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Sample records for subjective work experiences

  1. The influence of career orientations on subjective work experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinde Coetzee

    2010-11-01

    Research purpose: The study empirically assessed the causal influence of individuals’ career orientations on their perceived life satisfaction, job or career satisfaction, sense of happiness and their perceptions of work as a valuable activity as aspects of their subjective work experiences. Motivation for study: From an organisational perspective, research on individuals’ inner definitions of career success and satisfaction is needed to guide current selection, placement, development, reward and retention practices. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative survey was conducted on a random sample of 2997 participants at predominantly managerial and supervisory level in the service industry. The measuring instruments consisted of an adapted five-factor career orientations model of the Career Orientations Inventory and a 4-item global subjective work experiences scale. Structural equation modelling (SEM was conducted to achieve the aim of the study. Main findings/results: Statistically significant causal relationships were observed between the career orientations and subjective work experiences variables. Practical implications: Individuals’ career orientations influence their general sense of life and job or career satisfaction, happiness and perceptions of work as a valuable activity. Organisations concerned with the retention of staff need to find a way of aligning individuals’ career needs and motives with the goals and aspirations of the organisation. Contribution/value-add: The research confirms the need for assessing the inner career orientations of employees as these provide valuable information regarding the motives and values driving individuals’ career decision making and subjective experiences of their working lives.

  2. Psychological career resources and subjective work experiences of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Business Review Volume 13 Number 2 2009. Psychological .... results from certain perceptions about one's work and has behavioural consequences such as tenure ... Overall, the black (67%) and female (58%) participants.

  3. Work-related subjective experiences among community residents with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghorn, Geoff; Chant, David; King, Robert

    2005-04-01

    To develop a self-report scale of subjective experiences of illness perceived to impact on employment functioning, as an alternative to a diagnostic perspective, for anticipating the vocational assistance needs of people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. A repeated measures pilot study (n(1) = 26, n(2) = 21) of community residents with schizophrenia identified a set of work-related subjective experiences perceived to impact on employment functioning. Items with the best psychometric properties were applied in a 12 month longitudinal survey of urban residents with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (n(1) = 104; n(2) = 94; n(3) = 94). Construct validity, factor structure, responsiveness, internal consistency, stability, and criterion validity investigations produced favourable results. Work-related subjective experiences provide information about the intersection of the person, the disorder, and expectations of employment functioning, which suggest new opportunities for vocational professionals to explore and discuss individual assistance needs. Further psychometric investigations of test-retest reliability, discriminant and predictive validity, and research applications in supported employment and vocational rehabilitation, are recommended. Subject to adequate psychometric properties, the new measure promises to facilitate exploring: individuals' specific subjective experiences; how each is perceived to contribute to employment restrictions; and the corresponding implications for specialized treatment, vocational interventions and workplace accommodations.

  4. HOW TEACHERS EVALUATE THEIR WORK STYLE DEPENDING ON THE SUBJECT THEY TEACH AND YEARS OF WORK EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranka Perućica

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In previous works we presented the studies that discussed how students evaluate their teachers and their style of teaching. To what extent their styles affect the students’ attitudes to teaching, learning, success, motivation and the like. In this work we have tried to point out how teachers assess their style of work, depending on the subject they teach and years of work experience. In addition, the aim of this study was to examine whether there are differences in teachers’ estimation of the teaching styles depending on the subject they teach and years of work experience. The study sample consisted of 120 teachers in the final grades of primary schools in the Sarajevo – Romania region. Teachers responded to questions assessing which of the statements given are related to them. The questionnaire was designed for research purposes with the three styles that are commonly used in the classroom to a democratic, autocratic and laissez - fair style. Reliability of the instrument was tested using Cronbach - alpha coefficient, and amounted to 0.73 democratic style, the autocratic 0.73, and 0.63 for the indifferent style. In the study, we used two methods: survey method and the method of theoretical analysis. The obtained results show that there is a statistically significant difference in teachers’ assessments of democratic and laissez - fair style usage, depending on the subject they teach, while there was no statistically significant difference when it comes to the autocratic style. The second part of our results shows that there is no difference in teachers’ assessments of work styles, depending on years of work experience. We hope that these results will contribute to the already existing research dealing with this subject.

  5. Becoming a Subject: A Memory Work Study of the Experience of Romantic Jealousy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Langdridge

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we aim to contribute to psychosocial debates around selfhood by focusing empirically upon memories of jealousy and the ways in which potential subjectivities are both opened up and closed down. The paper presents a phenomenological narrative analysis of our research on jealousy produced through a memory work group. We identify three types of jealous memories (real, virtual and in-between and elucidate the narrative structure of jealous experiencing. Memories of jealousy invariably involved some anticipatory context in which the actors engaged with potential subjectivities, which were then disrupted when the physical or psychological presence of another became apparent, triggering powerful embodied feelings. We argue that much of the power of jealousy comes from the way in which it is ambiguous and anxiety provoking as a result of a challenge to perceived subjectivities. Our findings are discussed in relation to extant mainstream literature on jealousy and critical theories of subjectivity, embodiment and relationality. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs120258

  6. How Teachers Evaluate Their Work Style Depending on the Subject They Teach and Years of Work Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perucica, Ranka

    2017-01-01

    In previous works we presented the studies that discussed how students evaluate their teachers and their style of teaching. To what extent their styles affect the students' attitudes to teaching, learning, success, motivation and the like. In this work we have tried to point out how teachers assess their style of work, depending on the subject…

  7. Working Memory Processing In Normal Subjects and Subjects with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, S. M.; Lajiness-O'Neill, R.; Weiland, B. J.; Mason, K.; Tepley, N.

    2004-10-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to determine the neuroanatomical location of working memory (WM) processes. Differences between subjects with dyslexia (SD; n=5) and normal readers (NR; n=5) were studied during two WM tasks. A spatial WM task (SMW) consisted of blocks visually presented in one of 12 positions for 2 s each. Subjects were to determine if the current position matched the position presented 2 slides earlier (N-Back Test). The verbal task (VMW) consisted of presentation of a single letter. The location of cortical activity during SWM in NR (determined with MR-FOCUSS analysis) was in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right angular gyrus (AG). Similar activation was seen in SD with a slight delay of approximately 20 ms. During VWM activity was seen in LEFT STG and LEFT AG in NR. In contrast for SD, activation was in the RIGHT STG and RIGHT AG. This study demonstrates the possibility to differentiate WM processing in subjects with and without learning disorders.

  8. Subjective Relational Experiences and Employee Innovative Behaviors in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinarski-Peretz, Hedva; Binyamin, Galy; Carmeli, Abraham

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents two studies that explore the implications of subjective relational experiences (positive regard, mutuality and vitality) on employee engagement in innovative behaviors at work. Data collected at two points in time were used to test two mediation models that link subjective relational experiences and innovative behaviors. The…

  9. Measuring the Subjective User eXperience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptein, Maurits

    Measuring the subjective user experience is a challenging task. In this tutorial we will demonstrate how psychological constructs can be divided in separate variables, each measured by its individual questionnaire items. The tutorial will address the analysis of the questionnaire data to estimate its validity and reliability. Analysis will be demonstrated using SPSS.

  10. Clinical Perspective An adolescent's subjective experiences of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An adolescent's subjective experiences of mindfulness were explored in a single case study of a 17-yearold female. Data were created by means of 'mindfulness sessions', unstructured interviews, creative expression, journals and field notes. The data were analysed and interpreted using a combination of typological and ...

  11. Work, Experience and Adult Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    A presentation and discussion of the theories of work, experience and adult education developed by the German philosopher and sociologist Oskar Negt.......A presentation and discussion of the theories of work, experience and adult education developed by the German philosopher and sociologist Oskar Negt....

  12. Proto-experiences and subjective experiences: classical and quantum concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimal, Ram Lakhan Pandey

    2008-03-01

    Deterministic reductive monism and non-reductive substance dualism are two opposite views for consciousness, and both have serious problems. An alternative view is needed. For this, we hypothesize that strings or elementary particles (fermions and bosons) have two aspects: (i) elemental proto-experiences (PEs) as phenomenal aspect, and (ii) mass, charge, and spin as material aspect. Elemental PEs are hypothesized to be the properties of elementary particles and their interactions, which are composed of irreducible fundamental subjective experiences (SEs)/PEs that are in superimposed form in elementary particles and in their interactions. Since SEs/PEs are superimposed, elementary particles are not specific to any SE/PE; they (and all inert matter) are carriers of SEs/PEs, and hence, appear as non-experiential material entities. Furthermore, our hypothesis is that matter and associated elemental PEs co-evolved and co-developed into neural-nets and associated neural-net PEs (neural Darminism), respectively. The signals related to neural PEs interact in a neural-net and neural-net PEs emerges from random process of self-organization. The neural-net PEs are a set of SEs embedded in the neural-net by a non-computational or non-algorithmic process. The non-specificity of elementary particles is transformed into the specificity of neural-nets by neural Darwinism. The specificity of SEs emerges when feedforward and feedback signal interacts in the neuropil and are dependent on wakefulness (i.e., activation) attention, re-entry between neural populations, working memory, stimulus at above threshold, and neural net PE signals. This PE-SE framework integrates reductive and non-reductive views, complements the existing models, bridges the explanatory gaps, and minimizes the problem of causation.

  13. Work-life Experience and Learner Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Sissel

    2013-01-01

    In order to examine how orientations toward learning activities are situated in and conditioned by specific work-life experiences it is crucial to develop a dialectic concept of learner identity. Based on a qualitative research-project (Kondrup 2012) this paper outlines how unskilled work forms...... a specific condition for engaging in lifelong learning. The aim of the study was to examine how an unskilled work-life presents certain conditions for the formation, maintenance and transformation of a learner identity, enabling workers to position themselves as educable subjects and engage in formal...

  14. Using VISIR: Experiments, Subjects and Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Lopez-de-Ipina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of applying the VISIR (Virtual Instrument Systems in Reality system at the course of analog electronics for various degrees of the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Deusto (Spain. The efficiency of the VISIR had been monitored during past three years. Students’ feedback was collected and analyzed. The research shows: 1 VISIR system is functional and useful learning instrument; 2 teacher experience at VISIR plays crucial role in its integration into student experimentation activities; 3 students get best knowledge and skills in the analog electronics from combination of experiments at traditional laboratory and remote lab/ VISIR.

  15. Subjective experience and suicidal ideation in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skodlar, Borut; Tomori, Martina; Parnas, Josef

    2008-01-01

    ideation and intentions, followed by a qualitative phenomenological analysis of the material. Solitude with inability to participate in human interactions and feelings of inferiority were found to be the main sources of suicidal ideation. These experiences seem to resemble ordinary depressive reactions......Suicidal ideation and behavior are a frequent complication of schizophrenia. Although a number of risk factors have been identified, specific features of suicidality in schizophrenia remain poorly understood. In this study, 19 patients with schizophrenia were interviewed in depth on their suicidal......, yet we found them to be reflective of a more basic self-alienation and incapacity for immersion in the shared world. Ignoring this experiential level of patients' disturbances may lead to trivialization (and misjudgment) of the experiences at the root of suicidality in schizophrenia....

  16. Author as a Corporal Subject of A. Huxley's Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falaleeva, Svetlana S.; Musaeva, Diana R.; Samoylova, Tatiana I.; Linnik, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the problem studied in the article is conditioned by the fact that A. Huxley's works are regarded in the context of the modern theory of mimesis for the first time. The aim of the article is to analyze the author's problem as a corporal subject of Huxley's works in the context of the modern theory of mimesis. The leading method…

  17. The Discussion of Subjective Quality of Working Life Indicators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinopal, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 3 (2012), s. 385-401 ISSN 0049-1225 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Job Satisfaction * Quality of Working Life * Work Satisfaction Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.240, year: 2012 http://www.sav.sk/journals/uploads/06251222Vinopal%203-2012.pdf

  18. Using VISIR: Experiments, Subjects and Students

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Lopez-de-Ipina; Luis Rodriguez; Pablo Orduna; Ignacio Angulo; Unai Hernandez-Jayo; Ingvar Gustavsson; Javier Garcia-Zubia

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the results of applying the VISIR (Virtual Instrument Systems in Reality) system at the course of analog electronics for various degrees of the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Deusto (Spain). The efficiency of the VISIR had been monitored during past three years. Students’ feedback was collected and analyzed. The research shows: 1) VISIR system is functional and useful learning instrument; 2) teacher experience at VISIR plays crucial role in its integration into...

  19. Subjective Sleep Experience During Shuttle Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Alexandra; Slack, Kelley; Locke, James; Patterson, Holly; Faulk, Jeremy; Keeton, Kathryn; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    It is now known that for many astronauts, sleep is reduced in spaceflight. Given that sleep is intimately tied to performance, safety, health, and well being, it is important to characterize factors that hinder sleep in space, so countermeasures can be implemented. Lessons learned from current spaceflight can be used to inform the development of space habitats and mitigation strategies for future exploration missions. The purpose of this study was to implement a survey and one-on-one interviews to capture Shuttle flyers' subjective assessment of the factors that interfered with a "good nights sleep" during their missions. Strategies that crewmembers reported using to improve their sleep quality during spaceflight were also discussed. Highlights from the interview data are presented here.

  20. Influence of subject choice, work overload and work stress on expatriate higher education teachers.

    OpenAIRE

    Naithani, Pranav

    2013-01-01

    Subject choice, work overload and work stress influence personal and professional lives of higher education teachers. Though the majority of higher education teachers in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries are expatriates, yet research on expatriate higher education teachers working in the GCC countries is limited. This paper presents one part of the work life balance survey and focuses on the influence of subject choice, work overload and work stress on higher education teachers in ...

  1. Phenomenon of Uncertainty as a Subjective Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifintseva A.A.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of uncertainty in illness of patients is discussed and analyzed in this article. Uncertainty in illness is a condition that accompanies the patient from the moment of appearance of the first somatic symptoms of the disease and could be strengthened or weakened thanks to many psychosocial factors. The level of uncertainty is related to the level of stress, emotional disadaptation, affective states, coping strategies, mechanisms of psychological defense, etc. Uncertainty can perform destructive functions, acting as a trigger for stressful conditions and launching negative emotional experiences. As a positive function of uncertainty, one can note a possible positive interpretation of the patient's disease. In addition, the state of uncertainty allows the patient to activate the resources of coping with the disease, among which the leading role belongs to social support.

  2. Subjective underchallenge at work and its impact on mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Anja; Burkert, Silke; Daig, Isolde; Glaesmer, Heide; Brähler, Elmar

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the relation between subjective underchallenge at work and the degree of depressiveness and life satisfaction. A representative sample of the German general population of N = 1,178 (52.5% men; age: M = 40.4 years, SD = 11.3) was included in this study. Measurements contain Satisfaction with Life Scalè (SWLS) and the Patient Health Questionnairè (PHQ-D). To assess subjective underchallenge at work, a ten-item scale was developed for the purpose of this study. The association between subjective underchallenge at work, life satisfaction and depressiveness was examined by means of path analyses. A significant positive association was found between subjective underchallenge at work and depressiveness, mediated by life satisfaction. This association was not moderated by income but by level of education. Participants with a medium educational level displayed a weaker association than participants with either a high or a low educational level. Not only work overload but also feeling underchallenged at work can have a negative impact on mental health and well-being. This is not an issue for blue-collar workers only and deserves more attention in future research.

  3. Subjective Experiences of Clients in a Voluntary Money Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serowik, Kristin L; Bellamy, Chyrell D; Rowe, Michael; Rosen, Marc I

    2013-01-01

    A large proportion of people diagnosed with mental illnesses have difficulty managing their money, and therefore many psychiatric treatments involve providing money management assistance. However, little is known about the subjective experience of having a money manager, and extant literature is restricted to people forced to work with a representative payee or conservator. In this study, fifteen people were interviewed about their experience receiving a voluntary money management intervention designed to minimize substance use. Clients emphasized the importance of trusting the money manager, financial mindfulness (an enhanced awareness of the financial transactions in clients' day-to-day lives), agency over their own affairs, and addiction. In contrast to evaluations of people assigned representative payees and/or conservators, there was little mention of feeling coerced. These findings suggest that money management programs can address client concerns by building trust, relating budgeting to clients' day-to-day lives, and encouraging clients' control over their own affairs.

  4. Eldercare work, migrant care workers, affective care and subjective proximity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, Kirsten; Martin, Greg

    2016-08-01

    To document and explore the experience of migrant care workers providing health and social care to the elderly in institutional care settings and in the homes of the elderly in the community in New Zealand with a particular focus on the affective components of care work. This qualitative study involved conducting face-to-face, open-ended, semi-structured interviews with 29 migrant care workers in the eldercare sector in the cities of Auckland and Wellington, New Zealand. Participants were recruited through various agencies focusing on aged care and engaged with migrant eldercare workers and snowballing through participant referral. Sample size was determined when saturation was reached. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, themes were identified and then analysed drawing on a body of theoretical work in the fields of emotional anthropology and moral geography and the international empirical literature addressing migrant eldercare workers. As with the international research in this field we found that these workers were vulnerable to exploitation, the workforce is largely feminised and stereotypical understandings of racial groups and national characteristics informed recruitment and the workplace experience. Here attributing gradients of affect to particular migrant groups in the workforce was the main mechanism employed to establish worker worth and difference. Identifying with these gradients of affect enabled these eldercare workers to demonstrate that they met the moral and ethical requirements of permanent residency and ultimately citizenship. Eldercare workers in the home were vulnerable to 'blurred emotional boundaries' and care recipient demand for greater emotional commitment. The migrant eldercare workers in this study all shared vulnerable residential status and many feared they would never obtain permanent residency or citizenship. All had family who remained in the Philippines and towards whom they had an obligation to substitute

  5. Subjective health complaints and psychosocial work environment among university personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, B E; Wieslander, G; Bakke, J V; Norbäck, D

    2013-01-01

    Questionnaires are often used to study health problems in working populations. An association between self-reported symptoms and psychosocial strain has been suggested, but results from such studies are difficult to interpret, as a gender difference might be present. The knowledge in this area is not clear. To compare the prevalence of subjective health symptoms and their relation to psychosocial work strain among men and women in different age groups, all working as university staff. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among university personnel. The questionnaire included a subjective health complaint inventory consisting of 29 items about subjective somatic and psychological symptoms experienced during the last 30 days and psychosocial work factors. Regression analyses were performed. In total, 172 (86%) of 201 eligible employees participated. Women had a higher prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms than men. Significant differences were found between the genders for headaches, neck pain and arm pain. There was a significant relationship between musculoskeletal symptoms and work strain for both genders. This was found for both men and women below 40 years and among men above the age of 40. No significant difference was found between genders regarding pseudoneurological, gastrointestinal, allergic and flu-like symptoms. More female than male university personnel reported musculoskeletal symptoms. The musculoskeletal symptoms were associated with high work strain in both genders, but, for women, this was limited to employees under the age of 40. The cause of this gender difference is unknown.

  6. Subjective and Objective Work-Based Identity Consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botha, F.C.; Roodt, G.; van de Bunt-Kokhuis, S.G.M.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Roodt, G.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to provide a systematic literature review on the selected consequences of work-based identity (WI). The first section of the chapter includes the following subjective consequences: self-report measures on personal alienation, helping behaviour (H-OCB), burnout (consisting

  7. 20 CFR 627.245 - Work experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Definition. Work experience means a short-term or part-time training assignment with a public or private... requirements. It is prohibited in the private for-profit sector. (b) Suitability. Work experience should be...

  8. Amount of work : studies on premature death and subjective health in a work life balance perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nylén, Charlotta

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to increase knowledge about the association between amount of work and health. Amount of work is measured as unemployment, excessive work, and interference between work and home. Two studies, based on the Swedish Twin Register, consider amount of work in work-related settings and focus on mortality in both sexes (n=20 632). Two studies take into account demands from both professional and domestic settings and consider their impact on subjective heal...

  9. The relationship between insight and subjective experience in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kako Y

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Yuki Kako, Koki Ito, Naoki Hashimoto, Kuniyoshi Toyoshima, Yusuke Shimizu, Nobuyuki Mitsui, Yutaka Fujii, Teruaki Tanaka, Ichiro Kusumi Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan Objectives: To examine the relationship between level of insight and various subjective experiences for patients with schizophrenia.Materials and methods: Seventy-four patients with schizophrenia who were discharged from our hospital were evaluated. The level of insight into their illness and various subjective experiences were evaluated at discharge. We used the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD for evaluation of insight. In addition, five different rating scales were used to evaluate subjective experiences: Subjective Experience of Deficits in Schizophrenia (SEDS, Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic drug treatment Short form (SWNS, Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale (SQLS, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-30.Results: The SWNS and the scores for awareness of mental disorder and awareness of the social consequences of mental disorder on SUMD showed a weak positive correlation. The DAI-30 showed a significant negative correlation with most general items on SUMD and a negative correlation between the subscale scores for the awareness and attribution of past symptoms. SEDS, SWNS, SQLS, and the BDI significantly correlated with the subscale scores for awareness of current symptoms on SUMD, and weakly correlated with the subscale scores for attribution of current negative symptoms.Conclusion: Awareness of subjective distress was related to awareness of having a mental disorder. Feeling subjective distress was related to awareness of current symptoms, as well as to the ability to attribute current negative symptoms to a mental disorder. Positive attitudes toward medication correlated with better general insight into the illness. Keywords: schizophrenia, insight

  10. Organizational citizenship behavior and work experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegans, Loyd; McCamey, Randy B; Hammond, Honor

    2012-01-01

    The authors compared the relationship of elements of the Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) and years of work experience of registered nurses in the state of Texas. Work experience research has shown a relationship between OCB and work experience through mediating roles of various work related characteristics does exist. Work experience is described as the overall length of time in an occupation or workforce. Civic virtue was the only element of organizational citizenship behavior to have a statistically significant correlation with years of work experience in this study. Other elements were found to have no statistically significant correlation with years of work experience. Further research should be undertaken to determine if correlations between these two constructs holds up when the population under study is further refined by job classification, such as management and staff, or industry segment.

  11. Prosocial Behavior and Subjective Insecurity in Violent Contexts: Field Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    V?lez, Mar?a Alejandra; Trujillo, Carlos Andres; Moros, Lina; Forero, Clemente

    2016-01-01

    Subjective insecurity is a key determinant of different forms of prosocial behavior. In Study 1, we used field experiments with farmers in Colombian villages exposed to different levels of violence to investigate how individual perceptions of insecurity affect cooperation, trust, reciprocity and altruism. To do so, we developed a cognitive-affective measure of subjective insecurity. We found that subjective insecurity has a negative effect on cooperation but influences trust and altruism posi...

  12. Working memory for braille is shaped by experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Henri; Scherzer, Peter; Viau, Robert; Voss, Patrice; Lepore, Franco

    2011-03-01

    Tactile working memory was found to be more developed in completely blind (congenital and acquired) than in semi-sighted subjects, indicating that experience plays a crucial role in shaping working memory. A model of working memory, adapted from the classical model proposed by Baddeley and Hitch1 and Baddeley2 is presented where the connection strengths of a highly cross-modal network are altered through experience.

  13. Working memory for braille is shaped by experience

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Henri; Scherzer, Peter; Viau, Robert; Voss, Patrice; Lepore, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Tactile working memory was found to be more developed in completely blind (congenital and acquired) than in semi-sighted subjects, indicating that experience plays a crucial role in shaping working memory. A model of working memory, adapted from the classical model proposed by Baddeley and Hitch1 and Baddeley2 is presented where the connection strengths of a highly cross-modal network are altered through experience.

  14. Social Work Experience and Development in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibin, Wang

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the experience and limitations of government-run social work and the nonprofessional nature of social work, and suggests that the rapid development of social work and its professionalization are the inevitable results of the reform in the system. The author maintains that under market socialism, social work requires the…

  15. Regulating sex work: subjectivity and stigma in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Ellen E

    2017-01-01

    Senegal provides a unique example of a sub-Saharan African country with a legal framework for the regulation of commercial sex work. While registering as a legal sex worker affords women access to valuable social and medical resources, sex work is condemned by Senegalese society. Women who engage in sex work occupy a socially marginal status and confront a variety of stigmatising discourses and practices that legitimate their marginality. This paper examines two institutions that provide social and medical services to registered sex workers in Dakar: a medical clinic and a non-governmental organisation. It highlights the discourses about sex work that women encounter within these institutions and in their everyday lives. Women's accounts reveal a variety of strategies for managing stigma, from discretion and deception to asserting self-worth. As registered sex workers negotiate their precarious social position, their strategies both reproduce and challenge stigmatising representations of sex work. Their experiences demonstrate the contradictory outcomes of the Senegalese approach to regulating sex work.

  16. WORKING MEMORY CAPACITY TEST REVEALS SUBJECTS DIFFICULTIES MANAGING LIMITED CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R V Ershova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Free recall consists of two separate stages: the emptying of working memory and reactivation [5]. The Tarnow Unchunkable Test (TUT, [7] uses double integer items to separate out only the first stage by making it difficult to reactivate items due to the lack of intra-item relationships.193 Russian college students were tested via the internet version of the TUT. The average number of items remembered in the 3 item test was 2.54 items. In the 4 item test, the average number of items decreased to 2.38. This, and a number of other qualitative distribution differences between the 3 and 4 item tests, indicate that the average capacity limit of working memory has been reached at 3 items. This provides the first direct measurement of the unchunkable capacity limit of number items.Difficulties in managing working memory occurred as most subjects remembered less as the number of items increased beyond capacity and failed to remember a single item in at least one out of three 4 item trials. The Pearson correlation between the total recall of 3 and 4 items was a small 38%.

  17. How Discourses of Biology Textbooks Work to Constitute Subjectivity: From the Ethical to the Colonial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzul, Jesse

    This thesis examines how discourses of biology textbooks can work to constitute various kinds of subjectivities. Using a Foucauldian archaeological approach to discourse analysis I examine how four Ontario secondary school biology textbooks discursively delimit what can be thought and acted upon, and in the process work to partially constitute students/teachers as sex/gendered; neocolonial; neoliberal (and a subject of work), and ethical subjects and subjectivities. This thesis engages the topic of how discourse can constitute subjectivity in science in three basic ways: First, on a theoretical level, in terms of working out an understanding of subject constitution/interpellation that would also be useful when engaging with other sociopolitical and ethical questions in science education. Secondly, in terms of an empirically based critical discourse analysis that examines how various statements within these four textbooks could set limits on what is possible for students to think and act upon in relation to themselves, science, and the world. Thirdly, this thesis represents a narrative of scholarly development that moves from an engagement of my personal experiences in science education and current science education literature towards the general politico-philosophical topic of subjectivity and biopolitics. This thesis begins with a discussion of my experiences as a science teacher, a review of relevant science education literature, and considerations of subjectivity that relate specifically ii to the specific methodological approach I employ when examining these textbooks. After this I present five chapters, each of which can be thought of as a somewhat separate analysis concerning how the discourses of these textbooks can work to constitute specific subjectivities (each involving different theoretical/methodological considerations). I conclude with a reflection/synthesis chapter and a call to see science education as a site for biopolitical struggle.

  18. Prosocial Behavior and Subjective Insecurity in Violent Contexts: Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, María Alejandra; Trujillo, Carlos Andres; Moros, Lina; Forero, Clemente

    2016-01-01

    Subjective insecurity is a key determinant of different forms of prosocial behavior. In Study 1, we used field experiments with farmers in Colombian villages exposed to different levels of violence to investigate how individual perceptions of insecurity affect cooperation, trust, reciprocity and altruism. To do so, we developed a cognitive-affective measure of subjective insecurity. We found that subjective insecurity has a negative effect on cooperation but influences trust and altruism positively. In Study 2, carried out three years after Study 1, we repeated the initial design with additional measures of victimization. Our goal was to relate subjective insecurity with actual victimization. The findings of Study 2 support the initial results, and are robust and consistent for cooperative behavior and trust when including victimization as a mediator. Different indicators of victimization are positively correlated with subjective insecurity and an aggregate index of victimization has a negative effect on cooperation but exerts a positive influence on trust. PMID:27472437

  19. Prosocial Behavior and Subjective Insecurity in Violent Contexts: Field Experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Vélez

    Full Text Available Subjective insecurity is a key determinant of different forms of prosocial behavior. In Study 1, we used field experiments with farmers in Colombian villages exposed to different levels of violence to investigate how individual perceptions of insecurity affect cooperation, trust, reciprocity and altruism. To do so, we developed a cognitive-affective measure of subjective insecurity. We found that subjective insecurity has a negative effect on cooperation but influences trust and altruism positively. In Study 2, carried out three years after Study 1, we repeated the initial design with additional measures of victimization. Our goal was to relate subjective insecurity with actual victimization. The findings of Study 2 support the initial results, and are robust and consistent for cooperative behavior and trust when including victimization as a mediator. Different indicators of victimization are positively correlated with subjective insecurity and an aggregate index of victimization has a negative effect on cooperation but exerts a positive influence on trust.

  20. Prosocial Behavior and Subjective Insecurity in Violent Contexts: Field Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, María Alejandra; Trujillo, Carlos Andres; Moros, Lina; Forero, Clemente

    2016-01-01

    Subjective insecurity is a key determinant of different forms of prosocial behavior. In Study 1, we used field experiments with farmers in Colombian villages exposed to different levels of violence to investigate how individual perceptions of insecurity affect cooperation, trust, reciprocity and altruism. To do so, we developed a cognitive-affective measure of subjective insecurity. We found that subjective insecurity has a negative effect on cooperation but influences trust and altruism positively. In Study 2, carried out three years after Study 1, we repeated the initial design with additional measures of victimization. Our goal was to relate subjective insecurity with actual victimization. The findings of Study 2 support the initial results, and are robust and consistent for cooperative behavior and trust when including victimization as a mediator. Different indicators of victimization are positively correlated with subjective insecurity and an aggregate index of victimization has a negative effect on cooperation but exerts a positive influence on trust.

  1. Subjective experience of architectural objects: A cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Slobodan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare Serbian and Japanese participants in their subjective experience of Serbian and Japanese architectural objects. Subjective experience was operationalized through the ratings on the bipolar scales (e.g. pleasant-unpleasant. In the Preliminary study 1, a set of twelve rating scales was generated. In the Preliminary study 2 twelve Serbian and twelve Japanese architectural objects were specified. In the main experiment two groups of participants, twenty-one Serbian and twenty Japanese, rated twelve Serbian and twelve Japanese objects. A factor analysis extracted three dimensions of subjective experience: Beauty, Firmness and Fullness. Analysis of variance have shown that both Serbian and Japanese participants agreed that Japanese architectural objects looked more beautiful and firmer than Serbian objects. These finding is generally in line with perceptualist hypothesis that stimulus constraints are more effective than culture. However, interactions revealed some cultural differences that are consistent with culturalist hypothesis: compared to Serbian participants, Japanese participants rated Japanese architectural objects as more beautiful, whereas, compared to Japanese, Serbian participants rated Serbian objects as less fragile and emptier than Japanese objects. Generaly, our study have shown that Serbian (Western and Japanese (Eastern participants show general similarity in their subjective experience of architectural objects. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179033

  2. Media Education in Kazakhstan: Work Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laila, Akhmetova

    2016-01-01

    In the Republic of Kazakhstan in 2012 started work on formation of literacy in the field of media education for journalists, educators, and youth. Studied publishing foreign scientists, work experience in different countries, manuals, seminars and workshops, publishes scientific works in the Kazakh and Russian languages, and considers issues of…

  3. Anomalies of subjective experience in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef

    2003-01-01

    Symptoms (BSABS). Anomalies of experience were condensed into rational scales with good internal consistencies. RESULTS: Diagnosis of schizophrenia was associated with elevated scores on the scales measuring perplexity (loss of immediate meaning), disorders of perception, disorders of self......-awareness, and marginally so, disorders of cognition. CONCLUSION: These findings, in conjunction with those from other, methodologically similar studies, suggest that certain anomalies of subjective experience aggregate significantly in schizophrenia. These experiential anomalies appear to be relevant for early...

  4. Low skilled work, Work Life experiences and Learner identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Sissel

    on an educational optimism not necessarily shared by the target groups . I therefore wanted to examine how an unskilled work life conditions the experience of a need for and possibility to participate in different kind of formal, informal and non-formal learning activities related to the job, and how...... this constitutes a certain learner identity. By conducting narrative interviews with 23 employees in 6 different small and medium sized private manufacturing companies in Denmark, I have focused on peoples work life stories, how they entered the labour marked, what kind of jobs and tasks they have undertaken, how...... their jobs have developed and how they have obtained the skills required in their jobs. I have thus examined the specific work life experiences of people working in unskilled jobs, most likely to be marginalised in a labour marked characterised by skill bias, and how these experiences constitutes a certain...

  5. Suicidal ideation and attempted suicide in elderly people - subjective experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Denise Machado Duran; Sousa, Amandia Braga Lima; Grubits, Sonia

    2015-06-01

    We discuss the subjective experiences of elderly people who show suicidal ideation and/or attempts at suicide, based on their own reports. We understand the concept of 'subjective' as referring to intra-psychic experience resulting from social, economic, relationship or biographical conditions. Although the subject is sparsely covered in the literature, it is important, because it is in the field of subjectivity that ideations of, and attempts at, suicide develop and occur until they become a concrete act. Empirical data were collected through semi-structured interviews focusing on: social characterization, portrayal and mode of life, previous mental state, atmosphere of the attempt, effects on the health of the elderly person and family. Based on the analysis of the meanings that emerge, five empirical categories were generated: (1) subject's feeling of being in a non-place; (2) absence of acceptance of losses; (3) suffering due to ingratitude of family members; (4) feeling of uselessness of, and in, life; (5) re-signification of the situations that generate suicide-related conduct. The results point to a fundamental need to incorporate knowledge about the subjective processes into programs for prevention of suicide among the elderly who have ideation of, or attempts at, suicide.

  6. Subjects' experiences of a nutrition education programme: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects' experiences of a nutrition education programme: a qualitative study of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus living in a rural resource-limited setting in South Africa. ... Positive educator characteristics, such as competence, patience, being respectful and approachable, were cited as desirable. Conclusion: ...

  7. Evaluation of subjective thermal strain in different kitchen working environments using subjective judgment scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruyama, Yasuo; Muto, Takashi; Matsuzuki, Hiroe; Ito, Akiyoshi; Tomita, Shigeru; Muto, Shigeki; Haratani, Takashi; Seo, Akihiko; Ayabe, Makoto; Katamoto, Shizuo

    2010-01-01

    To elucidate the subjective thermal strain of workers in kitchen working environments, we performed a cross-sectional study involving 991 workers in 126 kitchen facilities in Japan, using a self-reporting questionnaire survey and subjective judgment scales (SJS). The ambient temperature, mean radiant temperature (MRT), and wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index were measured in 10 kitchen facilities of the 126 kitchens. The association of SJS with the types of kitchen was estimated by multiple logistic regression models. Of the 991 kitchen workers, 809 (81%) responded to the questionnaire survey. Compared with the electric kitchens, the proportion of workers who perceived the room temperature as hot to very hot was significantly higher, and the ambient temperature, MRT, and WBGT were significantly higher in the gas kitchens. Compared with the electric kitchens, workers in gas kitchens had a more than fivefold (males) and tenfold (females) higher SJS adjusted for confounding factors (male odds ratio (OR), 5.13; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.65-15.9; and female OR, 10.9; 95%CI, 3.89-30.5). Although SJS was affected by some confounding factors, our results suggest that workers in gas kitchens might be exposed to a higher heat strains than those in electric kitchens.

  8. Does Working from Home Work? Evidence from a Chinese Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Bloom; James Liang; John Roberts; Zhichun Jenny Ying

    2013-01-01

    A rising share of employees now regularly engage in working from home (WFH), but there are concerns this can lead to "shirking from home". We report the results of a WFH experiment at Ctrip, a 16,000-employee, NASDAQ-listed Chinese travel agency. Call center employees who volunteered to WFH were randomly assigned either to work from home or in the office for nine months. Home working led to a 13% performance increase, of which 9% was from working more minutes per shift (fewer breaks and sick ...

  9. The subjective experience of patients who received electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopowitz, Leslie Frank; Chur-Hansen, Anna; Reid, Sally; Blashki, Miriam

    2003-02-01

    Despite the vast amount of scientific literature available on electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), there is little qualitative focus upon the patients' subjective experience of this procedure. Using an exploratory descriptive methodology, this study aims to provide a more unique insight into what certain patients actually think of ECT. Semistructured interviews were conducted to explore eight patients' opinions and experiences of ECT. Interviews were subjected to analysis by a five-step framework approach that identified prominent themes in relation to five broad questions and in conjunction with issues raised by the subjects themselves. Eleven major themes were identified. Four of these were chosen for discussion, not only as the most prevalent themes (in terms of how frequently they were mentioned by the subjects), but also as the most striking (in regards to the intensity of emotions evoked, or their influence on their perception of ECT as a future treatment option). The four themes are fear of ECT, attribution of cognitive decline and memory loss to ECT, positive ECT experiences, and patients' suggestions. Using such a qualitative approach, the depth of the information obtained has revealed new perspectives on how patients perceive the experience of ECT. Fears reported by patients present an opportunity to address specific areas of the procedure that generate the most angst. These were closely associated with recommendations that many patients proposed throughout the interviews. Patients' perceptions of the cognitive effects of ECT do not necessarily correspond with those commonly reported in the literature on ECT. Positive experiences with ECT were more complex than simply its efficacy. There is a need for future research in order to explore and address patients' experiences of ECT.

  10. Mechanical work as an indirect measure of subjective costs influencing human movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl E Zelik

    Full Text Available To descend a flight of stairs, would you rather walk or fall? Falling seems to have some obvious disadvantages such as the risk of pain or injury. But the preferred strategy of walking also entails a cost for the use of active muscles to perform negative work. The amount and distribution of work a person chooses to perform may, therefore, reflect a subjective valuation of the trade-offs between active muscle effort and other costs, such as pain. Here we use a simple jump landing experiment to quantify the work humans prefer to perform to dissipate the energy of landing. We found that healthy normal subjects (N = 8 preferred a strategy that involved performing 37% more negative work than minimally necessary (P<0.001 across a range of landing heights. This then required additional positive work to return to standing rest posture, highlighting the cost of this preference. Subjects were also able to modulate the amount of landing work, and its distribution between active and passive tissues. When instructed to land softly, they performed 76% more work than necessary (P<0.001, with a higher proportion from active muscles (89% vs. 84%, P<0.001. Stiff-legged landings, performed by one subject for demonstration, exhibited close to the minimum of work, with more of it performed passively through soft tissue deformations (at least 30% in stiff landings vs. 16% preferred. During jump landings, humans appear not to minimize muscle work, but instead choose to perform a consistent amount of extra work, presumably to avoid other subjective costs. The degree to which work is not minimized may indirectly quantify the relative valuation of costs that are otherwise difficult to measure.

  11. Anomalies of subjective experience in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, J; Handest, P; Saebye, D

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Contemporary psychopathology, as a result of behaviourally dominated epistemological stance, downplays anomalies of the patient's subjectivity. This neglect has probably deleterious consequences for research in the causes and the boundaries of the schizophrenia spectrum conditions....... The purpose of this study is to explore frequency of qualitative, not-yet-psychotic, anomalies of subjective experience in patients with residual schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar illness in remission. METHOD: The patients were examined with the Danish version of the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic...... differential diagnosis and therefore potentially useful in the preonset detection of the schizophrenia spectrum illness....

  12. The importance of the patient's subjective experience in stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigatano, George P

    2011-01-01

    Kaufman's observation that the patients' reactions to their impairments and disabilities need to be addressed in stroke rehabilitation has been shown to be an accurate and perceptive statement. In this article, 3 levels of stroke rehabilitation are outlined, and the importance of focusing on the third level (the level of subjective experience) is emphasized. Identification of the patients' subjective experience allows one to understand what is most frustrating to them. After addressing those frustrations, patients are more eager to engage the rehabilitation process. Within the context of this rehabilitation process, helping patients clarify what their subjective or phenomenological state is as it relates to their stroke is crucial in having them not only engage the rehabilitation process, but ultimately find meaning in life in the face of their stroke. This can be a difficult task because patients often do not have the words to clarify what their inner psychological experiences are following a stroke. Helping to provide guidelines for this can result in a meaningful experience for both the patient and the therapists involved in their care.

  13. Subjective emotional experience at different stages of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Siobhan; Péron, Julie; Biseul, Isabelle; Ory, Sophie; Philippot, Pierre; Drapier, Sophie; Drapier, Dominique; Vérin, Marc

    2011-11-15

    Subjective emotional experience is thought to rely on a large cortical-subcortical network including orbitofrontal and cingulate frontostriatal circuits together with the mesolimbic dopaminergic system that modulates their activity. Parkinson's disease (PD) provides a model for exploring this issue. By using an original emotion induction procedure, the present study examined to what extent subjective experience of emotion of PD patients at different stages of the disease was modulated by emotion in the same way as healthy individuals. A battery of film excerpts was used to elicit different emotional feelings (happiness, anger, fear, sadness, disgust, and neutral) in 15 newly diagnosed PD patients, 18 patients with advanced PD and 15 matched controls. The newly diagnosed patients were examined in two conditions: "on" and "off" dopaminergic medication. Participants reported the intensity of their emotional feelings on a scale consisting of 10 emotional categories. Results indicated that PD patients at different stages of the disease did not significantly differ from the controls in the self-reported emotional experience to the presented film excerpts. Moreover, analyses conducted within the newly diagnosed PD group (on-dopa vs. off-dopa conditions) indicated that the patients' emotional reactivity to the presented film excerpts was not significantly modulated by dopaminergic medication. These results thus question the possible role of dopaminergic pathways in subjective emotional experience, at least in this sample and in the context of emotion induction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 20 CFR 638.507 - Work experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... program activities or through arrangement with employers. Work experience shall be under actual working... other facilities, as well as clothing and living allowances) shall be no less than the federal minimum wage rate set forth in section (6)(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) for up to 25 hours a...

  15. Subjective Experiences of Older Adults Practicing Taiji and Qigong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a qualitative study following a 6-month Taiji (T'ai Chi/Qigong (Ch'i Kung intervention for older adults. The researchers conducted in-depth interviews of eight selected participants who elected to continue practicing Taiji after the intervention ended, in order to explore their subjective experiences of Taiji's effects and their motivations for continuing to practice. We created a Layers Model to capture the significance and meaning of the multidimensionality of their reported experiences. Participants not only reported simple benefits along five dimensions of experience (physical, mental, emotional, social and spiritual but also described complex multidimensional experiences. Overall findings indicate that participants derived a very wide variety of perceived benefits, the most meaningful being a felt sense of body-mind-spirit integration. Our results support the important role of qualitative studies in researching the effects of Taiji and Qigong.

  16. INFLUENCE OF SUBJECTIVE EXERCISE EXPERIENCE ON RECREATIONAL EXERCISING

    OpenAIRE

    Dražen Čular; Frane Žuvela; Ivana K. Lujan

    2012-01-01

    Effects of physical activity on psychological health and well-being have been intrigued topic for many researches (McAuley & Courneya, 1994). Also, the positive subjective experience lies in the basis of every successful recreational activity and training. However, the influence of different types of activities and their gender specifics regarding self-reported well-being have not yet been investigated. The aims of this study were: (1) to analyse gender differences before and after physical a...

  17. [Mental health beliefs between culture and subjective illness experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Kristina; Chaudhry, Haroon R; Aigner, Martin; Zitterl, Werner; Stompe, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Subjective health beliefs are representations about pathogenesis, course and treatment options of psychic as well as somatic illnesses. They are important for a psychotherapeutic interaction as well as for a stable drug adherence. However, it remains unclear whether these representations are primarily affected by the cultural background or by an individual's specific illness experiences, a question of increasing importance in our era of globalized migration. The study sample consisted of 203 Austrians (125 with schizophrenia, 78 with obsessivecompulsive disorder) and 190 Pakistanis (120 with schizophrenia, 70 with obsessive-compulsive disorder). All patients completed the "Causal Explanations of Mental Disorders" (CEMD), a 41-item self-rating questionnaire. Pakistani patients reported magic-religious oriented mental health beliefs more frequently. In contrast, Austrians' beliefs are more often in line with the bio-psychosocial explanations of Western medicine. Concerning mental health beliefs the cultural background seems to be more important than the subjective experience with a distinctive mental disorder. Although the subjective experience is of importance for the shape of illnessspecific cognitions, mental health beliefs are primarily caused by the patients' socio-cultural origin. It is a challenge for psychiatry to improve the co-operation with culture-anthropology and other social sciences.

  18. Subjective experience of emotions and emotional empathy in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Anja; Bahçesular, Katja; Brockmann, Eva-Maria; Biederbick, Sarah-Elisabeth; Dziobek, Isabel; Gallinat, Jürgen; Montag, Christiane

    2014-12-30

    Unlike the cognitive dimensions, alterations of the affective components of empathy in schizophrenia are less well understood. This study explored cognitive and affective dimensions of empathy in the context of the subjective experience of aspects of emotion processing, including emotion regulation, emotional contagion, and interpersonal distress, in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls. In addition, the predictive value of these parameters on psychosocial function was investigated. Fifty-five patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 55 healthy controls were investigated using the Multifaceted Empathy Test and Interpersonal Reactivity Index, as well as the Subjective Experience of Emotions and Emotional Contagion Scales. Individuals with schizophrenia showed impairments of cognitive empathy, but maintained emotional empathy. They reported significantly more negative emotional contagion, overwhelming emotions, lack of emotions, and symbolization of emotions by imagination, but less self-control of emotional expression than healthy persons. Besides cognitive empathy, the experience of a higher extent of overwhelming emotions and of less interpersonal distress predicted psychosocial function in patients. People with schizophrenia and healthy controls showed diverging patterns of how cognitive and emotional empathy related to the subjective aspects of emotion processing. It can be assumed that variables of emotion processing are important moderators of empathic abilities in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Improving medical work experience for students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Neil; Shah, Alexander; Bollina, Prasad; Bollina, Harsha

    2010-12-01

    This exploratory piece details the development of the programme Medic Insight, which was established in 2007 in Lothian. This is an aptly-named unique organisation that provides an insight into life as a doctor for school students. We believe that the provision of work experience needs to be improved for both students and doctors. Securing work experience in medicine has historically been biased: individuals that have family or friends who work as doctors are able to organise shadowing placements with greater ease. Shadowing experiences are of questionable value, and frequently offer exposure to only one field, and administrators struggle to match doctors' working schedules with those of students. Medic Insight has been developed to address these key problems. It provides a free, application-based shadowing experience for 15-16-year olds, in addition to interactive seminars for younger students. Over the course of the 5-day shadowing experience (Medic Insight Week), students rotate through a variety of specialties, meeting doctors of all grades. Doctors agree to act as mentors prior to the shadowing weeks and post their availability online. Data from our pilot in 2008 has been encouraging. All students who answered our questionnaire found the experience to be either useful or very useful, and ongoing data collection is proving this to be an enjoyable and effective programme. We are confident that Medic Insight will help all suitably enthusiastic and able school students make informed decisions to apply to study medicine. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2010.

  20. Subjective Experience of Episodic Memory and Metacognition: A Neurodevelopmental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchay, Céline; Guillery-Girard, Bérengère; Pauly-Takacs, Katalin; Wojcik, Dominika Zofia; Eustache, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Episodic retrieval is characterized by the subjective experience of remembering. This experience enables the co-ordination of memory retrieval processes and can be acted on metacognitively. In successful retrieval, the feeling of remembering may be accompanied by recall of important contextual information. On the other hand, when people fail (or struggle) to retrieve information, other feelings, thoughts, and information may come to mind. In this review, we examine the subjective and metacognitive basis of episodic memory function from a neurodevelopmental perspective, looking at recollection paradigms (such as source memory, and the report of recollective experience) and metacognitive paradigms such as the feeling of knowing). We start by considering healthy development, and provide a brief review of the development of episodic memory, with a particular focus on the ability of children to report first-person experiences of remembering. We then consider neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) such as amnesia acquired in infancy, autism, Williams syndrome, Down syndrome, or 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. This review shows that different episodic processes develop at different rates, and that across a broad set of different NDDs there are various types of episodic memory impairment, each with possibly a different character. This literature is in agreement with the idea that episodic memory is a multifaceted process. PMID:24399944

  1. Cinema Experiences at School: Assemblages as Encounters with Subjectivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Marta

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse how 15 students at a public elementary school detach from immobile representations of identity through aesthetic self-expressive work with cinema. Drawing on Deleuze and Guattari's concept of assemblage, I interrogate students' experiences of discrimination and challenge their processes of developing a short…

  2. INFLUENCE OF SUBJECTIVE EXERCISE EXPERIENCE ON RECREATIONAL EXERCISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Čular

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of physical activity on psychological health and well-being have been intrigued topic for many researches (McAuley & Courneya, 1994. Also, the positive subjective experience lies in the basis of every successful recreational activity and training. However, the influence of different types of activities and their gender specifics regarding self-reported well-being have not yet been investigated. The aims of this study were: (1 to analyse gender differences before and after physical activity in “Subjective Exercise Experience Scale“(SEES in group of subjects involved in aesthetic and non-aesthetic recreational physical activities and (2 to determine differences between subjects involved in aesthetic and non-aesthetic recreational physical activities before and after the activity for female and male group separately. The SEES was used to assess psychological responses to exercise among female (N=32 and male (N=83 recreational athletes. The 12 items of SEES represented three-aspects of exercise experience: Positive Well-Being, Psychological Distress and Fatigue. The results showed significant gender differences only in non-aesthetic group before and after physical activity in Psychological Distress subscale. Female students (Mean=4.8 had lower values of Psychological Distress than Male students (Mean=6.9. Furthermore, female aesthetic group (Mean=24.4 had significantly higher values in Positive Well-Being subscale after physical activity than female nonaesthetic group (Mean=18.8, while male aesthetic group had significantly higher values in Positive Well-Being subscale before and after physical activity than male non-aesthetic group. It is possible to conclude that aesthetic activities have positive effect on both female and male sample. It is possible that music increased emotionally experienced activity and contributed to better physical well being especially among female recreational athletes.

  3. On the concepts of inwardness and subjectivity in Shakespeare's work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Ludwig

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims at discussing the concepts of subjectivity and inwardness in Early Renaissance. The issue discussed in this research is to take into account that both concepts are interchangeable, since they represent distinct notions of the similar phenomenon: the inner space of sensations, emotions, feelings, and identity. The concept of identity was associated to the perception of an inner space of the subject in the 16th and 17th centuries. It was always compared and defined parting from the notion of physical and gestural appearances, whose discursive forms were always based on the perceptive movement from the outward to the inward space of the subject. On the other hand, subjectivity is a modern concept which emerges from the 19th onward whose discursive forms part form the inner space of the subject, without taking into consideration the physical and gestural appearances. This research is bibliographic and uses some examples from the dramaturg William Shakespeare. As it was observed, the concepts of subjectivity and inwardness are not synonyms, once they part from distinct philosophic and psychologic perspectives, besides that they are still perceive until our times.

  4. Women's postpartum maternity benefits and work experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerdingen, D K; McGovern, P M; Chaloner, K M; Street, H B

    1995-10-01

    This study was conducted to describe women's perceptions of their maternity leave policy and its implementation, maternity leave benefits, postpartum work experience, and factors that relate to returning to work. Surveys were mailed to 436 married, recently employed, first-time mothers at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months postpartum. Most respondents said they had written maternity leave policies they could understand, but they were not completely satisfied with their policies. The average 11.1-week maternity leave was considerably shorter than their 8-month ideal, and only 25.5% had the option of working part-time. A minority (35.8%) were allowed to use personal days to care for a sick infant. Most women were distressed about making child care arrangements. Compared with women who remained at home, those who returned to work complained of more respiratory, gynecologic, and breast symptoms. Relatively little is known about women's postpartum work experience. In this study, return to work after delivery was related to several demographic, occupational, and social factors and was associated with health problems and concerns about child care. With a majority of new mothers now returning to work, attention has recently been directed to factors that facilitate the merger of work and parenting roles. One such important factor is women's parental or maternity leave benefits, the focus of this study.

  5. Work Experience, Age, and Gender Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angle, John; Wissmann, David A.

    1983-01-01

    Age is a determinant of the gap between U.S. men's and women's work wages; young men are paid more as they age because of age; young women are not. Data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of the Labor Market Experience were analyzed for 5,225 men and 5,159 women. (KC)

  6. Variable Work Hours--The MONY Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Cynthia J.

    1974-01-01

    An experiment with variable work hours in one department of a large company was so successful that it has become standard procedure in various corporate areas, both staff and line. The result? Increased production, fewer errors, improved employee morale, and a significant reduction in lateness and absenteeism. (Author)

  7. Stereotype Threat Alters the Subjective Experience of Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, Marie; Régner, Isabelle; Rigalleau, François; Huguet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    There is now evidence that negative age-related stereotypes about memory reduce older adults' memory performance, and inflate age differences in this domain. Here, we examine whether stereotype threat may also influence the basic feeling that one is more or less able to remember. Using the Remember/Know paradigm, we demonstrated that stereotype threat conducted older adults to a greater feeling of familiarity with events, while failing to retrieve any contextual detail. This finding indicates that stereotype threat alters older adults' subjective experience of memory, and strengthens our understanding of the mechanisms underlying stereotype threat effects.

  8. Learning from experience in the context of work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte

    experience in the context of work. The educational design is called Proactive Review (PR) and includes two opposite directions simultaneously, proactive, which entails looking ahead and review, which entails reflecting on the past. The subjects for learning in a PR may be any group of employees that have...... in the field, more specifically an educational design of seven questions called PR, four roles involved in PR and suggestions for organizational requirements and codes of conduct that support learning from experience in the context of work...

  9. Work, Immigration, Gender: New Subjects of Cultural Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Lisa

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the construction of Asian immigrant women's work in the context of the "racialized feminization of labor" in the global restructuring of capitalism. Illustrates the intersection of work, immigration, and gender through a discussion of Asian female garment workers in the United States. (SLD)

  10. [Differences in Subjective Experience Between Unipolar and Bipolar Depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Marco; Bustos, Andrés; Molina, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    It is important to make distinction between bipolar and unipolar depression because treatment and prognosis are different. Since the diagnosis of the two conditions is purely clinical, find symptomatic differences is useful. Find differences in subjective experience (first person) between unipolar and bipolar depression. Phenomenological-oriented qualitative exploratory study of 12 patients (7 with bipolar depression and 5 with unipolar depression, 3 men and 9 women). We used a semi-structured interview based on Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience (EASE). The predominant mood in bipolar depression is emotional dampening, in unipolar is sadness. The bodily experience in bipolar is of a heavy, tired body; an element that inserts between the desires of acting and performing actions and becomes an obstacle to the movement. In unipolar is of a body that feels more comfortable with the stillness than activity, like laziness of everyday life. Cognition and the stream of consciousness: in bipolar depression, compared with unipolar, thinking is slower, as if to overcome obstacles in their course. There are more difficult to understand what is heard or read. Future perspective: in bipolar depression, hopelessness is stronger and broader than in unipolar, as if the very possibility of hope was lost. Qualitative differences in predominant mood, bodily experience, cognition and future perspective were found between bipolar and unipolar depression. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. The experience of returning to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Inger; Björklund, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore from an environmental perspective the experiences of returning to work of former unemployed sickness absentees. Five separate focus-group interviews were carried out with themes concerning different environmental areas. The findings showed that the participants in their process of being off work and then attempting returning to work experienced a personal transition manifesting itself as a negative self-image, change of life-rhythm and restrictions in their roles and activities. In their progression, the participants experienced a need for reorientation and expressed feelings of alienation, and for that reason felt need of support from a network, especially a professional one. Regarding attitudes in society, the participants reported experiences of social stigmatization, both in mass media and in their immediate social environment, and an increasing egocentricity among their fellow-workers. They perceived their progression back to work as a 'time quarantine' and as a long and destructive wait for support. The findings indicate that the phenomenon of 'returning to work' after unemployment and sick leave could not be reduced to a single issue. It should rather be seen as a dynamic problem with individual and structural, environmental aspects.

  12. Moments in Collaboration: Experiments in Concept Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsby, Trine Mygind; Stavrianakis, Anthony

    2018-01-01

    There is an increasing focus among anthropologists on the theme of collaboration with the people they work with and with other disciplines in the university space. Frequently justified in political terms of participation, there is often less attention paid to the conceptual work in and of collabo......There is an increasing focus among anthropologists on the theme of collaboration with the people they work with and with other disciplines in the university space. Frequently justified in political terms of participation, there is often less attention paid to the conceptual work...... in and of collaboration. In opposition to the attention given to the processes of exchange during fieldwork, there is rarely a description of the actual forms and practices created for such collective conceptual work and thinking-processes in extra-fieldwork situations. In this article, we report on an experiment...... in collaborative concept work at Berkeley known as ‘the Labinar'. We address a lacuna in the literature on collaboration by providing a description of how collective conceptual work can be given form and sustained with specific practices. We argue for understanding concepts as not only discursive but also as non...

  13. Study of Temporal Effects on Subjective Video Quality of Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampis, Christos George; Zhi Li; Moorthy, Anush Krishna; Katsavounidis, Ioannis; Aaron, Anne; Bovik, Alan Conrad

    2017-11-01

    HTTP adaptive streaming is being increasingly deployed by network content providers, such as Netflix and YouTube. By dividing video content into data chunks encoded at different bitrates, a client is able to request the appropriate bitrate for the segment to be played next based on the estimated network conditions. However, this can introduce a number of impairments, including compression artifacts and rebuffering events, which can severely impact an end-user's quality of experience (QoE). We have recently created a new video quality database, which simulates a typical video streaming application, using long video sequences and interesting Netflix content. Going beyond previous efforts, the new database contains highly diverse and contemporary content, and it includes the subjective opinions of a sizable number of human subjects regarding the effects on QoE of both rebuffering and compression distortions. We observed that rebuffering is always obvious and unpleasant to subjects, while bitrate changes may be less obvious due to content-related dependencies. Transient bitrate drops were preferable over rebuffering only on low complexity video content, while consistently low bitrates were poorly tolerated. We evaluated different objective video quality assessment algorithms on our database and found that objective video quality models are unreliable for QoE prediction on videos suffering from both rebuffering events and bitrate changes. This implies the need for more general QoE models that take into account objective quality models, rebuffering-aware information, and memory. The publicly available video content as well as metadata for all of the videos in the new database can be found at http://live.ece.utexas.edu/research/LIVE_NFLXStudy/nflx_index.html.

  14. WORKING WITH THE POPULATION: a teaching experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Moresco Mezzomo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of didactic experience developed in the discipline of Geography, taught for two classes of 3rd year of Integrated on Informatic Technical course of the Technological Federal University of Paraná, Campo Mourão-PR. The experiment regarding the application of an activity, which aimed to bring the theme 'Brazilian Population' to the reality of the students through the study of population data from the middle region in which they reside. The results demonstrate that application of activity after contact with quantitative and qualitative analyzes, the students developed new insights into the subject population and the reality lived with transformation of critical and constructive position of geographical knowledge. RESUMO: O artigo apresenta uma análise sobre uma experiência didática desenvolvida na disciplina de Geografia, ministrada para duas turmas de 3° anos do curso Técnico Integrado em Informática da Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, Campo Mourão-PR. A experiência diz respeito à aplicação de uma atividade, que teve como objetivo aproximar o tema ‘População brasileira’ à realidade dos alunos, por meio do estudo de dados populacionais da mesorregião em que residem. Os resultados da aplicação da atividade demonstram que após o contato com dados quantitativos e análises qualitativas, os alunos desenvolveram novas percepções sobre o tema população e sobre a realidade vivida, com transformação do posicionamento crítico e construtivo do conhecimento geográfico.

  15. The experience of demanding work environments in younger workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winding, T N; Labriola, M; Nohr, E A; Andersen, J H

    2015-06-01

    Investigating whether certain individual or background characteristics are associated with an increased risk of experiencing an excessively demanding work environment in younger workers may help to reduce future inequality in health and maximize their labour market participation. To describe the work environment of Danish 20- to 21-year olds and to investigate the influence of family socioeconomic background and individual characteristics at age 14-15 on later experience of physical and psychosocial work environments. We obtained information on subjects' school performance, vulnerability, health and parental socioeconomic status from registers and a questionnaire completed in 2004. A questionnaire concerning eight measures of subjects' psychosocial and physical work environment in 2010 was used to determine the outcomes of interest. The study population consisted of 679 younger workers aged 20-21. The psychosocial work environment was in general good but younger workers experienced more demanding physical work than the general working population. Overall, individual as well as family factors had a limited impact on their assessment of the work environment. Low self-esteem at age 14-15 was associated with experiencing high demands and lack of trust and fairness at work, whereas low parental socioeconomic status was associated with a demanding physical work environment. This study showed a social gradient in experiencing a demanding physical work environment at age 20-21. The psychosocial work environment experienced by younger workers was generally good, but vulnerable young people may need special attention to protect them from or prepare them for psychosocially demanding jobs later in life. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The varieties of ecstatic experience: an exploration of the subjective experiences of ecstasy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumnall, Harry R; Cole, Jon C; Jerome, Lisa

    2006-09-01

    Previous investigations of the subjective effects of MDMA (material sold as ecstasy) have conducted interviews and surveys of various groups of ecstasy users within particular sub-populations. This study examined subjective drug effects reported by different sub-populations of ecstasy users and explored whether the function or purpose served by using ecstasy influenced the nature of the drug experience. Drawing on previous measures of alterations in consciousness, psychedelic drugs and cannabis, and informal interviews with ecstasy users and MDMA researchers, a 130-item survey assessing subjective effects of ecstasy/MDMA was developed. Principal components analysis of responses of ecstasy users revealed six components; perceptual alterations, entactogenic effects, prosocial effects, aesthetic effects, negative effects and sexual effects. The derived scale was used to predict ecstasy use behaviours, and functions and experiences of use. A variety of component scores were related to ecstasy use parameters; in particular, heavier users expected fewer negative, perceptual and aesthetic effects from taking the drug. The reasons given for using ecstasy (use function) also influenced reported drug effects. Abstainers expected greater negative, perceptual, aesthetic and sexual effects than users. These data indicate that the subjective ecstasy experience is influenced by a variety of extra-psychopharmacological factors. Drug intervention strategies may be made more effective by targeting particular user groups defined by reasons given for substance use, as it is likely that their experiences of ecstasy effects will differ. Future research into ecstasy may be improved by recognizing user diversity.

  17. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  18. Anomalies of subjective experience in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, J; Handest, P; Saebye, D

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Contemporary psychopathology, as a result of behaviourally dominated epistemological stance, downplays anomalies of the patient's subjectivity. This neglect has probably deleterious consequences for research in the causes and the boundaries of the schizophrenia spectrum conditions. The...

  19. Effective Laboratory Work in Biochemistry Subject: Students' and Lecturers' Perspective in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Yunita Arian Sani; Senam; Laksono F. X., Endang Widjajanti

    2017-01-01

    Biochemistry subject had problem in learning and teaching, especially in laboratory work. We explored laboratory learning implementation in Biochemistry subject. Participants of this research were 195 students who took biochemistry subject and 4 lecturers of biochemistry in three universities in Indonesia. We obtained data using questionnaires and…

  20. Measuring the Economic Value of Pre-MBA Work Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaple, Ronald N.; Johnston, Mark W.; Whittingham, Keith L.

    2010-01-01

    Pre-MBA work experience is required for admission to many graduate schools of business. In the present study, MBA graduates with a wide range of pre-MBA work experience were surveyed to assess the economic value of such work experience. No evidence was found of a systematic financial advantage to students from working for several years before…

  1. Subject knowledge and library support: insights from an experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Research Libraries Consortium (RLC) project involving three South African university libraries was established in 2006 with the aim of improving academic library support. Part of this project focused on subject librarians through the Library Academy and an internship in research libraries in the. United States.

  2. Working Children as Social Subjects: The Contribution of Working Children's Organizations to Social Transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebel, Manfred

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the significance of organizations of working children for processes of transformation in their societies. Argues that while structural causes of exploitation and poverty account for persistence of child labor, organizations of working children are of growing importance in efforts to improve their life conditions, noting that many…

  3. A qualitative report on the subjective experience of intravenous psilocybin administered in an FMRI environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, S; Nutt, D J; Carhart-Harris, R L

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the phenomenology of the subjective experiences of 15 healthy psychedelic experienced volunteers who were involved in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study that was designed to image the brain effects of intravenous psilocybin. The participants underwent a semi-structured interview exploring the effects of psilocybin in the MRI scanner. These interviews were analysed by Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The resultant data is ordered in a detailed matrix, and presented in this paper. Nine broad categories of phenomenology were identified in the phenomenological analysis of the experience; perceptual changes including visual, auditory and somatosensory distortions, cognitive changes, changes in mood, effects of memory, spiritual or mystical type experiences, aspects relating to the scanner and research environment, comparisons with other experiences, the intensity and onset of effects, and individual interpretation of the experience. This article documents the phenomenology of psilocybin when given in a novel manner (intravenous injection) and setting (an MRI scanner). The findings of the analysis are consistent with previous published work regarding the subjective effects of psilocybin. There is much scope for further research investigating the phenomena identified in this paper.

  4. Co-ordinated research programme on benchmark study for the seismic analysis and testing of WWER-type nuclear power plants. V. 5A. Experience data. Working material. Experience database of Romanian facilities subjected to the last three Vrancea earthquakes. Final report from November 1994 - October 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coman, O.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Co-ordinated research programme on the benchmark study for the seismic analysis and testing of WWER-type nuclear power plants was initiated subsequent to the request from representatives of Member States. The conclusions adopted at the Technical Committee Meeting on Seismic Issues related to existing nuclear power plants held in Tokyo in 1991 called for the harmonization of methods and criteria used in Member States in issues related to seismic safety. The Consulltants' Meeting which followed resulted in producing a working document for CRP. It was decided that a benchmark study is the most effective way to achieve the principal objective. Two types of WWER reactors (WWER-440/213 and WWER-1000) were selected as prototypes for the benchmark exercise to be tested on a full scale using explosions and/or vibration generators. The two prototypes are Kozloduy Units 5/6 for WWER-1000 and Paks for WWER-440/213 nuclear power plants. This volume of Working material contains the report experience database for Romanian facilities contingent to the three Vrancea earthquakes

  5. Co-ordinated research programme on benchmark study for the seismic analysis and testing of WWER-type nuclear power plants. V. 5A. Experience data. Working material. Experience database of Romanian facilities subjected to the last three Vrancea earthquakes. Final report from November 1994 - October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coman, O [Stevenson and Associates Bucharest Office, Bucharest (Romania); Stevenson, J D [Stevenson and Associates (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The Co-ordinated research programme on the benchmark study for the seismic analysis and testing of WWER-type nuclear power plants was initiated subsequent to the request from representatives of Member States. The conclusions adopted at the Technical Committee Meeting on Seismic Issues related to existing nuclear power plants held in Tokyo in 1991 called for the harmonization of methods and criteria used in Member States in issues related to seismic safety. The Consulltants' Meeting which followed resulted in producing a working document for CRP. It was decided that a benchmark study is the most effective way to achieve the principal objective. Two types of WWER reactors (WWER-440/213 and WWER-1000) were selected as prototypes for the benchmark exercise to be tested on a full scale using explosions and/or vibration generators. The two prototypes are Kozloduy Units 5/6 for WWER-1000 and Paks for WWER-440/213 nuclear power plants. This volume of Working material contains the report experience database for Romanian facilities contingent to the three Vrancea earthquakes.

  6. Work Placement in UK Undergraduate Programmes. Student Expectations and Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, David; Richardson, Anne

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 189 pre- and 106 post-sandwich work-experience students in tourism suggested that potential benefits were not being maximized. Students needed better preparation for the work experience, especially in terms of their expectations. The work experience needed better design, and the role of industry tutors needed clarification. (SK)

  7. Subjective Acceleration of Time Experience in Everyday Life across Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Dennis; Lang, Frieder R.

    2015-01-01

    Most people believe that time seems to pass more quickly as they age. Building on assumptions of socioemotional selectivity theory, we investigated whether awareness that one's future lifetime is limited is associated with one's experience of time during everyday activities across adulthood in 3 studies. In the first 2 studies (Study 1: N = 608;…

  8. Adolescent Work Experiences and Family Formation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy; VanEseltine, Matthew; Woolnough, April; Silver, Eric; Burrington, Lori

    2012-01-01

    A long-standing critique of adolescent employment is that it engenders a precocious maturity of more adult-like roles and behaviors, including school disengagement, substance use, sexual activity, inadequate sleep and exercise, and work-related stress. Though negative effects of high-intensity work on adolescent adjustment have been found, little…

  9. Experience With Flexible Hours of Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Jo

    1976-01-01

    A summary of an 80-page booklet called Hours of Work When Workers Can Choose is presented. The booklet reports a survey and focuses on the benefits of flexible hours of work. It was published by the Business and Professional Women's Foundation and is available from that organization. (EC)

  10. Subject cataloguing of the works of fiction at the National and University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Kovač

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the principles of construction and policies of application of subject headings to works of fiction at the National and University Library in Ljubljana, Slovenia. The records are created in COMARC format, and the literary type, genre and the language of a document are each assigned a code, whereas literature is also indexed by using UDC class numbers. The principles for constructing and assigning subject headings for fiction are in accordance with the IFLA Principles Underlying Subject Heading Languages, and the rules of the Slovenian General List of Subject Headings (2002. The author presents the general and more specific rules and procedures for the construction of subject headings. Most frequently used subject headings for the works of fiction are name, topical or geographic headings.

  11. Google Docs: an experience in collaborative work in the University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa DELGADO BENITO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The educational environment contains multiple reasons to make use of the new possibilities that Information and Communication Technologies (ICT as an educational resource offer. The educational experience presented here has been realized in the subject of New Technologies applied to Education, which forms part of the study plans for primary school teachers in the University of Burgos (UBU, and which has as its main goal to facilitate the acquisition of generic competences of ICT to work online. To reach this proposed goal, we have cultivated active learning of the students, from individual to collective learning. At first, they were given a text to work individually, to read and review. After that, groups were created to work on the document cooperatively, online, through the use of the office tool Google Docs. After sharing and editing the document, every group made a multimedia presentation in which all of their contributions are bundled. Finally, all of the presentations made by every one of the groups were made public. When the practical part of the course was done, the students answered a short questionnaire in which they were asked about their initial knowledge, and the level of dominion and didactic usefulness of the tool Google Docs. It is worth noting that 75% of the class did not know the application before the course and that, after using it, 92% say they would use it in the educational and professional future. This educational experience has been very satisfactory for students and professors alike.

  12. Work-related psychopathology: rates in different work activities and relationship between subjective perception of work distress and psychiatric disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolfe, Giovanni; Mancini, Paola; Mancusi, Riccardo; Zontini, Gemma; Nolfe, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The link between work distress and negative mental health outcome is an emergent topic in the scientific literature. The studies that evaluated the risk of work-related psychopathologies in the different job sectors have obtained so far controversial and inconclusive results. The identification, by means of standardized evaluation tools, of the work activities at higher risk of poor mental health is a relevant target for the occupational psychiatry and medicine. To evaluate the relationship between the psychosocial work conditions and work related psychiatric disturbances and to verify the relationship between the higher pathogenic effect of work and specific job activities. A six-month diagnostic trial was conducted on 234 patients (35.4% women and 64.6% men). Psychiatric diagnoses were according to DSM-IV criteria; anxious and depressive dimensions were studied by means of Hamilton-Anxiety-Scale and Hamilton Scale for Depression; psychosocial work environments and bio-psycho-social features were measured by Naples-Questionnaire of Work Distress. Groups with higher and lower work-related pathogenesis were compared and their distribution among specific job activities was evaluated. Mood disorders were strongly linked to negative work environment. Patients with severe bullying obtained higher scores on Hamilton-Anxiety-Scale and Hamilton Scale for Depression than those with lower work-pathogenesis. The highest scores on Naples-Questionnaire of Work Distress were related to mood disorders, to poorer bio-psycho-social functioning and to higher work etiology. No significant relationship between work activities and work-related psychopathologies was found. Workplace bullying is predictive of work-related psychiatric disturbances with more severe clinical features and bio-psycho-social consequences. No significant differences were found about the relationship between work-related psychopathologies and work activities.

  13. Impossible Subjects: LGBTIQ Experiences in Australian Pentecostal-Charismatic Churches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. C. Jennings

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the product of in-depth interviews with 20 Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex, and Queer (LGBTIQ people who identify, or formerly identified, as members of Pentecostal-Charismatic Christian (PCC churches. Interviewees typically found themselves confronted with a number of choices (not necessarily mutually exclusive: remain closeted, come out but commit to remaining celibate, undergo “SOCE” (Sexual Orientation Conversion Efforts therapy, or leave. Most left their churches, often after agonising attempts to reconcile their faith and their sexuality. Several of the practices adopted by Australian PCC churches exclude LGBTIQ people from full participation in their own congregations, rendering them “impossible subjects.” Australian Pentecostalism’s surprisingly egalitarian history, wherein the spiritually authorised ministry of women was both recognised and celebrated, suggests another, more inclusive way forward in regard to this vexed issue.

  14. The influence of adjunctive treatment and metacognitive deficits in schizophrenia on the experience of work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Steven; Renard, S. B.; van Donkersgoed, R. J. M.; van der Gaag, M.; Wunderink, Alexander; Pijnenborg, G. H. M.; Lysaker, P. H.

    Enhancing work function is now widely considered a core element of comprehensive schizophrenia treatment. While research efforts have illuminated factors that influence how well patients perform at work, less is known about the factors influencing the subjective experience of work. It is not known

  15. The influence of adjunctive treatment and metacognitive deficits in schizophrenia on the experience of work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, S.; Renard, S.B.; van Donkersgoed, R.J.M.; van der Gaag, M.; Wunderink, L.; Pijnenborg, G.H.M.; Lysaker, P.H.

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing work function is now widely considered a core element of comprehensive schizophrenia treatment. While research efforts have illuminated factors that influence how well patients perform at work, less is known about the factors influencing the subjective experience of work. It is not known

  16. Employment status and subjective well-being: The role of the social norm to work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, K.; Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.; Graaf, P.M. de

    2016-01-01

    This article examines to what extent a social norm to work moderates the relationship between employment status and subjective well-being. It was expected that the detrimental impact of non-employment on subjective well-being would be larger in countries with a stronger social norm. Using a direct

  17. Employment status and subjective well-being : The role of the social norm to work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, K.; Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.; de Graaf, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines to what extent a social norm to work moderates the relationship between employment status and subjective well-being. It was expected that the detrimental impact of non-employment on subjective well-being would be larger in countries with a stronger social norm. Using a direct

  18. ELECTRONIC TEXTBOOK — SUBJECT INFORMATIONEDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF INDEPENDENT WORK OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena O. Ivanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to consider the characteristics of the electronic textbook as the subject of the information-educational environment, which ensures the unity both of the procedural and substantive aspects of training.Results. The evolution of views on the electronic textbook in the course of the expansion and awareness of the didactic potential of information and communication technologies is shown. The structure of the electronic textbook is presented in the paper. It includes the following modules: information (invariant content of education and the expansion of its variability; organizational and procedural (variable-based assignments aimed at acquiring information, as well as a means of reflection and evaluation of results; personal (information and telecommunication means of organizing own knowledge; communicative (the field of information and assessment of interaction; and pedagogical (monitoring cognitive activity of students. The structure has been developed with due regard to the need of independent work of a student with the content of education in information and educational environment.Scientific novelty. The features of the independent work of the student in terms of abundance of information through information and communication technologies are analyzed. Special attention is paid to the development of independent cognitive activity of students, their subject position in education. On this bases, the key position that should be considered during the development of the electronic textbook are specified: cognitive activity is considered as an active process of constructing students’ new knowledge based on earlier formed personal experience; personal experience arises as a result of intellectual and cognitive activity of the student; cognition of something new requires an activity in the field of social communication; the efficiency of absorption of the content of education depends on the conditions of implementation of each

  19. ELECTRONIC TEXTBOOK — SUBJECT INFORMATIONEDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF INDEPENDENT WORK OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena O. Ivanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to consider the characteristics of the electronic textbook as the subject of the information-educational environment, which ensures the unity both of the procedural and substantive aspects of training.Results. The evolution of views on the electronic textbook in the course of the expansion and awareness of the didactic potential of information and communication technologies is shown. The structure of the electronic textbook is presented in the paper. It includes the following modules: information (invariant content of education and the expansion of its variability; organizational and procedural (variable-based assignments aimed at acquiring information, as well as a means of reflection and evaluation of results; personal (information and telecommunication means of organizing own knowledge; communicative (the field of information and assessment of interaction; and pedagogical (monitoring cognitive activity of students. The structure has been developed with due regard to the need of independent work of a student with the content of education in information and educational environment.Scientific novelty. The features of the independent work of the student in terms of abundance of information through information and communication technologies are analyzed. Special attention is paid to the development of independent cognitive activity of students, their subject position in education. On this bases, the key position that should be considered during the development of the electronic textbook are specified: cognitive activity is considered as an active process of constructing students’ new knowledge based on earlier formed personal experience; personal experience arises as a result of intellectual and cognitive activity of the student; cognition of something new requires an activity in the field of social communication; the efficiency of absorption of the content of education depends on the conditions of implementation of each

  20. Summary -- Experiments with Radioactive Beams Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Wiescher, M. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States)

    1992-12-31

    During the course of the workshop, a wide range of futuristic radioactive-beam experiments were discussed. These extended from the study of electroweak interactions in nuclei to materials science, nuclear astrophysics, and a host of nuclear physics investigations. Emphasis was placed on illustrating how these prototypical experiments could be done, discussing what types of detection systems would be needed, exploring the new problems which would be confronting the radioactive beam experimenter, and better defining the beam requirements. Contained herein is a summary of these discussions.

  1. Subjective experience analysis in women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Belber-Gómez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the psychological experience and needs shown in the discourse of women diagnosed with breast cancer in a psychological group intervention was analyzed. The sessions are transcribed and a discourse analysis is performed, selecting the most prevailing topics. The main psychological difficulties perceived by the participants are the following: body identity change, sexuality changes, new quality of interpersonal relationships, implications of positive thinking culture, fear of recurrence, the relationship with the hospital staff and change after diagnosis. The aspects of the group considered to be helpful are also addressed, i.e. feeling understood by the others, seeing the rest of participants as coping models, changing their relationship with the illness. Several clinical implications are highlighted in order to improve a comprehensive care.

  2. Working across difference : theory, practice and experience

    OpenAIRE

    Dobson, Rachael

    2017-01-01

    Back in October 2015 I had the opportunity to chair the book launch for all three works discussed in this review essay. At the event, Shirley Anne Tate said, “Black feminist theory is the theory”. The comment referred to how it is not ‘just’ that Black feminist theory is typically marginalised within institutional contexts and academic scholarship, ‘even’ within critical, feminist and poststructural work, but also to highlight the capacity of Black feminist scholarship to unpick and destabili...

  3. Investigation of Psychophysiological and Subjective Effects of Long Working Hours - Do Age and Hearing Impairment Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Hartl, Verena; Kallus, K Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Following current prognosis, demographic development raises expectations of an aging of the working population. Therefore, keeping employees healthy and strengthening their ability to work, becomes more and more important. When employees become older, dealing with age-related impairments of sensory functions, such as hearing impairment, is a central issue. Recent evidence suggests that negative effects that are associated with reduced hearing can have a strong impact at work. Especially under exhausting working situations such as working overtime hours, age and hearing impairment might influence employees' well-being. Until now, neither the problem of aged workers and long working hours, nor the problem of hearing impairment and prolonged working time has been addressed explicitly. Therefore, a laboratory study was examined to answer the research question: Do age and hearing impairment have an impact on psychophysiological and subjective effects of long working hours. In total, 51 white-collar workers, aged between 24 and 63 years, participated in the laboratory study. The results show no significant effects for age and hearing impairment on the intensity of subjective consequences (perceived recovery and fatigue, subjective emotional well-being and physical symptoms) of long working hours. However, the psychophysiological response (the saliva cortisol level) to long working hours differs significantly between hearing impaired and normal hearing employees. Interestingly, the results suggest that from a psychophysiological point of view long working hours were more demanding for normal hearing employees.

  4. Participation in Students' Industrial Work Experience Scheme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SIWES has been part of the training requirement of Pharmacy students at the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Jos, for a long time now. At inception, it was done during vacations until about ten years ago when it was incorporated into the semester period. This work was done to find out the feelings and ...

  5. Exploring "fringe" consciousness: the subjective experience of perceptual fluency and its objective bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, Rolf; Wurtz, Pascal; Zimmermann, Thomas D

    2004-03-01

    Perceptual fluency is the subjective experience of ease with which an incoming stimulus is processed. Although perceptual fluency is assessed by speed of processing, it remains unclear how objective speed is related to subjective experiences of fluency. We present evidence that speed at different stages of the perceptual process contributes to perceptual fluency. In an experiment, figure-ground contrast influenced detection of briefly presented words, but not their identification at longer exposure durations. Conversely, font in which the word was written influenced identification, but not detection. Both contrast and font influenced subjective fluency. These findings suggest that speed of processing at different stages condensed into a unified subjective experience of perceptual fluency.

  6. Data aesthetics - between clouds of information and subjective experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bjoernsten

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article takes it point of departure from a three-year research project entitled “Making sense of data – understanding digital reality through contemporary artistic practices of visualization and sonification”. As the project does, so will this article focus on the analysis of specific practices and artefacts, occupied with exploring digital formats and data through both visualization and sonification strategies (the latter referring to the task of turning data into audible sound, thus, expanding the use of large data sets into the sphere of art and the aesthetic. The article will critically discuss such artistic renderings of what might be termed as ‘Big Data’ and how these various data-translations are presented in the form of artefacts, installations, and performances that establish different aesthetic experiences and effects. A further point developed within the article will be how the examples addressed here diverge according to the data sets used, as something either drawn from large public and (mostly accessible databases or individually collected data.

  7. Study of the meta-subject competencies cluster of teachers working ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The relevance of the studied problem is based on the insufficient information on the professional development of teachers working with gifted children and youth. It also comes from the low level of their meta-subject competencies formedness, which reduces the efficiency of their work. The purpose of this article is to ...

  8. Sexual Harassment at Work: A European Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Artan Çela

    2015-01-01

    Unwelcome sexual advances, proposition or pressure for sexual activity, offensive flirtations, leering, whistling, making sexually suggestive gestures, sexual jokes, unwanted sexual looks, unwanted letters, telephone call, or materials of a sexual nature, unwanted physical contact, actual or attempting rape or sexual assault, this and more of this conduct if took place in the workplace would amount to a sexual harassment. The sexual harassment at work has become a serious issue of our time. I...

  9. Optimal experience among teachers: new insights into the work paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Marta; Delle Fave, Antonella

    2012-01-01

    Several studies highlighted that individuals perceive work as an opportunity for flow or optimal experience, but not as desirable and pleasant. This finding was defined as the work paradox. The present study addressed this issue among teachers from the perspective of self-determination theory, investigating work-related intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, as well as autonomous and controlled behavior regulation. In Study 1, 14 teachers were longitudinally monitored with Experience Sampling Method for one work week. In Study 2, 184 teachers were administered Flow Questionnaire and Work Preference Inventory, respectively investigating opportunities for optimal experience, and motivational orientations at work. Results showed that work-related optimal experiences were associated with both autonomous regulation and with controlled regulation. Moreover, teachers reported both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation at work, with a prevailing intrinsic orientation. Findings provide novel insights on the work paradox, and suggestions for teachers' well-being promotion.

  10. Working capacity in the experiment with animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pul'kov, V.N.; Mashneva, N.I.; Rodionova, L.F.

    1984-01-01

    Influence of different harmful factors such as 90 Sr, 210 Po, mercury, lead on working capacity is studied; special attention is paid to study of behaviour. Low-motivated reactions (spontaneous motor activity, some parameters of orientation-research behaviour) are shown to be most sensitive. The reaction of active avoiding electroskin stimulation or defense conditioned reflexes are more stable to the effect of harmful factors. Dependence of the effect of radioactive and chemical substances at intake with drinking water from different safety standard levels on behaviour reactions is presented

  11. Subjective cognitive complaints, psychosocial factors and nursing work function in nurses providing direct patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbe, Tammy; Kimble, Laura P; Rubenstein, Cynthia

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine relationships among subjective cognitive complaints, psychosocial factors and nursing work function in nurses providing direct patient care. Cognitive functioning is a critical component for nurses in the assurance of error prevention, identification and correction when caring for patients. Negative changes in nurses' cognitive and psychosocial functioning can adversely affect nursing care and patient outcomes. A descriptive correlational design with stratified random sampling. The sample included 96 nurses from the major geographic regions of the United States. Over 9 months in 2016-2017, data were collected using a web-based survey. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine relationships among subjective cognitive complaints, psychosocial factors and nursing work function. Overall, participants reported minimal work function impairment and low levels of subjective cognitive complaints, depression and stress. In multivariate analyses, depression was not associated with nurses' work function. However, perceived stress and subjective concerns about cognitive function were associated with greater impairment of work function. Nurses experiencing subjective cognitive complaints should be encouraged to address personal and environmental factors that are associated with their cognitive status. Additionally, stress reduction in nurses should be a high priority as a potential intervention to promote optimal functioning of nurses providing direct patient care. Healthcare institutions should integrate individual and institutional strategies to reduce factors contributing to workplace stress. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Student Work Experience: A Realistic Approach to Merchandising Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horridge, Patricia; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Relevant and realistic experiences are needed to prepare the student for a future career. Addresses the results of a survey of colleges and universities in the United States in regard to their student work experience (SWE) in fashion merchandising. (Author)

  13. Professionals and students in a lobbying experiment. Professional rules of conduct and subject surrogacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potters, J.; van Winden, F.A.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Lobbying is studied in a series of signaling game experiments. Students as well as professional lobbyists are used as subjects. In contrast with some earlier studies, comparing students and professionals, we find significant differences in the behavior of the two subject pools. Professional subjects

  14. Experiences of work among people with disabilities who are HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiences of work among people with disabilities who are HIV-positive in Zambia. ... HIV in Lusaka, not only secondary to the effects of HIV influencing their physical capacity to work ... Keywords: qualitative, disability, stigma, Southern Africa ...

  15. Context Influences on the Subjective Experience of Aging: The Impact of Culture and Domains of Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Erica L; Hess, Thomas M; Kornadt, Anna E; Rothermund, Klaus; Fung, Helene; Voss, Peggy

    2017-08-01

    Attitudes about aging influence how people feel about their aging and affect psychological and health outcomes in later life. Given cross-cultural variability in such attitudes, the subjective experience of aging (e.g., subjective age [SA]) may also vary, potentially accounting for culture-specific patterns of aging-related outcomes. Our study explored cultural variation in SA and its determinants. American (N = 569), Chinese (N = 492), and German (N = 827) adults aged 30-95 years completed a questionnaire that included instruments measuring basic demographic information, SA, beliefs about thresholds of old age, control over life changes, and age dependency of changes in eight different life domains (i.e., family, work). Analyses revealed consistency across cultures in the domain-specificity of SA, but differences in the amount of shared variance across domains (e.g., Chinese adults exhibited greater homogeneity across domains than did Americans and Germans). Cultural differences were also observed in levels of SA in some domains, which were attenuated by domain-specific beliefs (e.g., control). Interestingly, beliefs about aging accounted for more cultural variation in SA than did sociodemographic factors (e.g., education). Our results demonstrate that subjective perceptions of aging and everyday functioning may be best understood from a perspective focused on context (i.e., culture, life domain). Given its important relation to functioning, examination of cross-cultural differences in the subjective experience of aging may highlight factors that determine variations in aging-related outcomes that then could serve as targets of culture-specific interventions promoting well-being in later life. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The Neural Correlates of Spatial and Object Working Memory in Elderly and Parkinson's Disease Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Caminiti, Silvia P.; Siri, Chiara; Guidi, Lucia; Antonini, Angelo; Perani, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    This fMRI study deals with the neural correlates of spatial and objects working memory (SWM and OWM) in elderly subjects (ESs) and idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD). Normal aging and IPD can be associated with a WM decline. In IPD population, some studies reported similar SWM and OWM deficits; others reported a greater SWM than OWM impairment. In the present fMRI research, we investigated whether compensated IPD patients and elderly subjects with comparable performance during the execution...

  17. Sexual Harassment at Work: A European Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artan Çela

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Unwelcome sexual advances, proposition or pressure for sexual activity, offensive flirtations, leering, whistling, making sexually suggestive gestures, sexual jokes, unwanted sexual looks, unwanted letters, telephone call, or materials of a sexual nature, unwanted physical contact, actual or attempting rape or sexual assault, this and more of this conduct if took place in the workplace would amount to a sexual harassment. The sexual harassment at work has become a serious issue of our time. It is an unjustified interference of integrity, dignity and well-being of workers, causing problems from headaches to depression, loss of confidence, panic attacks and perhaps suicide as the only way appearing to be the sole possible relief from the unremitting and frightening behavior. This article presents information concerning the sexual harassment at workplace, covering topics such as, the definitions for sexual harassment in both international and national context, a short history of sexual harassment, types of sexual harassment, effect of sexual harassment, measure to combat and prevent sexual harassment. It offers a short overview in sexual harassment legislation of some industrialized EU Member States and the legal remedies available against sexual harassment. The main purpose of this article is to provide a better understanding and prevention concerning the issue of sexual harassment in workplace.

  18. An investigation into the experiences of managers who work flexibly

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Deirdre

    2008-01-01

    This thesis explores the experiences of managers who work flexibly. Flexible working policies are prevalent in all organizations in the UK because of the legislation giving specific groups of parents and carers the right to request flexible working. Many organizations extend the policies to all employees, yet the take-up is not as high as expected, particularly among staff at managerial levels. This thesis explores how managers construe and experience flexible working arrangeme...

  19. Some Subjects and Relations According to the Act about Safety at Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marino Đ. Učur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex relations in the field of safety at work could not be present without the subjects which have a specific status and specific rights, obligations and responsibilities regulated by the Occupational Health and Safety Act. This paper deals with: employer’s designated employee for the implementation of occupational health and safety activities, employees’ elected representative for health and safety protection at work, occupational medicine specialist, occupational health and safety specialist and the committee for safety at work in the relations of safety at work.

  20. Closing the gap: connecting sudden representational change to the subjective Aha! experience in insightful problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danek, Amory H; Williams, Joshua; Wiley, Jennifer

    2018-01-18

    Two hallmarks of insightful problem solving are thought to be suddenness in the emergence of solution due to changes in problem representation, and the subjective Aha! Although a number of studies have explored the Aha! experience, few studies have attempted to measure representational change. Following the lead of Durso et al. (Psychol Sci 5(2):94-97, 1994) and Cushen and Wiley (Conscious Cognit 21(3):1166-1175, 2012), in this study, participants made importance-to-solution ratings throughout their solution attempts as a way to assess representational change. Participants viewed a set of magic trick videos with the task of finding out how each trick worked, and rated six action verbs for each trick (including one that implied the correct solution) multiple times during solution. They were also asked to indicate the extent to which they experienced an Aha! moment. Patterns of ratings that showed a sudden change towards a correct solution led to stronger Aha! experiences than patterns that showed a more incremental change towards a correct solution, or a change towards incorrect solutions. The results show a connection between sudden changes in problem representations (leading to correct solutions) and the subjective appraisal of solutions as an Aha! This offers the first empirical support for a close relationship between two theoretical constructs that have traditionally been assumed to be related to insightful problem solving.

  1. Some Subjects and Relations According to the Act about Safety at Work

    OpenAIRE

    Marino Đ. Učur

    2015-01-01

    Complex relations in the field of safety at work could not be present without the subjects which have a specific status and specific rights, obligations and responsibilities regulated by the Occupational Health and Safety Act. This paper deals with: employer’s designated employee for the implementation of occupational health and safety activities, employees’ elected representative for health and safety protection at work, occupational medicine specialist, occupational health and safety sp...

  2. The predictive mind and the experience of visual art work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    Among the main challenges of the predictive brain/mind concept is how to link prediction at the neural level to prediction at the cognitive-psychological level and finding conceptually robust and empirically verifiable ways to harness this theoretical framework toward explaining higher-order mental and cognitive phenomena, including the subjective experience of aesthetic and symbolic forms. Building on the tentative prediction error account of visual art, this article extends the application of the predictive coding framework to the visual arts. It does so by linking this theoretical discussion to a subjective, phenomenological account of how a work of art is experienced. In order to engage more deeply with a work of art, viewers must be able to tune or adapt their prediction mechanism to recognize art as a specific class of objects whose ontological nature defies predictability, and they must be able to sustain a productive flow of predictions from low-level sensory, recognitional to abstract semantic, conceptual, and affective inferences. The affective component of the process of predictive error optimization that occurs when a viewer enters into dialog with a painting is constituted both by activating the affective affordances within the image and by the affective consequences of prediction error minimization itself. The predictive coding framework also has implications for the problem of the culturality of vision. A person's mindset, which determines what top-down expectations and predictions are generated, is co-constituted by culture-relative skills and knowledge, which form hyperpriors that operate in the perception of art.

  3. The predictive mind and the experience of visual art work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    Among the main challenges of the predictive brain/mind concept is how to link prediction at the neural level to prediction at the cognitive-psychological level and finding conceptually robust and empirically verifiable ways to harness this theoretical framework toward explaining higher-order mental and cognitive phenomena, including the subjective experience of aesthetic and symbolic forms. Building on the tentative prediction error account of visual art, this article extends the application of the predictive coding framework to the visual arts. It does so by linking this theoretical discussion to a subjective, phenomenological account of how a work of art is experienced. In order to engage more deeply with a work of art, viewers must be able to tune or adapt their prediction mechanism to recognize art as a specific class of objects whose ontological nature defies predictability, and they must be able to sustain a productive flow of predictions from low-level sensory, recognitional to abstract semantic, conceptual, and affective inferences. The affective component of the process of predictive error optimization that occurs when a viewer enters into dialog with a painting is constituted both by activating the affective affordances within the image and by the affective consequences of prediction error minimization itself. The predictive coding framework also has implications for the problem of the culturality of vision. A person’s mindset, which determines what top–down expectations and predictions are generated, is co-constituted by culture-relative skills and knowledge, which form hyperpriors that operate in the perception of art. PMID:25566111

  4. Constructing Work and Subjectivities in Precarious Conditions: Psycho-Discursive Practices in Young People’s Interviews in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Kesisoglou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Precarity is becoming the paradigmatic description of young people’s work conditions in crisis-ridden Greece, but also in other European countries. Focusing on interview data on the work experiences of young adults (18-26 years old, in urban centres of Greece, this study attempts to explore the ways in which informants account for working in precarious conditions and construct agency and subjectivity within these ways of accounting. The analysis drawing on insights from critical discursive social psychology indicates that participants construct precarious work conditions as widespread and banal a by treating precarious work as a sine qua non condition of youth employment, b by considering precarious work as an inherent trait of the Greek job-market, c by considering precarious work as a necessary step on a (biographical path leading to the desired and/or appropriate job, or d by adopting a “there is no other alternative” accounting, representing precarious job conditions as the only alternative to unemployment. The analysis also points out the ways in which participants orient themselves to a dilemma of stake and accountability, being concerned to position themselves as effortful subjects, while they are rhetorically constructing the banal regime of precarious labour. The discussion considers the need to bring into the scope of social and political psychology the specific nuances of precarious labour.

  5. Position, Possession or Process? Understanding Objective and Subjective Employability during University-to-Work Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okay-Somerville, Belgin; Scholarios, Dora

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to understand predictors of objective (i.e. job offers, employment status and employment quality) and subjective (i.e. perceived) graduate employability during university-to-work transitions. Using survey data from two cohorts of graduates in the UK (N = 293), it contrasts three competing theoretical approaches to employability:…

  6. Remote participation at JET Task Force work: users' experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suttrop, W.; Kinna, D.; Farthing, J.; Hemming, O.; How, J.; Schmidt, V.

    2002-01-01

    The Joint European Torus (JET) fusion experiment is now operated with strong involvement of physicists from outside research laboratories, which often requires remote participation in JET physics experiments. Users' experience with tools for remote collaborative work is reported, including remote computer and data access, remote meetings, shared documentation and various other communication channels

  7. Overtime work, cigarette consumption, and addiction to cigarette among workers subject to mild smoking restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoue, Tetsuya; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Yamato, Hiroshi; Tokunaga, Shoji; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Reijula, Kari

    2006-04-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the relation of hours of overtime work to cigarette consumption and addiction to cigarette, which was measured by the heaviness of smoking index. The subjects were 571 male daily smokers who responded to a cross-sectional survey of municipal employees of a Japanese city office, in which smoking was permitted in designated areas. Those who engaged in moderate overtime work (10-29 h per month) consumed less number of cigarettes per day and had lower levels of heaviness of smoking index, compared with those who worked either shorter or longer hours of overtime, although the differences were not statistically significant. In the workplace, men who worked 50 h or longer overtime last month consumed, on average, 4 cigarettes more than men who worked less than 30 h of overtime. Home cigarette consumption decreased as hours of overtime work increased. In stratified analysis, there was a significant difference in daily cigarette consumption according to hours of overtime work among smokers in staff position or under low psychological work stress; showing reduced consumption associated with medium levels of overtime work, compared to either no overtime work or extended overtime hours. The U-shaped relations of hours of overtime work to overall cigarette consumption and addiction to smoking deserve further investigations.

  8. Experiences of occupational therapists returning to work after maternity leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcsi, Lisa; Curtin, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Returning to work after maternity leave can be a challenging, anxious and fraught experience for women, and has been portrayed in the literature as a generally negative experience. Interestingly, although occupational therapists were predominantly women, no research was found focussing on their experiences of returning to work after maternity leave. The aim of this research was to gain an insight into occupational therapists' experiences of returning to work following maternity leave. Principles of interpretive phenomenological analysis were used to explore the individual experiences of six Australian occupational therapists returning to work after a period of maternity leave. Individual semi-structured interviews lasting up to 90 minutes were conducted. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and then analysed. Two major themes emerged from the analysis of interviews: compromise and feeling valued. The experience of returning to work was a process of compromise in which women found strategies to cope with their changing roles and demands, to find a balance between home and work life. The women wanted to feel valued by their managers and co-workers, as this enabled them to feel comfortable and confident with some of the compromises they made. Occupational therapists returning to work after maternity leave will make compromises so that they can balance their home and work life. Occupational therapists value managers and co-workers who understand the compromises women make when returning to work following maternity leave and who create a supportive workplace that acknowledges and values their contribution. © 2013 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  9. Physical exercise and return to work: cancer survivors' experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, Iris F.; de Boer, Angela G. E. M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2013-01-01

    In this qualitative study, we aimed to explore cancer survivors' experiences with (1) return to work (RtW) and work performance, (2) a physical exercise program after treatment, and (3) the perceived link between physical exercise and work. Semi-structured individual interviews were held with ten

  10. Child Care Teaching as Women's Work: Reflections on Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miai; Reifel, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Child care teachers' experiences and their gendered understandings of their work were explored in this study. Two female child care teachers were interviewed individually and asked to describe their work as women's work. Analysis showed that teachers essentialized child care teaching, recognized the paradoxes of being a child care teacher,…

  11. Temporal and subjective work demands in office-based patient care: an exploration of the dimensions of physician work intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, C Jeff; Bolon, Shannon; Elder, Nancy; Schroer, Brian; Matthews, Gerald; Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Raphaelson, Marc; Horner, Ronnie D

    2011-01-01

    Physician work intensity (WI) during office-based patient care affects quality of care and patient safety as well as physician job-satisfaction and reimbursement. Existing, brief work intensity measures have been used in physician studies, but their validity in clinical settings has not been established. Document and describe subjective and temporal WI dimensions for physicians in office-based clinical settings. Examine these in relation to the measurement procedures and dimensions of the SWAT and NASA-TLX intensity measures. A focused ethnographic study using interviews and direct observations. Five family physicians, 5 general internists, 5 neurologists, and 4 surgeons. Through interviews, each physician was asked to describe low and high intensity work responsibilities, patients, and events. To document time and task allotments, physicians were observed during a routine workday. Notes and transcripts were analyzed using the editing method in which categories are obtained from the data. WI factors identified by physicians matched dimensions assessed by standard, generic instruments of work intensity. Physicians also reported WI factors outside of the direct patient encounter. Across specialties, physician time spent in direct contact with patients averaged 61% for office-based services. Brief work intensity measures such as the SWAT and NASA-TLX can be used to assess WI in the office-based clinical setting. However, because these measures define the physician work "task" in terms of effort in the presence of the patient (ie, intraservice time), substantial physician effort dedicated to pre- and postservice activities is not captured.

  12. Mediating pathways and gender differences between shift work and subjective cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Imelda S; Smith, Peter M; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Mustard, Cameron A; Gignac, Monique A M

    2016-11-01

    Increased injury risk among shift workers is often attributed to cognitive function deficits that come about as a result of sleep disruptions. However, little is known about the intermediate influences of other factors (eg, work stress, health) which may affect this relationship. In addition, gender differences in these the complex relationships have not been fully explored. The purpose of this study is to (1) identify the extent to which work and non-work factors mediate the relationship between shift work, sleep and subsequent subjective cognitive function; and (2) determine if the mediating pathways differ for men and women. Data from the 2010 National Population Health Survey was used to create a cross-sectional sample of 4255 employed Canadians. Using path modelling, we examined the direct and indirect relationships between shift work, sleep duration, sleep quality and subjective cognitive function. Multigroup analyses tested for significantly different pathways between men and women. Potential confounding effects of age and self-reported health and potential mediating effects of work stress were simultaneously examined. Work stress and sleep quality significantly mediated the effects of shift work on cognition. Age and health confounded the relationship between sleep quality and subjective cognition. No differences were found between men and women. Occupational health and safety programmes are needed to address stress and health factors, in addition to sleep hygiene, to effectively address cognitive function among shift workers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Effective Connectivity Determines the Nature of Subjective Experience in Grapheme-Color Synesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, T.M. van; Ouden, H.E.M. den; Hagoort, P.

    2011-01-01

    Synesthesia provides an elegant model to investigate neural mechanisms underlying individual differences in subjective experience in humans. In grapheme-color synesthesia, written letters induce color sensations, accompanied by activation of color area V4. Competing hypotheses suggest that enhanced

  14. Subjective user experience and performance with active tangibles on a tabletop interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B. van; Toet, A.; Meijer, K.; Janssen, J.; Jong, A. de

    2015-01-01

    We developed active tangibles (Sensators) that can be used in combination with multitouch tabletops and that can provide multisensory (visual, auditory, and vibrotactile) feedback. For spatial alignment and rotation tasks we measured subjective user experience and objective performance with these

  15. Subjective User Experience and Performance with Active Tangibles on a Tabletop Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erp, Johannes Bernardus Fransiscus; Toet, Alexander; Meijer, Koos; Janssen, Joris; Jong, Arnoud; Streitz, Norbert; Markopoulos, Panos

    We developed active tangibles (Sensators) that can be used in combination with multitouch tabletops and that can provide multisensory (visual, auditory, and vibrotactile) feedback. For spatial alignment and rotation tasks we measured subjective user experience and objective performance with these

  16. Subject Specialist Mentors in the Lifelong Learning Sector: The Subject Specialist Mentor Model; is it working? A case study approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This short article explores whether using a mentoring model supports our Subject Specialist Mentors (SSMs with their role of mentoring trainees on Initial Teacher Training (ITT courses. Although there are many mentoring models to choose from, our model is based around mentoring within the Lifelong Learning Sector (LLS where trainees need support for their subject specialism as well as their generic teaching skills. The main focus is the use of coaching and mentoring skills taking into consideration guiding, supporting and challenging the trainee during the lifetime of the mentor/trainee relationship. The SSMs found that using our model as a tool helped to structure meetings and to ensure that the trainee had the necessary support to enable them to become proficient, competent subject specialist teachers. In conclusion, it was found that there is a need for the use of a model or a framework to help the Subject Specialist Mentor (SSM with such an important role.

  17. Socio-material assemblies, the subjectivity of pain and work identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2015-01-01

    Based on science and technology studies (STS) and actor-network theory (ANT) a roleplay from a production hall, is discussed in relation to the notions of subjectivity and work identity. The article argues that an instance of arthralgia (pain) may both be seen as an effect and a driver of human–machine......-material translations. This article is predominantly a methodological one that discusses the performance and effects of the subjectivity of pain and argues that pain may be seen as a pivotal actor in the construction not only of an ongoing controversy among production workers and engineers, but also of different work...... identities.. It is argued that pain should not simply be seen as illness, or as resistance against the dominant engineering practice and general increase of speed, but also as an important actor in mobilizing a machine operator network. The strength of the analytical approach is that it elucidates...

  18. Cariologic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes in subjects working in application of radon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnicki, T.; Wysocki, Z.

    1989-01-01

    The level of chromosomal mutagenesis was assessed in 9 women working under conditions of long-term exposure to 222 Rn and its derivatives. They worked in Swieradow-spa, the tenure of their work was 2-15 years. Systematic dosimetric control failed to demonstrate in these women excessive exposure to radiation above the permitted doses. In 847 euploidal cells 55 dicentric chromosomes were found (frequency: 0.0649 per one cell). and 46 chromatic aberrations (frequency: 0.054 per cell). In two control groups the number of chromosomal aberrations was one order of values lower. The per cent of cells with chromosomal aberrations in subjects exposed to 222 Rn was 2-9%, depending on the duration of work, while in two control groups it was not different from the value regarded as normal in general population (0.2-1.5%). (author)

  19. WORK-LIFE BALANCE AND SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Cosmina-Elena POP

    2014-01-01

    An essential element for children's quality of life is represented by the time spent together with their family, especially with their parents. However, for most of the families, the time spent together is quite limited by the work obligations on one side and on the other hand by the household living arrangements. In this paper I will approach the relationship between work-life balance and subjective well-being. The paper will focus on families from Romania in a comparative perspective with t...

  20. Flexible working and work-life balance: Midwives’ experiences and views

    OpenAIRE

    Prowse, Julie; Prowse, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article presents midwives’ views and experiences of flexible working and work–life balance. Both flexible working and work–life balance are important contemporary agendas within midwifery and can have both positive and negative consequences for midwives. Full-time midwives and those without caring commitments feel disadvantaged by flexible working and work–life balance policies as they have to fit when they work around part-time midwives and are increasingly expected to cover extra work....

  1. Subjective Experiences of Space and Time: Self, Sensation, and Phenomenal Time

    OpenAIRE

    Ram Lakhan Pandey Vimal

    2008-01-01

    The investigation of subjective experiences (SEs) of space and time is at the core of consciousness research. The term ‘space’ includes the subject and objects. The SE of subject, I-ness, is defined as ‘Self’. The SEs of objects, subject’s external body, and subject’s internal states such as feelings, thoughts, and so on can be investigated using the proto-experience (PE)-SE framework. The SE of time is defined as ‘phenomenal time’ (...

  2. False Memories Are Not Surprising: The Subjective Experience of an Associative Memory Illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpicke, Jeffrey D.; McCabe, David P.; Roediger, Henry L., III

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments examined subjective experience during retrieval in the DRM false memory paradigm [Deese, J. (1959). "On the prediction of occurrence of particular verbal intrusions in immediate recall." "Journal of Experimental Psychology," 58, 17-22; Roediger, H. L., & McDermott, K. B. (1995). "Creating false memories: Remembering words not…

  3. Multiple Intelligences, Motivations and Learning Experience Regarding Video-Assisted Subjects in a Rural University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajhashemi, Karim; Caltabiano, Nerina; Anderson, Neil; Tabibzadeh, Seyed Asadollah

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates multiple intelligences in relation to online video experiences, age, gender, and mode of learning from a rural Australian university. The inter-relationships between learners' different intelligences and their motivations and learning experience with the supplementary online videos utilised in their subjects are…

  4. Subjetividade, trabalho e ação Subjectivity, work and action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Dejours

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo traz algumas questões para o debate sobre as relações entre trabalho e subjetividade. Nessa perspectiva o trabalho é aquilo que implica, do ponto de vista humano, o fato de trabalhar: gestos, saber-fazer, um engajamento do corpo, a mobilização da inteligência, a capacidade de refletir, de interpretar e de reagir às situações; é o poder de sentir, de pensar e de inventar. O real do trabalho sempre se manifesta afetivamente para o sujeito, aí se estabelece uma relação primordial de sofrimento, experimentada pelo sujeito, corporificada. Trabalhar é preencher a lacuna entre o prescrito e o real. Por isto é que uma parte importante do trabalho efetivo permanece na sombra, não podendo, então, ser avaliado. Outra questão abordada é sobre os acordos firmados entre os trabalhadores no seio do coletivo, de uma equipe ou de um ofício, que têm sempre uma vetorização dupla: de uma parte, um objetivo de eficácia e de qualidade do trabalho; de outra parte, um objetivo social. É proposta também uma discussão entre a teoria psicodinâmica do trabalhar, onde a centralidade do trabalho é um dos seus alicerces e a teoria psicanalítica onde esta questão não é abordada diretamente.This paper produces some issues for debate on the relationships between work and subjectivity. Under this perspective, work implies, from a human point of view, the fact of working: gestures, know-how, a commitment of the body, the mobilization of intelligence, the ability to reflect, to interpret and to react to situations; it is the power of feeling, of thinking and of inventing. Actual work is always affectively manifested to the subject, whereby a primordial distress relationship is established, experienced by the subject, embodied. To work is to fill the gap between the prescribed and the real. This is why an important part of the effective work remains in the shade, and cannot, therefore, be assessed. Another question concerns the

  5. Impact of Work Experiences on Attitudes toward Sexual Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Alison M.; Gutek, Barbara A.

    1986-01-01

    Three theories account for individuals' perceptions of sexual harassment: (1) men and women view and define sexual harassment differently; (2) differential sexual experiences at work account for different perceptions; and (3) gender role "spillover" accounts for perceptual differences. A sample of 1,232 working men and women supports these…

  6. The subjective experience of psychiatric hospitalization : a case study approach / Mark Edward de la Rey

    OpenAIRE

    De la Rey, Mark Edward

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the research was to explore the subjective experience of patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital. Sub-aims were to explore how these experiences relate to self management, stress and psychological well-being. This study was motivated by research literature that documents a wide variety of negative experiences by patients. A recent psychiatric patient survey conducted in England and Wales (Mind, 2004) found that more than 50% of respondents indicated that hospital...

  7. How Nurses Experience Their Work as a Learning Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Skår, Randi

    2010-01-01

    This article explores and illuminates the meaning of nurses’ experiences with their work as a learning environment. A qualitative hermeneutic approach guided the research process and the analysis and interpretation of the transcribed interview-texts of eleven graduate nurses. Three core themes emerged from these informants’ descriptions of their work as a learning environment: ‘participation in the work community’, ‘to engage in interpersonal relations’ and ‘accessing important...

  8. Working in dissonance: experiences of work instability in workers with common mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Louise; Bertilsson, Monica; Holmgren, Kristina; Hensing, Gunnel

    2017-05-18

    Common mental disorders have a negative impact on work functioning, but less is known about the process when the functioning starts to destabilize. This study explores experiences of work instability in workers with common mental disorders. A grounded theory study using a theoretical sampling frame, individual in-depth interviews and a constant comparative analysis conducted by a multidisciplinary research team. The sample involved 27 workers with common mental disorders, currently working full or part time, or being on sick leave not more than 6 months. They were women and men of different ages, representing different occupations and illness severity. A general process of work instability was conceptualized by the core category Working in dissonance: captured in a bubble inside the work stream. The workers described that their ordinary fluency at work was disturbed. They distanced themselves from other people at and outside work, which helped them to regain their flow but simultaneously made them feel isolated. Four categories described sub-processes of the dissonance: Working out of rhythm, Working in discomfort, Working disconnected and Working in a no man's land. The experience of work instability in CMDs was conceptualized as "working in dissonance", suggesting a multifaceted dissonance at work, characterized by a sense of being caught up, as if in a bubble. Focusing on how the worker can re-enter their flow at work when experiencing dissonance is a new approach to explore in occupational and clinical settings.

  9. No auditory experience, no tinnitus: Lessons from subjects with congenital- and acquired single-sided deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Yeon; Nam, Dong Woo; Koo, Ja-Won; De Ridder, Dirk; Vanneste, Sven; Song, Jae-Jin

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies have adopted the Bayesian brain model to explain the generation of tinnitus in subjects with auditory deafferentation. That is, as the human brain works in a Bayesian manner to reduce environmental uncertainty, missing auditory information due to hearing loss may cause auditory phantom percepts, i.e., tinnitus. This type of deafferentation-induced auditory phantom percept should be preceded by auditory experience because the fill-in phenomenon, namely tinnitus, is based upon auditory prediction and the resultant prediction error. For example, a recent animal study observed the absence of tinnitus in cats with congenital single-sided deafness (SSD; Eggermont and Kral, Hear Res 2016). However, no human studies have investigated the presence and characteristics of tinnitus in subjects with congenital SSD. Thus, the present study sought to reveal differences in the generation of tinnitus between subjects with congenital SSD and those with acquired SSD to evaluate the replicability of previous animal studies. This study enrolled 20 subjects with congenital SSD and 44 subjects with acquired SSD and examined the presence and characteristics of tinnitus in the groups. None of the 20 subjects with congenital SSD perceived tinnitus on the affected side, whereas 30 of 44 subjects with acquired SSD experienced tinnitus on the affected side. Additionally, there were significant positive correlations between tinnitus characteristics and the audiometric characteristics of the SSD. In accordance with the findings of the recent animal study, tinnitus was absent in subjects with congenital SSD, but relatively frequent in subjects with acquired SSD, which suggests that the development of tinnitus should be preceded by auditory experience. In other words, subjects with profound congenital peripheral deafferentation do not develop auditory phantom percepts because no auditory predictions are available from the Bayesian brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  10. The subjective experience of collaboration in interprofessional tutor teams: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The Center for Interprofessional Training in Medicine at the Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus at the Technische Universität Dresden, Germany, has offered courses covering interprofessional material since the winter semester 2014/15. The unusual feature of these courses is that they are co-taught by peer tutors from medicine and nursing. This study investigates the subjective experiences of these tutors during the collaborative preparation and teaching of these tutorials with the aim of identifying the effects of equal participation in the perceptions and assessments of the other professional group.Method: Semi-structured, guideline-based interviews were held with six randomly selected tutors. The interviews were analyzed using structuring content analysis.Results: The results show that collaborative work led to reflection, mostly by the university student tutors, on the attitudes held. However, the co-tutors from each professional group were perceived to different degrees as being representative of those in their profession. Asked to master a shared assignment in a non-clinical context, the members of the different professional groups met on equal footing, even if the medical students had already gathered more teaching experience and thus mostly assumed a mentoring role over the course of working on and realizing the teaching units. The nursing tutors were primarily focused on their role as tutor. Both professional groups emphasized that prior to the collaboration they had an insufficient or no idea about the theoretical knowledge or practical skills of the other professional group. Overall, the project was rated as beneficial, and interprofessional education was endorsed.Conclusion: In the discussion, recommendations based on the insights are made for joint tutor training of both professional groups. According to these recommendations, harmonizing the teaching abilities of all tutors is essential to ensure equality during cooperation

  11. Considerations of education in the field of biophotonics in engineering: the experience of the subject fundamentals of biophotonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Arce-Diego, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Education in the field of photonics is usually somehow complex due to the fact that most of the programs include just a few subjects on the field, apart from specific Master programs in Photonics. There are also specific doctorate programs dealing with photonics. Apart from the problems shared with photonics in education in general, biophotonics specifically needs an interdisciplinary approach between biomedical and technical or scientific fields. In this work, we present our education experience in teaching the subject Fundamentals of Biophotonics, intended preferentially to engineering Bachelor and Master degrees students, but also to science and medicine students. First it was necessary to join a teaching group coming from the scientific technical and medical fields, working together in the subject. This task was easier as our research group, the Applied Optical Techniques group, had previous contacts and experience in working with medicine professors and medical doctors at hospitals. The orientation of the subject, intended for both technical and medical students, has to be carefully selected. All this information could be employed by other education institutions willing to implement studies on biomedical optics.

  12. Subjective health complaints, work-related stress and self-efficacy in Norwegian aircrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omholt, M L; Tveito, T H; Ihlebæk, C

    2017-03-01

    The European civilian aviation industry has undergone major changes in the last decade. Despite this, there is little knowledge about work-related stress and subjective health complaints (SHCs) affecting Norwegian aircrew. To investigate the relationships between work-related stress, self-efficacy and SHCs in commercial aircrew in Norway and to explore differences between cockpit and cabin crew. Aircrew members from the three major airlines operating from Norway completed an electronically distributed questionnaire. Linear regression analyses were used to investigate the association between work-related stress, self-efficacy and SHCs. There was a 21% response rate. Among the 843 study subjects, tiredness, sleep problems, bloating, low back pain, headaches and neck pain were the most prevalent SHCs. Cabin crew reported significantly higher numbers, prevalences and mean values for all SHCs compared with cockpit crew (P stress levels. High levels of work-related stress were significantly associated with all SHC factors in both groups. Self-efficacy partly moderated the relationship between stress and psychological complaints in both cockpit and cabin crew, and for musculoskeletal complaints in cockpit crew. The model explained 23 and 32% of the variance in psychological complaints for cockpit and cabin crew, respectively. Commercial aircrew in Norway reported high numbers of SHCs, and high levels of work-related stress were associated with high numbers of SHC. More knowledge is needed on the physical, organizational and psychosocial stressors affecting cockpit and cabin crew in order to create a healthier work environment for these groups. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. Preservice teachers’ objectives and their experience of practical work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Nivalainen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores third-year preservice physics teachers’ (n=32 views concerning the objectives of practical work at school and university. Content analysis of their essays about practical work revealed not only the objectives of the practical work undertaken but also how they had experienced teaching as school and university students. The objectives most commonly referred to were related to the connections between theory and practice, motivation, understanding phenomena, learning how to observe, and learning how to report. In contrast, some objectives were recognized only rarely, which is an important issue for discussion as a future challenge. Preservice teachers’ positive experiences of practical work resulted from the successful implementation of practical work. According to our findings, practical work can in many cases be regarded as successful, especially when the participants understand the objectives of the teaching. In contrast, negative experiences reflected failures or difficulties in implementation. We conclude by suggesting that preservice teachers should be offered opportunities to reflect on their previous experiences and to see and experience in practice the advantages of practical work.

  14. The Effect of Group Works and Demonstrative Experiments Based on Conceptual Change Approach: Photosynthesis and Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibik, Ayse Sert; Diken, Emine Hatun; Darcin, Emine Selcen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the use of group works and demonstration experiments based on conceptual change approach in the elimination of misconception about the subject of photosynthesis and respiration in plants in pre-service science teachers. This study was conducted with 78 pre-service science teachers including…

  15. Work ethics and general work attitudes in adolescents are related to quality of life, sense of coherence and subjective health – a Swedish questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkansson Anders

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Working life is an important arena in most people's lives, and the working line concept is important for the development of welfare in a society. For young people, the period before permanent establishment in working life has become longer during the last two decades. Knowledge about attitudes towards work can help us to understand young people's transition to the labour market. Adolescents are the future workforce, so it seems especially important to notice their attitudes towards work, including attitudes towards the welfare system. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse upper secondary school students' work attitudes, and to explore factors related to these attitudes. Methods The sample consisted of 606 upper secondary school students. They all received a questionnaire including questions about quality of life (QOL, sense of coherence (SOC, subjective health and attitudes towards work. The response rate was 91%. A factor analysis established two dimensions of work attitudes. Multivariate analyses were carried out by means of logistic regression models. Results Work ethics (WE and general work attitudes (GWA were found to be two separate dimensions of attitudes towards work. Concerning WE the picture was similar regardless of gender or study programme. Males in theoretical programmes appeared to have more unfavourable GWA than others. Multivariate analyses revealed that good QOL, high SOC and good health were significantly related to positive WE, and high SOC was positively related to GWA. Being female was positively connected to WE and GWA, while studying on a practical programme was positively related to GWA only. Among those who received good parental support, GWA seemed more favourable. Conclusion Assuming that attitudes towards work are important to the working line concept, this study points out positive factors of importance for the future welfare of the society. Individual factors such as female gender

  16. Total Participation Management: Toward Psychological Determinants of Subjective Well-Being at Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Mika

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to determine which management practice has the strongest influence on the subjective well-being (SWB of employees, three workplaces were assessed with reference to different levels of total participation management (TPM, an innovative approach to human resource management. The study examined whether the level of TPM is positively related with SWB, defined according to Diener’s (1984 affective and cognitive facets of work. The psychological explanation of the predicted dependence was the level of satisfaction of three basic needs (autonomy, competence and relatedness distinguished by Deci and Ryan (2000a. The hypothesis about a positive relationship between SWB and TPM was confirmed. Results indicate that the least participative company has employees with the lowest subjective well-being and with the lowest satisfaction of basic psychological needs.

  17. Collaboration for cooperative work experience programs in biomedical engineering education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Shankar

    2010-01-01

    Incorporating cooperative education modules as a segment of the undergraduate educational program is aimed to assist students in gaining real-life experience in the field of their choice. The cooperative work modules facilitate the students in exploring different realistic aspects of work processes in the field. The track records for cooperative learning modules are very positive. However, it is indeed a challenge for the faculty developing Biomedical Engineering (BME) curriculum to include cooperative work experience or internship requirements coupled with a heavy course load through the entire program. The objective of the present work is to develop a scheme for collaborative co-op work experience for the undergraduate training in the fast-growing BME programs. A few co-op/internship models are developed for the students pursuing undergraduate BME degree. The salient features of one co-op model are described. The results obtained support the proposed scheme. In conclusion, the cooperative work experience will be an invaluable segment in biomedical engineering education and an appropriate model has to be selected to blend with the overall training program.

  18. Experience with magnetic resonance imaging of human subjects with passive implants and tattoos at 7 T: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureddine, Yacine; Bitz, Andreas K; Ladd, Mark E; Thürling, Markus; Ladd, Susanne C; Schaefers, Gregor; Kraff, Oliver

    2015-12-01

    Over the last decade, the number of clinical MRI studies at 7 T has increased dramatically. Since only limited information about the safety of implants/tattoos is available at 7 T, many centers either conservatively exclude all subjects with implants/tattoos or have started to perform dedicated tests for selected implants. This work presents our experience in imaging volunteers with implants/tattoos at 7 T over the last seven and a half years. 1796 questionnaires were analyzed retrospectively to identify subjects with implants/tattoos imaged at 7 T. For a total of 230 subjects, the type of local transmit/receive RF coil used for examination, imaging sequences, acquisition time, and the type of implants/tattoos and their location with respect to the field of view were documented. These subjects had undergone examination after careful consideration by an internal safety panel consisting of three experts in MR safety and physics. None of the subjects reported sensations of heat or force before, during, or after the examination. None expressed any discomfort related to implants/tattoos. Artifacts were reported in 52% of subjects with dental implants; all artifacts were restricted to the mouth area and did not affect image quality in the brain parenchyma. Our initial experience at 7 T indicates that a strict rejection of subjects with tattoos and/or implants is not justified. Imaging can be conditionally performed in carefully selected subjects after collection of substantial safety information and evaluation of the detailed exposure scenario (RF coil/type and position of implant). Among the assessed subjects with tattoos, no side effects from the exposure to 7 T MRI were reported.

  19. Do Wage Cuts Damage Work Morale? Evidence from a Natural Field Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Kube, Sebastian; Maréchal, Michel; Puppe, Clemens

    2011-01-01

    Employment contracts are often incomplete, leaving many responsibilities subject to workers� discretion. High work morale is therefore essential for sustaining voluntary cooperation and high productivity in firms. We conducted a field experiment to test whether workers reciprocate wage cuts and raises with low or high work productivity. Wage cuts had a detrimental and persistent impact on productivity, reducing average output by more than 20 percent. An equivalent wage increase, however, di...

  20. The Dutch queen’s day event : How subjective experience mediates the relationship between motivation and satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Geus, S.; Richards, G.W.; Toepoel, V.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between subjective experience of an event, motivational style for participating and satisfaction afterwards. It proposes that subjective experience of positive affect acts as a mediator between motivation and satisfaction.

  1. Bringing work home: the emotional experiences of mothers and fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjasko, Jennifer L; Feldman, Amy F

    2006-03-01

    Given the salience of work in our society, this study investigated how intrinsic work motivation, work hours, and taking time for self influenced the interplay between the emotional climates of work and home. The authors examined day-to-day emotional transmission between work and home (spillover) for 143 families using the experience sampling method and interview data from the Sloan Center's 500 Family Study (L. J. Waite & B. Schneider, 1997). Intrinsic work motivation, work hours, and taking time for self were used as predictors of spillover. There was evidence of emotional transmission from work to home for mothers' happiness, anger, and anxiety as well as for father's anxiety. Also, fathers scoring higher on intrinsic work motivation tended to report greater overall anxiety at home after the workday. Anxiety from work was less likely to spill over to the home when fathers reported working longer hours. These findings have practice implications for improving worker productivity and the well-being of two-working-parent families. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. A new multimodal interactive way of subjective scoring of 3D video quality of experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taewan; Lee, Kwanghyun; Lee, Sanghoon; Bovik, Alan C.

    2014-03-01

    People that watch today's 3D visual programs, such as 3D cinema, 3D TV and 3D games, experience wide and dynamically varying ranges of 3D visual immersion and 3D quality of experience (QoE). It is necessary to be able to deploy reliable methodologies that measure each viewers subjective experience. We propose a new methodology that we call Multimodal Interactive Continuous Scoring of Quality (MICSQ). MICSQ is composed of a device interaction process between the 3D display and a separate device (PC, tablet, etc.) used as an assessment tool, and a human interaction process between the subject(s) and the device. The scoring process is multimodal, using aural and tactile cues to help engage and focus the subject(s) on their tasks. Moreover, the wireless device interaction process makes it possible for multiple subjects to assess 3D QoE simultaneously in a large space such as a movie theater, and at di®erent visual angles and distances.

  3. Acceptance of background noise, working memory capacity, and auditory evoked potentials in subjects with normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännström, K Jonas; Zunic, Edita; Borovac, Aida; Ibertsson, Tina

    2012-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) test is a method for quantifying the amount of background noise that subjects accept when listening to speech. Large variations in ANL have been seen between normal-hearing subjects and between studies of normal-hearing subjects, but few explanatory variables have been identified. To explore a possible relationship between a Swedish version of the ANL test, working memory capacity (WMC), and auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). ANL, WMC, and AEP were tested in a counterbalanced order across subjects. Twenty-one normal-hearing subjects participated in the study (14 females and 7 males; aged 20-39 yr with an average of 25.7 yr). Reported data consists of age, pure-tone average (PTA), most comfortable level (MCL), background noise level (BNL), ANL (i.e., MCL - BNL), AEP latencies, AEP amplitudes, and WMC. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated between the collected variables to investigate associations. A principal component analysis (PCA) with Varimax rotation was conducted on the collected variables to explore underlying factors and estimate interactions between the tested variables. Subjects were also pooled into two groups depending on their results on the WMC test, one group with a score lower than the average and one with a score higher than the average. Comparisons between these two groups were made using the Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. A negative association was found between ANL and WMC but not between AEP and ANL or WMC. Furthermore, ANL is derived from MCL and BNL, and a significant positive association was found between BNL and WMC. However, no significant associations were seen between AEP latencies and amplitudes and the demographic variables, MCL, and BNL. The PCA identified two underlying factors: One that contained MCL, BNL, ANL, and WMC and another that contained latency for wave Na and amplitudes for waves V and Na-Pa. Using the variables in the first factor

  4. Regression analysis utilizing subjective evaluation of emotional experience in PET studies on emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, Sargo; Wallius, Esa; Näätänen, Petri; Hiltunen, Jaana; Metsähonkala, Liisa; Sipilä, Hannu; Karlsson, Hasse

    2005-09-01

    A methodological study on subject-specific regression analysis (SSRA) exploring the correlation between the neural response and the subjective evaluation of emotional experience in eleven healthy females is presented. The target emotions, i.e., amusement and sadness, were induced using validated film clips, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured using positron emission tomography (PET), and the subjective intensity of the emotional experience during the PET scanning was measured using a category ratio (CR-10) scale. Reliability analysis of the rating data indicated that the subjects rated the intensity of their emotional experience fairly consistently on the CR-10 scale (Cronbach alphas 0.70-0.97). A two-phase random-effects analysis was performed to ensure the generalizability and inter-study comparability of the SSRA results. Random-effects SSRAs using Statistical non-Parametric Mapping 99 (SnPM99) showed that rCBF correlated with the self-rated intensity of the emotional experience mainly in the brain regions that were identified in the random-effects subtraction analyses using the same imaging data. Our results give preliminary evidence of a linear association between the neural responses related to amusement and sadness and the self-evaluated intensity of the emotional experience in several regions involved in the emotional response. SSRA utilizing subjective evaluation of emotional experience turned out a feasible and promising method of analysis. It allows versatile exploration of the neurobiology of emotions and the neural correlates of actual and individual emotional experience. Thus, SSRA might be able to catch the idiosyncratic aspects of the emotional response better than traditional subtraction analysis.

  5. Group work as an incentive for learning – students’ experiences of group work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammar Chiriac, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Group work is used as a means for learning at all levels in educational systems. There is strong scientific support for the benefits of having students learning and working in groups. Nevertheless, studies about what occurs in groups during group work and which factors actually influence the students’ ability to learn is still lacking. Similarly, the question of why some group work is successful and other group work results in the opposite is still unsolved. The aim of this article is to add to the current level of knowledge and understandings regarding the essence behind successful group work in higher education. This research is focused on the students’ experiences of group work and learning in groups, which is an almost non-existing aspect of research on group work prior to the beginning of the 21st century. A primary aim is to give university students a voice in the matter by elucidating the students’ positive and negative points of view and how the students assess learning when working in groups. Furthermore, the students’ explanations of why some group work ends up being a positive experience resulting in successful learning, while in other cases, the result is the reverse, are of interest. Data were collected through a study-specific questionnaire, with multiple choice and open-ended questions. The questionnaires were distributed to students in different study programs at two universities in Sweden. The present result is based on a reanalysis and qualitative analysis formed a key part of the study. The results indicate that most of the students’ experiences involved group work that facilitated learning, especially in the area of academic knowledge. Three important prerequisites (learning, study-social function, and organization) for group work that served as an effective pedagogy and as an incentive for learning were identified and discussed. All three abstractions facilitate or hamper students’ learning, as well as impact their experiences with

  6. Group work as an incentive for learning – students’ experiences of group work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eHammar Chiriac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Group work is used as a means for learning at all levels in educational systems. There is strong scientific support for the benefits of having students learning and working in groups. Nevertheless, studies about what occurs in groups during group work and which factors actually influence the students’ ability to learn is still lacking. Likewise, the question of why some group work is successful and other work results in the opposite is still unsolved. The aim of this article is to add to the current level of knowledge and understandings regarding the essence behind successful group work in higher education. This research is focused on the students’ experiences of group work and learning in groups, which is an almost non-existing aspect of research on group work prior to the beginning of the 21st century. A primary aim is to give university students a voice in the matter by elucidating the students’ positive and negative points of view and how the students assess learning when working in groups. Furthermore, the students’ explanations of why some group work ends up being a positive experience resulting in successful learning, while in other cases, the result is the reverse, are of interest. Data were collected through a study-specific questionnaire, with multiple choice and open-ended questions. The questionnaires were distributed to students in different study programs at two universities in Sweden. The present result is based on a reanalysis and qualitative analysis formed a key part of the study. The results indicate that most of the students’ experiences involved group work that facilitated learning, especially in the area of academic knowledge. Three important prerequisites (learning, study-social function and organization for group work that served as an effective pedagogy and as an incentive for learning were identified and discussed. All three abstractions facilitate or hamper students’ learning, as well as impact their

  7. Differences in male and female subjective experience and physiological reactions to emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Lačev, Alek

    2017-07-01

    Research based on self-reported data often indicates that women are the more emotional sex. The present study examined differences in emotion between the sexes across two components of the emotional process: subjective experience and physiological reactions to emotional stimuli. During the experimental study, participants (N=124; 22.5±2.88; 51 males) subjectively rated their emotional experience (valence and intensity) towards presented positive and negative affective stimuli, while physiological reactions (facial electromyography, heart rate, skin conductance, and finger skin temperature) were measured during expositions. Results from self-reports suggest that women declared more intensive emotional experiences for positive and negative stimuli and rated negative stimuli as more negative in comparison to men. Physiological measurements showed differences between the sexes in the physiological baseline measurements (facial electromyography, skin conductance and finger skin temperature). However, physiological responses towards positive or negative emotional stimuli did not prove to be different between men and women, except for finger skin temperature. Relations between self-reported subjective experiences and physiological changes were weak and insignificant. Collectively, our findings suggest certain emotional differences experienced between men and women. These differences can be found specifically in self-reported subjective experiences, while significant differences were not predominantly present in recorded physiological reactions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Construction experiences from underground works at Forsmark. Compilation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Anders [Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Christiansson, Rolf [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-02-15

    The main objective with this report, the Construction Experience Compilation Report (CECR), is to compile experiences from the underground works carried out at Forsmark, primarily construction experiences from the tunnelling of the two cooling water tunnels of the Forsmark nuclear power units 1, 2 and 3, and from the underground excavations of the undersea repository for low and intermediate reactor waste, SFR. In addition, a brief account is given of the operational experience of the SFR on primarily rock support solutions. The authors of this report have separately participated throughout the entire construction periods of the Forsmark units and the SFR in the capacity of engineering geologists performing geotechnical mapping of the underground excavations and acted as advisors on tunnel support; Anders Carlsson participated in the construction works of the cooling water tunnels and the open cut excavations for Forsmark 1, 2 and 3 (geotechnical mapping) and the Forsmark 3 tunnel (advise on tunnel support). Rolf Christiansson participated in the underground works for the SFR (geotechnical mapping, principal investigator for various measurements and advise on tunnel support and grouting). The report is to a great extent based on earlier published material as presented in the list of references. But it stands to reason that, during the course of the work with this report, unpublished notes, diaries, drawings, photos and personal recollections of the two authors have been utilised in order to obtain such a complete compilation of the construction experiences as possible.

  9. Construction experiences from underground works at Forsmark. Compilation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Anders; Christiansson, Rolf

    2007-02-01

    The main objective with this report, the Construction Experience Compilation Report (CECR), is to compile experiences from the underground works carried out at Forsmark, primarily construction experiences from the tunnelling of the two cooling water tunnels of the Forsmark nuclear power units 1, 2 and 3, and from the underground excavations of the undersea repository for low and intermediate reactor waste, SFR. In addition, a brief account is given of the operational experience of the SFR on primarily rock support solutions. The authors of this report have separately participated throughout the entire construction periods of the Forsmark units and the SFR in the capacity of engineering geologists performing geotechnical mapping of the underground excavations and acted as advisors on tunnel support; Anders Carlsson participated in the construction works of the cooling water tunnels and the open cut excavations for Forsmark 1, 2 and 3 (geotechnical mapping) and the Forsmark 3 tunnel (advise on tunnel support). Rolf Christiansson participated in the underground works for the SFR (geotechnical mapping, principal investigator for various measurements and advise on tunnel support and grouting). The report is to a great extent based on earlier published material as presented in the list of references. But it stands to reason that, during the course of the work with this report, unpublished notes, diaries, drawings, photos and personal recollections of the two authors have been utilised in order to obtain such a complete compilation of the construction experiences as possible

  10. Conflict management style, supportive work environments and the experience of work stress in emergency nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Mary L; Cadmus, Edna

    2016-03-01

    To examine the conflict management style that emergency department (ED) nurses use to resolve conflict and to determine whether their style of managing conflict and a supportive work environment affects their experience of work stress. Conflict is a common stressor that is encountered as nurses strive to achieve patient satisfaction goals while delivering quality care. How a nurse perceives support may impact work stress levels and how they deal with conflict. A correlational design examined the relationship between supportive work environment, and conflict management style and work stress in a sample of 222 ED nurses using the expanded nurse work stress scale; the survey of perceived organisational support; and the Rahim organisational conflict inventory-II. Twenty seven percent of nurses reported elevated levels of work stress. A supportive work environment and avoidant conflict management style were significant predictors of work stress. Findings suggest that ED nurses' perception of a supportive work environment and their approach to resolving conflict may be related to their experience of work stress. Providing opportunities for ED nurses in skills training in constructive conflict resolution may help to reduce work stress and to improve the quality of patient care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Latina/o Food Industry Employees' Work Experiences: Work Barriers, Facilitators, Motivators, Training Preferences, and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagui-Munoz, Marlen; Garriott, Patton O.; Flores, Lisa Y.; Cho, Seonghee; Groves, James

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored the work experiences, job satisfaction, and work behaviors of Latina/o restaurant workers. A total of 10 semistructured focus group (N = 75) interviews were conducted in the Midwest and Southwest. Data were analyzed using a combination of Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR; Hill et al., 2005; Hill, Thompson, &…

  12. The Dynamic between Work Values and Part-Time Work Experiences across the High School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfeli, Erik J.

    2008-01-01

    The work value system, its development, and its relationship with work experiences can be modeled as an adaptive control system [Ford, D. H., & Lerner, R. M. (1992). "Developmental systems theory: An integrative approach". Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications]. This study employed longitudinal data from 1000 participants (Youth Development Study;…

  13. Testing principle working mechanisms of the health action process approach for subjective physical age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienert, Julian; Kuhlmann, Tim; Fink, Sebastian; Hambrecht, Rainer; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated differences in social-cognitive predictors and self-regulatory planning, as proposed by the health action process approach (HAPA), across three different subjective physical age groups for physical activity. With a cross-sectional design, 521 participants across the chronological age span from 25 to 86 years (M = 48.79; SD = 12.66) were separated into three groups: those who feel physically younger than they are in terms of chronological age, the same perceived and chronological age, and feeling physically older compared to their chronological age. Participants were assessed regarding their perceived vulnerability, outcome expectancies, general intentions, planning, self-efficacy, and stages of physical activity (non-intenders, intenders, and actors). Data were analysed via mean comparison and multigroup structural equation modelling. Mean differences for all but one construct were eminent in all groups, generally showing that those feeling physically younger also report better social-cognitive predictors of physical activity (e.g. lower perceived vulnerability) in comparison to those who feel the same age or older. The model showed that basic working mechanisms of the HAPA can be applied to all groups. With that, the results provide for the first time evidence that principle working mechanism of the HAPA can be applied to all subjective physical age groups. These may be used to tailor health promoting interventions according to participants' needs as a more suitable proxy than chronological age.

  14. Subjective happiness levels of staff working in provincial organization of general directorate of sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer YAZICI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was investigate to level of subjective happiness levels of staff who works in provincial organization of General Directorate of Sport. Material and Methods: The study group of the research consisted of 400 staff (164 female, 236 male who works in General Directorate of Sport’s İstanbul, Trabzon, Malatya and Tokat Youth Services and Sport provincial directorates. In the study as data collection tool; Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS which developed by Lyubomirsky & Lepper (1999 and adapted to Turkish by Akın and Satıcı (2011 was used. And also “personal data form” which created by the researchers was used. The data analyzed by descriptive statistics, T-test and Anova test. Also, Scheffe test was used to find out the significant differences of groups. Results: In accordance with t-test results obtained from the present study, there are significant differences with respect to variables such as marital status, income state and sport participation (p<0.05. Conclusion: As a result, it was determined that married staff is happier than single staff. Also, the staff who determined themselves in moderate income level is happier than the staff who determined themselves in lower income level.

  15. Relationships between Flow Experience, Life Meaningfulness and Subjective Well-being in Music Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sedlár

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examines relationships between flow experience in musical activities, life meaningfulness and subjective well – being. Life meaningfulness belongs to eudaimonic good life, subjective well–being belongs to hedonic good life and flow seems to be combination of both approaches. It is supposed that flow experience in musical activity and life meaningfulness should have positive impact on subjective well –being. The research sample consisted of 96 university music students (37 males, 59 females from the Music and Dance Faculty, Academy of Performing Arts in Bratislava, Slovakia. Dispositional Flow Scale–2, which measures nine dimension of flow, was used for measuring frequency o f flow experience. Life Meaningfulness Scale, which measures three dimensions of life meaningfulness, was used for measuring meaningfulness of life. Positive and Negative Affect Schedule measured affective components of subjective well–being, and Satisfaction with Life Scale measured cognitive component of subjective well–being. Categorization revealed that the most favourite performing musical activities are creative musical activities, such as reproduction and production, during which music students relatively often experience flow. The results of correlation analysis showed that total scores of flow experience, life meaningfulness and components of subjective well–being, significantly correlate each other. Aspects of flow, clear goals and autotelic experience are positively related to cognitive and motivational dimension of life meaningfulness and also to positive affectivity. Loss of self–consciousness and autotelic experience are positively related to emotional dimension of life meaningfulness. Challenge–skill balance, action–awareness merging, clear goals, concentration on task at hand, sense of control and autotelic experience are negatively related to negative affectivity. Challenge–skill balance and autotelic experience are related to

  16. Stress at work: Differential experiences of high versus low SES workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaske, Sarah; Zawadzki, Matthew J; Smyth, Joshua M

    2016-05-01

    This paper asks whether workers with higher socioeconomic status (SES) experience different levels of stress at work than workers with lower SES and, if so, what might explain these differences. We collected innovative assessments of immediate objective and subjective measures of stress at multiple time points across consecutive days from 122 employed men and women. We find that in comparison to higher SES individuals, those with lower SES reported greater happiness at work, less self-reported stress, and less perceived stress; cortisol, a biological marker of stress, was unrelated to SES. Worker's momentary perceptions of the workplace were predicted by SES, with higher SES individuals more commonly reporting feeling unable to meet work demands, fewer work resources, and less positive work appraisals. In turn, perceptions of the workplace had a generally consistent and robust effect on positive mood, subjective stress, and cortisol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhancement of subjective pain experience and changes of brain function on sadness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Atsuo; Takahashi, Terumichi; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Okada, Go; Yamawaki, Shigeto; Onoda, Keiichi

    2012-01-01

    Pain is a multidimensional experience. Previous psychological studies have shown that a person's subjective pain threshold can change when certain emotions are recognized. We examined this association by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (15 healthy subjects) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) (19 healthy subjects). Subjects experienced pain stimuli in different emotional contexts induced by the presentation of sad, happy or neutral facial stimuli. They also rated their subjective pain intensity. We found: The intensity of subjective pain ratings increased in the sad emotional context, pain-related activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was more pronounced in the sad context, and we demonstrated amygdala to ACC connections during the experience of pain in the sad context, and event-related desynchronization (ERD) of lower beta bands in the right hemisphere after pain stimuli was larger in the sad emotional condition. These results show that emotional stimuli can modulate neural responses to pain stimuli, and that it may be relevant to understanding the broader relationship between somatic complaints and negative emotion. (author)

  18. Subject- and Experience-Bound Differences in Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, C.; Gericke, N.; Höglund, H.-O.; Bergman, E.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the results of a nationwide questionnaire study of 3229 Swedish upper secondary school teachers' conceptual understanding of sustainable development in relation to their subject discipline and teaching experience. Previous research has shown that teachers have difficulties understanding the complex concept of sustainable…

  19. False Memories in Children and Adults: Age, Distinctiveness, and Subjective Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, Simona; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated developmental trends associated with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott false-memory effect, the role of distinctive information, and subjective experience of true/false memories. Found that 5-year-olds recalled more false memories than adults but no age differences in recognition of critical lures. Distinctive information reduced false…

  20. Computer-Adaptive Testing: Implications for Students' Achievement, Motivation, Engagement, and Subjective Test Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Lazendic, Goran

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the implications of computer-adaptive testing (operationalized by way of multistage adaptive testing; MAT) and "conventional" fixed order computer testing for various test-relevant outcomes in numeracy, including achievement, test-relevant motivation and engagement, and subjective test experience. It did so…

  1. POBE: A Computer Program for Optimal Design of Multi-Subject Blocked fMRI Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärbel Maus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies, researchers can use multi-subject blocked designs to identify active brain regions for a certain stimulus type of interest. Before performing such an experiment, careful planning is necessary to obtain efficient stimulus effect estimators within the available financial resources. The optimal number of subjects and the optimal scanning time for a multi-subject blocked design with fixed experimental costs can be determined using optimal design methods. In this paper, the user-friendly computer program POBE 1.2 (program for optimal design of blocked experiments, version 1.2 is presented. POBE provides a graphical user interface for fMRI researchers to easily and efficiently design their experiments. The computer program POBE calculates the optimal number of subjects and the optimal scanning time for user specified experimental factors and model parameters so that the statistical efficiency is maximised for a given study budget. POBE can also be used to determine the minimum budget for a given power. Furthermore, a maximin design can be determined as efficient design for a possible range of values for the unknown model parameters. In this paper, the computer program is described and illustrated with typical experimental factors for a blocked fMRI experiment.

  2. Inner Subjective Experiences and Social Constructionism: A Response to Rudes and Guterman (2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James T.

    2010-01-01

    In an earlier article, the author argued that there had been a devaluation of inner subjective experiences by the counseling profession over the last several decades (J. T. Hansen, 2005). In their reply to this article, J. Rudes and J. T. Guterman (2007) advocated for a social constructionist position for the counseling profession. In the current…

  3. Source-space EEG neurofeedback links subjective experience with brain activity during effortless awareness meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lutterveld, Remko; Houlihan, Sean D; Pal, Prasanta; Sacchet, Matthew D; McFarlane-Blake, Cinque; Patel, Payal R; Sullivan, John S; Ossadtchi, Alex; Druker, Susan; Bauer, Clemens; Brewer, Judson A

    2017-05-01

    Meditation is increasingly showing beneficial effects for psychiatric disorders. However, learning to meditate is not straightforward as there are no easily discernible outward signs of performance and thus no direct feedback is possible. As meditation has been found to correlate with posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) activity, we tested whether source-space EEG neurofeedback from the PCC followed the subjective experience of effortless awareness (a major component of meditation), and whether participants could volitionally control the signal. Sixteen novice meditators and sixteen experienced meditators participated in the study. Novice meditators were briefly trained to perform a basic meditation practice to induce the subjective experience of effortless awareness in a progressively more challenging neurofeedback test-battery. Experienced meditators performed a self-selected meditation practice to induce this state in the same test-battery. Neurofeedback was provided based on gamma-band (40-57Hz) PCC activity extracted using a beamformer algorithm. Associations between PCC activity and the subjective experience of effortless awareness were assessed by verbal probes. Both groups reported that decreased PCC activity corresponded with effortless awareness (Pneurofeedback to link an objective measure of brain activity with the subjective experience of effortless awareness, and suggest potential utility of this paradigm as a tool for meditation training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacca Univ., Bangladesh. Inst. of Education and Research.

    Bangladesh stresses the importance of education responsive to the country's development needs and capable of producing, through formal or non-formal methods, skilled, employable manpower. Although no pre-vocational training exists, new curricula have introduced practical work experience in the primary schools and have integrated agriculture,…

  5. Analysis of Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined Student's Industrial Work Experience Scheme carried out in NIFFR visa-a-vise the challenge of skilled manpower development for fishery extension. Secondary data collected from NIFFR library and report of 2007 SIWES period was analysed descriptively. Out of 617 students from 36 schools that visited ...

  6. The Migrant Experience in the Works of Mexican American Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Sherry

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 40 titles that provide an authentic look into the migrant experience, a segment of society that still exists in the United States today. Notes that these works of literature contain recurring themes regarding education, family, poverty, labor, immigration, and citizenship--all topics that are especially relevant in post-September 11…

  7. Durchquerungen – die Arbeit der Subjektivität Transitions—The Work of Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Wagels

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Arbeit des Sexuellen und das Sexuelle der Arbeit – mit diesem Fokus adressiert der Band sexuell arbeiten auf eindrucksvolle Weise die Zusammenhänge von Sexualität, Geschlecht und Lohnarbeit. Ob anhand von Fotografien und Tagebüchern der Hausangestellten Hannah Cullwick zu Zeiten des viktorianischen Englands, anhand der Analyse einer neuen Hotelform im heutigen Berlin oder anhand von Interviews mit Computer-Spezialist_innen1 bulgarischer Herkunft in München und in Sofia: Die Arbeit der Subjektivität wird als eine neue Machttechnologie gezeichnet, die zugleich unterwirft wie auch Umarbeitungen gesellschaftlich vorgesehener Plätze anreizt. Ergänzt werden die präzisen Beobachtungen und auf hohem theoretischen Niveau geführten Untersuchungen von Gesprächen mit Forscher_innen zu weiteren Arbeitsfeldern. Gemeinsam ist allen Ansätzen der Blick auf singuläre Praxen, in denen sich eine Prekarisierung von Denkformen und Diskursen vollzieht und vorangetrieben wird: Sexuelle Arbeit.Sexual work and the sexual in work—This is the focus of the volume working sexually (sexuell arbeiten, which impressively addresses the connections between sexuality, gender, and wage labor. The volume sketches the work on subjectivity as a new technology of power that both submits to and incites the reconfiguration of socially designated places. It does so by using, for example, the photographs and diaries of the Victorian-era domestic servant Hannah Cullwick, an analysis of a new type of hotel in today’s Berlin, or interviews with Bulgarian-born female computer specialists in Munich and Sofia. The precise observations and the highly theoretically conducted studies are complemented by conversations with researchers about other areas of work. Each approach shares a focus on those singular practices in which a precariousness of forms of thoughts and discourses takes place and is perpetuated: Sexual work.

  8. High-dependency care: experiences of the psychosocial work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Hanif Abdul; Naing, Lin; Abdul-Mumin, Khadizah

    2017-11-23

    to explore high-dependency care nurses' experiences of their psychosocial work environment. four focus groups were conducted with 23 emergency and critical care hospital nurses in Brunei. All sessions were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using inductive-approach thematic analysis. three major themes were identified. 'Specialisation/specific skills' explained a fundamental requirement for the high-dependency care nurses to work effectively and efficiently in their workplace. 'Task completion' narrated the pressure they experienced to complete their tasks within time constraints exacerbated by a reduced number of staff. 'Acknowledgement' signified their need for fair and adequate reward for their hard work through career progression and promotion. this study facilitates the design of future interventions and policies that promote a healthy psychosocial work environment by ensuring nurses working in these areas have the required specialisation skills, there is a balance of workload and nurse-to-patient ratios, and they are offered fairness and equity in career progression and promotion.

  9. The Creative Subject and the Law of Reality (Self-censorship in the Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Giusti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available If an unbreakable law exists for the Subject, it is the limits that Reality sets for his expansion and for his creativity, unless he alienates himself from reality to enter the realm of folly. Literary creation realizes itself in the space between the direct experience of the world, the event in its pure happening, and the unity of sense as an object of desire. The subject with his understanding abilities, therefore, must react to the stimulus given by the event willingly or unwillingly experienced and he must venture out to the eventful journey of interpretation led by the intentionality of his desire. As Petrarch’s canzone 360 demonstrates, the trial-pattern can be used as a literary form and a cognitive model in order to show the inner reasoning and moral debate, to define the rules of the specific literary genre, to explicate a truth that finally depends on the literary genre. On this journey the desire of sense can suffer limits and frustrations imposed by the law of Reality: obstacles, obligations, censorship and self-censorship (as introjected censorship principles. This law both makes hard and leads the journey, obstructs it but also makes it shareable: facing a Reality similar for all the human beings (even if differently perceived, shareable reactions and interpretations are developed.  My article intends to explore these issues in some revealing and foundational texts of modern lyric poetry (mostly from Petrarch’s Canzoniere, having in mind the idea that poetry, as a personal voice of a subject, utters this journey of research more than it reveals some acquired general truths. In European lyric tradition, woman and nature can be considered as functional objects that activate and set a limit to the subject; they embody the law to obey, to which to conform or to rebel. In order to exercise himself in the text-space, to construct himself as a subject, the lyric-I has to create the limits within which to act and the laws of this

  10. Work experiences of internationally trained pharmacists in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Zainab; Hassell, Karen; Schafheutle, Ellen I

    2015-04-01

    Internationally trained health professionals are an important part of the domestic workforce, but little is known about the working experiences of internationally trained pharmacists (ITPs) in Great Britain (GB). The purpose of this study is to explore the work experiences of ITPs practising in the community or hospital sector in GB. Twenty-five semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with a sample of European Economic Area (EEA) and non-EEA pharmacists who, at the time of the study, practised in the community (n = 20) or hospital sector (n = 5) in the North West England from March to May 2009. In general, ITPs complained about their heavy workload, long working hours and lack of support from their employers. Specifically, EEA pharmacists in most cases felt excluded from the professional network and sensed colleagues saw them as 'foreigners' while some non-EEA pharmacists had to deal with a level of hostility from patients. This novel research provides a foundation for future work on ITPs in GB and could assist employers to better target their efforts in development of standards to support the working experiences of ITPs in GB. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. Effects of an expressive writing intervention on a group of public employees subjected to work relocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarquini, Matteo; Di Trani, Michela; Solano, Luigi

    2016-02-15

    Pennebaker's writing technique has yielded good results on health, psychological and performance dimensions. In spite of the positive outcomes, the technique has rarely been applied directly within the workplace and its effects on burnout have never been tested. 18 public employees subjected to work relocation were asked to write about their present work situation or another difficult event of their life (Writing Group), while another 17 were not assigned any writing task (Control Group). To assess whether there was an improvement in burnout, alexithymia and psychological well-being in the Writing Group compared with the baseline measurement and the Control Group. While the baseline levels in the Writing and Control Groups in the 3 dimensions considered were similar, scores in the Writing Group at both a second (1 month after the end of the procedure) and third measurement (7 months after the end) improved when compared with the baseline, whereas those in the Control Group worsened. Pennebaker's writing technique appears to promote adaptive coping strategies in stressful situations, and to increase occupational and psychological well-being as well as the ability to process emotions. It also appears to buffer the negative effects of work-related stress.

  12. Millennials and the World of Work: Experiences in Paid Work During Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy; Schulenberg, John E

    2010-06-01

    PURPOSE: This article considers some important questions faced by youth as they enter and adapt to paid work. We focus on two key questions: (1) how many hours should teenagers work during the school year and (2) what available jobs are desirable? DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: To help answer these questions, we review studies that have examined the effects of early work experiences on academic achievement, positive youth development, and health-risk behaviors. We also draw upon nationally representative data from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study to illustrate some new findings on youth employment. FINDINGS: Moderate work hours, especially in jobs of higher-quality, are associated with a broad range of positive developmental outcomes. IMPLICATIONS: These questions are not only important to teenagers and their parents, they also reflect key debates among scholars in sociology, developmental psychology, and economics regarding the potential short- and long-term consequences of early work experiences for social development and socioeconomic achievement. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Although work intensity is an important dimension of adolescent work experience, it is clearly not the only one and we argue that it may not even be the most important one. By focusing on types and qualities of jobs, more can be gained in terms of understanding for whom and under what conditions teenage work does provide benefits for and detriments to youth development.

  13. Millennials and the World of Work: Experiences in Paid Work During Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This article considers some important questions faced by youth as they enter and adapt to paid work. We focus on two key questions: (1) how many hours should teenagers work during the school year and (2) what available jobs are desirable? Design/Methodology/Approach To help answer these questions, we review studies that have examined the effects of early work experiences on academic achievement, positive youth development, and health-risk behaviors. We also draw upon nationally representative data from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study to illustrate some new findings on youth employment. Findings Moderate work hours, especially in jobs of higher-quality, are associated with a broad range of positive developmental outcomes. Implications These questions are not only important to teenagers and their parents, they also reflect key debates among scholars in sociology, developmental psychology, and economics regarding the potential short- and long-term consequences of early work experiences for social development and socioeconomic achievement. Originality/Value Although work intensity is an important dimension of adolescent work experience, it is clearly not the only one and we argue that it may not even be the most important one. By focusing on types and qualities of jobs, more can be gained in terms of understanding for whom and under what conditions teenage work does provide benefits for and detriments to youth development. PMID:20495611

  14. Quality of work life: experiences of Iranian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagharseyyedin, Seyyed Abolfazl; Vanaki, Zohreh; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the experiences of Iranian nurses concerning their quality of work life. A purposive sample of nurses (n = 14) was recruited from two university hospitals. The data were collected through unstructured interviews and were analyzed by using qualitative content analysis. The results indicated that the participants discerned their quality of work life by assessing how favorable were their working conditions, the level of fulfilment of their personal needs, and the impact of their working conditions on their private life and their social life. Three main themes were identified: quality of work life, as experienced from a personal perspective; quality of work life, as experienced from a sociocultural perspective; and quality of work life, as experienced from an organizational-professional perspective. The results of the present study will help Iranian nurse administrators to adopt effective strategies in order to improve nurses' quality of work life. Future research can broaden the scope of the current results and offer a more comprehensive understanding of nurses' quality of work life. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Characterisation of work function fluctuations for high-precision experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahlenberg, Jan; Bickmann, Edward; Heil, Werner; Otten, Ernst W.; Schmidt, Christian; Wunderle, Alexander [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Babutzka, Martin; Schoenung, Kerstin [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Beck, Marcus [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    For a wide range of high-precision experiments in physics, well-defined electric potentials for achieving high measurement accuracies are required. An accurate determination of the electric potential is crucial for the measurement of the neutrino mass (KATRIN) as well as the measurement of the e{sup -} anti ν{sub e} correlation coefficient a in free neutron decay (aSPECT). Work function fluctuations on the electrodes lead to uncertainties in the distribution of the electric potential. For aSPECT, the electric potential has to be known at an accuracy of 10 mV. However, due to the patch effect of gold, work function fluctuations of several 100 meV can occur. Therefore, the work function distributions of the gold-plated electrodes have been measured using a Kelvin probe. Furthermore, the change of work function distributions over time as well as the influence of relative humidity on the work function measurement have been investigated. For aSPECT, the work function distributions of the gold-plated electrodes have been measured using a Kelvin probe. Due to the patch effect of gold, work function fluctuations of up to 160 meV occur. This would lead to a significant uncertainty of the potential barrier, which should be known at an accuracy of 10 mV. Furthermore, the change of work function distributions over time as well as the influence of relative humidity on the work function measurement have been investigated.

  16. Professional Learning between Past Experience and Future Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about learning, qualification and possible professionalization in human service work. With human services we primarily refer to work related to health care, child care, social work, and education. I present empirical findings from different phases of training and workplace experience...... of Danish child care pedagogues. The investigation is part of a human resource centered research program studying the development of welfare institutions and systems in Denmark. Welfare institutions have been developing since World War II as an important aspect of and precondition for the socio...... reality as well as defensive “shyings-away”. It cannot be produced by a formal education alone, neither can it emerge from life experiences alone. In the development of research methodology we explore the interplay of regression and progression, the lifelong and everyday active functions of what was named...

  17. Construction experiences from underground works at Oskarshamn. Compilation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Anders (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (SE)); Christiansson, Rolf (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE))

    2007-12-15

    The main objective with this report is to compile experiences from the underground works carried out at Oskarshamn, primarily construction experiences from the tunnelling of the cooling water tunnels of the Oskarshamn nuclear power units 1,2 and 3, from the underground excavations of Clab 1 and 2 (Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel), and Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. In addition, an account is given of the operational experience of Clab 1 and 2 and of the Aespoe HRL on primarily scaling and rock support solutions. This report, as being a compilation report, is in its substance based on earlier published material as presented in the list of references. Approximately 8,000 m of tunnels including three major rock caverns with a total volume of about 550,000 m3 have been excavated. The excavation works of the various tunnels and rock caverns were carried out during the period of 1966-2000. In addition, minor excavation works were carried out at the Aespoe HRL in 2003. The depth location of the underground structures varies from near surface down to 450 m. As an overall conclusion it may be said that the rock mass conditions in the area are well suited for underground construction. This conclusion is supported by the experiences from the rock excavation works in the Simpevarp and Aespoe area. These works have shown that no major problems occurred during the excavation works; nor have any stability or other rock engineering problems of significance been identified after the commissioning of the Oskarshamn nuclear power units O1, O2 and O3, BFA, Clab 1 and 2, and Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The underground structures of these facilities were built according to plan, and since than been operated as planned. Thus, the quality of the rock mass within the construction area is such that it lends itself to excavation of large rock caverns with a minimum of rock support

  18. Construction experiences from underground works at Oskarshamn. Compilation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Anders; Christiansson, Rolf

    2007-12-01

    The main objective with this report is to compile experiences from the underground works carried out at Oskarshamn, primarily construction experiences from the tunnelling of the cooling water tunnels of the Oskarshamn nuclear power units 1,2 and 3, from the underground excavations of Clab 1 and 2 (Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel), and Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. In addition, an account is given of the operational experience of Clab 1 and 2 and of the Aespoe HRL on primarily scaling and rock support solutions. This report, as being a compilation report, is in its substance based on earlier published material as presented in the list of references. Approximately 8,000 m of tunnels including three major rock caverns with a total volume of about 550,000 m 3 have been excavated. The excavation works of the various tunnels and rock caverns were carried out during the period of 1966-2000. In addition, minor excavation works were carried out at the Aespoe HRL in 2003. The depth location of the underground structures varies from near surface down to 450 m. As an overall conclusion it may be said that the rock mass conditions in the area are well suited for underground construction. This conclusion is supported by the experiences from the rock excavation works in the Simpevarp and Aespoe area. These works have shown that no major problems occurred during the excavation works; nor have any stability or other rock engineering problems of significance been identified after the commissioning of the Oskarshamn nuclear power units O1, O2 and O3, BFA, Clab 1 and 2, and Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The underground structures of these facilities were built according to plan, and since than been operated as planned. Thus, the quality of the rock mass within the construction area is such that it lends itself to excavation of large rock caverns with a minimum of rock support

  19. The body as a simulacrum of identity: the subjective experience in the eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Brogna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at better understanding the subjective experience, the so-called Erlebnis, in individuals diagnosed with Eating Disorders (ED. We shall highlight the particular way in which people with such disorders perceive their own bodies and specifically how they perceive their bodies in the presence of other people. To this end we shall analyze the subjective experience by means of two concepts as described by French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre: "body-self" and "body-forothers". Our hypothesis is that some people suffering from eating disorders, especially those with a diagnosis of Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS, experience their body mainly as body-for-others. Rather than a diagnostic category, EDNOS could be conceived as an anthropological configuration vulnerable to ED. Eating disorders appear as an "identity disorder" characterized by a suspension of the experiential polarity between self and other-than-self.

  20. Linking the pharmacological content of ecstasy tablets to the subjective experiences of drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Tibor M; Koeter, Maarten W; Niesink, Raymond J M; van den Brink, Wim

    2012-04-01

    Most studies on the subjective effects of ecstasy are based on the assumption that the substance that was taken is 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). However, many tablets sold as ecstasy contain other substances and MDMA in varying doses. So far, few attempts have been made to take this into account while assessing subjective effects. This study aims to link the pharmacological content of tablets sold as ecstasy to the subjective experiences reported by ecstasy users. Self-reported effects on ecstasy tablets were available from 5,786 drug users who handed in their tablets for chemical analysis at the Drug Information and Monitoring System (DIMS) in the Netherlands. Logistic regression was employed to link the pharmacological content of ecstasy tablets to the self-reported subjective effects and compare effects with MDMA to other substances present. MDMA showed a strong association with desirable subjective effects, unparalleled by any other psychoactive substance. However, the association of MDMA was dose-dependent, with higher doses (>120 mg/tablet) likely to evoke more adverse effects. The novel psychostimulants mephedrone and p-fluoroamphetamine were considered relatively desirable, whereas meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) and p-methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA) were strongly associated with adverse subjective effects. Also, 3,4-methylene-dioxyamphetamine (MDA) and benzylpiperazine (BZP) were not appreciated as replacement for MDMA. Linking the pharmacological content of ecstasy sold on the street to subjective experiences contributes to a better understanding of the wide range of subjective effects ascribed to ecstasy and provides a strong rationale for the prolonged endurance of MDMA as the key ingredient of the ecstasy market.

  1. Experiences Using an Open Source Software Library to Teach Computer Vision Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazorla, Miguel; Viejo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Machine vision is an important subject in computer science and engineering degrees. For laboratory experimentation, it is desirable to have a complete and easy-to-use tool. In this work we present a Java library, oriented to teaching computer vision. We have designed and built the library from the scratch with emphasis on readability and…

  2. The impact of fashion competence and achievement motivation toward college student’s working readiness on “Cipta Karya” subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marniati; Wibawa, S. C.

    2018-01-01

    This experiment aimed to know the rate of college student’s working readiness of fashion’s program study to perform ‘Cipta Karya’ related to cognitive readiness, manner readiness and skill readiness from a variable of fashion’s workmanship and achievement motivation. The subject of the experiment was 43 college students who took Cipta Karya subject. Method of collecting data used questionnaire with five alternative answers to Likert ratio model. Data analysis technique used path analysis (double regression). The instrument validity test used product moment correlation while for instrument reliability used Alpha Cronbach’s grade. The results showed (1) fashion competence was taking effect significantly on working readiness for ‘Cipta Karya’ (2) achievement motivation is taking effect significantly on working readiness for ‘cipta karya’ (3) both variables are positive. This means that fashion competence and achievement motivation have a positive effect on working readiness for ‘cipta karya’ performance.

  3. Managing a work-life balance: the experiences of midwives working in a group practice setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereday, Jennifer; Oster, Candice

    2010-06-01

    To explore how a group of midwives achieved a work-life balance working within a caseload model of care with flexible work hours and on-call work. in-depth interviews were conducted and the data were analysed using a data-driven thematic analysis technique. Children, Youth and Women's Health Service (CYWHS) (previously Women's and Children's Hospital), Adelaide, where a midwifery service known as Midwifery Group Practice (MGP) offers a caseload model of care to women within a midwife-managed unit. 17 midwives who were currently working, or had previously worked, in MGP. analysis of the midwives' individual experiences provided insight into how midwives managed the flexible hours and on-call work to achieve a sustainable work-life balance within a caseload model of care. it is important for midwives working in MGP to actively manage the flexibility of their role with time on call. Organisational, team and individual structure influenced how flexibility of hours was managed; however, a period of adjustment was required to achieve this balance. the study findings offer a description of effective, sustainable strategies to manage flexible hours and on-call work that may assist other midwives working in a similar role or considering this type of work setting. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Physical and psychosocial prerequisites of functioning in relation to work ability and general subjective well-being among office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjögren-Rönkä, Tuulikki; Ojanen, Markku T; Leskinen, Esko K; Tmustalampi, Sirpa; Mälkiä, Esko A

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the physical and psychological prerequisites of functioning, as well as the social environment at work and personal factors, in relation to work ability and general subjective well-being in a group of office workers. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional investigation, using path analysis, of office workers. The subjects comprised 88 volunteers, 24 men and 64 women, from the same workplace [mean age 45.7 (SD 8.6) years]. The independent variables were measured using psychosocial and physical questionnaires and physical measurements. The first dependent variable, work ability, was measured by a work ability index. The second dependent variable, general subjective well-being, was assessed by life satisfaction and meaning of life. The variables were structured according to a modified version of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Forward flexion of the spine, intensity of musculoskeletal symptoms, self-confidence, and mental stress at work explained 58% of work ability and had indirect effects on general subjective well-being. Self-confidence, mood, and work ability had a direct effect on general subjective well-being. The model developed explained 68% of general subjective well-being. Age played a significant role in this study population. The prerequisites of physical functioning are important in maintaining work ability, particularly among aging workers, and psychological prerequisites of functioning are of even greater importance in maintaining general subjective well-being.

  5. The interrelationship between the work experience of distance education students, job satisfaction, andacademic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Welman

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available In terms of the cooperative education strategy of technikons, students are expected to do subject-relevant work in the industry/commerce to gain practical experience. The degree of subject-relevant work performed by 166 distance education students, and how this is related to their academic performance, was investigated. It was found that in contrast to older Afrikaans- and English-speaking male students, it was mainly students who speak a black language who do not gain subject-relevant work experience, have minimal job satisfaction and do not earn high marks in the third-year subject (Organizational Behaviour. It is suggested that the State integrate the issues of work provision, education and training for the success of cooperative education in South Africa. Opsomming  Volgens die kooperatiewe onderwysstrategie van technikons word daar van studente verwag om vakrelevante werk in die bedryf/handel te doen om praktykervaring op te doen. Die graad van vakrelevante werk wat 166 afstandsonderrigstudente doen en die verband daarvan met hul akademiese prestasie is ondersoek. Daar is gevind dat in teenstelling met ouer, manlike, Afrikaans- en Engelssprekende studente/ dit veral swarttaalsprekende studente is wat nie vakrelevante werkservaring opdoen nie, 'n lae graad van werkstevredenheid beleef/ en nie hoe punte in die derdejaarvak (Organisasiegedrag verdien nie. Daar word voorgestel dat die Staat die kwessies van werkverskaffing, onderwys en opieiding integreer ten einde kooperatiewe onderwys in Suid-Afrika te laat slaag.

  6. Discrimination against Visible Minority Immigrants: The Role of Work Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Yoshida

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available There are two methods for estimating the earnings disadvantage of groups: the residual difference method and the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition. Each method infers disadvantage from differences in earnings of visible minority immigrants and other Canadians, after controls for human capital and job characteristics. We: i summarize the logic of these methods; ii critically examine the character of the experience measures used in most of the research; iii apply the residual difference method to the Workplace and Employee Survey to show how a more thorough approach to the measurement of work experience modifies estimates of earnings disadvantage.

  7. Crisis in Cataloging Revisited: The Year's Work in Subject Analysis, 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, James Bradford

    1991-01-01

    Reviews the 1990 literature that concerns subject analysis. Issues addressed include subject cataloging, including Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH); classification, including Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC), Library of Congress Classification, and classification in online systems; subject access, including the online use of…

  8. Body Experience and Mirror Behaviour in Female Eating Disorders Patients and non Clinical Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Probst

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently the attention for mirror exercises in therapies targeted specifically to body experience concerns has increased. This retrospective study will explore the mirror behaviour of anorexia nervosa (AN, bulimia nervosa (BN and non-clinical female subjects (CG and investigate whether mirror avoidance or checking are related to negative body experiences.The group of eating disorders consisted of 560 AN and 314 BN patients. The control group consisted of 1151 female subjects. The Body Attitude Test and the Eating Disorder Inventory subscales drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction were used. To explore the mirror behaviour, one item of the Body Attitude Test ‘I am observing my appearance in the mirror’ was used. Nonparametric analyses (Spearman rho correlations, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney test were used because of the categorical data.BN patients observed their body more often in the mirror than AN patients and the control subjects do. Age and BMI showed no significant main effect of mirror frequency. The relation between the frequency of mirror behaviour and body experience were significant but low (under .40. AN patients and control subjects with a mirror checking behaviour had a more negative body experience than those with mirror avoidance behaviour. In the BN group, no differences were found.There is support to integrate mirror exercises in a treatment of eating disorder patients. From a clinical point, mirror exercises are preferably combined with a body oriented therapy within a multidimensional cognitive behavioural approach. Recommendations for mirror exercises based on the clinical experience are given.

  9. The experience of work in a call centre environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanet Hauptfleisch

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative research study explored the work experience in a call centre environment in an information technology call centre based in South Africa, which service foreign customers exclusively. Three data collection methods were used, namely narratives, in-depth interviews with call centre consultants, and observation. Following a grounded theory approach, four themes were elicited, namely the perceptions of team members, uncertainty created by a constantly changing environment, perceived distances due to management practices, and depersonalisation experienced while actually dealing with customers. In addition to this, the reported impact of these themes on work performance was explored and compared to existing research.

  10. Work reality perceived by individuals with impairments: a biopsychosocial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Cecília Martins; Sampaio, Rosana Ferreira; Luz, Madel Therezinha; Mancini, Marisa Cotta

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with different impairments are working in the formal and/or informal market despite physical and attitudinal barriers. To date, few studies have addressed this situation from the perspective of the individuals. Apprehend factors that restrict work performance in the perspective of workers with impairments and identify the strategies employed and the difficulties faced. Individuals with impairment who exercised paid activities. Thirty semi-structured interviews and eleven observations of individuals in work activities. Limitations stemming from participants' disability and health status had an influence over their execution of tasks, but did not compromise work performance. Environmental factors that impacted as facilitators or barriers were: lack of preparation of colleagues, employers, education and rehabilitation systems; attitudes and coexistence; accessibility, implementation of land use policies, urban structures and transportation; products and technology; and distributive policies. Personal factors (upbringing, self-esteem, good mood, outgoingness, communicability, willpower, age and how the disability was acquired) also influenced participation at work. Important strategies included recognizing and sharing capabilities and needs, which minimized or eliminated difficulties at work. Workers with impairments developed effective strategies for dealing with adverse situations, which remained in the individual realm. Working with impairments is a complex experience that demands overcoming old paradigms.

  11. Fuel cell technology for classroom instruction. Basic principles, experiments, work sheets. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, Cornelia; Hoeller, Stefan; Kueter, Uwe

    2009-07-01

    This book provides a clear introduction and overview to fuel cell technology and its associated subject areas. Examples of experiments using solar cells, electrolysis and fuel cells convey the knowledge for forthcoming tests in an understandable manner. The preparation of classroom experiments is made considerably easier for the teacher thanks to the experiment work sheets. These contain the necessary information concerning the material, set-up and execution of the experiment, and questions for evaluation purposes. Online-Shop The training documents and student work sheets combine the basic knowledge, questions and answers, and are ideal for copying. A comprehensive glossary at the end of the book explains all the important technical terms. (orig.)

  12. Work and Career Experiences of Men from Families without College Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodside, Marianne; Gibbons, Melinda M.; Davison, John; Hannon, Christine; Sweeney, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    A dearth of research exists exploring the career and work development of adult men and the influence of family-of-origin on that development. In this qualitative study, the researchers used a phenomenological approach to examine the career and work experiences of men whose parents have no education beyond high school and the influences of family…

  13. Brain electrical activity and subjective experience during altered states of consciousness: ganzfeld and hypnagogic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackermann, Jiri; Pütz, Peter; Büchi, Simone; Strauch, Inge; Lehmann, Dietrich

    2002-11-01

    Manifestations of experimentally induced altered states of consciousness in the brain's electrical activity as well as in subjective experience were explored via the hypnagogic state at sleep onset, and the state induced by exposure to an unstructured perceptual field (ganzfeld). Twelve female paid volunteers participated in sessions involving sleep onset, ganzfeld, and eyes-closed relaxed waking, and were repeatedly prompted for recall of their momentary mentation, according to a predefined schedule. Nineteen channel EEG, two channels EOG and EMG were recorded simultaneously. The mentation reports were followed by the subjects' ratings of their experience on a number of ordinal scales. Two-hundred and forty-one mentation reports were collected. EEG epochs immediately preceding the mentation reports were FFT-analysed and the spectra compared between states. The ganzfeld EEG spectrum, showing no signs of decreased vigilance, was very similar to the EEG spectrum of waking states, even showed a minor acceleration of alpha activity. The subjective experience data were reduced to four principal components: Factor I represented the subjective vigilance dimension, as confirmed by correlations with EEG spectral indices. Only Factor IV, the 'absorption' dimension, differentiated between the ganzfeld state (more absorption) and other states. In waking states and in ganzfeld, the subjects estimated elapsed time periods significantly shorter than in states at sleep onset. The results did not support the assumption of a hypnagogic nature of the ganzfeld imagery. Dream-like imagery can occur in various global functional states of the brain; hypnagogic and ganzfeld-induced states should be conceived as special cases of a broader class of 'hypnagoid' phenomena.

  14. The relation between work-induced neuroendocrine reactivity and recovery, subjective need for recovery, and health status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluiter, JK; Frings-Dresen, MHW; van der Beek, AJ; Meijman, TF

    Objectives: The purpose of this cross-sectional study with repeated measurements was to find out to what extent neuroendocrine reactivity during work and neuroendocrine recovery from work, and work characteristics, are related to subjective need for recovery and perceived health status. Methods:

  15. Need for recovery from work related fatigue and its role in the development and prediction of subjective health complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluiter, J.K; de Croon, E.M; Meijman, T.F.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.

    Aims: To present the available empirical evidence for the assumed position of the concept of work related fatigue as: (1) short term effect of the working day; and (2) an intermediate variable between work demands and the development of subjective health complaints and sickness absence. Methods:

  16. Bilateral Benefits: Student Experiences of Work-Based Learning during Work Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Dermot

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the varied learning experiences among third-year students undertaking a structured work placement module in the furniture and wood manufacturing industries. Using situated learning theory, the article considers the outcomes of in-depth interviews with 10 students and offers an insight into the multifaceted interactions…

  17. Subjective perception of safety in healthy individuals working with 7 T MRI scanners: a retrospective multicenter survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatahi, Mahsa; Demenescu, Liliana Ramona; Speck, Oliver

    2016-06-01

    To retrospectively assess perception of safety of healthy individuals working with human 7 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners. A total of 66 healthy individuals with a mean age of 31 ± 7 years participated in this retrospective multicentre survey study. Nonparametric correlation analysis was conducted to evaluate the relation between self-reported perception of safety and prevalence of sensory effects while working with 7 T MRI scanners for an average 47 months. The results indicated that 98.5 % of the study participants had a neutral or positive feeling about safety aspects at 7 T MRI scanners. 45.5 % reported that they feel very safe and none of the participants stated that they feel moderately or very unsafe while working with 7 T MRI scanners. Perception of safety was not affected by the number of hours per week spent in the vicinity of the 7 T MRI scanner or the duration of experience with 7 T MRI. More than 50 % of individuals experienced vertigo and metallic taste while working with 7 T MRI scanners. However, participants' perceptions of safety were not affected by the prevalence of MR-related symptoms. The overall data indicated an average perception of a moderately safe work environment. To our knowledge, this study delineates the first attempt to assess the subjective safety perception among 7 T MRI workers and suggests further investigations are indicated.

  18. Validation method training: nurses' experiences and ratings of work climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund, Mona; Norberg, Astrid; Hansebo, Görel

    2014-03-01

    Training nursing staff in communication skills can impact on the quality of care for residents with dementia and contributes to nurses' job satisfaction. Changing attitudes and practices takes time and energy and can affect the entire nursing staff, not just the nurses directly involved in a training programme. Therefore, it seems important to study nurses' experiences of a training programme and any influence of the programme on work climate among the entire nursing staff. To explore nurses' experiences of a 1-year validation method training programme conducted in a nursing home for residents with dementia and to describe ratings of work climate before and after the programme. A mixed-methods approach. Twelve nurses participated in the training and were interviewed afterwards. These individual interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed, then analysed using qualitative content analysis. The Creative Climate Questionnaire was administered before (n = 53) and after (n = 56) the programme to the entire nursing staff in the participating nursing home wards and analysed with descriptive statistics. Analysis of the interviews resulted in four categories: being under extra strain, sharing experiences, improving confidence in care situations and feeling uncertain about continuing the validation method. The results of the questionnaire on work climate showed higher mean values in the assessment after the programme had ended. The training strengthened the participating nurses in caring for residents with dementia, but posed an extra strain on them. These nurses also described an extra strain on the entire nursing staff that was not reflected in the results from the questionnaire. The work climate at the nursing home wards might have made it easier to conduct this extensive training programme. Training in the validation method could develop nurses' communication skills and improve their handling of complex care situations. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Effects of work zone configurations and traffic density on performance variables and subjective workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakouri, Mahmoud; Ikuma, Laura H; Aghazadeh, Fereydoun; Punniaraj, Karthy; Ishak, Sherif

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the effect of changing work zone configurations and traffic density on performance variables and subjective workload. Data regarding travel time, average speed, maximum percent braking force and location of lane changes were collected by using a full size driving simulator. The NASA-TLX was used to measure self-reported workload ratings during the driving task. Conventional lane merge (CLM) and joint lane merge (JLM) were modeled in a driving simulator, and thirty participants (seven female and 23 male), navigated through the two configurations with two levels of traffic density. The mean maximum braking forces was 34% lower in the JLM configuration, and drivers going through the JLM configuration remained in the closed lane longer. However, no significant differences in speed were found between the two merge configurations. The analysis of self-reported workload ratings show that participants reported 15.3% lower total workload when driving through the JLM. In conclusion, the implemented changes in the JLM make it a more favorable merge configuration in both high and low traffic densities in terms of optimizing traffic flow by increasing the time and distance cars use both lanes, and in terms of improving safety due to lower braking forces and lower reported workload. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Falls From Agricultural Machinery: Risk Factors Related to Work Experience, Worked Hours, and Operators' Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffaro, Federica; Roccato, Michele; Micheletti Cremasco, Margherita; Cavallo, Eugenio

    2018-02-01

    Objective We investigated the risk factors for falls when egressing from agricultural tractors, analyzing the role played by worked hours, work experience, operators' behavior, and near misses. Background Many accidents occur within the agricultural sector each year. Among them, falls while dismounting the tractor represent a major source of injuries. Previous studies pointed out frequent hazardous movements and incorrect behaviors adopted by operators to exit the tractor cab. However, less is known about the determinants of such behaviors. In addition, near misses are known to be important predictors of accidents, but they have been under-investigated in the agricultural sector in general and as concerns falls in particular. Method A questionnaire assessing dismounting behaviors, previous accidents and near misses, and participants' relation with work was administered to a sample of Italian tractor operators ( n = 286). Results A mediated model showed that worked hours increase unsafe behaviors, whereas work experience decreases them. Unsafe behaviors in turn show a positive association with accidents, via the mediation of near misses. Conclusions We gave a novel contribution to the knowledge of the chain of events leading to fall accidents in the agricultural sector, which is one of the most hazardous industries. Applications Besides tractor design improvements, preventive training interventions may focus on the redesign of the actual working strategies and the adoption of engaging training methods in the use of machinery to optimize the learning of safety practices and safe behaviors.

  1. Interaction between mode of learning and subjective experience: translation effects in long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackie, James M; Brandt, Karen R; Eysenck, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that writing auditorily presented words at encoding involves distinctive translation processes between visual and auditory domains, leading to the formation of distinctive memory traces at retrieval. This translation effect leads to higher levels of recognition than the writing of visually presented words, a non-translation effect. The present research investigated whether writing and the other translation effect of vocalisation (vocalising visually presented words) would be present in tests of recall, recognition memory and whether these effects are based on the subjective experience of remembering or knowing. Experiment 1 found a translation effect in the auditory domain in recall, as the translation effect of writing yielded higher recall than both non-translation effects of vocalisation and silently hearing. Experiment 2 found a translation effect in the visual domain in recognition, as the translation effect of vocalisation yielded higher recognition than both non-translation effects of writing and silently reading. This translation effect was attributable to the subjective experience of remembering rather than knowing. The present research therefore demonstrates the beneficial effect of translation in both recall and recognition, with the effect of vocalisation in recognition being based on rich episodic remembering.

  2. Return to work and cancer: the Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Georgina; Knott, Vikki; Delfabbro, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Research suggests that for many cancer survivors, returning to work has a range of benefits. However, considerable barriers have been identified as influencing the quality of return to work outcomes. This study explored the perspectives of Australian cancer survivors, managers and employee assistance program (EAP) professionals to gain an understanding of the return to work process and factors that affect the experience. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with cancer survivors (n = 15), managers (n = 12), and EAP professionals / psychologists (n = 4) from public and private sectors. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data to identify common and unique themes from the three participant groups. A range of drivers were identified including maintaining normality and regaining identity, which could act positively or negatively depending on survivors' coping ability and self awareness. Analysis revealed communication difficulties in the workplace that impact on emotional and practical support. Negotiating an employee's return is complex, influenced by the level of consultation with the employee and use of an ad hoc or structured process. Direct and indirect ways of supporting employees with cancer were identified, as was the need for colleague and manager support. This study supports previous research findings of the impact of cancer on work, and reveals managers' lack of knowledge on how to respond appropriately. The process of returning to work is complex, influenced by employees' and managers' attitudes, communication skills and coping abilities. Areas for workplace interventions to optimise support for the cancer survivor are described.

  3. NBME subject examination in surgery scores correlate with surgery clerkship clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jonathan A; Vigneswaran, Yalini; Gabryszak, Beth; Fogg, Louis F; Francescatti, Amanda B; Golner, Christine; Bines, Steven D

    2014-01-01

    Most medical schools in the United States use the National Board of Medical Examiners Subject Examinations as a method of at least partial assessment of student performance, yet there is still uncertainty of how well these examination scores correlate with clinical proficiency. Thus, we investigated which factors in a surgery clerkship curriculum have a positive effect on academic achievement on the National Board of Medical Examiners Subject Examination in Surgery. A retrospective analysis of 83 third-year medical students at our institution with 4 unique clinical experiences on the general surgery clerkship for the 2007-2008 academic year was conducted. Records of the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 scores, National Board of Medical Examiners Subject Examination in Surgery scores, and essay examination scores for the groups were compared using 1-way analysis of variance testing. Rush University Medical Center, Chicago IL, an academic institution and tertiary care center. Our data demonstrated National Board of Medical Examiners Subject Examination in Surgery scores from the group with the heavier clinical loads and least time for self-study were statistically higher than the group with lighter clinical services and higher rated self-study time (p = 0.036). However, there was no statistical difference of National Board of Medical Examiners Subject Examination in Surgery scores between the groups with equal clinical loads (p = 0.751). Students experiencing higher clinical volumes on surgical services, but less self-study time demonstrated statistically higher academic performance on objective evaluation, suggesting clinical experience may be of higher value than self-study and reading. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Education, training and work experience among nuclear power plant workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, L.M.; Doggette, J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper uses a unique data set to examine the prior work experience, training, and education of skilled and technical workers in United States nuclear power plants. The data were collected in the latter half of 1977 by the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (IBEW) in a survey of union locals in nuclear power plants. The survey results provided substantial evidence that workers in United States nuclear power plants have a relatively high level of education, training, and skill development. Analysis of average education by age did not reveal any significant differences in years of schooling between younger and older workers. Very high rates of participation in formal training programmes were reported by all types of workers. The most common type of training programme was held on-site at the power plant and was provided by utility personnel. The majority of workers reported previous work experience related to nuclear power plant activities. Almost one-third of the workers had been directly involved in nuclear energy in a previous job, the majority of these through the United States Navy nuclear programme. However, the newer plants are hiring relatively fewer persons with previous nuclear experience. (author)

  5. Learning experiences for the transition to professional work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh N. Wood

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A better educated workforce contributes to a more informed and tolerant society with higher economic output, and this is also associated with higher levels of personal health, interpersonal trust and civic and social engagement. Against this backdrop, the role of universities has expanded, as university learning has moved beyond providing an education to preparing students for leadership positions within society. This article examines the effectiveness of final-year learning experiences from the perception of recent graduates. The aim is to improve undergraduate curriculum to facilitate the transition to professional employment. An online quantitative and qualitative survey instrument was developed to investigate graduates’ perceptions of their different learning experiences and assessment types in their senior year. Four hundred and twelve alumni from five universities completed the survey. Our results indicate that graduates value case studies, group work and oral presentations, and that graduates rate lectures and guest lectures from practitioners as the least important in their transition to work. The results validate the use of graduate capability frameworks and mapping the development of the skills over the curriculum. These results are useful for curriculum designers to assist with designing programmes on the transition to professional work.

  6. Cancer survivors' perspectives and experiences regarding behavioral determinants of return to work and continuation of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijts, Saskia F A; van Egmond, Martine P; Gits, Maxime; van der Beek, Allard J; Bleiker, Eveline M

    2017-10-01

    Supportive interventions to enhance return to work (RTW) in cancer survivors hardly showed positive effects so far. Behavioral determinants might have to be considered in the development of interventions to achieve sustained employability. This study aimed to explore cancer survivors' perspectives and experiences regarding behavioral determinants of RTW and continuation of work. In this qualitative study, semi-structured telephone interviews were held with 28 cancer survivors. All participants were at working age, 1-2 years after diagnosis and employed at time of diagnosis. Thematic content analysis was performed. Work turned out to be a meaningful aspect of cancer survivors' life, and most participants reported a positive attitude towards their job. Social support to RTW or to continue working was mainly received from family and friends, but pressure to RTW from the occupational physician was also experienced. Changes in expectations regarding work ability from negative to positive during the treatment process were observed. Those who applied active coping mechanisms felt equipped to deal with difficulties regarding work. Behavioral determinants should be taken into account in the development of future interventions to support cancer survivors' RTW. However, the causal relationship still has to be determined. Implications for rehabilitation Factors influencing occupational motivation among cancer survivors need to be understood in more detail. Previous studies in non-cancer populations have demonstrated that behavioral determinants, such as a positive attitude towards work, high social support and self-efficacy may increase return to work rates or shorten the time to return to work. Addressing behavioral determinants in future development of work-related interventions for cancer survivors is essential in achieving sustained employability.

  7. Human preferences for symmetry: subjective experience, cognitive conflict and cortical brain activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Evans

    Full Text Available This study examines the links between human perceptions, cognitive biases and neural processing of symmetrical stimuli. While preferences for symmetry have largely been examined in the context of disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder and autism spectrum disorders, we examine various these phenomena in non-clinical subjects and suggest that such preferences are distributed throughout the typical population as part of our cognitive and neural architecture. In Experiment 1, 82 young adults reported on the frequency of their obsessive-compulsive spectrum behaviors. Subjects also performed an emotional Stroop or variant of an Implicit Association Task (the OC-CIT developed to assess cognitive biases for symmetry. Data not only reveal that subjects evidence a cognitive conflict when asked to match images of positive affect with asymmetrical stimuli, and disgust with symmetry, but also that their slowed reaction times when asked to do so were predicted by reports of OC behavior, particularly checking behavior. In Experiment 2, 26 participants were administered an oddball Event-Related Potential task specifically designed to assess sensitivity to symmetry as well as the OC-CIT. These data revealed that reaction times on the OC-CIT were strongly predicted by frontal electrode sites indicating faster processing of an asymmetrical stimulus (unparallel lines relative to a symmetrical stimulus (parallel lines. The results point to an overall cognitive bias linking disgust with asymmetry and suggest that such cognitive biases are reflected in neural responses to symmetrical/asymmetrical stimuli.

  8. The subjective experience of object recognition: comparing metacognition for object detection and object categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuwese, Julia D I; van Loon, Anouk M; Lamme, Victor A F; Fahrenfort, Johannes J

    2014-05-01

    Perceptual decisions seem to be made automatically and almost instantly. Constructing a unitary subjective conscious experience takes more time. For example, when trying to avoid a collision with a car on a foggy road you brake or steer away in a reflex, before realizing you were in a near accident. This subjective aspect of object recognition has been given little attention. We used metacognition (assessed with confidence ratings) to measure subjective experience during object detection and object categorization for degraded and masked objects, while objective performance was matched. Metacognition was equal for degraded and masked objects, but categorization led to higher metacognition than did detection. This effect turned out to be driven by a difference in metacognition for correct rejection trials, which seemed to be caused by an asymmetry of the distractor stimulus: It does not contain object-related information in the detection task, whereas it does contain such information in the categorization task. Strikingly, this asymmetry selectively impacted metacognitive ability when objective performance was matched. This finding reveals a fundamental difference in how humans reflect versus act on information: When matching the amount of information required to perform two tasks at some objective level of accuracy (acting), metacognitive ability (reflecting) is still better in tasks that rely on positive evidence (categorization) than in tasks that rely more strongly on an absence of evidence (detection).

  9. The impact of subjective work control, job strain and work-family conflict on fertility intentions: a European comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begall, K.; Mills, M.

    2011-01-01

    The link between employment and fertility is often only examined by focussing on women’s labour market status or the impact of part- versus full-time employment. This study introduces a new explanation by extending research to examine how women’s subjective perceptions of control or autonomy over

  10. The Impact of Subjective Work Control, Job Strain and Work-Family Conflict on Fertility Intentions : a European Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begall, Katia; Mills, Melinda

    The link between employment and fertility is often only examined by focussing on women's labour market status or the impact of part- versus full-time employment. This study introduces a new explanation by extending research to examine how women's subjective perceptions of control or autonomy over

  11. Neoliberalism, the Third Way and Social Work: the UK experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available For most of the past two decades, the notion that there is no alternative to the market as a basis for organising society has constituted a kind of global 'common sense', accepted not only by the neo-liberal Right but also by social democratic thinkers and politicians, in the form of 'the Third Way'. This paper will critically assess the central claims of neoliberalism in the light of experience in the UK and internationally, evaluate the ways in which Third Way policies are shaping social work in the UK, and in the final section, begin to explore some of the ways in which the anti-capitalist movement which has emerged in recent years might contribute to the development of a new, engaged social work, based on social justice.

  12. Path Analysis of Work Family Conflict, Job Salary and Promotion Satisfaction, Work Engagement to Subjective Well-Being of the Primary and Middle School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chun-mei; Cui, Shu-jing; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the path analysis of work family conflict, job salary and promotion satisfaction, work engagement to subjective well-being of the primary and middle school principals, and provide advice for enhancing their well-being. Methods: Using convenient sampling, totally 300 primary and middle school principals completed the WFC,…

  13. Class and comparison: subjective social location and lay experiences of constraint and mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    Lay perceptions and experiences of social location have been commonly framed with reference to social class. However, complex responses to, and ambivalence over, class categories have raised interesting analytic questions relating to how sociological concepts are operationalized in empirical research. For example, prior researchers have argued that processes of class dis-identification signify moral unease with the nature of classed inequalities, yet dis-identification may also in part reflect a poor fit between 'social class' as a category and the ways in which people accord meaning to, and evaluate, their related experiences of socio-economic inequality. Differently framed questions about social comparison, aligned more closely with people's own terms of reference, offer an interesting alternative avenue for exploring subjective experiences of inequality. This paper explores some of these questions through an analysis of new empirical data, generated in the context of recession. In the analysis reported here, class identification was common. Nevertheless, whether or not people self identified in class terms, class relevant issues were perceived and described in highly diverse ways, and lay views on class revealed it to be a very aggregated as well as multifaceted construct. It is argued that it enables a particular, not general, perspective on social comparison. The paper therefore goes on to examine how study participants compared themselves with familiar others, identified by themselves. The evidence illuminates social positioning in terms of constraint, agency and (for some) movement, and offers insight into very diverse experiences of inequality, through the comparisons that people made. Their comparisons are situated, and pragmatic, accounts of the material contexts in which people live their lives. Linked evaluations are circumscribed and strongly tied to these proximate material contexts.The paper draws out implications for theorizing lay perspectives on

  14. Investigation of Psychophysiological and Subjective Effects of Long Working Hours – Do Age and Hearing Impairment Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Hartl, Verena; Kallus, K. Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    Following current prognosis, demographic development raises expectations of an aging of the working population. Therefore, keeping employees healthy and strengthening their ability to work, becomes more and more important. When employees become older, dealing with age-related impairments of sensory functions, such as hearing impairment, is a central issue. Recent evidence suggests that negative effects that are associated with reduced hearing can have a strong impact at work. Especially under exhausting working situations such as working overtime hours, age and hearing impairment might influence employees’ well-being. Until now, neither the problem of aged workers and long working hours, nor the problem of hearing impairment and prolonged working time has been addressed explicitly. Therefore, a laboratory study was examined to answer the research question: Do age and hearing impairment have an impact on psychophysiological and subjective effects of long working hours. In total, 51 white-collar workers, aged between 24 and 63 years, participated in the laboratory study. The results show no significant effects for age and hearing impairment on the intensity of subjective consequences (perceived recovery and fatigue, subjective emotional well-being and physical symptoms) of long working hours. However, the psychophysiological response (the saliva cortisol level) to long working hours differs significantly between hearing impaired and normal hearing employees. Interestingly, the results suggest that from a psychophysiological point of view long working hours were more demanding for normal hearing employees. PMID:29379452

  15. Investigation of Psychophysiological and Subjective Effects of Long Working Hours – Do Age and Hearing Impairment Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Wagner-Hartl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Following current prognosis, demographic development raises expectations of an aging of the working population. Therefore, keeping employees healthy and strengthening their ability to work, becomes more and more important. When employees become older, dealing with age-related impairments of sensory functions, such as hearing impairment, is a central issue. Recent evidence suggests that negative effects that are associated with reduced hearing can have a strong impact at work. Especially under exhausting working situations such as working overtime hours, age and hearing impairment might influence employees’ well-being. Until now, neither the problem of aged workers and long working hours, nor the problem of hearing impairment and prolonged working time has been addressed explicitly. Therefore, a laboratory study was examined to answer the research question: Do age and hearing impairment have an impact on psychophysiological and subjective effects of long working hours. In total, 51 white-collar workers, aged between 24 and 63 years, participated in the laboratory study. The results show no significant effects for age and hearing impairment on the intensity of subjective consequences (perceived recovery and fatigue, subjective emotional well-being and physical symptoms of long working hours. However, the psychophysiological response (the saliva cortisol level to long working hours differs significantly between hearing impaired and normal hearing employees. Interestingly, the results suggest that from a psychophysiological point of view long working hours were more demanding for normal hearing employees.

  16. Using Sound-Taste Correspondences to Enhance the Subjective Value of Tasting Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe eReinoso Carvalho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The soundscapes of those places where we eat and drink can influence our perception of taste. Here, we investigated whether contextual sound would enhance the subjective value of a tasting experience. The customers in a chocolate shop were invited to take part in an experiment in which they had to evaluate a chocolate’s taste while listening to an auditory stimulus. Four different conditions were presented to four different groups in a between-participants design. Envisioning a more ecological approach, a pre-recorded piece of popular music and the shop’s own soundscape were used as the sonic stimuli. The results revealed that not only did the customers report having a significantly better tasting experience when the sounds were presented as part of the food’s identity, but they were also willing to pay significantly more for the experience. The method outlined here paves a new approach to dealing with the design of multisensory tasting experiences, and gastronomic situations.

  17. Improved work ability and return to work following vocational multidisciplinary rehabilitation of subjects on long-term sick leave

    OpenAIRE

    Braathen, Tore; Veiersted, Kaj Bo; Heggenes, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a vocational multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme for patients on long-term sick leave with respect to their work ability and return to work. Methods: A multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme was administered to an intervention group of 183 patients on long-term sick leave (mean 12.2 months). Effects of the treatment were compared with a control group (n = 96) recruited from the national sickness insurance record of patients on sick leave of 6??2 month...

  18. A method to evaluate performance reliability of individual subjects in laboratory research applied to work settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    This report presents a method that may be used to evaluate the reliability of performance of individual subjects, particularly in applied laboratory research. The method is based on analysis of variance of a tasks-by-subjects data matrix, with all sc...

  19. How do musical tonality and experience affect visual working memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Lu, Jing; Gong, Diankun; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-20

    The influence of music on the human brain has continued to attract increasing attention from neuroscientists and musicologists. Currently, tonal music is widely present in people's daily lives; however, atonal music has gradually become an important part of modern music. In this study, we conducted two experiments: the first one tested for differences in perception of distractibility between tonal music and atonal music. The second experiment tested how tonal music and atonal music affect visual working memory by comparing musicians and nonmusicians who were placed in contexts with background tonal music, atonal music, and silence. They were instructed to complete a delay matching memory task. The results show that musicians and nonmusicians have different evaluations of the distractibility of tonal music and atonal music, possibly indicating that long-term training may lead to a higher auditory perception threshold among musicians. For the working memory task, musicians reacted faster than nonmusicians in all background music cases, and musicians took more time to respond in the tonal background music condition than in the other conditions. Therefore, our results suggest that for a visual memory task, background tonal music may occupy more cognitive resources than atonal music or silence for musicians, leaving few resources left for the memory task. Moreover, the musicians outperformed the nonmusicians because of the higher sensitivity to background music, which also needs a further longitudinal study to be confirmed.

  20. Anomalous subjective experience among first-admitted schizophrenia spectrum patients: empirical investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Handest, Peter; Jansson, Lennart Bertil

    2005-01-01

    , the vulnerability markers to Sz--indicators that are intrinsic to this disorder and which were historically considered as constituting the phenotypic anchor of the very concept and the diagnostic validity of Sz spectrum disorders. In a more pragmatic clinical context, these indicators, considered here as symptoms......Our research group has for several years conducted philosophically informed, phenomenological-empirical studies of morbid alterations of conscious experience (subjectivity) in schizophrenia (Sz) and its spectrum of disorders. Some of these experiential alterations constitute, in our view...

  1. A work-family conflict/subjective well-being process model: a test of competing theories of longitudinal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Russell A; Wayne, Julie Holliday; Ford, Michael T

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, we examine competing predictions of stress reaction models and adaptation theories regarding the longitudinal relationship between work-family conflict and subjective well-being. Based on data from 432 participants over 3 time points with 2 lags of varying lengths (i.e., 1 month, 6 months), our findings suggest that in the short term, consistent with prior theory and research, work-family conflict is associated with poorer subjective well-being. Counter to traditional work-family predictions but consistent with adaptation theories, after accounting for concurrent levels of work-family conflict as well as past levels of subjective well-being, past exposure to work-family conflict was associated with higher levels of subjective well-being over time. Moreover, evidence was found for reverse causation in that greater subjective well-being at 1 point in time was associated with reduced work-family conflict at a subsequent point in time. Finally, the pattern of results did not vary as a function of using different temporal lags. We discuss the theoretical, research, and practical implications of our findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Trait Dissociation and the Subjective Affective, Motivational, and Phenomenological Experience of Self-Defining Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Stockdale, Gary D.

    2010-01-01

    The present research reports two studies that examine the relation between non-pathological trait dissociation and the subjective affect, motivation, and phenomenology of self-defining memories. In Study 1 (N=293), participants retrieved and rated the emotional and motivational experience of a general and a positive and negative achievement-related memory. Study 2 (N=449) extended these ratings to relationship-related memories and the phenomenological experience of the memory. Dissociation was associated with incongruent affect in valenced memories (e.g., positive affect in a negative memory) and memories that were visually incoherent and saturated with power motivation, hubristic pride, and shame, regardless of valence or domain. The present findings demonstrate that autobiographical memories, which integrate emotional, motivational, and phenomenological components, reflect the emotional and motivational processes inherent to dissociation. PMID:21204840

  3. The subjective experience of the self in the large group: two models for study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, W

    2001-04-01

    More and more opportunities now exist for group therapists to engage in the study of the self in the large group at local, national, and international conferences as well as in clinical and other organizational settings. This may be particularly important for the group therapist in the next century with potential benefit not only for individuals but also for groups and social systems of all kinds. In this article, I review my own subjective experiences in the large group context and in large study group experiences. Then, I contrast the group analytic and the group relations approaches to the large group with particular reference to Winnicott's theory about maturational processes in a facilitating environment.

  4. Unrequited Love among Young Filipino Gay Men: Subjective Experiences of Unreciprocated Lovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Julian Manalastas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this exploratory study, I investigated lived experiences of unrequited love among young Filipino gay men in order to explore unrequited love beyond its heteronormative forms. Analysis of qualitative accounts from 11 out gay men who participated in focus groups indicated that unrequited love was a highly meaningful subjective experience involving a spectrum of negative affect, uncertainty, and self-esteem lowering. Non-reciprocity was often attributed to a lack of matching on dimensions like availability, sexual orientation, relationship goals, and personality. Non-homophobic social support was important in the reduction of uncertainty and management of distress, in addition to other strategies for coping with rejection and non-formation of the desired love relationship.

  5. Work, gender, and social networks: work experiences of fashion fair managers on Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea González Medina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article questions the classical paradigms of work society, which emphasized the industrial-worker-men. In contrast, it affirms the existence of a reorganization of the work world, reflected in many ways, such as non-industrial and labor regulation activities, as well as the introduction of information and communication technologies. The research focused on two fundamental aspects of said reorganization; the proliferation of activities in the informal sector and the use of information and communication technologies at work. In order to understand these lines of analysis, we selected the case of e-commerce carried out on the Facebook platform. Although this platform has been co-opted by big companies to advertise products, it is also possible to observe the emergence of an informal work market made up of women who use that technological tool to carry out business on Facebook through ‘fashion fairs’. The article argues that the work carried out in such fairs is permeated by gender stereotypes. Therefore, its objective is to understand the configuration of subjectivities on the basis of gender stereotypes in the current work environment. In order to achieve this, it proposed a qualitative methodology to analyze labor aspects, use of time, and interaction with technology. The understanding of the work included the following central themes: production of services, de-territorialization of work, and production of symbols, and each one of these was related to a gender stereotype: women in the informal sector; the articulation between domestic-extra- omestic/productive-reproductive work; and the feminization of the products market, respectively. The article seeks to make evident the processes involved in the production of services and the conditions of informality in which women are involved. The article is structured as follows: the first section conceptualizes the activity according to the categories of nontraditional work

  6. Preliminary experiments using subjective logic for the polyrepresentation of information needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Ingwersen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    According to the principle of polyrepresentation, retrieval accuracy may improve through the combination of multiple and diverse information object representations about e.g. the context of the user, the information sought, or the retrieval system [9, 10]. Recently, the principle of polyrep......) independence or (b) dependence between the information objects that are combined. We focus on the polyrepresentation of different types of context relating to user information needs (i.e. work task, user background knowledge, ideal answer) and show that the subjective logic model can predict their optimal...

  7. The association of subjective workload dimensions on quality of care and pharmacist quality of work life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Michelle A; Look, Kevin A; Mott, David A

    2014-01-01

    Workload has been described both objectively (e.g., number of prescriptions dispensed per pharmacist) as well as subjectively (e.g., pharmacist's perception of busyness). These approaches might be missing important characteristics of pharmacist workload that have not been previously identified and measured. To measure the association of community pharmacists' workload perceptions at three levels (organization, job, and task) with job satisfaction, burnout, and perceived performance of two tasks in the medication dispensing process. A secondary data analysis was performed using cross-sectional survey data collected from Wisconsin (US) community pharmacists. Organization-related workload was measured as staffing adequacy; job-related workload was measured as general and specific job demands; task-related workload was measured as internal and external mental demands. Pharmacists' perceived task performance was assessed for patient profile review and patient consultation. The survey was administered to a random sample of 500 pharmacists who were asked to opt in if they were a community pharmacist. Descriptive statistics and correlations of study variables were determined. Two structural equation models were estimated to examine relationships between the study variables and perceived task performance. From the 224 eligible community pharmacists that agreed to participate, 165 (73.7%) usable surveys were completed and returned. Job satisfaction and job-related monitoring demands had direct positive associations with both dispensing tasks. External task demands were negatively related to perceived patient consultation performance. Indirect effects on both tasks were primarily mediated through job satisfaction, which was positively related to staffing adequacy and cognitive job demands and negatively related to volume job demands. External task demands had an additional indirect effect on perceived patient consultation performance, as it was associated with lower levels of

  8. Women's Subjective Experiences of Living with Vulvodynia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallcross, Rebekah; Dickson, Joanne M; Nunns, David; Mackenzie, Catharine; Kiemle, Gundi

    2018-04-01

    Vulvodynia, the experience of an idiopathic pain in the form of burning, soreness, or throbbing in the vulval area, affects around 4-16% of the population. The current review used systematic search strategies and meta-ethnography as a means of identifying, analyzing, and synthesizing the existing literature pertaining to women's subjective experiences of living with vulvodynia. Four key concepts were identified: (1) Social Constructions: Sex, Women, and Femininity: Women experienced negative consequences of social narratives around womanhood, sexuality, and femininity, including the prioritization of penetrative sex, the belief that it is the role of women to provide sex for men, and media portrayals of sex as easy and natural. (2) Seeking Help: Women experienced the healthcare system as dismissive, sometimes being prescribed treatments that exacerbated the experience of pain. (3) Psychological and Relational Impact of Vulvodynia: Women experienced feeling shame and guilt, which in turn led to the experience of psychological distress, low mood, anxiety, and low self-esteem. Moreover, women reported feeling silenced which in turn affected their heterosexual relationships and their peer relationships by feeling social isolated. (4) A Way Forward: Women found changing narratives, as well as group and individual multidisciplinary approaches, helpful in managing vulvodynia. The findings of the review conclude that interventions at the individual level, as well as interventions aimed at equipping women to challenge social narratives, may be helpful for the psychological well-being of women with vulvodynia.

  9. Brief Report: Oxytocin Enhances Paternal Sensitivity to a Child with Autism--A Double-Blind Within-Subject Experiment with Intranasally Administered Oxytocin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, Fabienne B. A.; Poslawsky, Irina E.; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; van Engeland, Herman; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2013-01-01

    Oxytocin seems associated with parenting style, and experimental work showed positive effects of intranasally administered oxytocin on parenting style of fathers. Here, the first double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject experiment with intranasal oxytocin administration to fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is…

  10. Gestalt isomorphism and the primacy of subjective conscious experience: a Gestalt Bubble model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehar, Steven

    2003-08-01

    A serious crisis is identified in theories of neurocomputation, marked by a persistent disparity between the phenomenological or experiential account of visual perception and the neurophysiological level of description of the visual system. In particular, conventional concepts of neural processing offer no explanation for the holistic global aspects of perception identified by Gestalt theory. The problem is paradigmatic and can be traced to contemporary concepts of the functional role of the neural cell, known as the Neuron Doctrine. In the absence of an alternative neurophysiologically plausible model, I propose a perceptual modeling approach, to model the percept as experienced subjectively, rather than modeling the objective neurophysiological state of the visual system that supposedly subserves that experience. A Gestalt Bubble model is presented to demonstrate how the elusive Gestalt principles of emergence, reification, and invariance can be expressed in a quantitative model of the subjective experience of visual consciousness. That model in turn reveals a unique computational strategy underlying visual processing, which is unlike any algorithm devised by man, and certainly unlike the atomistic feed-forward model of neurocomputation offered by the Neuron Doctrine paradigm. The perceptual modeling approach reveals the primary function of perception as that of generating a fully spatial virtual-reality replica of the external world in an internal representation. The common objections to this "picture-in-the-head" concept of perceptual representation are shown to be ill founded.

  11. The brain and the subjective experience of time. A voxel based symptom-lesion mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojano, Luigi; Caccavale, Michelina; De Bellis, Francesco; Crisci, Claudio

    2017-06-30

    The aim of the study was to identify the anatomical bases involved in the subjective experience of time, by means of a voxel based symptom-lesion mapping (VLSM) study on patients with focal brain damage. Thirty-three patients (nineteen with right-hemisphere lesions -RBD, and fourteen with left lesion- LBD) and twenty-eight non-neurological controls (NNC) underwent the semi-structured QUEstionnaire for the Subjective experience of Time (QUEST) requiring retrospective and prospective judgements on self-relevant time intervals. All participants also completed tests to assess general cognitive functioning and two questionnaires to evaluate their emotional state. Both groups of brain-damaged patients achieved significantly different scores from NNC on the time performance, without differences between RBD and LBD. VLSM showed a cluster of voxels located in the right inferior parietal lobule significantly related to errors in the prospective items. The lesion subtraction analysis revealed two different patterns possibly associated with errors in the prospective items (the right inferior parietal cortex, rolandic operculum and posterior middle temporal gyrus) and in the retrospective items (superior middle temporal gyrus, white matter posterior to the insula). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Children's Experiences of Time when a Parent Travels for Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvonkovic, Anisa; Swenson, Andrea; Cornwell, Zoë

    2017-08-01

    This qualitative study focuses on different ways time is experienced by children in families who face time challenges due to a family member's job that required work travel. Data are from a family-level study that includes interviews of all family members over the age of 7. Using grounded theory methodology, this study illustrates ways in which job demands and family processes interact. Analysis centers on the 75 children's perspectives from 43 families. Holding together assessments of having enough time while wanting more time with their parents, children express emotion, generally unrecognized by parents, around the topic of family time. Children's experience of time with parents is rushed or calm, depending on the activities done in time and the gender of the parent with whom they spend time. Findings are interpreted through a feminist social constructionist lens.

  13. Assessing Subjectivity in Sensor Data Post Processing via a Controlled Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. S.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Eiriksson, D.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental data collected by in situ sensors must be reviewed to verify validity, and conducting quality control often requires making edits in post processing to generate approved datasets. This process involves decisions by technicians, data managers, or data users on how to handle problematic data. Options include: removing data from a series, retaining data with annotations, and altering data based on algorithms related to adjacent data points or the patterns of data at other locations or of other variables. Ideally, given the same dataset and the same quality control guidelines, multiple data quality control technicians would make the same decisions in data post processing. However, despite the development and implementation of guidelines aimed to ensure consistent quality control procedures, we have faced ambiguity when performing post processing, and we have noticed inconsistencies in the practices of individuals performing quality control post processing. Technicians with the same level of training and using the same input datasets may produce different results, affecting the overall quality and comparability of finished data products. Different results may also be produced by technicians that do not have the same level of training. In order to assess the effect of subjective decision making by the individual technician on the end data product, we designed an experiment where multiple users performed quality control post processing on the same datasets using a consistent set of guidelines, field notes, and tools. We also assessed the effect of technician experience and training by conducting the same procedures with a group of novices unfamiliar with the data and the quality control process and compared their results to those generated by a group of more experienced technicians. In this presentation, we report our observations of the degree of subjectivity in sensor data post processing, assessing and quantifying the impacts of individual technician as

  14. Mere experience of low subjective socioeconomic status stimulates appetite and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Bobby K; Hong, Ying-Yi

    2017-01-03

    Among social animals, subordinate status or low social rank is associated with increased caloric intake and weight gain. This may reflect an adaptive behavioral pattern that promotes acquisition of caloric resources to compensate for low social resources that may otherwise serve as a buffer against environmental demands. Similarly, diet-related health risks like obesity and diabetes are disproportionately more prevalent among people of low socioeconomic resources. Whereas this relationship may be associated with reduced financial and material resources to support healthier lifestyles, it remains unclear whether the subjective experience of low socioeconomic status may alone be sufficient to stimulate consumption of greater calories. Here we show that the mere feeling of lower socioeconomic status relative to others stimulates appetite and food intake. Across four studies, we found that participants who were experimentally induced to feel low (vs. high or neutral) socioeconomic status subsequently exhibited greater automatic preferences for high-calorie foods (e.g., pizza, hamburgers), as well as intake of greater calories from snack and meal contexts. Moreover, these results were observed even in the absence of differences in access to financial resources. Our results demonstrate that among humans, the experience of low social class may contribute to preferences and behaviors that risk excess energy intake. These findings suggest that psychological and physiological systems regulating appetite may also be sensitive to subjective feelings of deprivation for critical nonfood resources (e.g., social standing). Importantly, efforts to mitigate the socioeconomic gradient in obesity may also need to address the psychological experience of low social status.

  15. Relationship of duration of work exposure and feeling of subjective fatigue: A case study on jewelry manufacturing workers in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmi Ravindra Salve

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Fatigue can be defined in various conditions. In literature it has been defined and explored by various researches through different aspects. This study was conducted to establish the relationship between the duration of work exposure and feeling of subjective fatigue. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one jewelry manufacturing workers as study group and 27 students as control group participated with their signed informed consent. The daily diary method and feeling of subjective fatigue evaluation questionnaire were used as a tool in this study. Three categories of feeling of subjective fatigue were considered in this study. The study was conducted mainly in the middle of the week. The data regarding feeling of subjective fatigue were collected before starting of work and after completion of the work day. Results: The results showed that The time spent on the job by the workers engaged in jewelry manufacturing was 670 min and were in four slots with the longest work period being 240 min. Sleeping time was found to be around 480 min. Conclusion: The study revealed that all three dimensions (general, mental, and physical were affected by the whole day work exposure. Among three types of fatigues, general fatigue was observed at the beginning and end of the work shift.

  16. ENTERPRISE’S TECHNOLOGIES OF SELF: THE CONSTRUCTION OF LABOR SUBJECTS IN THE CONTEXT OF IMMATERIAL WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA MARÍA GARCÍA ÁLVAREZ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks to make a reflection about the new nature of work and the role of Organizational Psychology as atechnology displayed in organizations for the production of certain type of subjectivities. In the case analyzed it isshown how the management of human resources through psychological knowledge, produces entrepreneur,autonomous, responsible, competent, involved and flexible subjects who contribute to the reproduction of dominantinterests, making evident the political nature of Psychology.

  17. 12-Mo Intervention of Physical Exercise Improved Work Ability, Especially in Subjects with Low Baseline Work Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oili Kettunen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study’s objective was to assess the effects of a 12-month physical exercise intervention on work ability (WAI and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF in healthy working adults. Methods: The study group had 371 participants, of which 338 (212 women and 126 men were allocated in the exercise group and 33 (17 women and 16 men in the control group. The exercise group underwent a 12-month exercise program followed by a 12-month follow-up. WAI and CRF were evaluated at baseline, and at 4, 8, 12, and 24 study months, in both exercise and control groups. The exercise group was divided into subgroups according to baseline WAI classifications (poor/moderate, good, excellent. Results: During the 12-month exercise intervention, the exercise group increased their leisure-time physical activity by 71% (p = 0.016 and improved the mean WAI by 3% and CRF by 7% (p < 0.0001, in both, while WAI and CRF decreased in the control group (ANCOVA using age, sex and BMI as covariates, for WAI, p = 0.013 and for CRF, p = 0.008. The changes in WAI and CRF between the exercise group and control group were significantly different during the intervention (baseline vs. 12-months, p = 0.028 and p = 0.007 and after the follow-up (p = 0.001 and p = 0.040, respectively. A light positive correlation between the changes in WAI and in CRF (r = 0.19, p < 0.01 existed. WAI improvement was the highest (13%, p < 0.0001 in the subgroup having poor/moderate WAI at baseline (ANCOVA, p < 0.001. Conclusions: The improvement of WAI associated with CRF. These results suggest that a physical exercise intervention may improve work ability.

  18. Occupational experiences and subjective well-being of mothers of children with ASD in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ya-Lin; Lo, Jin-Ling

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the relationship between mothers' daily occupational experiences of productivity, restoration and pleasure with their subjective well-being (SWB) and with their child's developmental skills. Forty caregivers parenting young children with autism spectrum disorders served as a convenience sample in this study. Participants rated their occupational experience in a time diary for a 1-week period and rated their SWB on the Positive and Negative Affect Scale and Satisfaction with Life Scale. Their child's occupational performance and development were evaluated using the Pediatric Daily Occupation Scale and Chinese Child Development Inventory. Spearman rank correlations were used to examine the relationship of SWB to these maternal and child factors. Mothers' pleasure levels were associated with two SWB measures: the positive affect and Satisfaction With Life Scale. Restoration levels related to positive affect only. Productivity levels and child factors were not significantly correlated with any of the SWB measures. A larger heterogeneous sample and a longitudinal study design to explore the fluctuation and stability of occupational experiences across time are recommended to examine caregivers' adaptation and/or alterations in SWB while adapting to their child's diagnosis and special needs. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Activities in Retirement: Individual Experience of Silver Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Maxin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One consequence of demographic change is a longer average remaining lifetime after retirement. Many people, however, remain able and willing to continue work after reaching the statutory retirement age. Given the predicted shortage of skilled workers in the future, post-retirement activities have the potential to contribute to both organisations and society. This article elaborates the prerequisites for productivity in retirement age and the changed nature of retirement at present.It also quantifies the extent to which activities are continued at retirement age. Paid employment still occurs beyond the applicable retirement age, whereby with increasing age, self-employed persons and assistant family members make up the lion’s share of the statistics. An empirical study shows the concrete situation of active retirees and the prerequisites for post-retirement activities. At the explorative level, individual experiences of the transition into retirement, the reasons for and the framework of post-retirement activities, motivational factors in job design, and physical and intellectual demands before and after retirement are characterised. The qualitative data indicate that retirement entails changes towards more flexible structures in everyday life. Decisive reasons for taking up post-retirement activities are the desire to help, pass on knowledge or remain active; personal development and contact with others; and gaining appreciation and recognition. Flexible job design and freedom to make decisions constitute major elements in shaping post-retirement working activities. Offering autonomy, skill variety, and task significance is important for the design of post-retirement activities. The paper closes with identifying relevant research fields and the concrete need to take action at individual,  organisational, and societal levels. All in all, the transition from working life to retirement should be made flexible enough to do greater justice to the

  20. All in a Day's Work: Job Experiences, Self-Esteem, and Fathering in Working-Class Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm-Thomas, Karen; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    1994-01-01

    Examined how working-class fathers' job experiences affected their self-esteem and parenting styles. Conducted home interviews with 59 working-class fathers in dual-earner families and their target child, who was aged 8 to 12 years. Found that more positive fathers' work experiences, higher their self-esteem, which predicted more accepting…

  1. On systematization of anti-corruption work in the Russian Federation subjects under the modern conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor I. Bikeev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective scientific and legal evaluation of new corruption counteraction tools in the Russian Federation subjects stipulated by the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 364 of 15 July 2015 and proposals for their use and improvement. Methods dialectical systemic and synergistic methods as general scientific methods of cognition formaljuridical analysis of documents expert assessments linguistic as private scientific methods of cognition. Results the authors assess the legal regulation and organization of activity of commissions for the coordination of corruption counteraction in the Russian Federation subjects and their authorities on corruption and other offences prevention and propose measures for their improvement. Scientific novelty for the first time after the adoption of the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 364 of 15 July 2015 the main directions to improve the regional subjects of corruption counteraction are defined. Practical significance the organizational and legal measures are proposed for improving and ensuring the activities of regional subjects of corruption counteraction.

  2. The Work of the Prince's Teaching Institute--Insisting that Established Subjects Matter to All Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The Prince's Teaching Institute (PTI), which has evolved out of the Summer Schools for English Literature and History which The Prince of Wales inaugurated in 2002, now provides a variety of courses in the major subjects of the secondary curriculum. In partnership with Cambridge University it enables teachers to update and extend their subject…

  3. The Impact of the Protection of Human Subjects on Research. Working Paper No. 70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Andrew S.

    The author discusses the experimenter's responsibility for the protection of human subjects (such as the handicapped) in research and the impact of this responsibility on methods of doing research. Considered are the types of human rights that are most frequently in need of protection within a research setting (such as the right to privacy); the…

  4. Subjective measures of work-related fatigue in automobile factory employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fu; Wang, Tianbo; Ning, Zuojiang

    2017-01-01

    Work-related fatigue is common among automobile factory employees. The purpose of this study was to assess fatigue of employees at a Chinese automobile factory. 238 employees (119 engineers and 119 workers) participated in this study. The following questionnaires were completed: demographic survey questionnaire, working condition questionnaire (WCQ), functional assessment of chronic illness therapy-fatigue (FACIT-F), subscales of multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI), and Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). Both engineers and workers experienced fatigue. The workers (35.6 years old, SD = 6.7) generally felt more fatigue than engineers (42.6 years old, SD = 6.4). The engineers claimed to be more satisfied with the working conditions than workers. The WCQ showed good properties for assessing work-related factors, which were significantly correlated with fatigue (r = 0.568 for engineers and r = 0.639 for workers). For engineers, general fatigue was observed regularly and frequently, and for workers, physical fatigue usually had a long duration. The fatigue was significantly correlated with work-related factors, especially working environment and monotony. For workers, the duration of the work day also affected their fatigue. Some improvements to the working condition in this automobile factory should be considered.

  5. Field work in geography. Region with experience in socio-environmental conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Ensabella

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article emphasizes the importance of the geographical field work in a region with socio-environmental conflict, such us the problem with water in Sierras Chicas, Cordoba. The main focus is a pedagogical experience, the Socio-Communal Practice (SCP, performed by professors, students and assistants of the subject Rural Geography, of the Bachelor’s in Geography course of studies of the Philosophy and Humanity School (PHS, in the city of La Granja, in Colón, Córdoba. The SCP is an experience that makes the students approach the social field of the territory conflicts. It is an activity that goes beyond the extension project, since it involves all the students doing the subject. And it is also a way to combine -in our case, from the geographic work- the teaching, investigation and extension functions typical of the university students. Through the SCP, we aim to make the Rural Geography students approach the field work, with local social organizations that deeply know the problems of their cities and that work together with our investigation group. In addition, this contact together with the individual thoughts, the group discussion and the debates between the university students, will broaden, in the whole society, the knowledge about the reality in which they live and with which they struggle. This article starts by defining what it is understood by SCP. Then, taking into account our practice, we develop what we consider to be the two logics that support the field work. One refers to the building of knowledge and to the different ways of learning and knowing. The other is related to the understanding of the socio-territory conflict in the area where the practice will be done: the Mesa del Agua and La Granja environment. We include a section about the description of the experience and its results, and we conclude with some reflections made taking into account the continuity of the practice

  6. Economic Shocks and Subjective Well-Being: Evidence from a Quasi-Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using...... micro-level survey data, which – incidentally – was collected in the days surrounding the devaluation. The chance occurrence of the devaluation during the time of the survey enables us to use pre-treatment respondents, surveyed before the devaluation, as approximate counterfactuals for post......-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short...

  7. False memories in children and adults: age, distinctiveness, and subjective experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, Simona; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S

    2002-09-01

    This study investigated developmental trends associated with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott false-memory effect, the role of distinctive information in false-memory formation, and participants' subjective experience of true and false memories. Children (5- and 7-year-olds) and adults studied lists of semantically associated words. Half of the participants studied words alone, and half studied words accompanied by pictures. There were significant age differences in recall (5-year-olds evinced more false memories than did adults) but not in recognition of critical lures. Distinctive information reduced false memory for all age groups. Younger children provided with distinctive information, and older children and adults regardless of whether they viewed distinctive information, expressed higher levels of confidence in true than in false memories. Source attributions did not significantly differ between true and false memories. Implications for theories of false memory and memory development are discussed.

  8. Transgender women and the Gender Reassignment Process: subjection experiences, suffering and pleasure in body adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analídia Rodolpho Petry

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This article seeks to understand the experiences of transgender women in relation to the hormone therapy and sex reassignment surgery that make up the Gender Reassignment Process. METHOD: It is a qualitative study inserted into the field of cultural and gender studies. Data collection used narrative interviews, conducted in 2010 and 2011, with seven transsexual women who had been undergoing the Gender Reassignment Process for at least two years. The data was submitted to a thematic analysis. RESULTS: The results show that the transformation processes for construction of the female body include behavior adaptation, posture modification, voice modulation, hormone use, vaginal canal dilation and surgical complications. Such processes subject the body to be built as idealized to fit the gender identity, infringing on pleasures and afflictions. CONCLUSION: We concluded that the discussion involving the Gender Reassignment Process brings allowances for nursing regarding body changes experienced by transgender women.

  9. Serving the army as secretaries: intersectionality, multi-level contract and subjective experience of citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomsky-Feder, Edna; Sasson-Levy, Orna

    2015-03-01

    With the growing elusiveness of the state apparatus in late modernity, military service is one of the last institutions to be clearly identified with the state, its ideologies and its policies. Therefore, negotiations between the military and its recruits produce acting subjects of citizenship with long-lasting consequences. Arguing that these negotiations are regulated by multi-level (civic, group, and individual) contracts, we explore the various meanings that these contracts obtain at the intersectionality of gender, class, and ethnicity; and examine how they shape the subjective experience of soldierhood and citizenship. More particularly, we analyse the meaning of military service in the retrospective life stories of Israeli Jewish women from various ethno-class backgrounds who served as army secretaries - a low-status, feminine gender-typed occupation within a hyper-masculine organization. Findings reveal that for women of the lower class, the organizing cultural schema of the multi-level contract is that of achieving respectability through military service, which means being included in the national collective. Conversely, for middle-class women, it is the sense of entitlement that shapes their contract with the military, which they expect to signify and maintain their privileged status. Thus, while for the lower class, the multi-level contract is about inclusion within the boundaries of the national collective, for the dominant groups, this contract is about reproducing social class hierarchies within national boundaries. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  10. Staff experience and understanding of working with abused women suffering from mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson-Tops, A; Saveman, B-I; Tops, D

    2009-09-01

    The phenomenon of abused women with mental illness is often unrecognised by staff working within welfare services. This may be explained by staff members' attitudes, insecurity or lack of awareness. Today, there are shortcomings in the knowledge of staff members' experiences and interpretations of abuse against women suffering from mental illness. The aim of this qualitative study was to describe how staff members experience and understand their work with abused women suffering from mental illness. Thematic interviews were conducted with 13 staff members from various welfare services. Data were subject to content analysis. The findings showed that working with abused women was experienced as ambiguous and painful and made the staff act pragmatically. Feelings of ambiguity were mainly related to the lack of theoretical frameworks for interpreting why women with mental illness are exposed to abuse. Painful experiences involved intertwined feelings of distress, frustration, worthlessness, ambivalence and powerlessness. These were all feelings that emerged in the direct encounters with the abused women. In response to the abused women's comprehensive needs, staff members acted pragmatically, implying networking without any sanction from the leaders of the organisation, compliance with routines and taking action in here-and-now situations. By acting pragmatically, staff members could achieve concrete results through their interventions. It is concluded that staff members, working with abused women with mental illness, are in a vulnerable situation and in need of formally accepted and implemented support and legitimacy as well as theoretical knowledge regarding causes and consequences of abuse in this particular group of women.

  11. Beyond bureaucracy and entrepreneurialism:examining the multiple discursive codes informing the work, careers and subjectivities of management graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Loacker, Bernadette Isabel; Sliwa, Martyna

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how discursive codes and demands associated with ‘bureaucratic and entrepreneurial regimes’ of work and career organization shape the work, careers and subjectivities of management graduates. The study is based on an analysis of 30 narratives of management professionals who graduated from an Austrian business school in the early 1970s or 2000s. Its insights suggest that variegated discursive codes manifest in the graduates’ articulated professional practices and subjectivi...

  12. Lateralized direct and indirect semantic priming effects in subjects with paranormal experiences and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzagalli, D; Lehmann, D; Brugger, P

    2001-01-01

    The present investigation tested the hypothesis that, as an aspect of schizotypal thinking, the formation of paranormal beliefs was related to spreading activation characteristics within semantic networks. From a larger student population (n = 117) prescreened for paranormal belief, 12 strong believers and 12 strong disbelievers (all women) were invited for a lateralized semantic priming task with directly and indirectly related prime-target pairs. Believers showed stronger indirect (but not direct) semantic priming effects than disbelievers after left (but not right) visual field stimulation, indicating faster appreciation of distant semantic relations specifically by the right hemisphere, reportedly specialized in coarse rather than focused semantic processing. These results are discussed in the light of recent findings in schizophrenic patients with thought disorders. They suggest that a disinhibition with semantic networks may underlie the formation of paranormal belief. The potential usefulness of work with healthy subjects for neuropsychiatric research is stressed. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Experience in the development and practical use of working control levels for radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epishin, A.V.

    1981-01-01

    The experience of development and practical use of working control levels (WCL) of radiation safety in the Gorky region, is discussed. WCL are introduced by ''Radiation Safety Guides'' (RSG-76) and have great practical importance. Regional control levels of radiation safety are determined for certain types of operations implying radioactive hazard and differentiated according to the types of sources applied and types of operation. Dose rates, radioactive contamination of operating surfaces, skin, air and waste water are subject to normalization. Limits of individual radiation doses specified according to operation categories are included. 10 tables of regional WCL indices are developed [ru

  14. Decreased Openness to Experience Is Associated with Migraine-Type Headaches in Subjects with Lifetime Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyar, Mate; Gonda, Xenia; Pap, Dorottya; Edes, Andrea; Galambos, Attila; Baksa, Daniel; Kocsel, Natalia; Szabo, Edina; Bagdy, Gyorgy; Elliott, Rebecca; Kokonyei, Gyongyi; Juhasz, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Migraine and depression frequently occur as comorbid conditions, and it has been hypothesized that migraine with and without depression may have a different genetic background. A distinct personality trait constellation has been described in migraineurs. Less attention, however, was paid to personality differences in migraineurs with and without depression which may also shed light on differences in the neurobiological, background. The aim of our study was to investigate big five personality traits, headaches, and lifetime depression (DEP) in a large European general population sample. Relationship between DEP, Big Five Inventory personality traits, and headaches identified by the ID-Migraine Questionnaire were investigated in 3,026 individuals from Budapest and Manchester with multivariate and logistic regression analyses. Both DEP and migraine(ID) showed differences in personality traits. Neuroticism was an independent risk factor for both conditions while a significant interaction effect appeared between the two in the case of openness. Namely, subjects with migraine(ID) and without DEP scored higher on openness compared to those who had depression. While we confirmed previous results that high neuroticism is a risk factor for both depression and migraine, openness to experience was significantly lower in the co-occurrence of migraine and depression. Our results suggest that increased openness, possibly manifested in optimal or advantageous cognitive processing of pain experience in migraine may decrease the risk of co-occurrence of depression and migraine and thus may provide valuable insight for newer prevention and intervention approaches in the treatment of these conditions.

  15. Phenomenological features of dreams: Results from dream log studies using the Subjective Experiences Rating Scale (SERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Tracey L; Claudatos, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Self-ratings of dream experiences were obtained from 144 college women for 788 dreams, using the Subjective Experiences Rating Scale (SERS). Consistent with past studies, dreams were characterized by a greater prevalence of vision, audition, and movement than smell, touch, or taste, by both positive and negative emotion, and by a range of cognitive processes. A Principal Components Analysis of SERS ratings revealed ten subscales: four sensory, three affective, one cognitive, and two structural (events/actions, locations). Correlations (Pearson r) among subscale means showed a stronger relationship among the process-oriented features (sensory, cognitive, affective) than between the process-oriented and content-centered (structural) features--a pattern predicted from past research (e.g., Bulkeley & Kahan, 2008). Notably, cognition and positive emotion were associated with a greater number of other phenomenal features than was negative emotion; these findings are consistent with studies of the qualitative features of waking autobiographical memory (e.g., Fredrickson, 2001). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Measurement of Drug Craving in Persian Speaking Subjects; a Review on Current Experiences and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Maarefvand

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug craving is considered as one of the main cores of drug dependency and addiction. Multidimensionality of drug craving, its cultural-bounded features and its intra individual rapidly changing nature makes it difficult to be measured. Nowadays, regarding different psychometric approaches, there are various instruments available for measurement of different aspects of drug craving but mainly for Latin-based languages in North America and European countries. High prevalence and special conditions, and unique subcultures in substance abuse and addiction in many countries, like Iran, make the design of culturally validated instruments for drug craving assessment priority. Materials and Methods: Comprehensive review on drug craving measurement instruments for Persian speaking subjects have been performed by searching in databases (ELSEVIER, Science Direct and Scientific Information Database (SID and investigating of related documents on regional experiences. Results: In this article seven main categories of drug craving instruments have been reviewed focusing on validated versions in Persian language including: self-reports, reinforcement “proxies”, drug self administration, psycho physiological responding, neurobiological responding, cognitive processing and expressive methods. Conclusion: Reviewing on weak and strength points of each instrument group and national and regional experiences shows that designing and validating a new series of ecologically-validated instruments for multidimensional measurement of drug craving in different addiction subcultures should be prioritized to cover current methodological gaps in substance abuse studies in Iran.

  17. The subjective experience of using Ignatian meditation by male and female South African university students: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimiadis-Keith, Helen; Lindegger, Graham

    2014-10-01

    This study is set out to examine the subjective experience of using the Ignatian method of meditation to reflect on and pray through Ruth 2. A group of male and female Theology students from the University of KwaZulu-Natal were invited to reflect upon/pray through Ruth 2 using Ignatian meditation. Following this exercise, participants were invited to participate in a focus group in which they shared their experience of this exercise, focusing particularly on some of the gendered aspects of the experience. The transcribed focus group material was subjected to a critical thematic analysis, in order to identify which core aspects of the experience of using this method of meditation and reflection were responsible for the reported subjective experiences. The analysis also included a comparison of the experience for men and women participating in this exercise, and the differential effect of various aspects of the exercise on men and women.

  18. Employment participation and work experience of male cancer survivors: a NOCWO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Holmfridur K; Vidarsdottir, Halldora; Rafnsdottir, Gudbjorg Linda; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Olafsdottir, Elinborg J; Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether employment status and work experiences, assessed in terms of job resources (organizational culture and superiors' and co-workers' support), commitment to organization, work motives, and experiences of discrimination, differ between survivors of prostate or testicular cancer or lymphoma and cancer-free reference subjects. Questionnaires were sent to 1349 male cancer survivors and 2666 referents in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway. Valid responses were 59% and 45%, respectively. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated with logistic regression models. Compared to the referents, survivors of lymphoma and prostate cancer were less likely to be employed (OR=0.53; CI: 0.30-0.95 and OR=0.50; CI: 0.35-0.73, respectively), but decreased employment was not evident among testicular cancer survivors. Testicular cancer survivors experienced less discrimination at work than did the referents, for example, testicular cancer survivors were less likely to report that their colleagues doubted their ability to carry out their work tasks (OR=0.38; CI: 0.17-0.83). Lymphoma survivors were less likely than the referents to praise their workplace as an enjoyable place to work (OR=0.48; CI: 0.26-0.88). The prostate cancer survivors were more likely than the referents to find the organizational climate competitive, distrustful, and suspicious. Employment participation and work experiences of male cancer survivors varied substantially according to type of cancer. Occupational therapists and other health care personnel should keep this in mind when assisting cancer survivors in identifying their strengths and limitations at work.

  19. Negative emotional experiences arouse rumination and affect working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curci, Antonietta; Lanciano, Tiziana; Soleti, Emanuela; Rimé, Bernard

    2013-10-01

    Following an emotional experience, individuals are confronted with the persistence of ruminative thoughts that disturb the undertaking of other activities. In the present study, we experimentally tested the idea that experiencing a negative emotion triggers a ruminative process that drains working memory (WM) resources normally devoted to other tasks. Undergraduate participants of high versus low WM capacity were administered the operation-word memory span test (OSPAN) as a measure of availability of WM resources preceding and following the presentation of negative emotional versus neutral material. Rumination was assessed immediately after the second OSPAN session and at a 24-hr delay. Results showed that both the individual's WM capacity and the emotional valence of the material influenced WM performance and the persistence of ruminative thoughts. Following the experimental induction, rumination mediated the relationship between the negative emotional state and the concomitant WM performance. Based on these results, we argue that ruminative processes deplete WM resources, making them less available for concurrent tasks; in addition, rumination tends to persist over time. These findings have implications for the theoretical modeling of the long-term effects of emotions in both daily life and clinical contexts.

  20. Work-life balance and subjective well-being: the mediating role of need fulfilment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröpel, Peter; Kuhl, Julius

    2009-05-01

    The relationship between work-life balance (WLB) (i.e. the perceived sufficiency of the time available for work and social life) and well-being is well-documented. However, previous research failed to sufficiently explain why this relationship exists. In this research, the hypothesis was tested that a sufficient amount of the time available increases well-being because it facilitates satisfaction of personal needs. Using two separate samples (students and employees), the mediating role of need fulfilment in the relationship between WLB and well-being was supported. The results suggest that perceived sufficiency of the time available for work and social life predicts the level of well-being only if the individual's needs are fulfilled within that time.

  1. Subjective health complaints, functional ability, fear avoidance beliefs, and days on sickness benefits after work rehabilitation - a mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øyeflaten, Irene; Opsahl, Jon; Eriksen, Hege R; Braathen, Tore Norendal; Lie, Stein Atle; Brage, Søren; Ihlebæk, Camilla M; Breivik, Kyrre

    2016-05-23

    Long-term sick leave and withdrawal from working life is a concern in western countries. In Norway, comprehensive inpatient work rehabilitation may be offered to sick listed individuals at risk of long-term absence from work. Knowledge about prognostic factors for work outcomes after long-term sick leave and work rehabilitation is still limited. The aim of this study was to test a mediation model for various hypothesized biopsychosocial predictors of continued sick leave after inpatient work rehabilitation. One thousand one hundred fifty-five participants on long-term sick leave from eight different work rehabilitation clinics answered comprehensive questionnaires at arrival to the clinic, and were followed with official register data on sickness benefits for 3 years. Structural equation models were conducted, with days on sickness benefits after work rehabilitation as the outcome. Fear avoidance beliefs for work mediated the relation between both musculoskeletal complaints and education on days on sickness benefits after work rehabilitation. The relation between musculoskeletal complaints and fear avoidance beliefs for work was furthermore fully mediated by poor physical function. Previous sick leave had a strong independent effect on continued sick leave after work rehabilitation. Fear avoidance beliefs for work did not mediate the small effect of pseudoneurological complaints on continued sick leave. Poor coping/interaction ability was neither related to continued sick leave nor fear avoidance beliefs for work. The mediation model was partly supported by the data, and provides some possible new insight into how fear avoidance beliefs for work and functional ability may intervene with subjective health complaints and days on sickness benefits after work rehabilitation.

  2. Towards happiness: Experiences of work-role fit, meaningfulness and work engagement of industrial/organisational psychologists in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llewellyn E. van Zyl

    2010-10-01

    Research purpose: The aim of this study was to determine how I/O psychologists experience the meaning of their work and to investigate the relationships between their experiences of work-role fit, meaning of work, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement, utilising the happiness framework proposed by Seligman (2002. Motivation for the study: I/O psychologists spend more than 88% of their working day with people, and they are primary role models for happiness in the workplace. Information about their work engagement and experiences of meaning is therefore needed. Research design, approach and method: A survey design was used. A convenience sample (n = 106 was taken of I/O psychologists in South Africa. A biographical questionnaire, the Work-Role Fit Scale, the Work-Life Questionnaire, the Psychological Meaningfulness Scale, the Work Engagement Scale and a survey measuring the actual and desired time spent on six broad categories of work were administered. Main findings: Work-role fit predicted psychological meaningfulness and work engagement. The calling orientation to work predicted both psychological meaningfulness and work engagement. Work-role fit mediated the relationship between the meaning of work and psychological meaningfulness. Work-role fit partially mediated the relationship between a calling orientation to work and work engagement. Practical implications: A calling orientation to work should be fostered in I/O psychologists because it contributes to experiences of work-role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement. Contribution/value-add: The results of this study contribute to scientific knowledge about work-role fit, engagement and meaning as components of happiness of I/O psychologists.

  3. Assessing teachers' positive psychological functioning at work: Development and validation of the Teacher Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Tyler L; Long, Anna C J; Cook, Clayton R

    2015-06-01

    This study reports on the initial development and validation of the Teacher Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire (TSWQ) with 2 samples of educators-a general sample of 185 elementary and middle school teachers, and a target sample of 21 elementary school teachers experiencing classroom management challenges. The TSWQ is an 8-item self-report instrument for assessing teachers' subjective wellbeing, which is operationalized via subscales measuring school connectedness and teaching efficacy. The conceptualization and development processes underlying the TSWQ are described, and results from a series of preliminary psychometric and exploratory analyses are reported to establish initial construct validity. Findings indicated that the TSWQ was characterized by 2 conceptually sound latent factors, that both subscales and the composite scale demonstrated strong internal consistency, and that all scales demonstrated convergent validity with self-reported school supports and divergent validity with self-reported stress and emotional burnout. Furthermore, results indicated that TSWQ scores did not differ according to teachers' school level (i.e., elementary vs. middle), but that they did differ according to unique school environment (e.g., 1 middle school vs. another middle school) and teacher stressors (i.e., general teachers vs. teachers experiencing classroom management challenges). Results also indicated that, for teachers experiencing classroom challenges, the TSWQ had strong short-term predictive validity for psychological distress, accounting for approximately half of the variance in teacher stress and emotional burnout. Implications for theory, research, and the practice of school psychology are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Measuring the coefficient of restitution and more: a simple experiment to promote students’ critical thinking and autonomous work

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Manuel Á.; González, Miguel Á.; Vegas, Jesús; Llamas, César

    2017-09-01

    A simple experiment on the determination of the coefficient of restitution of different materials is taken as the basis of an extendable work that can be done by students in an autonomous way. On the whole, the work described in this paper would involve concepts of kinematics, materials science, air drag and buoyancy, and would help students to think of physics as a whole subject instead of a set of, more or less, isolated parts. The experiment can be done either in teaching laboratories or as an autonomous work by students at home. Students’ smartphones and cheap balls of different materials are the only experimental materials required to do the experiment. The proposed work also permits the students to analyse the limitations of a physical model used in the experiment by analysing the approximations considered in it, and then enhancing their critical thinking.

  5. The Liminality of Temporary Agency Work: Exploring the Dimensions of Danish Temporary Agency Workers’ Liminal Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Winkler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of liminality refers to the experience to be betwixt-and-between social structures and the associated positions, statuses, and roles. We advance the original use of the concept by introducing the various meanings that the experience of being in a liminal state can take. Drawing on political anthropology we identify the dimensions of ‘types of subjects,’ ‘time,’ ‘space,’ and ‘scale’ in order to analytically unlock the liminal experience. Exemplifying our concept we present the findings from an own study of temporary agency workers in Denmark. Exploring the workers’ interpretations allows us to illustrate to what extent their employment situation constitutes a multi-dimensional liminal experience between established social structures and employment categories. The article emphasizes the complexity of the liminal experience. Theoretically and empirically, we show the many meanings along which liminality can unfold in organizational and work-related contexts. We argue that future studies should explore the various dimensions in other contexts of passages from one relatively stable state to another. In doing so, similarities and differences between various liminal experiences and the role the various dimensions play could be identified.

  6. Subjective Experiences and Sensitivities in Women with Fibromyalgia: A Quantitative and Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. De Roa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia is a chronic widespread pain syndrome associated with chronic fatigue. Its pathogenesis is not clearly understood. This study presents subjective experiences and sensitivities reported by fibromyalgia patients, which should be considered in primary care to avoid medical nomadism, as well as stigmatization of the patients. The prevalence of significant characteristics was compared with others patients consulting at the same pain unit who suffer from rebel and disabling form of chronic migraine. Psychometric tests were anonymously completed by 78 patients of the Pain Unit (44 fibromyalgia patients and 34 migraine patients. Tests evaluated pain (Visual Analog scale, childhood traumas (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, lack of parental affection, stressful life events (Holmes and Rahe Scale, anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, perceived hypersensitivity to 10 stimuli, and hyperactivity before illness. However, pain scores were comparable in the two groups, and the prevalence was significantly higher in fibromyalgia patients than in migraine patients for anxiety (81.8% versus 51.5% and depression (57.1% versus 8.8%. Childhood physical abuses were more frequently reported in fibromyalgia than in migraine cases (25% versus 3%. Similarly, the feeling of lack of parental affection, subjective hypersensitivity to stress and stimuli (cold, moisture, heat, full moon, and flavors or hyperactivity (ergomania, appeared as prominent features of fibromyalgia patients. Fibromyalgia patients considered themselves as being hypersensitive (mentally and physically compared to migraine patients. They also have higher depression levels. Beyond somatic symptoms, precociously taking account of psychosocial and behavioral strategies would highly improve treatment efficiency of the fibromyalgia syndrome.

  7. Helping others increases meaningful work: Evidence from three experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Blake A; Duffy, Ryan D; Collisson, Brian

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the current research was to examine whether manipulating task significance increased the meaningfulness of work among students (Study 1), an online sample of working adults (Study 2), and public university employees (Study 3). In Study 1, students completed a typing task for the benefit of themselves, a charity, or someone they knew would directly benefit from their work. People who worked to benefit someone else, rather than themselves, reported greater task meaningfulness. In Study 2, a representative, online sample of employees reflected on a time when they worked to benefit themselves or someone else at work. Results revealed that people who reflected on working to benefit someone else, rather than themselves, reported greater work meaningfulness. In Study 3, public university employees participated in a community intervention by working as they normally would, finding new ways to help people each day, or finding several new ways to help others on a single day. People who helped others many times in a single day experienced greater gains in work meaningfulness over time. Across 3 experimental studies, we found that people who perceived their work as helping others experienced more meaningfulness in their work. This highlights the potential mechanisms practitioners, employers, and other parties can use to increase the meaningfulness of work, which has implications for workers' well-being and productivity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Decreased Openness to Experience Is Associated with Migraine-Type Headaches in Subjects with Lifetime Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mate Magyar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionMigraine and depression frequently occur as comorbid conditions, and it has been hypothesized that migraine with and without depression may have a different genetic background. A distinct personality trait constellation has been described in migraineurs. Less attention, however, was paid to personality differences in migraineurs with and without depression which may also shed light on differences in the neurobiological, background. The aim of our study was to investigate big five personality traits, headaches, and lifetime depression (DEP in a large European general population sample.MethodsRelationship between DEP, Big Five Inventory personality traits, and headaches identified by the ID-Migraine Questionnaire were investigated in 3,026 individuals from Budapest and Manchester with multivariate and logistic regression analyses.ResultsBoth DEP and migraine(ID showed differences in personality traits. Neuroticism was an independent risk factor for both conditions while a significant interaction effect appeared between the two in the case of openness. Namely, subjects with migraine(ID and without DEP scored higher on openness compared to those who had depression.ConclusionWhile we confirmed previous results that high neuroticism is a risk factor for both depression and migraine, openness to experience was significantly lower in the co-occurrence of migraine and depression. Our results suggest that increased openness, possibly manifested in optimal or advantageous cognitive processing of pain experience in migraine may decrease the risk of co-occurrence of depression and migraine and thus may provide valuable insight for newer prevention and intervention approaches in the treatment of these conditions.

  9. Capacity for work researching method in animal experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pul'nov, V.N.; Mashneva, N.I.

    1978-01-01

    The existing methods of examining the work capacity of animals are discussed with reference to extrapolation of animal data to man. A modified procedure for measuring maximal physical strength is proposed, whereby static endurance of animals at a given exercise rate can be measured. For an integrated evaluation of work capacity, a formula of absolute work capacity is suggested. The proposed procedure may be used to study the working capacity of animals exposed to unfavorable factors of radiation or nonradiation nature

  10. Ethnicity, work-related stress and subjective reports of health by migrant workers: a multi-dimensional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, Roberto; Zurlo, Maria Clelia; Smith, Andrew P

    2018-02-01

    This study integrates different aspects of ethnicity and work-related stress dimensions (based on the Demands-Resources-Individual-Effects model, DRIVE [Mark, G. M., and A. P. Smith. 2008. "Stress Models: A Review and Suggested New Direction." In Occupational Health Psychology, edited by J. Houdmont and S. Leka, 111-144. Nottingham: Nottingham University Press]) and aims to test a multi-dimensional model that combines individual differences, ethnicity dimensions, work characteristics, and perceived job satisfaction/stress as independent variables in the prediction of subjectives reports of health by workers differing in ethnicity. A questionnaire consisting of the following sections was submitted to 900 workers in Southern Italy: for individual and cultural characteristics, coping strategies, personality behaviours, and acculturation strategies; for work characteristics, perceived job demands and job resources/rewards; for appraisals, perceived job stress/satisfaction and racial discrimination; for subjective reports of health, psychological disorders and general health. To test the reliability and construct validity of the extracted factors referred to all dimensions involved in the proposed model and logistic regression analyses to evaluate the main effects of the independent variables on the health outcomes were conducted. Principal component analysis (PCA) yielded seven factors for individual and cultural characteristics (emotional/relational coping, objective coping, Type A behaviour, negative affectivity, social inhibition, affirmation/maintenance culture, and search identity/adoption of the host culture); three factors for work characteristics (work demands, intrinsic/extrinsic rewards, and work resources); three factors for appraisals (perceived job satisfaction, perceived job stress, perceived racial discrimination) and three factors for subjective reports of health (interpersonal disorders, anxious-depressive disorders, and general health). Logistic

  11. “Otherwise it would be nothing but cruises”: exploring the subjective benefits of working beyond 65

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Reynolds

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The age at which statutory and private pensions are being paid is increasing in many countries and hence more people will need to work into their late 60s and beyond. At present, relatively little is known about the meanings of work for people who actively choose to work into their later life. This qualitative study examined the subjective benefits of continuing in a paid job or self-employment beyond the age of 65 in the United Kingdom. Thirty-one participants were interviewed, aged 6591 years (median age 71, with 11 females and 20 males. Fourteen were working full-time and seventeen part-time. Interview transcripts were subject to thematic analysis. Although financial reward was acknowledged (more so by the female participants and the males who had young second families, there was more elaboration of the role of work in maintaining health and enabling continuing personal development. Work was framed as increasing personal control over later life, lifestyle choices and active participation in wider society, an antithesis to ‘‘cruising’’.

  12. The influence of previous subject experience on interactions during peer instruction in an introductory physics course: A mixed methods analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondruska, Judy A.

    Over the past decade, peer instruction and the introduction of student response systems has provided a means of improving student engagement and achievement in large-lecture settings. While the nature of the student discourse occurring during peer instruction is less understood, existing studies have shown student ideas about the subject, extraneous cues, and confidence level appear to matter in the student-student discourse. Using a mixed methods research design, this study examined the influence of previous subject experience on peer instruction in an introductory, one-semester Survey of Physics course. Quantitative results indicated students in discussion pairs where both had previous subject experience were more likely to answer clicker question correctly both before and after peer discussion compared to student groups where neither partner had previous subject experience. Students in mixed discussion pairs were not statistically different in correct response rates from the other pairings. There was no statistically significant difference between the experience pairs on unit exam scores or the Peer Instruction Partner Survey. Although there was a statistically significant difference between the pre-MPEX and post-MPEX scores, there was no difference between the members of the various subject experience peer discussion pairs. The qualitative study, conducted after the quantitative study, helped to inform the quantitative results by exploring the nature of the peer interactions through survey questions and a series of focus groups discussions. While the majority of participants described a benefit to the use of clickers in the lecture, their experience with their discussion partners varied. Students with previous subject experience tended to describe peer instruction more positively than students who did not have previous subject experience, regardless of the experience level of their partner. They were also more likely to report favorable levels of comfort with

  13. On the characterisation of the dynamic compressive behaviour of silicon carbides subjected to isentropic compression experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinszner Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic materials are commonly used as protective materials particularly due to their very high hardness and compressive strength. However, the microstructure of a ceramic has a great influence on its compressive strength and on its ballistic efficiency. To study the influence of microstructural parameters on the dynamic compressive behaviour of silicon carbides, isentropic compression experiments have been performed on two silicon carbide grades using a high pulsed power generator called GEPI. Contrary to plate impact experiments, the use of the GEPI device and of the lagrangian analysis allows determining the whole loading path. The two SiC grades studied present different Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL due to their different microstructures. For these materials, the experimental technique allowed evaluating the evolution of the equivalent stress during the dynamic compression. It has been observed that these two grades present a work hardening more or less pronounced after the HEL. The densification of the material seems to have more influence on the HEL than the grain size.

  14. A narrative insight into disability pensioners' work experiences in highly gender-segregated occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholdt, Sofia; Alexanderson, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    This study examined some plausible explanations for the higher rates of ill-health seen in extremely gender-segregated occupations. The focus was on the work experiences of disability pensioners with last jobs prior to pensioning characterized by segregated conditions (i.e., less than 10% of the employees of their own sex). Seven interviews were subjected to qualitative content analyses focusing on aspects of health selection, gender differences in work tasks, and in the work situation. The results show a negative health selection into occupations in which the participants constitute an extreme minority. There were some differences in work tasks between the gender in extreme minority and the other gender. Exposure to different stress factors related to the minority status included increased visibility, performance pressure, and harassment. Gender had been of main importance for differences in exposure, for assigning work tasks, and for interaction dynamics between the groups in majority and extreme minority. A combination of negative health selection, gender marking of work tasks, and group interaction dynamics related to group proportions and gender may play a role in cumulative health risks. Additional longitudinal studies are needed to identify mechanisms and interactions in this context in order to better understand possible relationships between occupational gender segregation and increased health risks.

  15. Family responsibility, organizational practices, work-family balance and subjective welfare in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Jiménez Figueroa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of family responsibility has become more relevant in Chile. Research suggests that from the public and private sectors various initiatives towards the implementation of public policies that favor this inclusion are required. The global labor scene has changed considerably in the social, economic and family areas, exposing the need to reorganize the distribution of work responsibilities between men and women. As a contribution to the discussion, we analyze here the main background, and the need to review public policies, to implement the measures in the organizational field and to investigate further appropriate measures to Chile as a means to improve the quality of workinglife in the country

  16. The effect of self-assessed fatigue and subjective cognitive impairment on work capacity: The case of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobelt, Gisela; Langdon, Dawn; Jönsson, Linus

    2018-04-01

    The impact of physical disability in multiple sclerosis on employment is well documented but the effect of neurological symptoms has been less well studied. We investigated the independent effect of self-reported fatigue and cognitive difficulties on work. In a large European cost of illness survey, self-reported fatigue, subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), and productivity at work were assessed with visual analogue scales (VAS 0-10). The analysis controlled for country, age, age at diagnosis, gender, education, and physical disability. A total of 13,796 patients were of working age and 6,598 were working. Physical disability had a powerful impact on the probability of working, as did education. The probability of working was reduced by 8.7% and 4.4% for each point increase on the VAS for SCI and fatigue, respectively ( p work hours decreased linearly with increasing severity of fatigue and cognitive problems, while sick leave during the 3 months preceding the assessment increased. Finally, the severity of both symptoms was associated with the level at which productivity at work was affected ( p work capacity and highlight the importance of assessment in clinical practice.

  17. The experience of demanding work environments in younger workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Trine Nøhr; Labriola, Merete; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    younger workers aged 20-21. The psychosocial work environment was in general good but younger workers experienced more demanding physical work than the general working population. Overall, individual as well as family factors had a limited impact on their assessment of the work environment. Low self-esteem...... at age 20-21. The psychosocial work environment experienced by younger workers was generally good, but vulnerable young people may need special attention to protect them from or prepare them for psychosocially demanding jobs later in life....

  18. The Relationship Between Work Experience and Job Performance: A Conceptual and Meta-Analytic Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quinones, Miguel

    2001-01-01

    .... To this end, we conducted a conceptual review of the work experience literature, developed a framework for measuring different facets of work experience, and conducted a meta-analysis to examine...

  19. Perceived health and work-environment related problems and associated subjective production loss in an academic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohela-Karlsson, Malin; Nybergh, Lotta; Jensen, Irene

    2018-02-14

    The aim was to investigate the prevalence of health problems and work environment problems and how these are associated with subjective production loss among women and men at an academic workplace. An additional aim was to investigate whether there were differences between women and men according to age group, years at current workplace, academic rank or managerial position. A questionnaire was sent in 2011 to all employees at a Swedish university (n = 5144). Only researchers and teachers were included in the study (n = 3207). Spearman correlations were performed to investigate differences in health and work environment problems. Employees who reported having experienced work environment or health problems in the previous seven days (n = 1475) were included in the analyses in order to investigate differences in subjective production loss. This was done using Student's t-test, One-way Anova and generalized linear models. The response rate was 63% (n = 2022). A total of 819 academic staff (40% of the population) reported experiencing either health problems, work environment problems or both during the previous seven days. The prevalence of health problems only or a combination of work environment and health problems was higher among women than men (p-value ˂0.05). This was especially the case for younger women, those in lower academic positions and those who had worked for fewer years at their current workplace. No difference was found for work environment problems. The majority of the employees who reported problems said that these problems affected their ability to perform at work (84-99%). The average production loss varied between 31 and 42% depending on the type of problem. Production loss due to health-related and work-environment related problems was highest among junior researchers and managers. No significant difference between men and women was found in the level of production loss. Subjective production loss in academia can be associated

  20. Recruitment of occipital cortex during sensory substitution training linked to subjective experience of seeing in people with blindness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Ortiz

    Full Text Available Over three months of intensive training with a tactile stimulation device, 18 blind and 10 blindfolded seeing subjects improved in their ability to identify geometric figures by touch. Seven blind subjects spontaneously reported 'visual qualia', the subjective sensation of seeing flashes of light congruent with tactile stimuli. In the latter subjects tactile stimulation evoked activation of occipital cortex on electroencephalography (EEG. None of the blind subjects who failed to experience visual qualia, despite identical tactile stimulation training, showed EEG recruitment of occipital cortex. None of the blindfolded seeing humans reported visual-like sensations during tactile stimulation. These findings support the notion that the conscious experience of seeing is linked to the activation of occipital brain regions in people with blindness. Moreover, the findings indicate that provision of visual information can be achieved through non-visual sensory modalities which may help to minimize the disability of blind individuals, affording them some degree of object recognition and navigation aid.

  1. Recruitment of occipital cortex during sensory substitution training linked to subjective experience of seeing in people with blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Tomás; Poch, Joaquín; Santos, Juan M; Requena, Carmen; Martínez, Ana M; Ortiz-Terán, Laura; Turrero, Agustín; Barcia, Juan; Nogales, Ramón; Calvo, Agustín; Martínez, José M; Córdoba, José L; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    Over three months of intensive training with a tactile stimulation device, 18 blind and 10 blindfolded seeing subjects improved in their ability to identify geometric figures by touch. Seven blind subjects spontaneously reported 'visual qualia', the subjective sensation of seeing flashes of light congruent with tactile stimuli. In the latter subjects tactile stimulation evoked activation of occipital cortex on electroencephalography (EEG). None of the blind subjects who failed to experience visual qualia, despite identical tactile stimulation training, showed EEG recruitment of occipital cortex. None of the blindfolded seeing humans reported visual-like sensations during tactile stimulation. These findings support the notion that the conscious experience of seeing is linked to the activation of occipital brain regions in people with blindness. Moreover, the findings indicate that provision of visual information can be achieved through non-visual sensory modalities which may help to minimize the disability of blind individuals, affording them some degree of object recognition and navigation aid.

  2. Chinese Undergraduate Students' Work Values: The Role of Parental Work Experience and Part-Time Work Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Francis Yue-lok; Tang, Catherine So-kum

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the association of perceived parental job insecurity and students' part-time work quality on work values among 341 Hong Kong Chinese undergraduate students. Correlation and regression results showed that work values were strongly related to students' part-time work satisfaction and work quality. In…

  3. Daily recovery experiences: the role of volunteer work during leisure time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojza, Eva J; Lorenz, Christian; Sonnentag, Sabine; Binnewies, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the role of volunteer work for daily recovery from work. In a 1-week diary study with 166 employees, we assessed the amount of time spent on volunteer work during leisure time, and the recovery facets of psychological detachment from work (i.e., mentally switching off from work), mastery experiences (i.e., pursuing challenging activities), and community experiences (i.e., cultivating relationships) every day before participants went to bed. Results from hierarchical linear modeling (n = 529 days) showed volunteer work during leisure time to be positively related to mastery experiences and community experiences suggesting volunteer work to contribute to successful recovery by creating new resources.

  4. One Step Forward, Two Steps Back? Work Experience, Equal Opportunities and TVEI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Sue

    1995-01-01

    A case study of work experience provided in a British project committed to gender equality shows that the nature of work experience--its alliance with labor market needs--makes it virtually impossible to meet equal opportunity objectives. Work experience tends to reinforce existing gender divisions in the labor market. (SK)

  5. Characteristics of Early Work Experiences and Their Association with Future Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnall, Michele Capella; O'Mally, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Early work experiences are a key predictor of future employment for transition-age youths with visual impairments. We investigated how specific characteristics of early work experiences influence future employment and whether the receipt of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits is associated with early work experiences among…

  6. Work Experiences of Patients Receiving Palliative Care at a Comprehensive Cancer Center: Exploratory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glare, Paul A; Nikolova, Tanya; Alickaj, Alberta; Patil, Sujata; Blinder, Victoria

    2017-07-01

    Employment-related issues have been largely overlooked in cancer patients needing palliative care. These issues may become more relevant as cancer evolves into more of a chronic illness and palliative care is provided independent of stage or prognosis. To characterize the employment situations of working-age palliative care patients. Cross-sectional survey setting/subjects: Consecutive sample of 112 patients followed in palliative care outpatient clinics at a comprehensive cancer center. Thirty-seven-item self-report questionnaire covering demographics, clinical status, and work experiences since diagnosis. The commonest cancer diagnoses were breast, colorectal, gynecological, and lung. Eighty-one percent had active disease. Seventy-four percent were on treatment. Eighty percent recalled being employed at the time of diagnosis, with 65% working full time. At the time of the survey, 44% were employed and 26% were working full time. Most participants said work was important, made them feel normal, and helped them feel they were "beating the cancer". Factors associated with being employed included male gender, self-employed, and taking less than three months off work. Respondents with pain and/or other symptoms were significantly less likely to be working. On multivariate analysis, only pain (odds ratio [OR] 8.16, p gender (OR 2.07), self-employed (OR 3.07), and current chemotherapy (OR 1.81) were included in the model, but were not statistically significant in this small sample. Work may be an important issue for some palliative care patients. Additional research is needed to facilitate ongoing employment for those who wish or need to continue working.

  7. Work and Inter-subjectivity: a theoretical reflection on its dialectics in the field of health and nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Brígida Gimenez; Peduzzi, Marina; Mandú, Edir Nei Teixeira; Ayres, José Ricardo de Carvalho Mesquita

    2012-01-01

    This theoretical reflection intends to show the inter-subjective relationship that takes place in health and nursing practices under the following theoretical perspectives: Institutional Analysis, Psychodynamics of Labor and the Theory of Communicative Action, with an emphasis on the latter. Linking these concepts to the Marxist approach to work in the field of health emerges from recognizing the need for its continuous reconstruction-in this case, with a view to understand the interaction and communication intrinsic to work in action. The theory of Communicative Action seeks to consider these two inextricable dimensions: work as productive action and as interaction. The first corresponds to instrumental action based on technical rules with a production-guided rationale. The second refers to the interaction that takes place as communicative action and seeks understanding among subjects. We assume that adopting this theoretical perspective in the analysis of health and nursing practices opens new possibilities for clarifying its social and historical process and inter-subjective connections.

  8. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugasu, V.

    Work oriented education has been tied to national development in Malaysia since the 1960's. Increasing population, unemployment, and shortages of skilled manpower led the government to relate education more closely to work and develop technical and vocational education. Malaysia extended basic education to lower secondary manpower needs; and…

  9. Experience in the Kola NPP start-up works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, S.I.; Omel'chuk, V.V.; Bodrukhin, Yu.M.

    1984-01-01

    Main stages and peculiar features of maintenance and start-up works at WWER-440 type reactor NPPs described. Remarks revealed during complex equipment testing, physical and power start-up will be useful for arrangement of maintenance and start-up works at newly built NPPs

  10. Experience of Social Support among Working Mothers: A Concept Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phang, A. Young; Lee, Ki-Hak

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify, categorize, and provide a model for the understanding of social support among Korean working mothers. The participants were interviewed and asked what kind of social support they received that allowed them to maintain work and family life. Using multidimensional scaling and hierarchical clustering analysis…

  11. [Maternity leave and experience of working mothers in Lebanon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadé, N; Barbour, B; Salameh, P

    2010-09-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study of 802 Lebanese mothers to evaluate effect of rapid return to work on their health and that of their child. Breastfeeding practices were also assessed. The duration of maternity leave was insufficient for 72.8% of the women. Rapid return to work could cause physical and psychological problems depending on the type of work. The average length of breastfeeding was 4.7 months and while the average desired length was 10.9 months. Breastfeeding depended on the duration of the maternity leave, the possibility of breaks for breastfeeding and the presence of nurseries at work. Urgent interventions are necessary to prolong maternity leave and promote breastfeeding among working women.

  12. Work-related limitations and return-to-work experiences in prolonged fatigue: workers' perspectives before and after vocational treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosen, Margot C W; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith K

    2011-01-01

    To gain insight into fatigued workers' perspectives regarding work experience before and after receiving vocational rehabilitation (VR) treatments. A qualitative survey was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 21 fatigued workers who attended an outpatient multi-component VR treatment. Six months after treatment, work-related limitations and employed VR strategies at work before treatment were explored. Next, VR treatment experiences regarding return-to-work (RTW) were explored. Two researchers performed partially independent, qualitative analyses that revealed topics, discussed by the project team, and organised into domains, categories and sub-categories. Work-related limitations were: symptoms of prolonged fatigue, personal limitations (e.g. lack of self-reflection on individual capacity and limitations), interpersonal factors, activities and conditions at work and life/work imbalance. Before the treatment, VR strategies such as work adaptations, well-intentioned advice and support, and/or referral to psychological or physical care were employed. VR treatment experiences on RTW were: personal challenges (e.g. gained awareness and coping skills), improved activities during work, work adaptations and unresolved problems (e.g. remaining fatigue symptoms and sickness absence). New information about work experiences before and after multi-component VR treatments in workers with prolonged fatigue may help employers, occupational physicians and other caregivers to develop VR strategies that better meet individuals' needs.

  13. The Baby and the Bathwater: Making a Case for Work Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Annette; Smith, Erica

    2003-01-01

    A survey of 1,451 Australian secondary students indicated that 18% participated in structured work placements, 54% in other paid work experience. Despite claims of the superiority of structured placements, other types of work experience also enhanced career awareness, improved self-esteem, and contributed to school-to-work transition. (Contains 28…

  14. The Professional Learning Experiences of Non-Mathematics Subject Specialist Teachers: A Descriptive Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ho Younghusband, Alice Christine

    2017-01-01

    Certified teachers in British Columbia (BC) schools can be assigned to teach secondary mathematics without having a major, minor, or formal background in mathematics. This is known as out-of-field teaching. These non-mathematics subject specialist teachers (NMSSTs) must learn or relearn the subject matter of mathematics to teach secondary mathematics. This study investigates what professional learning activities NMSSTs participate in to gain subject matter content knowledge in mathematics, wh...

  15. Nature contact and organizational support during office working hours: Benefits relating to stress reduction, subjective health complaints, and sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnstad, Siv; Patil, Grete G; Raanaas, Ruth K

    2015-01-01

    Improving social support, and providing nature contact at work are potential health promoting workplace interventions. The objective was to investigate whether nature contact at work is associated with employee's health and participation, and to study whether the possible associations between nature contact and health can be explained by perceived organizational support. Data were collected through a web-based, cross-sectional survey of employees in seven public and private office workplaces in Norway (n = 707, 40% response rate). Multiple linear and logistic regression analysis were performed on 565 participants fulfilling inclusion criteria. A greater amount of indoor nature contact at work was significantly associated with less job stress (B = -0.18, CI = -0.318 to -0.042), fewer subjective health complaints (B = -0.278, CI = -0.445 to -0.112) and less sickness absence (B = -0.061, CI = -0.009 to -0.002). Perceived organizational support mediated the associations between indoor nature contact and job stress and sickness absence, and partly mediated the association with subjective health complaints. Outdoor nature contact showed no reliable association with the outcomes in this study. Extending nature contact in the physical work environment in offices, can add to the variety of possible health-promoting workplace interventions, primarily since it influences the social climate on the workplace.

  16. Career management: Taking control of the quality of work experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vianen, A.E.M.; de Pater, I.E.; Preenen, P.T.Y.; Athanasou, J.A.; Van Esbroeck, R.

    2008-01-01

    Due to flatter and rapidly changing organisations, employees rather than employers will be responsible for employees’ development and careers. This chapter focuses on career management through personal development. Extant literatures have primarily addressed the quantity of employees’ work

  17. COMPUTER-BASED SYSTEMS OF PHYSICAL EXPERIMENT IN INDEPENDENT WORK OF STUDENTS OF TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Slipukhina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The self-study activity of students is an important form of educational process under the conditions of rapid changes of technologies. Ability and readiness of future engineers for independent education is one of their key competences. Investigation of modern methods of planning, organization and control of independent cognitive activity of students while studying physics as effective means of complex forming of their professional qualities is the object of the research. Methods: We analyse the curricula of some engineering specialities in leading technical universities, existent methods and forms of organization of students’ self-study, and own pedagogical experience. Results: Based on the theoretical analysis of existing methods of students’ self-study, it was found that a systematizing factor of appropriate educational technology is the problem focused cognitive tasks. They have to be implemented by application of the modern technological devices integrated with a computer-based experiment. We define the aim of individual or group laboratory works; the necessary theoretical and practical knowledge and skills of students are rationalized; timing and form of presentation of the results are clarified after individual and group consulting. The details of preparatory, searching-organizational, operational, and control stages in organization of students’ self-study with the use of computer oriented physical experiment are specified, these details differ depending on the didactic purpose, form of organization and students’ individuality. Discussion: The research theoretical aspect confirms the determining role of subject-subject cooperation in forming of competences of independent learning of the future engineers. Basic practical achievements of the research consist of improving methods of using of digital learning systems, creation of textbooks that promote consultative and guiding role for the educational process, working-out of

  18. Outcome and preferences in female-to-male subjects with gender dysphoria: Experience from Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Anirban; Sanyal, Debmalya

    2016-01-01

    Awareness of gender dysphoria (GD) and its treatment is increasing. There is paucity of scientific data from India regarding the therapeutic options being used for alleviating GD, which includes psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments. To study the therapeutic options including psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments used for alleviating GD. This is a retrospective study of treatment preferences and outcome in 18 female-to-male (FTM) transgender subjects who presented to the endocrine clinic. The mean follow-up was 1.6 years and only one subject was lost to follow-up after a single visit. All subjects desiring treatment had regular counseling and medical monitoring. All FTM subjects were cross-dressing. Seventeen (94.4%) FTM subjects were receiving cross-sex hormone therapy, in the form of testosterone only (61.1%) or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist in combination with testosterone (11.1%) or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) depot in combination with testosterone (22.2%). FTM subjects preferred testosterone or testosterone plus MPA; very few could afford GnRH therapy. Testosterone esters injection was preferred by most (72.2%) subjects as it was most affordable while 22.2% chose 3 monthly injections of testosterone undecanoate for convenience and better symptomatic improvement, but it was more expensive. None preferred testosterone gels because of cost and availability concerns. About 33.3% of our subjects underwent mastectomy, 38.9% had hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and only one subject underwent phalloplasty. About 16.7% of FTM subjects presented with prior mastectomy depicting a high prevalence of unsupervised or poorly supervised surgeries not following protocol wise approach. Notwithstanding of advances in Standards of Care in the Western world, there is lack of awareness and acceptance in the FTM subjects, about proper and timely protocol-wise management options leading to suboptimal physical, social, and

  19. Outcome and preferences in female-to-male subjects with gender dysphoria: Experience from Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Majumder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Awareness of gender dysphoria (GD and its treatment is increasing. There is paucity of scientific data from India regarding the therapeutic options being used for alleviating GD, which includes psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments. Aim: To study the therapeutic options including psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments used for alleviating GD. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective study of treatment preferences and outcome in 18 female-to-male (FTM transgender subjects who presented to the endocrine clinic. Results: The mean follow-up was 1.6 years and only one subject was lost to follow-up after a single visit. All subjects desiring treatment had regular counseling and medical monitoring. All FTM subjects were cross-dressing. Seventeen (94.4% FTM subjects were receiving cross-sex hormone therapy, in the form of testosterone only (61.1% or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonist in combination with testosterone (11.1% or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA depot in combination with testosterone (22.2%. FTM subjects preferred testosterone or testosterone plus MPA; very few could afford GnRH therapy. Testosterone esters injection was preferred by most (72.2% subjects as it was most affordable while 22.2% chose 3 monthly injections of testosterone undecanoate for convenience and better symptomatic improvement, but it was more expensive. None preferred testosterone gels because of cost and availability concerns. About 33.3% of our subjects underwent mastectomy, 38.9% had hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and only one subject underwent phalloplasty. About 16.7% of FTM subjects presented with prior mastectomy depicting a high prevalence of unsupervised or poorly supervised surgeries not following protocol wise approach. Conclusion: Notwithstanding of advances in Standards of Care in the Western world, there is lack of awareness and acceptance in the FTM subjects, about proper and timely protocol

  20. Outcome and preferences in male–to–female subjects with gender dysphoria: Experience from Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Majumder

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gender dysphoria (GD is an increasingly recognized medical condition in India, and little scientific data on treatment outcomes are available. Aims: Our objective is to study the therapeutic options including psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments used for alleviating GD in male–to–female (MTF transgender subjects in Eastern India. Subjects and Methods: This is a retrospective study of treatment preferences and outcome in 55 MTF transgender subjects who were presented to the endocrine clinic. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistical analysis is carried out in the present study, and Microsoft Word and Excel are used to generate graphs and tables. Results: The mean follow-up was 1.9 years and 14 subjects (25.5% were lost to follow-up after a single or 2–3 contact sessions. Rest 41 subjects (74.5% desiring treatment had regular counseling and medical monitoring. All 41 subjects were dressing to present herself as female and all of them were receiving cross-sex hormone therapy either estrogen only (68%, or drospirenone in combination with estrogen (12% or gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH in combination with estrogens (19.5%. Most of the subjects preferred estrogen therapy as it was most affordable and only a small number of subjects preferred drospirenone or GnRH agonist because of cost and availability. 23.6% subjects underwent esthetic breast augmentation surgery and 25.5% underwent orchiectomy and/or vaginoplasty. Three subjects presented with prior breast augmentation surgery and nine subjects presented with prior orchiectomy without vaginoplasty, depicting a high prevalence of poorly supervised surgeries. Conclusions: Standards of care documents provide clinical guidance for health professionals about the optimal management of transsexual people. The lack of information among health professionals about proper and protocolwise management leads to suboptimal physical, social, and sexual results.

  1. Farmers’ Cohort for Agricultural Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (FARM) Study: Study Design, Methods, and Baseline Characteristics of Enrolled Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hannae; Baek, Sora; Park, Hee-won; Lee, Sang-Ah; Moon, Jiyoung; Yang, Jae E.; Kim, Ki Sung; Kim, Jee Yong; Kang, Eun Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Background The ongoing Farmers’ Cohort for Agricultural Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (FARM) study was developed to evaluate health status and related factors in farmers. Methods Farmers in Kangwon Province, South Korea, were recruited. Baseline characteristics were determined using questionnaires about sociodemographic and health characteristics and agricultural work-related factors. In addition, laboratory examinations (lumbar spinal radiography and serologic testing) were conducted. Results The FARM study covers eight rural areas and recruited 1013 subjects (534 women; mean [standard deviation {SD}] age, 57.2 [7.5] years). Musculoskeletal pain in multiple areas was reported by 925 subjects (91.3%), and low back pain (63.8%) was the most frequent site of pain. Farmer’s Stress Inventory (mean [SD], 77.7 [10.2]; range, 28–112] and subjective stress index (mean [SD], 5.3 [2.4]; range, 0–10) were above median scale values, reflecting a stressful condition, while the EuroQol-5D-3L index and the EuroQol-Visual Analog Scale scores were high (mean [SD], 0.9 [0.1]; range −0.171–1 and mean [SD], 67.7 [18.7]; range 0–100, respectively), reflecting good life quality. In total, 53% of participants had worked in farming for more than 30 years, and workers involved in dry-field farming comprised the largest subgroup (41.5%). Most participants (94.3%) had no more than a high school education, and families with annual income below 20 million won constituted the largest subgroup (36.3%). Conclusions The FARM study may provide data on the current health status and related sociodemographic and agricultural work-related risk factors in Korean farmers, with the goal of providing a scientific basis for developing coping interventions and preventive strategies. PMID:26235456

  2. Young women with PD: a group work experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posen, J; Moore, O; Tassa, D S; Ginzburg, K; Drory, M; Giladi, N

    2000-01-01

    Parkinson's Disease (PD) prior to the age of 40 affects between 5-10% of the PD population. The psychosocial changes that patients with early PD encounter, may be more devastating and disabling than the actual motor disability. The paper describes a unique experience in groupwork with young female PD patients treated in the Movement Disorders Unit of the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center. The paper focuses on the special issues which characterized this group's experience: stigma, body and sexual image, and personality traits.

  3. Outcome and preferences in male-to-female subjects with gender dysphoria: Experience from Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Anirban; Sanyal, Debmalya

    2017-01-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) is an increasingly recognized medical condition in India, and little scientific data on treatment outcomes are available. Our objective is to study the therapeutic options including psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments used for alleviating GD in male-to-female (MTF) transgender subjects in Eastern India. This is a retrospective study of treatment preferences and outcome in 55 MTF transgender subjects who were presented to the endocrine clinic. Descriptive statistical analysis is carried out in the present study, and Microsoft Word and Excel are used to generate graphs and tables. The mean follow-up was 1.9 years and 14 subjects (25.5%) were lost to follow-up after a single or 2-3 contact sessions. Rest 41 subjects (74.5%) desiring treatment had regular counseling and medical monitoring. All 41 subjects were dressing to present herself as female and all of them were receiving cross-sex hormone therapy either estrogen only (68%), or drospirenone in combination with estrogen (12%) or gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH) in combination with estrogens (19.5%). Most of the subjects preferred estrogen therapy as it was most affordable and only a small number of subjects preferred drospirenone or GnRH agonist because of cost and availability. 23.6% subjects underwent esthetic breast augmentation surgery and 25.5% underwent orchiectomy and/or vaginoplasty. Three subjects presented with prior breast augmentation surgery and nine subjects presented with prior orchiectomy without vaginoplasty, depicting a high prevalence of poorly supervised surgeries. Standards of care documents provide clinical guidance for health professionals about the optimal management of transsexual people. The lack of information among health professionals about proper and protocolwise management leads to suboptimal physical, social, and sexual results.

  4. Were volatile organic compounds the inducing factors for subjective symptoms of employees working in newly constructed hospitals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigawa, Tomoko; Horike, Tokushi; Ohashi, Yasuhiro; Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Wang, Da-Hong; Kira, Shohei

    2004-08-01

    This study demonstrated possible relationships between environmental, personal, and occupational factors and changes in the subjective health symptoms of 214 employees after the relocation of a hospital in a region of Japan. Eight indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in at least one of the 19 rooms investigated, and total VOC (TVOC) concentrations in 8 rooms exceeded the advisable value (400 microg/m(3)) established by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. Formaldehyde was detected in all the investigated rooms, but none of the results exceeded the guideline value (100 microg/m(3)). Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to select variables significantly associated with the subjective symptoms that can be induced by sick building syndrome. The results showed that subjective symptoms of deterioration in the skin, eye, ear, throat, chest, central nervous system, autonomic system, musculoskeletal system, and digestive system among employees were associated mainly with gender difference and high TVOC concentrations (>1200 microg/m(3)). Long work hours (>50 h per week) in females and smoking in males were to be blamed for the deterioration of their symptoms. The present findings suggest that to protect employees from indoor environment-related adverse health effects, it is necessary to reduce the concentration of indoor chemicals in new buildings, to decrease work hours, and to forbid smoking. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Parents' Working Hours: Adolescent Children's Views and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jane; Noden, Philip; Sarre, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    As dual-earner families have become the norm, the different kinds of "time" children spend with parents has become an important issue. We use the 2000 Time Use Survey to identify adolescent children spending time alone at home, and interviews with 50 children aged 14 and 15 to explore young people's experiences. We investigate their views on their…

  6. My Experience. My Perspective. Transportation to Work Presents Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegers, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Transportation challenges can often be one of the biggest stumbling blocks to having a successful vocational experience. The author presents a personal account of the difficulties people with disabilities encounter in trying to get themselves to their workplaces due to the limitations of various mobility services.

  7. Exploring the Work Experiences of School Counselors of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollarhide, Colette T.; Bowen, Nikol V.; Baker, Caroline A.; Kassoy, Felice R.; Mayes, Renae D.; Baughman, Amber V.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of research suggesting the importance of diverse professionals in education (Mattison & Aber, 2007), no studies have explored the professional experiences of school counselors of Color. In this exploratory grounded-theory qualitative study, researchers interviewed 19 school counselors of Color. Responses revealed both positive and…

  8. School Counselors' Experiences Working with Digital Natives: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Laura L.

    2017-01-01

    To better understand school counselors' experiences related to students' use of social media, the authors conducted a qualitative study, utilizing a phenomenological approach, with eight practicing high school counselors. Three major themes emerged from the study: "the digital cultural divide," "frustration and fear," and…

  9. Recovery, work-life balance and work experiences important to self-rated health: A questionnaire study on salutogenic work factors among Swedish primary health care employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejlertsson, Lina; Heijbel, Bodil; Ejlertsson, Göran; Andersson, Ingemar

    2018-01-01

    There is a lack of information on positive work factors among health care workers. To explore salutogenic work-related factors among primary health care employees. Questionnaire to all employees (n = 599) from different professions in public and private primary health care centers in one health care district in Sweden. The questionnaire, which had a salutogenic perspective, included information on self-rated health from the previously validated SHIS (Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale), psychosocial work environment and experiences, recovery, leadership, social climate, reflection and work-life balance. The response rate was 84%. A multivariable linear regression model, with SHIS as the dependent variable, showed three significant predictors. Recovery had the highest relationship to SHIS (β= 0.34), followed by experience of work-life balance (β= 0.25) and work experiences (β= 0.20). Increased experience of recovery during working hours related to higher self-rated health independent of recovery outside work. Individual experiences of work, work-life balance and, most importantly, recovery seem to be essential areas for health promotion. Recovery outside the workplace has been studied previously, but since recovery during work was shown to be of great importance in relation to higher self-rated health, more research is needed to explore different recovery strategies in the workplace.

  10. Parents' experiences of flexible work arrangements in changing European workplaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Lewis (Suzan); L. den Dulk (Laura)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractVarious leaves and other forms of flexible working arrangements have been implemented in workplaces to support employees with family commitments. Some are a response to public policy, others developed voluntarily. However, research examining the effectiveness of these policies in a

  11. Gender and Equity: Experience of the Working Women's Forum, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Nandini

    1996-01-01

    Illustrates how poor women were able to move out of poverty and dehumanization through a process of mobilization and organization. The process was catalyzed by the intervention of a non-governmental organization, the Working Women's Forum. Outlines the Forum's program of economic, social, and technological empowerment. (MJP)

  12. Focusing on Doctoral Students' Experiences of Engagement in Thesis Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vekkaila, Jenna; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Lonka, Kirsti

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about what inspires students to be involved in their doctoral process and stay persistent when facing challenges. This study explored the nature of students' engagement in the doctoral work. Altogether, 21 behavioural sciences doctoral students from one top-level research community were interviewed. The interview data were…

  13. Stressed out or subjective acquisition of competence – how do veterinary students see their curative work placement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilly, Marc; Tipold, Andrea; Geuenich, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Veterinary studies in Germany are regulated by the Veterinary Certification Act (TAppV). The practical part of the education consists of 1,170 hours, whereby up to 850 hours can be spent on the curative work placement. A curative work placement can result in physical and psychological stress in the sense of a professional overload. It is the aim of this study to find out in what areas and to what extent competence is acquired and psychological stress exists in students during their work placement. Veterinary students (n=142) from all German education institutes participated in a voluntary online-study based on Burnout Screening Scales (BOSS) as well as a questionnaire regarding the acquisition of competence and excessive stress during the work placement (FKÜP). The distribution of values for work placement related stress show that such work placement related stress is generally slightly increased (T=60) and lies above that of occupational stresses within the normal population. Work placement related physical complaints also show a significant slight increase (T=61). A value (T=42) within the normal range was determined for the resource values. Few of the students questioned considered themselves to be excessively stressed in favour of a high subjective acquisition of competences. The largest increase regarding the acquisition of competence was noted for the areas of animal handling/restraint and application and injection techniques. In the sense of a perceived excessive demand regarding practical capabilities the areas of emergency management, surgery and medication dispensation were mentioned. With regard to the load structure and the acquisition of competence by veterinary students during their work placement, more support of the individual and a balancing of teaching/learning goals would be desirable and represents a promising approach. PMID:26958657

  14. The experience of work-life balance across family-life stages in Switzerland: a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wepfer, Ariane G; Brauchli, Rebecca; Jenny, Gregor J; Hämmig, Oliver; Bauer, Georg F

    2015-12-24

    The division of paid and unpaid labor in families continues to be highly gendered with men doing more paid work and women doing more unpaid care work. This is especially true for life stages with young children. Our study investigates the subjective experience of demands in the work and the private domain and the experience of work-life balance across family-life stages as a consequence of this gendered division of labor. We used data from a survey study on work-life issues and health in four large companies in Switzerland (N = 3664). In line with our hypotheses, subjective work and private demands were predicted by an interaction of family-life stages and gender. Specifically, during the primary child-rearing family-life stages, women experience more private demands than men while men experience more work demands, regardless of level of employment. Furthermore, women who work part time experience more work-life balance than women who work full time and more than men who work part or full time during the primary child-rearing family-life stages. Results are discussed in terms of a gendered work-life experience across the life course and the need for part-time work for both genders. Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning our results' implications for public health considerations.

  15. Working at Congress : a Sandian's experience.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Matthew

    2009-03-01

    During the 110th Congress (calendar years 2007 and 2008), Matthew Allen, a Sandian nuclear scientist, served as a Congressional Fellow on the Committee on Homeland Security in the House of Representatives. This report is an informative account of the role staffers play in assisting the members of Congress in their oversight and legislative duties. It is also a personal account of Matthew Allen's experience as a committee staffer in the House of Representatives.

  16. Bullying nurses at work: theorizing a gendered experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, C

    2001-03-01

    This paper is about bullying among nurses at work. It presents the psychoanalytically based theory that workplace bullies, impaired during infancy by primary caregivers who were less than loving, project their own hostile personalities onto others and then relate to others without empathy or understanding, in demeaning ways. When these hostile people are employed in a masculine workplace, they protest against the gendered imperatives imposed upon them, hysterically. Because of the masculinization of the workplace, hysterical bullying varies according to gender, with women bullying in a hostile connected way, and men bullying in a hostile separated way. Research data gathered in Canada in the 1990s is utilised in presenting the theories. Suggestions about anti-bullying practices that arise from this theoretical analysis conclude the work.

  17. Ion pressure and work function in an effusion experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, M.I.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between ion flow and ion pressure is examined from the point of view of the existence of a plasma in an effusion chamber. It is shown that this relationship is nonlinear, and a method is described to calculate it for specific experimental conditions. An analysis is made of the dependence of ion pressure and the work function of the inside surface of the effusion chamber on the composition of the condensed or gas phase

  18. French experience with Uranium compounds: conclusions of medical working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berard, P.; Mazeyrat, C.; Auriol, B.; Montegue, A.; Estrabaud, M.; Grappin, L.; Giraud, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The authors who represent several organisations and industrial firms, present observations conducted for some thirty years in France, including routine monitoring or special measurements following contamination by uranium compounds. They propose recommendations for radio toxicological monitoring of workers exposed to industrial uranium compounds and they comment on urine and faecal collections in relation to specific exposures. Our working group, set up by the CEA Medical Adviser in 1975, consists of French specialists in uranium radio toxicology. Their role is to propose recommendations for the monitoring of working conditions and exposed workers. The different plants process chemically and metallurgically, and machine large quantities of uranium with various 235U enrichments. Radio toxicological monitoring of workers exposed to uranium compounds requires examinations prescribed according to the kind of product manipulated and the industrial risk of the workplace. The range of examinations that are useful for this kind of monitoring includes lung monitoring, urine analyses and faecal sampling. The authors present the frequency of the monitoring for routine or special conditions according to industrial exposure, time and duration of collection of excreta (urine and faeces), the necessity of a work break, precautions for preservation of the samples and the ways in interpreting excretion analysis according to natural food intakes

  19. An experience of group work with parents of children and adolescents with gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ceglie, Domenico; Thümmel, Elizabeth Coates

    2006-07-01

    This article gives an account of an experience of group work with parents and carers who had children or adolescents with gender identity disorder (GID). The history of this intervention within the context of a service for children with gender identity problems is outlined. The limited literature on the subject is reviewed. Group meetings were held monthly for 6 months, facilitated by two therapists (the authors). Selection criteria for group participants, the aims of the group and the methodology for achieving those aims are described. Some information about the group's composition is provided. The structure and content of the group sessions are outlined together with details of some group interactions. Finally, we present the results of an evaluation of the intervention through feedback questionnaires and discuss the value for the children and young people of running such groups.

  20. Transition Program: The Challenges Faced by Special Needs Students in Gaining Work Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Aliza

    2014-01-01

    Transition program for special needs students is known to open opportunities for students with learning disabilities to gain work experience in actual work environment. The program provides training activities and also an opportunity to go for internship to gain work experience. Therefore, this study is to identify the challenges faced by special…

  1. Balancing Work with Study: Impact on Marketing Students' Experience of Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Steven; Volet, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 57% of students in the United States work while attending college. For most of these students (81%), this is more than 20 hours a week. There has been shown to be a negative relationship between hours worked and academic achievement in studies in the United States as well as the United Kingdom and Australia. There is, however, no…

  2. Protocol for the atWork trial: a randomised controlled trial of a workplace intervention targeting subjective health complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Langjordet Johnsen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subjective health complaints, such as musculoskeletal and mental health complaints, have a high prevalence in the general population, and account for a large proportion of sick leave in Norway. It may be difficult to prevent the occurrence of subjective health complaints, but it may be possible to influence employees’ perception and management of these complaints, which in turn may have impact on sick leave and return to work after sick leave. Long term sick leave has many negative health and social consequences, and it is important to gain knowledge about effective interventions to prevent and reduce long term sick leave. Methods/Design This study is a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effect of the modified atWork intervention, targeting non-specific musculoskeletal complaints and mental health complaints. This intervention will be compared to the original atWork intervention targeting only non-specific musculoskeletal complaints. Kindergartens in Norway are invited to participate in the study and will be randomly assigned to one of the two interventions. Estimated sample size is 100 kindergartens, with a total of approximately 1100 employees. Primary outcome is sick leave at unit level, measured using register data from the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration. One kindergarten equals one unit, regardless of number of employees. Secondary outcomes will be measured at the individual level and include coping, health, job satisfaction, social support, and workplace inclusion, collected through questionnaires distributed at baseline and at 12 months follow up. All employees in the included kindergartens are eligible for participating in the survey. Discussion The effect evaluation of the modified atWork intervention is a large and comprehensive project, providing evidence-based information on prevention of long-term sick leave, which may be of considerable benefit both from a societal

  3. Protocol for the atWork trial: a randomised controlled trial of a workplace intervention targeting subjective health complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Tone Langjordet; Indahl, Aage; Baste, Valborg; Eriksen, Hege Randi; Tveito, Torill Helene

    2016-08-19

    Subjective health complaints, such as musculoskeletal and mental health complaints, have a high prevalence in the general population, and account for a large proportion of sick leave in Norway. It may be difficult to prevent the occurrence of subjective health complaints, but it may be possible to influence employees' perception and management of these complaints, which in turn may have impact on sick leave and return to work after sick leave. Long term sick leave has many negative health and social consequences, and it is important to gain knowledge about effective interventions to prevent and reduce long term sick leave. This study is a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effect of the modified atWork intervention, targeting non-specific musculoskeletal complaints and mental health complaints. This intervention will be compared to the original atWork intervention targeting only non-specific musculoskeletal complaints. Kindergartens in Norway are invited to participate in the study and will be randomly assigned to one of the two interventions. Estimated sample size is 100 kindergartens, with a total of approximately 1100 employees. Primary outcome is sick leave at unit level, measured using register data from the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration. One kindergarten equals one unit, regardless of number of employees. Secondary outcomes will be measured at the individual level and include coping, health, job satisfaction, social support, and workplace inclusion, collected through questionnaires distributed at baseline and at 12 months follow up. All employees in the included kindergartens are eligible for participating in the survey. The effect evaluation of the modified atWork intervention is a large and comprehensive project, providing evidence-based information on prevention of long-term sick leave, which may be of considerable benefit both from a societal, organisational, and individual perspective. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02396797

  4. Identifying Discrimination at Work: The Use of Field Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pager, Devah; Western, Bruce

    2012-06-01

    Antidiscrimination law offers protection to workers who have been treated unfairly on the basis of their race, gender, religion, or national origin. In order for these protections to be invoked, however, potential plaintiffs must be aware of and able to document discriminatory treatment. Given the subtlety of contemporary forms of discrimination, it is often difficult to identify discrimination when it has taken place. The methodology of field experiments offers one approach to measuring and detecting hiring discrimination, providing direct observation of discrimination in real-world settings. In this article, we discuss the findings of two recent field experiments measuring racial discrimination in low wage labor markets. This research provides several relevant findings for researchers and those interested in civil rights enforcement: (1) it produces estimates of the rate of discrimination at the point of hire; (2) it yields evidence about the interactions associated with discrimination (many of which reveal the subtlety with which contemporary discrimination is practiced); and (3) it provides a vehicle for both research on and enforcement of antidiscrimination law.

  5. Experiments on the Making(T32 work in progress)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    . This mode of operation entails production of derivative variations accommodating a reading of differences in the material as well as in the space in between, facilitating possibilities of chance encounters, discoveries. The work is developed as a fragmented assemblage of representations of T32 (acronym......, facilitator) of memories of the places of obliteration it exposes; the erasure of significance of the past, and possesses their validity in the present and the future. Methodological approaches explored in the contextual, the serial, relating to T32 its heterogeneous representations; the findings...

  6. Experiments on the Making(T32 work in progress)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    of operation entails production of derivative variations accommodating a reading of differences in the material as well as in the space in between, facilitating possibilities of chance encounters, discoveries. The work is developed as a fragmented assemblage of representations of T32 (acronym – a road, 32......) of memories of the places of obliteration it exposes; the erasure of significance of the past, and possesses their validity in the present and the future.Methodological approaches explored in the contextual, the serial, relating to T32 its heterogeneous representations; the findings, the manipulated drawings...

  7. High Performance and the Transformation of Work? The Implications of Alternative Work Practices for the Experience and Outcomes of Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godard, John

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 508 Canadian workers showed that moderate levels of high-performance work practices were associated with increased belonging, empowerment, job satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behavior. At higher levels, the association became negative. Work was more stressful with these practices. Team autonomy, just-in-time practices, and…

  8. How nurses and their work environment affect patient experiences of the quality of care: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Healthcare organisations monitor patient experiences in order to evaluate and improve the quality of care. Because nurses spend a lot of time with patients, they have a major impact on patient experiences. To improve patient experiences of the quality of care, nurses need to know what factors within the nursing work environment are of influence. The main focus of this research was to comprehend the views of Dutch nurses on how their work and their work environment contribute to positive patient experiences. Methods A descriptive qualitative research design was used to collect data. Four focus groups were conducted, one each with 6 or 7 registered nurses in mental health care, hospital care, home care and nursing home care. A total of 26 nurses were recruited through purposeful sampling. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and subjected to thematic analysis. Results The nurses mentioned essential elements that they believe would improve patient experiences of the quality of nursing care: clinically competent nurses, collaborative working relationships, autonomous nursing practice, adequate staffing, control over nursing practice, managerial support and patient-centred culture. They also mentioned several inhibiting factors, such as cost-effectiveness policy and transparency goals for external accountability. Nurses feel pressured to increase productivity and report a high administrative workload. They stated that these factors will not improve patient experiences of the quality of nursing care. Conclusions According to participants, a diverse range of elements affect patient experiences of the quality of nursing care. They believe that incorporating these elements into daily nursing practice would result in more positive patient experiences. However, nurses work in a healthcare context in which they have to reconcile cost-efficiency and accountability with their desire to provide nursing care that is based on patient needs and preferences, and

  9. Revelation, delusion or disillusion: subjective interpretation of religious and spiritual experiences in bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwehand, E.; Wong, K.; Boeije, H.R.; Braam, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the interpretation of religious and spiritual experiences during mania, depression and recovery, from the perspective of bipolar clients and to inquire into their expectations of treatment in relation to these experiences. For this purpose, a qualitative

  10. Revelation, delusion or disillusion : subjective interpretation of religious and spiritual experiences in bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwehand, Eva; Wong, Kwok; Boeije, Hennie; Braam, Arjan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the interpretation of religious and spiritual experiences during mania, depression and recovery, from the perspective of bipolar clients and to inquire into their expectations of treatment in relation to these experiences. For this purpose, a qualitative

  11. Revelation, delusion or disillusion: subjective interpretation of religious and spiritual experiences in bipolar disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwehand, E.; Wong, K.; Boeije, H.; Braam, A.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the interpretation of religious and spiritual experiences during mania, depression and recovery, from the perspective of bipolar clients and to inquire into their expectations of treatment in relation to these experiences. For this purpose, a qualitative

  12. How passive image viewers became active multimedia users : new trends and recent advances in subjective assessment of quality of experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redi, J.A.; Zhu, Y.; Ridder, de H.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.; Deng, C.; Ma, L.; Lin, W.; Ngan, K.N.

    2015-01-01

    Subjective assessment of quality of experience (QoE) is key to understanding user preferences with respect to multimedia fruition. As such, it is a necessary step to multimedia delivery optimization, since QoE needs to take into account technology limitations as well as user satisfaction. The study

  13. Silencing the Everyday Experiences of Youth? Deconstructing Issues of Subjectivity and Popular/Corporate Culture in the English Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Glenn

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of popular/corporate culture texts and discourses on the subjectivities and everyday social experiences of young people, and the extent to which such influences are critically analysed in the English classroom. I present two levels of synthesised information using data analysis born of a mixed-methods…

  14. Active Self-Tracking of Subjective Experience with a One-Button Wearable: A Case Study in Military PTSD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Eskelund, Kasper; Christiansen, Thomas Blomseth

    2017-01-01

    We describe a case study with the participation of a Danish veteran suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). As part of psychotherapeutic treatment the participant and therapist have used our novel technique for instrumenting self-tracking of select aspects of subjective experience...

  15. The subjective experience of trauma and subsequent PTSD in a sample of undocumented immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Andrew; Rosenfeld, Barry; Reeves, Kim; Keller, Allen S

    2007-02-01

    Although a subjective component of trauma is commonly recognized in diagnosing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there are few studies that specifically address Criterion A2, and none addressing this issue among undocumented immigrants. We assessed 212 arriving undocumented immigrants with diverse trauma histories to investigate concordance between objective and subjective factors of trauma (Criteria A1 and A2) and across different types of trauma and PTSD. Concordance between Criteria A1 and A2 varied, with highest rates found for political violence. Interpersonal violence in general was associated with higher rates of PTSD. We identified a dose-response effect for PTSD, but this was not dependent on other events (i.e., other doses) meeting Criterion A2. Discussion focuses on Criterion A within the phenomenology of PTSD and the need to gauge subjective interpretations of trauma events among this population.

  16. Experiences of work ability in young workers: an exploratory interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, Maria; Holmgren, Kristina; Sluiter, Judith K; Hagberg, Mats; Grimby-Ekman, Anna

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of and influences on work ability in young workers related to their work and life situation. In a qualitative study of a strategic sample of 12 young female and 12 young male workers, aged 25-30 years, in work or recently left work, recruited from the 5-year follow-up of a Swedish cohort, semi-structured interviews were performed to explore the experiences of work ability in these young workers. Systematic text condensation inspired by phenomenology was used in the analysis. Work ability was experienced as complex, consisting of four themes, each with three subthemes. To be alert and have energy, to possess sufficient education, skills and working life experience and experience meaningfulness and engagement in work, were perceived to be fundamental for work ability and were seen as the worker's own responsibility. Moreover, work ability can be improved or reduced by the psychosocial work climate, the work organization and the private life. Optimal work ability was experienced when all themes integrated in a positive way. Work ability was experienced as the worker's own responsibility that could be influenced by work circumstances and private life. To promote good work ability among young workers, work ability has to be understood in its specific context. Whether the understanding of work ability found in this study is explicit for the group of young adults needs to be explored in a more general population in further research.

  17. The Impact of Shift Work on Brazilian Train Drivers with Different Chronotypes: A Comparative Analysis through Objective and Subjective Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Fernandes Jr., Silvio; Stetner Antonietti, Leandro; Saba, Amanda; Paulino de Faria, Alexandre; Maculano Esteves, Andrea; Tufik, Sergio; Túlio de Mello, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare sleep pattern, tiredness sensation and quality of life between different chronotypes in train drivers from a Brazilian transportation company. Subjects and Methods Ninety-one train drivers, working a rotary work schedule including night shift, were divided into three groups according to their chronotype (morning types, intermediate or evening types) and were assessed for their sleep and quality of life, as characterized by a subjective questionnaire and the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), applied before and immediately after the night shift. The pattern of activity and rest was measured for 10 days by actigraphy, and the chronotype was determined through the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Results Forty-one (45.1s%) individuals were classified as morning type, 44 (48.4s%) were classified as intermediate and 6 (6.6s%) as evening type. The evening types had a tendency to remain awake for a longer period of time before the night shift (p = 0.05) and scored worse overall for quality of life compared to morning types (p = 0.11). There was no significant difference between the groups regarding variability in the PVT performance, even when covaried by the period of waking time before the test. There was no significant difference either in feelings of fatigue before and after starting the shift. Conclusion Although the evening type number was small, evening type individuals scored worse relative to sleep and quality of life than morning type individuals. PMID:23328130

  18. Cholinergic blockade under working memory demands encountered by increased rehearsal strategies: evidence from fMRI in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Bianca; Thienel, Renate; Reske, Martina; Kellermann, Thilo; Sheldrick, Abigail J; Halfter, Sarah; Radenbach, Katrin; Shah, Nadim J; Habel, Ute; Kircher, Tilo T J

    2012-06-01

    The connection between cholinergic transmission and cognitive performance has been established in behavioural studies. The specific contribution of the muscarinic receptor system on cognitive performance and brain activation, however, has not been evaluated satisfyingly. To investigate the specific contribution of the muscarinic transmission on neural correlates of working memory, we examined the effects of scopolamine, an antagonist of the muscarinic receptors, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Fifteen healthy male, non-smoking subjects performed a fMRI scanning session following the application of scopolamine (0.4 mg, i.v.) or saline in a placebo-controlled, repeated measure, pseudo-randomized, single-blind design. Working memory was probed using an n-back task. Compared to placebo, challenging the cholinergic transmission with scopolamine resulted in hypoactivations in parietal, occipital and cerebellar areas and hyperactivations in frontal and prefrontal areas. These alterations are interpreted as compensatory strategies used to account for downregulation due to muscarinic acetylcholine blockade in parietal and cerebral storage systems by increased activation in frontal and prefrontal areas related to working memory rehearsal. Our results further underline the importance of cholinergic transmission to working memory performance and determine the specific contribution of muscarinic transmission on cerebral activation associated with executive functioning.

  19. The work experience of undocumented Mexican migrants in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, R J; Deley, M

    1984-01-01

    This study, based on interviews with Mexican documented and undocumented women workers in Los Angeles county, finds that most of the women in both categories work in factories. Contrary to popular impression, only 10% of the undocumented women in this survey are engaged in private household employment, although 19% were so employed when they 1st came to the US. Despite this obvious change in occupation, in general occupational mobility from 1st jobs is insignificant. On the average, undocumented women's hourly rate of pay was 40 US cents higher than the minimum wage, and US$1.57 lower than the average documented women's wages. Within the same occupational category, the undocumented women earned less per hour. The smallest difference occured in the 'laborer's' category. Another departure from popular impression was that, 76% of undocumented workers were paid by check. The figure was 94% for documented women workers. The respondents who said they were paid in cash were most likely to be in the private household sector. 80% of the undocumented workers did not think that they were discriminated against in their jobs, suggesting that they are a rather timid group of workers who believe that they have no real options regarding their work life, and are relatively satisfied with what they have. Almost all the women said that they came to the US with the intention of staying permanently, or as long as they are not caught and sent back to Mexico, which is their biggest fear. Better job and better pay are the most important reasons given by most women for coming. Being temporarily laid off would not prompt them to return to Mexico, as they are confident that their chances of finding another minimum wage paying job are better in the US. A closek knit network of support usually tides them over during their period of joblessness.

  20. The dynamics of visual experience, an EEG study of subjective pattern formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Elliott

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since the origin of psychological science a number of studies have reported visual pattern formation in the absence of either physiological stimulation or direct visual-spatial references. Subjective patterns range from simple phosphenes to complex patterns but are highly specific and reported reliably across studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using independent-component analysis (ICA we report a reduction in amplitude variance consistent with subjective-pattern formation in ventral posterior areas of the electroencephalogram (EEG. The EEG exhibits significantly increased power at delta/theta and gamma-frequencies (point and circle patterns or a series of high-frequency harmonics of a delta oscillation (spiral patterns. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Subjective-pattern formation may be described in a way entirely consistent with identical pattern formation in fluids or granular flows. In this manner, we propose subjective-pattern structure to be represented within a spatio-temporal lattice of harmonic oscillations which bind topographically organized visual-neuronal assemblies by virtue of low frequency modulation.

  1. Subjective Evaluations of Alcohol-Related Consequences among College Students: Experience with Consequences Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavens, Eleanor L.; Leffingwell, Thad R.; Miller, Mary Beth; Brett, Emma I.; Lombardi, Nathaniel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Research suggests college students rate some alcohol-related consequences less negatively than others, yet it is unclear how or when these differences in perception develop. The current study compared college students' subjective evaluations of alcohol-related consequences that they had and had not experienced in order to test the…

  2. Transverse momentum at work in high-energy scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signori, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    I will review some aspects of the definition and the phenomenology of Transverse-Momentum-Dependent distributions (TMDs) which are potentially interesting for the physics program at several current and future experimental facilities. First of all, I will review the definition of quark, gluon and Wilson loop TMDs based on gauge invariant hadronic matrix elements. Looking at the phenomenology of quarks, I will address the flavor dependence of the intrinsic transverse momentum in unpolarized TMDs, focusing on its extraction from Semi-Inclusive Deep-Inelastic Scattering. I will also present an estimate of its impact on the transverse momentum spectrum of W and Z bosons produced in unpolarized hadronic collisions and on the determination of the W boson mass. Moreover, the combined effect of the flavor dependence and the evolution of TMDs with the energy scale will be discussed for electron-positron annihilation. Concerning gluons, I will present from an effective theory point of view the TMD factorization theorem for the transverse momentum spectrum of pseudoscalar quarkonium produced in hadronic collisions. Relying on this, I will discuss the possibility of extracting precise information on (un)polarized gluon TMDs at a future Fixed Target Experiment at the LHC (AFTER@LHC).

  3. Emotional experience is subject to social and technological change: extrapolating to the future

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer, Klaus R.

    2001-01-01

    While the emotion mechanism is generally considered to be evolutionarily continuous, suggesting a certain degree of universality of emotional responding, there is evidence that emotional experience may differ across cultures and historical periods. This article extrapolates potential changes in future emotional experiences that can be expected to be caused by rapid social and technological change. Specifically, four issues are discussed: (1) the effect of social change on emotions that are st...

  4. Evaluation of undergraduate clinical learning experiences in the subject of pediatric dentistry using critical incident technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Vyawahare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In pediatric dentistry, the experiences of dental students may help dental educators better prepare graduates to treat the children. Research suggests that student′s perceptions should be considered in any discussion of their education, but there has been no systematic examination of India′s undergraduate dental students learning experiences. Aim: This qualitative investigation aimed to gather and analyze information about experiences in pediatric dentistry from the students′ viewpoint using critical incident technique (CIT. Study Design: The sample group for this investigation came from all 240 3 rd and 4 th year dental students from all the four dental colleges in Indore. Using CIT, participants were asked to describe at least one positive and one negative experience in detail. Results: They described 308 positive and 359 negative experiences related to the pediatric dentistry clinic. Analysis of the data resulted in the identification of four key factors related to their experiences: 1 The instructor; 2 the patient; 3 the learning process; and 4 the learning environment. Conclusion: The CIT is a useful data collection and analysis technique that provides rich, useful data and has many potential uses in dental education.

  5. Evaluation of undergraduate clinical learning experiences in the subject of pediatric dentistry using critical incident technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyawahare, S; Banda, N R; Choubey, S; Parvekar, P; Barodiya, A; Dutta, S

    2013-01-01

    In pediatric dentistry, the experiences of dental students may help dental educators better prepare graduates to treat the children. Research suggests that student's perceptions should be considered in any discussion of their education, but there has been no systematic examination of India's undergraduate dental students learning experiences. This qualitative investigation aimed to gather and analyze information about experiences in pediatric dentistry from the students' viewpoint using critical incident technique (CIT). The sample group for this investigation came from all 240 3rd and 4th year dental students from all the four dental colleges in Indore. Using CIT, participants were asked to describe at least one positive and one negative experience in detail. They described 308 positive and 359 negative experiences related to the pediatric dentistry clinic. Analysis of the data resulted in the identification of four key factors related to their experiences: 1) The instructor; 2) the patient; 3) the learning process; and 4) the learning environment. The CIT is a useful data collection and analysis technique that provides rich, useful data and has many potential uses in dental education.

  6. Pengaruh Framing Effect Sebagai Determinan Escalation of Commitment Dalam Keputusan Investasi: Dampak Dari Working Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Yahya, Muhammad Nur; Surya, Jen

    2012-01-01

    The prior of research have shown that the framing effect is one of determinant in explaining decisions to escalate commitment to failing projects. However , have not considered whether experience moderates the framing effect on escalation of commitment. This study reports the results of an experiment in which the effect of decision frame of investment performance with negative feedback informatian on judgment to continue project of experienced subjects is compared to inexperienced subjects. F...

  7. Subjective cognitive complaints and the role of executive cognitive functioning in the working population: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia U D Stenfors

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive functioning is important for managing work and life in general. However, subjective cognitive complaints (SCC, involving perceived difficulties with concentration, memory, decision making, and clear thinking are common in the general and working population and can be coupled with both lowered well-being and work ability. However, the relation between SCC and cognitive functioning across the adult age-span, and in the work force, is not clear as few population-based studies have been conducted on non-elderly adults. Thus, the present study aimed to test the relation between SCC and executive cognitive functioning in a population-based sample of employees. METHODS: Participants were 233 employees with either high (cases or low (controls levels of SCC. Group differences in neuropsychological test performance on three common executive cognitive tests were analysed through a set of analyses of covariance tests, including relevant covariates. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: In line with the a priori hypotheses, a high level of SCC was associated with significantly poorer executive cognitive performance on all three executive cognitive tests used, compared to controls with little SCC. Additionally, symptoms of depression, chronic stress and sleeping problems were found to play a role in the relations between SCC and executive cognitive functioning. No significant associations remained after adjusting for all these factors. The current findings contribute to an increased understanding of what characterizes SCC in the work force and may be used at different levels of prevention of- and intervention for SCC and related problems with executive cognitive functioning.

  8. Positive experiences of volunteers working in deployable laboratories in West Africa during the Ebola outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfroid, Evelien; Mollers, Madelief; Smit, Pieter W; Hulscher, Marlies; Koopmans, Marion; Reusken, Chantal; Timen, Aura

    2018-01-01

    The largest outbreak of Ebola virus disease ever started in West Africa in December 2013; it created a pressing need to expand the workforce dealing with it. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the experiences of volunteers from the European Union who worked in deployable laboratories in West Africa during the outbreak. This study is part of the EMERGE project. We assessed the experiences of 251 volunteers with a 19-item online questionnaire. The questions asked about positive aspects of volunteering such as learning new skills, establishing a new path in life, and changing life values. Other questionnaire subjects were the compliance to follow-up measures, the extent to which volunteers felt these measures restricted their daily activities, the fear of stigmatization, and worries about becoming infected or infecting their families. The volunteers reported positive effects that reached far beyond their daily work, such as changes in life priorities and a greater appreciation of the value of their own lives. Although the volunteers did not feel that temperature monitoring restricted their daily activities, full compliance to temperature monitoring and reporting it to the authorities was low. The volunteers did not fear Ebola infection for themselves or their families and were not afraid of stigmatization. With respect to the burden on the families, 50% reported that their family members were worried that the volunteer would be infected with Ebola virus. Altogether, the positive experiences of the volunteers in this study far outweigh the negative implications and constitute an important argument for inspiring people who intend to join such missions and for motivating the hesitant ones.

  9. Positive experiences of volunteers working in deployable laboratories in West Africa during the Ebola outbreak.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien Belfroid

    Full Text Available The largest outbreak of Ebola virus disease ever started in West Africa in December 2013; it created a pressing need to expand the workforce dealing with it. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the experiences of volunteers from the European Union who worked in deployable laboratories in West Africa during the outbreak. This study is part of the EMERGE project. We assessed the experiences of 251 volunteers with a 19-item online questionnaire. The questions asked about positive aspects of volunteering such as learning new skills, establishing a new path in life, and changing life values. Other questionnaire subjects were the compliance to follow-up measures, the extent to which volunteers felt these measures restricted their daily activities, the fear of stigmatization, and worries about becoming infected or infecting their families. The volunteers reported positive effects that reached far beyond their daily work, such as changes in life priorities and a greater appreciation of the value of their own lives. Although the volunteers did not feel that temperature monitoring restricted their daily activities, full compliance to temperature monitoring and reporting it to the authorities was low. The volunteers did not fear Ebola infection for themselves or their families and were not afraid of stigmatization. With respect to the burden on the families, 50% reported that their family members were worried that the volunteer would be infected with Ebola virus. Altogether, the positive experiences of the volunteers in this study far outweigh the negative implications and constitute an important argument for inspiring people who intend to join such missions and for motivating the hesitant ones.

  10. Experiences of work ability in young workers: an exploratory interview study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boström, Maria; Holmgren, Kristina; Sluiter, Judith K.; Hagberg, Mats; Grimby-Ekman, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of and influences on work ability in young workers related to their work and life situation. In a qualitative study of a strategic sample of 12 young female and 12 young male workers, aged 25-30 years, in work or recently left work, recruited from

  11. Social Class and the Experience of Work-Family Conflict during the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammons, Samantha K.; Kelly, Erin L.

    2008-01-01

    The challenges of juggling work and family responsibilities are well known, but there has been little attention to the distinctive work and family experiences of young adults. This chapter explores how class affects young adults' exposure to work-family conflicts and the strategies they use to manage their work and family responsibilities. Using…

  12. Neurosurgical Work during the Napoleonic Wars: George James Guthrie's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Franck-Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Involved in what is still considered, along with the two world wars of the 20th century, as one of the major conflicts in Europe, George James Guthrie (1785-1856) was the most famous English army surgeon of the Napoleonic wars. After treating the injured throughout the Peninsular Campaign (1808-1814), in 1815 and then in 1842 he published two major books dealing with cranial and brain injuries, among other topics. In these books, we can find, for example, an early description of the plantar reflex further described by Joseph Babinsky, accurate descriptions of the clinical signs of intracranial hypertension, and details of the physiopathology of subdural and epidural haematomas. Skull fractures are also discussed intensively, along with the indications for trepanation, a much-debated issue at the turn of the 19th century. The dura was often the limit of the surgical field for Guthrie. Nevertheless, he tried to rationalize the use of trepanation and favoured its use in two main cases: in cases of depressed skull bones, jammed bone fragments or debris irritating the dura or the brain and in cases of life-threatening cerebral compression caused by supposed blood clots. In their works, Guthrie and his contemporaries did not address neurosurgery in the modern sense of the word, but rather 'cranial surgery' in most cases. Guthrie, who saw so many patients with brain injuries and amputations, failed to understand that cerebral functions could be localized to the cortex and neglected to describe the phantom limb phenomenon, as did most of his contemporaries. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Differences in male and female subjective experience and physiological reactions to emotional stimuli

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Lačev, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 117, July (2017), s. 75-82 ISSN 0167-8760 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-02889P Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) StrategieAV21/14 Program:StrategieAV Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Emotion * Stereotype * Arousal * Valence * Gender Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 2.582, year: 2016

  14. Examining the Effects of Perceived Relevance and Work-Related Subjective Well-Being on Individual Performance for Co-Op Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewery, Dave; Pretti, T. Judene; Barclay, Sage

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between co-op students' perceived relevance of their work term, work-related subjective well-being (SWB), and individual performance at work. Data were collected using a survey of co-op students (n = 1,989) upon completion of a work term. Results of regression analyses testing a…

  15. Tracking Systems for Virtual Rehabilitation: Objective Performance vs. Subjective Experience. A Practical Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Lloréns

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Motion tracking systems are commonly used in virtual reality-based interventions to detect movements in the real world and transfer them to the virtual environment. There are different tracking solutions based on different physical principles, which mainly define their performance parameters. However, special requirements have to be considered for rehabilitation purposes. This paper studies and compares the accuracy and jitter of three tracking solutions (optical, electromagnetic, and skeleton tracking in a practical scenario and analyzes the subjective perceptions of 19 healthy subjects, 22 stroke survivors, and 14 physical therapists. The optical tracking system provided the best accuracy (1.074 ± 0.417 cm while the electromagnetic device provided the most inaccurate results (11.027 ± 2.364 cm. However, this tracking solution provided the best jitter values (0.324 ± 0.093 cm, in contrast to the skeleton tracking, which had the worst results (1.522 ± 0.858 cm. Healthy individuals and professionals preferred the skeleton tracking solution rather than the optical and electromagnetic solution (in that order. Individuals with stroke chose the optical solution over the other options. Our results show that subjective perceptions and preferences are far from being constant among different populations, thus suggesting that these considerations, together with the performance parameters, should be also taken into account when designing a rehabilitation system.

  16. The Motherhood Wage Penalty Revisited: Experience, Heterogeneity, Work Effort, and Work-Schedule Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Deborah J.; Binder, Melissa; Krause, Kate

    2003-01-01

    Controlling for human capital inputs and unobserved heterogeneity explained 55-57% of the wage gap between mothers and nonmothers. Mothers faced the highest wage penalty at return to work. High school graduates suffered more prolonged, severe losses than women with lower or higher attainment. Their jobs were less likely to offer flexibility needed…

  17. The subjective experience and phenomenology of depression following first episode psychosis: a qualitative study using photo-elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Amrita; Ives, Jonathan; Birchwood, Max; Upthegrove, Rachel

    2013-07-01

    Depression following first episode psychosis (FEP) is a frequent occurrence, with profound impact on recovery and outcome. Whilst many theories exist about the causes of depression here, research to date has been based on nosology imported wholesale from affective disorder, with little primary research on the subjective experience. This study aimed to explore the subjective experience and phenomenological features of post-psychotic depression in FEP. A qualitative methodology, photo-elicitation, together with unstructured interviews, was used to characterise aspects of depression following FEP and analysed using contemporary framework analysis. Depression was reported by participants as linked to the experience of and recovery from psychosis. The psychotic episode was a traumatic event followed by subjective doubt, shame and embarrassment. Loss and social isolation were central. Core biological symptoms did not feature. Despite the relatively small sample size, this study was able to generate in-depth data that provides useful and novel insight. Whilst generalisability is incompatible with qualitative methodology, further research using the same methodology would generate a wider range of experiences and perspectives. Understanding this dimension of psychosis in and of itself has the potential to improve and aid development of more effective and appropriately targeted interventions and associated outcomes. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Work-related behaviour and experience pattern in nurses: impact on physical and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, M; Damkröger, A; Voltmer, E; Löwe, B; Driessen, M; Ward, M; Wingenfeld, K

    2011-06-01

    Nursing is associated with high levels of emotional strain and heavy workloads. Changing working conditions raise the importance of investigating job satisfaction, stress and burnout and its consequences for nurses. The aim of the study was to investigate whether work-related behaviour and experience patterns are associated with mental and physical health status in nurses. A sample of 356 nurses in four German hospitals were interviewed using questionnaires regarding work-related behaviour and experience patterns, work stress, depression, anxiety and physical symptoms ('Work-related Behaviour and Experience Pattern'--AVEM and ERI). The main result of this study is that unhealthy work-related behaviour and experience patterns (i.e. the excessive ambitious type and the resigned type) are associated with reduced mental and physical health. Preventive, as well as intervention, strategies are needed that focus both on the individual as well as on working conditions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  19. Work Identity and Contradictory Experiences of Welfare Workers in a Life-history Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybbroe, Betina

    2013-01-01

    in these changes and are changed in the psycho-social setting of the workplace. This article presents research about care work in Denmark with a focus on subjective processing of work identity, applying a psycho-societal theoretical and methodical approach. A life historical and experiential understanding...... of identification. Social dynamics interact with subjective dynamics in ways that illuminate not only habitual and creative orientations and practices of professionals in care, but also the contradictory transformations of the work, e.g. marketization and democratization in the work place....

  20. The Neural Correlates of Spatial and Object Working Memory in Elderly and Parkinson’s Disease Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia P. Caminiti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This fMRI study deals with the neural correlates of spatial and objects working memory (SWM and OWM in elderly subjects (ESs and idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD. Normal aging and IPD can be associated with a WM decline. In IPD population, some studies reported similar SWM and OWM deficits; others reported a greater SWM than OWM impairment. In the present fMRI research, we investigated whether compensated IPD patients and elderly subjects with comparable performance during the execution of SWM and OWM tasks would present differences in WM-related brain activations. We found that the two groups recruited a prevalent left frontoparietal network when performing the SWM task and a bilateral network during OWM task execution. More specifically, the ESs showed bilateral frontal and subcortical activations in SWM, at difference with the IPD patients who showed a strict left lateralized network, consistent with frontostriatal degeneration in IPD. The overall brain activation in the IPD group was more extended as number of voxels with respect to ESs, suggesting underlying compensatory mechanisms. In conclusion, notwithstanding comparable WM performance, the two groups showed consistencies and differences in the WM activated networks. The latter underline the compensatory processes of normal typical and pathological aging.

  1. Visual cortex activity predicts subjective experience after reading books with colored letters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colizoli, O.; Murre, J.M.J.; Scholte, H.S.; van Es, D.M.; Knapen, T.; Rouw, R.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most astonishing properties of synesthesia is that the evoked concurrent experiences are perceptual. Is it possible to acquire similar effects after learning cross-modal associations that resemble synesthetic mappings? In this study, we examine whether brain activation in early visual

  2. Bright environmental light ameliorates deficient subjective liking in insomnia : an experience sampling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Te Lindert, Bart H W; Itzhacki, Jacob; van der Meijden, Wisse P; Kringelbach, Morten L; Mendoza, Jorge; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2018-01-01

    Study Objectives: Altered comfort sensing and reduced gray matter volume in the orbitofrontal cortex of the brain in people suffering from Insomnia Disorder (ID) suggest compromised processes of motivation and hedonia. The Experience Sampling (ES) method was used to evaluate whether, in naturalistic

  3. Experiments on pumping of liquids using arrays of microelectrodes subjected to travelling wave potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Sanchez, P; Ramos, A [Dpto. de Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Green, Nicolas G; Morgan, H [School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom)], E-mail: pablogarcia@us.es

    2008-12-01

    Net fluid flow of electrolytes driven on an array of microelectrodes subjected to a travelling-wave potential is presented. Two sizes of platinum microelectrodes have been studied. In both arrays, at low voltages the liquid flows according to the prediction given by ac electroosmotic theory. At voltages above a threshold the fluid flow is reversed. Measurements of the electrical current when the microelectrode array is pumping the liquid are also reported. Transient behaviours in both electrical current and fluid velocity have been observed.

  4. Experiments on pumping of liquids using arrays of microelectrodes subjected to travelling wave potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Sanchez, P; Ramos, A; Green, Nicolas G; Morgan, H

    2008-01-01

    Net fluid flow of electrolytes driven on an array of microelectrodes subjected to a travelling-wave potential is presented. Two sizes of platinum microelectrodes have been studied. In both arrays, at low voltages the liquid flows according to the prediction given by ac electroosmotic theory. At voltages above a threshold the fluid flow is reversed. Measurements of the electrical current when the microelectrode array is pumping the liquid are also reported. Transient behaviours in both electrical current and fluid velocity have been observed.

  5. From Motion to Emotion: Accelerometer Data Predict Subjective Experience of Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrgang, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Music is often discussed to be emotional because it reflects expressive movements in audible form. Thus, a valid approach to measure musical emotion could be to assess movement stimulated by music. In two experiments we evaluated the discriminative power of mobile-device generated acceleration data produced by free movement during music listening for the prediction of ratings on the Geneva Emotion Music Scales (GEMS-9). The quality of prediction for different dimensions of GEMS varied between experiments for tenderness (R12(first experiment) = 0.50, R22(second experiment) = 0.39), nostalgia (R12 = 0.42, R22 = 0.30), wonder (R12 = 0.25, R22 = 0.34), sadness (R12 = 0.24, R22 = 0.35), peacefulness (R12 = 0.20, R22 = 0.35) and joy (R12 = 0.19, R22 = 0.33) and transcendence (R12 = 0.14, R22 = 0.00). For others like power (R12 = 0.42, R22 = 0.49) and tension (R12 = 0.28, R22 = 0.27) results could be almost reproduced. Furthermore, we extracted two principle components from GEMS ratings, one representing arousal and the other one valence of the experienced feeling. Both qualities, arousal and valence, could be predicted by acceleration data, indicating, that they provide information on the quantity and quality of experience. On the one hand, these findings show how music-evoked movement patterns relate to music-evoked feelings. On the other hand, they contribute to integrate findings from the field of embodied music cognition into music recommender systems. PMID:27415015

  6. From Motion to Emotion: Accelerometer Data Predict Subjective Experience of Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrgang, Melanie; Egermann, Hauke

    2016-01-01

    Music is often discussed to be emotional because it reflects expressive movements in audible form. Thus, a valid approach to measure musical emotion could be to assess movement stimulated by music. In two experiments we evaluated the discriminative power of mobile-device generated acceleration data produced by free movement during music listening for the prediction of ratings on the Geneva Emotion Music Scales (GEMS-9). The quality of prediction for different dimensions of GEMS varied between experiments for tenderness (R12(first experiment) = 0.50, R22(second experiment) = 0.39), nostalgia (R12 = 0.42, R22 = 0.30), wonder (R12 = 0.25, R22 = 0.34), sadness (R12 = 0.24, R22 = 0.35), peacefulness (R12 = 0.20, R22 = 0.35) and joy (R12 = 0.19, R22 = 0.33) and transcendence (R12 = 0.14, R22 = 0.00). For others like power (R12 = 0.42, R22 = 0.49) and tension (R12 = 0.28, R22 = 0.27) results could be almost reproduced. Furthermore, we extracted two principle components from GEMS ratings, one representing arousal and the other one valence of the experienced feeling. Both qualities, arousal and valence, could be predicted by acceleration data, indicating, that they provide information on the quantity and quality of experience. On the one hand, these findings show how music-evoked movement patterns relate to music-evoked feelings. On the other hand, they contribute to integrate findings from the field of embodied music cognition into music recommender systems.

  7. Satellite stories: capturing professional experiences of academic health sciences librarians working in delocalized health sciences programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, Jackie; Horsman, Amanda Rose

    2018-01-01

    Health sciences training programs have progressively expanded onto satellite campuses, allowing students the opportunity to learn in communities away from an academic institution's main campus. This expansion has encouraged a new role for librarians to assume, in that a subset of health sciences librarians identify as "satellite librarians" who are permanently located at a distance from the main campus. Due to the unique nature of this role and lack of existing data on the topic, the authors investigated the experiences and perceptions of this unique group of information professionals. An electronic survey was distributed to health sciences librarians via two prominent North American email discussion lists. Questions addressed the librarians' demographics, feelings of social inclusion, technological support, autonomy, professional support, and more. Eighteen surveys were analyzed. While several respondents stated that they had positive working relationships with colleagues, many cited issues with technology, scheduling, and lack of consideration as barriers to feeling socially included at both the parent and local campuses. Social inclusion, policy creation, and collection management issues were subject to their unique situations and their colleagues' perceptions of their roles as satellite librarians. The results from this survey suggest that the role of the academic health sciences librarian at the satellite campus needs to be clearly communicated and defined. This, in turn, will enhance the experience for the librarian and provide better service to the client.

  8. The control of subjectivity and of the sensible corporal experiences: implications for the playand-self-movement of the child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Barroso de Castro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we approach the formation and the control of the child subjectivity as a manner of; implied or indirectly, among other effects; depriving it of carrying out sensitive body experiences. The relation between those two themes brings implications for the world of movements of the child, specially about its “playand-self-movement”. We call attention to an “adult-centric” view of childhood, which, many times disregards the real interests of the young ones, focusing in a preparation for the future. We consider that the valorization of the free and spontaneous playing can take the child to a meeting with the sensitive body experiences. It’s though the experience that the child is author and creator, assigning senses and meanings by creative playing. To the adults (parents and teachers fits the role of configuring opening spaces for those moments, enabling the child to know by experience.

  9. [Work experience and seniority in health care vs. medical students' knowledge of selected hand hygiene procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różańska, Anna; Wójkowska-Mach, Jadwiga; Bulanda, Małgorzata

    Hand hygiene (HH) is the most important element of infection prevention. The aim of the study was to analyze the level of HH knowledge among medical students of Jagiellonian University Medical College in correlation with their clinical experience and the presence and extent of trainings in hospital hygiene prior to internships, as well as with HH practice among medical staff perceived by students. The study was carried out in a group of 414 students from October to December, 2014. The questionnaire built of 14 questions was used as a study tool. Absolutely correct answers to questions about HH were given by 52.9%, and about HH technique by 6.5% of respondents. The degree of accuracy of answers to questions concerning HH did not correlate with the gender of the respondents or with the fact that work placement had been preceded by training in the field of HH or with its scope. A statistically significant correlation was found between the year, the field, and the type of the study. Students with greater professional practice, significantly less often claimed that medical workers comply with HH. Professional practice of 22.9% of students was not preceded by any training in the field of hospital hygiene and in 28% of cases training did not cover HH. Nearly half of the respondents declared that pre-internship training had not addressed the problem of occupational exposure to biological agents. The results of the study shows that knowledge gained by students participating in the study was not satisfactory. Moreover, there is a need for improving the educational scheme in the discussed subject at all levels of basic and clinical subjects as well as during internships. Med Pr 2016;67(5):623-633. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  10. [Burn-out, commitment, personality and experiences during work and training; survey among psychiatry residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, R; Ewalds, A L; van der Heijden, P T; Penterman, E J M; Grootens, K P

    2017-01-01

    In the last few years international studies have reported on increase in burn-out and depressive symptoms among psychiatry residents. In the field of research, however, commitment and dedication are now being mentioned more frequently as positive factors that counterbalance burn-out. To find out how a group of Dutch psychiatry residents feel about their work, to discover their degree of burn-out and commitment and to clarify the various factors involved. 59 psychiatry residents from four teaching hospitals were asked to complete questionnaires concerning burn-out (U-BOS-C), commitment (UWES-15) and personality (BFI-NL). Respondents were also asked to describe how they felt about their experiences during their work and to give their views on the instruction and training they were receiving. In the U-BOS-C section only four trainees (almost 7%) met the criteria for burn-out. In the BFI-NL section the psychiatry residents obtained significantly lower scores on neuroticism and higher scores on empathy than did a comparable norm group of a similar age. The scores of the psychiatry residents indicated that the term 'being proud of your work' was significantly related to a feeling of commitment and particularly to all subscales that reflected commitment. In our study the percentage of psychiatry residents with burn-out is significantly lower than the percentage reported elsewhere in the literature. In fact, our results demonstrate that the psychiatry residents who were the subject of our study regarded themselves as being emotionally stable, friendly and committed to their work.

  11. Understanding Accounting as a Career: An Immersion Work Experience for Students Making Career Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Dianne; Murphy, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a project which is designed to increase the participation of high school students in accounting work experience placements. The focus of the paper is on an Australian-based project which overcomes the identified barriers to offering high school accounting work experience placements with a resultant increase in the number and…

  12. Work-related experiences of head and neck cancer survivors: an exploratory and descriptive qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewa, Carolyn S.; Trojanowski, Lucy; Tamminga, Sietske J.; Ringash, Jolie; McQuestion, Maurene; Hoch, Jeffrey S.

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory and descriptive study contributes to the growing knowledge about the return-to-work (RTW) experience of head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors. Viewing RTW as a process, participants were asked to consider the work-related experience with HNC at different phases: (1) at

  13. Microstructural evolution in copper subjected to severe plastic deformation: Experiments and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, A.; Kad, B.K.; Gregori, F.; Meyers, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of microstructure and the mechanical response of copper subjected to severe plastic deformation using equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) was investigated. Samples were subjected to ECAP under three different processing routes: B C , A and C. The microstructural refinement was dependent on processing with route B C being the most effective. The mechanical response is modeled by an equation containing two dislocation evolution terms: one for the cells/subgrain interiors and one for the cells/subgrain walls. The deformation structure evolves from elongated dislocation cells to subgrains to equiaxed grains with diameters of ∼200-500 nm. The misorientation between adjacent regions, measured by electron backscatter diffraction, gradually increases. The mechanical response is well represented by a Voce equation with a saturation stress of 450 MPa. Interestingly, the microstructures produced through adiabatic shear localization during high strain rate deformation and ECAP are very similar, leading to the same grain size. It is shown that both processes have very close Zener-Hollomon parameters (ln Z ∼ 25). Calculations show that grain boundaries with size of 200 nm can rotate by ∼30 deg. during ECAP, thereby generating and retaining a steady-state equiaxed structure. This is confirmed by a grain-boundary mobility calculation which shows that their velocity is 40 nm/s for a 200 nm grain size at 350 K, which is typical of an ECAP process. This can lead to the grain-boundary movement necessary to retain an equiaxed structure

  14. Investigating Subjective Experience and the Influence of Weather Among Individuals With Fibromyalgia: A Content Analysis of Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delir Haghighi, Pari; Kang, Yong-Bin; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Burstein, Frada; Whittle, Samuel

    2017-01-19

    (subjective experience). It also included a list of weather-related terms such as "weather," "cold," and "rain." According to our results, a uniform causal effect of weather variation on fibromyalgia symptoms at the group level remains unlikely. Any impact of weather on fibromyalgia symptoms may vary geographically or at an individual level. Future work will further explore geographic variation and interactions focusing on individual pain trajectories over time. ©Pari Delir Haghighi, Yong-Bin Kang, Rachelle Buchbinder, Frada Burstein, Samuel Whittle. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 19.01.2017.

  15. Opposing Subjective Temporal Experiences in Response to Unpredictable and Predictable Fear-Relevant Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Cui

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that the durations of fear-relevant stimuli were overestimated compared to those of neutral stimuli, even when the fear-relevant stimuli were only anticipated. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of the predictability of fear-relevant stimuli on sub-second temporal estimations. In Experiments 1a and 1b, a randomized design was employed to render the emotional valence of each trial unpredictable. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we incorporated a block design and a cueing paradigm, respectively, to render the emotional stimuli predictable. Compared with the neutral condition, the estimated blank interval was judged as being shorter under the unpredictable fear-relevant condition, while it was judged as being longer under the predictable fear-relevant condition. In other words, the unpredictable and predictable fear-relevant stimuli led to opposing temporal distortions. These results demonstrated that emotions modulate interval perception during different time processing stages.

  16. Hamstring muscle length and lumbar lordosis in subjects with different lifestyle and work setting: comparison between individuals with and without chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Amir Massoud; Nourbakhsh, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Shortened hamstring muscle length has been noted in persons with low back pain (LBP). Prolonged sitting postures, such as those adopted during different work settings and sedentary lifestyle has been associated with hamstring shortness and LBP. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of lifestyle and work setting on hamstring length and lumbar lordosis in subjects with and without LBP and to identify the relationship between hamstring muscles length and lumbar lordosis in individuals with different lifestyle and work setting. A total of 508 subjects between the ages of 20 and 65 were selected. Subjects were categorized into two groups of individuals with and without LBP. A questionnaire was used to obtain information about the subjects' lifestyle and work setting. Hamstring muscle length and lumbar lordosis were measured in all subjects. The results showed no significant difference in the number of subjects with different work setting or lifestyle in individuals with and without LBP. Hamstring muscle length or lumbar lordosis was not affected by type of work setting and lifestyle. Our data showed significant difference in hamstring length and no significant difference in lumbar lordosis between subjects with and without LBP in all categories. Lumbar lordosis was not different between individuals with and without hamstring tightness in normal and LBP subjects with different work setting and lifestyle. The findings of this study did not support the assumption that work setting and sedentary lifestyle would lead to hamstring tightness in subjects with LBP. It seems that work setting and lifestyle was not a contributing factor for hamstring tightness in subjects with LBP.

  17. Participating learning: an experience for youth training in Brazil as social subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanna Maria RODRIGUES DE MATOS

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that youth involvement in groups, in this case the public policies that reflect the environment is a fertile opportunity to form social subjects. In this sense, it also shows that non-formal education is, outside of school is an effective tool for behavior change among youth, and in Brazil this kind of public investment contributes significantly to improve the youth level in many ways, particularly in implementing the National Environmental Education Policy, including with respect to the far-reaching policy decisions. The areas of participation, called councils, commissions, conferences, are spaces that primarily exist to perform the role of educator or educational structures space. The existence of these structures such as councils, groups, committees and networks is urgently needed. However, not enough to exert its educational role. It is essential to continuous development and ongoing activities, reflection and action.

  18. Experiment and analysis of instability of tube rows subject to liquid crossflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.S.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.

    1981-09-01

    A tube array subjected to crossflow may become unstable by either one or both of the two basic mechanisms: velocity mechanism and displacement mechanism. The significance of these two mechanisms depends on the mass-damping parameter. The velocity mechanism is dominant for tube arrays with a low mass-damping parameter, and the displacement mechanism is dominant for tube arrays with a high mass-damping parameter. This report presents an experimental and analytical investigation of tube rows in liquid crossflow. The main objective is to verify a mathematical model and the transition between the two mechanisms at the intermediate values of mass-damping parameter. Tests of two tube rows are conducted to determine the critical flow velocity as a function of system damping. Experimental and analytical results are found to be in good agreement

  19. Radiation field control at the latest BWR plants -- design principle, operational experience and future subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Shunsuke [Energy Research Lab., Ibaraki (Japan); Ohsumi, Katsumi; Takashima, Yoshie [Hitachi Works, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Improvements of operational procedures to control water chemistry, e.g., nickel/iron control, as well as application of hardware improvements for reducing radioactive corrosion products resulted in an extremely low occupational exposure of less than 0.5 man.Sv/yr without any serious impact on the radwaste system, for BWR plants involved in the Japanese Improvement and Standardization Program. Recently, {sup 60}C radioactively in the reactor water has been increasing due to less crud fixation on the two smooth surfaces of new type high performance fuels and to the pH drop caused by chromium oxide anions released from stainless steel structures and pipings. This increase must be limited by changes in water chemistry, e.g., applications of modified nickel/iron ratio control and weak alkali control. Controlled water chemistry to optimize three points, the plant radiation level and integrities of fuel and structural materials, is the primary future subject for BWR water chemistry.

  20. Work-related limitations and return-to-work experiences in prolonged fatigue: workers' perspectives before and after vocational treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, Margot C. W.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2011-01-01

    To gain insight into fatigued workers' perspectives regarding work experience before and after receiving vocational rehabilitation (VR) treatments. A qualitative survey was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 21 fatigued workers who attended an outpatient multi-component VR treatment.

  1. An investigation of emotion experiences at work : a critical incident technique approach / Natalie Booth

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    Orientation: Emotions at work have been considered as an important facet of employees’ work life. However, research regarding the investigation of the emotion experiences at work per se has been lacking. Research Purpose: The general objective of this study is to critically investigate what emotion events are experienced and how these events are appraised for them to result in specific emotions. Motivation for the study: Currently a lack of research regarding emotion experiences as a pr...

  2. Impact of previous pharmacy work experience on pharmacy school academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Ellena; Barnett, Mitchell J; T-L Tang, Terrill; Sasaki-Hill, Debra; Kuperberg, James R; Knapp, Katherine

    2010-04-12

    To determine whether students' previous pharmacy-related work experience was associated with their pharmacy school performance (academic and clinical). The following measures of student academic performance were examined: pharmacy grade point average (GPA), scores on cumulative high-stakes examinations, and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) grades. The quantity and type of pharmacy-related work experience each student performed prior to matriculation was solicited through a student survey instrument. Survey responses were correlated with academic measures, and demographic-based stratified analyses were conducted. No significant difference in academic or clinical performance between those students with prior pharmacy experience and those without was identified. Subanalyses by work setting, position type, and substantial pharmacy work experience did not reveal any association with student performance. A relationship was found, however, between age and work experience, ie, older students tended to have more work experience than younger students. Prior pharmacy work experience did not affect students' overall academic or clinical performance in pharmacy school. The lack of significant findings may have been due to the inherent practice limitations of nonpharmacist positions, changes in pharmacy education, and the limitations of survey responses.

  3. Impact of Previous Pharmacy Work Experience on Pharmacy School Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Ellena; T-L Tang, Terrill; Sasaki-Hill, Debra; Kuperberg, James R.; Knapp, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether students' previous pharmacy-related work experience was associated with their pharmacy school performance (academic and clinical). Methods The following measures of student academic performance were examined: pharmacy grade point average (GPA), scores on cumulative high-stakes examinations, and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) grades. The quantity and type of pharmacy-related work experience each student performed prior to matriculation was solicited through a student survey instrument. Survey responses were correlated with academic measures, and demographic-based stratified analyses were conducted. Results No significant difference in academic or clinical performance between those students with prior pharmacy experience and those without was identified. Subanalyses by work setting, position type, and substantial pharmacy work experience did not reveal any association with student performance. A relationship was found, however, between age and work experience, ie, older students tended to have more work experience than younger students. Conclusions Prior pharmacy work experience did not affect students' overall academic or clinical performance in pharmacy school. The lack of significant findings may have been due to the inherent practice limitations of nonpharmacist positions, changes in pharmacy education, and the limitations of survey responses. PMID:20498735

  4. On subjective quality assessment of adaptive video streaming via crowdsourcing and laboratory based experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Jacob; Shahid, Muhammad; Pokhrel, Jeevan

    2017-01-01

    Video streaming services are offered over the Internet and since the service providers do not have full control over the network conditions all the way to the end user, streaming technologies have been developed to maintain the quality of service in these varying network conditions i.e. so called...... adaptive video streaming. In order to cater for users' Quality of Experience (QoE) requirements, HTTP based adaptive streaming solutions of video services have become popular. However, the keys to ensure the users a good QoE with this technology is still not completely understood. User QoE feedback...

  5. Tenants' experiences and satisfaction in social housing subject to comprehensive retrofitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Rose, Jørgen

    This report describes a Danish retrofitting project with focus on reducing the energy consump-tion in social housing. The objective of the project was to study tenants’ overall satisfaction with how the retrofitting of their dwellings was carried out and their experiences and satisfaction...... with their dwellings after the retrofits. This was studied by a questionnaire survey that included assessments of possible co-benefits like e.g. improved perceived indoor climate parameters and new balconies and questions about the tenants’ changes of habits in relation to indoor temperature and airing of the flat...

  6. Ethical identification of the subject, and “techniques of the self” in the works of Michel Foucault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu V Yatsutsenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We are used to the image of an individual as getting into the social reality created before and without him; however, Michel Foucault questions the genealogy of the modern subject, and states that within a ready-made social reality an individual is not given even to himself. Foucault considers processes and practices of individual self-identification, and modes of subjectivation , i. e. the ways, by which an individual seeks and finds his place in an already and completely configured system of social relations. Foucault develops a specific conceptual tool - “techniques of the self” as sets of representations and practices, by which an individual changes oneself and integrates into some ethical systems (of knowledge, rules of behavior, power relations. “Techniques of the self” are purely social, they do not constitute any ethical identity; on the contrary, they provide a socially determined self-identification. Foucault’s “techniques of the self” let us conceptualize the coincidence of the seemingly anonymous processes of governing and individual self-definition; these techniques serve as indicators of individual ethical normalization. Identification of the “techniques of the self” in subjects’ actions helps to define the governing processes not as a violent submission, but as a basic state of the social interaction systems. In order to verify the heuristic potential of the “techniques of the self” concept, the author considers ancient and early Christian models of subjectivation, which Foucault opposed as two ethical models of subject’s access to the “truths”. With the ancient ethical “techniques of the self”, a subject is a full-fledged ethical agent; with the early Christian techniques, he is to accept one’s ontological inability to establish the righteousness based only on one’s personal experience. For example, such an opposition helps to explain differences between tutorship forms and self-control goals.

  7. An investigation of strategies for integrated learning experiences and instruction in the teaching of creative art subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolisa Nompula

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the integrating possibilities within each creative arts subject. The objective was to optimize the limited teaching time, generally allocated to each art subject in schools, by developing a pedagogical strategy for its successful implementation. While the study was limited to South African schools, the results have global relevance and significance in the ongoing global trendsetting and discourse on arts education. In South Africa the previous National Curriculum Statement (NCS, 2002 integrated music, dance, drama and visual arts where possible, while the new Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS, 2011 offers two elective art subjects in the senior phase (Grades 7-9, each taught separately an hour per week during school hours and one hour per week after school, thereby attempting to extend the teaching time. This qualitative enquiry used documentary analyses, teacher interviews, and student group discussions for the collection of data. Pre-determined and emergent codes based on grounded theory showed that it is possible to integrate theory with practice within one art subject by teaching theoretical work in the context of practical work, thus optimizing the limited time allocated to arts and culture education in school timetables.

  8. Kinetics of the human thyroid trap: experience in normal subjects and in thyroid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, M.T.

    1979-03-01

    Kinetics of the thyroid pertechnetate trap were assessed in 39 normal subjects, five untreated patients with Graves' disease (two before and after treatment), two hypothyroid patients, and in one patient each with Hashimoto's thyroiditis of recent onset, subacute thyroiditis, and massive anaplastic carcinoma. In normal subjects, the effects of sex, time of day, and order of experimental sessions were studied. A three-compartment model was assumed for all studies. Data on thyroidal and neck-background pertechnetate were collected with a multicrystal camera during 40 min after iv injection. The two thyroidal compartments in the model - the follicular cell, v/sub 2/, and the colloidal plasma-equivalent space, V/sub 3/ - is a multi-exponential function of plasma radioactivity, V/sub 1/. None of the model parameters was systematically affected by sex and order of session did not consistently alter any parameter, except for V/sub 3/, which was greater in session 2 than in session 1. That increase was not consistent and is believed to be spurious. Time of day affected only the exit rate constant from the colloid ..lambda../sub 23/, which was increased later in the day (P < 0.02). Distribution of the normal parameters was more log-normal than normal. After 5% were excluded at the high end and at the low end, the range for a parameter, p, was found empirically to be: antiln (mean ln p - 1.7 s.d. ln p), and antiln (mean ln p + 1.5 s.d. ln p). In Graves' disease, V/sub 2/ is increased (P < 0.02), but the increases in V/sub 3/ and in ..lambda../sub 21/ (the clearance into the thyroid from serum) are more dramatic (P < 10/sup -8/). After treatment, V/sub 3/ and ..lambda../sub 21/ fell toward normal. The hypothyroid patients showed no trap activity, and the trap was normal in the patient with early Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The patients with subacute thyroiditis and anaplastic carcinoma had increases in V/sub 2/, V/sub 3/, and ..lambda../sub 21/, but the

  9. Work Experiences, Job Performance, and Feelings of Personal and Family Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined interaction between job performance and specific work experiences on three indicators of personal and family well-being among 336 accountants. Perceptions of nonsupportive and inequitable work environment, role conflict, and extensive time commitment to work were each related to one or more indicators of well-being. (Author)

  10. The Work Experience of Undocumented Mexican Women Migrants in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Rita J.; DeLey, Margo

    1984-01-01

    Undocumented Mexican women workers in Los Angeles were interviewed about their work experience in the United States. Most of them work in factories, not in domestic service. Most earn a salary above minimum wage but below that earned by documented women, and 80 percent believe their treatment at work equals that of other workers. (KH)

  11. Work station learning activities: a flexible and scalable instrument for integrating across basic subjects in biomedical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Soltero, Rocío; Learte, Ana Isabel R; Sánchez, Ana Mª; Gal, Beatriz

    2017-11-29

    Establishing innovative teaching programs in biomedical education involves dealing with several national and supra-national (i.e. European) regulations as well as with new pedagogical and demographic demands. We aimed to develop and validate a suitable instrument to integrate activities across preclinical years in all Health Science Degrees while meeting requirements of national quality agencies. The new approach was conceived at two different levels: first, we identified potentially integrative units from different fields according to national learning goals established for each preclinical year (national quality agency regulations). Secondly, we implemented a new instrument that combines active methodologies in Work Station Learning Activities (WSLA), using clinical scenarios as a guiding common thread to instruct students from an integrated perspective. We evaluated students' perception through a Likert-type survey of a total of 118 students enrolled in the first year of the Bachelor's Degree in Medicine. Our model of integrated activities through WSLA is feasible, scalable and manageable with large groups of students and a minimum number of instructors, two major limitations in many medical schools. Students' perception of WSLA was positive in overall terms. Seventy nine percent of participants stated that WSLA sessions were more useful than non-integrated activities. Eighty three percent confirmed that the WSLA methodology was effective at integrating concepts covered by different subjects. The WSLA approach is a flexible and scalable instrument for moving towards integrated curricula, and it can be successfully adapted to teach basic subjects in preclinical years of Health Science degrees. WSLA can be applied to large groups of students in a variety of contexts or environments using clinical cases as connecting threads.

  12. Aging, subjective experience, and cognitive control: dramatic false remembering by older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Larry L; Bishara, Anthony J; Hessels, Sandra; Toth, Jeffrey P

    2005-05-01

    Recent research suggests that older adults are more susceptible to interference effects than are young adults; however, that research has failed to equate differences in original learning. In 4 experiments, the authors show that older adults are more susceptible to interference effects produced by a misleading prime. Even when original learning was equated, older adults were 10 times as likely to falsely remember misleading information and were much less likely to increase their accuracy by opting not to answer under conditions of free responding. The results are well described by a multinomial model that postulates multiple modes of cognitive control. According to that model, older adults are likely to be captured by misleading information, a form of goal neglect or deficit in inhibitory functions. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Double-blind comparison of the two hallucinogens psilocybin and dextromethorphan: similarities and differences in subjective experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonaro, Theresa M; Johnson, Matthew W; Hurwitz, Ethan; Griffiths, Roland R

    2018-02-01

    Although psilocybin and dextromethorphan (DXM) are hallucinogens, they have different receptor mechanisms of action and have not been directly compared. This study compared subjective, behavioral, and physiological effects of psilocybin and dextromethorphan under conditions that minimized expectancy effects. Single, acute oral doses of psilocybin (10, 20, 30 mg/70 kg), DXM (400 mg/70 kg), and placebo were administered under double-blind conditions to 20 healthy participants with histories of hallucinogen use. Instructions to participants and staff minimized expectancy effects. Various subjective, behavioral, and physiological effects were assessed after drug administration. High doses of both drugs produced similar increases in participant ratings of peak overall drug effect strength, with similar times to maximal effect and time-course. Psilocybin produced orderly dose-related increases on most participant-rated subjective measures previously shown sensitive to hallucinogens. DXM produced increases on most of these same measures. However, the high dose of psilocybin produced significantly greater and more diverse visual effects than DXM including greater movement and more frequent, brighter, distinctive, and complex (including textured and kaleidoscopic) images and visions. Compared to DXM, psilocybin also produced significantly greater mystical-type and psychologically insightful experiences and greater absorption in music. In contrast, DXM produced larger effects than psilocybin on measures of disembodiment, nausea/emesis, and light-headedness. Both drugs increased systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and pupil dilation and decreased psychomotor performance and balance. Psilocybin and DXM produced similar profiles of subjective experiences, with psilocybin producing relatively greater visual, mystical-type, insightful, and musical experiences, and DXM producing greater disembodiment.

  14. The Combined Effects of Alcohol, Caffeine and Expectancies on Subjective Experience, Impulsivity and Risk-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Adrienne J.; de Wit, Harriet; Lilje, Todd C.; Kassel, Jon D.

    2013-01-01

    Caffeinated alcoholic beverage (CAB) consumption is a rapidly growing phenomenon among young adults and is associated with a variety of health-risk behaviors. The current study examined whether either caffeinated alcohol or the expectation of receiving caffeinated alcohol altered affective, cognitive and behavioral outcomes hypothesized to contribute to risk behavior. Young adult social drinkers (N=146) participated in a single session where they received alcohol (peak Breath Alcohol Content = .088 g/dL, SD = .019; equivalent to about 4 standard drinks) and were randomly assigned to one of four further conditions 1) no caffeine, no caffeine expectancy, 2) caffeine and caffeine expectancy, 3) no caffeine but caffeine expectancy, 4) caffeine but no caffeine expectancy. Participants’ habitual CAB consumption was positively correlated with measures of impulsivity and risky behavior, independently of study drugs. Administration of caffeine (mean dose = 220 mg, SD = 38; equivalent to about 2.75 Red Bulls) in the study reduced subjective ratings of intoxication and reversed the decrease in desire to continue drinking, regardless of expectancy. Caffeine also reduced the effect of alcohol on inhibitory reaction time (faster incorrect responses). Participants not expecting caffeine were less attentive after alcohol, whereas participants expecting caffeine were not, regardless of caffeine administration. Alcohol decreased response accuracy in all participants except those who both expected and received caffeine. Findings suggest that CABs may elevate risk for continued drinking by reducing perceived intoxication, and by maintaining the desire to continue drinking. Simply expecting to consume caffeine may reduce the effects of alcohol on inattention, and either expecting or consuming caffeine may protect against other alcohol-related performance decrements. Caffeine, when combined with alcohol, has both beneficial and detrimental effects on mechanisms known to contribute to

  15. Improving data availability for brain image biobanking in healthy subjects: Practice-based suggestions from an international multidisciplinary working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkin, Susan D; Pernet, Cyril; Nichols, Thomas E; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Matthews, Paul M; van der Lugt, Aad; Mackay, Clare; Lanyon, Linda; Mazoyer, Bernard; Boardman, James P; Thompson, Paul M; Fox, Nick; Marcus, Daniel S; Sheikh, Aziz; Cox, Simon R; Anblagan, Devasuda; Job, Dominic E; Dickie, David Alexander; Rodriguez, David; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2017-06-01

    Brain imaging is now ubiquitous in clinical practice and research. The case for bringing together large amounts of image data from well-characterised healthy subjects and those with a range of common brain diseases across the life course is now compelling. This report follows a meeting of international experts from multiple disciplines, all interested in brain image biobanking. The meeting included neuroimaging experts (clinical and non-clinical), computer scientists, epidemiologists, clinicians, ethicists, and lawyers involved in creating brain image banks. The meeting followed a structured format to discuss current and emerging brain image banks; applications such as atlases; conceptual and statistical problems (e.g. defining 'normality'); legal, ethical and technological issues (e.g. consents, potential for data linkage, data security, harmonisation, data storage and enabling of research data sharing). We summarise the lessons learned from the experiences of a wide range of individual image banks, and provide practical recommendations to enhance creation, use and reuse of neuroimaging data. Our aim is to maximise the benefit of the image data, provided voluntarily by research participants and funded by many organisations, for human health. Our ultimate vision is of a federated network of brain image biobanks accessible for large studies of brain structure and function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Job Resources, Physician Work Engagement, and Patient Care Experience in an Academic Medical Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, Renée A; Lases, Lenny S S; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Heineman, Maas Jan; Lombarts, Kiki M J M H

    2017-10-01

    Physician work engagement is associated with better work performance and fewer medical errors; however, whether work-engaged physicians perform better from the patient perspective is unknown. Although availability of job resources (autonomy, colleague support, participation in decision making, opportunities for learning) bolster work engagement, this relationship is understudied among physicians. This study investigated associations of physician work engagement with patient care experience and job resources in an academic setting. The authors collected patient care experience evaluations, using nine validated items from the Dutch Consumer Quality index in two academic hospitals (April 2014 to April 2015). Physicians reported job resources and work engagement using, respectively, the validated Questionnaire on Experience and Evaluation of Work and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. The authors conducted multivariate adjusted mixed linear model and linear regression analyses. Of the 9,802 eligible patients and 238 eligible physicians, respectively, 4,573 (47%) and 185 (78%) participated. Physician work engagement was not associated with patient care experience (B = 0.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.02 to 0.03; P = .669). However, learning opportunities (B = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.05 to 0.52; P = .019) and autonomy (B = 0.31; 95% CI = 0.10 to 0.51; P = .004) were positively associated with work engagement. Higher physician work engagement did not translate into better patient care experience. Patient experience may benefit from physicians who deliver stable quality under varying levels of work engagement. From the physicians' perspective, autonomy and learning opportunities could safeguard their work engagement.

  17. CosmoQuest: Supporting Subject Matter Experts in Broadening the Impacts of their Work beyond their Institutional Walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel-Storr, J.; Buxner, S.; Grier, J.; Gay, P.

    2016-12-01

    CosmoQuest is a virtual research facility, which, like its physical counterparts, provides tools for scientists to acquire reduced data products (thanks to our cadre of citizen scientists working to analyze images and produce results online), and also to participate in education and outreach activities either directly through CosmoQuest activities (such as CosmoAcademy and the Educators' Zone) or with the support of CosmoQuest. Here, we present our strategies to inspire, engage and support Subject Matter Experts (SMEs - Scientists, Engineers, Technologists and Mathematicians) in activities outside of their institutions, and beyond college classroom teaching. We provide support for SMEs who are interested in increasing the impacts of their science knowledge and expertise by interacting with people online, or in other venues outside of their normal work environment. This includes a broad spectrum of opportunities for those interested in hosting webinars; running short courses for the public; using Facebook, Twitter or other social media to communicate science; or other diverse activities such as supporting an open house, science fair, or star party. As noted by Katheryn Woods-Townsend and colleagues, "...face-to-face interactions with scientists allowed students to view scientists as approachable and normal people, and to begin to understand the range of scientific areas and careers that exist. Scientists viewed the scientist-student interactions as a vehicle for science communication" (2015). As CosmoQuest fosters these relationships, it We present a framework for SMEs which combine opportunities for continuing professional development (virtually and in person at conferences) with ongoing online support, creating a dynamic professional learning network. The goal of this is to deepen SME capacity-knowledge, attitudes and behaviors-both encouraging and empowering them to connect to broader audiences in new ways.

  18. Vibration response of a pipe subjected to two-phase flow: Analytical formulations and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-Vidal, L. Enrique, E-mail: leortiz@sc.usp.br [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sao Carlos School of Engineering, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Av., Trabalhador São-carlense, 400, 13566-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Mureithi, Njuki W., E-mail: njuki.mureithi@polymtl.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnique Montreal, Département de Géniemécanique 2900, H3T 1J7 Montreal, QC (Canada); Rodriguez, Oscar M.H., E-mail: oscarmhr@sc.usp.br [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sao Carlos School of Engineering, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Av., Trabalhador São-carlense, 400, 13566-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Analytical formulations for two-phase flow-induced vibration (2-FIV) are presented. • Standard deviation of acceleration pipe response is a function of the square of shear velocity. • Peak frequency is correlated to hydrodynamic mass and consequently to void fraction. • Dynamic pipe response increases with increasing mixture velocity and void fraction. • Hydrodynamic mass in 2-FIV in horizontal pipe is proportional to mixture density. - Abstract: This paper treats the two-phase flow-induced vibration in pipes. A broad range of two-phase flow conditions, including bubbly, dispersed and slug flow, were tested in a clamped-clamped straight horizontal pipe. The vibration response of both transversal directions for two span lengths was measured. From experimental results, an in-depth discussion on the nature of the flow excitation and flow-parameters influence is presented. The hydrodynamic mass parameter is also studied. Experimental results suggest that it is proportional to mixture density. On the other hand, two analytical formulations were developed and tested against experimental results. One formulation predicts the quadratic trend between standard deviation of acceleration and shear velocity found in experiments. The other formulation indicates that the peak-frequency of vibration response depends strongly on void fraction. It provides accurate predictions of peak-frequency, predicting 97.6% of the data within ±10% error bands.

  19. Experience database of Romanian facilities subjected to the last three Vrancea earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The scope of this research project is to use the past seismic experience of similar components from power and industrial facilities to establish the generic seismic resistance of nuclear power plant safe shutdown equipment. The first part of the project provide information about the Vrancea. earthquakes which affect the Romanian territory and also the Kozloduy NPP site as a background of the investigations of the seismic performance of mechanical and electrical equipment in the industrial facilities. This project has the following, objectives: collect and process all available seismic information about Vrancea earthquakes; perform probabilistic hazard analysis of the Vrancea earthquakes; determine attenuation low, correlation between the focal depth, earthquake power, soil conditions and frequency characteristics of the seismic ground motion; investigate and collect information regarding seismic behavior during the 1977, 1986 and 1990 earthquakes of mechanical and electrical components from industrial facilities. The seismic database used for the analysis of the Vrancea earthquakes includes digitized triaxial records as follows: March 4, 1977 - I station, Aug, 30 1986 - 42 stations, May 1990 - 54 stations. A catalogue of the Vrancea earthquakes occurred during the period 1901-1994, is presented as well

  20. The Relation Between Valence and Arousal in Subjective Experience Varies With Personality and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppens, Peter; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Yik, Michelle; Koval, Peter; Coosemans, Joachim; Zeng, Kevin J; Russell, James A

    2017-08-01

    While in general arousal increases with positive or negative valence (a so-called V-shaped relation), there are large differences among individuals in how these two fundamental dimensions of affect are related in people's experience. In two studies, we examined two possible sources of this variation: personality and culture. In Study 1, participants (Belgian university students) recalled a recent event that was characterized by high or low valence or arousal and reported on their feelings and their personality in terms of the Five-Factor Model. In Study 2, participants from Canada, China/Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, and Spain reported on their feelings in a thin slice of time and on their personality. In Study 1, we replicated the V-shape as characterizing the relation between valence and arousal, and identified personality correlates of experiencing particular valence-arousal combinations. In Study 2, we documented how the V-shaped relation varied as a function of Western versus Eastern cultural background and personality. The results showed that the steepness of the V-shaped relation between valence and arousal increases with Extraversion within cultures, and with a West-East distinction between cultures. Implications for the personality-emotion link and research on cultural differences in affect are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Subjective experiences of watching stereoscopic Avatar and U2 3D in a cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pölönen, Monika; Salmimaa, Marja; Takatalo, Jari; Häkkinen, Jukka

    2012-01-01

    A stereoscopic 3-D version of the film Avatar was shown to 85 people who subsequently answered questions related to sickness, visual strain, stereoscopic image quality, and sense of presence. Viewing Avatar for 165 min induced some symptoms of visual strain and sickness, but the symptom levels remained low. A comparison between Avatar and previously published results for the film U2 3D showed that sickness and visual strain levels were similar despite the films' runtimes. The genre of the film had a significant effect on the viewers' opinions and sense of presence. Avatar, which has been described as a combination of action, adventure, and sci-fi genres, was experienced as more immersive and engaging than the music documentary U2 3D. However, participants in both studies were immersed, focused, and absorbed in watching the stereoscopic 3-D (S3-D) film and were pleased with the film environments. The results also showed that previous stereoscopic 3-D experience significantly reduced the amount of reported eye strain and complaints about the weight of the viewing glasses.

  2. 'Poppets and parcels': the links between staff experience of work and acutely ill older peoples' experience of hospital care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maben, Jill; Adams, Mary; Peccei, Riccardo; Murrells, Trevor; Robert, Glenn

    2012-06-01

    Few empirical studies have directly examined the relationship between staff experiences of providing healthcare and patient experience. Present concerns over the care of older people in UK acute hospitals - and the reported attitudes of staff in such settings - highlight an important area of study. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES. To examine the links between staff experience of work and patient experience of care in a 'Medicine for Older People' (MfOP) service in England. A mixed methods case study undertaken over 8 months incorporating a 149-item staff survey (66/192 - 34% response rate), a 48-item patient survey (26/111 - 23%), 18 staff interviews, 18 patient and carer interviews and 41 hours of non-participant observation. Variation in patient experience is significantly influenced by staff work experiences. A high-demand/low-control work environment, poor staffing, ward leadership and co-worker relationships can each add to the inherent difficulties staff face when caring for acutely ill older people. Staff seek to alleviate the impact of such difficulties by finding personal satisfaction from caring for 'the poppets'; those patients they enjoy caring for and for whom they feel able to 'make a difference'. Other patients - noting dehumanising aspects of their care - felt like 'parcels'. Patients are aware of being seen by staff as 'difficult' or 'demanding' and seek to manage their relationships with nursing staff accordingly. The work experiences of staff in a MfOP service impacted directly on patient care experience. Poor ward and patient care climates often lead staff to seek job satisfaction through caring for 'poppets', leaving less favoured - and often more complex patients - to receive less personalised care. Implications for practice. Investment in staff well-being and ward climate is essential for the consistent delivery of high-quality care for older people in acute settings. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Theses\\' subjects chosen from public needs: Experience of Yazd Health Study (YaHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Dehghanitaftiti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yazd Health Study (YaHS is an endeavor to involve students in design, implementation and analysis of a large study. Over 150 graduate and post graduate students from various disciplines have been invited to participate in a large longitudinal study with 10000 samples. Participants were selected randomly from Yazd population, over 1000000 as December 2014. Four hundred variables grouped in the following sections were asked 1 demographics, 2 physical activity, 3sleep quality and quantity, 4 mental health, 5 history y of chronic illnesses, 6 history of surgical operations, 7 dental health, 8 history of accidents, 9 dietetic habits, 10 occupation and communication history, 11 traditional medicine, 12 history of smoking and addiction and 13 women’s health. The interview follows by anthropometric measurements including weight, height, BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference, neck circumference and WHR. Per cent body fat, % body muscle, visceral fat, resting metabolism have been measured followed by pulse and blood pressure. Students were trained to participate in design, piloting and the main phase of data collection. Students evaluated the experience useful and constructive. In return of their collaboration in interviewing 50-100 study participants, they will receive data for their theses' proposal. This will help them to access a large and high quality set of data and disseminate the results in high quality peer reviewed journals as well as national and international conferences. The students mandated to write an executive summary of their thesis and disseminate it to health managers and inter-sectoral decision makers. They will gain bonus score if they can publish their main findings in public media. Acknowledgments: Thanks to students who participated in the study and A. Professor Masoud Mirzaei, the principal investigator of Yazd Health Study (YAHS for providing information on the design and the progress of the study.

  4. Work experience and seniority in health care vs. medical students’ knowledge of selected hand hygiene procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Różańska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hand hygiene (HH is the most important element of infection prevention. The aim of the study was to analyze the level of HH knowledge among medical students of Jagiellonian University Medical College in correlation with their clinical experience and the presence and extent of trainings in hospital hygiene prior to internships, as well as with HH practice among medical staff perceived by students. Material and Methods: The study was carried out in a group of 414 students from October to December, 2014. The questionnaire built of 14 questions was used as a study tool. Results: Absolutely correct answers to questions about HH were given by 52.9%, and about HH technique by 6.5% of respondents. The degree of accuracy of answers to questions concerning HH did not correlate with the gender of the respondents or with the fact that work placement had been preceded by training in the field of HH or with its scope. A statistically significant correlation was found between the year, the field, and the type of the study. Students with greater professional practice, significantly less often claimed that medical workers comply with HH. Professional practice of 22.9% of students was not preceded by any training in the field of hospital hygiene and in 28% of cases training did not cover HH. Nearly half of the respondents declared that pre-internship training had not addressed the problem of occupational exposure to biological agents. Conclusions: The results of the study shows that knowledge gained by students participating in the study was not satisfactory. Moreover, there is a need for improving the educational scheme in the discussed subject at all levels of basic and clinical subjects as well as during internships. Med Pr 2016;67(5:623–633

  5. [Practical repercussions of 3 years of experience of national hemovigilance on the subject of viral complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laperche, S

    1998-06-01

    The residual risk of transmitting viral infections by transfusion of screened blood is mainly linked to donations occurring in the window period. Using a mathematical model, a French study, including a 3 year period of blood donations (1994-1996), was performed by the Hepatitis Virus and Retrovirus working groups of the French Society of Blood Transfusion. The residual risk in France was estimated as follows: for HIV, 1 in 1 million (IC 95% = 1/10 million to 1/295,000), for HTLV 1 in 5 million (IC 95% = 0 to 1/625,000), for VHC 1 in 200,000 (IC 95% = 1/530,000 to 1/97,000), for VHB 1 in 180,000 (IC 95% = 1/560,000 to 1/66,000). Based on these estimations, the number of recipients possibly contaminated should have been seven for HIV, one or two for HTLV, 35 for VHC, 40 for VHB for a 3 year period. These 83 to 84 theoretically contaminated recipients are not in accordance with the six recipients contaminated by a blood product (two with HIV, one with VHC, three with VHB) that were reported to the National Haemovigilance Unit of the Agence Française du Sang. This observed difference may be explained by an overestimated calculated risk (the whole window period is not infectious), or by an underestimation of real post-transfusion contamination due to a lack of exhaustive notifications. However, a national database of post-tranfusion contamination is useful to approach the real residual risk. Therefore, efforts to continue the recipient follow-up have to be encouraged.

  6. Walking a fine line: Forensic mental health practitioners' experience of working with correctional officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaretto-Green, Danille; Austin, Wendy; Goble, Erika; Buys, Lisa; Gorman, Tom; Rankel, Marlene

    2011-09-01

    This paper explores mental health professionals' experiences working with correctional staff--one aspect of an interdisciplinary phenomenological study of ethical practice in forensic psychiatry. Professionals describe this relationship as coexisting within the system, despite their often conflicting roles. In correctional officers' overt concern for custody and control, practitioners can perceive a "paramilitary mentality" with which they struggle to work. Conversely, practitioners can experience conflict with security personnel for appearing "too caring" or "too sympathetic" to offenders--being "con-lovers." The balance practitioners establish between working with inmates and working alongside facility security is one of walking a fine line. © 2011 International Association of Forensic Nurses.

  7. Staying at work with chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain: a qualitative study of workers' experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geertzen Jan HB

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people with chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain (CMP have decreased work ability. The majority, however, stays at work despite their pain. Knowledge about workers who stay at work despite chronic pain is limited, narrowing our views on work participation. The aim of this study was to explore why people with CMP stay at work despite pain (motivators and how they manage to maintain working (success factors. Methods A semi-structured interview was conducted among 21 subjects who stay at work despite CMP. Participants were included through purposeful sampling. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and imported into computer software Atlas.ti. Data was analyzed by means of thematic analysis. The interviews consisted of open questions such as: "Why are you working with pain?" or "How do you manage working while having pain?" Results A total of 16 motivators and 52 success factors emerged in the interviews. Motivators were categorized into four themes: work as value, work as therapy, work as income generator, and work as responsibility. Success factors were categorized into five themes: personal characteristics, adjustment latitude, coping with pain, use of healthcare services, and pain beliefs. Conclusions Personal characteristics, well-developed self-management skills, and motivation to work may be considered to be important success factors and prerequisites for staying at work, resulting in behaviors promoting staying at work such as: raising adjustment latitude, changing pain-coping strategies, organizing modifications and conditions at work, finding access to healthcare services, and asking for support. Motivators and success factors for staying at work may be used for interventions in rehabilitation and occupational medicine, to prevent absenteeism, or to promote a sustainable return to work. This qualitative study has evoked new hypotheses about staying at work; quantitative studies on staying at

  8. “YOU GET ANGRY INSIDE YOURSELF”: LOW-INCOME ADOLESCENT SOUTH AFRICAN GIRLS’ SUBJECTIVE EXPERIENCE OF DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer, Karin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Informed by the feminist social constructionist approach this study aimed at exploring the subjective experiences of depression of low-income South African adolescent girls. Participants in this study (girls between the ages of 12 and 14 live in a semi-rural low-income coloured community in the Western Cape. Participants were familiar with the concept of depression, but it seemed that for them the central emotion associated with depression was anger, which often manifested in destructive behaviours. Furthermore, participants seemed to construct depression as a relational problem, suggesting that psychotherapy may be indicated as an important intervention strategy.

  9. “We Are Working Hand to Mouth”: Zimbabwean Teachers’ Experiences of Vulnerability in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sadhana Manik

    2014-01-01

    South Africa’s (SA) magnetism in attracting skilled and unskilled migrants, particularly in a post-apartheid context, has been highlighted in various studies. However, there appears to be limited studies that examine the experiences of skilled immigrants in SA in this context. Furthermore, there are none that focus specifically on immigrant teachers despite immigrants fulfilling SA’s need for teachers in specialist subjects like Maths and Science. This paper explores the experiences of Zimbab...

  10. School nurses’ experiences working with students with mental health problems : A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Jönsson, Julia; Maltestam, Malin; Bengtsson-Tops, Anita; Garmy, Pernilla

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to describe school nurses’ experiences working with students with mental health problems. In this inductive qualitative study, interviews were conducted with 14 school nurses in Sweden. The content analysis revealed three themes:(1) sense of worriedness about working with students with mental health problems, (2) taking care of students with mental health issues was an opportunity for personal and professional development, and (3) the experience of making a difference for young pe...

  11. Faculty Experiences of Merger and Organizational Change in a Social Work Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedoyin, A Christson; Miller, Monte; Jackson, Mary S; Dodor, Bernice; Hall, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Social work programs are experiencing unprecedented organizational changes due to budget cuts, dwindling resources, global, and technological challenges. However, there is limited information in the literature about the merger experiences of faculty in social work programs. On one hand undergoing merger and reorganization provides the opportunity to reorganize, reprioritize, re-assess, develop strategies, and explore previously untapped opportunities for social work programs. Conversely, merger experiences have caused frustration, intention to quit, confusion, and loss of professional identity for social work faculty. In this article the authors utilize a journaling method and sense-making approach of the merger experiences of some of the faculty members of a social work program in the United States. The authors suggest a framework to understand how the faculty confronted the challenges, overcame the pitfalls, and maximized the opportunities offered during the merger and organizational change process.

  12. Effects of age, experience and inter-alpha inhibitor proteins on working memory and neuronal plasticity after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, Cynthia M; Lim, Yow-Pin; Stonestreet, Barbara S; Threlkeld, Steven W

    2016-04-01

    Neonatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) commonly results in cognitive and sensory impairments. Early behavioral experience has been suggested to improve cognitive and sensory outcomes in children and animal models with perinatal neuropathology. In parallel, we previously showed that treatment with immunomodulator Inter-alpha Inhibitor Proteins (IAIPs) improves cellular and behavioral outcomes in neonatal HI injured rats. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the influences of early experience and typical maturation in combination with IAIPs treatment on spatial working and reference memory after neonatal HI injury. A second aim was to determine the effects of these variables on hippocampal CA1 neuronal morphology. Subjects were divided into two groups that differed with respect to the time when exposed to eight arm radial water maze testing: Group one was tested as juveniles (early experience, Postnatal day (P) 36-61) and adults (P88-113), and Group two was tested in adulthood only (P88-113; without early experience). Three treatment conditions were included in each experience group (HI+Vehicle, HI+IAIPs, and Sham subjects). Incorrect arm entries (errors) were compared between treatment and experience groups across three error types (reference memory (RM), working memory incorrect (WMI), working memory correct (WMC)). Early experience led to improved working memory performance regardless of treatment. Combining IAIPs intervention with early experience provided a long-term behavioral advantage on the WMI component of the task in HI animals. Anatomically, early experience led to a decrease in the average number of basal dendrites per CA1 pyramidal neuron for IAIP treated subjects and a significant reduction in basal dendritic length in control subjects, highlighting the importance of pruning in typical early life learning. Our results support the hypothesis that early behavioral experience combined with IAIPs improve outcome on a relativity demanding

  13. Subjective Experiences of an Art Museum Engagement Activity for Persons with Early Alzheimer’s disease and their Family Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatt, Jason D.; Liptak, Amy; Oakley, Mary Ann; Gogan, Jessica; Varner, Tresa; Lingler, Jennifer H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the subjective experiences of older adults with early-stage Alzheimer’s disease or related cognitive disorders (ADRD) and their family caregivers who participated in an art museum engagement activity. Methods Four focus groups were conducted with 10 persons with ADRD and 10 family caregivers following the completion one-time, three hour engagement activity. Participants also completed a brief satisfaction survey, and associations were examined using nonparametric statistics. Results Three key themes were identified: cognitive stimulation, social connections, and a sense of self. In addition, we identified programmatic issues such as activity-specific concerns and program logistics that could help improve future art program offerings. Past experience with art and perceived social cohesion were correlated with participants’ overall satisfaction with the program. Discussion Efforts aimed at improving the quality of life of those with Alzheimer’s and their family caregivers should consider the potential role of art museums. PMID:25216658

  14. A Phenomenological Research of the Lived Experiences of Runaway Girls Who Live in Correction and Rehabilitation Centre in Tehran about Subjective Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Falahatpishe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: According to the high prevalence of running away from home by the teenager girls in Iran and the negative consequences of this issue in the society, this study aimed to investigate the phenomenon of running away from home by studying the lived experience about subjective experiences in girls who had been referred to correction and rehabilitation center in Tehran.Materials and Methods: 12 girls were chosen based on data saturation and they were interviewed by semi-structured interviews. The data were analyzed by interpretative phenomenology and Van Manen approach. Finally 5 main Themes were achieved.Results: The thematic analysis resulted in three sub-themes for subjective experiences including entanglement in negative emotions, being dehumanized, and feminine identity.Conclusion: The results emphasize the need for assessment of experiencing the negative emotions, being dehumanized, and identity crisis as the risk factors of running in teenagers to prevent the possibility of running away from home by teenagers.

  15. Condiciones objetivas y subjetivas de trabajo y trastornos psicofísicos Objective and subjective working conditions and psychophysical disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Pulido-Navarro

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la relación entre las condiciones laborales, los trastornos psicofísicos y la valoración sobre el contenido del trabajo en una industria químico farmacéutica en México. Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal a través de la aplicación de tres instrumentos: una guía de observación del proceso de trabajo, una guía para valorar las condiciones de seguridad e higiene en la empresa y una encuesta epidemiológica (N = 377. Los resultados muestran un proceso laboral muy automatizado, pero con una organización del trabajo principalmente fordista. Se encontraron fuertes asociaciones entre conjuntos de exigencias y conjuntos patológicos. La percepción que la población en estudio tiene de su trabajo (valoración, satisfacción, contenido, apoyo social muestra relación con algunos daños a la salud. Se pudo concluir que tanto las condiciones objetivas de trabajo como las subjetivas juegan un papel importante en la generación de enfermedades en los trabajadores.The relationship between working conditions, psychophysical disorders, and employees' attitudes towards their jobs were analyzed in a pharmaceutical factory in Mexico. A cross-sectional study was conducted using three instruments: guided observation of job processes, guided evaluation of health and safety conditions, and an epidemiological questionnaire (N = 377. Tasks were found to be automated to a considerable degree, but organization was basically Fordist. Strong associations were found between sets of job requirements and certain groups of health outcomes. In the study population, perception of the job (attitude, satisfaction, control, and social support showed an association with certain health problems. The study concluded that both subjective and objective occupational conditions play an important role in workers' health.

  16. Learning through Experience: The Transition from Doctoral Student to Social Work Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, Julianne S.; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Fisher, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The researchers conducted an exploratory study using grounded theory qualitative research methods to examine experiences of social work doctoral students as they learned to teach ("N"?=?14). A core category, "learning through experience," representing a basic social process, was identified. The doctoral students experienced…

  17. The impact of midlife educational, work, health and family experiences on men's early retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, M.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.; Kalmijn, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. In empirical studies on predictors of retirement, midlife experiences have often remained implicit or been neglected. This study aims to improve our understanding of retirement by examining the impact of midlife educational, work, health, and family experiences on early retirement

  18. Work Experiences of People with Mental Illness in Malaysia: A Preliminary Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Su-Lyn; Loong, Jaymee; Ng, Wai-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    This is a preliminary qualitative study, using a basic interpretive approach, to investigate the work experiences of people with mental illness in Malaysia. Six females and four males (aged 30-70) from a residential home for the mentally ill participated in semi-structured interviews. Three inter-relating themes emerged, namely the experience of…

  19. The Benefits and Challenges Hospitality Management Students Experience by Working in Conjunction with Completing Their Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoffstall, Donald G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous researchers have suggested that in order to be successful in the hospitality industry, students need to obtain work experience in addition to completing their degrees. Although the benefit of gaining such experience from the industry viewpoint has been well documented, few studies have assessed the benefits and challenges faced by…

  20. Queering the Social Work Classroom: Strategies for Increasing the Inclusion of LGBTQ Persons and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagaman, M. Alex; Shelton, Jama; Carter, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    The inclusion of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) perspectives and experiences in the social work classroom is necessary to adequately include LGBTQ students and prepare graduates to practice effectively. Drawing from queer theory as a theoretical framework and the authors' experiences in practice and teaching/learning spaces…

  1. Graduate Social Work Education and Cognitive Complexity: Does Prior Experience Really Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which age, education, and practice experience among social work graduate students (N = 184) predicted cognitive complexity, an essential aspect of critical thinking. In the regression analysis, education accounted for more of the variance associated with cognitive complexity than age and practice experience. When…

  2. School Counselors' Professional Experience and Practices Working with Students Who Self-Harm: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ellen Adams

    2013-01-01

    The professional experiences and practices of school counselors and the interventions they employ while working with adolescent students who self-harm is an underrepresented area within current research. This generic qualitative study provides a rich description and a deeper understanding of the professional experiences and practices of school…

  3. Coffee Cups, Canoes, Airplanes and the Lived Experience: Reflections on the Works of Bertram (Chip) Bruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haythornthwaite, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    A career spent in research, teaching, and engagement with community entails a lifetime of assemblage of meaning from people, resources, technologies and experience. In his work, Bertram (Chip) Bruce has long engaged with how we create such an assemblage of meaning from our formal and found learning, and from the "lived experience" of…

  4. Masculinities fathering and health: the experiences of African-Caribbean and white working class fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert Alan

    2007-01-01

    There is a developing body of research that investigates the links between masculinities and men's health experiences, but the links between masculinities and the health of fathers has been a neglected focus for research in the UK. This paper presents some of the findings drawn from a parent study which investigated African-Caribbean and white working class fathers' experiences of fathering, health and social connectedness. Data are drawn from interviews with 13 men (6 African-Caribbean and 7 White working class) living in a city in the West Midlands area of the UK. In this paper, I analyse and discuss African-Caribbean and white working class fathers' stories about the meaning of health, the influences upon their health, and their health practices. It was found that for the African-Caribbean fathers specifically, anticipated or perceived racist prejudice, abuse or discrimination influenced their health experiences. However, the meaning of health for both ethnic groups of fathers was as functional capacity, that is health was an asset that allowed fathers to meet the obligations of paid work and fathering. These obligations were also associated with a restricted sense of personal agency for the men interviewed, and the associated constraints were linked to transgressive consumption of alcohol, food and tobacco. In addition, fathers were also involved in solitary ways of dealing with their vulnerability, vulnerability that was associated with fathers' health concerns, and other difficult life experiences. Fathers' solitary experiences of vulnerability were also mediated by hegemonic forms of masculinity. Nevertheless, the experience of fathering within the lifecourse influenced men's health experiences: reflexivity and challenges to both transgressive consumption and solitary experiences were linked to fathers' perceived obligations to children. The significance of gender, ethnicity and social class for theory and future research with working class fathers and boys

  5. The effect of noise in a performance measure on work motivation: A real effort laboratory experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloof, R.; van Praag, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an individual real effort laboratory experiment where subjects are paid for measured performance. Measured performance equals actual performance plus noise. We compare a stable environment where the noise is small with a volatile environment where the noise is

  6. The effect of noise in a performance measure on work motivation: A real effort laboratory experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloof, R.; van Praag, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an individual real effort laboratory experiment where subjects are paid for measured performance. Measured performance equals actual performance plus noise. We compare a stable environment where the noise is small with a volatile environment where the noise is

  7. Self-Efficacy, Curriculum Content, Practicum Experience, and the Interest of Social Work Students in Gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the linkages among perceptions of self-efficacy, curriculum, and field experience on students' attitudes and interest in working with older adults. Graduate level social work students were surveyed regarding perceived self-efficacy to intervene with older adult clients, the amount of aging content in the master of social…

  8. Collaborating or Fighting for the Marks? Students' Experiences of Group Work Assessment in the Creative Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The study explores students' and lecturers' experiences of group work assessment in a performing arts department that includes undergraduate studies in theatre, dance and film. Working from the perspective that assessment is a socially situated practice informed by, and mediated through, the socio-political context within which it occurs, this…

  9. Work Experiences, Occupational Commitment, and Intent to Enter the Sport Management Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, George B.; Sagas, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Building from Mever, Allen, & Smith's (1993) work in organizational psychology, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among work experiences, affective occupational commitment, and intent to enter the sport management profession among college seniors completing their internship requirements. Results indicate that intent to…

  10. Being a Deaf Role Model: Deaf People's Experiences of Working with Families and Deaf Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Katherine D.; Young, Alys M.

    2011-01-01

    The experiences of being a deaf role model have been little explored in the literature. This paper explores the role of the deaf role model as perceived by d/Deaf adults who carried out this role, when working with deaf young people, parents of deaf children, and professionals who work with them. The data were collected from part of the evaluation…

  11. Employee Deviance: A Response to the Perceived Quality of the Work Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinger, Richard; Clark, John

    1982-01-01

    Studies of deviant behavior in the work setting have assumed that an important factor is the employee's perception of the quality of the work experience. This study shows that measures of job satisfaction are significantly related to reported involvement in both property and production deviance in the workplace. (Author/SK)

  12. Beginning Teachers' Experiences Working with a District-Employed Mentor in a North Carolina School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Kari S.; Putnam, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study is concerned with the experiences of beginning teachers working with a district-employed mentor. Based on Illeris's (2002) Three Dimensions of Learning, the study sought to understand the cognitive, emotional, and social processes involved in working with a mentor through the use of one-on one, in-depth interviews. Nine beginning…

  13. Working with Clients Who Engage in Self-Harming Behaviour: Experiences of a Group of Counsellors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Claudine

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the experiences of a group of counsellors regarding working with clients who engage in self-harming behaviour, in order to gain an understanding of what it is like to work with this client group. A series of six individual, semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out, which were then transcribed and analysed…

  14. The global Filipino nurse: An integrative review of Filipino nurses' work experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montayre, Jed; Montayre, Jasmine; Holroyd, Eleanor

    2018-05-01

    To understand the work-related experiences of Philippine-trained nurses working globally. The Philippines is a major source country of foreign-trained nurses located globally. However, there is paucity of research on professional factors and career related issues affecting foreign-trained nurses' work experiences. An integrative review through a comprehensive search of literature was undertaken from November 2015 and was repeated in August 2016. Seven articles satisfied the selection criteria. Filipino nurses experienced differences in the practice of nursing in terms of work process, roles and autonomy. Moreover, they encountered challenges such as work-related discrimination and technical difficulties within the organisation. A clear understanding of Filipino nurses' work experiences and the challenges they have encountered suggests identification of important constructs influencing effective translation of nursing practice across cultures and health systems, which then form the basis for support strategies. It is critical to recognize foreign-trained nurses' experience of work-related differences and challenges as these foster favorable conditions for the management team to plan and continually evaluate policies around recruitment, retention and support offered to these nurses. Furthermore, findings suggest internationalization of nursing framework and standards integrating a transcultural paradigm among staff members within a work organisation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The Lived Experience of Work and Career: Women Whose Parents Lack Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Melinda M.; Woodside, Marianne; Hannon, Christine; Sweeney, Jeffrey R.; Davison, John

    2011-01-01

    There is a dearth of research exploring the career and work development of adults and the influence of family of origin on that development. In this qualitative study, the authors used a phenomenological approach to examine the career and work experiences of women whose parents have no education beyond high school and the influences of family on…

  16. 20 CFR 220.130 - Work experience as a vocational factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work experience as a vocational factor. 220.130 Section 220.130 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD... amount of walking, standing, sitting, lifting and carrying the claimant did during the work day, as well...

  17. [Effect of large-scale repair work on indoor formaldehyde levels upon and subjective symptoms in, medical students during gross anatomy dissection course].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Mihoko; Hoshiko, Michiko; Hara, Kunio; Ishitake, Tatsuya; Saga, Tsuyoshi; Yamaki, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    To examine the effect of large-scale repair work on indoor formaldehyde (FA) levels and subjective symptoms in medical students during a gross anatomy dissection course. We measured the indoor FA levels, room air temperature, and room humidity during a gross anatomy dissection course. In addition, the prevalence of subjective symptoms, keeping allergy state, and wearing personal protective equipment were surveyed in two groups of students using a self-administered questionnaire. The mean indoor FA levels before and after repair work were 1.22 ppm and 0.14 ppm, respectively. The mean indoor FA level significantly decreased after repair work. The prevalences of most subjective symptoms before the anatomy practice were similar before and after the repair work. However, the prevalences of most subjective symptoms during the anatomy practice were lower after the repair work. The mean indoor FA levels and prevalences of subjective symptoms decreased after the repair work. We have to continuously monitor indoor FA levels, carry out private countermeasures to minimize exposure to FA, and maintain equipment for ventilation to be able to conduct practice in a comfortable environment.

  18. Therapists’ Experiences in Their Work With Sex Offenders and People With Pedophilia: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardeberg Bach, Maria; Demuth, Carolin

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a review of the literature that pertains to the experiences of therapists who work with child sex offenders and/or people with pedophilia. We draw together results from studies that attempted to identify how therapists experience such work and how they were impacted by it....... Usually, such studies are embedded within one of the following theoretical frameworks: “secondary traumatic stress”, “vicarious traumatization” and “burnout”. As such, most literature to date on the topic has sought to determine to what extent, and why, work-related stress responses may occur among...

  19. New experience on construction and installation work in Qinshan PHWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Huaxiang

    2004-01-01

    The article provides a summary of the new experience on construction management and construction technology in the field of civil construction and installation work in Qinshan PHWR nuclear power plant, with focus on innovation in project management mode, new technology application and computerized management of construction and installation work. Management innovation, technical innovation and information technology are the key contributors to overall success of Qinshan PHWR nuclear power plant in construction and installation work. The new experience derived in these fields will be of great significance to promote independent construction of the new-round nuclear power projects in China. (author)

  20. Therapists’ Experiences in Their Work With Sex Offenders and People With Pedophilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Maria Hardeberg; Demuth, Carolin

    2018-01-01

    impacted by it. Usually, such studies are embedded within one of the following theoretical frameworks: Secondary traumatic stress, compassion fatigue, vicarious traumatization and burnout. Most literature on the topic has therefore sought to determine to what extent and why, work-related stress responses......This article presents a review of the literature that pertains to the experiences of therapists who work directly with child sex offenders and/or people with pedophilia. We draw together results from studies that attempted to identify how therapists experience such work and how they were personally...

  1. Developing leaders' strategic thinking through global work experience: the moderating role of cultural distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoni, Lisa; Oh, In-Sue; Tesluk, Paul E; Moore, Ozias A; VanKatwyk, Paul; Hazucha, Joy

    2014-09-01

    To respond to the challenge of how organizations can develop leaders who can think strategically, we investigate the relation of leaders' global work experiences--that is, those experiences that require the role incumbent to transcend national boundaries--to their competency in strategic thinking. We further examine whether leaders' exposure to a country whose culture is quite distinct from the culture of their own country (i.e., one that is culturally distant) moderates these relationships. Our analyses of 231 upper level leaders reveals that the time they have spent in global work experiences positively relates to their strategic thinking competency, particularly for leaders who have had exposure to a more culturally distant country. We discuss these findings in light of the research on international work experiences and leader development. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Work experiences, professional development and career prospects of New Zealand dental house surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jenny J; Antoun, Joseph S

    2010-12-01

    New dental graduates compete for house surgeon positions every year, despite little being known about the work experience gained from such posts. The main objectives of this study were to identify the nature of house surgeons' work experiences, their continued professional development (CPD) opportunities and the impact of hospital experience on their future career pathways. A questionnaire was mailed to all 31 New Zealand dental house surgeons (response rate 100%). The majority of house surgeons (77.4%) found hospital work enjoyable, with nearly all (93.5%) perceiving themselves as better clinicians from their experience. Oral surgery, restorative dentistry, special needs dentistry and removable prosthodontics were the most commonly practised areas. The average weekly number of working hours was 42.3 hours for a normal week and 61.8 hours for an on-call week. Stress levels during on-call work were significantly higher than during day-to-day hospital work (p career, with nearly 13% wishing to return to a New Zealand hospital in the future. A dental house surgeon position remains an attractive choice and offers an enjoyable experience for young graduates. Hospitals provide ample CPD opportunities and appear to play an influential role in a house surgeon's career pathway.

  3. Longitudinal links between work experiences and marital satisfaction in african american dual-earner couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoran; McHale, Susan M; Crouter, Ann C; Jones, Damon E

    2017-12-01

    This study assessed associations between both work demands (pressure, hours) and work resources (self-direction) and marital satisfaction in a sample of 164 African American dual-earner couples who were interviewed annually across 3 years. Grounded in the work-home resources and family systems frameworks, results from longitudinal actor-partner interdependence models (APIM) revealed main effects of spouses' work experiences on their own marital satisfaction, but these effects were qualified by the interactive effects of spouses' and partners' work experiences. Some interactive effects were consistent with an amplifying pattern, for example that, beyond the main effects of actor self-direction, marital satisfaction was highest when both spouses experienced high work self-direction. Other effects were consistent with a comparative pattern, such that shorter work hours were linked to lower marital satisfaction only when partners worked longer hours. Gender moderation also was evident in findings that wives' work pressure was negatively linked to marital satisfaction only when their husbands reported high pressure, but husbands' work pressure was negatively linked to marital satisfaction only when their wives reported low pressure. This study advances understanding of work-marriage linkages in African American couples, an understudied group with a distinctive connection to the labor force. Analyses demonstrate what can be learned from investigating the couple as a unit and illustrate how family systems concepts can be addressed via APIM. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Today's work experience: Precursors of both how I feel and how Ithink about my job?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Elfering

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Antecedents of affective versus cognitive components of daily job satisfaction were compared. According to the affective events theory, the affective component should relate more strongly to state affect and affective work experiences than the cognitive component. In multilevel regression analyses of 280 daily reports from 40 participants, within-person variation was lower in the cognitive component (24% than in the affective component (54%. Beyond state affect and trait affectivity, positive valence of work experiences had an incremental value only in the prediction of the affective component. The affective component is more reactive to daily work experiences than the cognitive component. Whenever the link between work and daily job satisfaction is reviewed, the components of job satisfaction measures should be considered as a moderator.

  5. From sixty-two interviews on 'the worst and the best episode of your life'. Relationships between internal working models and a grammatical scale of subject-object affective connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seganti, A; Carnevale, G; Mucelli, R; Solano, L; Target, M

    2000-06-01

    The authors address the issue of inferring unconscious internal working models of interaction through language. After reviewing Main's seminal work of linguistic assessment through the 'adult attachment interview', they stress the idea of adults' internal working models (IWMs) as information-processing devices, which give moment-to-moment sensory orientation in the face of any past or present, animate or inanimate object. They propose that a selective perception of the objects could match expected with actual influence of objects on the subject's self, through very simple 'parallel-processed' categories of internal objects. They further hypothesise that the isomorphism between internal working models of interaction and grammatical connections between subjects and objects within a clause could be a key to tracking positive and negative images of self and other during discourse. An experiment is reported applying the authors' 'scale of subject/object affective connection' to the narratives of sixty-two subjects asked to write about the 'worst' and 'best' episodes of their lives. Participants had previously been classified using Hazan & Shaver's self-reported 'attachment types' (avoidant, anxious and secure) categorising individuals' general expectations in relation to others. The findings were that the subject/object distribution of positive and negative experience, through verbs defined for this purpose as either performative or state verbs, did significantly differ between groups. In addition, different groups tended, during the best episodes, significantly to invert the trend of positive/negative subject/object distribution shown during the worst episode. Results are discussed in terms of a psychoanalytic theory of improvement through co-operative elaboration of negative relational issues.

  6. Which daily experiences can foster well-being at work? A diary study on the interplay between flow experiences, affective commitment, and self-control demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivkin, Wladislaw; Diestel, Stefan; Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has provided strong evidence for affective commitment as a direct predictor of employees' psychological well-being and as a resource that buffers the adverse effects of self-control demands as a stressor. However, the mechanisms that underlie the beneficial effects of affective commitment have not been examined yet. Drawing on the self-determination theory, we propose day-specific flow experiences as the mechanism that underlies the beneficial effects of affective commitment, because flow experiences as peaks of intrinsic motivation constitute manifestations of autonomous regulation. In a diary study covering 10 working days with N = 90 employees, we examine day-specific flow experiences as a mediator of the beneficial effects of interindividual affective commitment and a buffering moderator of the adverse day-specific effects of self-control demands on indicators of well-being (ego depletion, need for recovery, work engagement, and subjective vitality). Our results provide strong support for our predictions that day-specific flow experiences a) mediate the beneficial effects of affective commitment on employees' day-specific well-being and b) moderate (buffer) the adverse day-specific effects of self-control demands on well-being. That is, on days with high levels of flow experiences, employees were better able to cope with self-control demands whereas self-control demands translated into impaired well-being when employees experienced lower levels of day-specific flow experiences. We then discuss our findings and suggest practical implications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Wearing weighted backpack dilates subjective visual duration: The role of functional linkage between weight experience and visual timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina eJia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bodily state plays a critical role in our perception. In the present study, we asked the question whether and how bodily experience of weights influences time perception. Participants judged durations of a picture (a backpack or a trolley bag presented on the screen, while wearing different weight backpacks or without backpack. The results showed that the subjective dura-tion of the backpack picture was dilated when participants wore a medium weighted backpack relative to an empty backpack or without backpack, regardless of identity (e.g., color of the visual backpack. However, the duration dilation was not manifested for the picture of trolley bag. These findings suggest that weight experience modulates visual duration estimation through the linkage between the wore backpack and to-be-estimated visual target. The con-gruent action affordance between the wore backpack and visual inputs plays a critical role in the functional linkage between inner experience and time perception. We interpreted our findings within the framework of embodied time perception.

  8. [Work-related behaviour and experience patterns and mental health: a study in psychotherapy trainees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Johanna; Sude, Kerstin; Löwe, Bernd; Wingenfeld, Katja

    2013-03-01

    In view of the fact that many reports have been published that emphasize the difficult conditions of the German psychotherapy training, the aim of this study was to investigate psychotherapy trainees´ work stress as well as work-related psychosocial risks and resources. Variables of interest were work-related behaviour and experience patterns (AVEM), effort-reward-imbalance, chronic stress and health-related quality of life. 321 participants completed an online survey. The distribution of work-related behaviour and experience patterns as well as the results regarding work overload and mental health are evidence of psychotherapy trainees' strain. AVEM-risk patterns are associated with effort-reward-imbalance, chronic stress and reduced mental health. These results clearly support claims for a modification of the psychotherapy training in Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Experiences of mental health nursing staff working with voice hearers in an acute setting: An interpretive phenomenological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, E; Gupta, A; Collins, S C

    2018-04-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Community mental health staff and their service users have reported mixed views on the importance of talking about the content of voices. Community staff have reported feeling that they do not have the skills to explore voice content and worry about making things worse. Voice hearers experiencing extreme distress due to the content of their voices can access support through acute inpatient mental health services. No previous studies have focused on the experiences of staff who nurse voice hearers at a time of acute distress. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: MHNs and HSWs working with voice hearers in acute distress report feeling powerless and helpless, as they feel that they cannot lessen the distress experienced by the voice hearer. Despite these difficult feelings, staff report finding ways of coping, including using structured tools to help make sense of their service users' voice-hearing experiences and accessing reflective practice forums. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Due to the current context of increased acuity and limited resources in acute services, there may be a need to further protect time for staff to access reflective practice groups and supervision forums to help them manage the difficult feelings arising from their work with voice hearers. Introduction Mental health nursing (MHN) staff in acute settings work with voice hearers at times of crises when they experience high levels of distress. Previous research has focused on community mental health staff's experiences and their service users views on exploring the content of voices. No studies have explored this from an acute mental health service perspective. Aim This study therefore sought to explore the experiences of staff working with voice hearers in an acute mental health service. Method Due to the exploratory nature of the research, a qualitative design was chosen. Three MHNs and five healthcare support workers (HSWs) were

  10. Student nurses' experience working with mentally challenged individuals in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse VAN Rensburg, E S; Poggenpoel, M; Myburgh, C P H

    2012-11-01

    South African student nurses experience emotional discomfort that might influence their adjustment and coping while working with mentally challenged individuals. Adjustment and coping might impact on their mental health and support needed while working in this challenging context. Student nurses working with mentally challenged individuals experience emotional discomfort that may result in work-related stress. The experiences of student nurses working with mentally challenged individuals were explored and described as it may influence their adjustment, coping and result in work-related stress, impacting on their mental health. The study used a qualitative, explorative, descriptive, contextual research design with a case study as strategy. Thirteen student nurses from a specific higher educational institution in Gauteng, South Africa, participated in the focus group interviews. The researcher utilized reflective journals, a reflective letter, naïve sketches, drawings and field notes to collect data. Data analysis was done according to Tesch's descriptive method of open coding and theme analysis. A central storyline emerged where student nurses described working with mentally challenged individuals as a process of personal transformation that was initiated by an engagement on a deeper emotional level with these individuals. The process of personal transformation started a journey towards the discovery of meaning for the self, as student nurses. Student nurses working in challenging environments during their training may experience emotional discomfort and need additional support in coping and adjustment within this context. The nurse educator plays an important role in providing this support to manage work-related stress as well as in creating learning opportunities for the student nurses working in challenging contexts. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing.

  11. USUAL RUSSIAN ENGINEER: SOCIAL PORTRAITS OF SUBJECTS OF WORK IN THE INTERIOR OF THE SIBERIAN INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kombarov V. Yu.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available At the base of sociological case study done at four Siberian enterprises of military-industrial complex was made a test to construct a typology of workers that vary for different types and trajectories or strategies of subjectivity and can be viewed as kind of continuum - trans-subjectivity - which is characterized by the absence of the subject or by its full manifestation. The relations between phenomenon of subjectivity of the workers and type of social structures of enterprises (organizations is the problem viewed in this article. The author supposes that in the modern tree-vertical-hierarchical structures dominates hypo-subjectivity of workers - phenomenon of the «death of the subject». An alternative is the rhizome structure which allows to «resurrect» the subject - productive worker and to reduce its firmly fixation in the system and to make his social action non-linear. At the base of sociological case study done at four Siberian enterprises of military-industrial complex was made a test to construct a typology of workers that vary for different types of subjectivity. Checking the evolution of interpretations of the concepts of «subjectivity» and «subject», the author concludes that a full-fledged social agent, the actor, the engine of historical and social processes is premature to write off, and that he may still have the main role in the context of transforming dynamics of contemporary social processes. Empirical referent of study and such an active acting, self-referential social agent capable of withstanding discourses of the power, as well as the pressure of capital and the prevailing social ethic machines are engineering and technical personnel of modern Russian industrial enterprises. Relevance in the study of the social stratum of workers due to the author's opinion, the need to enhance the most creative group of workers of the domestic industry, as the main social capital of productive economy, rebuilding and

  12. Does Employment Promote Recovery? Meanings from Work Experience in People Diagnosed with Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Javier; López, Marcelino; Gonzáles, Sergio; Cubero, Rosario

    2016-09-01

    Employment has been highlighted as a determinant of health and as an essential milestone in the recovery process of people with serious mental illness. Different types of programs and public services have been designed to improve the employability of this population. However, there has not been much interest in the meanings attributed to these experiences and the negative aspects of work experience. In this research, we explored the meanings that participants attributed to their work experience and the impact of work on their recovery process. Research participants lived in Andalusia (Spain), a region in southern Europe with a high unemployment rate. Two versions of a semi-structured interview were designed: one for people who were working, and one for unemployed people. Participants' narratives were categorized according to grounded theory and the analyses were validated in group sessions. Apart from several positive effects for recovery, the analysis of the narratives about work experience outlined certain obstacles to recovery. For example, participants mentioned personal conflicts and stress, job insecurity and meaningless jobs. While valid, the idea that employment is beneficial for recovery must be qualified by the personal meanings attributed to these experiences, and the specific cultural and economic factors of each context.

  13. Calculating Program for Decommissioning Work Productivity based on Decommissioning Activity Experience Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Seung-Kook; Park, Hee-Seong; Moon, Jei-kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    KAERI is performing research to calculate a coefficient for decommissioning work unit productivity to calculate the estimated time decommissioning work and estimated cost based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2. KAERI used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage decommissioning activity experience data through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). In particular, KAERI used to based data for calculating the decommissioning cost with the form of a code work breakdown structure (WBS) based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2.. Defined WBS code used to each system for calculate decommissioning cost. In this paper, we developed a program that can calculate the decommissioning cost using the decommissioning experience of KRR-2, UCP, and other countries through the mapping of a similar target facility between NPP and KRR-2. This paper is organized as follows. Chapter 2 discusses the decommissioning work productivity calculation method, and the mapping method of the decommissioning target facility will be described in the calculating program for decommissioning work productivity. At KAERI, research on various decommissioning methodologies of domestic NPPs will be conducted in the near future. In particular, It is difficult to determine the cost of decommissioning because such as NPP facility have the number of variables, such as the material of the target facility decommissioning, size, radiographic conditions exist.

  14. Calculating Program for Decommissioning Work Productivity based on Decommissioning Activity Experience Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Seung-Kook; Park, Hee-Seong; Moon, Jei-kwon

    2014-01-01

    KAERI is performing research to calculate a coefficient for decommissioning work unit productivity to calculate the estimated time decommissioning work and estimated cost based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2. KAERI used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage decommissioning activity experience data through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). In particular, KAERI used to based data for calculating the decommissioning cost with the form of a code work breakdown structure (WBS) based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2.. Defined WBS code used to each system for calculate decommissioning cost. In this paper, we developed a program that can calculate the decommissioning cost using the decommissioning experience of KRR-2, UCP, and other countries through the mapping of a similar target facility between NPP and KRR-2. This paper is organized as follows. Chapter 2 discusses the decommissioning work productivity calculation method, and the mapping method of the decommissioning target facility will be described in the calculating program for decommissioning work productivity. At KAERI, research on various decommissioning methodologies of domestic NPPs will be conducted in the near future. In particular, It is difficult to determine the cost of decommissioning because such as NPP facility have the number of variables, such as the material of the target facility decommissioning, size, radiographic conditions exist

  15. WORK EXPERIENCE INTERNSHIP THROUGH THE EYES OF TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY STUDENTS (ON THE MATERIALS OF SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr Yu. Myagkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to study the problem of efficiency of work experience internship in a technical university and its role in the education of future professionals (problem has been investigated in the framework of the research project «Monitoring of social well-being and problems of professional adaptation of ISPEU students».Methods. While carrying out of sociological research, selection of respondents was occurred on the multistage combined (serially-nested model of sample among students I, III and V courses of six faculties of full-time course of ISPEU. The complex of questions (its answers show features of professional identity of the future experts on initial (I course, intermediate (III course and finishing (V course stages of their professional formation has been developed to find out the dynamics of process of professional adaptation of students from the first to the fifth year. The information was processed with application of program and analytical complex SPSS. The comparative analysis to a gender sign of degree of satisfaction/dissatisfaction has been undertaken by the work experience internship organization on the side of high school and the accepting enterprises.Results. The level of graduates’ satisfaction with the work experience internship is revealed that works on an estimation by students of quality of preparation in high school, the relation to a received speciality and success in the future profession. The data on a self-estimation of readiness of students to work experience internship is cited. Criteria of successful work experience internship are formulated.Scientific novelty. The given researches carried out by the authors, prove that work experience internship positively influences professional consciousness of students and promote formation of steady positive installations for professional job. However, work experience internship in its institutional forms is functional and appears to be the effective

  16. Organization of the STAR experiment software framework at JINR. Results and experience from the first two years of work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipkin, D.A.; Zul'karneeva, Yu.R.

    2004-01-01

    The organization of STAR experiment software framework at JINR is described. The approach being based on the distributed file system ASF was implemented at the NEOSTAR minicluster at LPP, JINR. An operation principle of the cluster as well as its work description and samples of the performed analysis are also given. The results of the NEOSTAR minicluster performance have demonstrated broad facilities of the distributed computing concept to be employed in experimental data analysis and high-energy physics modeling

  17. Social-emotional aspects of male escorting: experiences of men working for an agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D; Grov, Christian; Seal, David W; Bernhardt, Nicholas; McCall, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Social situations and emotional correlates associated with male sex work have not been well documented. Most of the research in this area focuses on sexual activity with little mention of other aspects of the job. Yet, research with female sex workers finds significant social and emotional components to sex work. The current study focused on how male sex workers (MSWs) perceived and adapted to the social-emotional aspects of their job. As part of a larger project examining MSWs working for a single escort agency, 40 men (M age, 22.3 years, 75 % Caucasian) located in the mid-Atlantic U.S. participated in semi-structured interviews. The agency owner was also interviewed. Participants reported a range of social and emotional factors regarding sex work and employed a variety of strategies to provide good customer service and adapt to negative experiences. For most, social support was inhibited due to fear of stigmatization that might result if participants disclosed sex work to significant others outside the agency. Instead, interactions within the agency provided core work-related social support for most MSWs. Emotional and relational tasks inherent to escort work grew easier with experience and negativity about the job declined. Our data suggested that socially connected individuals seemed to be more satisfied with sex work. Social and emotional requirements represented a significant but unanticipated component of male sex work to which escorts actively adapted. Escorting may be similar to other service occupations in terms of the social-emotional situations and skills involved.

  18. Working in rural areas – the experiences of Umthombo Youth Development Foundation graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Ross

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recruiting and retaining healthcare professionals (HCPs for rural areas is challenging throughout the world. Although rural origin HCPs have been identified as being the most likely to work in rural areas, only a small number of rural-origin South African scholars are trained as HCPs each year and many do not return to work in rural areas. Aim: The aim of this article was to present the experiences of rural-origin HCPs who returned to work in a rural area after graduation. Setting: Umthombo Youth Development Foundation has been running an innovating rurally-based scholarship scheme since 1999. By December 2013, 184 students supported by the scheme had graduated and all had returned to work in a rural area for a period of time. Methods: This was a qualitative study using a life history methodology to explore the educational experience of six rural-origin HCPs working in rural areas. Results: The four themes that emerged from the data were: (1 contribution to service delivery; (2 professional development (3 the challenges and frustrations of working in rural hospitals; and (4 the impact of working as an HCP. Conclusion: Rural-origin HCPs are willing to return and work in rural areas. However, context and content factors need to be addressed if a work-back scholarship scheme is to be along-term strategy for the recruitment and retention of HCPs.

  19. The Work Experience Measurement Scale (WEMS): a useful tool in workplace health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Petra; Andersson, H Ingemar; Ejlertsson, Göran

    2013-01-01

    To present validity data for the Work Experience Measurement Scale (WEMS), an instrument measuring multifaceted work experience from a salutogenic health resource perspective as a contrast to the more common pathogenic risk perspective, by exploring WEMS relationship to established measurements that are positively related to health and work. A salutogenic perspective focuses on finding conditions and resources in life, for example at work, that can enhance the individual's health and strength, instead of those causing illness and weakness. This study was carried out in 2009 at a Swedish hospital with a web-based survey (WEMS) to 770 employees. Different occupational groups at the hospital participated. Additional questionnaires used at the same time were the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9), the Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale (SHIS), the General Self-Efficacy scale (GSE), and three questions about self-rated health, general well-being, and quality of life. Cronbach's Alpha of WEMS sub-indices were in the interval of 0.85-0.96. Convergent validity and discriminant validity of WEMS and its sub-indices were shown to be satisfying by correlations. In addition, WEMS demonstrated the ability to discriminate between groups. WEMS sub-indices discriminated even better between groups than the total index. The WEMS proved to be a workplace health promotion questionnaire that was able to measure experiences of work from a salutogenic perspective. The WEMS has a potential of being a useful tool in workplace health promotion to enhance positive human capabilities and resources to improve work performance.

  20. What predicts inattention in adolescents? An experience-sampling study comparing chronotype, subjective, and objective sleep parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Timo; Krkovic, Katarina; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-10-01

    Many adolescents sleep insufficiently, which may negatively affect their functioning during the day. To improve sleep interventions, we need a better understanding of the specific sleep-related parameters that predict poor functioning. We investigated to which extent subjective and objective parameters of sleep in the preceding night (state parameters) and the trait variable chronotype predict daytime inattention as an indicator of poor functioning. We conducted an experience-sampling study over one week with 61 adolescents (30 girls, 31 boys; mean age = 15.5 years, standard deviation = 1.1 years). Participants rated their inattention two times each day (morning, afternoon) on a smartphone. Subjective sleep parameters (feeling rested, positive affect upon awakening) were assessed each morning on the smartphone. Objective sleep parameters (total sleep time, sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset) were assessed with a permanently worn actigraph. Chronotype was assessed with a self-rated questionnaire at baseline. We tested the effect of subjective and objective state parameters of sleep on daytime inattention, using multilevel multiple regressions. Then, we tested whether the putative effect of the trait parameter chronotype on inattention is mediated through state sleep parameters, again using multilevel regressions. We found that short sleep time, but no other state sleep parameter, predicted inattention to a small effect. As expected, the trait parameter chronotype also predicted inattention: morningness was associated with less inattention. However, this association was not mediated by state sleep parameters. Our results indicate that short sleep time causes inattention in adolescents. Extended sleep time might thus alleviate inattention to some extent. However, it cannot alleviate the effect of being an 'owl'. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Goethe's Conception of "Experiment as Mediator" and Implications for Practical Work in School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Wonyong; Song, Jinwoong

    2018-03-01

    There has been growing criticism over the aims, methods, and contents of practical work in school science, particularly concerning their tendency to oversimplify the scientific practice with focus on the hypothesis-testing function of experiments. In this article, we offer a reading of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's scientific writings—particularly his works on color as an exquisite articulation of his ideas about experimentation—through the lens of practical school science. While avoiding the hasty conclusions made from isolated experiments and observations, Goethe sought in his experiments the interconnection among diverse natural phenomena and rejected the dualistic epistemology about the relation of humans and nature. Based on a close examination of his color theory and its underlying epistemology, we suggest three potential contributions that Goethe's conception of scientific experimentation can make to practical work in school science.

  2. Predicting subject-driven actions and sensory experience in a virtual world with relevance vector machine regression of fMRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Giancarlo; De Martino, Federico; Esposito, Fabrizio; Goebel, Rainer; Formisano, Elia

    2011-05-15

    In this work we illustrate the approach of the Maastricht Brain Imaging Center to the PBAIC 2007 competition, where participants had to predict, based on fMRI measurements of brain activity, subject driven actions and sensory experience in a virtual world. After standard pre-processing (slice scan time correction, motion correction), we generated rating predictions based on linear Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) learning from all brain voxels. Spatial and temporal filtering of the time series was optimized rating by rating. For some of the ratings (e.g. Instructions, Hits, Faces, Velocity), linear RVM regression was accurate and very consistent within and between subjects. For other ratings (e.g. Arousal, Valence) results were less satisfactory. Our approach ranked overall second. To investigate the role of different brain regions in ratings prediction we generated predictive maps, i.e. maps of the weighted contribution of each voxel to the predicted rating. These maps generally included (but were not limited to) "specialized" regions which are consistent with results from conventional neuroimaging studies and known functional neuroanatomy. In conclusion, Sparse Bayesian Learning models, such as RVM, appear to be a valuable approach to the multivariate regression of fMRI time series. The implementation of the Automatic Relevance Determination criterion is particularly suitable and provides a good generalization, despite the limited number of samples which is typically available in fMRI. Predictive maps allow disclosing multi-voxel patterns of brain activity that predict perceptual and behavioral subjective experience. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Emotional Experience of Caam2 in Teaching: Power and Interpretation of Teachers’ Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok Kuen Tsang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study explores the social psychological process of teachers’ emotional experiences. Twenty-one secondary schoolteachers in Hong Kong were interviewed. The findings show that the teachers generally felt caam2 (a Cantonese adjective that covers a range of meanings like gloomy, dreadful, tragic, pitiful, pathetic and miserable in teaching. The social psychological process of the emotional experience of caam2 involves how teachers interpret the significance of their actual work in attaining the teaching goal of making a difference. If they interpret their work as incapable of fulfilling the goal, they will experience negative emotions in teaching. The findings also suggest that the interpretation is affected by teachers’ power which is unequally distributed according to teachers’ teaching experience and managerial roles.

  4. Emotional Experience of Caam(2) in Teaching: Power and Interpretation of Teachers' Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Kwok K; Kwong, Tsun L

    2016-01-01

    The study explores the social psychological process of teachers' emotional experiences. Twenty-one secondary schoolteachers in Hong Kong were interviewed. The findings show that the teachers generally felt caam(2) (a Cantonese adjective that covers a range of meanings like gloomy, dreadful, tragic, pitiful, pathetic, and miserable) in teaching. The social psychological process of the emotional experience of caam(2) involves how teachers interpret the significance of their actual work in attaining the teaching goal of making a difference. If they interpret their work as incapable of fulfilling the goal, they will experience negative emotions in teaching. The findings also suggest that the interpretation is affected by teachers' power which is unequally distributed according to teachers' teaching experience and managerial roles.

  5. Fatigue life determination by damage measuring in SAE 8620 specimens steel subjected to multiaxial experiments in neutral and corrosive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luiz L. da; Filho, Nelson do N.A.; Gomes, Paulo de T.V.; Rabello, Emerson G.; Mansur, Tanius R.

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue is the fail phenomenon of a material subjected to cyclic loads. This phenomenon affects any component under loads (forces, temperatures, etc.) that changes in time. When there is a combined load, originating multiaxial fatigue, which is the most of the real loads, worst is the situation. Before the component fail, the fatigue phenomenon produces damages to its material and this is a cumulative process that could not be reduced. In the continuum mechanic context, material damage is defined as a parameter that reduces the component resistance and this could cause its fail. The process of damage measuring by changes in electrical resistance is used in this work, and from experimental results of SAE 8620 steel specimens subjected to multiaxial fatigue in corrosive and neutral environment, the remaining specimen time life could be determined. Each specimen has its initial electrical resistance measured and after a certain number of fatigue cycles stopping points, its electrical resistance was measured again. In order to study multiaxial fatigue in specimens, a machine that induces simultaneously bending and torsional loads in the specimen was developed. Air at the temperature range of 18 deg C and 20 deg C was considered neutral environment. The corrosive environment was a NaCl solution with a concentration of 3,5% in weigh. The experimental results showed that the measuring fatigue damage using the changes in electrical resistance is efficient and that is possible to estimate the effect of a corrosive environment in the fatigue damage. (author)

  6. Working in a danger zone: A qualitative study of Taiwanese nurses' work experiences in a negative pressure isolation ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Ling; Chen, Kuei-Ling; Lee, Li-Hung; Yang, Cheng-I

    2016-07-01

    Hospital nurses are frontline health care workers in controlling the spread of infectious diseases. It is not known if nurses working in negative pressure isolation wards (NPIWs) are better prepared than before to safely care for patients with common infectious diseases. For this qualitative descriptive study, 10 nurses were interviewed in depth about their experiences caring for patients in an NPIW. Tape recordings were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by qualitative content analysis. The following 5 themes were identified: (1) complexity of patient care, (2) dissatisfaction with the quantity and quality of protective equipment, (3) shortage of nursing staff, (4) continued worries about being infected, and (5) sensitivity to self-protection. Our participants' anxiety and uncertainty about being infected in the NPIW were increased by the complexity of patients' health problems and organizational factors. To protect themselves against infection before and during patient care, participants also developed sensitivity to, concepts about, and strategies to improve self-protection. NPIW administrators should pay more attention to nurses' concerns about improving the NPIW working environment, supply good quality protective equipment, and provide appropriate psychologic support and ongoing education to ensure that nurses feel safe while working. This ongoing education should refresh and update nurses' knowledge about disease transmission, therefore decreasing unnecessary anxiety based on misunderstandings about becoming infected. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Breastfeeding mothers returning to work: experiences of women at one university in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Carole; Monk, Hilary; Hall, Helen

    2013-07-01

    Working women need to juggle work, child care and family to continue to breastfeed. This qualitative study's aim was to explore women's experiences of returning to work following the birth of their baby. Focus groups were held with women within one multi-campus university, who had commenced breastfeeding at birth and had returned to work or study within 12 months. In addition, educators working with babies in childcare centres on two of the campuses were interviewed. Thematic analysis was employed used Rogoff's (2003) three planes of analysis, the individual, the interpersonal and the cultural-institutional. Three themes, proximity, flexibility, and communication, were identified relating to the factors impacting on women and their choices to breastfeed or wean on returning to work. From a socio-cultural perspective these themes can be understood as situated within the interrelated contexts of workplace, child care and family. Limitations of the study include the small number of participants and recruitment from one university.

  8. Working together: critical care nurses experiences of temporary staffing within Swedish health care: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg Jansson, Anna; Engström, Åsa

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is to describe critical care nurses (CCN's) experiences of working with or as temporary agency staff. This explorative qualitative study is based on interviews with five agency CCNs and five regular CCNs, a total of ten interviews, focusing on the interviewees' experiences of daily work and temporary agency staffing. The interviews were analysed manually and thematically following an inductive approach. Four themes that illustrate both similarities and differences between regular and temporary agency CCNs emerged: "working close to patients versus being responsible for everything", "teamwork versus independence", "both groups needed" and "opportunities and challenges". The study findings illustrate the complexity of the working situation for agency and regular staff in terms of the organisation and management of the temporary agency nurses and the opportunities and challenges faced by both groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inequalities in Students' Choice of STEM Subjects: An Exploration of Intersectional Relationships. CLS Working Paper 2015/6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codiroli, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    The relative lack of students studying post-compulsory STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) subjects is a key policy concern. A particular issue is the disparities in uptake by students' family background, gender and ethnicity. It remains unclear whether the effects of family background can be explained by academic disparities,…

  10. The Role of Personality and Subjective Exposure Experiences in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Symptoms among Children Following Wenchuan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiacan; Xu, Jiajun; Li, Bin; Li, Na; Guo, Wanjun; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Yanchun; Hu, Junmei

    2017-12-08

    This study aims to investigate the role of personality traits and subjective exposure experiences in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms. In Qingchuan, 21,652 children aged 7 to 15 years were assessed using face-to-face interviews one year after the Wenchuan earthquake in China. The Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, a modified earthquake exposure scale, the UCLA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (adolescent), and the Adolescent Depression Inventory were used to assess personality characteristics, trauma experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms, respectively. The measurement was completed with 20,749 children. After adjusting for other factors by multinomial logistic regression analysis, neuroticism, having felt unable to escape from the disaster and having been trapped for a longer time were risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms. Socialization was a protective factor of them. Having felt extreme panic or fear was a risk factor of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. For depression symptoms, introversion and psychoticism were risk factors, and extraversion was a protective factor. This study was conducted with the largest representative sample of child survivors of a natural, devastating disaster in a developing country. These results could be useful for planning psychological intervention strategies for children and for influencing further research.

  11. Evidence of successful modulation of brain activation and subjective experience during reappraisal of negative emotion in unmedicated depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Daniel Gerard; Pizzagalli, Diego Andrea

    2013-05-30

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine cognitive regulation of negative emotion in 12 unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 24 controls. The participants used reappraisal to increase (real condition) and reduce (photo condition) the personal relevance of negative and neutral pictures during fMRI as valence ratings were collected; passive viewing (look condition) served as a baseline. Reappraisal was not strongly affected by MDD. Ratings indicated that both groups successfully reappraised negative emotional experience. Both groups also showed better memory for negative vs. neutral pictures 2 weeks later. Across groups, increased brain activation was observed on negative/real vs. negative/look and negative/photo trials in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), rostral anterior cingulate, left parietal cortex, caudate, and right amygdala. Depressive severity was inversely correlated with activation modulation in the left DLPFC, right amygdala, and right cerebellum during negative reappraisal. The lack of group differences suggests that depressed adults can modulate the brain activation and subjective experience elicited by negative pictures when given clear instructions. However, the negative relationship between depression severity and effects of reappraisal on brain activation indicates that group differences may be detectable in larger samples of more severely depressed participants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Experiences and concerns about 'returning to work' for women breast cancer survivors: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedtke, Corine; de Rijk, Angelique; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Donceel, Peter

    2010-07-01

    To explore how female breast cancer patients experience work incapacity during the treatment and return-to-work phases and how interactions between patients and stakeholders affect this experience. Database search for full text articles published between January 1995 and January 2008 that focused on employed female breast cancer patients, factors related to work incapacity, and returning to work. Only results based on self-report data were included. Studies focusing on treatment, financial factors, rate of return, or absence were excluded. Six articles met the inclusion criteria. Women with breast cancer receive varied reactions but little advice about returning to work. Women were primarily concerned with disclosing the diagnosis to their employer and to relatives. Uncertainties about physical appearance, ability to work, and possible job loss affected the women's decisions about working during the treatment phase. After treatment, most women wanted to regain their 'normal life', but concentration and arm or fatigue problems potentially interfered. Although supportive work environments were helpful, the individual needs of women differed. Employers and employees need to find a balance in defining accommodating work. Many women received favourable support, but some reported feeling discriminated against. Many women re-evaluated the role of work in their lives after being confronted with breast cancer. Work adjustments could help women to keep their jobs during illness and recovery. To resolve women's concerns about returning to work, employers, physicians, and insurance institutions should consider increasing and improving communication with breast cancer patients and playing a more active and supportive role. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Nurses aged over 50 years and their experiences of shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clendon, Jill; Walker, Leonie

    2013-10-01

    The Late Career Nurse project examined views and characteristics of nurses working in New Zealand who were born before 1960. This paper focuses on the experiences of such nurses who undertake shift work. The mean age of registered nurses in New Zealand has been rising steadily, and 40% are now aged 50 years or over. While there is substantial literature on the phenomenon and consequences of the ageing nursing workforce, little is known of the particular experiences of nurses aged over 50 years who work shifts. An anonymous online survey was emailed to eligible nurse New Zealand Nurses Organisation members aged over 50 years in February 2012. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the 3273 responses received were undertaken. Over 45% of respondents worked shifts or flexible hours. While shift work suited many, others noted deleterious effects on family and social relationships, physical and mental health (notably sleep patterns and fatigue), and decreasing tolerance for shift work as they age. Poor scheduling practices were particularly detrimental. Worldwide, workforce ageing means strategies are required to retain older nurses in the workforce. Improved scheduling practices including increasing access to flexible and part time work hours, and development of resources on coping with shift work are recommended. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. From the past to the future: Integrating work experience into the design process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, João Marcos; Duarte, Francisco; Béguin, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Integrating work activity issues into design process is a broadly discussed theme in ergonomics. Participation is presented as the main means for such integration. However, a late participation can limit the development of both project solutions and future work activity. This article presents the concept of construction of experience aiming at the articulated development of future activities and project solutions. It is a non-teleological approach where the initial concepts will be transformed by the experience built up throughout the design process. The method applied was a case study of an ergonomic participation during the design of a new laboratory complex for biotechnology research. Data was obtained through analysis of records in a simulation process using a Lego scale model and interviews with project participants. The simulation process allowed for developing new ways of working and generating changes in the initial design solutions, which enable workers to adopt their own developed strategies for conducting work more safely and efficiently in the future work system. Each project decision either opens or closes a window of opportunities for developing a future activity. Construction of experience in a non-teleological design process allows for understanding the consequences of project solutions for future work.

  15. Experiences of clinical teaching for dental core trainees working in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannion, C J; Brotherton, P

    2014-07-11

    There is recognition that the provision of excellence in education and training results in a skilled and competent workforce. However, the educational experiences of dental core trainees (DCT's) working in the hospital oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) setting have not been previously investigated. In this paper, we examine DCT's learning experiences both 'formal' and 'non-formal' within the hospital setting of ward and clinic-based teaching. Are hospital dental core trainees receiving a meaningful educational experience? To conclude this paper, the authors recommend methods, based upon sound educational principles, to maximise the value of clinical sessions for teaching.

  16. "Isla Calma", a Novel Virtual Reality Environment for Pain and Anxiety Distraction: Report on Usability, Acceptability, and Subjective Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Orueta, Unai; Alvarado, Sayuri; Gutiérrez, Diego; Climent, Gema; Banterla, Flavio

    2012-10-01

    This report presents a new virtual reality-based tool named "Isla Calma" (IC), which is based on distracting procedures that facilitate competency among different stimuli and loads the individual's limited attention capabilities. An incidental sample composed of 35 users (42.9 percent female) from northern Spain, with a mean age of 28.21 years (SD=5.67), was recruited to test IC. Tests were held in a room with two deck chairs and one complete set of IC equipment for each of them. A questionnaire with issues about usability, acceptability, game immersion, and subjective experience was administered. Participants did not experience any difficulty in "moving" throughout the island. The map was considered useful by most of the users, and so were the narrator's instructions and voice. Previous experience with technology or with the controller did not affect the usability rates. In terms of acceptability, 92.3 percent of the users reported the wish to use IC again if they had the chance, and 73.6 percent would recommend its use in different medical procedures. In terms of immersion, the difference between actual and perceived time using IC was statistically significant (z=-4,141, P<0.001), with the generalized perception of having used less time than what it was actually required. Preliminary results in dental clinical settings are also presented. IC was seen as a highly relaxing and pain distracting tool with potential clinical applications in different settings. It is expected that future research on IC will provide results on its applicability in different clinical settings.

  17. Resources for work-related well-being: a qualitative study about healthcare employees' experiences of relationships at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schön Persson, Sophie; Nilsson Lindström, Petra; Pettersson, Pär; Nilsson, Marie; Blomqvist, Kerstin

    2018-05-23

    The aim of this study was to explore municipal healthcare employees' experiences of relationships with care recipients and colleagues. The specific research questions were when do the relationships enhance well-being, and what prerequisites are needed for such relationships to occur?. Employees in health and social care for older people often depict their work in negative terms, and they often take a high number of sick leaves. Despite the heavy workload, other employees express well-being at work and highlight social relationships as one reason for this. However, a greater understanding of how these relationships can act as resources for workplace well-being is needed. The design of the study was qualitative and exploratory. Qualitative interview studies were conducted with twenty-three healthcare employees in municipal healthcare. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Two themes were identified as resources for promoting relationships between employees and care recipients or colleagues: (i) Being personal - a close interpersonal relationship to a care recipient - and (ii) Colleague belongingness - a sense of togetherness within the working group. Spending quality time together, providing long-term care and providing additional care were antecedents for a close interpersonal relationship with care recipients. Trust, mutual responsibility and cooperation were antecedents for a sense of togetherness within the working group. The findings provide an empirical base to raise awareness of relationships with care recipients and colleagues as health aspects. Relationships among employees in healthcare are vital resources that must be considered to create sustainable workplaces, and consequently improve the quality of care. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of Pre-Pharmacy Work Experience on Development of Professional Identity in Student Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Timothy J; Smith, Jennifer D; Rich, Wesley

    2017-12-01

    Objective. To determine the benefit of pharmacy work experience on the development of student pharmacists' professional identity. Methods. Students in all four professional years were surveyed using a validated Professional Self-identity Questionnaire (PSIQ). They were also asked about pharmacy experience prior to matriculation and their performance on Drug Information tests given midway through the P1 year and at the beginning of the P3 year. PSIQ responses and test results were compared based on pharmacy experience. Results. The PSIQ was completed by 293 student pharmacists, for a 67% response rate, with 76% of respondents reporting pharmacy experience prior to matriculation. Statistically higher scores on responses to 6 of the 9 PSIQ Likert-type items were observed from students in the first professional year for those with pharmacy experience; however, only one item in the second year showed differences with none in the third and fourth years. No impact of experience was observed on Top 100 or Top 300 grades. Conclusion. Pre-matriculation pharmacy experience may increase development of professional identity early in the student experience but may have little impact on academic readiness. Schools and colleges of pharmacy hoping to recruit students with an early sense of professional identity should consider adding such experience to their admissions requirements.

  19. Work Identity and Contradictory Experiences of Welfare Workers in a Life-history Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybbroe, Betina

    2012-01-01

    Transformation of the welfare sectors challenge professional identities of care and welfare workers in Scandinavia. At the same time welfare and care workers take part in these changes and are changed in the psycho-social setting of the workplace. This article presents research about care work...... in nursing and involves a young nurse in scenes of the hospital, where gendered life history is re-enacted and present in a gendered work life with fragile possibilities of identification . Social dynamics interact with subjective dynamics in ways that illuminate not only habitual and creative orientations...

  20. Subjects and ideas of a lost work: the Spongia (1617 by Pedro de Torres Rámila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Tubau

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The literary controversy between Lope de Vega and Pedro de Torres Rámila has not been addressed since the publication of Joaquin de Entrambasaguas’s pioneering study on the subject. The original Spongia (1617 went missing, and we only have the excerpts of the book reproduced by the authors of Expostulatio Spongiae (1618. The aim of this article is to rebuild Torres Ramila’s basic ideas on literary theory from the contents of such excerpts.