between slow wave sleep amount, mainly present during the first part of the night, and lowered levels of brain activation upon awakening. The reaction times, recorded concomitantly to AEPs, were more sensitive to the negative effects of sleep inertia.

  12. Sleep assessment in a population-based study of chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes Michele

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a disabling condition that affects approximately 800,000 adult Americans. The pathophysiology remains unknown and there are no diagnostic markers or characteristic physical signs or laboratory abnormalities. Most CFS patients complain of unrefreshing sleep and many of the postulated etiologies of CFS affect sleep. Conversely, many sleep disorders present similarly to CFS. Few studies characterizing sleep in unselected CFS subjects have been published and none have been performed in cases identified from population-based studies. Methods The study included 339 subjects (mean age 45.8 years, 77% female, 94.1% white identified through telephone screen in a previously described population-based study of CFS in Wichita, Kansas. They completed questionnaires to assess fatigue and wellness and 2 self-administered sleep questionnaires. Scores for five of the six sleep factors (insomnia/hypersomnia, non-restorative sleep, excessive daytime somnolence, sleep apnea, and restlessness in the Centre for Sleep and Chronobiology's Sleep Assessment Questionnaire© (SAQ© were dichotomized based on threshold. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale score was used as a continuous variable. Results 81.4% of subjects had an abnormality in at least one SAQ© sleep factor. Subjects with sleep factor abnormalities had significantly lower wellness scores but statistically unchanged fatigue severity scores compared to those without SAQ© abnormality. CFS subjects had significantly increased risk of abnormal scores in the non-restorative (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 28.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]= 7.4–107.0 and restlessness (OR = 16.0; 95% CI = 4.2–61.6 SAQ© factors compared to non-fatigued, but not for factors of sleep apnea or excessive daytime somnolence. This is consistent with studies finding that, while fatigued, CFS subjects are not sleepy. A strong correlation (0.78 of Epworth score was found only for the excessive

  13. Sleeping position and reported quality of sleep. A comparison between subjects demanding treatment for temporomandibular disorders and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Anna-Kerstin Göthe; Helkimo, Martti; Magnusson, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate if there are differences concerning preferred body posture during sleep between 100 patients, 66 women and 34 men, mean age: 49 years (range: 20-85 years) referred to a specialist clinic because of TMD and 100 matched controls from a public dental clinic. The participants were asked to answer a questionnaire with questions about TMD symptoms and neck or shoulder pain. They were also asked about preferred sleeping position as well as about perceived sleep quality. No differences could be found between the two groups in respect of sleeping position. However, significantly more individuals in the TMD group compared to the controls had changed their preferred sleeping position due to their face and/or jaw and/ or neck-shoulder symptoms. Subjects in the TMD group also more frequently stated that they often felt insufficiently rested at awakening and/or felt tired or sleepy in the daytime because of symptoms from face/jaws. A significant number in the control group reported TMD symptoms indicating a latent need for TMD treatment. It is concluded that sleep position seems to have little or no significance for the development or maintenance of TMD symptoms. However, the study indicates that TMD symptoms and associated neck- and shoulder pain affect the quality of sleep.

  14. Comparison of subjective sleep and fatigue in breast- and bottle-feeding mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobback, Els; Behaeghel, Katoesjka; Hanoulle, Ignace; Delesie, Liesbeth; Loccufier, Anne; Van Holsbeeck, Ann; Vogelaers, Dirk; Mariman, An

    2017-04-01

    Artificial milk supplementation remains a popular practice in spite of the well documented and indisputable advantages of breast feeding for both mother and child. However, the association between maternal sleep, fatigue and feeding method is understudied and remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate whether perceived sleep and fatigue differ between breast- and bottle feeding post partum women. In addition, the relationship between subjective sleep characteristics and fatigue is examined. Post partum women (four to 16 weeks) filled out a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS). Sixty-one within the past week exclusively breast- and 44 exclusively bottle-feeding mothers were included. The first group showed better subjective sleep quality, but lower habitual sleep efficiency as measured by the PSQI. Global PSQI, as well as subjective fatigue and global CIS, did not differ between the two groups. Significant positive correlations were found between global CIS and the number of night feeds and global PSQI. However, only global PSQI significantly predicted global CIS in relation to the number of night feeds. Within a general pattern of deteriorated sleep quality, breast-feeding women showed better subjective sleep quality, but lower habitual sleep efficiency, between four and fourteen weeks after childbirth. However, the PSQI component scores compensated for each other, resulting in absence of any difference in global PSQI sleep quality between the two groups. Global PSQI significantly predicted global CIS, resulting in an absence of any difference in post partum fatigue according to feeding method. Midwives and nurses should, together with the parents, continue to focus on exploring ways to improve maternal sleep quality and to reduce postnatal fatigue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of pregabalin on subjective sleep disturbance symptoms during withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Gabriel; Bobes, Julio; Cervera, Gaspar; Terán, Antonio; Pérez, María; López-Gómez, Vanessa; Rejas, Javier

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of pregabalin as a tapering therapy on the subjective sleep quality of patients who underwent a benzodiazepine withdrawal program in routine medical practice. Secondary analysis of a 12-week prospective, open noncontrolled study carried out in patients who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for benzodiazepine dependence. Sleep was evaluated with the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale (MOS Sleep Scale). 282 patients were included in the analysis. Mean (±SD) pregabalin dose was 315 ± 166 mg/day at the end of the trial. We observed a significant and clinically relevant improvement in sleep outcomes at the endpoint, with a total score reduction from 55.8 ± 18.9 to 25.1 ± 18.0 at week 12 (i.e. a 55% reduction). Similar findings were apparent using the six dimensions of the MOS Sleep Scale. Moderate correlations were observed between the MOS Sleep summary index and sleep domains, and there were improvements in anxiety symptoms and disease severity. These findings suggest that pregabalin may improve subjective sleep quality in patients who underwent a benzodiazepine withdrawal program. This effect appears to be partly independent of improvements in symptoms of anxiety or withdrawal. However, controlled studies are needed to establish the magnitude of the effect of pregabalin. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Subjective and Objective Napping and Sleep in Older Adults: Are Evening Naps ‘Bad’ for Nighttime Sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautovich, Natalie D.; McCrae, Christina S.; Rowe, Meredeth

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare objective and subjective measurements of napping, and to examine the relationship between evening napping and nocturnal sleep in older adults. Design For twelve days, participants wore actigraphs and completed sleep diaries. Setting Community Participants 100 individuals who napped, 60–89 years (including good and poor sleepers with typical age-related medical comorbidities). Measurements Twelve days of sleep diary and actigraphy provided subjective and objective napping and sleep data. Results Evening naps (within 2 hours of bedtime) were characteristic of the sample with peak nap time occurring between 20:30–21:00 (average nap time occurred between 14:30–15:00). Two categories of nappers were identified: 1) day/evening – those who took both daytime and evening naps, and 2) daytime-only. Interestingly, no participants napped during the evening only. Day/evening nappers significantly underreported evening napping and demonstrated lower objectively measured sleep onset latencies (20 vs 26.5 minutes), less wake after sleep onset (51.4 vs 72.8 minutes), and higher sleep efficiencies (76.8 vs 82%) than daytime-only nappers. Conclusion Day/evening napping was prevalent amongst this sample of community-dwelling good/poor sleepers, but was not associated with impaired nocturnal sleep. Although the elimination or restriction of napping is a common element of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTi), these results suggest that a uniform recommendation to restrict/eliminate napping (particularly evening napping) may not meet the needs of all older individuals with insomnia. PMID:18691289

  17. Do periodic arm movements during sleep exist in healthy subjects? A polysomnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabelia, David; Mitterling, Thomas; Högl, Birgit; Wenning, Gregor K; Frauscher, Birgit

    2014-09-01

    Despite several polysomnographic studies on periodic leg movements (PLM) in healthy sleep, data on the prevalence and characteristics of periodic arm movements (PAM) in normal subjects are lacking. We aimed to investigate PAM and their association with PLM during wakefulness and sleep in healthy subjects. Ninety-one participants underwent video-polysomnography according to American Academy of Sleep Medicine 2007 criteria. In addition to standard electromyographic registration, data for both flexor digitorum superficialis muscles were recorded. Sixty-two subjects (68.1%) had a PAM index during wakefulness >5/h (median PAM index during wakefulness, 8.8/h; range, 0-77). Seven subjects (7.7%) had a PAM index >5/h during sleep (median PAM index during sleep, 0.7/h; range, 0-47.4). In 14% of cases, PAM during wakefulness were coincident with PLM during wakefulness. During sleep, this coincidence was not evident. The correlation between PAM and PLM was weak to moderate (during wakefulness: Spearman's ρ = 0.576, P sleep: Spearman's ρ = 0.222, P = 0.036). In healthy subjects, PAM occur predominantly during wakefulness with no apparent true periodicity. In contrast to classical PLM, some PAM may not present a true periodic phenomenon, but rather random voluntary movements meeting the wide range of periodicity criteria for PLM. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The comparison of sleep disturbances between the subjects with headache and healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Bostani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Headache is one of the most common complaints of the patients referring to the treatment centers. Also, some studies have reported the correlation of sleep disturbances with migraine and tension headaches. This study was aimed to analyze the association of sleep disturbances with migraine and tension headaches. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1005 students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences were selected by stratified random sampling during the academic year 2013-2014. Having attracted the participation and cooperation of the participants, sleep disorder and symptoms of headache (migraine and tension tests were administered. Results: The overall prevalence of headache, migraine headache and tension headache in students of medical science were 73.8 %, 16.7 % and 30.9 %, respectively. 20.3% of medical students had sleep disorder. Difficulty in sleep onset, daytime fatigue, apnea and sadness and anxiety were associated with headache. Total sleep disorder was directly associated with migraine headache (P<0.05.Conclusion: There was a correlation between sleep disorders and headache, especially migraine headache. Considering the importance of sleep in the incidence of headaches, sleep hygiene education and changes in the quality and patterns of sleep are essential for students, which can greatly affect their individual and social life.

  19. To Assess Sleep Quality among Pakistani Junior Physicians (House Officers): A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surani, A A; Surani, A; Zahid, S; Ali, S; Farhan, R; Surani, S

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation among junior physicians (house officers) is of growing concern. In developed countries, duty hours are now mandated, but in developing countries, junior physicians are highly susceptible to develop sleep impairment due to long working hours, on-call duties and shift work schedule. We undertook the study to assess sleep quality among Pakistani junior physicians. A cross-sectional study was conducted at private and public hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan, from June 2012 to January 2013. The study population comprised of junior doctors (house physicians and house surgeons). A consecutive sample of 350 physicians was drawn from the above-mentioned study setting. The subject underwent two validated self-administered questionnaires, that is, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). A total of 334 physicians completely filled out the questionnaire with a response rate of 95.4% (334/350). Of 334 physicians, 36.8% (123/334) were classified as "poor sleepers" (global PSQI score > 5). Poor sleep quality was associated with female gender (P = 0.01), excessive daytime sleepiness (P sleep time (P sleep onset latency (P sleep disturbances (P 10) were more prevalent among poor sleepers (P Sleep quality among Pakistani junior physicians is significantly poor. Efforts must be directed towards proper sleep hygiene education. Regulations regarding duty hour limitations need to be considered.

  20. Modifications of sleep structure induced by increasing levels of acoustic perturbation in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzano, M G; Parrino, L; Fioriti, G; Orofiamma, B; Depoortere, H

    1990-07-01

    In each non-REM (NREM) sleep stage, the aggregation of the arousal-related phasic events permits identification of periods of arousal fluctuation (cyclic alternating pattern or CAP) and periods of long-lasting arousal stability (non-CAP or NCAP). As the ratio CAP time to NREM sleep time (CAP/NREM) measures the instability of arousal during sleep, any perturbing event determines an increase of CAP/NREM. On the basis of these premises, 6 healthy volunteers underwent 5 sleep recordings at increasing intensities of sound pressure level (basal condition followed by continuous white noise at 45 dBA, 55 dBA, 65 dBA and 75 dBA, respectively). Besides a remarkable enhancement of CAP/NREM (P less than 0.00001), acoustic perturbation induced a significant linear increase of waking time after sleep onset, stage 2, NREM sleep, stage shifts and a significant linear decrease of stage 4, deep sleep, REM sleep and total sleep time. At each step of environmental disturbance, the values of the CAP ratio were consistent with the gradual changes of sleep organization. Although the Multiple Sleep Latency Test was unremarkable during the day following the sleep recording, CAP/NREM was significantly correlated with the personal evaluation of sleep quality (P less than 0.01). Through this model of transient situational insomnia it was possible to outline different degrees of subjective complaint depending on 3 ranges of CAP/NREM. A crucial role of CAP in the pathophysiological mechanisms of clinical insomnia is hypothesized.

  1. Objective and subjective sleep disorders in automated peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumelioti, Maria-Eleni; Argyropoulos, Christos; Pankratz, Vernon Shane; Jhamb, Manisha; Bender, Filitsa H; Buysse, Daniel J; Strollo, Patrick; Unruh, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    Automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) is one of the fastest growing dialysis modalities. It is unknown whether sleep and mood are disturbed while performing repeated overnight exchanges. In this report, we aim to describe and compare the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), periodic limb movements (PLMS), poor sleep quality (SQ), and depression among APD patients compared with stages 3b-5 (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≤44 ml/min/1.73 m2) chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hemodialysis (HD) patients. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study. Study participants were recruited from outpatient nephrology clinics, local dialysis centers, and the Thomas E. Starzl Transplant Institute in Western Pennsylvania between April 2004 and July 2009. There were 186 participants in this study including 22 APD patients, 89 CKD patients, and 75 HD patients. In-home polysomnography was performed and two questionnaires were completed, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). SDB and PLMS were quantified by in-home unattended polysomnography; poor SQ was defined by a score >5 on the PSQI, and the presence of moderate to severe depression was defined by a score >5 on the PHQ-9. The APD patients had a median age of 37.5 years, were predominantly female (72.7 %), and had a median body mass index (BMI) of 23.8 kg/m2. In univariate analyses, APD patients had significantly lower apnea-hypopnea index compared to HD patients by 12.2 points (likelihood ratio test p = 0.008) and revealed the least percent of TST with nocturnal hypoxemia compared to CKD patients by 2.7 points, respectively (likelihood ratio test p = 0.01). The APD group had also significantly greater stages 3 to 4 sleep compared to the CKD patients by 8.6 points (likelihood ratio test p = 0.009). In multivariate analyses and after adjustment for age, gender, race, and BMI, both APD and HD patients had higher average PSQI scores than CKD patients by 2.54 and 2

  2. Multi-method assessments of sleep over the transition to college and the associations with depression and anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doane, Leah D; Gress-Smith, Jenna L; Breitenstein, Reagan S

    2015-02-01

    A growing body of research has demonstrated links between sleep problems and symptoms of depression and anxiety in community and clinical samples of adolescents and young adults. Scant longitudinal research, however, has examined reciprocal associations over socio-contextual shifts such as the transition to college. Using multiple methods of assessment (e.g., actigraphy, subjective report), the current study assessed whether sleep quantity, quality or variability changed over the transition to college and investigated the potential cross-lagged relationships between adolescents' sleep and symptoms of anxiety and depression. The participants (N = 82; 24% male) were studied at three time points over approximately 1 year: spring of their senior year of high school (T1), fall of their first year of college (T2), and spring of their first year of college (T3). Sleep minutes, sleep efficiency, wake time variability and anxiety increased over the transition to college. Subjective reports of sleep problems decreased. Cross-lagged panel models indicated significant relationships between subjective sleep quality and anxiety symptoms over time where subjective sleep problems at T1 were associated with anxiety at T2, and anxiety at T2 was associated with subjective sleep problems at T3. In contrast, greater depressive symptoms at T1 preceded increases in subjective sleep problems, sleep latency and sleep start time variability at T2. Importantly, there were concurrent associations between symptoms of anxiety or depression at T2 and sleep efficiency, sleep start time variability, and subjective sleep problems. These findings suggest that, overall, sleep quantity and quality improved over the transition to college, although the overall amounts of sleep were still below developmental recommendations. However, for some youth, the first semester of college may be a sensitive period for both sleep problems and symptoms of anxiety. In contrast, depressive symptoms were stable across

  3. Evidence of associations between cytokine genes and subjective reports of sleep disturbance in oncology patients and their family caregivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Miaskowski

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to identify distinct latent classes of individuals based on subjective reports of sleep disturbance; to examine differences in demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics between the latent classes; and to evaluate for variations in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes between the latent classes. Among 167 oncology outpatients with breast, prostate, lung, or brain cancer and 85 of their FCs, growth mixture modeling (GMM was used to identify latent classes of individuals based on General Sleep Disturbance Scale (GSDS obtained prior to, during, and for four months following completion of radiation therapy. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and haplotypes in candidate cytokine genes were interrogated for differences between the two latent classes. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the effect of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics on GSDS group membership. Two latent classes were identified: lower sleep disturbance (88.5% and higher sleep disturbance (11.5%. Participants who were younger and had a lower Karnofsky Performance status score were more likely to be in the higher sleep disturbance class. Variation in two cytokine genes (i.e., IL6, NFKB predicted latent class membership. Evidence was found for latent classes with distinct sleep disturbance trajectories. Unique genetic markers in cytokine genes may partially explain the interindividual heterogeneity characterizing these trajectories.

  4. Sleep Misperception in Chronic Insomnia Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: Implications for Clinical Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Su Jung; Suh, Sooyeon; Ong, Jason; Joo, Eun Yeon

    2016-11-15

    To investigate whether sleep perception (SP), defined by the ratio of subjective and objective total sleep time, and habitual sleep time in various sleep disorders may be based on comorbid insomnia status. We enrolled 420 patients (age 20-79 y) who underwent polysomnography (PSG). They were divided into three groups based on chief complaints: chronic insomnia (CI, n = 69), patients with both obstructive sleep apnea and insomnia (OSA-I, n = 49) or OSA only (OSA, n = 149). Healthy volunteers were also recruited (normal controls [NC], n = 80). We compared differences in PSG parameters and habitual sleep duration and investigated the discrepancy between objective and subjective total sleep time (TST) and sleep latency among four groups. Subjective TST was defined as sleep time perceived by participants the next morning of PSG. SP for TST was highest in the OSA group (median 92.9%), and lowest in the CI group (80.3%). SP of the NC group (91.4%) was higher than the CI, but there was no difference between OSA-I and OSA groups. OSA-I had higher depressive mood compared to the OSA group (p sleep duration and negatively related to the presence of insomnia and arousal index of PSG. Insomnia patients with (OSA-I) or without OSA (CI) reported the smallest discrepancy between habitual sleep duration and objective TST. Patients with OSA with or without insomnia have different PSG profiles, which suggests that objective measures of sleep are an important consideration for differentiating subtypes of insomnia and tailoring proper treatment. A commentary on this articles appears in this issue on page 1437.

  5. Assessment of sleep problems in children with familial Mediterranean fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makay, Balahan; Kiliçaslan, Serdar Kamer; Anik, Ahmet; Bora, Elçin; Bozkaya, Özlem; Çankaya, Tufan; Ünsal, Erbil

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate sleep patterns, sleep disturbances and possible factors that are associated with sleep disturbances among children with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). Fifty-one patients with FMF and 84 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. The patients who had an attack during the last 2 weeks were not included. Demographic data, FMF symptoms, disease duration, dose of colchicine, disease severity score, number of attacks in the last year, MEFV mutation and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were recorded for each patient. A Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire was performed. The total sleep scores of the patients with FMF were significantly higher than the control group. Total sleep durations were similar between FMF patients and controls. Children with FMF had significantly higher scores regarding sleep-onset delay, sleep anxiety, night wakings and sleep-disordered breathing when compared to healthy controls. There was a significant positive correlation between number of attacks in the last year and sleep onset delay, night wakings and sleep disordered-breathing. Disease severity score and CRP levels were not associated with any of the subscale scores. The patients with exertional leg pain had significantly higher total sleep scores than the ones without. Furthermore, patients with exertional leg pain had significantly higher subscale scores regarding sleep onset delay, parasomnias and sleep-disordered breathing. This study showed for the first time that children with FMF had more sleep disturbances than their healthy peers. Higher numbers of attacks and exertional leg pain were associated with poor sleep quality. In conclusion, this study underlines the need to assess and manage sleep problems in children with FMF. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Crew factors in flight operations. 8: Factors influencing sleep timing and subjective sleep quality in commercial long-haul flight crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Philippa H.; Graeber, R. Curtis; Connell, Linda J.; Gregory, Kevin B.

    1991-01-01

    How flight crews organize their sleep during layovers on long-haul trips is documented. Additionally, environmental and physiological constraints on sleep are examined. In the trips studied, duty periods averaging 10.3 hr alternated with layovers averaging 24.8 hr, which typically included two subject-defined sleep episodes. The circadian system had a greater influence on the timing and duration of first-sleeps than second-sleeps. There was also a preference for sleeping during the local night. The time of falling asleep for second-sleeps was related primarily to the amount of sleep already obtained in the layover, and their duration depended on the amount of time remaining in the layover. For both first- and second-sleeps, sleep durations were longer when subjects fell asleep earlier with respect to the minimum of the circadian temperature cycle. Naps reported during layovers and on the flight deck may be a useful strategy for reducing cumulative sleep loss. The circadian system was not able to synchronize with the rapid series of time-zone shifts. The sleep/wake cycle was forced to adopt a period different from that of the circadian system. Flight and duty time regulations are a means of ensuring that reasonable minimum rest periods are provided. This study clearly documents that there are physiologically and environmentally determined preferred sleep times within a layover. The actual time available for sleep is thus less than the scheduled rest period.

  7. Ethnicity moderates the influence of perceived social status on subjective sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin, Burel R; McGuire, Lynanne; Smith, Michael T

    2010-01-01

    It has long been recognized that socioeconomic status (SES) influences health and health-related behaviors, and it has been suggested that the adverse impact of low SES on health may be partly mediated by poor sleep quality. The relation between sleep and objective and subjective measures of SES has only been explored in a preliminary manner, providing indirect evidence that associations between SES and health might be explained, in part, by disrupted sleep. However, it remains unclear whether low SES directly affects sleep quality or whether the SES-sleep quality relation varies as a function of ethnicity given robust ethnic disparities across SES-related factors. This study examined the relation between perceived social status (i.e., individuals' perception of their socioeconomic standing) and subjective sleep quality among 149 college students, and examined the moderating effect of ethnicity to determine whether the magnitude or direction of association differed among Caucasian, Asian, and African Americans. Using hierarchical regressions and a dummy-coded ethnicity variable, results demonstrated significant moderation (ΔR₂ = 0.04, p = .02), such that both Asian (p = .04) and African Americans (p = .02) were significantly different from Caucasian Americans. Lower perceived social status was related to greater impairment in sleep quality for Asian Americans (β = -.37, p sleep quality for specific subgroups of ethnic minorities.

  8. Subjective sleep impairment in adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes: Results from Diabetes MILES-The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nefs, G.; Donga, E.; van Someren, E.J.W.; Bot, M.; Speight, J.; Pouwer, F.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Despite growing recognition of the impact of sleep on diabetes, a clear profile of people with diabetes regarding subjective sleep impairment has yet to be established. This study examines: (1) subjective sleep characteristics in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes; (2) the relationship of

  9. Subjective sleep impairment in adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes : Results from Diabetes MILES-The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nefs, Giesje; Donga, Esther; van Someren, Eus; Bot, Mariska; Speight, Jane; Pouwer, François

    AIMS: Despite growing recognition of the impact of sleep on diabetes, a clear profile of people with diabetes regarding subjective sleep impairment has yet to be established. This study examines: (1) subjective sleep characteristics in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes; (2) the relationship of

  10. Subjective reports versus objective measurement of sleep latency and sleep duration in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Danielle L; Fung, Alison; Walker, Susan P; Barnes, Maree

    2013-01-01

    This study compared self-reported sleep latency (SL) and total sleep time (TST) to objective measures on polysomnography (PSG) during pregnancy. Thirty-three women in the third trimester (T3) of pregnancy, 16 women in the first trimester (T1) of pregnancy, and 15 non-pregnant women underwent overnight PSG, and shortly after awakening reported their perceived SL and TST. Results showed that, on average, the T3 group slightly overestimated their TSTs, whereas the T1 and non-pregnant groups underestimated TSTs when compared with objective measurement. All groups overestimated SL, and perceived SL was closest to the first epoch of 10 min of uninterrupted sleep or the first epoch of slow-wave sleep, rather than the first epoch of sleep (the current definition used for diagnostic sleep studies). The wide variation in discrepancies between estimation and PSG measurement for both TST and SL shows that self-reports made by both pregnant and non-pregnant women tend to be unreliable, which has important implications both clinically and for the many studies based on self-reported sleep patterns in pregnancy.

  11. Subjective truths: participatory development assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, T.; Obeng, F.; Obure, J.; Zaal, F.

    2009-01-01

    The starting point for development evaluations should be how the recipients of development assistance experience change, rather than the set perspectives of the evaluators. The participatory development assessment (PDA) methodology is designed to involve recipients in evaluations.

  12. Sleep Habits and Susceptibility to Upper Respiratory Illness: the Moderating Role of Subjective Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Aric A; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Adler, Nancy E; Hall, Martica; Cohen, Sheldon

    2017-02-01

    Sleep is a predictor of infectious illness that may depend on one's socioeconomic status (SES). This study aimed to investigate the moderating effects of objective and subjective SES on sleep-clinical cold risk link and test whether nasal inflammation serves as a plausible biological pathway. This study combined data (n = 732) from three viral challenge studies. Measures of self-reported sleep and objective and subjective measures of SES were obtained. Participants were quarantined and administrated rhinovirus (RV) or influenza virus and monitored over 5 (RV) or 6 (influenza) days for the development of a cold. Symptom severity, including mucus production and nasal clearance time, and levels of nasal cytokines (interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β) were measured prior to administration and each day during the quarantined period. Subjective SES, but not objective SES, moderated associations between shorter sleep duration and increased likelihood of a clinical cold. Compared to ≥8-hour sleepers, ≤6-hour sleepers with low subjective SES were at increased risk for developing a cold (OR = 2.57, 95% CI 1.10-6.02). There was no association between sleep duration and colds in high subjective SES participants. Among infected individuals who reported low subjective SES, shorter sleep duration was associated with greater mucus production. There was no evidence that markers of nasal inflammation mediated the link between sleep duration and cold susceptibility among those reporting low subjective SES. Subjective SES may reflect an important social factor for understanding vulnerability to and protection against infectious illness among short sleepers.

  13. Methods for Assessing Sleep in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Danelle; Parnell, Andrea M. N.; Hoffman, Charles D.; Sweeney, Dwight P.

    2012-01-01

    A literature review completed by Bauer and Blunden (2008) determined that compared to objective measures, subjective assessments of sleep for typically developing children (e.g., parental reports) were of limited utility. No comparable literature review has been undertaken to determine whether subjective measures are appropriate for assessing…

  14. Comparing Subjective With Objective Sleep Parameters Via Multisensory Actigraphy in German Physical Education Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölling, Sarah; Endler, Stefan; Ferrauti, Alexander; Meyer, Tim; Kellmann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study compared subjective with objective sleep parameters among 72 physical education students. Furthermore, the study determined whether 24-hr recording differs from nighttime recording only. Participants wore the SenseWear Armband™ for three consecutive nights and kept a sleep log. Agreement rates ranged from moderate to low for sleep onset latency (ICC = 0.39 to 0.70) and wake after sleep onset (ICC = 0.22 to 0.59), while time in bed (ICC = 0.93 to 0.95) and total sleep time (ICC = 0.90 to 0.92) revealed strong agreement during this period. Comparing deviations between 24-hr wearing time (n = 24) and night-only application (n = 20) revealed no statistical difference (p > 0.05). As athletic populations have yet to be investigated for these purposes, this study provides useful indicators and practical implications for future studies.

  15. Subjective Sleep Quality in Women With Divorce Histories: The Role of Intimate Partner Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Tamara L; Burns, Vicki Ellison; Miller, James J; Fernandez-Botran, G Rafael

    2016-05-01

    A marital status of divorced or separated, as opposed to married, predicts increased risk of health problems, but not for all persons. Focusing on one established health risk that has been linked with divorce--poor subjective sleep quality--the present cross-sectional study examined whether a history of physical intimate partner victimization (IPV) helps identify divorced women at potentially greater risk of health problems. Community midlife women with divorce histories, all of whom were free of current IPV, reported on their past month sleep quality and lifetime IPV. The predicted odds of poor sleep quality were significantly greater for women with, versus without, IPV histories. This held after adjusting for socioemotional, medical, or sociodemographic risks. A dose-response relationship between IPV chronicity and poor quality sleep was observed. IPV history may help identify divorced women at increased risk of poor quality sleep and, more broadly, poor health. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Objective versus subjective assessment of laparoscopic skill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Empel, P.J.; van Rijssen, L.B.; Commandeur, J.P.; Verdam, M.G.E.; Huirne, J.A.; Scheele, F.; Bonjer, H.J.; Meijerink, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The equality of subjective- and objective-assessment methods in laparoscopic surgery are unknown. The aim of this study was to compare a subjective assessment method to an objective assessment method to evaluate laparoscopic skill. Methods: A prospective observational cohort study was

  17. Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... REM sleep? What is the effect of sleep deprivation? What are sleep myths? What are sleep disorders? ... Some hormones produced during sleep affect the body's use of energy. This may be how inadequate sleep ...

  18. Sleep after mobile phone exposure in subjects with mobile phone-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowden, Arne; Akerstedt, Torbjörn; Ingre, Michael; Wiholm, Clairy; Hillert, Lena; Kuster, Niels; Nilsson, Jens P; Arnetz, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    Several studies show increases in activity for certain frequency bands (10-14 Hz) and visually scored parameters during sleep after exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. A shortened REM latency has also been reported. We investigated the effects of a double-blind radiofrequency exposure (884 MHz, GSM signaling standard including non-DTX and DTX mode, time-averaged 10 g psSAR of 1.4 W/kg) on self-evaluated sleepiness and objective EEG measures during sleep. Forty-eight subjects (mean age 28 years) underwent 3 h of controlled exposure (7:30-10:30 PM; active or sham) prior to sleep, followed by a full-night polysomnographic recording in a sleep laboratory. The results demonstrated that following exposure, time in Stages 3 and 4 sleep (SWS, slow-wave sleep) decreased by 9.5 min (12%) out of a total of 78.6 min, and time in Stage 2 sleep increased by 8.3 min (4%) out of a total of 196.3 min compared to sham. The latency to Stage 3 sleep was also prolonged by 4.8 min after exposure. Power density analysis indicated an enhanced activation in the frequency ranges 0.5-1.5 and 5.75-10.5 Hz during the first 30 min of Stage 2 sleep, with 7.5-11.75 Hz being elevated within the first hour of Stage 2 sleep, and bands 4.75-8.25 Hz elevated during the second hour of Stage 2 sleep. No pronounced power changes were observed in SWS or for the third hour of scored Stage 2 sleep. No differences were found between controls and subjects with prior complaints of mobile phone-related symptoms. The results confirm previous findings that RF exposure increased the EEG alpha range in the sleep EEG, and indicated moderate impairment of SWS. Furthermore, reported differences in sensitivity to mobile phone use were not reflected in sleep parameters.

  19. Effects of Blast Exposure on Subjective and Objective Sleep Measures in Combat Veterans with and without PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Ryan P J; Paul, Benjamin T E; Mammen, Oommen; Khan, Hassen; Cieply, Marissa A; Germain, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which self-reported exposure to blast during deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan affects subjective and objective sleep measures in service members and veterans with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Seventy-one medication-free service members and veterans (mean age = 29.47 ± 5.76 years old; 85% men) completed self-report sleep measures and overnight polysomnographic studies. Four multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs) were conducted to examine the impact of blast exposure and PTSD on subjective sleep measures, measures of sleep continuity, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parameters, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep parameters. There was no significant Blast × PTSD interaction on subjective sleep measures. Rather, PTSD had a main effect on insomnia severity, sleep quality, and disruptive nocturnal behaviors. There was no significant Blast × PTSD interaction, nor were there main effects of PTSD or Blast on measures of sleep continuity and NREM sleep. A significant PTSD × Blast interaction effect was found for REM fragmentation. The results suggest that, although persistent concussive symptoms following blast exposure are associated with sleep disturbances, self-reported blast exposure without concurrent symptoms does not appear to contribute to poor sleep quality, insomnia, and disruptive nocturnal disturbances beyond the effects of PTSD. Reduced REM sleep fragmentation may be a sensitive index of the synergetic effects of both psychological and physical insults. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  20. Impact of layover length on sleep, subjective fatigue levels, and sustained attention of long-haul airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Gregory D; Petrilli, Renée M A; Dawson, Drew; Lamond, Nicole

    2012-06-01

    Long-haul airline pilots often experience elevated levels of fatigue due to extended work hours and circadian misalignment of sleep and wake periods. During long-haul trips, pilots are typically given 1-3 d off between flights (i.e., layover) to recover from, and prepare for, duty. Anecdotally, some pilots prefer long layovers because it maximizes the time available for recovery and preparation, but others prefer short layovers because it minimizes both the length of the trip, and the degree to which the body clock changes from "home time" to the layover time zone. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of layover length on the sleep, subjective fatigue levels, and capacity to sustain attention of long-haul pilots. Participants were 19 male pilots (10 Captains, 9 First Officers) working for an international airline. Data were collected during an 11- or 12-d international trip. The trips involved (i) 4 d at home prior to the trip; (ii) an eastward flight of 13.5 h across seven time zones; (iii) a layover of either 39 h (i.e., short, n = 9) or 62 h (i.e., long, n = 10); (iv) a return westward flight of 14.3 h across seven time zones; and (v) 4 d off at home after the trip. Sleep was recorded using a self-report sleep diary and wrist activity monitor; subjective fatigue level was measured using the Samn-Perelli Fatigue Checklist; and sustained attention was assessed using the psychomotor vigilance task for a personal digital assistant (PalmPVT). Mixed-model regression analyses were used to determine the effects of layover length (short, long) on the amount of sleep that pilots obtained during the trip, and on the pilots' subjective fatigue levels and capacity to sustain attention. There was no main effect of layover length on ground-based sleep or in-flight sleep, but pilots who had a short layover at the midpoint of their trip had higher subjective fatigue levels and poorer sustained attention than pilots who had a long layover. The results of this study

  1. All Night Spectral Analysis of EEG Sleep in Young Adult and Middle-Aged Male Subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Derk Jan; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den

    1989-01-01

    The sleep EEGs of 9 young adult males (age 20-28 years) and 8 middle-aged males (42-56 years) were analyzed by visual scoring and spectral analysis. In the middle-aged subjects power density in the delta, theta and sigma frequencies were attenuated as compared to the young subjects. In both age

  2. Brain reactivity differentiates subjects with high and low dream recall frequencies during both sleep and wakefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Bertrand, Olivier; Morlet, Dominique; Ruby, Perrine

    2014-05-01

    The neurophysiological correlates of dreaming remain unclear. According to the "arousal-retrieval" model, dream encoding depends on intrasleep wakefulness. Consistent with this model, subjects with high and low dream recall frequency (DRF) report differences in intrasleep awakenings. This suggests a possible neurophysiological trait difference between the 2 groups. To test this hypothesis, we compared the brain reactivity (evoked potentials) of subjects with high (HR, N = 18) and low (LR, N = 18) DRF during wakefulness and sleep. During data acquisition, the subjects were presented with sounds to be ignored (first names randomly presented among pure tones) while they were watching a silent movie or sleeping. Brain responses to first names dramatically differed between the 2 groups during both sleep and wakefulness. During wakefulness, the attention-orienting brain response (P3a) and a late parietal response were larger in HR than in LR. During sleep, we also observed between-group differences at the latency of the P3a during N2 and at later latencies during all sleep stages. Our results demonstrate differences in the brain reactivity of HR and LR during both sleep and wakefulness. These results suggest that the ability to recall dreaming is associated with a particular cerebral functional organization, regardless of the state of vigilance.

  3. The usefulness of dynamic MRI for diagnosing and assessing sleep breathing disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriwaki, Hiroto; Uchida, Akira; Chiba, Sachiko; Moriyama, Hiroshi [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Chiba, Shintarou; Yagi, Asako; Ohta, Masaji [Ohta General Hospital, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Tokunaga, Masakazu [Kanagawa Prefecture Midwives and Nurses Training School (Japan). Hospital

    2003-04-01

    Polysomnography is useful for assessing the severity of sleep breathing disorder, including obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome. The clinical condition is difficult to understand completely, however, based on the apnea hypopnea index (AHI) alone, however, and longitudinal change of shape in the upper airway must be clarified. Most diagnoses of obstructive sites in the upper airway were diagnosed statically, so we attempted to assess changes in upper airway shape using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), emphasizing the movement of tongue and lower chin, to analyze the relationship between AHI. Subjects were 62 patients with sleep breathing disorder examined by nocturnal polysomnography and dynamic MRI, assessing the change of shape in the upper airway. We concluded that: the group whose rotation angle of the tongue exceeded 6 deg and that the group whose distance of lower chin movement was longer during sleep than while awake were severe cases. (author)

  4. Subjective Sleep Quality in Temporomandibular Disorder Patients and Association with Disease Characteristics and Oral Health-Related Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoliel, Rafael; Zini, Avraham; Zakuto, Avraham; Slutzky, Hulio; Haviv, Yaron; Sharav, Yair; Almoznino, Galit

    2017-01-01

    To measure sleep quality in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients, to compare it with that of control subjects, and to analyze its association with disease characteristics and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). The collected data included demographics, tobacco use, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), trauma history, presence of coexisting headaches and/or body pain, parafunctional habits, pain scores, muscle tenderness to palpation scores, and the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14). Differences between groups were examined with Pearson chi-square test for categorical variables and independent t test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for numeric variables. Significant differences were then further tested with multivariate backward stepwise linear regression analysis. The final analysis was performed on 286 individuals (187 TMD patients and 99 controls). Poor sleep (PSQI global score > 5) was exhibited in 43.3% of the TMD group and in 28.3% of the control group (P = .013) (mean ± standard deviation [SD] PSQI score = 5.53 ± 2.85 for TMD patients and 4.41 ± 2.64 for controls, P = .001). TMD patients had significantly worse scores in the sleep quality component of the PSQI questionnaire (P = .006). Higher PSQI global scores and poor sleep were positively associated with whiplash history (P = .009 and P = .004, respectively), coexisting headaches (P = .005 and P = .002), body pain (P = .001 and P quality was positively associated with TMD disease characteristics, comorbid pain conditions, and poorer OHRQoL. Assessing sleep quality should be a routine part of the diagnostic work-up of TMD patients. A multidisciplinary management approach is needed to address all the factors-including sleep-that modulate pain experience.

  5. Subjective sleep disturbances and glycemic control in adults with long-standing type 1 diabetes: The Pittsburgh's Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denic-Roberts, Hristina; Costacou, Tina; Orchard, Trevor J

    2016-09-01

    To date, studies on sleep disturbances in type 1 diabetes (T1D) have been limited to youth and/or small samples. We therefore assessed the prevalence of subjective sleep disturbances and their associations with glycemia and estimated insulin sensitivity in individuals with long-standing T1D. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 222 participants of the Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications study of childhood-onset T1D attending the 25-year examination (mean age=52years, diabetes duration=43years). The Berlin Questionnaire (risk of obstructive sleep apnea, OSA), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (daytime sleepiness), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (sleep quality, bad dreams presence, and sleep duration) were completed. Associations between sleep disturbances and poor glycemic control (HbA1c⩾7.5%/58mmol/mol), log-transformed HbA1c, and estimated insulin sensitivity (estimated glucose disposal rate, eGDR, squared) were assessed in multivariable regression. The prevalences of high OSA risk, excessive daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality, and bad dreams were 23%, 13%, 41%, and 26%, respectively, with more women (51%) reporting poor sleep quality than men (30%, p=0.004). Participants under poor glycemic control were twice as likely to report bad dreams (p=0.03), but not independently (p=0.07) of depressive symptomatology. Sleep duration was directly associated with HbA1c among individuals with poor glycemic control, but inversely in their counterparts (interaction p=0.002), and inversely associated with eGDR (p=0.002). These findings suggest important interrelationships between sleep, gender, depressive symptomatology, and glycemic control, which may have important clinical implications. Further research is warranted to examine the mechanism of the interaction between sleep duration and glycemic control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Actigraphy-assessed sleep during school and vacation periods: a naturalistic study of restricted and extended sleep opportunities in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Bei; Allen, Nicholas B; Nicholas, Christian L; Dudgeon, Paul; Murray, Greg; Trinder, John

    2014-02-01

    School-related sleep restriction in adolescents has been identified by studies comparing weekday and weekend sleep. This study compared weekday and vacation sleep to assess restricted and extended sleep opportunities. One-hundred and forty-six adolescents (47.3% male) aged 16.2 ± 1.0 years (M ± SD) from the general community wore an actigraph continuously for 4 weeks: the last week of a school term (Time-E), the following 2-week vacation, and the first week of the next term. Self-reported sleep was assessed for each of the three time intervals, and chronotype was assessed using the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire at Time-E. Daily actigraphy bedtime, rise-time, time-in-bed, total sleep time, sleep onset latency, sleep efficiency, and % wake after sleep onset were analysed using latent growth curve modelling. The removal of school-related sleep restriction was associated with an abrupt delay in sleep timing and increase in sleep duration. Subsequently, bedtime and rise-time showed further linear delays throughout the vacation, while changes in time-in-bed were non-significant. Sleep onset latency increased linearly, peaking in the middle of the second vacation week. Across the first vacation week, total sleep time and sleep efficiency linearly decreased, while % wake after sleep onset increased. These changes stabilized during the second vacation week. Older age and eveningness were associated with later bedtime and rise-time, whilst females had longer time-in-bed, total sleep time and sleep onset latency. Compared with school days, sleep during the vacation was characterized by later timing, longer duration, lower quality and greater variability. Recovery from school-related sleep restriction appeared to be completed within the 2 weeks of naturalistic extended sleep. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  7. Health-related behaviors associated with subjective sleep insufficiency in Japanese workers: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Makoto; Odagiri, Keiichi; Mizuta, Isagi; Yamamoto, Makoto; Yamaga, Keiko; Hirano, Takako; Onoue, Kazue; Uehara, Akihiko

    2017-03-28

    Sleep disturbances are related to somatic and mental disorders, industrial accidents, absenteeism, and retirement because of disability. We aimed to identify health-related behaviors associated with subjective sleep insufficiency in Japanese workers. This cross-sectional study included 5,297 employees (mean age: 43.6±11.3 years; 4,039 men). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify health-related behaviors associated with subjective sleep insufficiency. Overall, 28.2% of participants experienced subjective sleep insufficiency. There was a significant difference between the genders in the proportion of participants with subjective sleep insufficiency (male: 26.4%; female: 34.3%; psubjective sleep insufficiency. After stratifying by gender, age ≥40 years, not exercising regularly, and eating a late-evening or fourth meal were significantly associated with subjective sleep insufficiency in both genders. Not walking quickly, experiencing a weight change, and eating quickly were positively associated with subjective sleep insufficiency only for males. Females who did not engage in physical activity were more likely to have experienced subjective sleep insufficiency, but this relationship was not observed in males. The results indicated that certain health-related behaviors, specifically not exercising regularly and nocturnal eating habits, were associated with subjective sleep insufficiency in a group of Japanese workers.

  8. Effect of sleep deprivation and driving duration on the useful visual field in younger and older subjects during simulator driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogé, Joceline; Pébayle, Thierry; El Hannachi, Saida; Muzet, Alain

    2003-06-01

    Nine older subjects (40-51 years) and 10 younger subjects (18-30 years) took part in two one-hour driving sessions. They performed a very monotonous task during which they had to follow a vehicle either after a complete night of sleep or after one night of sleep deprivation. While driving their useful visual field was assessed by introducing signals that would appear on the whole road scene. The analysis of the data indicates that the ability to process peripheral signals deteriorates with age, driving duration and sleep deprivation. However, the effects of these three variables on the peripheral visual ability are not similar in a dual task. The driver's useful visual field changes with age and prolongation of the monotonous driving activity according to a tunnel vision phenomenon. On the other hand, a sleep debt deteriorates the useful visual field according to a general interference phenomenon. These results are discussed in terms of decrease in the level of arousal and increase of fatigue.

  9. Effects of sleep deprivation on nocturnal cytokine concentrations in depressed patients and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voderholzer, Ulrich; Fiebich, Bernd L; Dersch, Rick; Feige, Bernd; Piosczyk, Hannah; Kopasz, Marta; Riemann, Dieter; Lieb, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have reported alterations of cytokine and cytokine-receptor concentrations in psychiatric patient populations, including patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, study results are conflicting, and possible causes for these abnormalities are unknown. Since sleep deprivation may induce a rapid improvement of mood in depressed patients, the authors investigated the impact of total sleep deprivation (TSD) for one night, and subsequent recovery sleep, on nocturnal concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1-receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), and soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R) in 15 unmedicated patients with MDD and 16 healthy volunteers. Whereas IL-6 levels normalized again during the recovery night in depressed patients, they were still elevated in control subjects. Serum levels of IL-1RA were higher in depressed patients than in controls, but were not affected by TSD. During recovery sleep, IL-1RA levels increased as compared with the preceding TSD night only in controls. Responders (N=8) differed from nonresponders (N=7) to TSD with regard to IL-1RA, which increased significantly during TSD in responders only. Sleep deprivation therefore seems to significantly affect cytokine levels in both depressed patients and healthy subjects, but does so in different ways. Sleep disturbances in depressed patients could account for the increased levels of cytokines found in these patients in several previous studies. The interaction between antidepressant effects of TSD and alterations of cytokines warrants further investigation.

  10. Effects of Between- and Within-Subject Variability on Autonomic Cardiorespiratory Activity during Sleep and Their Limitations on Sleep Staging: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xi; Haakma, Reinder; Leufkens, Tim R. M.; Fonseca, Pedro; Aarts, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic cardiorespiratory activity changes across sleep stages. However, it is unknown to what extent it is affected by between- and within-subject variability during sleep. As it is hypothesized that the variability is caused by differences in subject demographics (age, gender, and body mass index), time, and physiology, we quantified these effects and investigated how they limit reliable cardiorespiratory-based sleep staging. Six representative parameters obtained from 165 overnight heartbeat and respiration recordings were analyzed. Multilevel models were used to evaluate the effects evoked by differences in sleep stages, demographics, time, and physiology between and within subjects. Results show that the between- and within-subject effects were found to be significant for each parameter. When adjusted by sleep stages, the effects in physiology between and within subjects explained more than 80% of total variance but the time and demographic effects explained less. If these effects are corrected, profound improvements in sleep staging can be observed. These results indicate that the differences in subject demographics, time, and physiology present significant effects on cardiorespiratory activity during sleep. The primary effects come from the physiological variability between and within subjects, markedly limiting the sleep staging performance. Efforts to diminish these effects will be the main challenge. PMID:26366167

  11. Assessment of sleep quality post-hospital discharge in survivors of critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solverson, Kevin J; Easton, Paul A; Doig, Christopher J

    2016-05-01

    Sleep quality is impaired during critical illness and may remain abnormal after discharge from hospital. Sleep dysfunction in patients after critical illness may impair recovery and health related quality of life. The purpose of this study was to use objective and subjective measures to evaluate sleep quality in critical illness survivors 3 months after hospital discharge. This was a prospective cohort study of 55 patients admitted to a multidisciplinary intensive care unit (ICU) between April 1st, 2009 and March 31, 2010. Patients enrolled were over 17 years of age and stayed a minimum of 4 days in the ICU. Patients were assessed in an outpatient clinic 3-months after hospital discharge. Sleep quality was measured using multi-night sleep actigraphy and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A total of 62% of patients had poor sleep quality measured with the PSQI. The average (SD) sleep time, sleep efficiency and number of sleep disruptions per night was 6.15 h (3.4), 78% (18), and 11 disruptions (5) respectively. The APACHE II score was correlated with total sleep time (β = -12.6, P = 0.019) and sleep efficiency (β = -1.18, P = 0.042). The PSQI score was associated with anxiety (β = 4.00, p = 0.001), reduced mobility (β = 3.39, p = 0.002) and EuroQol-5D visual analogue scale score (β = -0.85, p = 0.003) and low Physical Composite Scores (β = -0.13, p = 0.004) and Mental Composite Scores (β = -0.15, p = 0.002) of the Short-Form 36 survey. Reduced sleep quality following critical illness is common and associated with reduced health related quality of life. Critical illness severity is a predictor of reduced sleep duration and sleep disruption 3 months after hospital discharge. This cohort study highlights the important role sleep may contribute to the long-term recovery from critical illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The sleep, subjective fatigue, and sustained attention of commercial airline pilots during an international pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrilli, Renée M; Roach, Gregory D; Dawson, Drew; Lamond, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    International commercial airline pilots may experience heightened fatigue due to irregular sleep schedules, long duty days, night flying, and multiple time zone changes. Importantly, current commercial airline flight and duty time regulations are based on work/rest factors and not sleep/wake factors. Consequently, the primary aim of the current study was to investigate pilots' amount of sleep, subjective fatigue, and sustained attention before and after international flights. A secondary aim was to determine whether prior sleep and/or duty history predicted pilots' subjective fatigue and sustained attention during the international flights. Nineteen pilots (ten captains, nine first officers; mean age: 47.42+/-7.52 years) participated. Pilots wore wrist activity monitors and completed sleep and duty diaries during a return pattern from Australia to Europe via Asia. The pattern included four flights: Australia-Asia, Asia-Europe, Europe-Asia, and Asia-Australia. Before and after each flight, pilots completed a 5 min PalmPilot-based psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and self-rated their level of fatigue using the Samn-Perelli Fatigue Checklist. Separate repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to determine the impact of stage of flight and flight sector on the pilots' sleep in the prior 24 h, self-rated fatigue, and PVT mean response speed. Linear mixed model regression analyses were conducted to examine the impact of sleep in the prior 24 h, prior wake, duty length, and flight sector on pilots' self-rated fatigue and sustained attention before and after the international flights. A significant main effect of stage of flight was found for sleep in the prior 24 h, self-rated fatigue, and mean response speed (all p pilots should be taken into account in the development of flight and duty time regulations.

  13. Seasonal differences in melatonin concentrations and heart rates during sleep in obese subjects in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Maki; Kanikowska, Dominika; Iwase, Satoshi; Shimizu, Yuuki; Nishimura, Naoki; Inukai, Yoko; Sato, Motohiko; Sugenoya, Junichi

    2013-09-01

    During the past several decades, obesity has been increasing globally. In Japan, obesity is defined by a BMI of 25 kg/m2 or over; 28.6 % of men and 20.6 % of women are obese. Obese people have an increased incidence of developing cardiovascular, renal, and hormonal diseases and sleep disorders. Obese people also have shortened sleep durations. We investigated seasonal differences in melatonin concentrations, heart rates, and heart rate variability during sleep in obese subjects in Japan. Five obese (BMI, 32.0 ± 4.9 kg/m2) and five non-obese (BMI, 23.2 ± 2.9 kg/m2) men participated in this study in the summer and winter. Electrocardiograms were measured continuously overnight in a climatic chamber at 26 °C with a relative humidity of 50 %. Saliva samples for melatonin were collected at 2300 hours, 0200 hours, and 0600 hours. We found that melatonin concentrations during sleep in obese subjects were significantly lower than those in non-obese subjects in the winter. Heart rate during sleep in winter was significantly higher than that in summer in both obese and non-obese subjects. Heart rate variability was not significantly different in the summer and winter in both obese and non-obese subjects. Our results show that decreased nocturnal melatonin concentrations during winter in obese men may be related to higher heart rates, and this may suggest that obese men are at an increased risk of a cardiovascular incident during sleep, especially in the winter.

  14. Associations between poor subjective prenatal sleep quality and postnatal depression and anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Elaine K H; Tan, Joyce; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mai; Teoh, Oon-Hoe; Goh, Daniel Y T; Meaney, Michael J; Broekman, Birit F P

    2016-09-15

    Symptoms of depression and anxiety are common during pregnancy and the postnatal period. A risk factor for mood disorders is poor sleep quality. In this study we investigate the effects of poor subjective prenatal sleep quality on postnatal depressive and anxiety symptoms, independent of prenatal depression or anxiety, amongst pregnant women in the general population. We analysed data from a subset of women taking part in a prospective cohort study, Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes. The participants completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory between 26 and 28 weeks of pregnancy (Time 1) and at 3 months postpartum (Time 2), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index at Time 1. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations between subjective prenatal sleep quality and postnatal depressive and anxiety symptoms, while adjusting for prenatal depressive/anxiety symptoms and education. Although borderline-high depressive/anxiety symptoms were the strongest predictors of postnatal depressive/anxiety, independent of this, poor subjective sleep quality during pregnancy was also associated with borderline-high postnatal depressive symptoms, but not with postnatal anxiety. Sleep quality and prenatal/postnatal mood were derived from self-reported questionnaires, which may be more susceptible to bias. Although treatment of symptoms of prenatal depression and anxiety will be the most important for reducing postnatal depression and anxiety, in addition to that, future studies may explore treatments improving prenatal sleep quality, particularly for women with antenatal depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of glycine on subjective daytime performance in partially sleep-restricted healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto eBannai

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 30% of the general population suffers from insomnia. Given that insomnia causes many problems, amelioration of the symptoms is crucial. Recently, we found that a nonessential amino acid, glycine subjectively and objectively improves sleep quality in humans who have difficulty sleeping. We evaluated the effects of glycine on daytime sleepiness, fatigue and performances in sleep-restricted healthy subjects. Sleep was restricted to 25% less than the usual sleep time for three consecutive nights. Before bedtime, 3 g of glycine or placebo were ingested, sleepiness and fatigue were evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS and a questionnaire, and performance were estimated by personal computer (PC performance test program on the following day. In subjects given glycine, the VAS data showed a significant reduction in fatigue and a tendency toward reduced sleepiness. These observations were also found via the questionnaire, indicating that glycine improves daytime sleepiness and fatigue induced by acute sleep restriction. PC performance test revealed significant improvement in psychomotor vigilance test. We also measured plasma melatonin and the expression of circadian-modulated genes expression in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN to evaluate the effects of glycine on circadian rhythms. Glycine did not show significant effects on plasma melatonin concentrations during either the dark or light period. Moreover, the expression levels of clock genes such as Bmal1 and Per2 remained unchanged. However, we observed a glycine-induced increase in the neuropeptides arginine vasopressin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the light period. Although no alterations in the circadian clock itself were observed, our results indicate that glycine modulated SCN function. Thus, glycine modulates certain neuropeptides in the SCN and this phenomenon may indirectly contribute to improving the occasional sleepiness and fatigue induced by sleep

  16. The effect of sleep deprivation on pain perception in healthy subjects: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrimpf, Marlene; Liegl, Gregor; Boeckle, Markus; Leitner, Anton; Geisler, Peter; Pieh, Christoph

    2015-11-01

    There is strong evidence indicating an interaction between sleep and pain. However, the size of this effect, as well as the clinical relevance, is unclear. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effect of sleep deprivation on pain perception. A systematic literature search was conducted using the electronic databases PubMed, Cochrane, Psyndex, Psycinfo, and Scopus. By conducting a random-effect model, the pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs) of sleep deprivation on pain perception was calculated. Studies that investigated any kind of sleep deprivation in conjunction with a pain measurement were included. In cases of several pain measurements within a study, the average effect size of all measures was calculated. Five eligible studies (N = 190) for the between-group analysis and ten studies (N = 266) for the within-group analysis were identified. Sleep deprivation showed a medium effect in the between-group analysis (SMD = 0.62; CI95: 0.12, 1.12; z = 2.43; p = 0.015) and a large effect in the within-group analysis (SMD = 1.49; CI95: 0.82, 2.17; z = 4.35; p sleep deprivation on pain perception. As this meta-analysis is based on experimental studies in healthy subjects, the clinical relevance should be clarified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The relationship between subjective sleep disturbance, sleep quality, and emotion regulation difficulties in a sample of college students reporting trauma exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Scott M; Barbaro, Nicole; Mello, David

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbance and poor sleep quality has been associated with trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms; however, the associated emotional consequences of sleep disturbance have not been examined within this context (i.e., emotional reactivity, emotion modulation). The current study examined the relationship between sleep disturbance, poor sleep quality, and emotion regulation difficulties. In a sample of college students reporting exposure to at least 1 traumatic event, online survey methodology was used to assess PTSD symptom severity (PTSS), sleep disturbances, including PTSD-specific sleep disturbances, and emotion regulation difficulties. After controlling for PTSS, sleep disturbance and poor sleep quality domains were related to both global and specific difficulties in emotion regulation domains. The findings suggest that sleep disturbance and emotion regulation difficulties associated with PTSD may not be a mere extension of the clinical picture of PTSD. Sleep disturbances following trauma exposure may contribute to emotion regulation difficulties and exacerbate negative consequences. Future research should examine the effects of treatments that simultaneously address sleep disturbances and PTSD symptoms on emotion regulation processes. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Associations of objectively and subjectively measured sleep quality with subsequent cognitive decline in older community-dwelling men: the MrOS sleep study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Terri; Yaffe, Kristine; Laffan, Alison; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Redline, Susan; Ensrud, Kristine E; Song, Yeonsu; Stone, Katie L

    2014-04-01

    To examine associations of objectively and subjectively measured sleep with subsequent cognitive decline. A population-based longitudinal study. Six centers in the United States. Participants were 2,822 cognitively intact community-dwelling older men (mean age 76.0 ± 5.3 y) followed over 3.4 ± 0.5 y. None. OBJECTIVELY MEASURED SLEEP PREDICTORS FROM WRIST ACTIGRAPHY: total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE), wake after sleep onset (WASO), number of long wake episodes (LWEP). Self-reported sleep predictors: sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]), daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS]), TST. Clinically significant cognitive decline: five-point decline on the Modified Mini-Mental State examination (3MS), change score for the Trails B test time in the worse decile. Associations of sleep predictors and cognitive decline were examined with logistic regression and linear mixed models. After multivariable adjustment, higher levels of WASO and LWEP and lower SE were associated with an 1.4 to 1.5-fold increase in odds of clinically significant decline (odds ratio 95% confidence interval) Trails B test: SE sleep efficiency, greater nighttime wakefulness, greater number of long wake episodes, and poor self-reported sleep quality were associated with subsequent cognitive decline.

  19. Effect of different types of exercise on sleep quality of elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonardi, José M T; Lima, Leandra G; Campos, Giulliard O; Bertani, Rodrigo F; Moriguti, Júlio C; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Lima, Nereida K C

    2016-09-01

    There are still many gaps in research concerning the effect of different physical training modalities on sleep quality in the elderly population. Thus, the objective of the present study was to compare the quality of sleep of hypertensive elderly subjects submitted to two types of training (ie, aerobic exercise alone or combined aerobic and resistance training). Participants aged 60-75 years were randomized to three groups: aerobic group (AG), combined aerobic and resistance group (ARG), and control untrained group (CG). Training lasted ten consecutive weeks with 30 uninterrupted sessions. The actigraph (Actiwatch Minimitter Company, INC - Sunriver, OR, USA) was placed on the non-dominant wrist and activities were monitored continuously while being recorded at one minute intervals. The participants kept the device for a period of 96 hours before the first and last training sessions. There was a reduction in sleep fragmentation index of 18.9 for AG and 13 for ARG (p sleep efficacy was improved in the exercise groups, with a 5.6% increase for AG (p = 0.02) and a 6.1% increase for ARG (p = 0.01). After training, percentage of minutes motionless was increased by 8.2% for AG and by 6.9% for ARG (p sleep quality. A reduction in total activity score during sleep was observed for AG and ARG (p exercise performed for ten weeks similarly improved sleep quality, thus reducing the fragmentation index, the percentage of minutes in motion and total activity score, and increasing sleep efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sex differences in subjective and actigraphic sleep measures: A population-based study of elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, J.F. van den; Miedema, H.M.E.; Tulen, J.H.M.; Hofman, A.; Neven, A.K.; Tiemeier, H.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate and explain sex differences in subjective and actigraphic sleep parameters in community-dwelling elderly persons. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: The study was embedded in the Rotterdam Study, a population-based study. Participants: Nine hundred fifty-six

  1. Variability of respiratory mechanics during sleep in overweight and obese subjects with and without asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, L M; Owens, R L; Butler, J P; Suki, B; Malhotra, A

    2013-05-01

    Variability of respiration may provide information regarding disease states. We sought to characterize variability of ventilation and resistance in healthy and asthma, to determine how respiratory control may be altered in sleep and with bi-level positive airway pressure (BPAP). Overweight and obese subjects with and without asthma were studied during sleep at baseline and with BPAP, while measuring respiratory system resistance (Rrs) continuously. Stable periods (>20min) of wake, NREM, and REM sleep were identified and correlation metrics of respiratory parameters were calculated, including coefficient of variation (CV). Variability of Rrs was also characterized over short time scales (20 breaths) during sleep and defined as either "leading to arousal" or "not leading to arousal". Data from 10 control and 10 subjects with asthma were analyzed. CV of Rrs was decreased in asthma at baseline (p<0.001) and decreased on BPAP as compared to baseline (p<0.001). Long time scale correlations were found in respiratory parameters, but the degree of correlations was decreased from wake to sleep (p<0.05). The variance and CV of Rrs was increased preceding an arousal from sleep at baseline; however, during BPAP, the CV was decreased and was not increased preceding arousals. At baseline, resistance was greater in those with asthma, but variability was smaller. BPAP reduced both resistance and overall variability. We conclude that the BPAP-induced decrease in variability may indicate that those with asthma are more likely to remain in a low resistance state, and that low resistance variability may reduce arousals from sleep. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The influence of white noise on sleep in subjects exposed to ICU noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanchina, Michael L; Abu-Hijleh, Muhanned; Chaudhry, Bilal K; Carlisle, Carol C; Millman, Richard P

    2005-09-01

    There is disagreement in the literature about the importance of sleep disruption from intensive care unit (ICU) environmental noise. Previous reports have assumed that sleep disruption is produced by high-peak noise. This study aimed to determine whether peak noise or the change in noise level from baseline is more important in inducing sleep disruption. We hypothesized that white noise added to the environment would reduce arousals by reducing the magnitude of changing noise levels. Four subjects underwent polysomnography under three conditions: (1) baseline, (2) exposure to recorded ICU noise and (3) exposure to ICU noise and mixed-frequency white noise, while one additional subject completed the first two conditions. Baseline and peak noise levels were recorded for each arousal from sleep. A total of 1178 arousals were recorded during these studies. Compared to the baseline night (13.3+/-1.8 arousals/h) the arousal index increased during the noise (48.4+/-7.6) but not the white noise/ICU noise night (15.7+/-4.5) (Pnoise and white noise/ICU noise condition (17.7+/-0.4 versus 17.5+/-0.3 DB, P=0.65). Peak noise was not the main determinant of sleep disruption from ICU noise. Mixed frequency white noise increases arousal thresholds in normal individuals exposed to recorded ICU noise by reducing the difference between background noise and peak noise.

  3. The effect of sleep restriction on laser evoked potentials, thermal sensory and pain thresholds and suprathreshold pain in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ødegård, Siv Steinsmo; Omland, Petter Moe; Nilsen, Kristian Bernhard; Stjern, Marit; Gravdahl, Gøril Bruvik; Sand, Trond

    2015-10-01

    Sleep restriction seems to change our experience of pain and reduce laser evoked potential (LEP) amplitudes. However, although LEP-habituation abnormalities have been described in painful conditions with comorbid sleep impairment, no study has previously measured the effect of sleep restriction on LEP-habituation, pain thresholds, and suprathreshold pain. Sixteen males and seventeen females (aged 18-31years) were randomly assigned to either two nights of delayed bedtime and four hours sleep (partial sleep deprivation) or nine hours sleep. The study subjects slept at home, and the sleep was measured with actigraphy both nights and polysomnography the last night. LEP, thermal thresholds and suprathreshold pain ratings were obtained the day before and the day after intervention. The investigator was blinded. ANOVA was used to evaluate the interaction between sleep restriction and day for each pain-related variable. LEP-amplitude decreased after sleep restriction (interaction p=0.02) compared to subjects randomized to nine hours sleep. LEP-habituation was similar in both groups. Thenar cold pain threshold decreased after sleep restriction (interaction p=0.009). Supra-threshold heat pain rating increased temporarily 10s after stimulus onset after sleep restriction (interaction p=0.01), while it did not change after nine hours sleep. Sleep restriction reduced the CNS response to pain, while some of the subjective pain measures indicated hyperalgesia. Since LEP-amplitude is known to reflect both CNS-pain-specific processing and cognitive attentive processing, our results suggest that hyperalgesia after sleep restriction might partly be caused by a reduction in cortical cognitive or perceptual mechanisms, rather than sensory amplification. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of moderate-intensity exercise on polysomnographic and subjective sleep quality in older adults with mild to moderate sleep complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Abby C; Pruitt, Leslie A; Woo, Sandra; Castro, Cynthia M; Ahn, David K; Vitiello, Michael V; Woodward, Steven H; Bliwise, Donald L

    2008-09-01

    This study sought to determine the 12-month effects of exercise increases on objective and subjective sleep quality in initially inactive older persons with mild to moderate sleep complaints. A nonclinical sample of underactive adults 55 years old or older (n=66) with mild to moderate chronic sleep complaints were randomly assigned to a 12-month program of primarily moderate-intensity endurance exercise (n=36) or a health education control program (n=30). The main outcome measure was polysomnographic sleep recordings, with additional measures of subjective sleep quality, physical activity, and physical fitness. Directional hypotheses were tested. Using intent-to-treat methods, at 12 months exercisers, relative to controls, spent significantly less time in polysomnographically measured Stage 1 sleep (between-arm difference=2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7-4.0; p=003), spent more time in Stage 2 sleep (between-arm difference=3.2, 95% CI, 0.6-5.7; p=.04), and had fewer awakenings during the first third of the sleep period (between-arm difference=1.0, 95% CI, 0.39-1.55; p=.03). Exercisers also reported greater 12-month improvements relative to controls in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) sleep disturbance subscale score (p=.009), sleep diary-based minutes to fall asleep (p=.01), and feeling more rested in the morning (p=.02). Compared with general health education, a 12-month moderate-intensity exercise program that met current physical activity recommendations for older adults improved some objective and subjective dimensions of sleep to a modest degree. The results suggest additional areas for investigation in this understudied area.

  5. Assessment of the relationship between postural stability and sleep quality in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya, Nuray; Akkaya, Semih; Atalay, Nilgun Simsir; Acar, Merve; Catalbas, Necdet; Sahin, Fusun

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of postural stability and sleep disorders in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. Frequency of falls in the last 6 months in 48 fibromyalgia and 32 control subjects were recorded. Postural stability was assessed by static posturography device (Tetrax, Sunlight Medical Ltd., Israel). Functional assessment consisted of lower-body strength; one-leg stance test were applied to all subjects. Fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ), sleep quality numeric rating scale (NRS), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were inquired. The number of falls in the last 6 months was significantly higher in the fibromyalgia group. Mean total value of stability indexes was 201.7 ± 70.9 vs. 162.6 ± 29.6 in fibromyalgia and control subjects (p < 0.05). NRS and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were significantly higher in fibromyalgia patients. It was detected that there were significant relationships between fall risk and NRS scores (r = 0.565), and FIQ fatigue subscores (r = 0.560) (both p < 0.05). Worse postural performance and fall risk found in the fibromyalgia patients compared to controls were related with the sleep quality in the last 24 h and level of fatigue.

  6. Subjective sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in late midlife and their association with age-related changes in cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waller, Katja Linda; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Avlund, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    ) or cognitively impaired (N = 92). METHODS: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Epworth Sleepiness Scale measured subjective sleep quality and daytime sleepiness, respectively. Depressive symptoms were determined using Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-II). A neuropsychological battery was administered....... Our results suggest that sleep quality may be an early marker of cognitive decline in midlife.......UNLABELLED: In an increasingly aged population, sleep disturbances and neurodegenerative disorders have become a major public health concern. Poor sleep quality and cognitive changes are complex health problems in aging populations that are likely to be associated with increased frailty, morbidity...

  7. Multiple Image Arrangement for Subjective Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Zhai, Guangtao

    2017-12-01

    Subjective quality assessment serves as the foundation for almost all visual quality related researches. Size of the image quality databases has expanded from dozens to thousands in the last decades. Since each subjective rating therein has to be averaged over quite a few participants, the ever-increasing overall size of those databases calls for an evolution of existing subjective test methods. Traditional single/double stimulus based approaches are being replaced by multiple image tests, where several distorted versions of the original one are displayed and rated at once. And this naturally brings upon the question of how to arrange those multiple images on screen during the test. In this paper, we answer this question by performing subjective viewing test with eye tracker for different types arrangements. Our research indicates that isometric arrangement imposes less duress on participants and has more uniform distribution of eye fixations and movements and therefore is expected to generate more reliable subjective ratings.

  8. Sleep-wake Cycle Assessment in Type 2 Diabetes and Salivary Melatonin Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Paula Regina Aguiar

    The aim of this study was to analyze the sleep-wake cycle of T2DM subjects and compare it to healthy controls using the nonparametric approach and to assess the changes in the circadian and homeostatic control of the sleep-wake cycle in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) and correlate it with melatonin concentration. The sample consisted of 21 subjects with diagnosis of T2DM for more than a year and 21 healthy controls matched for gender and age. Subjects were assessed using the Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), the Apnea Risk Evaluation System (ARES), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), actigraphy and melatonin levels. The findings revealed that T2DM subjects demonstrate lower IS (p=.03), higher IV (p=.046) and lower rhythm amplitude (p=.02) when compared to healthy controls. Mean melatonin concentrations collected at bed time were significantly lower in the diabetic subjects than that of controls (11.7+/-7.27 pg/ml vs. 24.13+/-10.80pg/ml; psleep duration (p=.03), efficiency (p=.02); and higher activity counts during the sleep phase (p=.02) in the diabetic group. Sleep efficiency was significantly correlated with melatonin collected two hours before bed time (rho=.61; p=.047). Additionally, there were significant inverse relationships between melatonin collected at two hours before bed time and latency (rho=-.87; p=.001), wake after sleep onset (rho=-.69; p=.02) and nocturnal activity (rho=-.67; p=.03). Latency was inversely correlated with melatonin collected at bed time (rho=-.69; p=.02). These findings suggest that T2DM presents disturbances in the homeostatic and circadian drives, mainly characterized by less consistency across days of the daily circadian signal, higher rhythm fragmentation and lower rhythm amplitude. In addition to the lower melatonin levels, the decrease in the amplitude of the activity rhythm may also be involved in circadian alterations of the sleep-wake cycle.

  9. Cortisol response and subjective sleep disturbance after low-frequency noise exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson Waye, K.; Agge, A.; Clow, A.; Hucklebridge, F.

    2004-10-01

    A previous experimental study showed that the cortisol response upon awakening was reduced following nights with low-frequency noise exposure. This study comprised a larger number of subjects and an extended period of acclimatisation nights. In total, 26 male subjects slept during five consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory. Half of the subjects were exposed to low-frequency noise (40 dBA) on the 4th night and had their reference night (24 dBA) on the 5th night, while the reverse conditions were present for the other half of the group. Subjective sleep disturbances were recorded by questionnaires and cortisol response upon awakening was measured in saliva. The results showed that subjects were more tired and felt less socially orientated in the morning after nights with low-frequency noise. Mood was negatively affected in the evening after nights with low-frequency noise. No effect of noise condition was found on the cortisol secretion. There was a significant effect of group and weekday, indicating that further methodological developments are necessary before saliva cortisol secretion can be reliably used as an indicator of noise-disturbed sleep.

  10. EEG/EOG/EMG data from a cross sectional study on psychophysiological insomnia and normal sleep subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The data presented here had been originally collected for a research project entitled ‘Sleep EEG spectral analysis in psychophysiological insomnia and normal sleep subjects’. This article describes the data of 11 subjects, referred to Sleep Disorders Research Center (SDRC in Kermanshah, Iran. The data includes 14 EEG, 6 EOG, and 3 EMG channels, with a sampling ratio of 256 Hz. It includes power spectral features in segments of 30 s for each channel, and nonlinear analysis parameter. Also, the complete demographic and polysomnography specifications are attached. Keywords: Sleep dataset, Psychophysiological, Insomnia, EEG

  11. Impaired Sleep Mediates the Negative Effects of Training Load on Subjective Well-Being in Female Youth Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew; Brickson, Stacey

    2018-02-01

    Although increased training load (TL) and impaired sleep are associated with decreases in subjective well-being in adult athletes, these relationships among female youth athletes are unclear. It is unknown whether the effects of sleep and TL on well-being are independent or whether alterations in sleep mediate the effects of TL on subjective well-being. Sleep and TL exert independent effects on subjective well-being among youth athletes, although alterations in sleep mediate a significant portion of the effect of TL on well-being in female youth athletes. Prospective cohort study. Level 4. A total of 65 female soccer athletes (age range, 13-18 years) were monitored for 1 year. Daily TL was determined by session rating of perceived exertion and converted to z-scores. Every morning, participants recorded sleep duration in hours and rated stress, mood, fatigue, and soreness on a scale from -3 to +3 (worst to best). Linear mixed-effects models and mediation analysis were used to evaluate the independent effects of TL and sleep on well-being. Average sleep duration was 7.9 ± 1.4 hours during the study period. In the multivariable model, TL and sleep duration were independently associated with fatigue (TL: β = -0.19, P < 0.001; sleep: β = 0.15, P < 0.001), mood (TL: β = -0.030, P = 0.014; sleep: β = 0.13, P < 0.001), stress (TL: β = -0.055, P = 0.001; sleep: β = 0.13, P < 0.001), and soreness (TL: β = -0.31, P < 0.001; sleep: β = 0.022, P = 0.042). Sleep duration mediated a significant portion of the effect of TL on mood (26.8%, P < 0.001), fatigue (12.6%, P < 0.001), and stress (24.5%, P < 0.001). Among female youth athletes, decreased sleep duration and increased TL are independently associated with impairments of subjective well-being. In addition, decreased sleep mediates a significant portion of the negative effect of increases in TL on subjective well-being. Monitoring and promoting sleep among female adolescent athletes may significantly improve

  12. Sleep patterns of co-sleeping and solitary sleeping infants and mothers: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkovich, Ella; Ben-Zion, Hamutal; Karny, Daphna; Meiri, Gal; Tikotzky, Liat

    2015-11-01

    Controversies exist regarding the impact of co-sleeping on infant sleep quality. In this context, the current study examined: (a) the differences in objective and subjective sleep patterns between co-sleeping (mostly room-sharing) and solitary sleeping mother-infant dyads; (b) the predictive links between maternal sleep during pregnancy and postnatal sleeping arrangement; (c) the bi-directional prospective associations between sleeping arrangement and infant/maternal sleep quality at three and six months postpartum. The sample included 153 families recruited during pregnancy. Data were obtained in home settings during the third trimester of pregnancy and at three and six months postpartum. Mothers were asked to monitor their own sleep and their infants' sleep for five nights using actigraphy and sleep diaries. Questionnaires were used to assess sleeping arrangements, feeding methods, socio-demographic characteristics, and maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms. Mothers of co-sleeping infants reported more infant night-wakings than mothers of solitary sleeping infants. However, none of the objective sleep measures was significantly different between co-sleeping and solitary sleeping infants, after controlling for feeding techniques. Co-sleeping mothers had significantly more objective and subjective sleep disturbances than mothers in the solitary sleeping group. Moreover, poorer maternal sleep during pregnancy and at three months postpartum predicted higher levels of co-sleeping at six months. Mothers of co-sleeping infants report more infant night-wakings, and experience poorer sleep than mothers of solitary sleeping infants. The quality of maternal sleep should be taken into clinical consideration when parents consult about co-sleeping. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Success Rate and Technical Quality of Home Polysomnography with Self-Applicable Electrode Set in Subjects with Possible Sleep Bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Tomi; Myllymaa, Katja; Westeren-Punnonen, Susanna; Ahlberg, Jari; Hukkanen, Taina; Toyras, Juha; Lappalainen, Reijo; Mervaala, Esa; Sipila, Kirsi; Myllymaa, Sami

    2017-08-18

    Using sleep laboratory polysomnography (PSG) is restricted for the diagnosis of only the most severe sleep disorders due to its low availability and high cost. Home PSG is more affordable, but applying conventional electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes increases its overall complexity and lowers the availability. Simple, self-administered single-channel EEG monitors on the other hand suffer from poor reliability. In this study, we aimed to quantify the reliability of self-administrated home PSG recordings conducted with a newly designed ambulatory electrode set (AES) that enables multi-channel EEG, electrooculography, electromyography and electrocardiography recordings. We assessed the sleep study success rate and technical quality of the recordings performed in subjects with possible sleep bruxism (SB). Thirty-two females and five males aged 39.6±11.6 years (mean±SD) with self-reported SB were recruited in the study. Self-administrated home PSG recordings with two AES designs were conducted (n=19 and 21). The technical quality of the recordings was graded based on the proportion of interpretable data. Technical failure rate for AES (both designs) was 5% and SB was scorable for 96.9% of all recorded data. Only one recording failed due to mistakes in self-applying the AES. We found that the proportion of good quality self-administrated EEG recordings is significantly higher when multiple channels are used compared to using a single channel. Sleep study success rates and proportion of recordings with high quality interpretable data from EEG channels of AES were comparable to that of conventional home PSG. Self-applicable AES has potential to become a reliable tool for widely available home PSG.

  14. Effects of esomeprazole on sleep in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease as assessed on actigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, Keiko; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Ochi, Masahiro; Okuyama, Masatsugu; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Shiba, Masatsugu; Watanabe, Kenji; Watanabe, Toshio; Tominaga, Kazunari; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is strongly associated with sleep disturbances. Although treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) helps to improve GERD symptoms and subjective sleep parameters, the effects of PPI therapy on objective sleep parameters are conflicting. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of esomeprazole treatment on GERD symptoms and sleep parameters assessed using actigraphs and questionnaires. Thirteen patients with GERD received 20 mg of esomeprazole once daily for two weeks. The patients wore actigraphs from three days before the initiation of PPI treatment to the end of therapy. They were also asked to answer the following self-reported questionnaires: Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of GERD (FSSG), Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Objective sleep parameters were evaluated using actigraphy. Treatment with esomeprazole significantly decreased the total FSSG score, including the scores for reflux and dysmotility, as well as the ESS score, although it had no effect on the PSQI score. After the second week of treatment, esomeprazole significantly decreased the wake time (from 47.5±39.6 min to 36.0±27.1 min) and sleep latency period (from 19.5±19.8 min to 9.9±10.2 min) and increased the percentage of sleep time (from 89.1±8.8% to 91.9±6.3%); however, improvements were not noted in all objective parameters. Esomeprazole treatment significantly improves various objective sleep parameters in Japanese patients with GERD. Further placebo-controlled randomized trials are needed to obtain detailed results.

  15. Patient-generated subjective global assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr Harriët Jager-Wittenaar; Martine J. Sealy; Suzanne Kasenic; Elizabeth Isenring; Faith D. Ottery; Susan P. DeBolt

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA), including the PG-SGA Short Form (SF, aka ‘abridged’), was originally developed in the mid 1990’s as a scored, patient self-report, paperbased instrument and has been widely validated. The PG-SGA (SF) has been used for screening,

  16. Genetic parameters for subjectively assessed wool and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    The only noteworthy maternal correlation among wool traits was estimated between QUAL and COL at 0.39 ± 0.18 (Table 6). Table 5 Genetic (rg), phenotypic (rp), environmental (re) and maternal (rm) correlations (± s.e.) among subjectively assessed conformation traits. Trait rg re rp rm. General head conformation (GEN) X.

  17. Clinical predictors of obesity hypoventilation syndrome in obese subjects with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingol, Zuleyha; Pıhtılı, Aylin; Cagatay, Penbe; Okumus, Gulfer; Kıyan, Esen

    2015-05-01

    Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis is not a routine test in sleep laboratories due to its invasive nature. Therefore, the diagnosis of obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is underestimated. We aimed to evaluate the differences in subjects with OHS and pure obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and to determine clinical predictors of OHS in obese subjects. Demographics, body mass index (BMI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, polysomnographic data, ABG, spirometric measurements, and serum bicarbonate levels were recorded. Of 152 obese subjects with OSA (79 females/73 males, mean age of 50.3 ± 10.6 y, BMI of 40.1 ± 5.6 kg/m(2), 51.9% with severe OSA), 42.1% (n = 64) had OHS. Subjects with OHS had higher BMI (P = .02), neck circumference (P sleep time with S(pO2) sleep efficiency (P = .032), mean S(pO2) (P < .001), and nadir S(pO2) (P < .001). Serum bicarbonate levels and nadir S(pO2) were the only independent predictive factors for OHS. A serum bicarbonate level of ≥ 27 mmol/L as the cutoff gives a satisfactory discrimination for the diagnosis of OHS (sensitivity of 76.6%, specificity of 74.6%, positive predictive value of 54.5%, negative predictive value of 88.9%). A nadir S(pO2) of < 80% as the cutoff gives a satisfactory discrimination for the diagnosis of OHS (sensitivity of 82.8%, specificity of 54.5%, positive predictive value of 56.9%, negative predictive value of 81.4%). When we used a serum bicarbonate level of ≥ 27 mmol/L and/or a nadir S(pO2) of < 80% as a screening measure, only 3 of 64 subjects with OHS were missed. Serum bicarbonate level and nadir saturation were independent predictive factors for the diagnosis of OHS. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  18. Excessive Sleepiness and Longer Nighttime in Bed Increase the Risk of Cognitive Decline in Frail Elderly Subjects: The MAPT-Sleep Study

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    Audrey Gabelle

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify self-reported sleep-wake disturbances that increase the risk of cognitive decline over 1-year follow-up in frail participants.Background: Risk factors for cognitive impairment need to be better identified especially at earliest stages of the pathogenesis. Sleep-wake disturbances may be critical factors to consider and were thus being assessed in this at-risk population for cognitive decline.Methods: Frail elderly participants aged ≥70 years were selected from a subsample of the Multi-domain Alzheimer Preventive Trial (MAPT for a sleep assessment (MAPT-sleep study at 18-month follow-up (M18. Sleep-wake disturbances were evaluated using a clinical interview (duration of daytime and nighttime sleep, time in bed, number of naps, and presence of clinically-defined sleep disorders and numerous validated questionnaires [Epworth Sleepiness Scale for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS, Insomnia Severity Scale and Berlin Questionnaire]. Cognitive decline was defined as a difference between the MMSE and cognitive composite scores at M24 and M36 that was ranked in the lowest decile. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for several potential confounding factors were performed.Results: Among the 479 frail participants, 63 developed MMSE-cognitive decline and 50 cognitive composite score decrease between M24 and M36. Subjects with EDS had an increased risk of MMSE decline (OR = 2.46; 95% CI [1.28; 4.71], p = 0.007. A longer time spent in bed during night was associated with cognitive composite score decline (OR = 1.32 [1.03; 1.71], p = 0.03. These associations persisted when controlling for potential confounders. Patients with MMSE score decline and EDS had more naps, clinically-defined REM-sleep Behavior Disorder, fatigue and insomnia symptoms, while patients with cognitive composite score decline with longer time in bed had increased 24-h total sleep time duration but with higher wake time after onset.Conclusions: The risk

  19. Does subjective sleep quality improve by a walking intervention? A real-world study in a Japanese workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Hikaru; Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Yoshimura, Reiji; Nakamura, Jun

    2016-10-24

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a 4-week walking intervention on subjective sleep quality. A prospective open-label study. A total of 490 healthy workers were included in the study. The 490 participants were divided into a group of 214 participants with exercise habits (exercising group, EG) and a group of 276 participants without exercise habits (non-EG). A walking intervention with a target of walking 10 000 steps daily for 4 weeks. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire was administered twice (before the start and after the end of the study). Overall, the walking intervention improved the participants' PSQI global score, sleep latency (minutes), sleep duration (hours), perceived sleep quality factor and daily disturbance factor. Among the EG participants, the walking intervention significantly improved the PSQI global score and perceived sleep quality. Among the non-EG participants, the walking intervention significantly improved the PSQI global score, sleep latency, sleep duration and perceived sleep quality. A walking intervention might reduce the sleep latency and increase total sleep duration in working persons without exercise habits. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Comparison of Resistance and Chair Yoga Training on Subjective Sleep Quality in MCI Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Karydaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-rated sleep disorders are common in older adults, resulting in various health problems. Two types of exercise are suggested as an affordable and accessible non-pharmacological treatment and are being compared and discussed. Objectives: This randomized, controlled, 12-week trial investigates the effects of different types of exercise (resistance vs chair yoga training on subjective sleep quality, in women with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI. Methods: In order to measure cognitive function, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE was used. Forty nine participants enrolled in the study were randomized to a resistance training program (n=16, or a chair yoga program (n=15, or a control group (n=18. All participants engaged in cognitive activities. Results: At baseline, PSQI scores for CYG, RTG and CG (8.2±5.1, 6.1±4.3, 7.4±4.1, respectively and MMSE (28.3±1.4, 27.8±1.2, 28.0±2.3, respectively did not differ statistically between the three groups (F2,46= 1.993, p= 0.143. After the intervention, a significant improvement in PSQI total score was noted in resistance training group (t=2.335, df15, p=0.03. Conclusions: There were no significant differences between groups before and after test for the PSQI subscale scores (sleep onset latency (h, time spent in bed before sleep (min, morning waking up (h and sleep duration (h. No significant difference was found in PSQI subscales scores within each group. This study proposes that resistance training is an effective treatment approach to improve sleep quality in women with mild cognitive impairment.

  1. Association of Subjective and Objective Sleep Duration as well as Sleep Quality with Non-Invasive Markers of Sub-Clinical Cardiovascular Disease (CVD): A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad; Ali, Shozab S.; Das, Sankalp; Younus, Adnan; Malik, Rehan; Latif, Muhammad A.; Humayun, Choudhry; Anugula, Dixitha; Abbas, Ghulam; Salami, Joseph; Elizondo, Javier Valero; Veledar, Emir

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Abnormal daily sleep duration and quality have been linked to hypertension, diabetes, stroke, and overall cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity & mortality. However, the relationship between daily sleep duration and quality with subclinical measures of CVD remain less well studied. This systematic review evaluated how daily sleep duration and quality affect burden of subclinical CVD in subjects free of symptomatic CVD. Methods: Literature search was done via MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science until June 2016 and 32 studies met the inclusion criteria. Sleep duration and quality were measured either via subjective methods, as self-reported questionnaires or Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) or via objective methods, as actigraphy or polysomnography or by both. Among subclinical CVD measures, coronary artery calcium (CAC) was measured by electron beam computed tomography, Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measured by high-resolution B-mode ultrasound on carotid arteries, endothelial/microvascular function measured by flow mediated dilation (FMD) or peripheral arterial tone (PAT) or iontophoresis or nailfold capillaroscopy, and arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) or ankle brachial index (ABI). Results: Subjective short sleep duration was associated with CAC and CIMT, but variably associated with endothelial dysfunction (ED) and arterial stiffness; however, subjective long sleep duration was associated with CAC, CIMT and arterial stiffness, but variably associated with ED. Objective short sleep duration was positively associated with CIMT and variably with CAC but not associated with ED. Objective long sleep duration was variably associated with CAC and CIMT but not associated with ED. Poor subjective sleep quality was significantly associated with ED and arterial stiffness but variably associated with CAC and CIMT. Poor objective sleep quality was significantly associated with CIMT, and ED but variably associated with CAC. Conclusions

  2. Association of Subjective and Objective Sleep Duration as well as Sleep Quality with Non-Invasive Markers of Sub-Clinical Cardiovascular Disease (CVD): A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad; Ali, Shozab S; Das, Sankalp; Younus, Adnan; Malik, Rehan; Latif, Muhammad A; Humayun, Choudhry; Anugula, Dixitha; Abbas, Ghulam; Salami, Joseph; Elizondo, Javier Valero; Veledar, Emir; Nasir, Khurram

    2017-03-01

    Abnormal daily sleep duration and quality have been linked to hypertension, diabetes, stroke, and overall cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity& mortality. However, the relationship between daily sleep duration and quality with subclinical measures of CVD remains less well studied. This systematic review evaluated how daily sleep duration and quality affect burden of subclinical CVD in subjects free of symptomatic CVD. Literature search was done via MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science until June 2016 and 32 studies met the inclusion criteria. Sleep duration and quality were measured either via subjective methods, as self-reported questionnaires or Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) or via objective methods, as actigraphy or polysomnography or by both. Among subclinical CVD measures, coronary artery calcium (CAC) was measured by electron beam computed tomography, Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measured by high-resolution B-mode ultrasound on carotid arteries, endothelial/microvascular function measured by flow mediated dilation (FMD) or peripheral arterial tone (PAT) or iontophoresis or nailfold capillaroscopy, and arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) or ankle brachial index (ABI). Subjective short sleep duration was associated with CAC and CIMT, but variably associated with endothelial dysfunction (ED) and arterial stiffness; however, subjective long sleep duration was associated with CAC, CIMT and arterial stiffness, but variably associated with ED. Objective short sleep duration was positively associated with CIMT and variably with CAC but not associated with ED. Objective long sleep duration was variably associated with CAC and CIMT but not associated with ED. Poor subjective sleep quality was significantly associated with ED and arterial stiffness but variably associated with CAC and CIMT. Poor objective sleep quality was significantly associated with CIMT, and ED but variably associated with CAC. Overall, our review provided mixed

  3. Healthcare Providers’ Knowledge of Disordered Sleep, Sleep Assessment Tools, and Nonpharmacological Sleep Interventions for Persons Living with Dementia: A National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cary A. Brown

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A large proportion of persons with dementia will also experience disordered sleep. Disordered sleep in dementia is a common reason for institutionalization and affects cognition, fall risk, agitation, self-care ability, and overall health and quality of life. This report presents findings of a survey of healthcare providers’ awareness of sleep issues, assessment practices, and nonpharmacological sleep interventions for persons with dementia. There were 1846 participants, with the majority being from nursing and rehabilitation. One-third worked in long-term care settings and one-third in acute care. Few reported working in the community. Findings revealed that participants understated the incidence of sleep deficiencies in persons with dementia and generally lacked awareness of the relationship between disordered sleep and dementia. Their knowledge of sleep assessment tools was limited to caregiver reports, self-reports, and sleep diaries, with few using standardized tools or other assessment methods. The relationship between disordered sleep and comorbid conditions was not well understood. The three most common nonpharmacological sleep interventions participants identified using were a regular bedtime routine, increased daytime activity, and restricted caffeine. Awareness of other evidence-based interventions was low. These findings will guide evidence-informed research to develop and test more targeted and contextualized sleep and dementia knowledge translation strategies.

  4. [Reliability and validity of the 3 Dimensional Sleep Scale (3DSS)--day workers version--in assessing sleep phase, quality, and quantity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yuuki; Uchimura, Naohisa; Ishida, Tetsuya; Toyomasu, Kouji; Kushino, Nanae; Mori, Mihoko; Morimatsu, Yoshitaka; Hoshiko, Michiko; Ishitake, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    Most sleep scales assess sleep quantity (e.g., sleep duration and daytime sleepiness) or sleep quality (e.g., sleep latency and maintenance); the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) is an exceptional example. However, the prevalence of 24-hour operations presents the need for a scale that can also measure sleep phase (e.g., sleep onset and offset). Furthermore, we have to assess the phase, quality and quantity respectively to understand which of them has a problem. Thus, the 3 Dimensional Sleep Scale (3DSS) - day workers version - was developed to assess each of them related to sleep, and this study attempted to verify its reliability and validity. Subjects were 635 day workers (461 men, 174 women; average age = 40.5 years) from the manufacturing and service industries. A scale was created based on a pre-study and discussions with specialists. The scale consisted of 17 sleep-related items. The skew of the data was assessed, and the construct validity and reliability were verified using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha, respectively. The scale was scored and G-P analysis was performed. The items measuring phase, quality, and quantity of sleep were selected from the PSQI and SDS, and their correlation with the three scales of 3DSS were measured to verify the convergent and discriminant validity. In addition, the total scores obtained on the PSQI were compared with each scale of the 3DSS. No skew was found in the data. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure--quality, quantity, and phase. Each factor consisted of five items, therefore two items were excluded. The fitness of the 15-item model was better than that of the 17-item model according to confirmatory factor analysis. Cronbach's alpha for phase, quality and quantity score were 0.685, 0.768 and 0.716, respectively. The hypothesis tests were almost accepted, therefore convergent and discriminant validity were sufficiently established. The present study

  5. Predictors of improvement in subjective sleep quality reported by older adults following group-based cognitive behavior therapy for sleep maintenance and early morning awakening insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Nicole; Lack, Leon; Wright, Helen; Kennaway, David J

    2013-09-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy is an effective nonpharmacologic treatment for insomnia. However, individualized administration is costly and often results in substantial variability in treatment response across individual patients, particularly so for older adults. Group-based administration has demonstrated impressive potential for a brief and inexpensive answer to the effective treatment of insomnia in the older population. It is important to identify potential predictors of response to such a treatment format to guide clinicians when selecting the most suitable treatment for their patients. The aim of our study was to identify factors that predict subjective sleep quality of older adults following group-based administration of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). Eighty-six adults (41 men; mean age, 64.10 y; standard deviation [SD], 6.80) with sleep maintenance or early morning awakening insomnia were selected from a community-based sample to participate in a 4-week group-based treatment program of CBT-I. Participants were required to complete 7-day sleep diaries and a comprehensive battery of questionnaires related to sleep quality and daytime functioning. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to identify factors predicting subjective sleep quality immediately following treatment and at 3-month follow-up. Sleep diaries reported average nightly sleep efficiency (SE), which was used as the outcome measure of sleep quality. Participants with the greatest SE following treatment while controlling for pretreatment SE were relatively younger and had more confidence in their ability to sleep at pretreatment. These characteristics may be useful to guide clinicians when considering the use of a group-based CBT-I for sleep maintenance or early morning awakening insomnia in older adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. No pain, no gain: an exploratory within-subjects mixed-methods evaluation of the patient experience of sleep restriction therapy (SRT) for insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Simon D; Morgan, Kevin; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Espie, Colin A

    2011-09-01

    To explore the patient experience of Sleep Restriction Therapy (SRT) for insomnia, with particular focus on elucidating possible side-effects, challenges to adherence and implementation and perceptions of benefit/impact. To fully investigate the patient experience of sleep restriction therapy for insomnia we designed a within-subjects mixed-method study, employing sleep and daytime functioning questionnaires, assessments of sleep-restriction-related side-effects, prospective qualitative audio-diaries and post-treatment semi-structured interviews. University of Glasgow Sleep Centre. Eighteen patients with Primary Insomnia (mean age=42; range 18-64). Patients took part in a 4-week brief sleep restriction intervention, involving two group sessions and two subsequent follow-up phone calls in the home environment. Sleep diaries and global measures of insomnia severity and sleep quality, as expected, demonstrated robust improvements at both post-treatment and 3-month follow-up (all large effect sizes). Daytime functioning/health-related quality of life variables similarly evidenced strong treatment effects (moderate to large effect sizes). Reported side-effects were common, with ≥50% of patients reporting impairment in 8 out of 12 listed symptoms as a consequence of initiating treatment. The four most common side-effects were 'fatigue/exhaustion' (100%), 'extreme sleepiness' (94%), 'reduced motivation/energy' (89%) and 'headache/migraine' (72%) [Mean number of symptoms per patient=7.2 (2.4); range 3-11]. Intriguingly, both side-effect frequency and ratings of side-effect interference were associated with baseline to post-treatment improvements in sleep quality. Qualitative real-time audio-diaries during week 1 of treatment and post-treatment interviews provided rich accounts of side-effects associated with acute SRT implementation; general challenges surrounding treatment implementation and adherence/non-adherence; and modifications to sleep parameters, daytime

  7. Heart Rate Dynamics and their Relation with the Cyclic Alternating Pattern of Sleep in Normal Subjects and NFLE Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Jose S.; Dorantes, Guadalupe; Alba, Alfonso; Méndez, Martin O.; Camacho, Sergio; Luna-Rivera, Martin; Parrino, Liborio; Riccardi, Silvia; Terzano, Mario G.; Milioli, Giulia

    The aim of this work is to study the behavior of the autonomic system through variations in the heart rate (HR) during the Cyclic Alternating Pattern (CAP) which is formed by A-phases. The analysis was carried out in 10 healthy subjects and 10 patients with Nocturnal Front Lobe Epilepsy (NFLE) that underwent one whole night of polysomnographic recordings. In order to assess the relation of A-phases with the cardiovascular system, two time domain features were computed: the amplitude reduction and time delay of the minimum of the R-R intervals with respect to A-phases onset. In addition, the same process was performed over randomly chosen R-R interval segments during the NREM sleep for baseline comparisons. A non-parametric bootstrap procedure was used to test differences of the kurtosis values of two populations. The results suggest that the onset of the A-phases is correlated with a significant increase of the HR that peaks at around 4s after the A-phase onset, independently of the A-phase subtype and sleep time for both healthy subjects and NFLE patients. Furthermore, the behavior of the reduction in the R-R intervals during the A-phases was significantly different for NFLE patients with respect to control subjects.

  8. Do changes in subjective sleep and biological rhythms predict worsening in postpartum depressive symptoms? A prospective study across the perinatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczak, Elizabeth M; Minuzzi, Luciano; Hidalgo, Maria Paz; Frey, Benicio N

    2016-08-01

    Abnormalities of sleep and biological rhythms have been widely implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). However, less is known about the influence of biological rhythm disruptions across the perinatal period on postpartum depression (PPD). The objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the relationship between subjective changes in both sleep and biological rhythms and worsening of depressive symptoms from pregnancy to the postpartum period in women with and without mood disorders. Eighty-three participants (38 euthymic women with a history of a mood disorder and 45 healthy controls) were studied. Participants completed subjective assessments of sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), biological rhythm disturbances (Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry), and depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) prospectively at two time points: third trimester of pregnancy and at 6-12 weeks postpartum. Multivariate regression analyses showed that changes in biological rhythms across the perinatal period predicted worsening of depressive symptoms in both groups. Moreover, women with a history of a mood disorder showed higher levels of sleep and biological rhythm disruption during both pregnancy and the postpartum period. These findings suggest that disruptions in biological rhythms during the perinatal period increase the risk for postpartum mood worsening in healthy pregnant as well as in pregnant women with a history of mood disorders.

  9. Patients previously treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas have disturbed sleep characteristics, circadian movement rhythm, and subjective sleep quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biermasz, N. R.; Joustra, S. D.; Donga, E.; Pereira, A. M.; van Duinen, N.; van Dijk, M.; van der Klaauw, A. A.; Corssmit, E. P. M.; Lammers, G. J.; van Kralingen, K. W.; van Dijk, J. G.; Romijn, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Context and Objective: Fatigue and excessive sleepiness have been reported after treatment of nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFMA). Because these complaints may be caused by disturbed nocturnal sleep, we evaluated objective sleep characteristics in patients treated for NFMA. Design: We

  10. Are inmates’ subjective sleep problems associated with borderline personality, psychopathy, and antisocial personality independent of depression and substance dependence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harty, Laura; Duckworth, Rebecca; Thompson, Aaron; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Tangney, June P.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research investigating the relationship between Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and sleep problems, independent of depression, has been conducted on small atypical samples with mixed results. This study extends the literature by utilizing a much larger sample and by statistically controlling for depression and substance dependence. Subjective reports of sleep problems were obtained from 513 jail inmates (70% male) incarcerated on felony charges. Symptoms of BPD were significantly associated with sleep problems even when controlling for depression. Thus, sleep problems associated with BPD cannot be attributed simply to co-morbid symptoms of depression and substance dependence was ruled out as proximal causes for this relationship. Symptoms of depression, but not Antisocial Personality features, were related to sleep problems independent of substance dependence. Treatment of individuals with BPD may be more effective if sleep problems are explicitly addressed in the treatment plan. PMID:20198127

  11. Leukocyte Expression of Type 1 and Type 2 Purinergic Receptors and Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines during Total Sleep Deprivation and/or Sleep Extension in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Chennaoui

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purinergic type P1 (adenosine A1 and A2A receptors and the type P2 (X7 receptor have been suggested to mediate physiological effects of adenosine and adenosine triphosphate on sleep. We aimed to determine gene expression of A1R (receptor, A2AR, and P2RX7 in leukocytes of healthy subjects during total sleep deprivation followed by sleep recovery. Expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α were also determined as they have been characterized as sleep regulatory substances, via P2RX7 activation. Blood sampling was performed on 14 young men (aged 31.9 ± 3.9 at baseline (B, after 24 h of sleep deprivation (24 h-SD, and after one night of sleep recovery (R. We compared gene expression levels after six nights of habitual (22.30–07.00 or extended (21.00–07.00 bedtimes. Using quantitative real-time PCR, the amount of mRNA for A1R, A2AR, P2RX7, TNF-α, and IL-1β was analyzed. After 24 h-SD compared to B, whatever prior sleep condition, a significant increase of A2AR expression was observed that returned to basal level after sleep recovery [day main effect, F(2, 26 = 10.8, p < 0.001]. In both sleep condition, a day main effect on P2RX7 mRNA was observed [F(2, 26 = 6.7, p = 0.005] with significant increases after R compared with 24 h-SD. TNF-α and IL-1β expressions were not significantly altered. Before 24 h-SD (baseline, the A2AR expression was negatively correlated with the latency of stage 3 sleep during the previous night, while that of the A1R positively. This was not observed after sleep recovery following 24 h-SD. This is the first study showing increased A2AR and not A1 gene expression after 24 h-SD in leukocytes of healthy subjects, and this even if bedtime was initially increased by 1.5 h per night for six nights. In conclusion, prolonged wakefulness induced an up-regulation of the A2A receptor gene expression in leukocytes from healthy subjects. Significant correlations between baseline expression of A1 and A2A

  12. Short and Long Sleep Duration and Risk of Drowsy Driving and the Role of Subjective Sleep Insufficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, Querino; Grandner, Michael A.; Findley, James; Gurubhagavatula, Indira

    2013-01-01

    Experimental sleep restriction increases sleepiness and impairs driving performance. However, it is unclear whether short sleep duration in the general population is associated with drowsy driving. The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether individuals in the general population who obtained sleep of 6 hours or less are more likely to report drowsy driving, and evaluate the role of perceived sleep sufficiency. Data exploring whether subgroups of short sleepers (those who report the ...

  13. No effects of slow oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on sleep-dependent memory consolidation in healthy elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, Torsten; Dorn, Hans; Sauter, Cornelia; Nitsche, Michael A; Bajbouj, Malek; Danker-Hopfe, Heidi

    2013-11-01

    Studies in young healthy volunteers provided evidence of a beneficial impact of an anodal time-varied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) during early slow wave rich sleep on declarative memory but not on procedural memory. The present study investigated whether sleep-dependent memory consolidation can also be affected by slow oscillating tDCS in a population of elderly subjects. 26 subjects (69.1 years ± 7.7 years) received bi-frontal anodal stimulation (max. current density: 0.331 mA/cm(2)) during early NREM sleep in a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized crossover study. Stimulation effects on offline consolidation were tested by using a declarative and a procedural memory task. Furthermore, sleep stages were scored, EEG power was analyzed and spindle densities were assessed. Independently from stimulation condition, performance in both memory tasks significantly decreased overnight. Stimulation revealed no significant effect on sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Verum tDCS was accompanied by significantly more time awake and significantly less NREM stage 3 sleep during five 1-min stimulation free intervals. The results of the present study are in line with other studies showing that offline consolidation during sleep varies with age and is less pronounced in the elderly than in young or middle-aged subjects. Contrary to an almost identical positive study in young adults, slow oscillatory tDCS applied to the elderly failed to show a beneficial effect on memory consolidation in the present study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Assess Sleep Stage by Modern Signal Processing Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Hau-tieng; Lo, Yu-Lun

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, two modern adaptive signal processing techniques, Empirical Intrinsic Geometry and Synchrosqueezing transform, are applied to quantify different dynamical features of the respiratory and electroencephalographic signals. We show that the proposed features are theoretically rigorously supported, as well as capture the sleep information hidden inside the signals. The features are used as input to multiclass support vector machines with the radial basis function to automatically classify sleep stages. The effectiveness of the classification based on the proposed features is shown to be comparable to human expert classification -- the proposed classification of awake, REM, N1, N2 and N3 sleeping stages based on the respiratory signal (resp. respiratory and EEG signals) has the overall accuracy $81.7\\%$ (resp. $89.3\\%$) in the relatively normal subject group. In addition, by examining the combination of the respiratory signal with the electroencephalographic signal, we conclude that the respiratory s...

  15. Purging behaviors relate to impaired subjective sleep quality in female patients with anorexia nervosa: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, Tokusei; Kawai, Keisuke; Tatsushima, Keita; Saeki, Chihiro; Wakabayashi, Kunie; Tamura, Naho; Ando, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    We examined how purging behaviors relate to subjective sleep quality and sleep patterns and how symptoms of disordered eating behaviors relate to global sleep quality in female patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). Participants were new consecutive female inpatients with a primary diagnosis of AN admitted to the Department of Psychosomatic Medicine at Kohnodai Hospital between June 26 and December 25, 2015. We recorded patients' habitual eating behaviors, laxative overuse, or uretic misuse, and administered the Japanese versions of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-J) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Raw PSQI-J data were used to determine sleep patterns (sleep-onset time, wake-up time, and sleep duration). To examine how purging behaviors related to sleep quality, we compared variables between AN restricting type (ANr) and AN binge-eating/purging type (ANbp). Spearman's rank correlation analysis was used to examine which potential factors influence global PSQI-J score. Participants were 20 patients, of whom 12 had ANbp. Two ANr patients (25%) had global PSQI-J scores greater than 5, compared to 9 ANbp patients (75%; P < 0.05). Circadian rhythm disruption and abnormal sleep duration were significantly greater in ANbp patients than in ANr patients (P < 0.05). Global PSQI-J was significantly correlated with a diagnosis of ANbp (ρ = 0.525; P < 0.05), vomiting (ρ = 0.561; P < 0.05), and duration of illness (ρ = 0.536; P < 0.05). ANbp patients had worse global sleep quality and greater disrupted sleep than did ANr patients. This suggests that treatments focusing on sleep would be useful, especially for ANbp patients. Furthermore, vomiting and duration of illness should be considered essential factors related to impaired global sleep quality. Not applicable.

  16. Sleep in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: meta-analysis of subjective and objective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Samuele; Faraone, Stephen V; Konofal, Eric; Lecendreux, Michel

    2009-09-01

    To perform a meta-analysis of subjective (i.e., based on questionnaires) and objective (i.e., using polysomnography or actigraphy) studies comparing sleep in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus controls. We searched for subjective and objective sleep studies (1987-2008) in children with ADHD (diagnosed according to standardized criteria). Studies including subjects pharmacologically treated or with comorbid anxiety/depressive disorders were excluded. Sixteen studies, providing 9 subjective and 15 objective parameters and including a total pooled sample of 722 children with ADHD versus 638 controls, were retained. With regard to subjective items, the meta-analysis indicated that children with ADHD had significantly higher bedtime resistance (z = 6.94, p breathing (z = 2.05, p =.040), and daytime sleepiness (z = 1.96, p =.050) compared with the controls. As for objective parameters, sleep onset latency (on actigraphy), the number of stage shifts/hour sleep, and the apnea-hypopnea index were significantly higher in the children with ADHD compared with the controls (z = 3.44, p =.001; z = 2.43, p =.015; z = 3.47, p =.001, respectively). The children with ADHD also had significantly lower sleep efficiency on polysomnography (z = 2.26, p =.024), true sleep time on actigraphy (z = 2.85, p =.004), and average times to fall asleep for the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (z = 6.37, p children with ADHD are significantly more impaired than the controls in most of the subjective and some of the objective sleep measures. These results lay the groundwork for future evidence-based guidelines on the management of sleep disturbances in children with ADHD.

  17. Subjective but Not Actigraphy-Defined Sleep Predicts Next-Day Fatigue in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Prospective Daily Diary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Charlotte; Wearden, Alison J.; Fairclough, Gillian; Emsley, Richard A.; Kyle, Simon D.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study aimed to (1) examine the relationship between subjective and actigraphy-defined sleep, and next-day fatigue in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS); and (2) investigate the potential mediating role of negative mood on this relationship. We also sought to examine the effect of presleep arousal on perceptions of sleep. Methods: Twenty-seven adults meeting the Oxford criteria for CFS and self-identifying as experiencing sleep difficulties were recruited to take part in a prospective daily diary study, enabling symptom capture in real time over a 6-day period. A paper diary was used to record nightly subjective sleep and presleep arousal. Mood and fatigue symptoms were rated four times each day. Actigraphy was employed to provide objective estimations of sleep duration and continuity. Results: Multilevel modelling revealed that subjective sleep variables, namely sleep quality, efficiency, and perceiving sleep to be unrefreshing, predicted following-day fatigue levels, with poorer subjective sleep related to increased fatigue. Lower subjective sleep efficiency and perceiving sleep as unrefreshing predicted reduced variance in fatigue across the following day. Negative mood on waking partially mediated these relationships. Increased presleep cognitive and somatic arousal predicted self-reported poor sleep. Actigraphy-defined sleep, however, was not found to predict following-day fatigue. Conclusions: For the first time we show that nightly subjective sleep predicts next-day fatigue in CFS and identify important factors driving this relationship. Our data suggest that sleep specific interventions, targeting presleep arousal, perceptions of sleep and negative mood on waking, may improve fatigue in CFS. Citation: Russell C, Wearden AJ, Fairclough G, Emsley RA, Kyle SD. Subjective but not actigraphy-defined sleep predicts next-day fatigue in chronic fatigue syndrome: a prospective daily diary study. SLEEP 2016;39(4):937–944. PMID:26715232

  18. Efficacy of a Topical Aromatic Rub (Vicks VapoRub®) on Effects on Self-Reported and Actigraphically Assessed Aspects of Sleep in Common Cold Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Santhi, Nayantara; Ramsey, D; Phillipson, G; Hull, D; Revell, Victoria; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Common cold sufferers frequently report sleep disruption during the symptomatic period of infections. We examined the effects of treatment with a topical aromatic pharmaceutical ointment (Vicks VapoRub®), on associated sleep disturbances. The effects of Vicks VapoRub® versus placebo (petrolatum ointment) on subjective and objective measured sleep parameters were assessed in an exploratory study of 100 common cold patients, in a randomized, single blind, controlled, two-arm, ...

  19. The impact of sleep on neuropsychological performance in cognitively intact older adults using a novel in-home sensor based sleep assessment approach

    OpenAIRE

    Seelye, Adriana; Mattek, Nora; Howieson, Diane; Riley, Thomas; Wild, Katherine; Kaye,Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between recent episodes of poor sleep and cognitive testing performance in healthy cognitively intact older adults is not well understood. In this exploratory study, we examined the impact of recent sleep disturbance, sleep duration, and sleep variability on cognitive performance in 63 cognitively intact older adults using a novel unobtrusive in-home sensor based sleep assessment methodology. Specifically, we examined the impact of sleep the night prior, the week prior, and t...

  20. Sex differences in objective measures of sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder and healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Anne; Metzler, Thomas J; Ruoff, Leslie M; Inslicht, Sabra S; Rao, Madhu; Talbot, Lisa S; Neylan, Thomas C

    2013-12-01

    A growing literature shows prominent sex effects for risk for post-traumatic stress disorder and associated medical comorbid burden. Previous research indicates that post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with reduced slow wave sleep, which may have implications for overall health, and abnormalities in rapid eye movement sleep, which have been implicated in specific post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, but most research has been conducted in male subjects. We therefore sought to compare objective measures of sleep in male and female post-traumatic stress disorder subjects with age- and sex-matched control subjects. We used a cross-sectional, 2 × 2 design (post-traumatic stress disorder/control × female/male) involving83 medically healthy, non-medicated adults aged 19-39 years in the inpatient sleep laboratory. Visual electroencephalographic analysis demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with lower slow wave sleep duration (F(3,82)  = 7.63, P = 0.007) and slow wave sleep percentage (F(3,82)  = 6.11, P = 0.016). There was also a group × sex interaction effect for rapid eye movement sleep duration (F(3,82)  = 4.08, P = 0.047) and rapid eye movement sleep percentage (F(3,82)  = 4.30, P = 0.041), explained by greater rapid eye movement sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder females compared to control females, a difference not seen in male subjects. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis demonstrated that post-traumatic stress disorder was associated with lower energy in the delta spectrum (F(3,82)  = 6.79, P = 0.011) in non-rapid eye movement sleep. Slow wave sleep and delta findings were more pronounced in males. Removal of post-traumatic stress disorder subjects with comorbid major depressive disorder, who had greater post-traumatic stress disorder severity, strengthened delta effects but reduced rapid eye movement effects to non-significance. These findings support previous evidence that post

  1. Genetic Dissociation of Daily Sleep and Sleep Following Thermogenetic Sleep Deprivation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowy, Christine; Moravcevic, Katarina; Yue, Zhifeng; Wan, Joy Y; Van Dongen, Hans P A; Sehgal, Amita

    2016-05-01

    Sleep rebound-the increase in sleep that follows sleep deprivation-is a hallmark of homeostatic sleep regulation that is conserved across the animal kingdom. However, both the mechanisms that underlie sleep rebound and its relationship to habitual daily sleep remain unclear. To address this, we developed an efficient thermogenetic method of inducing sleep deprivation in Drosophila that produces a substantial rebound, and applied the newly developed method to assess sleep rebound in a screen of 1,741 mutated lines. We used data generated by this screen to identify lines with reduced sleep rebound following thermogenetic sleep deprivation, and to probe the relationship between habitual sleep amount and sleep following thermogenetic sleep deprivation in Drosophila. To develop a thermogenetic method of sleep deprivation suitable for screening, we thermogenetically stimulated different populations of wake-promoting neurons labeled by Gal4 drivers. Sleep rebound following thermogenetically-induced wakefulness varies across the different sets of wake-promoting neurons that were stimulated, from very little to quite substantial. Thermogenetic activation of neurons marked by the c584-Gal4 driver produces both strong sleep loss and a substantial rebound that is more consistent within genotypes than rebound following mechanical or caffeine-induced sleep deprivation. We therefore used this driver to induce sleep deprivation in a screen of 1,741 mutagenized lines generated by the Drosophila Gene Disruption Project. Flies were subjected to 9 h of sleep deprivation during the dark period and released from sleep deprivation 3 h before lights-on. Recovery was measured over the 15 h following sleep deprivation. Following identification of lines with reduced sleep rebound, we characterized baseline sleep and sleep depth before and after sleep deprivation for these hits. We identified two lines that consistently exhibit a blunted increase in the duration and depth of sleep after

  2. Correlation of salivary cortisol level with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in pediatric subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-Soon; Guilleminault, Christian; Hwang, Se-Hwan; Jeong, Jong-Hyun; Park, Dong-Sun; Maeng, Jae-Hwan

    2013-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with stress system activation involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. The relationships among salivary cortisol, a measure of the HPA axis, and objective parameters of polysomnography (PSG) and subjective sleep symptoms were examined. Our prospective study enrolled 80 children who had a physical examination, underwent overnight PSG, and completed the Korean version of the modified pediatric Epworth sleepiness scale (KMPESS) and OSA-18 (KOSA-18) questionnaires. Saliva was collected at night before PSG and in the early morning after PSG. Subjects (N=80) were divided into control (n=32, apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] or =1) groups; the OSAS group was subdivided into mild (1 or =5) groups. Although salivary cortisol before PSG (n-sCor) did not show a significant change with OSAS severity, salivary cortisol after PSG (m-sCor) significantly decreased with OSAS severity. This decrease resulted in a salivary cortisol ratio (r-sCor) that was significantly different between the control group and the two OSAS subgroups. The m-sCor and sub-sCor of the total group as well as the m-sCor, sub-sCor, and r-sCor of the OSAS group were negatively related to the oxygen desaturation index (ODI). The m-sCor and r-sCor in the OSAS group also were related to subjective sleep symptoms (quality of life [QOL] by KOSA-18). Among the four salivary cortisol parameters, r-sCor was negatively associated with OSAS severity, ODI, and QOL (KOSA-18), which may indicate a chronically stressed HPA axis. These results demonstrate that salivary cortisol may be a useful biomarker of OSAS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Impediment in upper airway stabilizing forces assessed by phrenic nerve stimulation in sleep apnea patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vérin E

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The forces developed during inspiration play a key role in determining upper airway stability and the occurrence of nocturnal breathing disorders. Phrenic nerve stimulation applied during wakefulness is a unique tool to assess Upper airway dynamic properties and to measure the overall mechanical effects of the inspiratory process on UA stability. Objectives To compare the flow/pressure responses to inspiratory and expiratory twitches between sleep apnea subjects and normal subjects. Methods Inspiratory and expiratory twitches using magnetic nerve stimulation completed in eleven untreated sleep apnea subjects and ten normal subjects. Results In both groups, higher flow and pressure were reached during inspiratory twitches. The two groups showed no differences in expiratory twitch parameters. During inspiration, the pressure at which flow-limitation occurred was more negative in normals than in apneic subjects, but not reaching significance (p = 0.07. The relationship between pharyngeal pressure and flow adequately fitted with a polynomial regression model providing a measurement of upper airway critical pressure during twitch. This pressure significantly decreased in normals from expiratory to inspiratory twitches (-11.1 ± 1.6 and -15.7 ± 1.0 cm H2O respectively, 95% CI 1.6–7.6, p Conclusion Inspiratory-related upper airway dilating forces are impeded in sleep apnea patients.

  4. Effects of acute morning and evening exercise on subjective and objective sleep quality in older individuals with insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yuko; Sasai-Sakuma, Taeko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the effects of acute morning or evening exercise on nocturnal sleep in individuals with two subjective insomnia symptoms: difficulty in initiating sleep (DIS), and early morning awakening (EMA), separately for the first vs the second halves of the night. Older individuals (55-65 years old) with DIS (N = 15) or EMA (N = 15) and age- and sex-matched controls (N = 13) participated in this non-randomized crossover study. Participants were assigned to two exercise conditions (morning exercise and evening exercise) in counterbalanced order following the baseline condition with a two-week interval between conditions. A single session of aerobic step exercise was performed during each exercise condition. Nocturnal polysomnography was carried out to evaluate objective sleep quality. Patient global impression of change scale scores for nocturnal sleep were obtained to subjectively evaluate the different groups. Acute physical exercise did not improve subjective sleep quality. Morning exercise decreased the number of stage shifts over the whole night. The arousal index and the number of stage shifts were decreased especially during the second half of the night in all groups. Furthermore, morning exercise decreased the number of wake stages during the second half of the night in the DIS group, but not in the EMA group. Acute morning exercise can improve nocturnal sleep quality in individuals with difficulty initiating sleep, especially during the later part of the night. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Latina adolescent sleep and mood: an ecological momentary assessment pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carolyn; Zhang, Lei; Holt, Katie; Hardeman, Rachel; Peterson, Barbara

    2014-08-01

    Sleep and mood represent two important malleable opportunities for adolescent health. This study investigated the sleep-mood relationship in adolescent girls. Short-term, longitudinal design. Latina adolescents (N = 19, mean age 15) completed ecological momentary assessments on sleep (perceived quality, self-report quantity) and mood (negative affect, positive affect, and positivity ratio). Adolescents sent 1,598 texts on sleep and mood. Bidirectional sleep-mood relationships were in expected directions; negative affect and the positivity ratio affect predicted adolescents' sleep quality. Interventions should encourage sleep-mood relationship awareness, and further research should identify significant differences to inform tailored interventions with adolescents. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Short and long sleep duration and risk of drowsy driving and the role of subjective sleep insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Querino; Grandner, Michael A; Findley, James; Gurubhagavatula, Indira

    2013-10-01

    Experimental sleep restriction increases sleepiness and impairs driving performance. However, it is unclear whether short sleep duration in the general population is associated with drowsy driving. The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether individuals in the general population who obtained sleep of 6h or less are more likely to report drowsy driving, and evaluate the role of perceived sleep sufficiency. Data exploring whether subgroups of short sleepers (those who report the most or least unmet sleep need) show different risk profiles for drowsy driving are limited. From the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (N=31,522), we obtained the following self-reported data: (1) sleep duration (≤5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or ≥10 h/night); (2) number of days/week of perceived insufficient sleep; (3) among drivers, yes/no response to: "During the past 30 days, have you ever nodded off or fallen asleep, even just for a brief moment, while driving?" (4) demographics, physical/mental health. Using 7 h/night as reference, logistic regression analyses evaluated whether self-reported sleep duration was associated with drowsy driving. Overall, 3.6% reported drowsy driving. Self-identified short-sleepers reported drowsy driving more often, and long sleepers, less often. Among those who perceived sleep as always insufficient, drowsy driving was reported more often when sleep duration was ≤5 h, 6 h, or ≥10 h. Among those who perceived sleep as always sufficient, drowsy driving was reported more often among ≤5 h and 6h sleepers. Overall, drowsy driving was common, particularly in self-identified short-sleepers as a whole, as well as subgroups based on sleep insufficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development and Validation of the Sleep Inertia Questionnaire (SIQ) and Assessment of Sleep Inertia in Analogue and Clinical Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanady, Jennifer C; Harvey, Allison G

    2015-10-01

    Sleep inertia is the transitional state from sleep to wake. Research on sleep inertia is important in depression because many people with depression report having difficulty getting out of bed, which contributes to impairment and can impede the implementation of interventions. The first aim was to develop and validate the first self-report measure of sleep inertia, the Sleep Inertia Questionnaire (SIQ). The second aim was to compare reports of sleep inertia across three groups: (1) No-to-Mild-Depression, (2) Analogue-Depression, and (3) Syndromal-Depression. The SIQ demonstrates strong psychometric properties; it has good to excellent internal consistency, strong construct validity, and SIQ severity is associated with less prior sleep duration. Sleep inertia is more severe in the Analogue-Depression and Syndromal-Depression groups compared to the No-to-Mild-Depression group. In conclusion, the SIQ is a reliable measure of sleep inertia and has potential for improving the assessment of sleep inertia in clinical and research settings.

  8. Prospective Assessment of Nocturnal Awakenings in a Case Series of Treatment-Seeking Chronic Insomnia Patients: A Pilot Study of Subjective and Objective Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakow, Barry; Romero, Edward; Ulibarri, Victor A.; Kikta, Shara

    2012-01-01

    Background: The cause of nocturnal awakenings in patients with chronic insomnia is rarely researched. This study prospectively assessed the etiology of nocturnal awakenings (subjectively and objectively) among patients with insomnia at a private, community-based sleep medical center. Methods: Twenty adult patients with chronic insomnia enrolled between April 2008 and February 2010 met diagnostic criteria for an insomnia disorder, never previously visited a sleep specialist or underwent sleep testing, and reported no classic sleep disordered breathing symptoms. Patients completed validated scales for insomnia, sleepiness, impairment, anxiety, depression, and quality of life, a qualitative interview to assess subjective reasons for awakenings, and a diagnostic sleep study to objectively assess awakenings and their precipitants. Results: Subjective and objective data showed clinically meaningful insomnia, primarily sleep maintenance insomnia. The most common self-reported reasons for awakenings were: uncertain cause (50%), nightmares (45%), nocturia (35%), bedroom distractions (20%), or pain (15%). No patient identified breathing symptoms as a cause. Objectively, 531 awakenings were observed in the total sample, and 478 (90%) were preceded by sleep breathing events (apnea, hypopnea, or respiratory effort-related event). Fifty-three awakenings were caused by other factors (independent leg jerks [7], spontaneous [14], and sleep that was laboratory-induced [32]). Thirty awakenings ≥ 5 min—a duration sufficient to predispose toward an insomnia episode—were each preceded by a breathing event. Conclusions: Among patients with insomnia with no classic sleep breathing symptoms and therefore low probability of a sleep breathing disorder, most of their awakenings were precipitated by a medical condition (sleep disordered breathing), which contrasted sharply with their perceptions about their awakenings. Citation: Krakow B; Romero E; Ulibarri VA; Kikta S. Prospective

  9. Subjective but Not Actigraphy-Defined Sleep Predicts Next-Day Fatigue in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Prospective Daily Diary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Charlotte; Wearden, Alison J; Fairclough, Gillian; Emsley, Richard A; Kyle, Simon D

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to (1) examine the relationship between subjective and actigraphy-defined sleep, and next-day fatigue in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS); and (2) investigate the potential mediating role of negative mood on this relationship. We also sought to examine the effect of presleep arousal on perceptions of sleep. Twenty-seven adults meeting the Oxford criteria for CFS and self-identifying as experiencing sleep difficulties were recruited to take part in a prospective daily diary study, enabling symptom capture in real time over a 6-day period. A paper diary was used to record nightly subjective sleep and presleep arousal. Mood and fatigue symptoms were rated four times each day. Actigraphy was employed to provide objective estimations of sleep duration and continuity. Multilevel modelling revealed that subjective sleep variables, namely sleep quality, efficiency, and perceiving sleep to be unrefreshing, predicted following-day fatigue levels, with poorer subjective sleep related to increased fatigue. Lower subjective sleep efficiency and perceiving sleep as unrefreshing predicted reduced variance in fatigue across the following day. Negative mood on waking partially mediated these relationships. Increased presleep cognitive and somatic arousal predicted self-reported poor sleep. Actigraphy-defined sleep, however, was not found to predict following-day fatigue. For the first time we show that nightly subjective sleep predicts next-day fatigue in CFS and identify important factors driving this relationship. Our data suggest that sleep specific interventions, targeting presleep arousal, perceptions of sleep and negative mood on waking, may improve fatigue in CFS. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  10. Assess sleep stage by modern signal processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hau-Tieng; Talmon, Ronen; Lo, Yu-Lun

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, two modern adaptive signal processing techniques, empirical intrinsic geometry and synchrosqueezing transform, are applied to quantify different dynamical features of the respiratory and electroencephalographic signals. We show that the proposed features are theoretically rigorously supported, as well as capture the sleep information hidden inside the signals. The features are used as input to multiclass support vector machines with the radial basis function to automatically classify sleep stages. The effectiveness of the classification based on the proposed features is shown to be comparable to human expert classification-the proposed classification of awake, REM, N1, N2, and N3 sleeping stages based on the respiratory signal (resp. respiratory and EEG signals) has the overall accuracy 81.7% (resp. 89.3%) in the relatively normal subject group. In addition, by examining the combination of the respiratory signal with the electroencephalographic signal, we conclude that the respiratory signal consists of ample sleep information, which supplements to the information stored in the electroencephalographic signal.

  11. Dose–response effects of exercise training on the subjective sleep quality of postmenopausal women: exploratory analyses of a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xuemei; Hall, Martica H; Youngstedt, Shawn D; Blair, Steven N; Earnest, Conrad P; Church, Timothy S

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether a dose–response relationship existed between exercise and subjective sleep quality in postmenopausal women. This objective represents a post hoc assessment that was not previously considered. Design Parallel-group randomised controlled trial. Setting Clinical exercise physiology laboratory in Dallas, Texas. Participants 437 sedentary overweight/obese postmenopausal women. Intervention Participants were randomised to one of four treatments, each of 6 months of duration: a non-exercise control treatment (n=92) or one of three dosages of moderate-intensity exercise (50% of VO2peak), designed to meet 50% (n=151), 100% (n=99) or 150% (n=95) of the National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Panel physical activity recommendations. Exercise dosages were structured to elicit energy expenditures of 4, 8 or 12 kilocalories per kilogram of body weight per week (KKW), respectively. Analyses were intent to treat. Primary outcome measures Continuous scores and odds of having significant sleep disturbance, as assessed by the Sleep Problems Index from the 6-item Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale. Outcome assessors were blinded to participant randomisation assignment. Results Change in the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Problems Index score at 6 months significantly differed by treatment group (control: −2.09 (95% CI −4.58 to 0.40), 4 KKW: −3.93 (−5.87 to −1.99), 8 KKW: −4.06 (−6.45 to −1.67), 12 KKW: −6.22 (−8.68 to −3.77); p=0.04), with a significant dose–response trend observed (p=0.02). Exercise training participants had lower odds of having significant sleep disturbance at postintervention compared with control (4 KKW: OR 0.37 (95% CI 0.19 to 0.73), 8 KKW: 0.36 (0.17 to 0.77), 12 KKW: 0.34 (0.16 to 0.72)). The magnitude of weight loss did not differ between treatment conditions. Improvements in sleep quality were not related to changes in body weight, resting parasympathetic control or cardiorespiratory

  12. The self-morningness/eveningness (Self-ME): An extremely concise and totally subjective assessment of diurnal preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, M; Corrias, M; Chiaromanni, F; Bano, M; Salamanca, M; Caccin, L; Merkel, C; Amodio, P; Romualdi, C; De Pittà, C; Costa, R; Montagnese, S

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of diurnal preference, or the preferred timing of sleep and activity, is generally based on comprehensive questionnaires such as the Horne-Östberg (HÖ). The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability of a subject's self-classification as extremely morning (Self-MM), more morning than evening (Self-M), more evening than morning (Self-E) or extremely evening (Self-EE) type, based on the last question of the HÖ (Self-ME). A convenience sample of 461 subjects [23.8 ± 4.7 years; 322 females] completed a full sleep-wake assessment, including diurnal preference (HÖ), night sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PSQI), daytime sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, KSS), and habitual sleep-wake timing (12 d sleep diaries; n = 296). Significant differences in HÖ total score were observed between Self-ME classes, with each class being significantly different from neighboring classes (p classes. Such differences were maintained when sleep-wake habits were analysed separately on work and free days, and also in a smaller group of 67 subjects who completed the Self-ME as a stand-alone rather than as part of the original questionnaire. Significant differences were observed in the time-course of subjective sleepiness by Self-ME class in both the large and the small group, with Self-MM and Self-M subjects being significantly more alert in the morning and sleepier in the evening hours compared with their Self-E and Self-EE counterparts. Finally, significant differences were observed in night sleep quality between Self-ME classes, with Self-EE/Self-E subjects sleeping worse than their Self-MM/Self-M counterparts, and averaging just over the abnormality PSQI threshold of 5. In conclusion, young, healthy adults can define their diurnal preference based on a single question (Self-ME) in a way that reflects their sleep-wake timing, their sleepiness levels over the daytime hours, and their night sleep quality. Validation of the Self

  13. Influence of food restriction on lipid profile and spontaneous glucose levels in male rats subjected to paradoxical sleep deprivation

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    Tathiana Aparecida Alvarenga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the paired consequences of food restriction and paradoxical sleep deprivation on lipid profile and spontaneous glucose levels in male rats. METHOD: Food restriction began at weaning, with 6 g of food being provided per day, which was subsequently increased by 1 g per week until reaching 15 g per day by the eighth week. At adulthood, both rats subjected to food restriction and those fed ad libitum were exposed to paradoxical sleep deprivation for 96 h or were maintained in their home-cage groups. RESULTS: Animals subjected to food restriction exhibited a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein levels compared to animals that were given free access to food. After the paradoxical sleep deprivation period, the foodrestricted animals demonstrated reduced concentrations of high-density lipoprotein relative to their respective controls, although the values for the food-restricted animals after sleep deprivation were still higher than those for the ad libitum group. The concentration of low-density lipoproteins was significantly increased in sleep-deprived animals fed the ad libitum diet. The levels of triglycerides, very low-density lipoproteins, and glucose in foodrestricted animals were each decreased compared to both ad libitum groups. CONCLUSION: These results may help to illustrate the mechanisms underlying the relationship between sleep curtailment and metabolism and may suggest that, regardless of sleep deprivation, dietary restriction can minimize alterations in parameters related to cardiovascular risk.

  14. Multiscale Entropy Analysis of Heart Rate Variability for Assessing the Severity of Sleep Disordered Breathing

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    Wen-Yao Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is an independent cardiovascular risk factor to which autonomic nervous dysfunction has been reported to be an important contributor. Ninety subjects recruited from the sleep center of a single medical center were divided into four groups: normal snoring subjects without OSA (apnea hypopnea index, AHI < 5, n = 11, mild OSA (5 ≤ AHI < 15, n = 10, moderate OSA (15 ≤ AHI < 30, n = 24, and severe OSA (AHI ≥ 30, n = 45. Demographic (i.e., age, gender, anthropometric (i.e., body mass index, neck circumference, and polysomnographic (PSG data were recorded and compared among the different groups. For each subject, R-R intervals (RRI from 10 segments of 10-minute electrocardiogram recordings during non-rapid eye movement sleep at stage N2 were acquired and analyzed for heart rate variability (HRV and sample entropy using multiscale entropy index (MEI that was divided into small scale (MEISS, scale 1–5 and large scale (MEILS, scale 6–10. Our results not only demonstrated that MEISS could successfully distinguish normal snoring subjects and those with mild OSA from those with moderate and severe disease, but also revealed good correlation between MEISS and AHI with Spearman correlation analysis (r = −0.684, p < 0.001. Therefore, using the two parameters of EEG and ECG, MEISS may serve as a simple preliminary screening tool for assessing the severity of OSA before proceeding to PSG analysis.

  15. Subjective Perception of Sports Performance, Training, Sleep and Dietary Patterns of Malaysian Junior Muslim Athletes during Ramadan Intermittent Fasting

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Rabindarjeet; Hwa, Ooi Cheong; Roy, Jolly; Jin, Chai Wen; Ismail, Siti Musyrifah; Lan, Mohamad Faizal; Hiong, Loo Lean; Aziz, Abdul-Rashid

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine the subjective perception of daily acute fasting on sports performance, training, sleep and dietary patterns of Muslim athletes during the Ramadan month. Methods Seven hundred and thirty-four (411 male and 323 female) Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes (mean age 16.3 ± 2.6 y) participated in the survey which was designed to establish the personal perception of their sport performance, sleep pattern, food and fluid intake during Ramadan fasting. The survey was conducted ...

  16. Speech Signal and Facial Image Processing for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Assessment

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    Fernando Espinoza-Cuadros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a common sleep disorder characterized by recurring breathing pauses during sleep caused by a blockage of the upper airway (UA. OSA is generally diagnosed through a costly procedure requiring an overnight stay of the patient at the hospital. This has led to proposing less costly procedures based on the analysis of patients’ facial images and voice recordings to help in OSA detection and severity assessment. In this paper we investigate the use of both image and speech processing to estimate the apnea-hypopnea index, AHI (which describes the severity of the condition, over a population of 285 male Spanish subjects suspected to suffer from OSA and referred to a Sleep Disorders Unit. Photographs and voice recordings were collected in a supervised but not highly controlled way trying to test a scenario close to an OSA assessment application running on a mobile device (i.e., smartphones or tablets. Spectral information in speech utterances is modeled by a state-of-the-art low-dimensional acoustic representation, called i-vector. A set of local craniofacial features related to OSA are extracted from images after detecting facial landmarks using Active Appearance Models (AAMs. Support vector regression (SVR is applied on facial features and i-vectors to estimate the AHI.

  17. Sawtooth waves during REM sleep after administration of haloperidol combined with total sleep deprivation in healthy young subjects

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    L.R. Pinto Jr.

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available We sought to examine the possible participation of dopaminergic receptors in the phasic events that occur during rapid eye movement (REM sleep, known as sawtooth waves (STW. These phasic phenomena of REM sleep exhibit a unique morphology and, although they represent a characteristic feature of REM sleep, little is known about the mechanisms which generate them and which are apparently different from rapid eye movements. STW behavior was studied in 10 male volunteers aged 20 to 35 years, who were submitted to polysomnographic monitoring (PSG. On the adaptation night they were submitted to the first PSG and on the second night, to the basal PSG. On the third night the volunteers received placebo or haloperidol and spent the whole night awake. On the fourth night they were submitted to the third PSG. After a 15-day rest period, the volunteers returned to the sleep laboratory and, according to a double-blind crossover randomized design, received haloperidol or placebo and spent the whole night awake, after which they were submitted to the fourth PSG. The volunteers who were given haloperidol combined with sleep deprivation exhibited an elevation of the duration and density of the STW, without significant alterations of the other REM sleep phasic phenomena such as rapid eye movement. These findings suggest that sawtooth waves must have their own generating mechanisms and that the dopaminergic receptors must exert a modulating role since REM sleep deprivation, as well as administration of neuroleptics, produces supersensitivity of dopaminergic receptors.

  18. Optimizing sleep/wake schedules in space: Sleep during chronic nocturnal sleep restriction with and without diurnal naps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollicone, Daniel J.; Van Dongen, Hans P. A.; Dinges, David F.

    2007-02-01

    Effective sleep/wake schedules for space operations must balance severe time constraints with allocating sufficient time for sleep in order to sustain high levels of neurobehavioral performance. Developing such schedules requires knowledge about the relationship between scheduled "time in bed" (TIB) and actual physiological sleep obtained. A ground-based laboratory study in N=93 healthy adult subjects was conducted to investigate physiological sleep obtained in a range of restricted sleep schedules. Eighteen different conditions with restricted nocturnal anchor sleep, with and without diurnal naps, were examined in a response surface mapping paradigm. Sleep efficiency was found to be a function of total TIB per 24 h regardless of how the sleep was divided among nocturnal anchor sleep and diurnal nap sleep periods. The amounts of sleep stages 1+2 and REM showed more complex relationships with the durations of the anchor and nap sleep periods, while slow-wave sleep was essentially preserved among the different conditions of the experiment. The results of the study indicated that when sleep was chronically restricted, sleep duration was largely unaffected by whether the sleep was placed nocturnally or split between nocturnal anchor sleep periods and daytime naps. Having thus assessed that split-sleep schedules are feasible in terms of obtaining physiological sleep, further research will reveal whether these schedules and the associated variations in the distribution of sleep stages may be advantageous in mitigating neurobehavioral performance impairment in the face of limited time for sleep.

  19. Aberrant brain-stem morphometry associated with sleep disturbance in drug-naïve subjects with Alzheimer's disease

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    Lee JH

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ji Han Lee,1 Won Sang Jung,2 Woo Hee Choi,3 Hyun Kook Lim4 1Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO, USA; 2Department of Radiology, 3Department of Nuclear Medicine, 4Department of Psychiatry, Saint Vincent Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, South Korea Objective: Among patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, sleep disturbances are common and serious noncognitive symptoms. Previous studies of AD patients have identified deformations in the brain stem, which may play an important role in the regulation of sleep. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relationship between sleep disturbances and alterations in brain stem morphology in AD.Materials and methods: In 44 patients with AD and 40 healthy elderly controls, sleep disturbances were measured using the Neuropsychiatry Inventory sleep subscale. We employed magnetic resonance imaging-based automated segmentation tools to examine the relationship between sleep disturbances and changes in brain stem morphology.Results: Analyses of the data from AD subjects revealed significant correlations between the Neuropsychiatry Inventory sleep-subscale scores and structural alterations in the left posterior lateral region of the brain stem, as well as normalized brain stem volumes. In addition, significant group differences in posterior brain stem morphology were observed between the AD group and the control group.Conclusion: This study is the first to analyze an association between sleep disturbances and brain stem morphology in AD. In line with previous findings, this study lends support to the possibility that brain stem structural abnormalities might be important neurobiological mechanisms underlying sleep disturbances associated with AD. Further longitudinal research is needed to confirm these findings. Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, sleep, brain stem, MRI, shape analysis

  20. Actigraphic assessment of sleep disorders in children with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohinata, Junko; Suzuki, Nao; Araki, Akiko; Takahashi, Satoru; Fujieda, Kenji; Tanaka, Hajime

    2008-05-01

    Children with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) often suffer from sleep disorders, which cause many physiological and psychological problems. Understanding sleep characteristics in children with CFS is important for establishing a therapeutic strategy. We conducted an actigraphic study to clarify the problems in sleep/wake rhythm and physical activity in children with CFS. Actigraphic recordings were performed for 1-2 weeks in 12 CFS children. The obtained data were compared with those of healthy age-matched children used as the control. Sleep patterns were divided into two groups based on subjects' sleep logs: irregular sleep type and delayed sleep phase type. Compared to the control group, total sleep time was longer and physical activity was lower in both groups of CFS. Continuous sleep for more than 10h was not uncommon in CFS. In the irregular sleep type, impaired daily sleep/wake rhythms and disrupted sleep were observed. Using actigraphy, we could identify several characteristics of the sleep patterns in CFS children. Actigraphic analysis proved to be useful in detecting sleep/wake problems in children with CFS.

  1. Parasomnias and sleep disordered breathing in Caucasian and Hispanic children – the Tucson children's assessment of sleep apnea study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, James L; Kaemingk, Kris L; Fregosi, Ralph F; Rosen, Gerald M; Morgan, Wayne J; Smith, Terry; Quan, Stuart F

    2004-01-01

    Background Recent studies in children have demonstrated that frequent occurrence of parasomnias is related to increased sleep disruption, mental disorders, physical harm, sleep disordered breathing, and parental duress. Although there have been several cross-sectional and clinical studies of parasomnias in children, there have been no large, population-based studies using full polysomnography to examine the association between parasomnias and sleep disordered breathing. The Tucson Children's Assessment of Sleep Apnea study is a community-based cohort study designed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of objectively measured sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in pre-adolescent children six to 11 years of age. This paper characterizes the relationships between parasomnias and SDB with its associated symptoms in these children. Methods Parents completed questionnaires pertaining to their child's sleep habits. Children had various physiological measurements completed and then were connected to the Compumedics PS-2 sleep recording system for full, unattended polysomnography in the home. A total of 480 unattended home polysomnograms were completed on a sample that was 50% female, 42.3% Hispanic, and 52.9% between the ages of six and eight years. Results Children with a Respiratory Disturbance Index of one or greater were more likely to have sleep walking (7.0% versus 2.5%, p sleep talking (18.3% versus 9.0%, p sleep disturbances as well as learning problems was observed in children with parasomnia. Those with parasomnias associated with arousal were observed to have increased number of stage shifts. Small alterations in sleep architecture were found in those with enuresis. Conclusions In this population-based cohort study, pre-adolescent school-aged children with SDB experienced more parasomnias than those without SDB. Parasomnias were associated with a higher prevalence of other sleep disturbances and learning problems. Clinical evaluation of children with

  2. High self-perceived exercise exertion before bedtime is associated with greater objectively assessed sleep efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Kalak, Nadeem; Gerber, Markus; Kirov, Roumen; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2014-09-01

    To assess the association between self-perceived exercise exertion before bedtime and objectively measured sleep. Fifty-two regularly exercising young adults (mean age, 19.70 years; 54% females) underwent sleep electroencephalographic recordings 1.5 h after completing moderate to vigorous exercise in the evening. Before sleeping, participants answered questions regarding degree of exertion of the exercise undertaken. Greater self-perceived exertion before bedtime was associated with higher objectively assessed sleep efficiency (r = 0.69, P exercise exertion was associated with more deep sleep, shortened sleep onset time, fewer awakenings after sleep onset, and shorter wake duration after sleep onset. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that objective sleep efficiency was predicted by increased exercise exertion, shortened sleep onset time, increased deep sleep, and decreased light sleep. Against expectations and general recommendations for sleep hygiene, high self-perceived exercise exertion before bedtime was associated with better sleep patterns in a sample of healthy young adults. Further studies should also focus on elderly adults and adults suffering from insomnia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Predictive Value of Kushida Index and Acoustic Pharyngometry for the Evaluation of Upper Airway in Subjects With or Without Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hae Young; Grunstein, Ronald R; Yee, Brendon

    2004-01-01

    Acoustic pharyngometry is a relatively new noninvasive method that quantifies geometrically complexed pharyngeal dimensions. Our study aimed to investigate the predictability and usefulness of acoustic pharyngometry in diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and we developed a prospective clinical trial in 16 subjects without apnea and 54 subjects with apnea. All seventy subjects received polysomnography (PSG) to assess the sleep architecture, including breathing and the degree of apnea hypopnea index. Acoustic pharyngometry was performed in four body positions (sitting, supine, right and left lateral) while awake with tidal breathing in addition to morphometric measurements (Kushida index) of oral cavity. This study shows that the cross-sectional area and volume of the upper airway is smaller in the supine position than any other positions. As well, the oropharyngeal junction area of the supine position is the most predictive parameter to discriminate between subjects with or without OSA. Acoustic pharyngometry can be a clinically useful tool for localizing the narrowed portion of the upper airway and predicting obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:15483340

  4. Prolonged release melatonin for improving sleep in totally blind subjects: a pilot placebo-controlled multicenter trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth T

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Roth,1 Tali Nir,2 Nava Zisapel2,3 1Henry Ford Sleep Disorders Center, Detroit, MI, USA; 2Neurim Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Tel Aviv, Israel; 3Department of Neurobiology Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel Introduction: Melatonin, secreted by the pineal gland during the night phase, is a regulator of the biological clock and sleep tendency. Totally blind subjects frequently report severe, periodic sleep problems, with 50%–75% of cases displaying non-24-hour sleep–wake disorder (N24HSWD due to inability to synchronize with the environmental day–night cycle. Melatonin immediate-release preparations are reportedly effective in N24HSWD. Here, we studied the efficacy and safety of prolonged-release melatonin (PRM, a registered drug for insomnia, for sleep disorders in totally blind subjects living in normal social environments. The primary endpoint was demonstration of clinically meaningful effects on sleep duration (upper confidence interval [CI] limit >20 minutes whether significant or not to allow early decision-making on further drug development in this indication. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov registry – NCT00972075. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled proof-of-principle study, 13 totally blind subjects had 2 weeks' placebo run-in, 6 weeks' randomized (1:1 PRM (Circadin® or placebo nightly, and 2 weeks' placebo run-out. Outcome measures included daily voice recorded sleep diary, Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC, WHO-Five Well-being Index (WHO-5, and safety. Results: Mean nightly sleep duration improved by 43 minutes in the PRM and 16 minutes in the placebo group (mean difference: 27 minutes, 95% CI: -14.4 to 69 minutes; P=0.18; effect size: 0.82 meeting the primary endpoint. Mean sleep latency decreased by 29 minutes with PRM over placebo (P=0.13; effect size: 0.92 and nap duration decreased in the PRM but not placebo group. The variability in sleep onset/offset and

  5. Validation of a subjective global assessment questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carniel, Maiara Pires; Santetti, Daniele; Andrade, Juliana Silveira; Favero, Bianca Penteado; Moschen, Tábata; Campos, Paola Almeida; Goldani, Helena Ayako Sueno; Dornelles, Cristina Toscani Leal

    2015-01-01

    To validate the Subjective Global Nutritional Assessment (SGNA) questionnaire for Brazilian children and adolescents. A cross-sectional study with 242 patients, aged 30 days to 13 years, treated in pediatric units of a tertiary hospital with acute illness and minimum hospitalization of 24h. After permission from the authors of the original study, the following criteria were observed to obtain the validation of SGNA instruments: translation and backtranslation, concurrent validity, predictive validity, and inter-observer reliability. The variables studied were age, sex, weight and length at birth, prematurity, and anthropometry (weight, height, body mass index, upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold, and subscapular skinfold). The primary outcome was considered as the need for admission/readmission within 30 days after hospital discharge. Statistical tests used included ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, chi-square, and Kappa coefficient. According to SGNA score, 80% of patients were considered as well nourished, 14.5% moderately malnourished, and 5.4% severely malnourished. Concurrent validity showed a weak correlation between the SGNA and anthropometric measurements (p<0.001). Regarding predictive power, the main outcome associated with SGNA was length of admission/readmission. Secondary outcomes associated included the following: length of stay at the unit after SGNA, weight and length at birth, and prematurity (p<0.05). The interobserver reliability showed good agreement among examiners (Kappa=0.74). This study validated the SGNA in this group of hospitalized pediatric patients, ensuring its use in the clinical setting and for research purposes in the Brazilian population. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Selective REM-sleep deprivation does not diminish emotional memory consolidation in young healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, Jarste; Wiesner, Christian D; Hinze, Karoline; Abels, Lena C; Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Göder, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sleep enhances memory consolidation and it has been hypothesized that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in particular facilitates the consolidation of emotional memory. The aim of this study was to investigate this hypothesis using selective REM-sleep deprivation. We used a recognition memory task in which participants were shown negative and neutral pictures. Participants (N=29 healthy medical students) were separated into two groups (undisturbed sleep and selective REM-sleep deprived). Both groups also worked on the memory task in a wake condition. Recognition accuracy was significantly better for negative than for neutral stimuli and better after the sleep than the wake condition. There was, however, no difference in the recognition accuracy (neutral and emotional) between the groups. In summary, our data suggest that REM-sleep deprivation was successful and that the resulting reduction of REM-sleep had no influence on memory consolidation whatsoever.

  7. Selective REM-sleep deprivation does not diminish emotional memory consolidation in young healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarste Morgenthaler

    Full Text Available Sleep enhances memory consolidation and it has been hypothesized that rapid eye movement (REM sleep in particular facilitates the consolidation of emotional memory. The aim of this study was to investigate this hypothesis using selective REM-sleep deprivation. We used a recognition memory task in which participants were shown negative and neutral pictures. Participants (N=29 healthy medical students were separated into two groups (undisturbed sleep and selective REM-sleep deprived. Both groups also worked on the memory task in a wake condition. Recognition accuracy was significantly better for negative than for neutral stimuli and better after the sleep than the wake condition. There was, however, no difference in the recognition accuracy (neutral and emotional between the groups. In summary, our data suggest that REM-sleep deprivation was successful and that the resulting reduction of REM-sleep had no influence on memory consolidation whatsoever.

  8. REM sleep phase preference in the crepuscular Octodon degus assessed by selective REM sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-Garcés, Adrián; Hernández, Felipe; Palacios, Adrian G

    2013-08-01

    To determine rapid eye movement (REM) sleep phase preference in a crepuscular mammal (Octodon degus) by challenging the specific REM sleep homeostatic response during the diurnal and nocturnal anticrepuscular rest phases. We have investigated REM sleep rebound, recovery, and documented REM sleep propensity measures during and after diurnal and nocturnal selective REM sleep deprivations. Nine male wild-captured O. degus prepared for polysomnographic recordings. Animals were recorded during four consecutive baseline and two separate diurnal or nocturnal deprivation days, under a 12:12 light-dark schedule. Three-h selective REM sleep deprivations were performed, starting at midday (zeitgeber time 6) or midnight (zeitgeber time 18). Diurnal and nocturnal REM sleep deprivations provoked equivalent amounts of REM sleep debt, but a consistent REM sleep rebound was found only after nocturnal deprivation. The nocturnal rebound was characterized by a complete recovery of REM sleep associated with an augment in REM/total sleep time ratio and enhancement in REM sleep episode consolidation. Our results support the notion that the circadian system actively promotes REM sleep. We propose that the sleep-wake cycle of O. degus is modulated by a chorus of circadian oscillators with a bimodal crepuscular modulation of arousal and a unimodal promotion of nocturnal REM sleep

  9. Effects of state and trait anxiety on sleep structure: A polysomnographic study in 1083 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, András; Montana, Xavier; Lanquart, Jean-Pol; Hubain, Philippe; Szűcs, Anna; Linkowski, Paul; Loas, Gwenolé

    2016-10-30

    Anxiety affects millions of people and has been shown to co-occur in combination with sleep disturbances, generating heavy medical costs and a huge socio-medico-economic burden. Sleep-studies in anxiety disorders are inconsistent and the effects of state and trait anxiety are unexplored. We selected 1083 patients from the database of a hospital sleep laboratory. The patients had polysomnography for different sleep disorders; their sleep initiation (sleep onset latency), sleep maintenance (total sleep time), non-rapid eye movement sleep-, and rapid eye movement sleep parameters; as well as their State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck depression scale were measured. In order to be included in our study, individuals needed to score in the low or high range on the State and/or Trait Subscales of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. We found that both state and trait anxiety affected non-rapid eye movement sleep parameters. Sleep onset latency changes predominantly associated to state anxiety while rapid eye movement parameters related to trait anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Regional cerebral glucose metabolic rate in human sleep assessed by positron emission tomography

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    Buchsbaum, M.S.; Wu, J.; Hazlett, E.; Sicotte, N.; Bunney, W.E. Jr. (Univ. of California, Irvine (USA)); Gillin, J.C. (Univ. of California, San Diego (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The cerebral metabolic rate of glucose was measured during nighttime sleep in 36 normal volunteers using positron emission tomography and fluorine-18-labeled 2-deoxyglucose (FDG). In comparison to waking controls, subjects given FDG during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep showed about a 23% reduction in metabolic rate across the entire brain. This decrease was greater for the frontal than temporal or occipital lobes, and greater for basal ganglia and thalamus than cortex. Subjects in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep tended to have higher cortical metabolic rates than walking subjects. The cingulate gyrus was the only cortical structure to show a significant increase in glucose metabolic rate in REM sleep in comparison to waking. The basal ganglia were relatively more active on the right in REM sleep and symmetrical in NREM sleep.

  11. Changes in ventilation and its components in normal subjects during sleep.

    OpenAIRE

    Stradling, J R; Chadwick, G A; Frew, A. J.

    1985-01-01

    Non-invasive measurements were made of ventilation, its derivatives, the contributions of abdomen and rib cage and arterial oxygen saturation in six healthy normal men whilst awake and during sleep. Minute ventilation fell significantly during slow wave (SW) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (awake = 6.3 1 min-1, SW sleep = 5.7 1 min-1, REM sleep = 5.4 1 min-1; p less than 0.04). Mean inspiratory flow also fell significantly but timing was unchanged. The abdominal (diaphragmatic) contr...

  12. Risk assessment of sleeping disorder breathing based on upper airway centerline evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsufyani, Noura; Shen, Rui; Cheng, Irene; Major, Paul

    2013-02-01

    One of the most important breathing disorders in childhood is obstructive sleep apnea syndrome which affects 2-3% of children, and the reported failure rate of surgical treatment was as high as 54%. A possible reason in respiratory complications is having reduced dimensions of the upper airway which are further compressed when muscle tone is decreased during sleep. In this study, we use Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to assess the location or cause of the airway obstruction. To date, all studies analyzing the upper airway in subjects with Sleeping Disorder Breathing were based on linear, area, or volumetric measurements, which are global computations and can easily ignore local significance. Skeletonization was initially introduced as a 3D modeling technique by which representative medial points of a model are extracted to generate centerlines for evaluations. Although centerlines have been commonly used in guiding surgical procedures, our novelty lies in comparing its geometric properties before and after surgeries. We apply 3D data refinement, registration and projection steps to quantify and localize the geometric deviation in target airway regions. Through cross validation with corresponding subjects' therapy data, we expect to quantify the tolerance threshold beyond which reduced dimensions of the upper airway are not clinically significant. The ultimate goal is to utilize this threshold to identify patients at risk of complications. Outcome from this research will also help establish a predictive model for training and to estimate treatment success based on airway measurements prior to intervention. Preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of our approach.

  13. Efficacy and Safety of Doxepin 1 mg and 3 mg in a 12-week Sleep Laboratory and Outpatient Trial of Elderly Subjects with Chronic Primary Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystal, Andrew D; Durrence, H Heith; Scharf, Martin; Jochelson, Philip; Rogowski, Roberta; Ludington, Elizabeth; Roth, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    to evaluate the efficacy and safety of doxepin 1 mg and 3 mg in elderly subjects with chronic primary insomnia. the study was a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial. Subjects meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for primary insomnia were randomized to 12 weeks of nightly treatment with doxepin (DXP) 1 mg (n = 77) or 3 mg (n = 82), or placebo (PBO; n = 81). Efficacy was assessed using polysomnography (PSG), patient reports, and clinician ratings. Objective efficacy data are reported for Nights (N) 1, 29, and 85; subjective efficacy data during Weeks 1, 4, and 12; and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale and Patient Global Impression (PGI) scale data after Weeks 2, 4, and 12 of treatment. Safety assessments were conducted throughout the study. DXP 3 mg led to significant improvement versus PBO on N1 in wake time after sleep onset (WASO; P treatment groups. There were no significant next-day residual effects; additionally, there were no reports of memory impairment, complex sleep behaviors, anticholinergic effects, weight gain, or increased appetite. DXP 1 mg and 3 mg administered nightly to elderly chronic insomnia patients for 12 weeks resulted in significant and sustained improvements in most endpoints. These improvements were not accompanied by evidence of next-day residual sedation or other significant adverse effects. DXP also demonstrated improvements in both patient- and physician-based ratings of global insomnia outcome. The efficacy of DXP at the doses used in this study is noteworthy with respect to sleep maintenance and early morning awakenings given that these are the primary sleep complaints of the elderly. This study, the longest placebo-controlled, double-blind, polysomnographic trial of nightly pharmacotherapy for insomnia in the elderly, provides the best evidence to date of the sustained efficacy and safety of an insomnia medication in older adults.

  14. Disturbed body perception, reduced sleep, and kinesiophobia in subjects with pregnancy-related persistent lumbopelvic pain and moderate levels of disability: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beales, Darren; Lutz, Alison; Thompson, Judith; Wand, Benedict Martin; O'Sullivan, Peter

    2016-02-01

    For a small but significant group, pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain may become persistent. While multiple factors may contribute to disability in this group, previous studies have not investigated sleep impairments, body perception or mindfulness as potential factors associated with disability post-partum. To compare women experiencing no pain post-pregnancy with those experiencing pregnancy-related persistent lumbopelvic pain (either low- or high-level disability) across multiple biopsychosocial domains. Cross-sectional. Participants completed questionnaires for thorough profiling of factors thought to be important in pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain. Specific measures were the Urinary Distress Inventory, Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale, Back Beliefs Questionnaire, Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, Coping Strategies Questionnaire, Pain Catastrophising Scale, The Fremantle Back Awareness Questionnaire and the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale. Women where categorised into three groups; pain free (n = 26), mild disability (n = 12) and moderate disability (n = 12) (based on Oswestry Disability Index scores). Non-parametric group comparisons were used to compare groups across the profiling variables. Differences were identified for kinesiophobia (p = 0.03), body perception (p = 0.02), sleep quantity (p sleep adequacy (p = 0.02). Generally subjects in the moderate disability group had more negative findings for these variables. Disturbances in body-perception, sleep and elevated kinesiophobia were found in pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain subjects with moderate disability, factors previously linked to persistent low back pain. The cross-sectional nature of this study does not allow for identification of directional pathways between factors. The results support the consideration of these factors in the assessment and management of pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An investigation of the relationship between subjective sleep quality, loneliness and mood in an Australian sample: can daily routine explain the links?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Simon Squire; Kozak, Nahum; Sullivan, Karen Anne

    2012-03-01

    Loneliness and low mood are associated with significant negative health outcomes including poor sleep, but the strength of the evidence underlying these associations varies. There is strong evidence that poor sleep quality and low mood are linked, but only emerging evidence that loneliness and poor sleep are associated. To independently replicate the finding that loneliness and poor subjective sleep quality are associated and to extend past research by investigating lifestyle regularity as a possible mediator of relationships, since lifestyle regularity has been linked to loneliness and poor sleep. Using a cross-sectional design, 97 adults completed standardized measures of loneliness, lifestyle regularity, subjective sleep quality and mood. Loneliness was a significant predictor of sleep quality. Lifestyle regularity was not a predictor of, nor associated with, mood, sleep quality or loneliness. This study provides an important independent replication of the association between poor sleep and loneliness. However, the mechanism underlying this link remains unclear. A theoretically plausible mechanism for this link, lifestyle regularity, does not explain the relationship between loneliness and poor sleep. The nexus between loneliness and poor sleep is unlikely to be broken by altering the social rhythm of patients who present with poor sleep and loneliness.

  16. Sleep disorders in children: a national assessment of primary care pediatrician practices and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqui, Firoza; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Price, James H; Bolyard, Dawn; Reddy, Ramalinga

    2011-09-01

    To assess general pediatricians' screening practices for sleep-related issues and assess their knowledge on common sleep complaints in children, their perceived barriers to screening for sleep issues, and whether they have received training regarding sleep issues. A national random sample (n = 700) of general pediatricians who were members of the American Academy of Pediatrics were sent a valid and reliable questionnaire on sleep problems in youth. A total of 346 pediatricians (49%) responded. The vast majority (96%) indicated that they believed it was their job to counsel patients/guardians regarding sleep hygiene, yet few pediatricians (18%) had ever received formal training on sleep disorders. Those who did not screen for sleep problems spent significantly less time with each patient and perceived significantly more barriers to screening. Pediatricians who had received training about sleep disorders had significantly higher knowledge scores on sleep problems, perceived significantly fewer barriers to screening, and reported significantly higher confidence scores regarding counseling patients/guardians on sleep problems. These findings support the need for formal education on sleep disorders for all pediatricians.

  17. Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Differentially Elevated in Objective Versus Habitual Subjective Reduced Sleep Duration in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMartino, Theresanne; Ghoul, Rawad El; Wang, Lu; Bena, James; Hazen, Stanley L; Tracy, Russel; Patel, Sanjay R; Auckley, Dennis; Mehra, Reena

    2016-07-01

    Data have demonstrated adverse health effects of sleep deprivation. We postulate that oxidative stress and systemic inflammation biomarkers will be elevated in relation to short-term and long-term sleep duration reduction. We analyzed data from the baseline examination of a randomized controlled trial involving participants with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Baseline polysomnography provided the total sleep time (PSG-TST, primary predictor); self-reported habitual sleep duration (SR-HSD) data was collected. Morning measures of oxidative stress and systemic inflammation included: myeloperoxidase (MPO, pmol/L), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL, U/L), F2-isoprostane (ng/mg), paraoxonase 1 (PON1, nmol·min(-1)·mL(-1)), and aryl esterase (μmol·min(-1)·mL(-1)). Linear models adjusted for age, sex, race, body mass index (BMI), cardiovascular disease (CVD), smoking, statin/anti-inflammatory medications, and apnea-hypopnea index were utilized (beta estimates and 95% confidence intervals). One hundred forty-seven participants comprised the final analytic sample; they were overall middle-aged (51.0 ± 11.7 y), obese (BMI = 37.3 ± 8.1 kg/m(2)), and 17% had CVD. Multivariable models demonstrated a significant inverse association of PSG-TST and MPO (β [95% CI] = -20.28 [-37.48, -3.08], P = 0.021), i.e., 20.3 pmol/L MPO reduction per hour increase PSG-TST. Alternatively, a significant inverse association with ox-LDL and SR-HSD was observed (β [95% CI] = 0.98 [0.96, 0.99], P = 0.027), i.e., 2% ox-LDL reduction per hour increase SR-HSD. Even after consideration of obesity and OSA severity, inverse significant findings were observed such that reduced PSG-TST was associated with elevated MPO levels and SR-HSD with ox-LDL, suggesting differential up-regulation of oxidative stress and pathways of inflammation in acute versus chronic sleep curtailment. NIH clinical trials registry number NCT00607893. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  18. Modafinil for cognitive neuroenhancement in healthy non-sleep-deprived subjects: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battleday, R M; Brem, A-K

    2015-11-01

    Modafinil is an FDA-approved eugeroic that directly increases cortical catecholamine levels, indirectly upregulates cerebral serotonin, glutamate, orexin, and histamine levels, and indirectly decreases cerebral gamma-amino-butrytic acid levels. In addition to its approved use treating excessive somnolence, modafinil is thought to be used widely off-prescription for cognitive enhancement. However, despite this popularity, there has been little consensus on the extent and nature of the cognitive effects of modafinil in healthy, non-sleep-deprived humans. This problem is compounded by methodological discrepancies within the literature, and reliance on psychometric tests designed to detect cognitive effects in ill rather than healthy populations. In order to provide an up-to-date systematic evaluation that addresses these concerns, we searched MEDLINE with the terms "modafinil" and "cognitive", and reviewed all resultant primary studies in English from January 1990 until December 2014 investigating the cognitive actions of modafinil in healthy non-sleep-deprived humans. We found that whilst most studies employing basic testing paradigms show that modafinil intake enhances executive function, only half show improvements in attention and learning and memory, and a few even report impairments in divergent creative thinking. In contrast, when more complex assessments are used, modafinil appears to consistently engender enhancement of attention, executive functions, and learning. Importantly, we did not observe any preponderances for side effects or mood changes. Finally, in light of the methodological discrepancies encountered within this literature, we conclude with a series of recommendations on how to optimally detect valid, robust, and consistent effects in healthy populations that should aid future assessment of neuroenhancement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  19. Crowdsourcing based subjective quality assessment of adaptive video streaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahid, M.; Søgaard, Jacob; Pokhrel, J.

    2014-01-01

    humans are considered to be the most valid method of the as- sessment of QoE. Besides lab-based subjective experiments, crowdsourcing based subjective assessment of video quality is gaining popularity as an alternative method. This paper presents insights into a study that investigates perceptual pref......- erences of various adaptive video streaming scenarios through crowdsourcing based subjective quality assessment....

  20. Beneficial Effects of Long-Term CPAP Treatment on Sleep Quality and Blood Pressure in Adherent Subjects With Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei-Chen; Huang, Yi-Chih; Lan, Chou-Chin; Wu, Yao-Kuang; Huang, Kuo-Feng

    2015-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Although CPAP is the first treatment choice for moderate-to-severe OSA, acceptance of and adherence to CPAP remain problematic. High CPAP adherence is generally defined as ≥4 h of use/night for ≥70% of the nights monitored. We investigated the long-term beneficial effects of CPAP on sleep quality and blood pressure in subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA according to high or low CPAP adherence. We retrospectively analyzed 121 subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA from August 2008 to July 2012. These subjects were divided into 3 groups: (1) no CPAP treatment (n = 29), (2) low CPAP adherence (n = 28), and (3) high CPAP adherence (n = 64). All subjects were followed up for at least 1 y. The 3 groups were compared regarding anthropometric and polysomnographic variables, presence of cardiovascular comorbidities, and blood pressure at baseline and at the last follow-up. The no-treatment group showed significant increases in oxygen desaturation index and blood pressure. The high-adherence group showed significant improvement in daytime sleepiness, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), oxygen desaturation index, and blood pressure. Although the AHI was also significantly decreased after CPAP treatment in the low-adherence group, blood pressure remained unchanged. CPAP treatment had beneficial effects on both sleep quality and blood pressure only in subjects with OSA and high CPAP adherence who used CPAP for ≥4 h/night for ≥70% of nights monitored. Subjects with low CPAP adherence received beneficial effects on AHI, but not blood pressure. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  1. Ecological momentary assessment of sleep, symptoms, and mood during chemotherapy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Chelsea G; Lam, Cho Y; Arun, Banu; Valero, Vincente; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2014-11-01

    This study examined the association of sleep before and during a chemotherapy (CT) cycle for breast cancer with symptoms and mood during a CT cycle. Twenty women undergoing CT for breast cancer completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) 1 h prior to a CT infusion. For 3 weeks following infusion, participants estimated sleep efficiency, minutes to sleep (sleep latency), number of nocturnal awakenings (sleep fragmentation (SF)), and sleep quality (SQ) each morning and rated symptoms (nausea, fatigue, numbness, and difficulty thinking) and mood three times daily (morning, afternoon, and evening) via ecological momentary assessments using automated handheld computers. The results showed that disturbed sleep (PSQI score > 5) prior to CT infusion was associated with greater fatigue, and more negative and anxious mood throughout the 3-week CT cycle, and good pre-CT infusion sleep (PSQI score mood in the first days following infusion. Time-lagged analyses controlling for mood/symptom ratings reported the previous evening revealed that longer sleep latency and greater SF were associated with greater daytime fatigue; poorer SQ and greater SF were antecedents of worse morning negative mood, and greater SF was associated with feeling more passive and drowsy. No evening symptom or mood ratings were related to subsequent SQ. These findings suggest that disturbed sleep before and after a CT infusion exacerbates fatigue, and negative, anxious, and drowsy mood during a CT cycle. Reducing sleep disturbance may be an important way to improve quality of life during CT. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Parasomnias and sleep disordered breathing in Caucasian and Hispanic children – the Tucson children's assessment of sleep apnea study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fregosi Ralph F

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies in children have demonstrated that frequent occurrence of parasomnias is related to increased sleep disruption, mental disorders, physical harm, sleep disordered breathing, and parental duress. Although there have been several cross-sectional and clinical studies of parasomnias in children, there have been no large, population-based studies using full polysomnography to examine the association between parasomnias and sleep disordered breathing. The Tucson Children's Assessment of Sleep Apnea study is a community-based cohort study designed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of objectively measured sleep disordered breathing (SDB in pre-adolescent children six to 11 years of age. This paper characterizes the relationships between parasomnias and SDB with its associated symptoms in these children. Methods Parents completed questionnaires pertaining to their child's sleep habits. Children had various physiological measurements completed and then were connected to the Compumedics PS-2 sleep recording system for full, unattended polysomnography in the home. A total of 480 unattended home polysomnograms were completed on a sample that was 50% female, 42.3% Hispanic, and 52.9% between the ages of six and eight years. Results Children with a Respiratory Disturbance Index of one or greater were more likely to have sleep walking (7.0% versus 2.5%, p p p Conclusions In this population-based cohort study, pre-adolescent school-aged children with SDB experienced more parasomnias than those without SDB. Parasomnias were associated with a higher prevalence of other sleep disturbances and learning problems. Clinical evaluation of children with parasomnias should include consideration of SDB.

  3. The relation between EEG prefrontal asymmetry and subjective feelings of mood following 24 hours of sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Camila; Deslandes, Andréa; Moraes, Helena; Cagy, Maurício; Basile, Luiz Fernando; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2006-06-01

    Several studies have investigated the relationship between asymmetrical EEG activity over the frontal cortex and mood. This study aimed at investigating the association between state fluctuations in frontal alpha EEG asymmetry and state changes followed by 24 h of sleep deprivation (SD). Our results show that sleep deprivation caused a significant alteration in the asymmetry values. Activation shifted from the left hemisphere, before SD, to the right hemisphere, after SD, in all frontal electrode pairs. In addition, according to the self-rating scale of SD-related mood effects, subjects became significantly less alerted and active, and sleepier. According to these results, increased right prefrontal activation might be potentially associated with the negative mood states typically seen after sleep deprivation, although the causal relationship is still uncertain. However, more studies will be necessary to establish the viability of EEG asymmetry and the cerebral lateralization hypothesis to explain the SD-related affective changes.

  4. Reliability of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine Rules for Assessing Sleep Depth in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Magdy; Kuna, Samuel T; Pack, Allan I; Walsh, James K; Kushida, Clete A; Staley, Bethany; Pien, Grace W

    2018-02-15

    The American Academy of Sleep Medicine has published manuals for scoring polysomnograms that recommend time spent in non-rapid eye movement sleep stages (stage N1, N2, and N3 sleep) be reported. Given the well-established large interrater variability in scoring stage N1 and N3 sleep, we determined the range of time in stage N1 and N3 sleep scored by a large number of technologists when compared to reasonably estimated true values. Polysomnograms of 70 females were scored by 10 highly trained sleep technologists, two each from five different academic sleep laboratories. Range and confidence interval (CI = difference between the 5th and 95th percentiles) of the 10 times spent in stage N1 and N3 sleep assigned in each polysomnogram were determined. Average values of times spent in stage N1 and N3 sleep generated by the 10 technologists in each polysomnogram were considered representative of the true values for the individual polysomnogram. Accuracy of different technologists in estimating delta wave duration was determined by comparing their scores to digitally determined durations. The CI range of the ten N1 scores was 4 to 39 percent of total sleep time (% TST) in different polysomnograms (mean CI ± standard deviation = 11.1 ± 7.1 % TST). Corresponding range for N3 was 1 to 28 % TST (14.4 ± 6.1 % TST). For stage N1 and N3 sleep, very low or very high values were reported for virtually all polysomnograms by different technologists. Technologists varied widely in their assignment of stage N3 sleep, scoring that stage when the digitally determined time of delta waves ranged from 3 to 17 seconds. Manual scoring of non-rapid eye movement sleep stages is highly unreliable among highly trained, experienced technologists. Measures of sleep continuity and depth that are reliable and clinically relevant should be a focus of clinical research.

  5. Shift work and quality of sleep:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Irene; Markvart, Jakob; Holst, René

    2016-01-01

    monitors and sleep diaries, and (3) subjective perceptions of well-being, health, and sleep quality using a questionnaire. Light conditions were measured at both locations. Results A total of 113 nurses (88 %) participated. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding personal......Purpose To examine the effect of designed dynamic light on staff’s quality of sleep with regard to sleep efficiency, level of melatonin in saliva, and subjective perceptions of quality of sleep. Methods An intervention group working in designed dynamic light was compared with a control group...... working in ordinary institutional light at two comparable intensive care units (ICUs). The study included examining (1) melatonin profiles obtained from saliva samples, (2) quality of sleep in terms of sleep efficiency, number of awakenings and subjective assessment of sleep through the use of sleep...

  6. Mild Depressive Symptoms During the Third Trimester of Pregnancy Are Associated with Disruptions in Daily Rhythms but Not Subjective Sleep Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, William; Frey, Benicio N; Steiner, Meir

    2016-06-01

    Recent research in major depressive disorder suggests that dysregulation of the circadian system may be a core pathophysiological component. In pregnancy, women often experience significant disruptions in their daily rhythms, including changes in day-to-day schedule and sleep habits. Current evidence suggests that these disruptions in daily rhythms may adversely affect underlying circadian rhythmicity. The purpose of our study was to examine whether subjectively rated daily rhythm disruptions were associated with a greater incidence of depressive symptoms during the third trimester. Our study was a cross-sectional design, assessing sleep quality, symptoms of depression, and daily rhythm disruptions in 51 pregnant women in their third trimester. We observed a significant relationship between mild depressive symptoms and disruptions in daily rhythms. While we initially observed a strong correlation between subjective sleep quality and depressive symptoms, this was attenuated after accounting for daily rhythm disruptions. Disruptions in daily social rhythms, eating patterns, and general activity were all significantly associated with depressive symptomatology. Our findings point to a strong correlation between daily rhythm disruptions and prenatal depressive symptoms. Given that these daily rhythms are known to act as zeitgebers, longitudinal studies examining the directionality of this relationship between circadian rhythms and depressive symptoms during pregnancy are warranted.

  7. Regional Cerebral Blood Flow during Wakeful Rest in Older Subjects with Mild to Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Andrée-Ann; Gagnon, Katia; Arbour, Caroline; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Montplaisir, Jacques; Gagnon, Jean-François; Gosselin, Nadia

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during wakeful rest in older subjects with mild to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and healthy controls, and to identify markers of OSA severity that predict altered rCBF. High-resolution (99m)Tc-HMPAO SPECT imaging during wakeful rest. Research sleep laboratory affiliated with a University hospital. Fifty untreated OSA patients aged between 55 and 85 years, divided into mild, moderate, and severe OSA, and 20 age-matched healthy controls. N/A. Using statistical parametric mapping, rCBF was compared between groups and correlated with clinical, respiratory, and sleep variables. Whereas no rCBF change was observed in mild and moderate groups, participants with severe OSA had reduced rCBF compared to controls in the left parietal lobules, left precentral gyrus, bilateral postcentral gyri, and right precuneus. Reduced rCBF in these regions and in areas of the bilateral frontal and left temporal cortex was associated with more hypopneas, snoring, hypoxemia, and sleepiness. Higher apnea, microarousal, and body mass indexes were correlated to increased rCBF in the basal ganglia, insula, and limbic system. While older individuals with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) had hypoperfusion in the sensorimotor and parietal areas, respiratory variables and subjective sleepiness were correlated with extended regions of hypoperfusion in the lateral cortex. Interestingly, OSA severity, sleep fragmentation, and obesity correlated with increased perfusion in subcortical and medial cortical regions. Anomalies with such a distribution could result in cognitive deficits and reflect impaired vascular regulation, altered neuronal integrity, and/or undergoing neurodegenerative processes. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  8. The structural changes of upper airway and newly developed sleep breathing disorders after surgical treatment in class III malocclusion subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ui Lyong; Oh, Hoon; Min, Sang Ki; Shin, Ji Ho; Kang, Yong Seok; Lee, Won Wook; Han, Young Eun; Choi, Young Jun; Kim, Hyun Jik

    2017-06-01

    Bimaxillary surgery is the traditional treatment of choice for correcting class III malocclusion which is reported to cause an alteration of oropharyngeal structures and upper airway narrowing that might be a predisposing factor for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study aimed to analyze sleep parameters in class III malocclusion subjects and ascertain the prevalence of snoring or OSA following bimaxillary surgery.A total of 22 patients with Le Fort I osteotomy and mandibular setback for class III malocclusion were prospectively enrolled. All patients received endoscopic examination, cephalometry, 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT), and sleep study twice at 1 month before and 3 months after surgery.The patient population consisted of 5 males and 17 females with a mean body mass index of 22.5 kg/m and mean age of 22.1 years. No patients complained of sleep-related symptoms, and the results of sleep study showed normal values before surgery. Three patients (13%) were newly diagnosed with mild or moderate OSA and 6 patients (27%) showed increased loudness of snoring (over 40 dB) after bimaxillary surgery. According to cephalometric analysis and 3D-CT results, the retropalatal and retroglossal areas were significantly narrowed in class III malocclusion patients, showing snoring and sleep apnea after surgery. In addition, the total volume of the upper airway was considerably reduced following surgery in the same patients.Postoperative narrowing of the upper airway and a reduction of total upper airway volume can be induced, and causes snoring and OSA in class III malocclusion subjects following bimaxillary surgery.

  9. [A study comparing circadian rhythm and sleep quality of athletes and sedentary subjects engaged in night work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauvieux, Benoît; Gouthière, Laurent; Sesboüe, Bruno; Davenne, Damien

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was to show the resistance and persistence of the circadian rhythm of temperature (T degree) and the sleep quality of athletic subjects and sedentary subjects engaged in night work, and attempt to explain the mechanisms that influence these differences. The effects of night work on biological rhythms have been studied extensively in the past few years. The contradictory situations for the night workers irrefutably affect their biological systems. Individuals with high amplitudes in their circadian rhythms have been found to be more tolerant to shift work and this results in a greater stability of circadian rhythms. This seems beneficial in coping with frequent rhythm disturbances. The physical training program seems to improve several mechanisms of the human biological system: amplitudes of circadian rhythms were increased and the circadian rhythm period was more resistant to an environment extreme (night work, shift work, sleep deprivation, or jet lag). To test this hypothesis, athletes and sedentary subjects who were engaged in regular night work were selected in the PSA Peugeot Citroën Automobiles Group in French Normandy country. The circadian rhythm of the T degree for both groups was studied with a specific methodology and with extensive spectral analysis, especially the spectral elliptic inverse method. Study models of the rhythm of the T degree were determined and the characteristic parameters were exposed. A complementary actigraphic study showed the physical training program's effects on the sleep quality. The results revealed a large stability in the rhythm of circadian variation of T degree for the athletes: the amplitude was still large but for the sedentary subjects the amplitude of the T degree decreased and it was difficult to adjust a period on the rhythm of T degree. The stability and persistent quality of the athletes' circadian rhythm was confirmed. We observed that the actigraphic sleep was greater for athletes than for

  10. Subjective sleep disturbances in children with partial epilepsy and their effects on quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutter, Th; Brouwer, O. F.; de Weerd, A. W.

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to explore the prevalence of sleep disturbances in a large cohort of school-aged children with partial epilepsy, to compare the findings with those in children without epilepsy of the same age and gender, and to evaluate the relationship between sleep

  11. Discrepancy between subjective and objective sleep disturbances in early and moderate stage Alzheimer’s disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Most, E.I.S.; Aboudan, S.; Scheltens, P.; van Someren, E.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Sleep disturbances such as nocturnal awakenings frequently occur in demented elderly persons and can contribute to depression, cognitive impairment, and caregiver burden. Recognizing sleep disturbances at an early stage of the disease progress is a first prerequisite of intervention and

  12. The Effectiveness of Hypnotherapy in Treating Depression, Anxiety and Sleep Disturbance Caused by Subjective Tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahmoud Mirzamani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with tinnitus encounter many problems, including depression, anxiety, insomnia, increased sensitivity to sound, and negativity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of hypnotherapy on the depression, anxiety, and insomnia caused by tinnitus. Materials and Methods: This study was a pilot research with a pretest-posttest and control design. The statistical population included individuals who suffered from tinnitus and its associated symptoms. Twenty patients with tinnitus were selected through available sampling. The subjects were divided randomly into two experimental and control groups. Both groups completed the Beck Depression Inventory, Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in both pretest and post-test phases. Only the experimental group received 10 sessions of hypnotherapy. In this study, independent and dependent t-tests were used to obtain the data.Results: The two groups were similar in terms of tinnitus severity and age range. The results of independent and dependent t-tests at p=0.05 level in all three variables of depression, anxiety, and insomnia showed a significant difference between the scores of pretest and post-test as well as the post-test scores of control and experimental groups.Conclusion: The results indicated the effectiveness and usefulness of hypnotherapy in the reduction and treatment of the depression, anxiety, and insomnia caused by tinnitus in the experimental group.

  13. Beyond fatigue: Assessing variables associated with sleep problems and use of sleep medications in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa M Bamer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Alyssa M Bamer, Kurt L Johnson, Dagmar A Amtmann, George H KraftDepartment of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USABackground: Recent research indicates that sleep disturbances are common in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS, though research to date has primarily focused on the relationship between fatigue and sleep. In order to improve treatment of sleep disorders in MS, a better understanding of other factors that contribute to MS sleep disturbance and use of sleep medications in this population is needed.Methods: Individuals with MS (N = 473 involved in an ongoing self-report survey study were asked to report on use of over-the-counter and prescription sleep medications. Participants completed the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep (MOSS scale and other common self-report symptom measures. Multiple regression was used to evaluate factors associated with sleep problems and descriptive statistics were generated to examine use of sleep medications.Results: The mean score on the MOSS scale was 35.9 (standard deviation, 20.2 and 46.8% of the sample had moderate or severe sleep problems. The majority of participants did not use over-the-counter (78% or prescription (70% sleep medications. In a regression model variables statistically significantly associated with sleep problems included depression, nighttime leg cramps, younger age, pain, female sex, fatigue, shorter duration of MS, and nocturia. The model explained 45% of the variance in sleep problems. Of the variance explained, depression accounted for the majority of variance in sleep problems (33%, with other variables explaining significantly less variance.Conclusions: Regression results indicate that fatigue may play a minor role in sleep disturbance in MS and that clinicians should consider the interrelationship between depression and sleep problems when treating either symptom in this population. More research is needed to explore the possibility of under

  14. To Assess Sleep Quality among Pakistani Junior Physicians (House ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effects on one's work and performance, and also predisposes an individual ... Background: Sleep deprivation among junior physicians (house officers) is of growing concern. In developed ..... survey study at an academic institution. Sleep Med.

  15. Sleeping worries away or worrying away sleep? Physiological evidence on sleep-emotion interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia M Talamini

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that sleep might serve a role in emotional coping. However, most findings are based on subjective reports of sleep quality, while the relation with underlying sleep physiology is still largely unknown. In this study, the impact of an emotionally distressing experience on the EEG correlates of sleep was assessed. In addition, the association between sleep physiological parameters and the extent of emotional attenuation over sleep was determined. The experimental set up involved presentation of an emotionally neutral or distressing film fragment in the evening, followed by polysomnographic registration of undisturbed, whole-night sleep and assessment of emotional reactivity to film cues on the next evening. We found that emotional distress induced mild sleep deterioration, but also an increase in the proportion of slow wave sleep (SWS and altered patterning of rapid eye movement (REM sleep. Indeed, while REM sleep occurrence normally increases over the course of the night, emotional distress flattened this distribution and correlated with an increased number of REM periods. While sleep deterioration was negatively associated to emotional attenuation over sleep, the SWS response was positively related to such attenuation and may form part of a compensatory response to the stressor. Interestingly, trait-like SWS characteristics also correlated positively with the extent of emotion attenuation over sleep. The combined results provide strong evidence for an intimate reciprocal relation between sleep physiology and emotional processing. Moreover, individual differences in subjects' emotional and sleep responses suggest there may be a coupling of certain emotion and sleep traits into distinct emotional sleep types.

  16. Serum amyloid A and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome before and after surgically-induced weight loss in morbidly obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitou, Christine; Coupaye, Muriel; Laaban, Jean-Pierre; Coussieu, Christiane; Bedel, J F; Bouillot, Jean-Luc; Basdevant, Arnaud; Clément, Karine; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2006-11-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an inflammatory marker associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and found to be increased in obesity. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome, a frequent complication of obesity also associated with CVD risk, is improved after surgically-induced weight loss. To explore the potential role of SAA in the relation between OSA and CVD, we investigated relationships between changes in SAA concentrations and nocturnal respiratory events in obese subjects undergoing bariatric surgery. We measured plasma SAA and used nocturnal respiratory polygraphy to assess the apneahypopnea index (AHI), the oxygen desaturation index (ODI) and the mean and lowest O(2) saturation (SaO(2) ) in 61 morbidly obese patients before either adjustable gastric banding or gastric bypass. For 35 subjects with OSA, the same data were obtained 1 year after the surgery. Before surgery, SAA concentrations were significantly higher in patients with severe OSA (56.2+/-6.4 microg/ml) compared to subjects with moderate OSA (22.9+/-3.2 microg/ml) or without OSA (16.2+/-2.2 microg/ml). Plasma SAA correlated positively with AHI and ODI, and negatively with mean and lowest SaO(2). After surgery, plasma SAA decreased significantly by 41.7%, and changes in plasma SAA correlated with variations in OSA parameters. In multivariate analyses, AHI was a predictor of plasma SAA, independent of BMI, both at baseline and during weight loss. The improvement of OSA after bariatric surgery is associated with a decrease in SAA, independent of the change in BMI. SAA may represent a marker of the improvement in CVD risk profile after surgically-induced weight loss in patients with OSA.

  17. Assessing periodicity of periodic leg movements during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Christian; Gast, Heidemarie; Schindler, Kaspar; Müller, Markus; Amor, Frédérique; Hess, Christian W; Mathis, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Periodic leg movements (PLM) during sleep consist of involuntary periodic movements of the lower extremities. The debated functional relevance of PLM during sleep is based on correlation of clinical parameters with the PLM index (PLMI). However, periodicity in movements may not be reflected best by the PLMI. Here, an approach novel to the field of sleep research is used to reveal intrinsic periodicity in inter movement intervals (IMI) in patients with PLM. Three patient groups of 10 patients showing PLM with OSA (group 1), PLM without OSA or RLS (group 2) and PLM with RLS (group 3) are considered. Applying the "unfolding" procedure, a method developed in statistical physics, enhances or even reveals intrinsic periodicity of PLM. The degree of periodicity of PLM is assessed by fitting one-parameter distributions to the unfolded IMI distributions. Finally, it is investigated whether the shape of the IMI distributions allows to separate patients into different groups. Despite applying the unfolding procedure, periodicity is neither homogeneous within nor considerably different between the three clinically defined groups. Data-driven clustering reveals more homogeneous and better separated clusters. However, they consist of patients with heterogeneous demographic data and comorbidities, including RLS and OSA. The unfolding procedure may be necessary to enhance or reveal periodicity. Thus this method is proposed as a pre-processing step before analyzing PLM statistically. Data-driven clustering yields much more reasonable results when applied to the unfolded IMI distributions than to the original data. Despite this effort no correlation between the degree of periodicity and demographic data or comorbidities is found. However, there are indications that the nature of the periodicity might be determined by long-range interactions between LM of patients with PLM and OSA.

  18. Comprehensive assessments of long-term sleep habits in epidemiological study: Validity and reliability of sleep factors questionnaire (SFQ) among Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wan-Shui; Fu, Wen-Xue; Wang, Xin; Deng, Qin; Wang, Ling; Wang, Lin-Yan; Zhao, Hao; Fan, Wen-Yan; Huang, Shao-Xin

    2017-04-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested that poor sleep is a potentially novel risk factor for several health outcomes currently; however, there are no validated questionnaires that can systematically measure sleep parameters within these studies. We evaluated the reliability and validity of 17-item sleep factors questionnaire (SFQ), which was developed to comprehensively assess long-term sleep habits for the Jiujiang Breast Cancer Study (JBCS), Jiujiang, China. The participants included 100 women aged 18-74years, who were randomly selected from the JBCS project, and completed a SFQ at baseline and again 1year later, and 4 quarterly 30 consecutive days (a total of 120days) sleep diaries over this same year. Reliability was tested by comparing the 2 SFQs; validity by comparing the average measures between the SFQ and the 4 sleep diaries. Validity analysis showed moderate correlation (γ=0.41) for sleep duration with the adjusted concordance correlation coefficient (CCCadj) of 0.54; the weighted κ statistics indicated an excellent agreement for night/shift work and sleep medication use; fair-to-moderate for sleep quality, light at night (LAN), nighttime sleeping with light on, sleep noise and nap time; slight-to-fair for sleep quality and nighttime wakings frequency. Reliability analysis showed excellent correlation for night/shift work and sleep medication use; fair-to-moderate for LAN, nighttime wakings frequency, insomnia frequency, sleep noise and nap time; but slight-to-fair for insomnia frequency and nighttime sleeping with light on; the CCCadj for sleep duration was 0.61. The SFQ showed reasonable reliability and validity for sleep assessments in most domains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. To Assess Sleep Quality among Pakistani Junior Physicians (House ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    poor communication and less empathy.[4-6]. Junior physicians (house officers) in particular are at a higher risk of having poorer sleep quality. Long working hours, rotating shifts, and on-call duties make them more susceptible to develop sleep disturbances.[7] Several studies have demonstrated sleep impairment among ...

  20. Self-reported sleep quantity, quality and sleep hygiene in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knufinke, Melanie; Nieuwenhuys, Arne; Geurts, Sabine A E; Coenen, Anton M L; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2017-03-08

    Sleep is essential for recovery and performance in elite athletes. While actigraphy-based studies revealed suboptimal sleep in athletes, information on their subjective experience of sleep is scarce. Relatively unexplored is also the extent to which athletes' sleep is adversely affected by environmental conditions and daytime behaviours, that is sleep hygiene. This study aimed to provide insight in sleep quantity, quality and its putative association with sleep hygiene. Participants were 98 elite (youth) athletes competing at the highest (inter-)national level. Sleep quantity, quality and sleep hygiene were assessed once covering a 1-month period by using established (sub)clinical questionnaires, and repeatedly during 7 consecutive days. Sleep quality was generally healthy, although 41% of all athletes could be classified as 'poor sleeper', and 12% were identified as having a sleep disorder. Daily self-monitoring revealed sleep durations of 8:11 ± 0:45 h, but elevated wake after sleep onset of 13 ± 19 min. Sleep quality, feeling refreshed, and morning vigor were moderate at best. Regarding sleep hygiene, general measures revealed irregular sleep-wake patterns, psychological strain and activating pre-sleep behaviours. At the daily level, blue-light exposure and late-evening consumption of heavy meals were frequently reported. General sleep hygiene revealed significant associations with sleep quality (0.45  0.50; P sleep onset. Subtle improvements in sleep seem possible, and optimizing sleep hygiene, such as regular sleep-wake patterns and reducing psychological strain, may facilitate this sleep upgrading process. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  1. Assessing severity of obstructive sleep apnea by fractal dimension sequence analysis of sleep EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Yang, X. C.; Luo, L.; Shao, J.; Zhang, C.; Ma, J.; Wang, G. F.; Liu, Y.; Peng, C.-K.; Fang, J.

    2009-10-01

    Different sleep stages are associated with distinct dynamical patterns in EEG signals. In this article, we explored the relationship between the sleep architecture and fractal dimension (FD) of sleep EEG. In particular, we applied the FD analysis to the sleep EEG of patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), which is characterized by recurrent oxyhemoglobin desaturation and arousals from sleep, a disease which received increasing public attention due to its significant potential impact on health. We showed that the variation of FD reflects the macrostructure of sleep. Furthermore, the fast fluctuation of FD, as measured by the zero-crossing rate of detrended FD (zDFD), is a useful indicator of sleep disturbance, and therefore, correlates with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and hourly number of blood oxygen saturation (SpO 2) decreases greater than 4%, as obstructive apnea/hypopnea disturbs sleep architecture. For practical purpose, a modified index combining zDFD of EEG and body mass index (BMI) may be useful for evaluating the severity of OSAHS symptoms.

  2. Ventricular dysfunction in children with obstructive sleep apnea: radionuclide assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tal, A.; Leiberman, A.; Margulis, G.; Sofer, S.

    1988-01-01

    Ventricular function was evaluated using radionuclide ventriculography in 27 children with oropharyngeal obstruction and clinical features of obstructive sleep apnea. Their mean age was 3.5 years (9 months to 7.5 years). Conventional clinical assessment did not detect cardiac involvement in 25 of 27 children; however, reduced right ventricular ejection fraction (less than 35%) was found in 10 (37%) patients (mean: 19.5 +/- 2.3% SE, range: 8-28%). In 18 patients wall motion abnormality was detected. In 11 children in whom radionuclide ventriculography was performed before and after adenotonsillectomy, right ventricular ejection fraction rose from 24.4 +/- 3.6% to 46.7 +/- 3.4% (P less than 0.005), and in all cases wall motion showed a definite improvement. In five children, left ventricular ejection fraction rose greater than 10% after removal of oropharyngeal obstruction. It is concluded that right ventricular function may be compromised in children with obstructive sleep apnea secondary to adenotonsillar hypertrophy, even before clinical signs of cardiac involvement are present.

  3. A Novel, Open Access Method to Assess Sleep Duration Using a Wrist-Worn Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kirstie N.; Denton, Sarah J.; Oliver, James; Catt, Michael; Abell, Jessica G.; Kivimäki, Mika; Trenell, Michael I.; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Wrist-worn accelerometers are increasingly being used for the assessment of physical activity in population studies, but little is known about their value for sleep assessment. We developed a novel method of assessing sleep duration using data from 4,094 Whitehall II Study (United Kingdom, 2012–2013) participants aged 60–83 who wore the accelerometer for 9 consecutive days, filled in a sleep log and reported sleep duration via questionnaire. Our sleep detection algorithm defined (nocturnal) sleep as a period of sustained inactivity, itself detected as the absence of change in arm angle greater than 5 degrees for 5 minutes or more, during a period recorded as sleep by the participant in their sleep log. The resulting estimate of sleep duration had a moderate (but similar to previous findings) agreement with questionnaire based measures for time in bed, defined as the difference between sleep onset and waking time (kappa = 0.32, 95%CI:0.29,0.34) and total sleep duration (kappa = 0.39, 0.36,0.42). This estimate was lower for time in bed for women, depressed participants, those reporting more insomnia symptoms, and on weekend days. No such group differences were found for total sleep duration. Our algorithm was validated against data from a polysomnography study on 28 persons which found a longer time window and lower angle threshold to have better sensitivity to wakefulness, while the reverse was true for sensitivity to sleep. The novelty of our method is the use of a generic algorithm that will allow comparison between studies rather than a “count” based, device specific method. PMID:26569414

  4. A longitudinal assessment of sleep timing, circadian phase, and phase angle of entrainment across human adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Stephanie J; Van Reen, Eliza; LeBourgeois, Monique K; Acebo, Christine; Tarokh, Leila; Seifer, Ronald; Barker, David H; Carskadon, Mary A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this descriptive analysis was to examine sleep timing, circadian phase, and phase angle of entrainment across adolescence in a longitudinal study design. Ninety-four adolescents participated; 38 (21 boys) were 9-10 years ("younger cohort") and 56 (30 boys) were 15-16 years ("older cohort") at the baseline assessment. Participants completed a baseline and then follow-up assessments approximately every six months for 2.5 years. At each assessment, participants wore a wrist actigraph for at least one week at home to measure self-selected sleep timing before salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) phase - a marker of the circadian timing system - was measured in the laboratory. Weekday and weekend sleep onset and offset and weekend-weekday differences were derived from actigraphy. Phase angles were the time durations from DLMO to weekday sleep onset and offset times. Each cohort showed later sleep onset (weekend and weekday), later weekend sleep offset, and later DLMO with age. Weekday sleep offset shifted earlier with age in the younger cohort and later in the older cohort after age 17. Weekend-weekday sleep offset differences increased with age in the younger cohort and decreased in the older cohort after age 17. DLMO to sleep offset phase angle narrowed with age in the younger cohort and became broader in the older cohort. The older cohort had a wider sleep onset phase angle compared to the younger cohort; however, an age-related phase angle increase was seen in the younger cohort only. Individual differences were seen in these developmental trajectories. This descriptive study indicated that circadian phase and self-selected sleep delayed across adolescence, though school-day sleep offset advanced until no longer in high school, whereupon offset was later. Phase angle changes are described as an interaction of developmental changes in sleep regulation interacting with psychosocial factors (e.g., bedtime autonomy).

  5. A longitudinal assessment of sleep timing, circadian phase, and phase angle of entrainment across human adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J Crowley

    Full Text Available The aim of this descriptive analysis was to examine sleep timing, circadian phase, and phase angle of entrainment across adolescence in a longitudinal study design. Ninety-four adolescents participated; 38 (21 boys were 9-10 years ("younger cohort" and 56 (30 boys were 15-16 years ("older cohort" at the baseline assessment. Participants completed a baseline and then follow-up assessments approximately every six months for 2.5 years. At each assessment, participants wore a wrist actigraph for at least one week at home to measure self-selected sleep timing before salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO phase - a marker of the circadian timing system - was measured in the laboratory. Weekday and weekend sleep onset and offset and weekend-weekday differences were derived from actigraphy. Phase angles were the time durations from DLMO to weekday sleep onset and offset times. Each cohort showed later sleep onset (weekend and weekday, later weekend sleep offset, and later DLMO with age. Weekday sleep offset shifted earlier with age in the younger cohort and later in the older cohort after age 17. Weekend-weekday sleep offset differences increased with age in the younger cohort and decreased in the older cohort after age 17. DLMO to sleep offset phase angle narrowed with age in the younger cohort and became broader in the older cohort. The older cohort had a wider sleep onset phase angle compared to the younger cohort; however, an age-related phase angle increase was seen in the younger cohort only. Individual differences were seen in these developmental trajectories. This descriptive study indicated that circadian phase and self-selected sleep delayed across adolescence, though school-day sleep offset advanced until no longer in high school, whereupon offset was later. Phase angle changes are described as an interaction of developmental changes in sleep regulation interacting with psychosocial factors (e.g., bedtime autonomy.

  6. A Longitudinal Assessment of Sleep Timing, Circadian Phase, and Phase Angle of Entrainment across Human Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Stephanie J.; Van Reen, Eliza; LeBourgeois, Monique K.; Acebo, Christine; Tarokh, Leila; Seifer, Ronald; Barker, David H.; Carskadon, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this descriptive analysis was to examine sleep timing, circadian phase, and phase angle of entrainment across adolescence in a longitudinal study design. Ninety-four adolescents participated; 38 (21 boys) were 9–10 years (“younger cohort”) and 56 (30 boys) were 15–16 years (“older cohort”) at the baseline assessment. Participants completed a baseline and then follow-up assessments approximately every six months for 2.5 years. At each assessment, participants wore a wrist actigraph for at least one week at home to measure self-selected sleep timing before salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) phase – a marker of the circadian timing system – was measured in the laboratory. Weekday and weekend sleep onset and offset and weekend-weekday differences were derived from actigraphy. Phase angles were the time durations from DLMO to weekday sleep onset and offset times. Each cohort showed later sleep onset (weekend and weekday), later weekend sleep offset, and later DLMO with age. Weekday sleep offset shifted earlier with age in the younger cohort and later in the older cohort after age 17. Weekend-weekday sleep offset differences increased with age in the younger cohort and decreased in the older cohort after age 17. DLMO to sleep offset phase angle narrowed with age in the younger cohort and became broader in the older cohort. The older cohort had a wider sleep onset phase angle compared to the younger cohort; however, an age-related phase angle increase was seen in the younger cohort only. Individual differences were seen in these developmental trajectories. This descriptive study indicated that circadian phase and self-selected sleep delayed across adolescence, though school-day sleep offset advanced until no longer in high school, whereupon offset was later. Phase angle changes are described as an interaction of developmental changes in sleep regulation interacting with psychosocial factors (e.g., bedtime autonomy). PMID:25380248

  7. Clinical significance of mobile health assessed sleep duration and variability in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Christopher N; Gershon, Anda; Eyler, Lisa T; Depp, Colin A

    2016-10-01

    Sleep disturbances are prevalent, persistent, and impairing features of bipolar disorder. However, the near-term and cumulative impact of the severity and variability of sleep disturbances on symptoms and functioning remains unclear. We examined self-reported daily sleep duration and variability in relation to mood symptoms, medication adherence, cognitive functioning, and concurrent daily affect. Forty-one outpatients diagnosed with bipolar disorder were asked to provide daily reports of sleep duration and affect collected via ecological momentary assessment with smartphones over eleven weeks. Measures of depressive and manic symptoms, medication adherence, and cognitive function were collected at baseline and concurrent assessment of affect were collected daily. Analyses examined whether sleep duration or variability were associated with baseline measures and changes in same-day or next-day affect. Greater sleep duration variability (but not average sleep duration) was associated with greater depressive and manic symptom severity, and lower medication adherence at baseline, and with lower and more variable ratings of positive affect and higher ratings of negative affect. Sleep durations shorter than 7-8 h were associated with lower same-day ratings of positive and higher same-day ratings of negative affect, however this did not extend to next-day affect. Greater cumulative day-to-day sleep duration variability, but not average sleep duration, was related to more severe mood symptoms, lower self-reported medication adherence and higher levels of negative affect. Bouts of short- or long-duration sleep had transient impact on affect. Day-to-day sleep variability may be important to incorporate into clinical assessment of sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Novel, Open Access Method to Assess Sleep Duration Using a Wrist-Worn Accelerometer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent T van Hees

    Full Text Available Wrist-worn accelerometers are increasingly being used for the assessment of physical activity in population studies, but little is known about their value for sleep assessment. We developed a novel method of assessing sleep duration using data from 4,094 Whitehall II Study (United Kingdom, 2012-2013 participants aged 60-83 who wore the accelerometer for 9 consecutive days, filled in a sleep log and reported sleep duration via questionnaire. Our sleep detection algorithm defined (nocturnal sleep as a period of sustained inactivity, itself detected as the absence of change in arm angle greater than 5 degrees for 5 minutes or more, during a period recorded as sleep by the participant in their sleep log. The resulting estimate of sleep duration had a moderate (but similar to previous findings agreement with questionnaire based measures for time in bed, defined as the difference between sleep onset and waking time (kappa = 0.32, 95%CI:0.29,0.34 and total sleep duration (kappa = 0.39, 0.36,0.42. This estimate was lower for time in bed for women, depressed participants, those reporting more insomnia symptoms, and on weekend days. No such group differences were found for total sleep duration. Our algorithm was validated against data from a polysomnography study on 28 persons which found a longer time window and lower angle threshold to have better sensitivity to wakefulness, while the reverse was true for sensitivity to sleep. The novelty of our method is the use of a generic algorithm that will allow comparison between studies rather than a "count" based, device specific method.

  9. Assessment and treatment of common pediatric sleep disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avis, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    Current evidence indicates that chronically disrupted sleep in children and adolescents can lead to problems in cognitive functioning. Behavioral interventions for pediatric sleep problems (e.g., graduated extinction, parent education, positive bedtime routines), especially in young children, have been shown to produce clinically significant improvements. This review describes a few pertinent conditions of sleep disorders in children and adolescents as well as provides clinically useful approaches to sleep complaints and both pharmacologic and nonpharmacological treatments of some common pediatric sleep disorders. PMID:20622943

  10. Menstrual changes in sleep, rectal temperature and melatonin rhythms in a subject with premenstrual syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, K; Uchiyama, M; Okawa, M; Saito, K; Kawaguchi, M; Funabashi, T; Kimura, F

    2000-03-10

    We studied a sighted woman with premenstrual syndrome who showed menstrual changes in circadian rhythms. She showed alternative phase shifts in the sleep rhythm in the menstrual cycle: progressive phase advances in the follicular phase and phase delays in the luteal phase. Rectal temperature rhythm also showed similar menstrual changes, but the phase advance and delay started a few days earlier than changes in sleep-wake rhythm so that the two rhythms were dissociated around ovulation and menstruation. These results suggest that her circadian rhythms in sleep and temperature are under the control of ovarian steroid hormones and that these two rhythms have different sensitivity to the hormones.

  11. Analyses of aerodynamic characteristics of the oropharynx applying CBCT: obstructive sleep apnea patients versus control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Li, Yingguang; Reiber, Johan Hc; de Lange, Jan; Tu, Shengxian; van der Stelt, Paul; Lobbezoo, Frank; Aarab, Ghizlane

    2018-02-01

    To determine the most relevant aerodynamic characteristic of the oropharynx related to the collapse of the upper airway in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients; and to determine the correlation between the most relevant aerodynamic characteristic(s) of the oropharynx and anatomical characteristics of the oropharynx in OSA patients. 31 mild to moderate OSA patients (mean ± SD age = 43.5 ± 9.7 years) and 13 control subjects (mean ± SD age = 48.5 ± 16.2 years) were included in this prospective study. The diagnosis of OSA patients was based on an overnight polysomnographic recording. To exclude the presence of OSA in the control subjects, they were asked to fill out a validated questionnaire to determine the risk of OSA. NewTom5G cone beam CT (CBCT) scans were obtained from both OSA patients and control subjects. Computational models of the oropharynx were reconstructed based on CBCT images. The aerodynamic characteristics of the oropharynx were calculated based on these computational models. Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyse the correlation between the most relevant aerodynamic characteristic(s) and anatomical characteristics of the oropharynx in OSA patients. Compared with controls, the airway resistance during expiration (R ex ) of the OSA patients was significantly higher (p = 0.04). There was a significant negative correlation between R ex and the minimum cross-sectional area (CSA min ) of the oropharynx (r = -0.41, p = 0.02), and between R ex and the volume of the oropharynx (r = -0.48, p = 0.01) in OSA patients. After excluding an outlier, there is only significant correlation between R ex and the CSA min of the oropharynx (r = -0.45, p = 0.01). Within the limitations of this study, we concluded that the most relevant aerodynamic characteristic of the oropharynx in the collapse of the upper airway in OSA patients is R ex . Therefore, the repetitive collapse of the upper airway in OSA patients may be explained by a high R ex , which is

  12. Assessing the Effect of Shipboard Motion and Sleep Surface on Sleep Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Seat (from: Dobbins, Rowley, and Campbell, 2008)....................34 Figure 20. SAFTE Model (from: Hursh et al., 2004...Postgraduate School NSWW Navy Standard Work Week OPTEMPO Operational Tempo REM Rapid Eye Movement RMS Root Mean Square SAFTE Sleep Activity... frequency vibration is capable of causing sleep disturbance in that it can make a person more conscious of other environmental factors. Nakashima (2004

  13. Validation of a multi-sensor activity monitor for assessing sleep in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soric, Maroje; Turkalj, Mirjana; Kucic, Darija; Marusic, Ivana; Plavec, Davor; Misigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta

    2013-02-01

    To assess the validity of a multi-sensor activity monitor in estimating sleep and wake compared to polysomnography in children and adolescents. A total of 43 children and adolescents (29 boys, 14 girls), aged 7-17years (mean age [SD] = 11.0 [2.4] years) participated in the study. Participants wore the SenseWear Pro(3) Armband™ (SWA) body monitor (BodyMedia Inc) during an overnight polysomnographic assessment in a paediatric sleep laboratory. Sleep measures included sleep onset latency (SOL), wake after sleep onset (WASO), total sleep time (TST) and sleep efficiency (SE). No systematic bias of the SWA was noted for any of the sleep measures assessed, but limits of agreement were wide and amounted to -76 to +58min for SOL, -75 to 102min for WASO, -109 to +99min for TST and -22 to +20% for SE. In addition, no effect of gender, age group (children versus adolescents) or overweight on the accuracy of the SWA was found. The SenseWear Armband™ showed good agreement with polysomnography at the group level, while at the individual level rather, poor agreement between the two methods was observed. Consequently, at this point the use of the SWA in the clinical evaluation of sleep cannot be advocated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Subjective Perception of Sports Performance, Training, Sleep and Dietary Patterns of Malaysian Junior Muslim Athletes during Ramadan Intermittent Fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rabindarjeet; Hwa, Ooi Cheong; Roy, Jolly; Jin, Chai Wen; Ismail, Siti Musyrifah; Lan, Mohamad Faizal; Hiong, Loo Lean; Aziz, Abdul-Rashid

    2011-09-01

    To examine the subjective perception of daily acute fasting on sports performance, training, sleep and dietary patterns of Muslim athletes during the Ramadan month. Seven hundred and thirty-four (411 male and 323 female) Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes (mean age 16.3 ± 2.6 y) participated in the survey which was designed to establish the personal perception of their sport performance, sleep pattern, food and fluid intake during Ramadan fasting. The survey was conducted during and immediately after the month of Ramadan in 2009. Twenty-four percent of the athletes perceived that there was an adverse effect of the Ramadan fast on their sporting performance and 29.3% reported that quality of training during Ramadan was also negatively influenced. Majority (48.2%) of the athletes stated that Ramadan fasting did not affect their normal sleep pattern but 66.6% of them complained of sleepiness during the daytime. Half of the athletes (41.4%) maintained the caloric intake during Ramadan as they normally would with the majority of them (76.2%) reporting that they consumed more fluids during Ramadan. Overall, Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes showed diverse views in their perception of changes in their training, sleep and dietary patterns during Ramadan fast. These individual differences probably indicate differences in the athletes' adaptability and coping strategies during fasting and training in Ramadan.

  15. Subjective Perception of Sports Performance, Training, Sleep and Dietary Patterns of Malaysian Junior Muslim Athletes during Ramadan Intermittent Fasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rabindarjeet; Hwa, Ooi Cheong; Roy, Jolly; Jin, Chai Wen; Ismail, Siti Musyrifah; Lan, Mohamad Faizal; Hiong, Loo Lean; Aziz, Abdul-Rashid

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine the subjective perception of daily acute fasting on sports performance, training, sleep and dietary patterns of Muslim athletes during the Ramadan month. Methods Seven hundred and thirty-four (411 male and 323 female) Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes (mean age 16.3 ± 2.6 y) participated in the survey which was designed to establish the personal perception of their sport performance, sleep pattern, food and fluid intake during Ramadan fasting. The survey was conducted during and immediately after the month of Ramadan in 2009. Results Twenty-four percent of the athletes perceived that there was an adverse effect of the Ramadan fast on their sporting performance and 29.3% reported that quality of training during Ramadan was also negatively influenced. Majority (48.2%) of the athletes stated that Ramadan fasting did not affect their normal sleep pattern but 66.6% of them complained of sleepiness during the daytime. Half of the athletes (41.4%) maintained the caloric intake during Ramadan as they normally would with the majority of them (76.2%) reporting that they consumed more fluids during Ramadan. Conclusions Overall, Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes showed diverse views in their perception of changes in their training, sleep and dietary patterns during Ramadan fast. These individual differences probably indicate differences in the athletes’ adaptability and coping strategies during fasting and training in Ramadan. PMID:22375236

  16. A comparative study on the clinical and polysomnographic pattern of obstructive sleep apnea among obese and non-obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Garg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to compare the pattern of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA among obese and nonobese subjects regarding clinical and polysomnographic data obtained for a polysomnographic study. Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective descriptive study was conducted by analyzing polysomnographic data in 112 consecutive patients underwent a sleep study at our sleep laboratory from January 2009 to July 2010. Out of them, 81 were diagnosed to have OSA (apnea-hypopnoea Index ≥5. These patients were classified in two groups with body mass index (BMI 0.001. The minimal oxygen saturation was lower in the obese than the nonobese group (68.5 ± 13.00 vs. 80.3 ± 7.40, P0.001 and was well below 90% in both groups. Overall, the OSA in nonobese patients was mild-to-moderate as compared to that of the obese and no significant differences were observed between them as regard to age, gender, mean neck circumference, excessive daytime sleepiness, adenoid or tonsillar enlargement, smoking, and remaining polysomnographic parameters. Conclusion: Obstructive sleep apnea can occur in nonobese persons though with less severity as compared to obese leading to a concept that OSA is not restricted to obese persons only and there is a high demand of its awareness regarding evaluation, diagnosis, and management in such individuals.

  17. Assessing the Influence of Sleep-Wake Variables on Body Mass Index (BMI in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Randler

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has established an association between overweight/obesity and sleep duration, suggesting that short sleep duration and timing of sleeping may lead to overweight. Most of these studies considered sleep-length rather than any other aspects associated with the sleep and wake rhythm, e.g. chronotype, which is a measure of timing of sleeping (‘when to sleep’; based on the midpoint of sleep. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of different factors of the sleep-wake cycle and of co-variates on the Body Mass Index in a cross-sectional questionnaire study. Nine hundred and thirteen pupils (406 boys, 507 girls from Southwestern Germany participated in this study. Mean age was 13.7 ± 1.5 (SD years and range was between 11 – 16 years. We found that chronotype (β = .079 and social jetlag (β = .063 showed a significant influence on Body Mass Index (BMI, while sleep duration did not. Social jetlag is the absolute difference between mid-sleep time on workdays and free days. Further, screen time (in front of TV, computer, β = .13 was positively related with BMI. Self-efficacy on nutrition (β = -.11, a psychological variable important in health-behaviour models, showed an influence with high scores on self-efficacy related to lower BMI. A high BMI was correlated with low fast-food consumption (β = -.12 suggesting that adolescents with high BMI may exert some control over their eating.

  18. Effects of artificial dawn on subjective ratings of sleep inertia and dim light melatonin onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Marina C; Hessels, Martijn; van de Werken, Maan; de Vries, Bonnie; Beersma, Domien G M; Gordijn, Marijke C M

    2010-07-01

    The timing of work and social requirements has a negative impact on performance and well-being of a significant proportion of the population in our modern society due to a phenomenon known as social jetlag. During workdays, in the early morning, late chronotypes, in particular, suffer from a combination of a nonoptimal circadian phase and sleep deprivation. Sleep inertia, a transient period of lowered arousal after awakening, therefore, becomes more severe. In the present home study, the authors tested whether the use of an alarm clock with artificial dawn could reduce complaints of sleep inertia in people having difficulties in waking up early. The authors also examined whether these improvements were accompanied by a shift in the melatonin rhythm. Two studies were performed: Study 1: three conditions (0, 50, and 250 lux) and Study 2: two conditions (0 lux and self-selected dawn-light intensity). Each condition lasted 2 weeks. In both studies, the use of the artificial dawn resulted in a significant reduction of sleep inertia complaints. However, no significant shift in the onset of melatonin was observed after 2 weeks of using the artificial dawn of 250 lux or 50 lux compared to the control condition. A multilevel analysis revealed that only the presence of the artificial dawn, rather than shift in the dim light melatonin onset or timing of sleep offset, is related to the observed reduction of sleep inertia complaints. Mechanisms other than shift of circadian rhythms are needed to explain the positive results on sleep inertia of waking up with a dawn signal.

  19. Changes in Habitual Sleep Duration after Continuous Positive Airway Pressure for Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Ryo; Minami, Takuma; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Murase, Kimihiko; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Inouchi, Morito; Oga, Toru; Chin, Kazuo

    2017-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can affect not only sleep quality but also sleep duration. Determining the therapeutic effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on habitual sleep profiles may shed light on the impact of OSA on sleep duration. To determine whether and how CPAP affects habitual sleep duration in patients with OSA. Assessments of sleep duration and sleep quality were performed on 57 newly diagnosed study subjects with OSA (46 men; median age, 63 yr; apnea-hypopnea index, >20 h(-1)) at baseline and 3 months after initiation of CPAP therapy. Measurements included in-laboratory sleep tests (polysomnography), assessments of habitual sleep (actigraphy with sleep diary for 7 d), and questionnaires on subjective symptoms (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Actigraphic night sleep time did not change after CPAP (from 354.0 ± 64.5 min to 353.0 ± 57.0 min; P = 0.87) in the entire group, despite improvements in sleep efficiency and sleep fragmentation. Changes in habitual night sleep duration varied among the participants; habitual night sleep duration increased by 33 minutes (interquartile range, 14-45 min) in 28 participants (sleep time restorers) and decreased by 23 minutes (interquartile range, -48 to -11 min) in 29 participants (sleep time nonrestorers). Subgroup analyses revealed that sleep time restorers were characterized at baseline as having shorter and more fragmented sleep with frequent daytime napping. Nonrestorers were characterized by frequent use of hypnotic drugs and comorbid insomnia, despite longer habitual sleep duration. Actigraphic sleep fragmentation, sleep efficiency, daytime sleepiness, and the frequency of daytime napping were improved after CPAP only in the sleep time restorers, whereas subjective sleep quality was improved in the nonrestorers. Multivariate linear regression showed that shorter baseline night sleep time, baseline daytime napping

  20. The Effects of Sleep Continuity Disruption on Positive Mood and Sleep Architecture in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finan, Patrick H; Quartana, Phillip J; Smith, Michael T

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to test an experimental model of the effects of sleep continuity disturbance on sleep architecture and positive mood in order to better understand the mechanisms linking insomnia and depression. Participants were randomized to receive 3 consecutive nights of sleep continuity disruption via forced nocturnal awakenings (FA, n = 21), or one of two control conditions: restricted sleep opportunity (RSO, n = 17) or uninterrupted sleep (US, n = 24). The study was set in an inpatient clinical research suite. Healthy, good-sleeping men and women were included. Polysomnography was used to measure sleep architecture, and mood was assessed via self-report each day. Compared to restricted sleep opportunity controls, forced awakenings subjects had significantly less slow wave sleep (P < 0.05) after the first night of sleep deprivation, and significantly lower positive mood (P < 0.05) after the second night of sleep deprivation. The differential change in slow wave sleep statistically mediated the observed group differences in positive mood (P = 0.002). To our knowledge, this is the first human experimental study to demonstrate that, despite comparable reductions in total sleep time, partial sleep loss from sleep continuity disruption is more detrimental to positive mood than partial sleep loss from delaying bedtime, even when controlling for concomitant increases in negative mood. With these findings, we provide temporal evidence in support of a putative biologic mechanism (slow wave sleep deficit) that could help explain the strong comorbidity between insomnia and depression. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  1. Assessment and treatment of common pediatric sleep disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Moturi, Sricharan; Avis, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    Current evidence indicates that chronically disrupted sleep in children and adolescents can lead to problems in cognitive functioning. Behavioral interventions for pediatric sleep problems (e.g., graduated extinction, parent education, positive bedtime routines), especially in young children, have been shown to produce clinically significant improvements. This review describes a few pertinent conditions of sleep disorders in children and adolescents as well as provides clinically useful appro...

  2. Biomechanical procedure to assess sleep restriction on motor control and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, G S; Noriega, C L; Soares, D F; Forner-Cordero, A

    2017-07-01

    The analysis of sleep quality during long periods and its impact on motor control and learning performance are crucial aspects for human health. The aim of this study is to analyze effects of chronic sleep restriction on motor performance. It is intended to establish motor control indicators in sleep quality analysis. A wearable actigraphy that records accelerometry, ambient light, and body temperature was used to monitor the sleep habits of 12 healthy subjects for two weeks before performing motor control and learning tests. The day of the motor test, the subjects filled two questionnaires about the quality of sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index - PSQI) and sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale - ESS). Afterwards they performed a coincident timing task that consisted of hitting a virtual target falling on the screen with the hand. An elbow flexion in the horizontal plane had to be performed on the correct time to reach the real target on a table at the same time as the virtual target on the screen. The subjects performed three sets of acquisition and transfer blocks of the coincident timing task. The subjects were clustered in two groups based on the PSQI and ESS scores. Actigraphy and motor control parameters (L5, correct responses, time variance) were compared between groups and experimental sets. The group with better sleep parameters did show a constant performance across blocks of task acquisition while the bad sleeper group improved from the first to the second acquisition block. Despite of this improvement, their performance is not better than the one of the good sleepers group. Although the number of subjects is low and it should be increased, these results indicate that the subjects with better sleep converged rapidly to a high level of performance, while the worse sleepers needed more trials to learn the task and their performance was not superior to the other group.

  3. Assessing periodicity of periodic leg movements during sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eRummel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS consist of involuntary periodic movements of the lower extremities. The debated functional relevance of PLMS is based on correlation of clinical parameters with the PLMS index (PLMI. However, periodicity in movements may not be reflected best by the PLMI. Here, an approach novel to the field of sleep research is used to reveal intrinsic periodicity in inter movement intervals (IMI in patients with PLMS. Methods: Three patient groups of 10 patients showing PLMS with OSA (group 1, PLMS without OSA or RLS (group 2 and PLMS with RLS (group 3 were considered. Applying the ``unfolding'' procedure, a method developed in statistical physics, enhanced or even revealed intrinsic periodicity of PLMS. The degree of periodicity of PLMS was assessed by fitting one-parameter distributions to the unfolded IMI distributions. Finally, it was investigated whether the shape of the IMI distributions allows to separate patients into different groups. Results: Despite applying the unfolding procedure, periodicity was neither homogeneous within nor considerably different between the three clinically defined groups. Data-driven clustering revealed more homogeneous and better separated clusters. However, they consisted of patients with heterogeneous demographic data and comorbidities, including RLS {em and} OSA. Conclusions: The unfolding procedure may be necessary to enhance or reveal periodicity. Thus this method is proposed as a pre-processing step before analyzing PLMS statistically. Data-driven clustering yields much more reasonable results when applied to the unfolded IMI distributions than to the original data. Despite this effort no correlation between the {em degree} of periodicity and demographic data or comorbidities was found. However, there were indications that the {em nature} of the periodicity might be determined by long-range interactions between LM of patients with PLMS and OSA.

  4. Objectively Assessed Sleep Variability as an Acute Warning Sign of Suicidal Ideation in a Longitudinal Evaluation of Young Adults at High Suicide Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernert, Rebecca A; Hom, Melanie A; Iwata, Naomi G; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-06-01

    Young adults attempt suicide at disproportionately high rates relative to other groups and demonstrate high rates of sleep disturbance. No study has yet prospectively evaluated disturbed sleep as an acute indicator of risk using an objective index of sleep. We investigated objective and subjective parameters of disturbed sleep as a warning sign of suicidal ideation among young adults over an acute period. A longitudinal study across a 21-day observation period and 3 time points. Fifty of 4,847 participants (aged 18-23 years) were prescreened from a university undergraduate research pool (February 2007-June 2008) on the basis of suicide attempt history and recent suicidal ideation. Actigraphic and subjective sleep parameters were evaluated as acute predictors of suicidal ideation (Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation), with adjustment for baseline symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses were employed to predict residual change scores. Ninety-six percent of participants (n = 48) endorsed a suicide attempt history. Mean actigraphy values revealed objectively disturbed sleep parameters; 78% (n = 39) and 36% (n = 18) endorsed clinically significant insomnia and nightmares, respectively. When results were controlled for baseline suicidal and depressive symptoms, actigraphic and subjective sleep parameters predicted suicidal ideation residual change scores at 7- and 21-day follow-ups (P suicidal ideation (P suicidal ideation across time points (P suicidal ideation increases in this population, independent of depressed mood. Self-reported insomnia and nightmares and actigraphically assessed sleep variability emerged as acute warning signs of suicidal ideation. These findings highlight the potential utility of sleep as a proposed biomarker of suicide risk and a therapeutic target.

  5. Subjective sleep quality in women experiencing intimate partner violence: contributions of situational, psychological, and physiological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephanie J; Kozachik, Sharon L; Hall, Rosalie J

    2010-02-01

    This study, guided by an adaptation of the theory of unpleasant symptoms, examined the complex relationships of childhood maltreatment, intimate partner violence (IPV), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and physical health symptoms with global sleep quality and disruptive nighttime behaviors. Data were analyzed using covariance structure analysis. A convenience sample of 157 women currently experiencing IPV was recruited from crisis shelters and community agencies. Findings provide empirical support that women concurrently experiencing PTSD, depression, and stress-related physical health symptoms demonstrated poor global sleep quality and frequent disruptive nighttime behaviors. Posttraumatic stress disorder and stress health symptoms functioned as mediators of childhood maltreatment and IPV effects on both global sleep quality and disruptive nighttime behaviors, but depression did not.

  6. Longer self-reported sleep duration is associated with decreased performance on the montreal cognitive assessment in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Kora, Krishna; O'Connor, Kathy; Schofield, Sharon; Coon, David; Nieri, Walter

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies investigating the relationship between sleep duration and cognitive function in older adults have suggested that longer sleep durations are associated with decreased cognitive performance. The intent of this study is to determine if performance on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE) is associated with self-reported sleep duration in older adults. Data from 189 cognitively normal older adults aged 75 and older (mean age 89.29 ± 7.62) and free of severe depression were used for this analysis. Individuals were grouped based on their self-reported hours of sleep (short duration = 9, and long duration = ≥9). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to discern group differences on the MoCA scores, while multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the association between MoCA and MMSE scores and sleep group. The long duration group had significantly lower MoCA scores than the normal duration group (p = 0.02). The short duration group was not significantly different from the normal duration group (p = 0.33). Individuals in the short duration group were more likely to have higher MoCA scores than those in long duration group after adjusting for age, gender, and presence of depressive symptoms [OR 0.86, 95 % CI (0.76, 0.98), p = 0.02]. The results of this study suggest that in a group of non-demented, very old subjects, self-reported sleep duration of nine or more hours is associated with decreased cognitive performance on the MoCA in older adults, even after accounting for age, gender, and presence of depressive symptoms.

  7. Cognitive workload and sleep restriction interact to influence sleep homeostatic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Namni; Abe, Takashi; Braun, Marcia E; Dinges, David F

    2014-11-01

    Determine the effects of high versus moderate workload on sleep physiology and neurobehavioral measures, during sleep restriction (SR) and no sleep restriction (NSR) conditions. Ten-night experiment involving cognitive workload and SR manipulations. Controlled laboratory environment. Sixty-three healthy adults (mean ± standard deviation: 33.2 ± 8.7 y; 29 females), age 22-50 y. Following three baseline 8 h time in bed (TIB) nights, subjects were randomized to one of four conditions: high cognitive workload (HW) + SR; moderate cognitive workload (MW) + SR; HW + NSR; or MW + NSR. SR entailed 5 consecutive nights at 4 h TIB; NSR entailed 5 consecutive nights at 8 h TIB. Subjects received three workload test sessions/day consisting of 15-min preworkload assessments, followed by a 60-min (MW) or 120-min (HW) workload manipulation comprised of visually based cognitive tasks, and concluding with 15-min of postworkload assessments. Experimental nights were followed by two 8-h TIB recovery sleep nights. Polysomnography was collected on baseline night 3, experimental nights 1, 4, and 5, and recovery night 1 using three channels (central, frontal, occipital [C3, Fz, O2]). High workload, regardless of sleep duration, increased subjective fatigue and sleepiness (all P sleep restriction produced cumulative increases in Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) lapses, fatigue, and sleepiness and decreases in PVT response speed and Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT) sleep onset latencies (all P sleep onset latencies (P sleep onset (P sleep homeostasis-was higher at O2 than C3 only in the HW + SR condition (P sleep onset, but it also promoted sleep homeostatic responses by increasing subjective fatigue and sleepiness, and producing a global sleep homeostatic response by reducing wake after sleep onset. When combined with sleep restriction, high workload increased local (occipital) sleep homeostasis, suggesting a use-dependent sleep response to visual work. We conclude that sleep

  8. Assessment Of Noise-induced Sleep Fragility In Two Age Ranges By Means Of Polysomnographic Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzano, M. G.; Parrino, L.; Spaggiari, M. C.; Buccino, G. P.; Fioriti, G.; Depoortere, H.

    1993-04-01

    The microstructure of sleep, which translates the short-lived fluctuations of the arousal level, is a commonly neglected feature in polysomnographic studies. Specifically arranged microstructural EEG events may provide important information on the dynamic characteristics of the sleep process. CAP (cyclic alternating pattern) and non-CAP are complementary modalities in which arousal-related "phasic" EEG phenomena are organized in non-REM sleep, and they correspond to opposite conditions of unstable and stable sleep depth, respectively. Thus, arousal instability can be measured by the CAP rate, the percentage ratio of total CAP time to total non-REM sleep time. The CAP rate, an age-related physiological variable that increases in several pathological conditions, is highly sensitive to acoustic perturbation. In the present study, two groups of healthy subjects without complaints about sleep, belonging to different age ranges (six young adults, three males and three females, between 20 and 30 years, and six middle-aged individuals, three males and three females, between 40 and 55 years) slept, after adaptation to the sleep laboratory, in a random sequence for two non-consecutive nights either under silent baseline (27·3 dB(A) Lcq) or noise-disturbed (continuous 55 dB(A) white noise) conditions. Age-related and noise-related effects on traditional sleep parameters and on the CAP rate were statistically evaluated by a split-plot test. Compared to young adults, the middle-aged individuals showed a significant reduction of total sleep time, stage 2 and REM sleep and significantly higher values of nocturnal awakenings and the CAP rate. The noisy nights were characterized by similar alterations. The disruptive effects of acoustic perturbation were greater on the more fragile sleep architecture of the older group. The increased fragility of sleep associated with aging probably reflects the decreased capacity of the sleeping brain to maintain steady states of vigilance. Total

  9. To Assess Sleep Quality among Pakistani Junior Physicians (House ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sleep deprivation among junior physicians (house officers) is of growing concern. In developed countries, duty hours are now mandated, but in developing countries, junior physicians are highly susceptible to develop sleep impairment due to long working hours, on‑call duties and shift work schedule. Aim: We ...

  10. Comparison of Medical Subject Headings and text-word searches in MEDLINE to retrieve studies on sleep in healthy individuals*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenuwine, Elizabeth S.; Floyd, Judith A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to investigate the performance of two search strategies in the retrieval of primary research papers containing descriptive information on the sleep of healthy people from MEDLINE. Methodology: Two search strategies—one based on the use of only Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), the second based on text-word searching—were evaluated as to their specificity and sensitivity in retrieving a set of relevant research papers published in the journal Sleep from 1996 to 2001 that were preselected by a hand search. Results: The subject search provided higher specificity than the text-word search (66% and 47%, respectively) but lower sensitivity (78% for the subject search versus 88% for the text-word search). Each search strategy gave some unique relevant hits. Conclusions: The two search strategies complemented each other and should be used together for maximal retrieval. No combination of MeSH terms could provide comprehensive yet reasonably precise retrieval of relevant articles. The text-word searching had sensitivity and specificity comparable to the subject search. In addition, use of text words “normal,” “healthy,” and “control” in the title or abstract fields to limit the final sets provided an efficient way to increase the specificity of both search strategies. PMID:15243641

  11. Prospective Assessment of Sleep Quality Before and After Primary Total Joint Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Blaine T; Kearns, Sean M; Bohl, Daniel D; Edmiston, Tori; Sporer, Scott M; Levine, Brett R

    2017-07-01

    Sleep disruption is a common, yet rarely addressed, complaint among patients who have undergone total joint arthroplasty (TJA). This study assessed sleep quality before and after primary TJA. A total of 105 patients who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) prospectively completed questionnaires during the preoperative, early postoperative, and late postoperative periods. The survey included the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, current sleeping habits, and patient perspectives of sleep quality and duration. In the early postoperative period (4.7±2.0 weeks), patients reported significant increases in sleep disturbance as denoted by increased length of time to fall asleep (P=.006) and mean nightly awakenings (P=.002) compared with the preoperative baseline. At late postoperative follow-up (40.8±19.5 weeks), patients' sleep quality subsequently improved above the preoperative baseline. Approximately 40% of patients tried a new sleeping method postoperatively, the most common being new pillow placement. No significant differences in pre- or postoperative sleeping trends were noted between THA and TKA patients. These findings suggest transient sleep disturbance is common in the early postoperative period, with subsequent improvement by 10-month follow-up after a primary TJA. Given the growing importance of patient satisfaction in health care systems, orthopedic surgeons must manage patients' expectations while working with them to optimize sleep quality after TJA. A multimodal approach with preoperative counseling, early postoperative sleep modifications, and possibly preemptive use of medications may improve transient sleep disturbance among TJA patients. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(4):e636-e640.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Chronic Sleep Disturbance Impairs Glucose Homeostasis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    R. Paulien Barf; Peter Meerlo; Scheurink, Anton J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between short or disrupted sleep and an increased risk for metabolic disorders. To assess a possible causal relationship, we examined the effects of experimental sleep disturbance on glucose regulation in Wistar rats under controlled laboratory conditions. Three groups of animals were used: a sleep restriction group (RS), a group subjected to moderate sleep disturbance without restriction of sleep time (DS), and a home cage control group. To e...

  13. Clinically significant discrepancies between sleep problems assessed by standard clinical tools and actigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjersti Marie Blytt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep disturbances are widespread among nursing home (NH patients and associated with numerous negative consequences. Identifying and treating them should therefore be of high clinical priority. No prior studies have investigated the degree to which sleep disturbances as detected by actigraphy and by the sleep-related items in the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory – Nursing Home version (NPI-NH provide comparable results. Such knowledge is highly needed, since both questionnaires are used in clinical settings and studies use the NPI-NH sleep item to measure sleep disturbances. For this reason, insight into their relative (disadvantages is valuable. Method Cross-sectional study of 83 NH patients. Sleep was objectively measured with actigraphy for 7 days, and rated by NH staff with the sleep items in the CSDD and the NPI-NH, and results were compared. McNemar's tests were conducted to investigate whether there were significant differences between the pairs of relevant measures. Cohen's Kappa tests were used to investigate the degree of agreement between the pairs of relevant actigraphy, NPI-NH and CSDD measures. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were conducted for each of the pairs, and receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves were designed as a plot of the true positive rate against the false positive rate for the diagnostic test. Results Proxy-raters reported sleep disturbances in 20.5% of patients assessed with NPI-NH and 18.1% (difficulty falling asleep, 43.4% (multiple awakenings and 3.6% (early morning awakenings of patients had sleep disturbances assessed with CSDD. Our results showed significant differences (p<0.001 between actigraphy measures and proxy-rated sleep by the NPI-NH and CSDD. Sensitivity and specificity analyses supported these results. Conclusions Compared to actigraphy, proxy-raters clearly underreported NH patients' sleep disturbances as assessed

  14. The effect of adaptive servo ventilation (ASV) on objective and subjective outcomes in Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) with central sleep apnea (CSA) in heart failure (HF): A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyunju; Sawyer, Amy M

    2016-01-01

    To summarize the current evidence for adaptive servo ventilation (ASV) in Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) with central sleep apnea (CSA) in heart failure (HF) and advance a research agenda and clinical considerations for ASV-treated CSR-CSA in HF. CSR-CSA in HF is associated with higher overall mortality, worse outcomes and lower quality of life (QOL) than HF without CSR-CSA. Five databases were searched using key words (n = 234). Randomized controlled trials assessed objective sleep quality, cardiac, and self-reported outcomes in adults (≥18 years) with HF (n = 10). ASV has a beneficial effect on the reduction of central sleep apnea in adult patients with CSR-CSA in HF, but it is not be superior to CPAP, bilevel PPV, or supplemental oxygen in terms of sleep quality defined by polysomnography, cardiovascular outcomes, subjective daytime sleepiness, and quality of life. ASV is not recommended for CSR-CSA in HF. It is important to continue to refer HF patients for sleep evaluation to clearly discern OSA from CSR-CSA. Symptom management research, inclusive of objective and subjective outcomes, in CSR-CSA in HF adults is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Objective and subjective sleep quality: Melatonin versus placebo add-on treatment in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder withdrawing from long-term benzodiazepine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baandrup, Lone; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2016-06-30

    Benzodiazepines are frequently long-term prescribed for the treatment of patients with severe mental illness. This prescribing practice is problematic because of well-described side effects including risk of dependence. We examined the efficacy of prolonged-release melatonin on objective and subjective sleep quality during benzodiazepine discontinuation and whether sleep variables were associated with benzodiazepine withdrawal. Eligible patients included adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder and long-term use of benzodiazepines in combination with antipsychotics. All participants gradually tapered the use of benzodiazepines after randomization to add-on treatment with melatonin versus placebo. Here we report a subsample of 23 patients undergoing sleep recordings (one-night polysomnography) and 55 patients participating in subjective sleep quality ratings. Melatonin had no effect on objective sleep efficiency, but significantly improved self-reported sleep quality. Reduced benzodiazepine dosage at the 24-week follow-up was associated with a significantly decreased proportion of stage 2 sleep. These results indicate that prolonged-release melatonin has some efficacy for self-reported sleep quality after gradual benzodiazepine dose reduction, and that benzodiazepine discontinuation is not associated with rebound insomnia in medicated patients with severe mental illness. However, these findings were limited by a small sample size and a low retention rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The impact of sleep on neuropsychological performance in cognitively intact older adults using a novel in-home sensor-based sleep assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelye, Adriana; Mattek, Nora; Howieson, Diane; Riley, Thomas; Wild, Katherine; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between recent episodes of poor sleep and cognitive testing performance in healthy cognitively intact older adults is not well understood. In this exploratory study we examined the impact of recent sleep disturbance, sleep duration, and sleep variability on cognitive performance in 63 cognitively intact older adults using a novel unobtrusive in-home sensor-based sleep assessment methodology. Specifically, we examined the impact of sleep the night prior, the week prior, and the month prior to a neuropsychological evaluation on cognitive performance. Results showed that mildly disturbed sleep the week prior and month prior to cognitive testing was associated with reduced working memory on cognitive evaluation. One night of mild sleep disturbance was not associated with decreased cognitive performance the next day. Sleep duration was unrelated to cognition. In-home, unobtrusive, sensor monitoring technologies provide a novel method for objective, long-term, and continuous assessment of sleep behavior and other everyday activities that might contribute to decreased or variable cognitive performance in healthy older adults.

  17. A Systematic Review Assessing Bidirectionality between Sleep Disturbances, Anxiety, and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvaro, Pasquale K; Roberts, Rachel M; Harris, Jodie K

    2013-07-01

    To investigate whether sleep disturbances are bidirectionally related to anxiety and depression, and thus identify potential risk factors for each problem. A systematic review was conducted on 9 studies (8 longitudinal, 1 retrospective) that assessed bidirectionality between a sleep disturbance, and anxiety or depression. Treatment studies were excluded, along with those solely based on clinical samples or cohorts at high risk of suffering from a sleep disturbance, anxiety and depression. Eligible studies were identified by searching PubMed, PsychINFO, Embase, and Scopus databases, and reference lists of eligible studies. Publication dates ranged from the beginning of each database to December 2011. Syntheses of longitudinal studies suggested insomnia and sleep quality were bidirectionally related to anxiety and depression, and depression/anxiety, respectively. Childhood sleep problems significantly predicted higher levels of depression and a combined depression/anxiety variable, but not vice-versa. A one-way relationship was found where anxiety predicted excessive daytime sleepiness, but excessive daytime sleepiness was not associated with depression. Definitive conclusions regarding bidirectionality cannot be made for most sleep disturbances due to the small number and heterogeneity of cohort samples used across studies. Nevertheless, best available evidence suggests insomnia is bidirectionally related to anxiety and depression. Clinical and theoretical implications are discussed. Alvaro PK; Roberts RM; Harris JK. A systematic review assessing bidirectionality between sleep disturbances, anxiety, and depression. SLEEP 2013;36(7):1059-1068.

  18. Assessment: Cinderella or Sleeping Beauty? Evolution of final examinations at the Royal Veterinary College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pead, Matthew J

    2008-01-01

    Teachers of veterinary medicine frequently regard assessment as a Cinderella subject. Consciously or unconsciously, they allow assessment systems to become faithful slaves, brought out and dusted off when required, out of sight and out of mind at other times. This often means that assessment is last on the priority list when educational development is considered. Pedagogical literature is full of references to the power of appropriate assessment systems and the role that they can play in shaping and driving the learning environment. "Assessment drives learning" and "Students respect what is inspected" are the headlines associated with such references, and this viewpoint places assessment much more in the role of a Sleeping Beauty, requiring only a simple touch to become a vehicle for modernizing an educational system. This article uses an example of change to a UK veterinary final examination to present the tensions between these contrasting views, and some solutions for them, in an effort to fuel the debate on improving the use of assessment.

  19. Validation of Actiwatch for Assessment of Sleep-wake States in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chen Yang, RN, MSN

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that high activity thresholds are the most accurate for determining sleep state in preterm infants, and health care professionals must take the limitations into consideration while using the Actiwatch to assess wake states.

  20. Subjective Narcosis Assessment Scale: measuring the subjective experience of nitrogen narcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Charles H; Meintjes, W A J

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of subjective experiences and objective measures of neuropsychological performance during hyperbaric exposure has received less attention in the literature, in part due to the shortage of available and appropriately standardized measures. This study aimed to describe the psychometric properties of a modified version of the Subjective High Assessment Scale when used in the hyperbaric context, by exploring internal reliability, factor structure, associations with psychological variables and simple cognitive delayed recall, and the effect of task focus on the recall of subjective experience. Seventy qualified divers completed dry hyperbaric chamber dives to 607.95 kPa, and completed ratings of their subjective experiences. Some also completed a delayed recall task and psychological measures prior to their dives. The scale displayed good internal consistency, with four meaningful factors emerging. It showed some significant but small associations with trait anxiety and transient mood states, and a small to moderate correlation with recall performance. There was no significant effect of task focus on self-report of subjective experiences. The modified scale, renamed the Subjective Narcosis Assessment Scale here, has useful psychometric properties, and promising potential for future use.

  1. Quantitative Motor Performance and Sleep Benefit in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gilst, Merel M; van Mierlo, Petra; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Overeem, Sebastiaan

    2015-10-01

    Many people with Parkinson disease experience "sleep benefit": temporarily improved mobility upon awakening. Here we used quantitative motor tasks to assess the influence of sleep on motor functioning in Parkinson disease. Eighteen Parkinson patients with and 20 without subjective sleep benefit and 20 healthy controls participated. Before and directly after a regular night sleep and an afternoon nap, subjects performed the timed pegboard dexterity task and quantified finger tapping task. Subjective ratings of motor functioning and mood/vigilange were included. Sleep was monitored using polysomnography. On both tasks, patients were overall slower than healthy controls (night: F2,55 = 16.938, P Parkinson patients. Here we show that the subjective experience of sleep benefit is not paralleled by an actual improvement in motor functioning. Sleep benefit therefore appears to be a subjective phenomenon and not a Parkinson-specific reduction in symptoms. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  2. Characteristics of sleep in older persons with chronic pain: a study based on actigraphy and self-reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunde, Linn-Heidi; Pallesen, Ståle; Krangnes, Lise; Nordhus, Inger Hilde

    2010-02-01

    To examine characteristics of sleep and sleep complaints in older persons with chronic pain, as compared to older persons with neither sleep complaints nor chronic pain, on the basis of objective and subjective sleep assessment. Forty-three older adults (60 to 81 y) with chronic pain and 29 older adults (55 to 85 y) without sleep complaints and chronic pain participated, completing a self-report measure of sleep quality, and a measure of sleepiness. The participants kept sleep diaries for 2 weeks, and wore an actigraph for the same period of time. An actigraph is a motion-monitoring device detecting sleep-wake patterns by measuring activity levels. The sample with chronic pain demonstrated significantly poorer sleep quality and more symptoms of disruptive sleep and poorer daytime functioning on subjective sleep measures than the comparison group. Actigraphy recordings and sleep diary data showed that participants with chronic pain spent significantly more time in bed than participants without sleep complaints. They also had lower sleep efficiency than the participants without sleep complaints, based on both a sleep diary and actigraphic data, although the actigraphic data were only nearly significant. The duration of sleep, based on both actigraphy and a sleep diary, was not significantly different between the 2 groups. Sleep complaints such as disruptive sleep and problems initiating and maintaining sleep, and impairment in daytime functioning, are prevalent in older adults with chronic pain. Sleep and sleep complaints should be addressed to a much greater extent in this patient group.

  3. Portable inhaled methoxyflurane is feasible and safe for colonoscopy in subjects with morbid obesity and/or obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nam Q; Toscano, Leanne; Lawrence, Matthew; Phan, Vinh-An; Singh, Rajvinder; Bampton, Peter; Fraser, Robert J; Holloway, Richard H; Schoeman, Mark N

    2015-10-01

    Colonoscopy with inhaled methoxyflurane (Penthrox) is well tolerated in unselected subjects and is not associated with respiratory depression. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the feasibility, safety, and post-procedural outcomes of portable methoxyflurane used as an analgesic agent during colonoscopy with those of anesthesia-assisted deep sedation (AADS) in subjects with morbid obesity and/or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The outcomes of 140 patients with morbid obesity/OSA who underwent colonoscopy with either Penthrox inhalation (n = 85; 46 men, 39 women; mean age 57.2 ± 1.1 years) or AADS (n = 55; 27 men, 28 women; mean age, 54.9 ± 1.1 years) were prospectively assessed. All Penthrox-assisted colonoscopies were successful, without any requirement for additional intravenous sedation. Compared with AADS, Penthrox was associated with a shorter total procedural time (24 ± 1 vs. 52 ± 1 minutes, P < 0.001), a lower incidence of hypotension (3 /85 vs. 23 /55, P < 0.001), and a lower incidence of respiratory desaturation (0 /85 vs. 14 /55, P < 0.001). The patients in the Penthrox group recovered more rapidly and were discharged much earlier than those in the AADS group (27 ± 2 vs. 97 ± 5 minutes, P < 0.0001). Of those who underwent colonoscopy with Penthrox, 90 % were willing to receive Penthrox again for colonoscopy. More importantly, of the patients who underwent colonoscopy with Penthrox and had had AADS for previous colonoscopy, 82 % (28 /34) preferred to receive Penthrox for future colonoscopies. Penthrox-assisted colonoscopy cost significantly less than colonoscopy with AADS ($ 332 vs. $ 725, P < 0.001), with a cost saving of approximately $ 400 for each additional complication avoided. Compared with AADS, Penthrox is highly feasible and safe in patients with morbid obesity/OSA undergoing colonoscopy and is associated with fewer cardiorespiratory complications. Because

  4. Module number of default mode network: inter-subject variability and effects of sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulin; Liu, Huan; Hitchman, Glenn; Lei, Xu

    2015-01-30

    Sleep deprivation have shown its great influence on the default mode network (DMN). The DMN is a core system in resting state brain activity. Recent studies have focused on its subsystems and multiple functions. However, the individual specific organization of the DMN is rarely investigated. As the effects of sleep deprivation (SD) on mood are well documented, a more interesting question is whether changes in the processing of emotional information due to sleep deprivation are related to any specific topological properties of the DMN. In this study, we proposed an index, module number of DMN (mnDMN), to measure the specific modular structure of the DMN for each individual. Our results showed that the DMN was generally split into two modules after SD, and the decreased functional connectivity between the two modules was related to a worsening of the participants׳ self-reported emotional state. Furthermore, the mnDMN was correlated with participants' rating scores of high valence pictures in the SD session, indicating that the mnDMN might reflect mood valuation in the human brain. Overall, our research reveals the diversity of the DMN, and may contribute towards a better understanding of the properties and functions of the DMN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Narrative Review: Actigraphy as an Objective Assessment of Perioperative Sleep and Activity in Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Nicole; Karlik, Joelle; Lewandowski Holley, Amy; Wilson, Anna C; Koh, Jeffrey

    2017-04-18

    Sleep is an important component of pediatric health and is crucial for cognitive development. Actigraphy is a validated, objective tool to capture sleep and movement data that is increasingly being used in the perioperative context. The aim of this review is to present recent pediatric studies that utilized actigraphy in the perioperative period, highlight gaps in the literature, and provide recommendations for future research. A literature search was completed using OVID and PubMed databases and articles were selected for inclusion based on relevance to the topic. The literature search resulted in 13 papers that utilized actigraphic measures. Results of the review demonstrated that actigraphy has been used to identify predictors and risk factors for poor postoperative sleep, examine associations among perioperative pain and sleep patterns, and assess activity and energy expenditure in both inpatient and outpatient settings. We propose expansion of actigraphy research to include assessment of sleep via actigraphy to: predict functional recovery in pediatric populations, to study postoperative sleep in high-risk pediatric patients, to test the efficacy of perioperative interventions, and to assess outcomes in special populations for which self-report data on sleep and activity is difficult to obtain.

  6. A Narrative Review: Actigraphy as an Objective Assessment of Perioperative Sleep and Activity in Pediatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Conrad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is an important component of pediatric health and is crucial for cognitive development. Actigraphy is a validated, objective tool to capture sleep and movement data that is increasingly being used in the perioperative context. The aim of this review is to present recent pediatric studies that utilized actigraphy in the perioperative period, highlight gaps in the literature, and provide recommendations for future research. A literature search was completed using OVID and PubMed databases and articles were selected for inclusion based on relevance to the topic. The literature search resulted in 13 papers that utilized actigraphic measures. Results of the review demonstrated that actigraphy has been used to identify predictors and risk factors for poor postoperative sleep, examine associations among perioperative pain and sleep patterns, and assess activity and energy expenditure in both inpatient and outpatient settings. We propose expansion of actigraphy research to include assessment of sleep via actigraphy to: predict functional recovery in pediatric populations, to study postoperative sleep in high-risk pediatric patients, to test the efficacy of perioperative interventions, and to assess outcomes in special populations for which self-report data on sleep and activity is difficult to obtain.

  7. Quantitative assessment of motor speech abnormalities in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusz, Jan; Hlavnička, Jan; Tykalová, Tereza; Bušková, Jitka; Ulmanová, Olga; Růžička, Evžen; Šonka, Karel

    2016-03-01

    Patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) are at substantial risk for developing Parkinson's disease (PD) or related neurodegenerative disorders. Speech is an important indicator of motor function and movement coordination, and therefore may be an extremely sensitive early marker of changes due to prodromal neurodegeneration. Speech data were acquired from 16 RBD subjects and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. Objective acoustic assessment of 15 speech dimensions representing various phonatory, articulatory, and prosodic deviations was performed. Statistical models were applied to characterise speech disorders in RBD and to estimate sensitivity and specificity in differentiating between RBD and control subjects. Some form of speech impairment was revealed in 88% of RBD subjects. Articulatory deficits were the most prominent findings in RBD. In comparison to controls, the RBD group showed significant alterations in irregular alternating motion rates (p = 0.009) and articulatory decay (p = 0.01). The combination of four distinctive speech dimensions, including aperiodicity, irregular alternating motion rates, articulatory decay, and dysfluency, led to 96% sensitivity and 79% specificity in discriminating between RBD and control subjects. Speech impairment was significantly more pronounced in RBD subjects with the motor score of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale greater than 4 points when compared to other RBD individuals. Simple quantitative speech motor measures may be suitable for the reliable detection of prodromal neurodegeneration in subjects with RBD, and therefore may provide important outcomes for future therapy trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sleep quality assessment in 35 Parkinson's disease patients in the Fann Teaching Hospital, Dakar, Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiga, B; Diop, M S; Sangare, M; Dembele, K; Cisse, L; Kone, O; Seck, L B; Landoure, G; Guinto, C O; Ndiaye, M; Ndiaye, M M

    2016-03-01

    Sleep disorders are diverse in Parkinson's disease. We aimed to assess the quality of sleep in patients with Parkinson's disease in an African population. In a transversal and prospective study from April to June 2014, all parkinsonian patients followed at the Fann Teaching Hospital Neurology Clinic (Dakar, Senegal) were assessed using the Hoehn and Yahr's scale and filled out the following questionnaires: Parkinson's disease sleep scale (PDSS), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). A PDSS score5 indicated poor quality or impaired sleep. An ESS score>10 indicated excessive daytime sleepiness. We used the Pearson coefficient to search for correlation between age, disease stage, disease duration, and the importance of sleep impairment. Hoehn and Yahr staging was 2.42±0.90 in the 35 patients (60% male, mean age 65.7±7.4years, disease duration 32.4±23.4months). The mean total PDSS score was 99.5±24.1 and 74.3% of the patients had an abnormally high PSQI score, indicating high frequency and intensity of sleep disorders. Most frequent disorders were pain or cramps interrupting sleep, night waking to urinate and fatigue or sleepiness on waking. Patients exhibited excessive diurnal sleepiness in 22.9% of the cases; they often had an abnormal PSQI score. Both the total PDSS score and the difficulty to sleep increased with disease stage, but not with age or disease duration. We found evidence of major alteration of sleep quality in Senegalese Parkinson patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. REM sleep behavior disorder and periodic leg movements during sleep in ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Coco, D; Puligheddu, M; Mattaliano, P; Congiu, P; Borghero, G; Fantini, M L; La Bella, V; Ferri, R

    2017-02-01

    To assess sleep characteristics and the occurrence of abnormal muscle activity during sleep, such as REM sleep without atonia (RSWA), REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), and periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS), in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A total of 41 patients with ALS and 26 healthy subjects were submitted to clinical interview and overnight video-polysomnography. A total of 22 patients with ALS (53.6%) reported poor sleep quality. Polysomnographic studies showed that patients with ALS had reduced total sleep time, increased wakefulness after sleep onset, shortened REM and slow-wave sleep, and decreased sleep efficiency, compared to controls. Polysomnographic abnormalities were not different in patients reporting good or poor sleep and were not correlated to clinical and demographic variables. The PLMS index was significantly higher in patients with ALS than in healthy subjects, and 22 patients (53.6%) showed a PLMS index > 15/h, vs 4 (15.4%) controls (P ALS (4.9%) had RBD, and two more patients presented RSWA (4.9%), whereas no controls showed abnormalities of REM sleep. Patients with ALS frequently present abnormalities of sleep that can be documented both at the clinical interview and at the polysomnographic evaluation, including insomnia, fragmented sleep, and increased PLMS. Moreover, abnormalities of REM sleep can be found in some of these patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Assessment of the effects of antihistamine drugs on mood, sleep quality, sleepiness, and dream anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Pinar Guzel; Karadag, Ayşe Serap; Selvi, Yavuz; Boysan, Murat; Bilgili, Serap Gunes; Aydin, Adem; Onder, Sevda

    2014-08-01

    There are limited comparative studies on classic and new-generation antihistamines that affect sleep quality and mood. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the effects of classic and new-generation antihistamines on sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, dream anxiety, and mood. Ninety-two patients with chronic pruritus completed study in the dermatology outpatient clinic. Treatments with regular recommended therapeutic doses were administered. The effects of antihistaminic drugs on mood, daytime sleepiness, dream anxiety, and sleep quality were assessed on the first day and 1 month after. Outpatients who received cetirizine and hydroxyzine treatments reported higher scores on the depression, anxiety, and fatigue sub-scales than those who received desloratadine, levocetirizine, and rupatadine. Pheniramine and rupatadine were found to be associated with daytime sleepiness and better sleep quality. UKU side effects scale scores were significantly elevated among outpatients receiving pheniramine. Classic antihistamines increased daytime sleepiness and decreased the sleep quality scores. New-generation antihistamines reduced sleep latency and dream anxiety, and increased daytime sleepiness and sleep quality. Both antihistamines, significantly increased daytime sleepiness and nocturnal sleep quality. Daytime sleepiness was significantly predicted by rupadatine and pheniramine treatment. Cetirizine and hydroxyzine, seem to have negative influences on mood states. Given the extensive use of antihistamines in clinical settings, these results should be more elaborately examined in further studies.

  11. Individual differences and subjective workload assessment - Comparing pilots to nonpilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidulich, Michael A.; Pandit, Parimal

    1987-01-01

    Results by two groups of subjects, pilots and nonpilots, for two subjective workload assessment techniques (the SWAT and NASA-TLX tests) intended to evaluate individual differences in the perception and reporting of subjective workload are compared with results obtained for several traditional personality tests. The personality tests were found to discriminate between the groups while the workload tests did not. It is concluded that although the workload tests may provide useful information with respect to the interaction between tasks and personality, they are not effective as pure tests of individual differences.

  12. A Comparative Study between SVM and Fuzzy Inference System for the Automatic Prediction of Sleep Stages and the Assessment of Sleep Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Gialelis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares two supervised learning algorithms for predicting the sleep stages based on the human brain activity. The first step of the presented work regards feature extraction from real human electroencephalography (EEG data together with its corresponding sleep stages that are utilized for training a support vector machine (SVM, and a fuzzy inference system (FIS algorithm. Then, the trained algorithms are used to predict the sleep stages of real human patients. Extended comparison results are demonstrated which indicate that both classifiers could be utilized as a basis for an unobtrusive sleep quality assessment.

  13. Adolescents with greater mental toughness show higher sleep efficiency, more deep sleep and fewer awakenings after sleep onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Gerber, Markus; Kalak, Nadeem; Kirov, Roumen; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2014-01-01

    Mental toughness (MT) is understood as the display of confidence, commitment, challenge, and control. Mental toughness is associated with resilience against stress. However, research has not yet focused on the relation between MT and objective sleep. The aim of the present study was therefore to explore the extent to which greater MT is associated with objectively assessed sleep among adolescents. A total of 92 adolescents (35% females; mean age, 18.92 years) completed the Mental Toughness Questionnaire. Participants were split into groups of high and low mental toughness. Objective sleep was recorded via sleep electroencephalograms and subjective sleep was assessed via a questionnaire. Compared with participants with low MT, participants with high MT had higher sleep efficiency, a lower number of awakenings after sleep onset, less light sleep, and more deep sleep. They also reported lower daytime sleepiness. Adolescents reporting higher MT also had objectively better sleep, as recorded via sleep electroencephalograms. A bidirectional association between MT and sleep seems likely; therefore, among adolescence, improving sleep should increase MT, and improving MT should increase sleep. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Validity of the Sleep Subscale of the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II (DASH-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Malone, Carrie J.

    2006-01-01

    Currently there are no available sleep disorder measures for individuals with severe and profound intellectual disability. We, therefore, attempted to establish the external validity of the "Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II" (DASH-II) sleep subscale by comparing daily observational sleep data with the responses of…

  15. Assessment of sleep quality in post-graduate residents in a tertiary hospital and teaching institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasantmeghna Srinivasa Murthy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate subjective sleep quality, day-time sleepiness, prevalence of substance use, satisfaction with life among residents at our institute. To evaluate association of sleep qualitywith satisfaction with life and day-time sleepiness. To compare the findings between residents in clinical and para-clinical departments. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four residents filled questionnaires to obtain socio-demographic information and use of substance (s. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, and Satisfaction With Life scale (SWLS were also used. Association between sleep quality and sleepiness and satisfaction with life was evaluated. From the data collected, comparisons were made between the clinical and para-clinical department residents. Results: A significant number of residents belonging to the clinical faculty were poorsleepers; reported high levels of abnormal day-time sleepiness and less satisfaction with life compared to residents in para-clinical faculties. The differences in correlation between sleepiness and satisfaction with life with sleep quality among the two groups were not found to be significant. A larger percentage of clinical residents reported use of at least one substance during the residency period compared to the para-clinical residents. Conclusions: Poor sleep quality is perceived greatly by the resident doctors in our public hospital, especially among clinical faculties. Interventions are thus necessary in order to ensure adequate sleep among them.

  16. Objective and Subjective Assessment of Digital Pathology Image Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prarthana Shrestha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of an image produced by the Whole Slide Imaging (WSI scanners is of critical importance for using the image in clinical diagnosis. Therefore, it is very important to monitor and ensure the quality of images. Since subjective image quality assessments by pathologists are very time-consuming, expensive and difficult to reproduce, we propose a method for objective assessment based on clinically relevant and perceptual image parameters: sharpness, contrast, brightness, uniform illumination and color separation; derived from a survey of pathologists. We developed techniques to quantify the parameters based on content-dependent absolute pixel performance and to manipulate the parameters in a predefined range resulting in images with content-independent relative quality measures. The method does not require a prior reference model. A subjective assessment of the image quality is performed involving 69 pathologists and 372 images (including 12 optimal quality images and their distorted versions per parameter at 6 different levels. To address the inter-reader variability, a representative rating is determined as a one-tailed 95% confidence interval of the mean rating. The results of the subjective assessment support the validity of the proposed objective image quality assessment method to model the readers’ perception of image quality. The subjective assessment also provides thresholds for determining the acceptable level of objective quality per parameter. The images for both the subjective and objective quality assessment are based on the HercepTestTM slides scanned by the Philips Ultra Fast Scanners, developed at Philips Digital Pathology Solutions. However, the method is applicable also to other types of slides and scanners.

  17. Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Phase Synchronization as Assessed by Wavelet Phase Coherence Analysis of Prefrontal Tissue Oxyhemoglobin Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Lingguo; Zhang, Ming; Li, Jianfeng; Li, Fangyi; Liu, Heshan; Li, Zengyong

    2017-01-01

    To reveal the physiological mechanism of the decline in cognitive function after sleep deprivation, a within-subject study was performed to assess sleep deprivation effects on phase synchronization, as revealed by wavelet phase coherence (WPCO) analysis of prefrontal tissue oxyhemoglobin signals. Twenty subjects (10 male and 10 female, 25.5 ± 3.5 years old) were recruited to participate in two tests: one without sleep deprivation (group A) and the other with 24 h of sleep deprivation (group B). Before the test, each subject underwent a subjective evaluation using visual analog scales. A cognitive task was performed by judging three random numbers. Continuous recordings of the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals were obtained from both the left and right prefrontal lobes during rest, task, and post-task periods. The WPCO of cerebral Delta [HbO2] signals were analyzed for these three periods for both groups A and B. Six frequency intervals were defined: I: 0.6-2 Hz (cardiac activity), II: 0.145-0.6 Hz (respiratory activity), III: 0.052-0.145 Hz (myogenic activity), IV: 0.021-0.052 Hz (neurogenic activity), V: 0.0095-0.021 Hz (nitric oxide related endothelial activity) and VI: 0.005-0.0095 Hz (non-nitric oxide related endothelial activity). WPCO in intervals III (F = 5.955, p = 0.02) and V (F = 4.7, p = 0.037) was significantly lower in group B than in group A at rest. During the task period, WPCO in intervals III (F = 5.175, p = 0.029) and IV (F = 4.585, p = 0.039) was significantly lower in group B compared with group A. In the post-task recovery period, the WPCO in interval III (F = 6.125, p = 0.02) was significantly lower in group B compared with group A. Reaction time was significantly prolonged, and the accuracy rate and F1 score both declined after sleep deprivation. The decline in WPCO after sleep deprivation indicates reduced phase synchronization between left and right prefrontal oxyhemoglobin oscillations, which may contribute to the diminished

  18. Characterization and Factors Associated with Sleep Quality in Adolescents with Bipolar I Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roybal, Donna J.; Chang, Kiki D.; Chen, Michael C.; Howe, Meghan E.; Gotlib, Ian H.; Singh, Manpreet K.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is an early marker for bipolar disorder (BD) onset in youth. We characterized sleep quality in adolescents experiencing mania within the last 6-12 months. We examined the association between mood and sleep in 27 adolescents with BD and 24 matched healthy controls (HC). Subjects were assessed by parent and teen report of sleep, a…

  19. Reduction of human sleep duration after bright light exposure in the morning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, D.J.; Visscher, C.A.; Bloem, G.M.; Beersma, D.G.M.; Daan, S.

    1987-01-01

    In 8 subjects the spontaneous termination of sleep was determined after repetitive exposure to either bright or dim light, between 6:00 and 9:00 h, on 3 days preceding sleep assessment. Sleep duration was significantly shorter following bright light than following dim light. During sleep the time

  20. A new approach to subjectively assess quality of plenoptic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Irene; Řeřábek, Martin; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2016-09-01

    Plenoptic content is becoming increasingly popular thanks to the availability of acquisition and display devices. Thanks to image-based rendering techniques, a plenoptic content can be rendered in real time in an interactive manner allowing virtual navigation through the captured scenes. This way of content consumption enables new experiences, and therefore introduces several challenges in terms of plenoptic data processing, transmission and consequently visual quality evaluation. In this paper, we propose a new methodology to subjectively assess the visual quality of plenoptic content. We also introduce a prototype software to perform subjective quality assessment according to the proposed methodology. The proposed methodology is further applied to assess the visual quality of a light field compression algorithm. Results show that this methodology can be successfully used to assess the visual quality of plenoptic content.

  1. Secretory rhythm of vasopressin in healthy subjects with inversed sleep--wake cycle: evidence for the existence of an intrinsic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, M

    1996-02-01

    The objective of this paper was to find out if the higher night levels of vasopressin described in previous studies are a manifestation of a permanent and stable rhythm bound to the different periods of the day or if they are independent of them and due to other causes. Vasopressin secretion was studied in a group of seven healthy subjects with an inverted sleep--wake cycle (night workers who sleep and rest during the day). The study was performed during the last week of their working period after at least 3 weeks of continuous night shift. Plasma samples for vasopressin determination were taken every 4 h during a 24-h period while the subjects were performing their normal night work and with their usual sleeping habits during the day. Plasma osmolality, electrolytes and blood pressure were also assessed during the test. In contrast to previous studies where higher nocturnal values have been reported, we found significantly higher vasopressin levels during the day, giving as a whole a characteristic pattern with the highest vasopressin levels measured at 16.00 h followed by a progressive decrement that reached its nadir at 04.00 h. The total measured secretion of vasopressin was significantly higher during the day than during the night (p = 0.0313). No significant difference was found, on the other hand, between day samples, with the exception of samples taken at 16.00 h and at 12.00 h (p = 0.031). Plasma osmolality and electrolytes were within the normal range during the test and no statistical difference was observed at the various points. It was concluded that the secretion of vasopressin is higher during sleep and rest time and lower during the active part of the 24 h. The secretory pattern of vasopressin is not bound to the different periods of the day as such, nor to variations in plasma osmolality or electrolytes. It seems therefore reasonable to assume that the secretion of vasopressin has an intrinsic daily rhythm that is not related to known regulatory

  2. Sleep Quality in Family Caregivers of Individuals With Dementia: A Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hsi-Ling; Lorenz, Rebecca A; Chang, Yu-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Poor sleep quality in family caregivers may impact their health status and cause quality of life to decline. Nurses are conducting an increasing number of studies that use sleep quality or related concepts as a main indicator to assess caregiver's sleep. Therefore, a clear understanding of sleep quality and how it is different from other relevant sleep domains is essential. This article aimed to analyze the concept of sleep quality using the steps outlined by Walker and Avant. Findings include (a) attributes of sleep quality including subjective perception of sleep, sleep hours, and evaluation of activity after awaking; (b) antecedents of sleep quality including the ability to get naturally into the sleep cycle and status of conscious state; and (c) consequences of sleep quality including bio-psycho-social and global dimensions of health. This article intends to help clinicians and researchers better understand and define sleep quality in dementia caregivers. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. The relationship between serum asymmetric dimethylarginine levels and subjective sleep quality in normotensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aribas, Alpay; Kayrak, Mehmet; Tekinalp, Mehmet; Akilli, Hakan; Alibasic, Hayrudin; Yildirim, Serkan; Gunduz, Mehmet; Taner, Alpaslan; Unlu, Ali

    2015-05-01

    Poor sleep quality (SQ) is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Additionally, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. However, no sufficient data regarding the relationship between ADMA levels and SQ have been reported. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the association between SQ and ADMA levels in normotensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The study participants consisted of 78 normotensive type 2 diabetics. The SQ of all participants was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Patients with a global PSQI score > 5 were defined as "poor sleepers." Factors associated with poor SQ were analyzed using a multiple regression model. Serum ADMA levels were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. The median ADMA levels of the poor sleepers were increased compared with patients defined as good sleepers (5.5 [4.2 to 6.6] vs. 4.4 [2.9 to 5.4], p poor sleepers (p sleep latency (p sleep efficiency (p = 0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that ADMA levels (odds ratio [OR], 1.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16 to 2.44; p = 0.01) and body mass index (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.31; p = 0.04) were associated with poor SQ independently of glomerular filtration rate, sex, age, duration of diabetes, hemoglobin A1c, total cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure. Self-reported SQ was independently associated with ADMA levels in normotensive patients with diabetes mellitus.

  4. Development and Validation of the Sleep Inertia Questionnaire (SIQ) and Assessment of Sleep Inertia in Analogue and Clinical Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Kanady, Jennifer C.; Harvey, Allison G.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep inertia is the transitional state from sleep to wake. Research on sleep inertia is important in depression because many people with depression report having difficulty getting out of bed, which contributes to impairment and can impede the implementation of interventions. The first aim was to develop and validate the first self-report measure of sleep inertia, the Sleep Inertia Questionnaire (SIQ). The second aim was to compare reports of sleep inertia across three groups: (1) No-to-Mild...

  5. Assessment Sleep Quality and its Relationship with Test Anxiety among High School Students in Qom- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman barmeh ziyar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Test anxiety is a special case of a general anxiety which is of particular importance in students, because students will be the future of the country and the society activists. On the other hand, sleep quality and sleep disorders, have correlation with ailments, poor performance, decreased quality of life and increase of associated costs; This study aimed to determine the quality of sleep and its relationship with test anxiety among students in Qom city, Iran. Materials and Methods This study was a cross-sectional study, which was performed among 250 students who were going to pass the exam preparation classes. In order to collect data Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI questionnaires and Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed using SPSS-16 with descriptive statistics and statistical methods, independent t-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results In this study, 50% of participants were boys (n=125 and 50 percent were girls (n=125. 81.4% of subjects had poor sleep quality and 69.6% had average to high score for test anxiety. Based on the results of anxiety test and sleep quality index there was a significant correlation between anxiety and sleep quality with gender (P=0.003, r=0.447. Conclusion School children had poor sleep quality and high test anxiety, and due to their direct and significant correlation, attention to this category of students, especially for girls, is important. Therefore, anxiety and promoting sleep quality control programs are recommended in this group.

  6. Correlations of subjectively assessed fleece and conformation traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data used for this study were collected on the Carnarvon Afrino flock from 1986 to 1998, and include data records on several subjectively assessed traits, body weight and fleece traits of 3291 animals, the progeny of 127 sires and 772 dams. Reproduction data of 686 ewes born from 1986 to 1997 were also included.

  7. Subjective Workload Assessment Technique (SWAT): A User’s Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    The effects of supervisor experience and the presence of a shift technical advisor on the performance of two-man crews in a nuclear power plant...et de Recherches de Medecine Acrospatiale, Laboratoire d’Etudes Medicophysiologiques 16/330). S 110 Potter, S. S., 1986, Subjective workload assessment

  8. correlations of subjectively assessed fleece and conformation traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    grethas

    dense and had higher creeping belly scores (the extent to which belly wool tends to creep up the side into the fleece). Estimated genetic correlations between the subjectively assessed fleece traits and reproduction were variable in sign and magnitude. The most important of these is the unfavourable genetic correlation ...

  9. Reliability and validity of subjective assessment of lumbar lordosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Reliability and validity studies of different lumbar curvature analysis and measurement techniques have been documented however there is limited literature on the reliability and validity of subjective visual analysis. Radiological assessment of lumbar lordotic curve aids in early diagnosis of conditions even ...

  10. Reliability of scored patient generated subjective global assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Establish the reliability of the scored Patient Generated-Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) in determining nutritional status among Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) naive HIV-infected adults. Methods: A descriptive, cross sectional study among outpatient medical clinics, in The AIDS Support Organization ...

  11. The impact of disaster work on community volunteers: The role of peri-traumatic distress, level of personal affectedness, sleep quality and resource loss, on post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and subjective health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thormar, Sigridur B; Gersons, Berthold P R; Juen, Barbara; Djakababa, Maria Nelden; Karlsson, Thorlakur; Olff, Miranda

    2014-12-01

    Disaster work has shown to cause PTSD symptoms and subjective health complaints in professional emergency personnel. However, very little is known about how disaster work affects community volunteers. This first time longitudinal study examined factors contributing to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD) and subjective health complaints in volunteers working in an earthquake setting. At six and eighteen months post disaster, a sample of 506 Indonesian Red Cross volunteers were assessed using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and the Subjective Health Complaints Inventory. Factors analyzed in relation to the outcomes included: peri-traumatic distress, level of personal affectedness by the disaster, sleep quality and loss of resources as a consequence of the disaster. At 18 months post-disaster the findings showed high levels of PTSD symptoms and subjective health complaints. Quality of sleep was related to both outcomes but resource loss only to PTSD symptoms. Neither peri-traumatic distress nor level of affectedness by the disaster (external versus directly affected volunteers), were predictive of symptoms. This study indicates that characteristics of disaster work e.g. low quality of sleep, may be an important contributor to PTSD symptoms and subjective health complaints in volunteers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A cognitive vulnerability model on sleep and mood in adolescents under naturalistically restricted and extended sleep opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Bei; Wiley, Joshua F; Allen, Nicholas B; Trinder, John

    2015-03-01

    School terms and vacations represent naturally occurring periods of restricted and extended sleep opportunities. A cognitive model of the relationships among objective sleep, subjective sleep, and negative mood was tested across these periods, with sleep-specific (i.e., dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep) and global (i.e., dysfunctional attitudes) cognitive vulnerabilities as moderators. Longitudinal study over the last week of a school term (Time-E), the following 2-w vacation (Time-V), and the first week of the next term (Time-S). General community. 146 adolescents, 47.3% male, mean age =16.2 years (standard deviation +/- 1 year). N/A. Objective sleep was measured continuously by actigraphy. Sociodemographics and cognitive vulnerabilities were assessed at Time-E; subjective sleep, negative mood (anxiety and depressive symptoms), and academic stress were measured at each time point. Controlling for academic stress and sex, subjective sleep quality mediated the relationship between objective sleep and negative mood at all time points. During extended (Time-V), but not restricted (Time-E and Time-S) sleep opportunity, this mediation was moderated by global cognitive vulnerability, with the indirect effects stronger with higher vulnerability. Further, at Time-E and Time-V, but not Time-S, greater sleep-specific and global cognitive vulnerabilities were associated with poorer subjective sleep quality and mood, respectively. Results highlighted the importance of subjective sleep perception in the development of sleep related mood problems, and supported the role of cognitive vulnerabilities as potential mechanisms in the relationships between objective sleep, subjective sleep, and negative mood. Adolescents with higher cognitive vulnerability are more susceptible to perceived poor sleep and sleep related mood problems. These findings have practical implications for interventions. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  13. Does sleep improve memory organization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Masashi; Furuta, Hisakazu; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Suzuki, Michio; Ochiai, Yoko; Hosokawa, Munehito; Matsui, Mie; Kurachi, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    Sleep can integrate information into existing memory networks, look for common patterns and distil overarching rules, or simply stabilize and strengthen the memory exactly as it was learned. Recent research has shown that sleep facilitates abstraction of gist information as well as integration across multiple memories, insight into hidden solutions, and even the ability to make creative connections between distantly related ideas and concepts. To investigate the effect of sleep on memory organization, 35 normal volunteers were randomly assigned either to the sleep (n = 17) or wake group (n = 18). The sleep subjects performed the Japanese Verbal Learning Test (JVLT), a measure of learning and memory, three times in the evening, and slept. On the following morning (9 h later), they were asked to recall the words on the list. The wake subjects took the same test in the morning, and were asked to recall the words in the same time interval as in the sleep group. The semantic clustering ratio (SCR), divided by the total number of words recalled, was used as an index of memory organization. Our main interest was whether the sleep subjects elicit a greater increase in this measure from the third to the fourth assessments. Time × Group interaction effect on SCR was not significant between the sleep group and wake group as a whole. Meanwhile, the change in the SCR between the third and fourth trials was negatively correlated with duration of nocturnal waking in the sleep group, but not other sleep indices. Based on this observation, further analysis was conducted for subjects in the sleep group who awoke nocturnally for memory index compared with the wake subjects. These results provide the first suggestion that sleep may enhance memory organization, which requires further study.

  14. Does sleep improve memory organization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi eTakeuchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep can integrate information into existing memory networks, look for common patterns and distill overarching rules, or simply stabilize and strengthen the memory exactly as it was learned. Recent research has shown that sleep facilitates abstraction of gist information as well as integration across multiple memories, insight into hidden solutions, and even the ability to make creative connections between distantly related ideas and concepts. To investigate the effect of sleep on memory organization, thirty-five normal volunteers were randomly assigned either to the sleep (n=17 or wake group (n=18. The sleep subjects performed the Japanese Verbal Learning Test (JVLT, a measure of learning and memory, three times in the evening, and slept. On the following morning (9 hours later, they were asked to recall the words on the list. The wake subjects took the same test in the morning, and were asked to recall the words in the same time interval as in the sleep group. The Semantic Clustering Ratio (SCR, divided by the total number of words recalled, was used as an index of memory organization. Our main interest was whether the sleep subjects elicit a greater increase in this measure from the third to the fourth assessments. Time-by-group interaction effect on SCR was not significant between the sleep group and wake group as a whole. Meanwhile, the change in the SCR between the third and fourth trials was negatively correlated with duration of nocturnal waking in the sleep group, but not other sleep indices. Based on this observation, further analysis was conducted for subjects in the sleep group who awoke nocturnally for less than 60 minutes for comparison with the wake group. A significant time-by-group interaction was noted; these good-sleepers showed a significantly greater improvement in the memory index compared with the wake subjects. These results provide the first suggestion that sleep may enhance memory organization, which requires further

  15. Sensitivity and validity of psychometric tests for assessing driving impairment: effects of sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, Stefan; Perrier, Joy; Vuurman, Eric F; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Vermeeren, Annemiek

    2015-01-01

    To assess drug induced driving impairment, initial screening is needed. However, no consensus has been reached about which initial screening tools have to be used. The present study aims to determine the ability of a battery of psychometric tests to detect performance impairing effects of clinically relevant levels of drowsiness as induced by one night of sleep deprivation. Twenty four healthy volunteers participated in a 2-period crossover study in which the highway driving test was conducted twice: once after normal sleep and once after one night of sleep deprivation. The psychometric tests were conducted on 4 occasions: once after normal sleep (at 11 am) and three times during a single night of sleep deprivation (at 1 am, 5 am, and 11 am). On-the-road driving performance was significantly impaired after sleep deprivation, as measured by an increase in Standard Deviation of Lateral Position (SDLP) of 3.1 cm compared to performance after a normal night of sleep. At 5 am, performance in most psychometric tests showed significant impairment. As expected, largest effect sizes were found on performance in the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT). Large effects sizes were also found in the Divided Attention Test (DAT), the Attention Network Test (ANT), and the test for Useful Field of View (UFOV) at 5 and 11 am during sleep deprivation. Effects of sleep deprivation on SDLP correlated significantly with performance changes in the PVT and the DAT, but not with performance changes in the UFOV. From the psychometric tests used in this study, the PVT and DAT seem most promising for initial evaluation of drug impairment based on sensitivity and correlations with driving impairment. Further studies are needed to assess the sensitivity and validity of these psychometric tests after benchmark sedative drug use.

  16. Sensitivity and validity of psychometric tests for assessing driving impairment: effects of sleep deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Jongen

    Full Text Available To assess drug induced driving impairment, initial screening is needed. However, no consensus has been reached about which initial screening tools have to be used. The present study aims to determine the ability of a battery of psychometric tests to detect performance impairing effects of clinically relevant levels of drowsiness as induced by one night of sleep deprivation.Twenty four healthy volunteers participated in a 2-period crossover study in which the highway driving test was conducted twice: once after normal sleep and once after one night of sleep deprivation. The psychometric tests were conducted on 4 occasions: once after normal sleep (at 11 am and three times during a single night of sleep deprivation (at 1 am, 5 am, and 11 am.On-the-road driving performance was significantly impaired after sleep deprivation, as measured by an increase in Standard Deviation of Lateral Position (SDLP of 3.1 cm compared to performance after a normal night of sleep. At 5 am, performance in most psychometric tests showed significant impairment. As expected, largest effect sizes were found on performance in the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT. Large effects sizes were also found in the Divided Attention Test (DAT, the Attention Network Test (ANT, and the test for Useful Field of View (UFOV at 5 and 11 am during sleep deprivation. Effects of sleep deprivation on SDLP correlated significantly with performance changes in the PVT and the DAT, but not with performance changes in the UFOV.From the psychometric tests used in this study, the PVT and DAT seem most promising for initial evaluation of drug impairment based on sensitivity and correlations with driving impairment. Further studies are needed to assess the sensitivity and validity of these psychometric tests after benchmark sedative drug use.

  17. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) does not affect ventilatory and perceptual responses to exercise in morbidly obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti Bruni, Giulia; Gigliotti, Francesco; Scano, Giorgio

    2012-09-30

    We have tested the hypothesis that high mass loading effects and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) constrain the ventilatory response to exercise in morbidly obese subjects as compared to their counterparts without OSA. Fifteen obese patients with (8) and without OSA and 12 lean healthy subjects performed incremental cycle exercise. The functional evaluation included ventilation, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, end-expiratory-lung-volumes (EELV), inspiratory capacity, heart rate, dyspnea and leg effort (by a modified Borg scale). Changes in ventilation and dyspnea per unit changes in work rate and metabolic variables were similar in the three groups. Breathing pattern and heart rate increased from rest to peak exercise similarly in the three groups. Leg effort was the prevailing symptom for stopping exercise in most subjects. In conclusion, OSA does not limit exercise capacity in morbidly obese subjects. Ventilation contributes to exertional dyspnea similarly as in lean subjects and in obese patients regardless of OSA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Do subjective assessments of running patterns reflect objective parameters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussiana, Thibault; Gindre, Cyrille; Mourot, Laurent; Hébert-Losier, Kim

    2017-08-01

    Running patterns are often categorized into subgroups according to common features before data analysis and interpretation. The Volodalen(®) method is a simple field-based tool used to classify runners into aerial or terrestrial using a 5-item subjective rating scale. We aimed to validate the Volodalen(®) method by quantifying the relationship between its subjective scores and 3D biomechanical measures. Fifty-four runners ran 30 s on a treadmill at 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 km h(-1) while their kinematics were assessed subjectively using the Volodalen(®) method and objectively using 3D motion capture. For each runner and speed, two researchers scored the five Volodalen(®) items on a 1-to-5 scale, which addressed vertical oscillation, upper-body motion, pelvis and foot position at ground contact, and footstrike pattern. Seven 3D biomechanical parameters reflecting the subjective items were also collected and correlated to the subjective scores. Twenty-eight runners were classified as aerial and 26 as terrestrial. Runner classification did not change with speed, but the relative contribution of the biomechanical parameters to the subjective classification was speed dependent. The magnitude of correlations between subjective and objective measures ranged from trivial to very large. Five of the seven objective parameters significantly differed between aerial and terrestrial runners, and these parameters demonstrated the strongest correlations to the subjective scores. Our results support the validity of the Volodalen(®) method, whereby the visual appreciation of running gait reflected quantifiable objective parameters. Two minor modifications to the method are proposed to simplify its use and improve agreement between subjective and objective measures.

  19. Temporal sleep patterns in adults using actigraph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Matuzaki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to characterize the temporal patterns of sleep and wakefulness in a sample of the adult subjects from São Paulo city. All subjects filled the Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ and wore an actigraph for at least three consecutive days. A total of 359 subjects were considered for the analyses. The mean age was 43±14 years, the mean body mass index was 26.7±5.7 kg/m2, and 60% were female. The mean MEQ score was 58.0±10.7. The sleep pattern evaluated by the actigraphic analyses showed that 92% had a monophasic sleep pattern, 7% biphasic, and 1% polyphasic sleep pattern. Cluster analysis, based on time to sleep onset, sleep efficiency, sleep latency, and total sleep time, was able to identify three different groups denominated: morning type, evening type, and undefined type. Morning type subjects were more frequent, older, and had higher MEQ scores than evening type subjects. Our results showed that the actigraph objectively assessed the sleep-wake cycle and was able to discriminate between morning and evening type individuals. These findings suggest that the actigraph could be a valuable tool for assessing temporal sleep patterns, including the circadian preferences.

  20. Temporal sleep patterns in adults using actigraph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuzaki, Lia; Santos-Silva, Rogerio; Marqueze, Elaine Cristina; de Castro Moreno, Claudia Roberta; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the temporal patterns of sleep and wakefulness in a sample of the adult subjects from São Paulo city. All subjects filled the Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and wore an actigraph for at least three consecutive days. A total of 359 subjects were considered for the analyses. The mean age was 43±14 years, the mean body mass index was 26.7±5.7 kg/m(2), and 60% were female. The mean MEQ score was 58.0±10.7. The sleep pattern evaluated by the actigraphic analyses showed that 92% had a monophasic sleep pattern, 7% biphasic, and 1% polyphasic sleep pattern. Cluster analysis, based on time to sleep onset, sleep efficiency, sleep latency, and total sleep time, was able to identify three different groups denominated: morning type, evening type, and undefined type. Morning type subjects were more frequent, older, and had higher MEQ scores than evening type subjects. Our results showed that the actigraph objectively assessed the sleep-wake cycle and was able to discriminate between morning and evening type individuals. These findings suggest that the actigraph could be a valuable tool for assessing temporal sleep patterns, including the circadian preferences.

  1. Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: An Assessment of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Romy

    2016-06-15

    The aim of this review is to review the literature on sleep-disordered breathing in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). PubMed was searched with an array of search terms, including "OSA," "obstructive sleep apnea," "sleep-disordered breathing," "muscular dystrophy," "neuromuscular," "Duchenne muscular dystrophy," "polysomnography," and "portable monitoring." All relevant articles were discussed. Eighteen research articles and 1 consensus statement were reviewed, and assessed with relevant data presented. Three early studies prior to 1990 assessed DMD associated obstructive sleep apnea. Five studies assessed positive airway pressure (PAP) ventilation and/or sleep in varying neuromuscular disorders, including a cohort with DMD. Six studies since 2000 include PSG data in exclusively DMD cohorts. Three studies involved portable monitoring (PM). PSG with transcutaneous CO2 capnography is an important part of the clinical care for those with DMD. The utility of PM in DMD is unclear with only 1 study to date comparing PSG to PM data. Initiation of PAP therapy using bilevel modality may prevent the need for device switching as the disease progresses. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  2. The effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on objective and subjective sleep parameters in women with breast cancer: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengacher, Cecile A; Reich, Richard R; Paterson, Carly L; Jim, Heather S; Ramesar, Sophia; Alinat, Carissa B; Budhrani, Pinky H; Farias, Jerrica R; Shelton, Melissa M; Moscoso, Manolete S; Park, Jong Y; Kip, Kevin E

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction for breast cancer survivors (MBSR(BC)) on multiple measures of objective and subjective sleep parameters among breast cancer survivors (BCS). Data were collected using a two-armed randomized controlled design among BCS enrolled in either a 6-week MBSR(BC) program or a usual care (UC) group with a 12-week follow-up. The present analysis is a subset of the larger parent trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01177124). Seventy-nine BCS participants (mean age 57 years), stages 0-III, were randomly assigned to either the formal (in-class) 6-week MBSR(BC) program or UC. Subjective sleep parameters (SSP) (i.e., sleep diaries and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)) and objective sleep parameters (OSP) (i.e., actigraphy) were measured at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks after completing the MBSR(BC) or UC program. Results showed indications of a positive effect of MBSR(BC) on OSP at 12 weeks on sleep efficiency (78.2% MBSR(BC) group versus 74.6% UC group, p = 0.04), percent of sleep time (81.0% MBSR(BC) group versus 77.4% UC group, p = 0.02), and less number waking bouts (93.5 in MBSR(BC) group versus 118.6 in the UC group, p < 0.01). Small nonsignificant improvements were found in SSP in the MBSR(BC) group from baseline to 6 weeks (PSQI total score, p = 0.09). No significant relationship was observed between minutes of MBSR(BC) practice and SSP or OSP. These data suggest that MBSR(BC) may be an efficacious treatment to improve objective and subjective sleep parameters in BCS. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The Effects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR(BC)) on Objective and Subjective Sleep Parameters in Women with Breast Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengacher, Cecile A.; Reich, Richard R.; Paterson, Carly L.; Jim, Heather S.; Ramesar, Sophia; Alinat, Carissa B.; Budhrani, Pinky H.; Farias, Jerrica R.; Shelton, Melissa M.; Moscoso, Manolete S.; Park, Jong Y.; Kip, Kevin E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of MBSR(BC) on multiple measures of objective and subjective sleep parameters among breast cancer survivors (BCS). Methods Data were collected using a two-armed randomized controlled design among BCS enrolled in either a six week MBSR(BC) program or a Usual Care (UC) group with a 12-week follow-up. The present analysis is a subset of the larger parent trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01177124). Seventy-nine BCS participants (mean age 57 years), stages 0-III, were randomly assigned to either the formal (in-class) six week MBSR(BC) program or UC. Subjective sleep parameters (SSP) (i.e., sleep diaries and the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)) and objective sleep parameters (OSP) (i.e., actigraphy) were measured at baseline, six weeks and 12 weeks after completing the MBSR(BC) or UC program. Results Results showed indications of a positive effect of MBSR(BC) on OSP at 12 weeks on sleep efficiency (78.2% MBSR(BC) group vs. 74.6% UC group, p=0.04), percent of sleep time (81.0% MBSR(BC) vs. 77.4% UC, p=0.02) and less number waking bouts (93.5 in MBSR(BC) vs. 118.6 in the UC group, pMBSR(BC) group from baseline to 6 weeks (PSQI total score, p=0.09). No significant relationship was observed between minutes of MBSR(BC) practice and SSP or OSP. Conclusions These data suggest that MBSR(BC) may be an efficacious treatment to improve objective and subjective sleep parameters in BCS. PMID:24943918

  4. Genetic variants in human CLOCK associate with total energy intake and cytokine sleep factors in overweight subjects (GOLDN population).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaulet, Marta; Lee, Yu-Chi; Shen, Jian; Parnell, Laurence D; Arnett, Donna K; Tsai, Michael Y; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Ordovas, Jose M

    2010-03-01

    Despite the importance of total energy intake in circadian system regulation, no study has related human CLOCK gene polymorphisms and food-intake measures. The aim of this study was to analyze the associations of CLOCK single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with food intake and to explore the specific role of the cytokine system. A total of 1100 individual participants in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study were included. Dietary intake was estimated with a validated questionnaire. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-2 soluble receptor-alpha (IL-2sR-alpha) and adiponectin plasma concentrations were measured. Our results showed that four of five CLOCK SNPs selected were significantly associated with total energy intake (PSNP rs3749474, the energy intake and total fat, protein and carbohydrate intakes were significantly higher in minor allele carriers than in non-carriers. Frequency of the minor allele was greater in subjects with high energy intake than in those with low intake. Subjects with the minor allele were 1.33 times more likely to have high energy intake than non-carriers (95% CI 1.09-1.72, P=0.0350). All CLOCK SNPs were associated with plasma cytokine values, in particular with those that were highly correlated with energy intake: MCP1, IL-6 and adiponectin. Interestingly, minor allele carriers with high energy intake showed decreased cytokine values, which could be related with a lower anorectic effect and decreased sleep in these subjects. In conclusion, we show a novel association of genetic variation at CLOCK with total energy intake, which was particularly relevant for SNP rs3749474. Associations could be mediated through the alteration of cytokine levels that may influence energy intake and sleep pattern.

  5. Prospective assessment of the risk of obstructive sleep apnea in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The impact of Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in worsening outcomes is profound, especially in the presence of comorbid conditions. This study aimed to describe the proportion of patients at a high risk of OSA in our practice setting. Methods: The STOP BANG questionnaire and the Epworth Sleepiness scale ...

  6. Sleep extension improves neurocognitive functions in chronically sleep-deprived obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucassen, Eliane A; Piaggi, Paolo; Dsurney, John; de Jonge, Lilian; Zhao, Xiong-ce; Mattingly, Megan S; Ramer, Angela; Gershengorn, Janet; Csako, Gyorgy; Cizza, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Sleep deprivation and obesity, are associated with neurocognitive impairments. Effects of sleep deprivation and obesity on cognition are unknown, and the cognitive long-term effects of improvement of sleep have not been prospectively assessed in short sleeping, obese individuals. To characterize neurocognitive functions and assess its reversibility. Prospective cohort study. Tertiary Referral Research Clinical Center. A cohort of 121 short-sleeping (Sleep extension (468±88 days) with life-style modifications. Neurocognitive functions, sleep quality and sleep duration. At baseline, 44% of the individuals had an impaired global deficit score (t-score 0-39). Impaired global deficit score was associated with worse subjective sleep quality (p = 0.02), and lower urinary dopamine levels (p = 0.001). Memory was impaired in 33%; attention in 35%; motor skills in 42%; and executive function in 51% of individuals. At the final evaluation (N = 74), subjective sleep quality improved by 24% (psleep duration increased by 11% by questionnaires (psleep quality and sleep efficiency, urinary free cortisol and dopamine and plasma total ghrelin accounted for 1/5 of the variability in global cognitive function. Drop-out rate. Chronically sleep-deprived obese individuals exhibit substantial neurocognitive deficits that are partially reversible upon improvement of sleep in a non-pharmacological way. These findings have clinical implications for large segments of the US population. www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00261898. NIDDK protocol 06-DK-0036.

  7. An Assessment of Sleep Architecture as a Function of Degree of Handedness in College Women Using a Home Sleep Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propper, Ruth E.; Lawton, Nicole; Przyborski, Matt; Christman, Stephen D.

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined sleep architecture as a function of handedness in a population of undergraduate college women using a home sleep monitor. Compared to strongly handed individuals, participants with a tendency toward mixed-handedness had a shorter sleep latency and spent a greater percentage of their sleep period asleep and less awake.…

  8. Novel Measures to Assess the Effects of Partial Sleep Deprivation on Sensory, Working, and Permanent Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Gosselin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleepiness has repeatedly been demonstrated to affect performance on a variety of cognitive tasks. While the effects of total sleep deprivation (TSD have been extensively studied, acute partial sleep deprivation (PSD, a more frequent form of sleep loss, has been studied much less often. The present study examined the effects of sleep deprivation on novel tasks involving classic sensory, working, and permanent memory systems. While the tasks did implicate different memory systems, they shared a need for effortful, sustained attention to maintain successful performance. Because of the novelty of the tasks, an initial study of the effects of TSD was carried out. The effects of PSD were subsequently examined in a second study, in which subjects were permitted only 4 h of sleep. A general detrimental effect of both total and PSD on accuracy of detection was observed and to a lesser extent, a slowing of the speed of responding on the different tasks. This overall effect is best explained by the often-reported inability to sustain attention following sleep loss. Specific effects on distinct cognitive processes were also observed, and these were more apparent following total than PSD.

  9. Are Complexity Metrics Reliable in Assessing HRV Control in Obese Patients During Sleep?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Cabiddu

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with cardiovascular mortality. Linear methods, including time domain and frequency domain analysis, are normally applied on the heart rate variability (HRV signal to investigate autonomic cardiovascular control, whose imbalance might promote cardiovascular disease in these patients. However, given the cardiac activity non-linearities, non-linear methods might provide better insight. HRV complexity was hereby analyzed during wakefulness and different sleep stages in healthy and obese subjects. Given the short duration of each sleep stage, complexity measures, normally extracted from long-period signals, needed be calculated on short-term signals. Sample entropy, Lempel-Ziv complexity and detrended fluctuation analysis were evaluated and results showed no significant differences among the values calculated over ten-minute signals and longer durations, confirming the reliability of such analysis when performed on short-term signals. Complexity parameters were extracted from ten-minute signal portions selected during wakefulness and different sleep stages on HRV signals obtained from eighteen obese patients and twenty controls. The obese group presented significantly reduced complexity during light and deep sleep, suggesting a deficiency in the control mechanisms integration during these sleep stages. To our knowledge, this study reports for the first time on how the HRV complexity changes in obesity during wakefulness and sleep. Further investigation is needed to quantify altered HRV impact on cardiovascular mortality in obesity.

  10. Novel Measures to Assess the Effects of Partial Sleep Deprivation on Sensory, Working, and Permanent Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Dominique; De Koninck, Joseph; Campbell, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Sleepiness has repeatedly been demonstrated to affect performance on a variety of cognitive tasks. While the effects of total sleep deprivation (TSD) have been extensively studied, acute partial sleep deprivation (PSD), a more frequent form of sleep loss, has been studied much less often. The present study examined the effects of sleep deprivation on novel tasks involving classic sensory, working, and permanent memory systems. While the tasks did implicate different memory systems, they shared a need for effortful, sustained attention to maintain successful performance. Because of the novelty of the tasks, an initial study of the effects of TSD was carried out. The effects of PSD were subsequently examined in a second study, in which subjects were permitted only 4 h of sleep. A general detrimental effect of both total and PSD on accuracy of detection was observed and to a lesser extent, a slowing of the speed of responding on the different tasks. This overall effect is best explained by the often-reported inability to sustain attention following sleep loss. Specific effects on distinct cognitive processes were also observed, and these were more apparent following total than PSD.

  11. Subjective face recognition difficulties, aberrant sensibility, sleeping disturbances and aberrant eating habits in families with Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Källman Tiia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was undertaken in order to determine whether a set of clinical features, which are not included in the DSM-IV or ICD-10 for Asperger Syndrome (AS, are associated with AS in particular or whether they are merely a familial trait that is not related to the diagnosis. Methods Ten large families, a total of 138 persons, of whom 58 individuals fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for AS and another 56 did not to fulfill these criteria, were studied using a structured interview focusing on the possible presence of face recognition difficulties, aberrant sensibility and eating habits and sleeping disturbances. Results The prevalence for face recognition difficulties was 46.6% in individuals with AS compared with 10.7% in the control group. The corresponding figures for subjectively reported presence of aberrant sensibilities were 91.4% and 46.6%, for sleeping disturbances 48.3% and 23.2% and for aberrant eating habits 60.3% and 14.3%, respectively. Conclusion An aberrant processing of sensory information appears to be a common feature in AS. The impact of these and other clinical features that are not incorporated in the ICD-10 and DSM-IV on our understanding of AS may hitherto have been underestimated. These associated clinical traits may well be reflected by the behavioural characteristics of these individuals.

  12. Subjective face recognition difficulties, aberrant sensibility, sleeping disturbances and aberrant eating habits in families with Asperger syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen-von Wendt, Taina; Paavonen, Juulia E; Ylisaukko-Oja, Tero; Sarenius, Susan; Källman, Tiia; Järvelä, Irma; von Wendt, Lennart

    2005-01-01

    Background The present study was undertaken in order to determine whether a set of clinical features, which are not included in the DSM-IV or ICD-10 for Asperger Syndrome (AS), are associated with AS in particular or whether they are merely a familial trait that is not related to the diagnosis. Methods Ten large families, a total of 138 persons, of whom 58 individuals fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for AS and another 56 did not to fulfill these criteria, were studied using a structured interview focusing on the possible presence of face recognition difficulties, aberrant sensibility and eating habits and sleeping disturbances. Results The prevalence for face recognition difficulties was 46.6% in individuals with AS compared with 10.7% in the control group. The corresponding figures for subjectively reported presence of aberrant sensibilities were 91.4% and 46.6%, for sleeping disturbances 48.3% and 23.2% and for aberrant eating habits 60.3% and 14.3%, respectively. Conclusion An aberrant processing of sensory information appears to be a common feature in AS. The impact of these and other clinical features that are not incorporated in the ICD-10 and DSM-IV on our understanding of AS may hitherto have been underestimated. These associated clinical traits may well be reflected by the behavioural characteristics of these individuals. PMID:15826308

  13. The Validity of the School Assessment in the Craft Subject

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    Antti Hilmola

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research project, the validity of the school assessment is examined in the craft subject in Finland’s basic education. The criteria for the school assessment are based on the Finnish Na-tional Core Curriculum (FNCC in which the idea of the Entire Craft (EC is highlighted. How-ever, the discussion as to whether or not the school practice is based on the idea of EC, or whether the teachers are still focused on the technical details of products in reflecting on the pupils’ tool-handling skills, is still an ongoing debate. Learner-centred learning is implicated in EC since the pupils are expected to set goals for the implementation of their own ideating, plan-ning and constructing. And, finally, in such a process, the self-reflection of the implemented out-comes against the goals will take place.  Altogether 73 craft teachers from 59 upper level schools participated in this research project. The pupils’ (N = 982 success was assessed during an EC period using the indicator validated by the previous nation-wide evaluation by the Finn-ish National Board of Education (FNBE. Since the valid school assessment was expected to reflect the success in the Entire Craft Assessment Period (ECAP, the outcomes were assessed against the criteria of the FNCC and compared to the pupils’ school scores. The data was ana-lysed using the Linear Regression Analysis (Enter Method. The central observation was that the pupils’ success in the criteria of the EC do not reflect the 7th grade school scores, in all re-spects. Moreover, the pupils’ success does not reflect the 6th grade school scores. The instruc-tions and supplementary education of the FNCC criteria are needed for craft teachers, especial-ly for class teachers at the lower level. In Finland, also the craft subject is taught by the class teachers at the lower level while, at the upper level, the subject teachers take their place. Ac-cording to the new FNCC, the number of class lessons will be

  14. Assessment of clinical residents' needs for ten educational subjects

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    Mansour Razavi

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Fulfilling the learners' "real needs" will improve medical education. There are subjects that are necessary for any clinical residents not considering their field of specialty. Among the subjects ten seems to be the most important: research methodology and data analysis, computer-based programs, medical recording, cardiopulmonary and cerebral resuscitation, clinical teaching programs, communication skills, clinical ethics, laboratory examinations, reporting special diseases and death certification, and prescription. Purpose This cross-sectional study assessed educational needs of clinical residents for ten educational subjects. Methods A questionnaire prepared by board faculty members consisted of 10 close-ended questions, and one open­ ended question was distributed among 1307 residents from 22 clinical disciplines, who registered for preboard or promotion exam in June 2000. Results Among the subjects three were the most needed: computer-based programs 149 (60%, data collecting system 606 (49%, and clinical ethics 643 (46%. The prescription standard was the least required 177(13%. Conclusion Complementary training courses on these subjects can be an answer to the clinical residents needs. Keywords : research methodology, computer in medicine, cpr, clinical teaching methods, communication in medicine, medical ethics, laboratory ordering, disease coding system, death certificate, prescription writing

  15. Determining Sleep Quality in Children with Sleep Disordered Breathing: EEG Spectral Analysis Compared with Conventional Polysomnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Joel S.C.; Nicholas, Christian L.; Nixon, Gillian M.; Davey, Margot J.; Anderson, Vicki; Walker, Adrian M.; Trinder, John A.; Horne, Rosemary S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To identify the extent of sleep disruption in children with various severities of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) using both conventional visually scored assessment of sleep stages and arousal indices together with EEG power spectral analysis. Design: Sleep stages and power spectral analysis of the sleep EEG in children with varying severities of SDB with matched control subjects with no history of snoring were compared across the whole night, across sequential hours from sleep onset, and across sleep stages. Measurements: Overnight polysomnography was performed on 90 children (49M/41F) aged 7-12 y with SDB and 30 age-matched healthy controls (13M/17F). Sleep stages were visually scored and the EEG spectra were analyzed in 5-s epochs. Results: Conventional visual scoring indicated that, although sleep duration was reduced in severely affected children, sleep quality during the essential stages of SWS and REM was preserved, as evidenced by the lack of any significant decrease in their duration in SDB severity groups. This finding was supported by the lack of substantial differences in EEG spectral power between the groups over the whole night, within specific hours, and in individual sleep stages. Conclusions: Both conventional scoring and EEG spectral analysis indicated only minor disruptions to sleep quality in children with SDB when assessed across the night, in any specific hour of the night, or in any specific sleep stage. These results suggest that reduced daytime functioning previously reported in children with SDB may not be due to sleep disruption. We speculate that in children, in contrast to adults, a stronger sleep drive may preserve sleep quality even in severe SDB. Citation: Yang JSC; Nicholas CL; Nixon GM; Davey MJ; Anderson V; Walker AM; Trinder JA; Horne RSC. Determining sleep quality in children with sleep disordered breathing: EEG spectral analysis compared with conventional polysomnography. SLEEP 2010;33(9):1165-1172. PMID

  16. Evening dietary tryptophan improves post-sleep behavioral and brain measures of memory function in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markus, C.R.; Jonkman, L.M.; Lammers, J.H.C.M.; Deutz, N.E.P.

    2006-01-01

    Brain serotonin function has been implicated in the control of sleep and sleep related memory dysfunctions are attributed to deficient brain serotonin activity. Depletion of the serotonin precursor tryptophan reduces brain serotonin function and is found to cause sleep abnormalities and cognitive

  17. Subjectivity

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    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  18. Inflammatory Markers in Middle-Aged Obese Subjects: Does Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Play a Role?

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    Paschalis Steiropoulos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS is associated with inflammation, but obesity may be a confounding factor. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore differences in serum levels of inflammation markers between obese individuals with or without OSAS. Methods. Healthy individuals (n=61 from an outpatient obesity clinic were examined by polysomnography and blood analysis, for measurement of TNF-α, IL-6, CRP, and fibrinogen levels. According to Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI, participants were divided into two BMI-matched groups: controls (AHI < 15/h, n=23 and OSAS patients (AHI ≥ 15/h, n=38. Results. OSAS patients had significantly higher TNF-α levels (P<.001 while no other difference in the examined inflammation markers was recorded between groups. Overall, TNF-α levels were correlated with neck circumference (P<.001, AHI (P=.002, and Oxygen Desaturation Index (P=.002. Conclusions. Obese OSAS patients have elevated TNF-α levels compared to BMI-matched controls, suggesting a role of OSAS in promoting inflammation, possibly mediated by TNF-a.

  19. Asthma and subjective sleep disordered breathing in a large cohort of urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandieh, Stephanie O; Cespedes, Amarilis; Ciarleglio, Adam; Bourgeois, Wallace; Rapoport, David M; Bruzzese, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-02

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) has not been well studied in urban adolescents with asthma in community settings. Nor has the association of SDB symptoms and asthma severity been studied. We characterized self-reported symptoms suggesting SDB and investigated the association of SDB symptoms, probable asthma, and asthma severity. 9,565 adolescents from 21 inner-city high schools were screened for an asthma intervention study. Students reported on symptoms suggesting SDB using questions from the 2007 NHANES, if they were ever diagnosed with asthma, and on asthma symptoms. Using generalized linear mixed models with logit link with school as a random intercept and adjusting for age, gender, and race/ethnicity, we examined associations of SDB symptoms, and demographic characteristics, probable asthma, and asthma severity. 12% reported SDB symptoms. Older and bi-racial participants (compared to Caucasian) had higher odds of symptoms suggesting SDB (p asthma, adolescents with probable asthma had 2.63 greater odds of reporting SDB symptoms (p asthma, the odds of reporting SDB symptoms increased with asthma severity. When exploring daytime severity and severity due to night wakening separately, results were similar. All results remained significant when controlling for age, gender, and ethnicity. In a large urban community cohort of predominately ethnic minority adolescents, self-reported SDB symptoms were associated with probable asthma and increased asthma severity. This study highlights the importance of SDB as a modifiable co-morbidity of asthma.

  20. Connectivity pattern differences bilaterally in the cerebellum posterior lobe in healthy subjects after normal sleep and sleep deprivation: a resting-state functional MRI study

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    Liu XM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Xuming Liu,1 Zhihan Yan,2 Tingyu Wang,1 Xiaokai Yang,1 Feng Feng,3 Luping Fan,1 Jian Jiang4 1Department of Radiology, The Third Clinical Institute Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 2Department of Radiology, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 3Peking Union Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 4Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI technique to explore the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC differences of the bilaterial cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL after normal sleep (NS and after sleep deprivation (SD. Methods: A total of 16 healthy subjects (eight males, eight females underwent an fMRI scan twice at random: once following NS and the other following 24 hours’ SD, with an interval of 1 month between the two scans. The fMRI scanning included resting state and acupuncture stimulation. The special activated regions located during the acupuncture stimulation were selected as regions of interest for rsFC analysis. Results: Bilateral CPLs were positively activated by acupuncture stimulation. In the NS group, the left CPL showed rsFC with the bilateral CPL, bilateral frontal lobe (BFL, left precuneus and right inferior parietal lobule, while the right CPL showed rsFC with the bilateral temporal lobe, right cerebellum anterior lobe, right CPL, left frontal lobe, left anterior cingulate, right posterior cingulate, and bilateral inferior parietal lobule. In the SD group, the left CPL showed rsFC with the left posterior cingulate gyrus bilateral CPL, left precuneus, left precentral gyrus, BFL, and the left parietal lobe, while the right CPL showed rsFC with bilateral cerebellum anterior lobe, bilateral CPL, left frontal lobe and left temporal lobe. Compared with the NS group, the

  1. Harnessing the power of personality assessment: subjective assessment predicts behaviour in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijichi, Carrie; Collins, Lisa M; Creighton, Emma; Elwood, Robert W

    2013-06-01

    Objective assessment of animal personality is typically time consuming, requiring the repeated measure of behavioural responses. By contrast, subjective assessment of personality allows information to be collected quickly by experienced caregivers. However, subjective assessment must predict behaviour to be valid. Comparisons of subjective assessments and behaviour have been made but often with methodological weaknesses and thus, limited success. Here we test the validity of a subjective assessment against a battery of behaviour tests in 146 horses (Equus caballus). Our first aim was to determine if subjective personality assessment could predict behaviour during behaviour testing. We made specific a priori predictions for how subjectively measured personality should relate to behaviour testing. We found that Extroversion predicted time to complete a handling test and refusal behaviour during this test. It also predicted minimum distance to a novel object. Neuroticism predicted how reactive an individual was to a sudden visual stimulus but not how quickly it recovered from this. Agreeableness did not predict any behaviour during testing. There were several unpredicted correlations between subjective measures and behaviour tests which we explore further. Our second aim was to combine data from the subjective assessment and behaviour tests to gain a more comprehensive understanding of personality. We found that the combination of methods provides new insights into horse behaviour. Furthermore, our data are consistent with the idea of horses showing different coping styles, a novel finding for this species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An assessment of a sedative algorithm for sleep in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G; Scott, W

    1998-01-01

    The difficulty for intensive care unit (ICU) patients to obtain frequent and extensive sleep has been well-documented. This project assessed the benefit of an algorithm of pharmacological assistance (lorazepam and methotrimeprazine) on sedation level and sleep duration in the ICU. The setting was a 15-bed closed ICU dealing with medical and surgical patients in a tertiary care, teaching hospital. Desired and actual levels of sedation for individual patients were determined hourly by the bedside nurse. Medications could be administered to facilitate achieving the desired level of sedation. Our results should no difference occurred in the achievement of the target sedation or duration of sleep with the implementation of the sedation algorithm. The amount of additional medication required during the night did change with the implementation of the sedation algorithm. A reduction in the amount of diazepam, morphine, and additional methotrimeprazine was noted. Efforts to change nursing practice will be required to improve the quality and quantity of sleep in ICU patients. This clinical evaluation demonstrates that the implementation of an algorithm for medication use is not effective alone in obtaining the desired level and duration of sleep in ICU patients. Nursing practice should continue to look at non-pharmacological factors, such as environmental noise, patient interruptions, and patient care practice to determine strategies in addition to medications which would aid the critically ill patient in achieving adequate sleep.

  3. Sleep-patterns, co-sleeping and parent's perception of sleep among school children: Comparison of domicile and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ravi; Kandpal, Sunil Dutt; Goel, Deepak; Mittal, Nidhi; Dhyani, Mohan; Mittal, Manish

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at assessment of sleep schedule, pre-sleep behavior, co-sleeping and parent's perception of sleep of school going children. Four schools each, from urban and rural area were included. Sleep patterns were assessed using the validated Hindi version of Childhood-Sleep-Habit-Questionnaire. Comparison was made between urban and rural group and between boys and girls. Interaction of gender, domicile and school-type was examined on the sleep patterns. This study included 831 school children with mean age of 8.9 years. Nearly half of the subjects were boys in this study. Urban children outnumbered those from rural area. Total sleep time on weekdays was 8.3 h that increased to 9.5 h on weekends. Rural children spent more time in sleep than urban children on weekdays and weekends. A higher proportion of urban children felt sleepy during the day. Television watching before bedtime was more common in urban settings. Room sharing was more common among rural children. Nearly 65% rural parents as compared to 77.5% urban parents reported that their child was sleeping sufficient enough. Gender did not affect sleep-schedule and parent's perception regarding their child's sleep. Interaction between gender, domicile and school-type did not have any significant effect on sleep patterns. Television watching before bedtime was more common among urban school children and they had shorter total sleep time. They had signs of sleep deprivation. Room sharing was more common among rural children. Despite longer sleep time, parents of rural children felt the need for more sleep.

  4. ASSESSING THE SLEEP QUALITY AND DEPRESSION-ANXIETY-STRESS IN IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME PATIENTS

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    Nadieh BANIASADI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders with chronic abdominal pain and altered bowel habit without any organic reason. Sleep disorders may be associated to IBS. OBJECTIVE We aimed to assess sleep disturbances and depression-anxiety-stress in IBS patients. METHODS In this analytical cross sectional study from November 2013 to May 2014, A total of 123 IBS patients were recruited by simple random sampling. IBS was diagnosed using ROME-III criteria. Demographic and basic data were driven from all patients then Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index questionnaire was utilized to estimate sleep quality and DASS (depression anxiety stress scale questionnaire was filled out for depression, anxiety and stress. RESULTS The mean age of patients was 29±9, where 48 cases (39% were male. Twelve cases (10% had a background disease. Types of IBS in patients were included 38% diarrhea, 42% constipation and 20% mixed. From all IBS patients 87 (71% cases had depression, 97 (79% patients stress, 94 (76% patients had anxiety. Seventy-six (62% cases of IBS patients had poor sleep quality. Simultaneously employing predictors demonstrate that gender, background disease, and type of IBS did not statistically significant. On the other hand, depression (P=0.034, OR=2.35, anxiety (P=0.011, OR=3.022, and stress (P=0.029, OR=2.77 were significantly effect on sleep quality in poor sleepers. CONCLUSION Many of IBS patients is suffering from poor sleep quality. It seems that sleep disorder should be considered and treated in this patients.

  5. ASSESSING THE SLEEP QUALITY AND DEPRESSION-ANXIETY-STRESS IN IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniasadi, Nadieh; Dehesh, Mohammad Moein; Mohebbi, Elham; Hayatbakhsh Abbasi, Mahdy; Oghabian, Zohreh

    2017-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders with chronic abdominal pain and altered bowel habit without any organic reason. Sleep disorders may be associated to IBS. We aimed to assess sleep disturbances and depression-anxiety-stress in IBS patients. In this analytical cross sectional study from November 2013 to May 2014, A total of 123 IBS patients were recruited by simple random sampling. IBS was diagnosed using ROME-III criteria. Demographic and basic data were driven from all patients then Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index questionnaire was utilized to estimate sleep quality and DASS (depression anxiety stress scale) questionnaire was filled out for depression, anxiety and stress. The mean age of patients was 29±9, where 48 cases (39%) were male. Twelve cases (10%) had a background disease. Types of IBS in patients were included 38% diarrhea, 42% constipation and 20% mixed. From all IBS patients 87 (71%) cases had depression, 97 (79%) patients stress, 94 (76%) patients had anxiety. Seventy-six (62%) cases of IBS patients had poor sleep quality. Simultaneously employing predictors demonstrate that gender, background disease, and type of IBS did not statistically significant. On the other hand, depression (P=0.034, OR=2.35), anxiety (P=0.011, OR=3.022), and stress (P=0.029, OR=2.77) were significantly effect on sleep quality in poor sleepers. Many of IBS patients is suffering from poor sleep quality. It seems that sleep disorder should be considered and treated in this patients.

  6. Sleep Pattern and Sleep Hygiene Practices among Nigerian Schooling Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Igoche David; Adamu, Halima; Asani, Mustafa O; Aliyu, Ibrahim; Sabo, Umar A; Umar, Umar I

    2017-01-01

    Sleep problems, especially in the adolescent stage of development, may be associated with excessive daytime sleepiness, impaired neurocognitive function, and a host of others leading to suboptimal performance. To determine the pattern of sleep problems in school-going adolescents based on the bedtime problems; excessive daytime sleepiness; awakenings during the night and problems falling back asleep; regularity and duration of sleep; sleep-disordered breathing (BEARS) sleep screening algorithm. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study involving 353 secondary school-going adolescents in Kano metropolis. Subjects were selected for the study using multistage sampling technique. The study lasted from March 2015 to July 2015. Sleep problems were screened for using the BEARS sleep screening algorithm. Tables were used to present the qualitative data. The various BEARS sleep patterns were assessed, and comparison between stages of adolescence was done using Chi-square test (and Fisher's exact test where necessary). A significant association was considered at P adolescents studied, 61.8% were males while 38.2% were females with male, female ratio of 1.6:1. Early, middle, and late adolescents constituted 13.9%, 39.9%, 46.2% respectively. BEARS sleep screening revealed awakenings during the night (34.6%) as the most common sleep-related problem reported, and this was followed by excessive daytime sleepiness (21.0%). Age-group dependent sleep duration was 7.19 ± 1.26, 7.13 ± 1.13, 7.16 ± 1.28, with P > 0.05. Although 62.9% of all the adolescents watched TV/play video games until 1 h before going to bed and this was highest in late adolescence, it was not statistically significantly associated with any of the sleep problems. Both the quality and quantity of sleep in Nigerian adolescents in Kano is suboptimal. Adolescent and sleep medicine should receive more attention in our environment.

  7. Sleep and somatic complaints in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlarb AA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Angelika A Schlarb,1,* Merle Claßen,1,* Sara M Hellmann,1 Claus Vögele,2 Marco D Gulewitsch3 1Faculty of Psychology and Sports Science, University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany; 2Faculty of Psychology, University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg City, Luxembourg; 3Faculty of Science, Department of Psychology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Sleep problems are common among university students. Poor sleep is associated with impaired daily functioning, increased risk of psychiatric symptoms, and somatic complaints such as pain. Previous results suggest that poor sleep exacerbates pain, which in turn negatively affects sleep. The purpose of the present study was to determine prevalence rates, comorbidity, and role of depression as a factor of moderating the relationship between sleep and physical complaints in German university students. Samples and methods: In total, 2443 German university students (65% women completed a web survey. Self-report measures included the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, three modules of the Patient Health Questionnaire, and a questionnaire on the functional somatic syndromes (FSSs. Results: More than one-third (36.9% reported poor sleep as assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Somatoform syndrome was identified in 23.5%, and the prevalence of any FSS was 12.8%. Self-reported sleep quality, sleep onset latency, sleep disturbances, use of sleep medications, and daytime dysfunctioning were significant predictors of somatoform syndrome, whereas sleep efficiency and sleep duration influenced somatic complaints indirectly. Moderate correlations were found between stress, anxiety, somatoform syndrome, depression, and overall sleep quality. The effect of somatic complaints on sleep quality was associated with the severity of depression. Anxiety shows direct effects on somatization and depression but only indirect associations with sleep quality

  8. Subjective assessment of contact lens wear by army aircrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattimore, M R; Cornum, R L

    1993-07-01

    Because 23% of Army aviators are ametropic, contact lenses have drawn increased attention as a spectacle substitute to solve system compatibility problems. From November 1988 until October 1991, a series of contact lens research protocols were conducted to develop a comprehensive database on contact lens wear in varied environments. Questionnaires were used to assess suitability and acceptability of routine contact lens wear. Responses from 202 subjects were obtained from September 1989 through September 1991. The questions explored operational and safety of flight issues of contact lens wear. Subjects overwhelmingly approved of contact lens use in all settings: 95% expressed greater combat readiness and effectiveness with contact lenses, 98% felt contact lens use (and maintenance) in the cockpit had no adverse impact on safety of flight, and 98% endorsed the routine use of contact lenses. These data highlight Army aircrew acceptance of contact lens use.

  9. Sleep quality in professional ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fietze, Ingo; Strauch, Jutta; Holzhausen, Martin; Glos, Martin; Theobald, Christiane; Lehnkering, Hanna; Penzel, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Ballet dancers are competitive athletes who undergo extreme physical and mental stress and work according to an irregular schedule, with long days of training, rehearsal, and performance. Their most significant potential risks entail physical injury and altered sleep. The elaborate training requirements for ballet dancers do not allow regular chronobiological patterns or a normal sleep-wake rhythm. Our aim was to investigate the sleep-wake rhythm and sleep quality during rehearsal phases prior to a ballet premiere. We used wrist actigraphy and sleep diaries for a period of 67 days before the ballet premiere performance to study 24 classical ballet dancers. We likewise applied the Epworth Sleepiness Score (ESS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), SF-12 Quality of life Assessment, and d2 Test of Attention to assess quality of sleep, aspects of cognitive performance, and health status. We found significant reduction in sleep duration, from 418+/-43 min to 391+/-42 min, and sleep efficiency, from 81+/-4% to 79+/-5%, over the 67-day course of the rehearsal. We also found a decline in time in bed and an increase in wakefulness after sleep onset. Sleep onset latency did not change. However, the changes in sleep as documented by actigraphy were not reflected by the subjective data of the sleep diaries and sleep scores. As a result of the facts that total sleep efficiency and sleep duration values were already lower than usual for the dancers' age group at the beginning of the study and that mental acuity, concentration, and speed were likewise impaired, we observed exacerbated health deterioration in terms of sleep deprivation in ballet dancers during preparation for a premier. We conclude that individual activity-rest schedules, including daytime naps, may be helpful, especially during the stressful training and rehearsal experienced prior to ballet premieres.

  10. Lucid dreaming: correspondence between dreamed and actual events in one subject during REM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, P; Schatzman, M; Worsley, A; Adams, J; Stone, S; Baker, A

    1984-06-01

    During lucid dreaming, a subject willed movements of his fingers, toes and feet, remembered tasks, and counted sensory stimuli. Dreamed speech was related to respiration. EMG activity corresponding to dreamed actions was greater in flexor than in extensor limb muscles and was never present in axial muscles.

  11. Cognitive Workload and Sleep Restriction Interact to Influence Sleep Homeostatic Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Namni; Abe, Takashi; Braun, Marcia E.; Dinges, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Determine the effects of high versus moderate workload on sleep physiology and neurobehavioral measures, during sleep restriction (SR) and no sleep restriction (NSR) conditions. Design: Ten-night experiment involving cognitive workload and SR manipulations. Setting: Controlled laboratory environment. Participants: Sixty-three healthy adults (mean ± standard deviation: 33.2 ± 8.7 y; 29 females), age 22–50 y. Interventions: Following three baseline 8 h time in bed (TIB) nights, subjects were randomized to one of four conditions: high cognitive workload (HW) + SR; moderate cognitive workload (MW) + SR; HW + NSR; or MW + NSR. SR entailed 5 consecutive nights at 4 h TIB; NSR entailed 5 consecutive nights at 8 h TIB. Subjects received three workload test sessions/day consisting of 15-min preworkload assessments, followed by a 60-min (MW) or 120-min (HW) workload manipulation comprised of visually based cognitive tasks, and concluding with 15-min of postworkload assessments. Experimental nights were followed by two 8-h TIB recovery sleep nights. Polysomnography was collected on baseline night 3, experimental nights 1, 4, and 5, and recovery night 1 using three channels (central, frontal, occipital [C3, Fz, O2]). Measurements and Results: High workload, regardless of sleep duration, increased subjective fatigue and sleepiness (all P sleep restriction produced cumulative increases in Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) lapses, fatigue, and sleepiness and decreases in PVT response speed and Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT) sleep onset latencies (all P sleep onset latencies (P sleep onset (P sleep homeostasis—was higher at O2 than C3 only in the HW + SR condition (P sleep onset, but it also promoted sleep homeostatic responses by increasing subjective fatigue and sleepiness, and producing a global sleep homeostatic response by reducing wake after sleep onset. When combined with sleep restriction, high workload increased local (occipital) sleep

  12. Workplace violence, psychological stress, sleep quality and subjective health in Chinese doctors: a large cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Gao, Lei; Li, Fujun; Shi, Yu; Xie, Fengzhe; Wang, Jinghui; Wang, Shuo; Zhang, Shue; Liu, Wenhui; Duan, Xiaojian; Liu, Xinyan; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Li; Fan, Lihua

    2017-12-07

    Workplace violence (WPV) against healthcare workers is known as violence in healthcare settings and referring to the violent acts that are directed towards doctors, nurses or other healthcare staff at work or on duty. Moreover, WPV can cause a large number of adverse outcomes. However, there is not enough evidence to test the link between exposure to WPV against doctors, psychological stress, sleep quality and health status in China. This study had three objectives: (1) to identify the incidence rate of WPV against doctors under a new classification, (2) to examine the association between exposure to WPV, psychological stress, sleep quality and subjective health of Chinese doctors and (3) to verify the partial mediating role of psychological stress. A cross-sectional online survey study. The survey was conducted among 1740 doctors in tertiary hospitals, 733 in secondary hospital and 139 in primary hospital across 30 provinces of China. A total of 3016 participants were invited. Ultimately, 2617 doctors completed valid questionnaires. The effective response rate was 86.8%. The results demonstrated that the prevalence rate of exposure to verbal abuse was the highest (76.2%), made difficulties (58.3%), smear reputation (40.8%), mobbing behaviour (40.2%), intimidation behaviour (27.6%), physical violence (24.1%) and sexual harassment (7.8%). Exposure to WPV significantly affected the psychological stress, sleep quality and self-reported health of doctors. Moreover, psychological stress partially mediated the relationship between work-related violence and health damage. In China, most doctors have encountered various WPV from patients and their relatives. The prevalence of three new types of WPV have been investigated in our study, which have been rarely mentioned in past research. A safer work environment for Chinese healthcare workers needs to be provided to minimise health threats, which is a top priority for both government and society. © Article author(s) (or

  13. Reliability of a Scale Assessing Depressed Mood in the Context of Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roane, Brandy M; Seifer, Ronald; Sharkey, Katherine M; Van Reen, Eliza; Bond, Tamara L Y; Raffray, Tifenn; Carskadon, Mary A

    2013-03-01

    The current study assessed the reliability of Kandel & Davies mood scale with and without sleep-related items. 178 Brown University first-year students (mean age=18.1 years; 108 females) completed online biweekly surveys after weeks 2, 6, 8, and 10 and on 2 consecutive days after weeks 4 and 12 of their first semester. The scale was examined as a 1) full 6-item scale, 2) 5-item scale excluding the sleep item, and 3) 4-item scale excluding the sleep and tired items. Intraclass correlations (ICC) values for consecutive-day assessments and 6 biweekly surveys were similar and not a function of the weeks evaluated. Total-item correlations and inter-measure correlations with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depressed Mood Scale (CES-D) supported the removal of the sleep-related items from the 6-item scale. These analyses confirm the reliability of the original Kandel and Davies depressed mood scale as well as without the sleep-related items.

  14. Perceived Quality of Full HD Video - Subjective Quality Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Bienik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, an interest in multimedia services has become a global trend and this trend is still rising. The video quality is a very significant part from the bundle of multimedia services, which leads to a requirement for quality assessment in the video domain. Video quality of a streamed video across IP networks is generally influenced by two factors “transmission link imperfection and efficiency of compression standards. This paper deals with subjective video quality assessment and the impact of the compression standards H.264, H.265 and VP9 on perceived video quality of these compression standards. The evaluation is done for four full HD sequences, the difference of scenes is in the content“ distinction is based on Spatial (SI and Temporal (TI Index of test sequences. Finally, experimental results follow up to 30% bitrate reducing of H.265 and VP9 compared with the reference H.264.

  15. Subjective Positive and Negative Sleep Variables Differentially Affect Cellular Immune Activity in a Breast Cancer Survivor: A Time-series Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Singer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study on a breast cancer survivor suffering from cancer-related fatigue (CaRF and depression investigated the bidirectional relationship between cellular immune activity and subjective sleep. The 49-year-old patient (breast cancer diagnosis 5 years before the study, currently in remission collected her full urine output for 28 days in 12-h intervals (8:00 p.m. to 8:00 a.m. and 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m.. These urine samples were used to determine urinary neopterin (cellular immune activation marker and creatinine concentrations via high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. Each morning, the patient answered questions on five sleep variables: sleep quality (SQ, sleep recreational value (SRV, total sleep time (TST, total wake time (TWT, and awakenings during sleep period (ADS. For the purpose of this study, the time series of the nighttime urinary neopterin levels and the five sleep variables were determined. Using centered moving average (CMA smoothing and cross-correlational analysis, this study showed that increases in the positive sleep variables SQ and SRV were followed by urinary neopterin concentration decreases after 96–120 h (SQ, lag 4: r = −0.411; p = 0.044; SRV: lag 4: r = −0.472; p = 0.021 and 120–144 h (SRV, lag 5: r = −0.464; p = 0.026. Increases in the negative sleep variable TWT, by contrast, were followed by increases in urinary neopterin concentrations 72–96 h later (lag 3: r = 0.522; p = 0.009. No systematic effects in the other direction, i.e., from urinary neopterin levels to sleep, were observed in this study. Although preliminary, the findings of this study highlight the benefit of carefully investigating temporal delays and directions of eff