WorldWideScience

Sample records for subjective wellbeing electronic

  1. Formal Institutions and Subjective Wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Dreher, Axel; Fischer, Justina A.V.

    2010-01-01

    A long tradition in economics explores the association between the quality of formal institutions and economic performance. The literature on the relationship between such institutions and happiness is, however, rather limited, and inconclusive. In this paper, we revisit the findings from recent...... cross-country studies on the institution-happiness association. Our findings suggest that their conclusions are qualitatively rather insensitive to the specific measure of 'happiness' used, while the associations between formal institutions and subjective well-being differ among poor and rich countries....... Separating different types of institutional quality, we find that in low-income countries the effects of economic-judicial institutions on happiness dominate those of political institutions, while analyses restricted to middle- and high-income countries show strong support for an additional beneficial effect...

  2. Subjective Wellbeing Among Adults with Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes-Truscott, Elizabeth; Browne, Jessica L; Pouwer, Frans

    2016-01-01

    duration, body mass index, number of diabetes-related complications, and depression). Furthermore, adults with type 2 diabetes using insulin to manage their condition report the lowest levels of subjective wellbeing, and are also most likely to report dissatisfaction with their current health....... These findings suggest that living with diabetes, and in particular, living with type 2 diabetes and using insulin, strongly challenges the maintenance of subjective wellbeing.......This study examines the subjective wellbeing of Australian adults with diabetes who completed the Diabetes MILES—Australia survey, investigating by diabetes type and treatment, and by comparing with the subjective wellbeing of the general Australian adult population. In addition, the extent...

  3. The Anatomy of Subjective Well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praag, van B.M.S.; Frijters, P.; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on Subjective Well-Being by taking into account different aspects of life, called domains, such as health, financial situation, job, leisure, housing, and environment. We postulate a two-Iayer model where individual total Subjective Well-Being depends on the

  4. Personality dimensions and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico Librán, Eliseo

    2006-05-01

    This work examines the association between personality dimensions (extraversion and neuroticism) and subjective well-being. Subjective well-being is associated both with extraversion and neuroticism, and currently, neuroticism is generally considered the more important. A total of 368 students from the University of Rovira i Virgili completed the Extraversion and Neuroticism subscales of the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck, Eysenck, and Barrett, 1985), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, and Griffin, 1985), and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (Watson, Clark, and Tellegen, 1988). Regression analyses revealed the personality variable of neuroticism as one of the most important correlates of subjective well-being. Regression analyses also showed that 44% of the variance of subjective well-being was accounted for by neuroticism, whereas extraversion only explained 8% of the variance.

  5. Sociological theories of subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractSubjective well-being is no great issue in sociology; the subject is not mentioned in sociological textbooks (a notable exception is Nolan & Lenski, 2004) and is rarely discussed in sociological journals. This absence has many reasons: pragmatic, ideological, and theoretical. To begin

  6. Homeownership and subjective well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloze, Gintautas; Skak, Morten

    Favouring homeownership is an important part of housing policies in many countries. Although this may be explained by the preferences of the majority of voters, it may also be because homeownership is believed to have positive effects on individuals’ behaviour and welfare. Previous research seems...... and subjective well-being....

  7. Subjective Wellbeing: Telling Only Half the Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckersley, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A new paper presents a strong case for life satisfaction scales (Diener et al. in "Soc Indic Res," 2012). However, it underestimates two important weaknesses in subjective wellbeing (SWB) measures: the contrast between individual satisfaction and social discontent; and the contradictory evidence on the benefits of personal freedom. This commentary…

  8. Economic Shocks and Subjective Well-Being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using...... micro-level survey data, which – incidentally – was collected in the days surrounding the devaluation. The chance occurrence of the devaluation during the time of the survey enables us to use pre-treatment respondents, surveyed before the devaluation, as approximate counterfactuals for post......-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short...

  9. Economic Shocks and Subjective Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using...... micro-level survey data, which – incidentally – was collected in the days surrounding the devaluation. The chance occurrence of the devaluation during the time of the survey enables us to use pre-treatment respondents, surveyed before the devaluation, as approximate counterfactuals for post......-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short...

  10. Perceived Social Policy Fairness and Subjective Wellbeing: Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng; Xiao, Jing Jian

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived fairness of social policies and subjective well-being. Two types of policies examined were related to income distribution and social security. Subjective well-being was measured by work and life satisfaction. In addition, subjective well-beings between different income, age, and education…

  11. Life Events and Subjective Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Schmidt, Torben Dall

    2014-01-01

    The literature on Happiness and Subjective Well-Being (SWB) has been dominated by studies of the impact from income and labour market status - and the impact on happiness from changes in these determinants. It seems obvious to expect an impact from non-economic factors as well. In the present paper.......The first is the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) with data collected over 8 annual waves from 1994 to 2001 in 15 EU member countries. Observations are available for up to 15 countries with big differences in fertility levels, child care institutions and labour force participation for married women....... At the same time, the ECHP data contains a lot of relevant demographic and labour market background variables to be included in the econometric analyses of the SWB impact from children. The second data set is The German Socio Economic Panel (GSOEP). Like the ECHP, the GSOEP data contains many relevant...

  12. Ethnic Identity and Subjective Well-Being of Bully Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Kordesh, Kathy; Polanin, Megan; Adams, Kristen; Aydin, Fatma; Knoll, Mike; Oh, Jennifer; Wade, James; Roche, Meghan; Hughes, Kelly; Eisenberg, Corry; Camacho, Daniel; Jeremie-Brink, Gihane

    2015-01-01

    Relationships among bully victimization, bully perpetration, ethnic identity, and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) were examined in a group of urban, ethnically diverse early adolescents. Indices of subjective well-being correlated with participants' scores on bully victimization and…

  13. Economics and subjectivities of wellbeing in rural Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    White, Sarah; Ramirez, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Mixed method research in Chiawa rural Zambia explores the importance of the economic within subjective dimensions of wellbeing. Statistical analysis shows a close relationship between subjective economic confidence and overall happiness, and that objective economic status predicts some subjective dimensions of wellbeing. Qualitative analysis explores the role of economic capacity in forging (male) gender identities; the emphasis on reciprocity and a moral economy; and the use of economics as ...

  14. Occupation as a factor of personality subjective wellbeing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karapetyan L.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines personality subjective well-being and describes its psychological structure, general components and characteristics. An overview of foreign theories and studies on subjective well-being is presented. Correlations among related concepts such as happiness, life satisfaction and subjective well-being are also described. Subjective well-being is seen as a multivariate construction of a stable nature in mobile equilibrium. It is argued that a type of professional activity can have great importance and a positive impact on an individual’s social life, health, identity shaping and psychological wellness. This article’s findings are substantiated by the survey administered to 2229 respondents divided into groups according to their area of business: students, psychologists, doctors, teachers, engineering and technical staff, representatives of service industries, workers, military men, and prisoners. The descriptors identified two types of natures: positive, directed to a person’s inner world (happy, lucky, optimistic and to the outer world (trustworthy, competent, successful, and negative (pessimistic, unhappy, envious. This division of nature type was categorized according to the participants’ subjective well-being index. Empirical evidence has shown that occupational specificity influences a person’s subjective well-being. A substantial difference was found in subjective well-being index of the respondents. A higher index is typical of students and military men. Educators and industrial intelligentsia also demonstrate an increased level of subjective well-being, whereas prisoners tend to have a low level of subjective well-being. The same low index is characteristic of servicing trade representatives and psychologists.

  15. Giftedness and Subjective Well-Being: A Study with Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirthwein, Linda; Rost, Detlef H.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the well-being of gifted adults are rare, and the available studies are often limited by methodological shortcomings. In a longitudinal project 101 intellectually gifted adults (mean IQ = 136) were compared to 91 adults of average intelligence (mean IQ = 103). Subjective well-being was operationalized by positive and negative…

  16. Globally Happy: Individual Globalization, Expanded Capacities, and Subjective Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chang; Chang, Heng-Hao; Chen, Wan-chi

    2012-01-01

    Deep integration of Asia into the global society necessarily affects wellbeing of local populations. This study proposes a notion of "extend capacities" to explain the relationships between individual globalization and subjective wellbeing among Asian populations in a context of increasing global integration. Using Amartya Sen's theory…

  17. Familial Reciprocity and Subjective Well-Being in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chang; Dzorgbo, Dan-Bright S.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated variations in reciprocity and the impact of reciprocity on well-being in a West African society. They hypothesized that household size and income diversity encourage reciprocity, which in turn enhances subjective well-being. In empirical testing of these hypotheses the authors used the data of the Core Welfare Indicators…

  18. Eating habits and subjective well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta Lorena; Miranda, Horacio; Lobos, Germán

    2015-01-01

    with mental health problems, number of days of health-related incapacity, place of residence, socioeconomic status, importance of food for well-being, frequency of breakfast and dinner in the place of residence, frequency of consumption of meat, milk, fruits and vegetables. It was found that most students...... with higher levels of life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life live with their parents, eat at home more frequently, report fewer health problems, have healthful eating habits and consider food very important for their well-being. Although it is necessary to promote or improve the campaigns...... that foster healthful eating in the entire university population, these campaigns must be specifically targeted to students who do not receive direct support from their families....

  19. Progressive taxation and the subjective well-being of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Schimmack, Ulrich; Diener, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Gallup World Poll, we examined whether progressive taxation is associated with increased levels of subjective well-being. Consistent with Rawls's theory of justice, our results showed that progressive taxation was positively associated with the subjective well-being of nations. However, the overall tax rate and government spending were not associated with the subjective well-being of nations. Furthermore, controlling for the wealth of nations and income inequality, we found that respondents living in a nation with more-progressive taxation evaluated their lives as closer to the best possible life and reported having more positive and less negative daily experiences than did respondents living in a nation with less-progressive taxation. Finally, we found that the association between more-progressive taxation and higher levels of subjective well-being was mediated by citizens' satisfaction with public goods, such as education and public transportation.

  20. A Conceptual Framework for Leisure and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byunggook

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a conceptual framework for an individual's subjective perception of leisure that contributes to Subjective Well-Being (SWB). More specifically, this study was an attempt to examine causal relationships among social cognitive variables, subjective perception of leisure, and SWB. A survey was administered to…

  1. Subjective Well-Being Around Retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abolhassani, Marzieh; Alessie, Rob

    This paper studies the effect of both retirement and unemployment on life satisfaction, using subjective satisfaction indicators from the German Socio-Economic Panel. Moreover, we analyze how accurate individuals anticipate changes in satisfaction around retirement, as well as the correlation

  2. Job satisfaction and subjective well-being among Czech nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurková, Elena; Haroková, Sylvie; Džuka, Jozef; Žiaková, Katarína

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between domains of the job satisfaction and components of subjective well-being in nurses. A convenience sample of hospital nurses was recruited from six hospitals in Czech Republic. Data were collected using a set of questionnaires that included the McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale, the Positive Affect Scale, the Negative Affect Scale and the Personal Well-being Index. We confirmed low association between job satisfaction and subjective well-being of nurses. Satisfaction with extrinsic rewards, co-workers and family/work balance accounted for only a small percentage of variance in cognitive component of subjective well-being. Positive affect was predicted by interaction opportunities and scheduling. Negative affect was predicted by interaction opportunities and scheduling and intention to leave the actual workplace. Low percentage of the variance suggests that subjective well-being is not strongly influenced by job satisfaction. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Family Support and Subjective Well-Being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio

    2015-01-01

    In order to distinguish typologies of university students based on family support received in the form of tangible and intangible resources, their level of satisfaction with life and food-related life as well as subjective happiness, a survey was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 347...... in the place of residence during the period of studies, socioeconomic level, need to work while studying, frequency and time available for having lunch in the place of residence, and body mass index. The family support students receive as tangible or economic resources is positively related to life...

  4. Subjective wellbeing and longevity: a co-twin control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadler, Michael E; Miller, Christopher J; Christensen, Kaare

    2011-01-01

    Mental health is increasingly defined not only by the absence of illness but by the presence of subjective well-being (SWB). Previous cohort studies have consistently shown that indicators of SWB predict favorable life outcomes, including better mental and somatic health, and longevity....... The favorable effects associated with SWB have prompted new research aimed at raising happiness and wellbeing through individual interventions and public health initiatives. Standard observational studies of individual-level associations, however, are subject to potential confounding of exposure and outcome...

  5. Understanding the Relationship Between Subjective Wellbeing and Gambling Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Lisa

    2018-03-01

    This paper examines the relationship between gambling behavior and subjective wellbeing. It is often asserted that populations consist of different types of gamblers: those for whom gambling is a harmless leisure activity and those (pathological/problem gamblers) for whom the activity has harmful effects. One might, therefore, assume that subjective wellbeing will be negativity associated with an individual's level of gambling addiction. Alternatively, gamblers may choose to gamble because they derive utility from participating in this activity and so the relationship between happiness and gambling might be positively correlated. In this paper we test this association, empirically, using data from the 2010 British Gambling Prevalence Survey. The statistically significant findings from this analysis support the hypothesis that individual wellbeing falls as gambling disorder increases.

  6. Objective Academic Achievement and Subjective Personal Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Betty

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between objective academic achievement (OAA) and subjective well-being (SWB). Using a sample of 515 adolescents from ten different high schools across a small country, semi-structured interviews, academic records and observations provided relevant data for the study. OAA was measured from examination results…

  7. Career Coping and Subjective Well-Being among University Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odirile, Bonkamile E.; Mpofu, Elias; Montsi, Mercy R.

    2009-01-01

    We examined coping strategies by higher education employees to handle work stress as differentiated by personnel variables. We further examined levels of subjective well-being (SWB) in the same employees. Sixty-three higher education employees participated (males = 30; females = 33; mean age = 41.3 years). The participants completed the Coping…

  8. Poverty and Subjective Well-Being in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever, Joaquina Palomar

    2004-01-01

    There are two tendencies in the literature regarding the relationship between income and subjective well-being. The first tendency maintains that there is a strong relationship between these two variables, and that the poorer the population, the more pronounced this relationship. The second tendency downplays this relationship, arguing that a…

  9. A Web Survey Analysis of Subjective Well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guzi, M.; de Pedraza García, P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - This paper explores the role of work conditions and job characteristics with respect to three subjective well-being indicators: life satisfaction, job satisfaction and satisfaction with work-life balance. From a methodological point of view, the paper shows how social sciences can benefit

  10. How Friendship Network Characteristics Influence Subjective Well-Being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, Mariska; Coffé, Hilde

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how friendship network characteristics influence subjective well-being (SWB). Using data from the 2003 General Social Survey of Canada, three components of the friendship network are differentiated: number of friends, frequency of contact, and heterogeneity of friends. We argue

  11. Predictors of subjective well-being among older Ghanaians | Calys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The single item measure of life satisfaction was used to determine subjective wellbeing. Descriptive statistics as well as logistic regression analysis were carried out to determine the predictors of SWB. Results: A total of 4724 individuals aged 50 years and above responded to the questionnaires. Of these 50.4% were males.

  12. Italian and Swedish adolescents: differences and associations in subjective well-being and psychological well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background One important aspect of subjective judgments about one’s well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the “the ideal life.” In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect and psychological well-being was moderated by the adolescents’ nationality. Method Italian (n = 255 and Swedish (n = 277 adolescents answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Differences between samples were tested using a Multiple Analysis of Variance. We also conducted a multiple group analysis (Italy and Sweden using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate the relationship between all three subjective well-being constructs and psychological well-being. Results Italian adolescents scored significantly higher in satisfaction with life than Swedish adolescents. Additionally, across countries, girls scored significantly higher in negative affect than boys. In both countries, all three constructs of subjective well-being were significantly associated to adolescents’ psychological well-being. Nevertheless, while the effect of the relationship between affect and psychological well-being was almost the same across countries, life satisfaction was more strongly related to psychological well-being among Swedish adolescents. Conclusions The present study shows that there are larger variations between these two cultures in the cognitive construct of subjective well-being than in the affective construct. Accordingly, associations between the cognitive component, not the affective

  13. The interrelation between mindfulness and subjective well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelikson D.I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the phenomenon of mindfulness and its relationship to subjective well-being. The main objective of the study was the empirical confirmation of the relationship between mindfulness and components of hedonic model of subjective well-being. To this end, we held a correlation study with the participation of 94 men and 137 women (average age totaled 27.35 years. The participants filled out a questionnaire “Scale of life satisfaction” by E. Dinera, questionnaire" Mindfulness and awareness” as well as a modified version of the questionnaire "Scale differential emotions". A positive relationship of mindfulness and positive emotions, life satisfaction and the ratio of positive and negative emotions. We detected the negative relationship of negative emotions and mindfulness with life satisfaction. The obtained results are in good agreement with earlier studies and suggest that there exists an interaction between emotional and cognitive processes.

  14. Measuring the Subjective Well-being of Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Isela Gluyas Fitch; Yutzil Tania Cadena Pedraza; María del Carmen Romero Sánchez; Monica Georgina Cinco Basurto

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an instrument, designed using scientific methods, to measure the subjective well-being of teachers in relation to their work and to variables from life experience. Participant teachers work at the basic educational level in private institutions created by the civil society that attend to the needs of the socio-economically vulnerable populations outside the state’s system. The Cronbach Alfa index and exploratory factor analysis were used to establish the reliability and va...

  15. International migration desires related to subjective well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Ruohong; Esipova, Neli; Oppenheimer, Michael; Feng, Shuaizhang

    2014-01-01

    Previous research on the determinants of international migration has largely focused on objective factors, such as income. We instead use subjective well-being (SWB) to explain international migration desires, an expressed willingness to migrate. We find that individuals with higher SWB have lower international migration desires. At the individual level, the SWB-migration relationship appears to be more robust than the income-migration relationship. At the country level, national average SWB ...

  16. Wheat bran cereal, human gut bacteria and subjective wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Andrew; Deaville, Eddie; Gibson, Glenn

    2018-01-01

    Research has shown that consumption of high fiber breakfast cereal is associated with improved subjective well-being, especially increased energy. One possible explanation of these results is through metabolism by gut bacteria and concomitant production of metabolites that influence psychological and gastrointestinal (GI) welfare. This was examined in the present study to determine whether consumption of wheat bran could modulate the composition of the GI microbiota. This human volunteer stud...

  17. Subjective well-being among primary health care patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alis Ozcakir

    Full Text Available The psychological importance of subjective well-being for a healthy life has been well recognized. It is also well known that depressive and anxiety disorders have a negative effect on subjective well-being. The aim of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to assess the subjective well-being status of a group of primary healthcare patients in relation to socio-demographic characteristics, personal health and mood-status.A total of 284 patients participated in the study. The Oxford Happiness Scale, Life Satisfaction Scale, DASS-42 (Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-42 and a questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics were completed by the participants.In general, the participants were found to be moderately happy and satisfied with their lives. They had mild levels of depression, anxiety and stress. In terms of happiness, an older age (≥40 years, educated to secondary level or higher and not having depression or anxiety were found to be factors increasing happiness. In terms of life satisfaction, female gender, an older age (≥40 years, educated to secondary level or higher, being single and not having depression were found to increase life satisfaction.Primary healthcare providers should give more importance to the mood status of their patients. Screening for depression and anxiety should be applied at the primary healthcare level because negative mood status is more important than some socio-demographic characteristics in respect of unhappiness and dissatisfaction.

  18. Subjective well-being among primary health care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcakir, Alis; Oflu Dogan, Fatma; Cakir, Yakup Tolga; Bayram, Nuran; Bilgel, Nazan

    2014-01-01

    The psychological importance of subjective well-being for a healthy life has been well recognized. It is also well known that depressive and anxiety disorders have a negative effect on subjective well-being. The aim of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to assess the subjective well-being status of a group of primary healthcare patients in relation to socio-demographic characteristics, personal health and mood-status. A total of 284 patients participated in the study. The Oxford Happiness Scale, Life Satisfaction Scale, DASS-42 (Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-42) and a questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics were completed by the participants. In general, the participants were found to be moderately happy and satisfied with their lives. They had mild levels of depression, anxiety and stress. In terms of happiness, an older age (≥40 years), educated to secondary level or higher and not having depression or anxiety were found to be factors increasing happiness. In terms of life satisfaction, female gender, an older age (≥40 years), educated to secondary level or higher, being single and not having depression were found to increase life satisfaction. Primary healthcare providers should give more importance to the mood status of their patients. Screening for depression and anxiety should be applied at the primary healthcare level because negative mood status is more important than some socio-demographic characteristics in respect of unhappiness and dissatisfaction.

  19. Assessing chimpanzee personality and subjective well-being in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Alexander; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Hong, Kyung-Won; Inoue, Eiji; Udono, Toshifumi; Ochiai, Tomomi; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Hirata, Satoshi; King, James E

    2009-04-01

    We tested whether the cultural background of raters influenced ratings of chimpanzee personality. Our study involved comparing personality and subjective well-being ratings of 146 chimpanzees in Japan that were housed in zoos, research institutes, and a retirement sanctuary to ratings of chimpanzees in US and Australian zoos. Personality ratings were made on a translated and expanded version of a questionnaire used to rate chimpanzees in the US and Australia. Subjective well-being ratings were made on a translated version of a questionnaire used to rate chimpanzees in the US and Australia. The mean interrater reliabilities of the 43 original adjectives did not markedly differ between the present sample and the original sample of 100 zoo chimpanzees in the US. Interrater reliabilities of these samples were highly correlated, suggesting that their rank order was preserved. Comparison of the factor structures for the Japanese sample and for the original sample of chimpanzees in US zoos indicated that the overall structure was replicated and that the Dominance, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness domains clearly generalized. Consistent with earlier studies, older chimpanzees had higher Dominance and lower Extraversion and Openness scores. Correlations between the six domain scores and subjective well-being were comparable to those for chimpanzees housed in the US and Australia. These findings suggest that chimpanzee personality ratings are not affected by the culture of the raters.

  20. Italian and Swedish adolescents: differences and associations in subjective well-being and psychological well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Danilo; Sagone, Elisabetta; De Caroli, Maria Elvira; Nima, Ali Al

    2017-01-01

    Background One important aspect of subjective judgments about one’s well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the “the ideal life.” In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective wel...

  1. Measuring the Subjective Well-being of Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Isela Gluyas Fitch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an instrument, designed using scientific methods, to measure the subjective well-being of teachers in relation to their work and to variables from life experience. Participant teachers work at the basic educational level in private institutions created by the civil society that attend to the needs of the socio-economically vulnerable populations outside the state’s system. The Cronbach Alfa index and exploratory factor analysis were used to establish the reliability and validity of the instrument applied to 183 Mexican teachers in the pilot test. Conclusions pint out to possible uses of this validated instrument for the design of strategies that favor the integral well-being of the future generations of teachers and a substantial improvement in the quality of education.

  2. Religious meaning and subjective well-being in late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between religious meaning and subjective well-being. A major emphasis is placed on assessing race differences in the relationship between these constructs. Interviews were conducted with a nationwide sample of older White and older Black adults. Survey items were administered to assess a sense of meaning in life that is derived specifically from religion. Subjective well-being was measured with indices of life satisfaction, self-esteem, and optimism. The findings suggest that older adults who derive a sense of meaning in life from religion tend to have higher levels of life satisfaction, self-esteem, and optimism. The data further reveal that older Black adults are more likely to find meaning in religion than older White adults. In addition, the relationships among religious meaning, life satisfaction, self-esteem, and optimism tend to be stronger for older African Americans persons than older White persons. Researchers have argued for some time that religion may be an important source of resilience for older Black adults, but it is not clear how these beneficial effects arise. The data from this study suggest that religious meaning may be an important factor.

  3. Do Social Networks Improve Chinese Adults' Subjective Well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Shen, Yan; Smith, James P; Zhou, Guangsu

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies relationships between social networks, health and subjective well-being (SWB) using nationally representative data of the Chinese Population-the Chinese Family Panel Studies (CFPS). Our data contain SWB indicators in two widely used variants-happiness and life-satisfaction. Social network variables used include kinship relationships measured by marital status, family size, and having a genealogy; ties with friends/relatives/neighbors measured by holiday visitation, frequency of contacts, and whether and value gifts given and received; total number and time spent in social activities, and engagement in organizations including the communist party, religious groups, and other types. We find that giving and receiving gifts has a larger impact on SWB than either just giving or receiving them. Similarly the number of friends is more important than number of relatives, and marriage is associated with higher levels of SWB. Time spent in social activities and varieties of activities both matter for SWB but varieties matter more. Participation in organizations is associated with higher SWB across such diverse groups as being a member of the communist party or a religious organization. China represents an interesting test since it is simultaneously a traditional society with long-established norms about appropriate social networks and a rapidly changing society due to substantial economic and demographic changes. We find that it is better to both give and receive, to engage in more types of social activities, and that participation in groups all improve well-being of Chinese people.

  4. Religion and Subjective Well-Being: Western and Eastern Religious Groups Achieved Subjective Well-Being in Different Ways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiah, Yung-Jong; Chang, Frances; Chiang, Shih-Kuang; Tam, Wai-Cheong Carl

    2016-08-01

    Culture can moderate which variables most influence subjective well-being (SWB). Because religion can be conceptualized as culture, religious differences can be considered cultural differences. However, there have been few studies comparing how different religious groups evaluate SWB at any given time. This study is among the first to investigate this issue. The present study compared Buddhists, Taoists, Christians, and atheists. In addition to demographic items, 451 Chinese adults completed Chinese version of the Socially Oriented Cultural Conception of SWB Scale. Religious belief was distributed as follows: 10 % Christian, 20 % Buddhist, 25 % Taoist, and 43 % atheists. As predicted, the socially oriented cultural conception of SWB was found to be highest among Buddhists, followed in order by Taoists, atheists, and Christians. It was concluded that the various religious groups achieved SWB in different ways.

  5. Dopaminergic Modulation of Decision Making and Subjective Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Robb B; Skandali, Nikolina; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J

    2015-07-08

    The neuromodulator dopamine has a well established role in reporting appetitive prediction errors that are widely considered in terms of learning. However, across a wide variety of contexts, both phasic and tonic aspects of dopamine are likely to exert more immediate effects that have been less well characterized. Of particular interest is dopamine's influence on economic risk taking and on subjective well-being, a quantity known to be substantially affected by prediction errors resulting from the outcomes of risky choices. By boosting dopamine levels using levodopa (l-DOPA) as human subjects made economic decisions and repeatedly reported their momentary happiness, we show here an effect on both choices and happiness. Boosting dopamine levels increased the number of risky options chosen in trials involving potential gains but not trials involving potential losses. This effect could be better captured as increased Pavlovian approach in an approach-avoidance decision model than as a change in risk preferences within an established prospect theory model. Boosting dopamine also increased happiness resulting from some rewards. Our findings thus identify specific novel influences of dopamine on decision making and emotion that are distinct from its established role in learning. Copyright © 2015 Rutledge et al.

  6. Dopaminergic Modulation of Decision Making and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandali, Nikolina; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    The neuromodulator dopamine has a well established role in reporting appetitive prediction errors that are widely considered in terms of learning. However, across a wide variety of contexts, both phasic and tonic aspects of dopamine are likely to exert more immediate effects that have been less well characterized. Of particular interest is dopamine's influence on economic risk taking and on subjective well-being, a quantity known to be substantially affected by prediction errors resulting from the outcomes of risky choices. By boosting dopamine levels using levodopa (l-DOPA) as human subjects made economic decisions and repeatedly reported their momentary happiness, we show here an effect on both choices and happiness. Boosting dopamine levels increased the number of risky options chosen in trials involving potential gains but not trials involving potential losses. This effect could be better captured as increased Pavlovian approach in an approach–avoidance decision model than as a change in risk preferences within an established prospect theory model. Boosting dopamine also increased happiness resulting from some rewards. Our findings thus identify specific novel influences of dopamine on decision making and emotion that are distinct from its established role in learning. PMID:26156984

  7. Employee subjective well-being and physiological functioning: An integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuykendall, Lauren; Tay, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that worker subjective well-being influences physiological functioning-an early signal of poor health outcomes. While several theoretical perspectives provide insights on this relationship, the literature lacks an integrative framework explaining the relationship. We develop a conceptual model explaining the link between subjective well-being and physiological functioning in the context of work. Integrating positive psychology and occupational stress perspectives, our model explains the relationship between subjective well-being and physiological functioning as a result of the direct influence of subjective well-being on physiological functioning and of their common relationships with work stress and personal resources, both of which are influenced by job conditions.

  8. Intergenerational social mobility and subjective wellbeing in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveson, Matthew H; Deary, Ian J

    2017-09-01

    Whereas a great deal of literature has been devoted to investigating the link between intergenerational social mobility and health, the few studies that have examined the association between social mobility and life satisfaction have produced conflicting findings. In the present study, we attempt to rectify several shortcomings common to previous work by examining the association between intergenerational social mobility and both life satisfaction and self-rated health as measured in later-life. Our sample consisted of individuals born in Scotland in 1936, who took part in the Scottish Mental Survey 1947 and were subsequently followed-up into later-life. Regression analyses demonstrated that satisfaction with life at age 78 was not significantly predicted by childhood or adulthood socioeconomic status, or by the amount of social mobility experienced from parental occupational social class. In contrast, self-rated health at age 78 was significantly predicted by adult socioeconomic status and by education, but not by social mobility from parental occupational social class. These results suggest that efforts to promote upwards social mobility may not result in better subjective wellbeing, despite the apparent benefits for health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Do Facebook Status Updates Reflect Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pan; Tov, William; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David J; Qiu, Lin

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays, millions of people around the world use social networking sites to express everyday thoughts and feelings. Many researchers have tried to make use of social media to study users' online behaviors and psychological states. However, previous studies show mixed results about whether self-generated contents on Facebook reflect users' subjective well-being (SWB). This study analyzed Facebook status updates to determine the extent to which users' emotional expression predicted their SWB-specifically their self-reported satisfaction with life. It was found that positive emotional expressions on Facebook did not correlate with life satisfaction, whereas negative emotional expressions within the past 9-10 months (but not beyond) were significantly related to life satisfaction. These findings suggest that both the type of emotional expressions and the time frame of status updates determine whether emotional expressions in Facebook status updates can effectively reflect users' SWB. The findings shed light on the characteristics of online social media and improve the understanding of how user-generated contents reflect users' psychological states.

  10. Original article Entitlement and subjective well-being: a three-nations study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The current study investigated the role of three facets of entitlement (active, passive and revenge in various forms of subjective well-being (SWB: hedonistic and two facets of eudaimonic well-being (social and psychological. Social well-being was based on Keyes’ model (1998 and psychological well-being on Ryff’s model (1989. Participants and procedure The study was performed in three nations (Poland, Puerto Rico and Vietnam on student samples (Poland, n = 245, Vietnam, n = 115, and Puerto Rico, n = 300. To assess entitlement level the Entitlement Questionnaire was used. The level of hedonistic well-being was measured with the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS, and eudaimonic well-being by the Mental Health Continuum–Short Form (MHC-SF. Results Active entitlement was positively related to all aspects of SWB. Revenge entitlement was negatively related to hedonistic and psychological SWB in all samples and negatively related to social well-being only in Poland. Passive entitlement was unrelated to SWB. Conclusions The current study shows cross-cultural similarities in relationships of entitlement with hedonistic and psychological well-being and cross-cultural differences in the relationship of entitlement with social well-being. Additionally, the study indicates positive meaning of healthy aspects of entitlement for subjective well-being and negative meaning of dysfunctional aspects of entitlement for subjective well-being.

  11. Subjective wellbeing and income: Empirical patterns in the rural developing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-García, Victoria; Babigumira, Ronnie; Pyhälä, Aili; Wunder, Sven; Zorondo-Rodríguez, Francisco; Angelsen, Arild

    2016-01-01

    A commonality in the economics of happiness literature is that absolute income matters more for the subjective wellbeing of people at low income levels. In this article, we use a large sample of people in rural areas of developing countries with relatively low income levels to test whether subjective wellbeing an increasing function of absolute income in our sample, and to analyze the existence of adaptation and social comparison effects on subjective wellbeing. Our sample includes 6973 rural households in 23 countries throughout Asia, Africa, and Latin America. The average total income per adult equivalent in our sample was US$1555, whereas levels of subjective wellbeing resembled levels found in previous research using cross-country data. We find that, despite low levels of absolute income, levels of subjective wellbeing of our respondents resemble levels found in previous research using cross-country data. We also find remarkable similarities in many of the determinants of subjective wellbeing previously tested. Our data show that absolute income covariates with subjective wellbeing, but -as for richer samples- the magnitude of the association is lower once we control for adaptation and social comparison. Finally, our results suggest that social comparison has a stronger effect than adaptation in explaining the subjective wellbeing of our sample. Our findings highlight the importance of adaptation and social comparison even at low levels of absolute income. PMID:27642259

  12. Positive design : An introduction to design for subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desmet, P.M.A.; Pohlmeyer, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how design can contribute to the happiness of individuals–to their subjective well-being. A framework for positive design is introduced that includes three main components of subjective well-being: pleasure, personal significance and virtue. Each component

  13. The Dimensions of Subjective Well-Being among Black Americans: A Structural Model Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thanh V.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of data from 668 black adult respondents to the 1980 National Survey of Black Americans suggests that subjective well-being among black Americans is multidimensional. A three-factor model of subjective well-being encompassing strain (depressive symptoms), life satisfaction, and self-esteem was empirically supported and consistently…

  14. Subjective wellbeing among adults with diabetes : Results from Diabetes MILES—Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmes-truscott, Elizabeth; Browne, Jessica L.; Pouwer, F.; Speight, Jane; Cummins, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the subjective wellbeing of Australian adults with diabetes who completed the Diabetes MILES—Australia survey, investigating by diabetes type and treatment, and by comparing with the subjective wellbeing of the general Australian adult population. In addition, the extent to which

  15. A Model for Subjective Well-Being in Adolescence: Need Satisfaction and Reasons for Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryilmaz, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Subjective well-being is as important for adolescents as it is in other stages of life. This study thus aims to develop a model for subjective well-being, which is limited to need satisfaction in adolescence and reasons for living, and to test the validity of the model. Participants were a total of 227 individuals, 120 females and 107 males. Data…

  16. Subjective Well-Being and Life Satisfaction in the Kingdom of Tonga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sean E.; Leslie, Heather Young; Lavis, Carrie A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an initial attempt to assess the subjective well-being of a sample of 227 Tongans via self-report. Using items adapted from the Subjective Well Being Inventory (SUBI; Nagpal and Sell, 1985; Sell and Nagpal, 1992), participants rated their level of overall life satisfaction along with their perceptions of well-being in a number…

  17. The Effect of Friendship Skills Training on Friendship Quality and Subjective Well-Being of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çekiç, Ali; Kul, Aykut; Çetin, Aysenur; Cihangiroglu, Ümmügülsüm

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effects of friendship skills training on the quality of friendship and subjective well-being of adolescents. In order to determine the experimental and control groups, the Friendship Quality Scale and the Adolescent Subjective Well-Being Scale were administered to 311 students in 9th, 10th and 11th grade classes from…

  18. Employment status and subjective well-being: The role of the social norm to work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, K.; Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.; Graaf, P.M. de

    2016-01-01

    This article examines to what extent a social norm to work moderates the relationship between employment status and subjective well-being. It was expected that the detrimental impact of non-employment on subjective well-being would be larger in countries with a stronger social norm. Using a direct

  19. Employment status and subjective well-being : The role of the social norm to work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, K.; Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.; de Graaf, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines to what extent a social norm to work moderates the relationship between employment status and subjective well-being. It was expected that the detrimental impact of non-employment on subjective well-being would be larger in countries with a stronger social norm. Using a direct

  20. Self-Oriented Perfectionism and Self-Assessment as Predictors of Adolescents? Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Eyüp

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine whether subjective well-being is predicted by self-oriented perfectionism and self-assessment. The self-oriented perfectionism scale, self-assessment scale and subjective well-being scale (SWB) were administrated to a sample of voluntary 272 eight-grade students from three secondary schools in Sultangazi,…

  1. Subjective sexual well-being and sexual behavior in young women with breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kedde, H.; van de Wiel, H. B. M.; Schultz, W. C. M. Weijmar; Wijsen, C.

    The aim of this study was to systematically describe the nature and context of subjective sexual well-being and sexual behavior in young women with breast cancer. Data on sexual behavior and subjective sexual well-being were collected through an internet questionnaire. Respondents were included if

  2. Homeownership and Subjective Wellbeing in Urban China: Does Owning a House Make You Happier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Feng

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of homeownership status on individual subjective wellbeing indicators in urban China using a large nationally representative dataset. It is the first to gauge the relationship between homeownership and individual subjective wellbeing in the setting of China and is also among the few empirical studies concerning…

  3. The Influence of Water Access in Subjective Well-Being: Some Evidence in Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, Jorge; Gonzalez-Gomez, Francisco; Grajales, Angel Lendechy

    2013-01-01

    The literature on happiness or subjective well-being has explored the determinants of happiness without taking into consideration the role that water plays. In this paper we attempt to draw attention to water in subjective well-being studies. Approximately one hundred million people do not have access to water. A lack of clean water causes…

  4. Subjective Well-Being in Obese Individuals: The Multiple Roles of Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Bonnie G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the tangled web of obesity and exercise as it relates to subjective well-being. Many overweight individuals have low levels of subjective well-being as a reflection of "anti-fat" biases and sociocultural considerations. Since exercise helps balance the energy intake-output equation and is associated with mood benefits,…

  5. Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being: Comparing Societies with Respect to Gender Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesch-Romer, Clemens; Motel-Klingebiel, Andreas; Tomasik, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    These analyses explore the relationship between gender inequality and subjective well-being. The hypothesis was tested as to whether societal gender inequality is related to the size of gender differences in subjective well-being in various societies. Results come from comparative data sets (World Values Survey, involving 57 countries; OASIS…

  6. A one-year longitudinal study of subjective well-being in elderly home care recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars; Povlsen, Thomas Kaalby; Mortensen, Steen Lee

    A one-year longitudinal study of subjective well-being in elderly home care recipients Larsen, L, Povlsen, T.K., Mortensen, S.L. & Christoffersen, M. Background: Old age is not a risk factor per se when it comes to low well-being. In most old people well-being is as high as, or higher than...... indicating stress and risk of depression? Did the overall level of subjective well-being change during a one-year period? How did subjective well-being in elderly home care recipients compare to the national Danish average? Sample: 759 home care recipients 65 years or older in The Municipality of Aarhus...... dwelling elderly people in need of care. Words: 382 Key words: Well-being, home care, elderly people...

  7. Internalized mental illness stigma and subjective well-being: The mediating role of psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Garín, Daniel; Molero, Fernando; Bos, Arjan E R

    2015-08-30

    This study examines the relationships between internalized stigma, psychological well-being, and subjective well-being in a sample of people with mental illness. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 213 outpatients from the Spanish public social care network. The results showed that (a) internalized stigma was significantly negatively correlated with psychological well-being and subjective well-being (affect balance and life satisfaction) (all correlations are significant with at least pstigma on affect balance and life satisfaction was mediated by psychological well-being. The component of internalized stigma most consistently associated with both types of well-being was alienation (life satisfaction: B=-0.35, p=0.001; affect balance: B=-0.38, p=0.001). These findings should be confirmed in future longitudinal or experimental research. On the basis of these results we recommend that interventions to combat self-stigma aim to reduce feelings of alienation and improve self-acceptance and other aspects of positive psychological functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Interaction Between Subjective Well-Being, Economic Activity and Education in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artūras Gataūlinas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the impact of professional well-being of EU citizens on their life satisfaction at both micro and macro levels. The following indicators were selected to describe the professional well-being: involvment in the official employment, level of education, and job satisfaction. The findings of the article suggest that employed respondents evaluated their subjective well-being significantly higher as compared to those not participating in the labour market. Similar findings were drawn when comparing subjective well-being of the respondents in relation to their education. Respondents with higher education reported significantly higher statistically proven subjective well-being than those with lower education. In the article, the interpretation of the findings is based on the conceptual model of subjective well-being of needs as well as on the role of employment and education in satisfaction of physiological and socially acceptable needs of individuals. Work activity is more directly linked with the satisfaction of individual needs than education. However, engagement in work has only an impact on subjective well-being if work activity is perceived as job satisfaction. If employment is perceived by individuals as providing greater satisfaction, it tends to make a more positive impact on the subjective well-being of individuals compared to activities that are perceived as providing less satisfaction.

  9. Gratitude mediates the effect of emotional intelligence on subjective well-being: A structural equation modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yuan

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the relationship among emotional intelligence, gratitude, and subjective well-being in a sample of university students. A total of 365 undergraduates completed the emotional intelligence scale, the gratitude questionnaire, and the subjective well-being measures. The results of the structural equation model showed that emotional intelligence is positively associated with gratitude and subjective well-being, that gratitude is positively associated with subjective well-being, and that gratitude partially mediates the positive relationship between emotional intelligence and subjective well-being. Bootstrap test results also revealed that emotional intelligence has a significant indirect effect on subjective well-being through gratitude.

  10. Deprivation, Social Exclusion and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellani, Luna; D'Ambrosio, Conchita

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating empirically the relationship between self-declared satisfaction with life and an individual's well-being as measured by the indices of deprivation and social exclusion proposed in the income distribution literature. Results on European countries show that life satisfaction decreases with an increase in deprivation…

  11. How avoidant attachment influences subjective well-being: an investigation about the age and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianyuan; Fung, Helene H

    2014-01-01

    Intimate relationship is a significant factor that influences older adults' subjective well-being. Avoidant attachment reflects a basic working model regarding interpersonal relationships. The current study aims to test how age and gender moderate the effect of avoidant attachment to spouse on subjective well-being. Fifty-six married couples aged from 20 to 79 years in Hong Kong were recruited for the study. Their avoidant attachment to spouse and subjective well-being were measured by questionnaires. In general, avoidant attachment to spouse was found to undermine subjective well-being. More importantly, age significantly moderated the negative association between avoidant attachment and subjective well-being, but the direction of the moderating effect was opposite for husbands and wives. Compared with their younger counterparts, the detrimental effect of avoidant attachment on subjective well-being was weaker for older wives but stronger for older husbands. The results suggest that marital relationship may play different roles in different life stages for the two genders. In later adulthood, males may become more dependent on the marital relationship to maintain subjective well-being, whereas females can be relatively independent.

  12. Pretend Play, Coping, and Subjective Well-Being in Children: A Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorelli, Julie A.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers, the authors state, link play to cognitive and affective processes important for a child's development and overall well-being. In this article, the authors examine the relationships involving pretend play, coping, and subjective well-being (the last of which they conceptualize as positive affect--positive mood--and life satisfaction)…

  13. Influence of Job Status on Subjective Well-Being of University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjective well-being (SWB) is increasingly becoming important to individuals in various professions, university lecturers inclusive. Observations show that individuals desire to live fulfilling lives as evaluated by them, most importantly, and by others around them. Therefore, it is believed that the well-being of any individual ...

  14. The Effects of Objective and Subjective Socioeconomic Status on Subjective Well-Being among Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China: The Moderating Role of Subjective Social Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silin Huang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although previous investigations have agreed that Chinese rural-to-urban migrants’ socioeconomic status (SES increases with their migration, the association between SES and subjective well-being is uncertain. To address this research gap, the present study proposed that the association between objective SES and subjective well-being is mediated by subjective SES. This model was tested with a sample of 432 Chinese rural-to-urban migrants. The results indicate a significant association between objective SES and subjective well-being and a partial mediating effect of subjective SES. Furthermore, subjective social mobility, which is one’s expectation about the possibility to move upward in the social hierarchy, was found to moderate both the direct path from objective SES to subjective well-being and the indirect path from subjective SES to subjective well-being. These findings suggest that Chinese rural-to-urban migrants gained in subjective well-being not only because of direct financial achievement but also because of their perceptions and beliefs about their relative social status.

  15. Environment and Subjective Well-Being of Rural Chinese Elderly: A Multilevel Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dale E. Yeatts; Cynthia M. Cready; Xiaomei Pei; Yuying Shen; Hao Luo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of environment on the subjective well-being (SWB) of older Chinese villagers after controlling for personal and social characteristics.

  16. Employee subjective well-being and physiological functioning: An integrative model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Kuykendall

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that worker subjective well-being influences physiological functioning—an early signal of poor health outcomes. While several theoretical perspectives provide insights on this relationship, the literature lacks an integrative framework explaining the relationship. We develop a conceptual model explaining the link between subjective well-being and physiological functioning in the context of work. Integrating positive psychology and occupational stress perspectives, our model explains the relationship between subjective well-being and physiological functioning as a result of the direct influence of subjective well-being on physiological functioning and of their common relationships with work stress and personal resources, both of which are influenced by job conditions.

  17. Relationship between Income and Subjective Economic Well-Being: Absolute or Relative?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V A Khashchenko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of the absolute and relative income in determining the subjective economic well-being. It is shown that the relationship of the income to SEB is curvilinear with the increase of marginal utility for a higher income. At low income levels its effect on SEB is determined not by its absolute, but by its relative value based on the comparisons with the subjective standards of well-being.

  18. Review of some advances of the literature about predictive variables concerning subjective well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Cajiao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This review of scientific literature presents some tendencies, conceptual advances, empirical findings and tests that measure the predictive variables of subjective well-being. It was done through the search in bibliographical database like ProQuest, PsycArticles, Psyctest, OVID SP, books and Thesis. Two types of predictive variables were recognized- internal and external to the individual-. Both of them influence the achievement of the subjective well-being. Besides, the studies and conceptualization about Subjetive well-being and some of the Predictive Variables were analyzed in the conclusion.

  19. Personal values, subjective well-being and destination-loyalty intention of international students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, N L; Sam, D L; Sandal, G M; Adam, A A

    2016-01-01

    What are the factors that predict international students' destination-loyalty intention? This is the main question this paper addresses, using an online survey among 396 (short-term, N = 182) and (long-term, N = 214) international students at a Norwegian university. Structural equation model-AMOS was conducted to examine relationships among personal values, subjective well-being and destination-loyalty intentions. The results showed that: (1) universalism was positively related to subjective well-being for short-term students; and (2) subjective well-being was positively related to destination-loyalty intention for all groups. We found that relatively stable and happy individuals might be important for ensuring destination-loyalty intentions. Results also indicated that personal values that emphasize justice and equity are also important for short-term international students' well-being.

  20. Forms of Political Participation and Subjective Well-being: A World Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamín Temkin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Subjective well-being has been described as perhaps “the ultimate dependent variable” of the social sciences. Thus, it is understandable that much of the empirical research on the subject has focused on the identification of its correlates. In this paper we utilize the sixth wave of the World Value Survey carried out in sixty countries between 2010 and 2014, to evaluate the relationship between different types of political participation and the subjective well-being of citizens, Our research partially confirms the hypothesis that, when controlling for the democratic or undemocratic character of political institutions, conventional political participation is positively and significantly associated with life satisfaction, while unconventional conflictive political activities show the opposite relationship to well-being. On the other hand, the democratic nature of state institutions is universally and consistently related to higher levels of personal well-being among individuals.

  1. Exposure to Domestic and Community Violence and Subjective Well-Being in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doralúcia Gil da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract There is major exposure to domestic and community violence during adolescence, which has been negatively related to well-being. This work aimed to identify relationships between domestic and community violence and the levels of subjective well-being perceived by adolescents, considering sex and age. The participants were 426 adolescents from public schools in the south of Brazil; 62% were girls, with a mean age of 14.91 years old ( SD = 1.65, who answered one instrument about exposure to violence and another about well-being. Results indicated greater domestic violence exposure among girls and greater community exposure among boys. The age range from 16 to 18 years old was the most exposed to domestic violence. Boys reported greater well-being and less negative affect. Differences in violence exposure may be related to roles of gender in our society. Well-being promotion is highlighted as a resource for confronting violence among adolescents.

  2. Subjective well-being among young people in five Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, M S C; Cappa, C; Patton, G C

    2017-01-01

    Subjective well-being incorporates elements of life satisfaction, happiness and optimism. It is increasingly relevant in the assessment of population health and economic development. There are strong continuities in well-being from youth into later life. Despite its significance, few global surveys capture subjective well-being. This paper describes patterns of well-being among young people in five Eastern European countries [Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Serbia and Ukraine] and investigates association between demographic factors and well-being. Nationally representative household surveys, including large Roma population samples, were conducted as part of UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey programme. Young people aged 15-24 years ( N  = 11 944) indicated their satisfaction with life, happiness and expectations about the future. Multilevel logistic regressions were conducted to determine the impact of individual-level predictors while accounting for country- and cluster-level variability. Around 40% of young people considered themselves very happy or very satisfied with their life overall. Three quarters reported optimism. Yet well-being varied greatly between countries, with youth in BiH and Ukraine reporting lowest levels of well-being. Current marriage, increasing wealth, higher education, rural residence and not having children were associated with greater well-being. Patterns of well-being in youth vary substantially between countries and are only partly accounted for by standard demographic characteristics. Despite higher rates of adolescent marriage and childbearing, and lower levels of educational attainment and employment, Roma youth had similar levels of well-being to the general population.

  3. Exploring the relationship between subjective wellbeing and groundwater attitudes and practices of farmers in Rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, J.; Varua, M. E.; Maheshwari, B.; Oza, S.; Purohit, R.; Hakimuddin; Dave, S.

    2016-09-01

    Failure to effectively coordinate opportunistic extractions by individual well owners with groundwater recharge has led to increasing Indian groundwater scarcity, affecting future opportunities for improved rural livelihoods and household wellbeing. Investigation of the relationship between groundwater institutions, management attitudes and subjective wellbeing of Indian rural households has substantial potential to reveal initiatives that jointly improve aquifer sustainability and household wellbeing, yet has received limited attention. Subjective wellbeing was calculated as an index of dissatisfaction (IDS), revealing ranked importance and the level of dissatisfaction of individual factors selected from economic, environmental and social/relational wellbeing dimensions. High economic and environmental IDS scores were calculated for respondents in the Meghraj and Dharta watersheds, India, respectively. We tested an exploratory hypothesis that observed IDS differences were correlated with differences in life circumstances, (household attributes, income and assets) and psychological disposition (life guiding values and willingness to adapt). The distribution of ranked IDS wellbeing scores was estimated across four statistically distinct clusters reflecting attitudes towards sustainable groundwater management and practice. Decision tree analysis identified significantly different correlates of overall wellbeing specific to cluster membership and the watershed, supporting the research hypothesis. High income IDS scores were weakly correlated with actual total household income (r < 0.25) consistent with international studies. The results suggest a singular reliance on initiatives to improve household income is unlikely to manifest as improved individual subjective wellbeing for the Dharta and Meghraj watersheds. In conclusion, correlates were tabulated into a systematic decision framework to assist the design of participatory processes at the village level, by

  4. Exposure to Domestic and Community Violence and Subjective Well-Being in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Doralúcia Gil da; Dell'Aglio, Débora Dalbosco

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There is major exposure to domestic and community violence during adolescence, which has been negatively related to well-being. This work aimed to identify relationships between domestic and community violence and the levels of subjective well-being perceived by adolescents, considering sex and age. The participants were 426 adolescents from public schools in the south of Brazil; 62% were girls, with a mean age of 14.91 years old ( SD = 1.65), who answered one instrument about exposu...

  5. Decontamination reduces radiation anxiety and improves subjective well-being after the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Michio; Harada, Shigeki; Oki, Taikan

    2017-01-01

    Since the 2011 Fukushima accident, rebuilding society to protect against anxiety and improve feelings of well-being has grown in importance. A questionnaire was carried out among residents of Marumori Town, Igu County, Miyagi Prefecture, to evaluate the effects of radiation-related countermeasures implemented by the town to reduce residents' anxiety and improve their subjective well-being (response rate: 31%; valid responses: n = 174). Further, to propose effective countermeasures regarding town planning for the improvement in subjective well-being, we analyzed associations between residents' sense of attachment to the town and subjective well-being, and then identified primary factors behind their sense of attachment. Marumori Town, located about 50 km to the northwest of the Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, is a good site for evaluating the effects of countermeasures taken by the town itself to fight anxiety, because there have been limited surveys and professional medical support, and mitigation efforts were primarily initiated by the town. The results suggested that decontamination evaluations were associated with a reduction in anxiety after the accident, which contributed to an increase in residents' subjective well-being. On the other hand, the evaluation of items related to human interactions in the community and the natural environment was found as a primary factor of sense of attachment toward the town, which contributed to an increase of residents' subjective well-being. This is the first study to quantitatively measure the effects of radiation-related countermeasures on reducing anxiety and to propose an effective policy approach for improving subjective well-being. (author)

  6. Museum activities in dementia care: Using visual analog scales to measure subjective wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joana; Culverwell, Alison; Hulbert, Sabina; Robertson, Mitch; Camic, Paul M

    2017-07-01

    Introduction Previous research has shown that people with dementia and caregivers derive wellbeing-related benefits from viewing art in a group, and that facilitated museum object handling is effective in increasing subjective wellbeing for people with a range of health conditions. The present study quantitatively compared the impact of two museum-based activities and a social activity on the subjective wellbeing of people with dementia and their caregivers. Methods A quasi-experimental crossover design was used. People with early to middle stage dementia and caregivers ( N = 66) participated in museum object handling, a refreshment break, and art viewing in small groups. Visual analog scales were used to rate subjective wellbeing pre and post each activity. Results Mixed-design analysis of variances indicated wellbeing significantly increased during the session, irrespective of the order in which the activities were presented. Wellbeing significantly increased from object handling and art viewing for those with dementia and caregivers across pooled orders, but did not in the social activity of a refreshment break. An end-of-intervention questionnaire indicated that experiences of the session were positive. Conclusion Results provide a rationale for considering museum activities as part of a broader psychosocial, relational approach to dementia care and support the use of easy to administer visual analog scales as a quantitative outcome measure. Further partnership working is also supported between museums and healthcare professionals in the development of nonclinical, community-based programs for this population.

  7. Influence of Organizational Citizenship Behavior on Hotel Employees’ Job Satisfaction and Subjective Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülseren YURCU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to analyze the influence of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB of employees working for the accommodation business on their job satisfaction (JS and subjective well-being (SWB. For this purpose, data were collected from 2,051 employees in various five-star accommodation enterprises located in Antalya, the most important tourism destination in Turkey. The analysis of the data showed that organizational citizenship behavior and its subdimensions correlate positively with job satisfaction and subjective well-being and influence them positively. It was also found that job satisfaction mediates the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and subjective well-being. Employees with organizational citizenship behavior were found to have higher levels of job satisfaction and subjective well-being. The results showed that organizational citizenship behavior is a stronger predictor for the job satisfaction of the employees than subjective well-being. The findings offer useful and important implications for business managers when hiring employees.

  8. Combat exposure, social relationships, and subjective well-being among middle-aged and older Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mai See; Burr, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    This study described the association of subjective well-being with combat exposure and social relationships among middle-aged and older Veteran men in the USA. The stress-buffering hypothesis, which predicts social relationships may moderate the association between combat exposure and subjective well-being, was also examined. Data from the 2008 Health and Retirement Study (N = 2961) were used to estimate logistic regression models, focusing on three measures of subjective well-being: depression, life satisfaction, and self-reported health. In the fully adjusted models, there were no statistically significant relationships between combat exposure and the three indicators of subjective well-being. However, compared to Veterans who had lower scores on the social relationship index, Veterans who had higher scores were less likely to be depressed and less likely to report poor or fair health. Veterans who had higher scores on the social relationships index reported higher levels of life satisfaction than those Veterans who had lower scores. There was no evidence for a social relationships buffering effect. The results of this study demonstrated that combat exposure did not have a long-term relationship with subjective well-being. Longitudinal research designs with more comprehensive indicators of combat exposure may help researchers better understand some of the underlying complexity of this relationship. Complementary research with samples of women Veterans, as well as samples of Hispanic, and non-Black, non-White Veterans, is also needed.

  9. Preserving Subjective Wellbeing in the Face of Psychopathology: Buffering Effects of Personal Strengths and Resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth H Bos

    Full Text Available Many studies on resilience have shown that people can succeed in preserving mental health after a traumatic event. Less is known about whether and how people can preserve subjective wellbeing in the presence of psychopathology. We examined to what extent psychopathology can co-exist with acceptable levels of subjective wellbeing and which personal strengths and resources moderate the association between psychopathology and wellbeing.Questionnaire data on wellbeing (Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life/Happiness Index, psychological symptoms (Depression Anxiety Stress Scales, and personal strengths and resources (humor, Humor Style questionnaire; empathy, Empathy Quotient questionnaire; social company; religion; daytime activities, Living situation questionnaire were collected in a population-based internet study (HowNutsAreTheDutch; N = 12,503. Data of the subset of participants who completed the above questionnaires (n = 2411 were used for the present study. Regression analyses were performed to predict wellbeing from symptoms, resources, and their interactions.Satisfactory levels of wellbeing (happiness score 6 or higher were found in a substantial proportion of the participants with psychological symptoms (58% and 30% of those with moderate and severe symptom levels, respectively. The association between symptoms and wellbeing was large and negative (-0.67, P < .001, but less so in persons with high levels of self-defeating humor and in those with a partner and/or pet. Several of the personal strengths and resources had a positive main effect on wellbeing, especially self-enhancing humor, having a partner, and daytime activities.Cultivating personal strengths and resources, like humor, social/animal company, and daily occupations, may help people preserve acceptable levels of wellbeing despite the presence of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress.

  10. Spiritual Well-Being and Correlated Factors in Subjects With Advanced COPD or Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Takaaki; Kawai, Momoko; Kuzuya, Nanori; Futamura, Yohei; Horiba, Akane; Ishiguro, Takashi; Yoshida, Tsutomu; Sawa, Toshiyuki; Sugiyama, Yasuyuki

    2017-05-01

    Spiritual care for patients with COPD has rarely been discussed, and thus much remains unknown about their needs. The aims of this study were to identify the factors associated with spiritual well-being and to compare the levels of spiritual well-being between subjects with advanced COPD and those with inoperable lung cancer. A total of 96 subjects with COPD or lung cancer participated in this study, which was conducted between December 2014 and April 2016. Measures included the Japanese version of the 12-item Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being (FACIT-Sp-12) scale, the McGill Quality of Life Questionnaire (MQOL), the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scale, and various other medico-social factors. No significant differences were found between subjects with COPD and those with lung cancer in median FACIT-Sp-12 scores (COPD, 27; lung cancer, 26; P = .81). However, significant differences were found in the 2 MQOL domains, suggesting that subjects with COPD had a better psychological state ( P = .01) and that subjects with lung cancer had a better support state ( P = .002). Multiple regression analysis revealed that mMRC was significantly associated with FACIT-Sp-12 scores in subjects with COPD. These results suggest that subjects with advanced COPD experience spiritual well-being similar to that of subjects with inoperable lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  11. Subjective Well-Being in Rural India: The Curse of Conspicuous Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linssen, Rik; van Kempen, Luuk; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2011-01-01

    Using data on 697 individuals from 375 rural low income households in India, we test expectations on the effects of relative income and conspicuous consumption on subjective well-being. The results of the multi-level regression analyses show that individuals who spent more on conspicuous consumption report lower levels of subjective well-being.…

  12. Quality of Life and Leisure Activities: How Do Leisure Activities Contribute to Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajsa-Zganec, Andreja; Merkas, Marina; Sverko, Iva

    2011-01-01

    The quality of life is determined with objective factors and also with subjective perception of factors which influence human life. Leisure activities play a very important role in subjective well-being because they provide opportunities to meet life values and needs. Through participation in leisure activities people build social relationships,…

  13. Achievement Goal Orientations and Subjective Well-Being: A Person-Centred Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen-Soini, Heta; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Niemivirta, Markku

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether students with different achievement goal orientation profiles differ in terms of subjective well-being (i.e., self-esteem, depressive symptoms, school-related burnout, and educational goal appraisals). Six groups of students with unique motivational profiles were identified. Observed differences in subjective well-being…

  14. Subjective Well-being and Partnership Dynamics; Are Same-sex Relationships Different?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Shuai; van Ours, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Partnered individuals are happier than singles. This can be because partnership leads to more satisfactory subjective well-being or because happier people are more likely to find a partner. We analyze Dutch panel data to investigate whether there is a causal effect of partnership on subjective

  15. Design for subjective well-being in interior architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petermans, A.; Pohlmeyer, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Can interior environments engage people in pleasurable and meaningful experiences and thereby have a positive influence on their happiness? This paper discusses why and how interior architects might want to consider implementing ideas in relation to ‘design for subjective well-being’. Despite of

  16. Job Satisfaction and Subjective Well-Being Among Midwives: Analysis of a Multinational Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosova, Darja; Gurkova, Elena; Ziakova, Katarina; Nedvedova, Daniela; Palese, Alvisa; Godeas, Gloria; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi; Song, Mi Sook; Lee, Jongwon; Cordeiro, Raul; Babiarczyk, Beata; Fras, Malgorzata

    2017-03-01

    There is a considerable amount of empirical evidence to indicate a positive association between an employee's subjective well-being and workplace performance and job satisfaction. Compared with nursing research, there is a relative lack of consistent scientific evidence concerning midwives' subjective well-being and its determinants related to domains of job satisfaction. The purpose of the study was to examine the association between the domains of job satisfaction and components of subjective well-being in hospital midwives. This cross-sectional descriptive study involved 1190 hospital midwives from 7 countries. Job satisfaction was measured by the McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale. Subjective well-being was conceptualized in the study by the 2 components (the affective and the cognitive component). The affective component of subjective well-being (ie, emotional well-being) was assessed by the Positive and the Negative Affect Scale. The cognitive component of subjective well-being (ie, life satisfaction) was measured by the Personal Well-Being Index. Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to determine associations between variables. Findings from correlation and regression analyses indicated an overall weak association between the domains of job satisfaction and components of subjective well-being. Satisfaction with extrinsic rewards, coworkers, and interaction opportunities accounted for only 13% of variance in the cognitive component (life satisfaction). The affective component (emotional well-being) was weakly associated with satisfaction with control and responsibility. The low amount of variance suggests that neither component of subjective well-being is influenced by the domains of job satisfaction. Further studies should focus on identifying other predictors of subjective well-being among midwives. A better understanding of how specific job facets are related to the subjective well-being of midwives might assist employers in the

  17. Resident-to-resident relational aggression and subjective well-being in assisted living facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompetter, Hester; Scholte, Ron; Westerhof, Gerben

    2011-01-01

    Research in settings similar to assisted living facilities suggests that relational aggression, an indirect and mature form of aggression, might occur in assisted living facilities. This empirical study investigates the existence of relational aggression in a sample of residents and the relationship between relational aggression and resident's subjective well-being. 121 residents from six assisted living facilities completed questionnaires assessing personal experiences as victims of relational aggression and subjective well-being. Also nurses reported on victimization of relational aggression for every participant. Linear regression models were used to examine the association between both reports of relational aggression and subjective well-being. Relational aggression was shown to exist in assisted living facilities according to both residents (prevalence: 19%) and nurses (prevalence: 41%). Chi-square testing revealed no association between ratings by nurses and residents. Self-reports of victimization of relational aggression were related to depression, anxiety, satisfaction with life and social loneliness, but not to emotional loneliness. Nurse-reports of victimization of relational aggression were not related to subjective well-being. Self-reports of relational aggression seem to be better predictors of resident's well-being than nurse-reports of relational aggression. Awareness of these findings and the discrepancy between nurse-reports and self-reports are important for practice and for future research regarding social dynamics and living arrangements in elderly care settings.

  18. Subjective well-being among Episcopal priests: predictors and comparisons to non-clinical norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Sicking, Joseph A

    2012-01-01

    Few studies of the clergy have examined emotional well-being using normed measures. This study examined subjective well-being among 1,581 non-retired Episcopal priests. Subjective well-being was measured with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988) and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985). Predictors of subjective well-being were measured with the Dispositional Hope Scale (Snyder et al., 1991) and scales of personal practices, social support, congregational dynamics, fit, and economic satisfaction. Participants reported more positive affect (Hedges's g = 1.19), more negative affect (Hedges's g = 0.61) and more satisfaction with life (Hedges's g = 0.73) than nonclinical norms. Hope agency was the strongest predictor for positive affect and satisfaction with life; stress was the strongest predictor for negative affect and partially mediated the effect of congregational dynamics and fit on this outcome. Results suggest that prevention programs must focus on all aspects of subjective well-being and consider the direct effects of different levels of the ecosystem to be effective.

  19. Building a profile of subjective well-being for social media users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lushi; Gong, Tao; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David; Davidson, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    Subjective well-being includes 'affect' and 'satisfaction with life' (SWL). This study proposes a unified approach to construct a profile of subjective well-being based on social media language in Facebook status updates. We apply sentiment analysis to generate users' affect scores, and train a random forest model to predict SWL using affect scores and other language features of the status updates. Results show that: the computer-selected features resemble the key predictors of SWL as identified in early studies; the machine-predicted SWL is moderately correlated with the self-reported SWL (r = 0.36, p subjective well-being profile can also reflect other psychological traits like depression (r = 0.24, p social media language.

  20. Is subjective well-being a useful parameter for allocating resources among public interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandjour, A

    2001-01-01

    Scarce public resources require trade-offs between competing programs in different sectors, and the careful allocation of fixed resources within a single sector. This paper argues that a general quality of life instrument encompassing health-related and non-health-related components is suitable for determining the best trade-offs between sectors. Further, this paper suggests that subjective well-being shows the properties crucial to a general quality of life measure and has additional advantages that makes it particularly useful for the allocation of public and health care resources. The paper argues that Western societies are in an unusually prosperous situation today which allows to concentrate efforts not only on reducing harm but also on improving positive states of health. Further, subjective well-being can be evaluated from the patient's perspective and incorporates a valuation of life expectancy. Criteria required for an appropriate questionnaire that measures subjective well-being are presented.

  1. Subjective evaluation of psychosocial well-being in children and youths with overweight or obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Hamann, Sophie Amalie; Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment programme on subjective evaluations of psychosocial well-being and quality of life. METHODS: This longitudinal observational study included 1291 children, adolescents and young adults, 6-22 years of age......, with overweight or obesity. At entry and after 2-82 months of obesity treatment, the patients evaluated the following domains of psychosocial well-being on a visual analogue scale: quality of life, mood, appetite, bullying, motivation for weight loss and body image satisfaction. The degree of overweight.......0001), independent of BMI SDS at entry. However, improvements in psychosocial well-being were also observed in those increasing their BMI SDS (n = 315). CONCLUSIONS: In a large group of children and youths, psychosocial well-being improved during a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment programme...

  2. Leisure participation and subjective well-being: Exploring gender differences among elderly in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Feng, Qiushi; Lacanienta, Joy; Zhen, Zhihong

    To explore the association between leisure participation and subjective well-being and the role gender in this issue among elderly Chinese in Shanghai, China. Principal components analysis and logistic regressions are used to analyze the cross-sectional data of the 2013 Shanghai Elderly Life and Opinion Survey that contains 2884 respondents (60+ with a mean age of 72.6) recruited from a multistage cluster sampling design. Subjective well-being is measured by happiness and life satisfaction, and leisure participation is examined by the type and diversity of leisure activities. Principal components analysis identifies four major types of leisure activity that elderly Chinese are actively engaged in-detachment-recovery, aesthetic, social, and performing-arts activities. Among them, social activities and performing-arts activities have the most relevance to subjective well-being. Females are more likely to engage in social and performing-arts activities whereas males are more likely to engage in detachment-recovery and aesthetic activities. Performing-arts activities promote subjective well-being only for females. Social activities are beneficial for both gender groups, but more so for males than for females. While increased levels of leisure diversity are linearly related to increased odds of subjective well-being for females, moderate level of leisure diversity is found to be the most important for males. Leisure participation is positively related to subjective well-being among elderly Chinese, and thus could play a critical role in promoting healthy aging. The major gender differences as observed suggest the need to further explore gender-specific barriers in leisure participation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Facebook Use Predicts Declines in Subjective Well-Being in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kross, Ethan; Verduyn, Philippe; Demiralp, Emre; Park, Jiyoung; Lee, David Seungjae; Lin, Natalie; Shablack, Holly; Jonides, John; Ybarra, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Over 500 million people interact daily with Facebook. Yet, whether Facebook use influences subjective well-being over time is unknown. We addressed this issue using experience-sampling, the most reliable method for measuring in-vivo behavior and psychological experience. We text-messaged people five times per day for two-weeks to examine how Facebook use influences the two components of subjective well-being: how people feel moment-to-moment and how satisfied they are with their lives. Our re...

  4. Building a profile of subjective well-being for social media users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David; Davidson, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    Subjective well-being includes ‘affect’ and ‘satisfaction with life’ (SWL). This study proposes a unified approach to construct a profile of subjective well-being based on social media language in Facebook status updates. We apply sentiment analysis to generate users’ affect scores, and train a random forest model to predict SWL using affect scores and other language features of the status updates. Results show that: the computer-selected features resemble the key predictors of SWL as identified in early studies; the machine-predicted SWL is moderately correlated with the self-reported SWL (r = 0.36, p social media language. PMID:29135991

  5. The relations among relatedness needs, subjective well-being, and depression of Korean elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, SuGyun; Jeon, JeeHye; Chong, YoungSook; An, JeongShin

    2015-01-01

    The first part of the study examined what the relatedness needs Korean elderly have in close relationships (spouse, children, friends) are. The most salient needs were "love and care" for spouse and "contact and often meeting" for children and friends. The second part of the study assessed the relations among the difference between expectation and satisfaction of relatedness needs, subjective well-being, and depression of Korean elderly. Regression analyses showed that the difference between expectation and satisfaction of relatedness needs for spouse and children significantly predicted subjective well-being and depression. Finally, gender differences are discussed in terms of the patriarchal culture of Korean society.

  6. Parental Educational Attainment and Offspring Subjective Well-being and Self-Beliefs in Older Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R; Stephan, Yannick; Terracciano, Antonio

    2018-07-01

    This research examines whether parental educational attainment and subjective childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with adult offspring well-being and self-beliefs (broadly defined). Participants from the Health and Retirement Study were included if they completed the leave-behind questionnaire in 2006 or 2008 ( N =10,827; M age =68.38; SD =9.81; range=50-101). Participants reported on their own and both parents educational attainment, subjective childhood financial situation, and financial difficulties in childhood at study entry and on well-being in 2006/2008. Linear regression was used to examine the association between offspring education, parental education, childhood SES and three aspects of well-being and self-beliefs: positive affect (e.g., positive emotions, optimism), negative affect (e.g., loneliness, hostility), and cognitive evaluation (e.g., life satisfaction). Participants with more education reported higher well-being (median β=.12). Parental educational attainment, subjective childhood SES, and a significant financial event during childhood were associated with more positive affect, less negative affect, and higher life satisfaction (median β=.05); these associations held controlling for offspring education. The educational and financial environment of childhood may hamper well-being into older adulthood; the offspring's own experiences and achievements do not completely attenuate the association with these aspects of the childhood environment.

  7. Crime and subjective well-being in the countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Roberts, Bayard; Goryakin, Yevgeniy; McKee, Martin

    2015-10-03

    Criminal victimisation and subjective well-being have both been linked to health outcomes, although as yet, comparatively little is known about the relationship between these two phenomena. In this study we used data from nine countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) to examine the association between different types of crime and subjective well-being. Data were obtained from 18,000 individuals aged 18 and above collected during the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) survey in 2010/11 in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Ukraine. Information was obtained on respondents' experience of crime (violence and theft) and self-reported affective (happiness) and cognitive (life satisfaction) well-being. Ordered probit and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analyses were undertaken to examine the associations between these variables. In pooled country analyses, experiencing violence was associated with significantly lower happiness and life satisfaction. Theft victimisation was associated with significantly reduced life satisfaction but not happiness. Among the individual countries, there was a more pronounced association between violent victimisation and reduced happiness in Kazakhstan and Moldova. The finding that criminal victimisation is linked to lower levels of subjective well-being highlights the importance of reducing crime in the fSU, and also of having effective support services in place for victims of crime to reduce its detrimental effects on health and well-being.

  8. Examining subjective wellbeing and health-related quality of life in women with endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Georgia; Misajon, RoseAnne

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the subjective wellbeing, health-related quality of life and lived experience of women living with endometriosis. In 2015 five hundred participants between the ages of 18-63 (M = 30.5, SD = 7.46) were recruited through Endometriosis Australia and social media, completing an online questionnaire comprising the Personal Wellbeing Index, the Endometriosis Health Profile-30 and various open-ended questions. Results found that women with endometriosis reported low levels of subjective wellbeing (mean PWI total scores of 51.5 ± 2.03), considerably below the normative range of 70-80 for western populations. The mean Endometriosis Health Profile total score indicated a very low health-related quality of life amongst the women in this sample (78.9, ±13.14). There was also a significant relationship between scores on the Endometriosis Health Profile and Personal Wellbeing Index. The findings from the qualitative data suggest that endometriosis impacts negatively on women's lives in several areas such as; social life, relationships and future plans, this in turn affects women's overall life quality. The study highlights the strong negative impact that endometriosis can have on women's subjective wellbeing and health related quality of life, contributing to productivity issues, relationship difficulties and social dissatisfaction and increasing the risk of psychological comorbidities.

  9. Relationship Between Social Support and Subjective Well-Being in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Goudarz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between social support and subjective well-being in the elderly referring to rehabilitation day centers in Tehran Province. Methods & Materials: This is a cross-sectional and correlational study. The study population was all the elderly referring to the rehabilitation day centers in Tehran Province. The sample size was 147 people, which were selected by random cluster sampling. To gather the data, Norbeck social support questionnaire, Philadelphia morale scale and a socio-demographic questionnaire were use. The Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, Chi-square, Independent t-test, Kruskal-Wallis, and ANOVA used for data analysis. Results: A total of 80 (54.4% of sample were male. The mean (SD age of older adults was 71.9(5.09 years and mean of subjective wellbeing was 8.65(2.28. The relationship between social support and subjective wellbeing was statistically significant (P=0.002, r=0.273. Conclusion: The findings showed significant relationship between social support and subjective well-being. It seems that having high social support will lead to better subjective well-being.

  10. (Re)examining the Relationship Between Children's Subjective Wellbeing and Their Perceptions of Participation Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Katrina; Emerson, Lesley

    2017-01-01

    In recent years wellbeing has been linked increasingly with children's rights, often characterised as central to their realisation. Indeed it has been suggested that the two concepts are so intertwined that their pairing has become something of a mantra in the literature on childhood. This paper seeks to explore the nature of the relationship between wellbeing and participation rights, using a recently developed 'rights-based' measure of children's participation in school and community, the Children's Participation Rights Questionnaire (CPRQ), and an established measure of subjective wellbeing - KIDSCREEN-10. The data for the study came from the Kids' Life and Times (KLT) which is an annual online survey of Primary 7 children carried out in Northern Ireland. In 2013 approximately 3800 children (51 % girls; 49 % boys) from 212 schools participated in KLT. The findings showed a statistically significant positive correlation between children's overall scores on the KIDSCREEN-10 subjective wellbeing measure and their perceptions that their participation rights are respected in school and community settings. Further, the results indicated that it is the social relations/autonomy questions on KIDSCREEN-10 which are most strongly related to children's perceptions that their participation rights are respected. Exploration of the findings by gender showed that there were no significant differences in overall wellbeing; however girls had higher scores than boys on the social relations/autonomy domain of KIDSCREEN-10. Girls were also more positive than boys about their participation in school and community. In light of the findings from this study, it is suggested that what lies at the heart of the relationship between child wellbeing and children's participation rights is the social/relational aspects of both participation and wellbeing.

  11. The connection of time perspective with personality traits and subjective well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Podlogar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to research the connection of the six time perspective dimensions and of balanced time perspective with personality traits and subjective well-being. Our starting point was the assumption that time perspective is closely connected to personality traits and subjective well-being. It has been theorized that so called balanced time perspective is optimal in the Western cultures. It is defined by moderately high scores on present-hedonistic and future, high scores on past-positive and low scores on past-negative and present-fatalistic, with an emphasis on individual's ability of flexible adjusting in given situations. People with balanced time perspective profile have many positive memories of the past, find enough opportunity for relaxation and pleasure in the present, and seek new challenges in the future, which gives them motivation for hard work. They are supposed to handle daily life more efficiently and to be happier than people with other time perspective profiles. Therefore we have hypothesized positive connection of balanced time perspective with positive personality traits and high scores on subjective well-being. 279 students studying different subjects at the Faculty of arts, University in Ljubljana, whose mean age was 21.2 years, participated in the study. The results reveal connections of positive time perspective dimensions (including transcendental-future and of balanced time perspective with extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and higher level of subjective well-being, and connections of negative time perspective dimensions with neuroticism, lower level of subjective well-being and higher level of depression. It turned out that balance of time perspective is an important predictor of individual's level of satisfaction with life, and it also explains some variance in positive emotionality and depression.

  12. Subjective Well-being Across the Lifespan in Europe and Central Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Jan Michael; Levin, Victoria; Munoz Boudet, Ana Maria

    2017-01-01

    Using data from the Integrated Values Survey (IVS), the Life in Transition Survey (LiTS), and the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS), we analyse the relation between age and subjective well-being in the World Bank’s Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region and compare it to that in Western......-cohort variation....

  13. Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being in and out of Management Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzcinski, Eileen; Holst, Elke

    2012-01-01

    This study used data from the German Socio-economic Panel to examine gender differences in the extent to which self-reported subjective well-being was associated with occupying a high-level managerial position in the labour market, compared with employment in non-leadership, non-high-level managerial positions, unemployment, and non-labour market…

  14. The Relationship between Subjective Well-Being and Vocational Personality Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Elizabeth W.; Fouad, Nadya A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between subjective well-being (SWB) and Holland's Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional (RIASEC) model. It was hypothesized that individuals resembling Social and Enterprising vocational personality types would report higher SWB than those resembling other personality types.…

  15. Coping with Discrimination: The Subjective Well-Being of South Asian American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Christopher T. H.; Nathwani, Anisha; Ahmad, Sarah; Prince, Jessica K.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between coping strategies used by South Asian American women and subjective well-being (SWB) was studied. Second-generation women were found to use more support compared with 1st-generation women. Problem-solving coping was inversely related to age. Avoidance coping was found to predict SWB when controlling for age and…

  16. A Replication of the Technical Adequacy of the Student Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Tyler L.

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports on a replication of the technical adequacy of the Student Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire (SSWQ), which is a 16-item self-report instrument for assessing youth's academic efficacy, educational purpose, joy of learning, and school connectedness, with a sample of adolescents in Grades 6 to 7 (N = 438). Findings confirmed…

  17. How Is Gender Self-Confidence Related to Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Rose Marie

    2006-01-01

    This study of ethnically diverse participants explored the relationship of gender self-confidence to subjective well-being. The 2 components of gender self-confidence (gender self-definition and gender self-acceptance) were assessed using the Hoffman Gender Scale (R. M. Hoffman, 1996; R. M. Hoffman, L. D. Borders, & J. A. Hattie, 2000). The…

  18. Relationships among Emotional and Intellectual Overexcitability, Emotional IQ, and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beduna, Kerry; Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on intellectual and emotional overexcitabilities and their relationship to emotional intelligence and subjective well-being. Dabrowski's (1964) theory of positive disintegration (TPD), which proposes that optimum personality development involves the breaking down of current psychological structures, in which individuals…

  19. The Long-Term Consequences of Relationship Formation for Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soons, Judith P. M.; Liefbroer, Aart C.; Kalmijn, Matthijs

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how relationship transitions affect subjective well-being (SWB) and how this effect changes over time. We used prospective data containing information about 18 years of young adults' lives (PSIN, N = 5, 514). SWB was measured with the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Within-person multilevel regression analyses showed that dating,…

  20. Children with Special Education Needs and Subjective Well-Being: Social and Personal Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Tania; Bilimória, Helena; Albergaria, Francisca; Matos, Margarida Gaspar

    2016-01-01

    Children and adolescents with cognitive and developmental difficulties show difficulty in social interaction, feelings of rejection, autonomy, social rules and in behavioural and emotional self-regulation. Importantly, their subjective well-being is associated to social support and personal factors, such as self-esteem and a positive self-image.…

  1. Which social needs are important for subjective well-being? What happens to them with aging?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steverink, N; Lindenberg, S

    In this study the authors investigated how satisfaction levels of affection, behavioral confirmation, and status, as three human social needs, relate to age, physical loss, and subjective well-being. Results (N = 883, aged 65 to 98 years) revealed that (a) affection was relatively high and status

  2. Subjective Well-Being among Those Who Exchange Sex and Money, Yunnan, China and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk-Turner, Elizabeth; Turner, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    This work explores differences in subjective well-being (SWB) between two samples. Survey data from Yunnan China was collected by Yang and Luo in 2003 and was funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. A second pilot data set was collected in Thailand during January and February 2007. Predictors of SWB were explored among the Yunnan sample as…

  3. Volunteering and Subjective Well-Being in Later Adulthood: Is Self-Efficacy the Key?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Doreen; Ziegelmann, Jochen P.; Simonson, Julia; Tesch-Römer, Clemens; Huxhold, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated age differences in longitudinal effects of volunteering on three facets of subjective well-being (SWB), i.e. positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), and life satisfaction (LS). Both direct and indirect effects with self-efficacy as mediator were tested. Longitudinal structural equation modeling was used on 5,564…

  4. The What, Why, When, and How of Teaching the Science of Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Ed; Scollon, Christie Napa

    2014-01-01

    The field of subjective well-being (SWB), or happiness, has become a thriving area of science, with over 10,000 publications per year on the topic in recent years. Discoveries about the causes and processes involved in SWB range widely, from culture to biology to circumstances, providing instructors an opportunity to draw broadly on concepts from…

  5. Do Immigrants Suffer More From Job Loss? Unemployment and Subjective Well-being in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Liliya; Leopold, Thomas; Lechner, Clemens M

    2017-02-01

    This study asks whether immigrants suffer more from unemployment than German natives. Differences between these groups in pre-unemployment characteristics, the type of the transition into unemployment, and the consequences of this transition suggest that factors intensifying the negative impact of unemployment on subjective well-being are more concentrated in immigrants than in natives. Based on longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (1990-2014; N = 34,767 persons aged 20 to 64; N = 210,930 person-years), we used fixed-effects models to trace within-person change in subjective well-being across the transition from employment into unemployment and over several years of continued unemployment. Results showed that immigrants' average declines in subjective well-being exceeded those of natives. Further analyses revealed gender interactions. Among women, declines were smaller and similar among immigrants and natives. Among men, declines were larger and differed between immigrants and natives. Immigrant men showed the largest declines, amounting to one standard deviation of within-person change over time in subjective well-being. Normative, social, and economic factors did not explain these disproportionate declines. We discuss alternative explanations for why immigrant men are most vulnerable to the adverse effects of unemployment in Germany.

  6. Gender Differences in Contextual Predictors of Urban, Early Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Moallem, B. Isabel; Vacek, Kimberly R.; Blackmon, Sha'kema; Coyle, Laura D.; Gomez, Kenia L.; Lamp, Kristen; Langrehr, Kimberly J.; Luginbuhl, Paula; Mull, Megan K.; Telander, Kyle J.; Steele, J. Corey

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences in predicting subjective well-being (SWB) were examined in 168 urban adolescents. School satisfaction predicted life satisfaction for boys; for girls, family satisfaction predicted life satisfaction and neighborhood satisfaction predicted negative affect. Self-esteem predicted positive affect for both genders, but friends…

  7. Gratitude and Subjective Well-Being in Early Adolescence: Examining Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froh, Jeffrey J.; Yurkewicz, Charles; Kashdan, Todd B.

    2009-01-01

    Gratitude was examined among 154 students to identify benefits from its experience and expression. Students completed measures of subjective well-being, social support, prosocial behavior, and physical symptoms. Positive associations were found between gratitude and positive affect, global and domain specific life satisfaction, optimism, social…

  8. Gratitude, Gratitude Intervention and Subjective Well-Being among Chinese School Teachers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David W.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the dispositional gratitude and its relationships with orientations to happiness and burnout in a sample of 96 Chinese school teachers in Hong Kong and investigated the effectiveness of an eight-week gratitude intervention programme using a pre-test/post-test design with outcome measures of subjective well-being in the same…

  9. Subjective Well-Being Approach to Environmental Valuation: Evidence for Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beja, Edsel L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The subjective well-being approach to environmental valuation is applied to analyze the valuation of greenhouse gas emissions with a fairness-adjustment in the valuation exercise. Results indicate that industrialized countries have high willingness-to-pay to reduce emissions. Developing countries differ in their valuations. Results indicate that…

  10. Age identity and subjective well-being: A comparison of the United States and Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, G.J.; Barrett, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. This article investigates the theoretical and empirical relationship between age identity and subjective well-being (SWB) in a cross-national context. Feeling younger than one's actual age is considered a self-enhancing illusion that contributes to SWB even beyond factors predicting age

  11. Revisiting the Structure of Subjective Well-Being in Middle-Aged Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Magda; Brunner, Martin; Martin, Romain; Schalke, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Subjective well-being is a broad, multifaceted construct comprising general satisfaction with life, satisfaction with life domains (health, family, people, free time, self, housing, work, and finances), positive affect, and negative affect. Drawing on representative data from middle-aged adults (N = 738), the authors used three different…

  12. Out-of-home activities, daily travel, and subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, D.F.; Gärling, T.; Olsson, L.E.; Friman, M.

    2010-01-01

    It is argued that utility theory that underpins current cost-benefit analyses of daily travel needs to be complemented. An alternative theoretical framework is to this end proposed which applies subjective well-being (SWB) to travel behaviour analysis. It is posited in this theoretical framework

  13. Dimensions of national culture as predictors of cross-national differences in subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, W.A.; Hatzichristou, C; Wensink, J; Rosenberg, E; van Twillert, B; Stedema, J; Meijer, D

    The value of predicting cross-national variations in Subjective Well-Being (SWB) from Hofstede's dimensions of national culture (1980) was examined using data collected in 36 nations; The Hofstede dimensions were: Individualism-Collectivism (IDV), Power Distance (PDI), Masculinity-Femininity (MAS),

  14. The Relationship of Coping, Self-Worth, and Subjective Well-Being: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedema, Susan Miller; Catalano, Denise; Ebener, Deborah J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between various coping-related variables and the evaluation of self-worth and subjective well-being among persons with spinal cord injury. Positive coping variables included hope, proactive coping style, and sense of humor, whereas negative coping variables included perceptions of stress,…

  15. Editorial: Subjective well-being in Africa | Botha | African Review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Review of Economics and Finance. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editorial: Subjective well-being in Africa.

  16. Subjective Well-being of Primary Health Care Patients in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Patients living with a chronic illness face many challenges in their lives such as an altered body image, physical pain or discomfort, the need for frequent medical visits and the negative side effects of treatment. To this extent their sense of personal or subjective well-being may be compromised by the severity ...

  17. Subjective Social Status and Positive Indicators of Well-Being among Emerging Adult College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorotovich, Jennifer; Johnson, Elizabeth I.; Linn, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    The current study extends research on social status and well-being among young people by examining whether subjective social status (SSS) is related to life satisfaction and happiness. Emerging adults (n = 383) between 18 and 29 provided data on demographic characteristics, SSS, life satisfaction, and happiness via an online survey. Regression…

  18. Personal values, subjective well-being and destination-loyalty intention of international students

    OpenAIRE

    Jamaludin, N. L.; Sam, D. L.; Sandal, G. M.; Adam, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    What are the factors that predict international students? destination-loyalty intention? This is the main question this paper addresses, using an online survey among 396 (short-term, N?=?182) and (long-term, N?=?214) international students at a Norwegian university. Structural equation model-AMOS was conducted to examine relationships among personal values, subjective well-being and destination-loyalty intentions. The results showed that: (1) universalism was positively related to subjective ...

  19. Do Economic Reforms Alleviate Subjective Well-Being Losses of Economic Crises?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Major economic crises tend to be followed by crises in subjective well-being. Following the financial and debt crises, politicians and social scientists have engaged in heated discussions of ways to alleviate such losses. In particular, should governments intervene more or less? This paper explores...... whether liberalizing economic institutions, a type of reform favoured by some economists, is likely to alleviate such loses. Estimating the effects of crises across European states 1975–2011 suggest that countries with relatively easy market regulations suffered smaller well-being losses....

  20. Subjective Social Status and Well-Being: The Role of Referent Abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haught, Heather M; Rose, Jason; Geers, Andrew; Brown, Jill A

    2015-01-01

    Subjective social status (SSS) has been shown to predict well-being and mental health, above and beyond objective social status (OSS). However, little is known about the factors that moderate this relationship. Two studies explored whether the link between SSS and well-being varied depending upon the referent used for comparison in SSS judgments. Participants judged their well-being and SSS in comparison to referents that varied in abstraction. A confirmatory factor analysis on SSS judgments yielded two factors: (a) SSS perceptions toward global referents and (b) SSS perceptions toward local referents. SSS relative to a global referent was a better predictor of depression (Studies 1 and 2), life satisfaction (Studies 1 and 2), and self-esteem (Study 2) than SSS relative to a local referent. These findings have theoretical implications for understanding how people differentiate between local vs. global referents and practical implications for status-related health disparities.

  1. Economic Shocks and Subjective Well-Being: Evidence from a Quasi-Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Jacob Gerner; Bjørnskov, Christian; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how economic shocks affect individual well-being in developing countries. Using the case of a sudden and unanticipated currency devaluation in Botswana as a quasi-experiment, we examine how this monetary shock affects individuals’ evaluations of well-being. We do so by using...... micro-level survey data, which – incidentally – was collected in the days surrounding the devaluation. The chance occurrence of the devaluation during the time of the survey enables us to use pre-treatment respondents, surveyed before the devaluation, as approximate counterfactuals for post......-treatment respondents, surveyed after the devaluation. Our estimates show that the devaluation had a large and significantly negative effect on individuals’ evaluations of subjective well-being. These results suggest that macroeconomic shocks, such as unanticipated currency devaluations, may have significant short...

  2. Subjective well-being and social media use: Do personality traits moderate the impact of social comparison on Facebook?

    OpenAIRE

    Gerson, J.; Plagnol, A.; Corr, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore whether personality traits moderate the association between social comparison on Facebook and subjective well-being, measured as both life satisfaction and eudaimonic well-being. Data were collected via an online questionnaire which measured Facebook use, social comparison behavior and personality traits for 337 respondents. The results showed positive associations between Facebook intensity and both measures of subjective well-being, and negative assoc...

  3. Distinguishing Relational Aspects of Character Strengths with Subjective and Psychological Well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Hausler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that character strengths are positively linked with well-being in general. However, there has not been a fine-grained analysis up to date. This study examines the individual relational aspects between the 24 character strengths, subjective well-being (SWB, and different aspects of psychological well-being (PWB at two times of measurement (N = 117. Results showed that overall the “good character” was significantly stronger related with PWB than with SWB. The character strength “hope” was at least moderately correlated with the PWB aspects meaning, optimism and autonomy, and “zest” with the PWB aspects relationships and engagement. “Persistence” showed the highest correlation with the PWB aspect mastery. Out of the 24 character strengths, the happiness-related strengths (hope, zest, gratitude, curiosity, and love were more likely to correlate with PWB and SWB than any other character strength. This study offers a more fine-grained and thorough understanding of specific relational aspects between the 24 character strengths and a broad range of well-being aspects. Future studies should take up a detailed strategy when exploring relationships between character strengths and well-being.

  4. Satisfaction of Needs and Determining of Life Goals: A Model of Subjective Well-Being for Adolescents in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryilmaz, Ali

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test a subjective well-being model for adolescents in high school. A total of 326 adolescents in high school (176 female and 150 male) participated in this study. The data was collected by using the general needs satisfaction questionnaire, which is for the adolescents' subjective well-being, and determining…

  5. Productive Activities and Subjective Well-Being among Older Adults: The Influence of Number of Activities and Time Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsey A.; Cahalin, Lawrence P.; Gerst, Kerstin; Burr, Jeffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines relationships among three measures of subjective well-being (life satisfaction, happiness and depressive symptoms), and two global measures of productive activity (number of activities and time commitment). We argue that participation in multiple productive activities should increase subjective well-being because these…

  6. The Relationship between Happiness, Subjective Well-Being, Creativity and Job Performance of Primary School Teachers in Ramhormoz City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Zohreh; Heidari, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate the relationship between happiness, subjective well-being, creativity and job performance of primary school teachers in Ramhormoz City. Hence, a sample of 330 individuals was selected through random stratified sampling. The research tools included Oxford Happiness Inventory, Subjective Well-being Scale by Keyes…

  7. A research regarding the relationship among intensive care nurses' self-esteem, job satisfaction and subjective well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Liu

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: The study shows that the prevalence of subjective well-being and self-esteem with ICU nurses are at a low level, and job satisfaction is at the median level. Associations among self-esteem, job satisfaction, and subjective well-being in ICUs have been confirmed. Self-esteem and job satisfaction positively correlated with nurse subjective well-being. The higher the self-esteem and job satisfaction levels are, the stronger the subjective well-being is. The working pressure in ICUs cannot be alleviated temporarily; hence, to promote a high subjective well-being, managers and ICU nurses increase their self-esteem and job satisfaction through taking strategies that strengthen psychological construction.

  8. Perfectionistic Concerns, Social Negativity, and Subjective Well-Being: A Test of the Social Disconnection Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, Sean P; Kehayes, Ivy-Lee L; Leonard, Kenneth E; Fraser, Ronald; Stewart, Sherry H

    2017-06-01

    Partner-specific perfectionistic concerns (PC) include concern over mistakes, self-criticism, and socially prescribed perfectionism as it pertains to one's partner. The social disconnection model proposes that PC influences well-being indirectly through interpersonal problems. Thus, we hypothesized that social negativity (expressed anger, hostility, and rejection) would mediate the relationship between dyadic PC and subjective well-being. Data from 203 romantic dyads (92.1% heterosexual) were collected using self-report surveys and a four-wave, 4-week longitudinal design. Participants were predominantly female (53.1%), young (M = 22.69 years), and Caucasian (82.3%). Data were analyzed using an actor-partner interdependence model with multilevel structural equation modeling. There were significant actor effects at the between-subjects and within-subjects levels, and significant partner effects for the relationship between PC and social negativity at the within-subject level. Social negativity mediated the relationships between PC and both negative affect and life satisfaction. However, positive affect was more weakly related to PC and social negativity. The social disconnection model was supported. PC was positively associated with one's own social negativity and evoked hostile behaviors from one's partner. Hostile, rejecting behaviors reduced the well-being of the actor, but not the partner. Results suggest perfectionism may be best understood within an interpersonal context. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Is happiness good for your personality? Concurrent and prospective relations of the big five with subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Christopher J

    2015-02-01

    The present research examined longitudinal relations of the Big Five personality traits with three core aspects of subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect. Latent growth models and autoregressive models were used to analyze data from a large, nationally representative sample of 16,367 Australian residents. Concurrent and change correlations indicated that higher levels of subjective well-being were associated with higher levels of Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness, and with lower levels of Neuroticism. Moreover, personality traits prospectively predicted change in well-being, and well-being levels prospectively predicted personality change. Specifically, prospective trait effects indicated that individuals who were initially extraverted, agreeable, conscientious, and emotionally stable subsequently increased in well-being. Prospective well-being effects indicated that individuals with high initial levels of well-being subsequently became more agreeable, conscientious, emotionally stable, and introverted. These findings challenge the common assumption that associations of personality traits with subjective well-being are entirely, or almost entirely, due to trait influences on well-being. They support the alternative hypothesis that personality traits and well-being aspects reciprocally influence each other over time. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Total Participation Management: Toward Psychological Determinants of Subjective Well-Being at Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Mika

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to determine which management practice has the strongest influence on the subjective well-being (SWB of employees, three workplaces were assessed with reference to different levels of total participation management (TPM, an innovative approach to human resource management. The study examined whether the level of TPM is positively related with SWB, defined according to Diener’s (1984 affective and cognitive facets of work. The psychological explanation of the predicted dependence was the level of satisfaction of three basic needs (autonomy, competence and relatedness distinguished by Deci and Ryan (2000a. The hypothesis about a positive relationship between SWB and TPM was confirmed. Results indicate that the least participative company has employees with the lowest subjective well-being and with the lowest satisfaction of basic psychological needs.

  11. Discrimination, Subjective Wellbeing, and the Role of Gender: A Mediation Model of LGB Minority Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlin, Sarah E; Douglass, Richard P; Ouch, Staci

    2017-10-26

    The present study examined the link between discrimination and the three components of subjective wellbeing (positive and negative affect and life satisfaction) among a cisgender sample of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults. Specifically, we investigated internalized homonegativity and expectations of rejection as potential mediators of the links between discrimination and subjective wellbeing among a sample of 215 participants. Results from our structural equation model demonstrated a strong, positive direct link between discrimination and negative affect. Discrimination also had small, negative indirect effects on life satisfaction through our two mediators. Interestingly, neither discrimination nor our two mediators were related with positive affect, demonstrating the need for future research to uncover potential buffers of this link. Finally, our model evidenced configural, metric, and scalar invariance, suggesting that our model applies well for both women and men. Practical implications and future directions for research are discussed.

  12. Compassionate love for a romantic partner, love styles and subjective well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Neto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently a compassionate love scale was developed to assess compassionate love or altruistic love for different targets (e.g., romantic partner, close others and all the humanity; Sprecher & Fehr, 2005. This study was conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the Compassionate Love Scale in the Portuguese context. In addition, it has been examined how compassionate love for a romantic partner was related to socio-demographic variables, love styles, and subjective well-being. Two hundred and eighty one men and women participated (42% of women with a mean age of 21.89. All participants were currently in a romantic relationship. The Compassionate Love Scale shows satisfactory psychometric properties. Furthermore, our predictions were supported, as those who experience high levels of compassionate love for a romantic partner are more likely to report Eros and altruistic love (Agape, and subjective well-being.

  13. Subjective Well-Being, Test Anxiety, Academic Achievement: Testing for Reciprocal Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Steinmayr, Ricarda; Crede, Julia; McElvany, Nele; Wirthwein, Linda

    2016-01-01

    In the context of adolescents’ subjective well-being (SWB), research has recently focused on a number of different school variables. The direction of the relationships between adolescents’ SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety is, however, still open although reciprocal causation has been hypothesized. The present study set out to investigate to what extent SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety influence each other over time. A sample of N = 290 11th grade students (n = 138 female...

  14. Underestimated Benefits from Periphery: Internal Migration and Subjective Well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Kopmann, Angela; Rehdanz, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    This paper is among the first to link internal migration and subjective well-being in developed countries. Economic theory predicts that individuals migrate towards urban agglomerations, if the potential gain in income is sufficient to cover costs. However, this narrow view cannot explain why migration exists also to the rural periphery. In our analysis, we investigate non-monetary benefits beyond economics from internal migration. Using highly disaggregated spatial information on people s mi...

  15. Subjective well-being and Citizenship dimensions according to individualism and collectivism beliefs among Polish adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Anna M. Zalewska; Agnieszka Zawadzka

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the research is to analyse pleasant (subjective well-being – SWB) and meaningful life (Citizenship dimensions) in the context of Horizontal and Vertical Individualism (HI, VI) or Collectivism (HC, VC) values (individual beliefs) among adolescents living in the culture “in between individualism and collectivism”. Participants and procedure Second-year high (111) and secondary (98) school students filled in the Horizontal and Vertical Individualism and ...

  16. Changes in subjective well-being following the U.S. Presidential election of 2016.

    OpenAIRE

    Lench, HC; Levine, LJ; Perez, KA; Carpenter, ZK; Carlson, SJ; Tibbett, T

    2018-01-01

    This investigation examined predictors of changes over time in subjective well-being (SWB) after the 2016 United States presidential election. Two indicators of SWB-general happiness and life satisfaction-were assessed three weeks before the election, the week of the election, three weeks later, and six months later. Partisanship predicted both indicators of SWB, with Trump supporters experiencing improved SWB after the election, Clinton supporters experiencing worsened SWB after the election...

  17. The impact of methamphetamine use on subjective well-being in an Internet survey: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

    2007-04-01

    Methamphetamine is one of the most widely used stimulants worldwide. Common reasons for use of the drug include efforts to improve or enhance one's life and to uplift one's mood. Nevertheless, acute effects of the drug lead to temporary improvements in mood followed by negative affect. The purpose of the present study was to expand on the current literature and examine other aspects of mood and satisfaction with life in methamphetamine users. Over 6000 adults completed an Internet survey and reported on depression, apathy, satisfaction with life, happiness, and subjective well-being, in addition to measures of methamphetamine use. We compared those who had used methamphetamine at least once within the past year (N = 610) to those who had never used (N = 6063). Methamphetamine use accounted for significant variance in depression, apathy, satisfaction with life, happiness, and subjective well-being even when alcohol and other drugs served as covariates. Methamphetamine use may decrease one's subjective well-being instead of enhancing it, which is contradictory to the perceptions of many users. Increasing awareness about methamphetamine's negative impact on mood and life satisfaction might help decrease prevalence of the drug's use and associated troubles. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. [Effects of companion animals on owner's subjective well-being and social networks in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Megumi

    2006-04-01

    A multi-method approach was used to examine whether and how companion animals (CA) affect subjective well-being and social networks of Japanese people. In Study 1, a mail survey with a probability sample of 1250 Japanese adults over 40 years old showed that (1) female owners' attachment to CA negatively correlated with subjective well-being, and (2) although younger (under 65) CA owners had more close friends than non-owners, this tendency was reversed for those over 65. In Study 2, in-depth interviews with 27 adults showed that (1) female CA owners reported lower subjective well-being than non-owners, (2) although CA owners were generally successful in interacting with strangers through CA-related behaviors such as dog-walking, those relationships were unlikely to become close, and (3) in contrast to the owners' tendency to portray themselves in positive ways, most non-owners described CA owners negatively, such as being lonely or bad-mannered. Based on the present findings, which sharply contradict those of previous studies in the western societies, future issues are discussed.

  19. Comparison of subjective wellbeing in substance users and the parents or partners of substance users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Robert J

    2018-04-01

    There is growing interest in the impact of substance use on both the individual consumer's subjective wellbeing (SWB) and the reduced SWB of those closely connected to him or her. The study aimed to compare SWB among substance users ('consumers') and the parents or partners affected by another's substance use, and to evaluate the effect of counselling on changed SWB to 6 months. The study used longitudinal data from a not-for-profit treatment service based in Perth, Australia. Subjective wellbeing was assessed with the Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI) at baseline and 6 months. Data were compared to national norms (mean 75.97) with one sample t tests. Change in PWI scores was assessed with generalised linear mixed models, controlling for age, gender, group (consumers versus parents or partners), psychological distress (Kessler-10) and social connectedness (Lubben). Of 220 participants, 136 (62%) were consumers and 84 (38%) were parents or partners. At 6 months 123 (56%) were re-interviewed. At baseline, both consumers (mean 53.7) and parents or partners (mean 66.1) had significantly lower PWI scores than national norms. At 6 months, only the substance users' PWI scores remained significantly lower (mean 67.8). Subjective wellbeing significantly increased with time (β = 5.52; 95% confidence interval 3.15, 7.90), with no significant time by group interaction. Both groups showed significant decrements in SWB compared with the general population but with improvements over the study period. However, the lack of a control group prevents definitive assertions on causality for improved SWB. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  20. Hungry today, unhappy tomorrow? Childhood hunger and subjective wellbeing later in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Marco

    2015-03-01

    I use anchoring vignettes to show that, on data for eleven European countries, exposure to episodes of hunger in childhood leads people to adopt lower subjective standards to evaluate satisfaction with life in adulthood. I also show that, as a consequence, estimates of the association between childhood starvation and late-life wellbeing that do not allow for reporting heterogeneity are biased towards finding a positive correlation. These results highlight the need to consider rescaling when drawing inference on subjective outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Perceived Discrimination and Subjective Well-being in Chinese Migrant Adolescents: Collective and Personal Self-esteem As Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xuji; Liu, Xia; Shi, Baoguo

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether collective and personal self-esteem serve as mediators in the relationship between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being among Chinese rural-to-urban migrant adolescents. Six hundred and ninety-two adolescents completed a perceived discrimination scale, a collective self-esteem scale, a personal self-esteem scale, and a subjective well-being scale. Structural equation modeling was used to test the mediation hypothesis. The analysis indicated that both collective and personal self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being. The final model also revealed a significant path from perceived discrimination through collective and personal self-esteem to subjective well-being. These findings contribute to the understanding of the complicated relationships among perceived discrimination, collective and personal self-esteem, and subjective well-being. The findings suggest that collective and personal self-esteem are possible targets for interventions aimed at improving subjective well-being. Programs to nurture both the personal and collective self-esteem of migrant adolescents may help to weaken the negative relationships between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being.

  2. Perceived Discrimination and Subjective Well-being in Chinese Migrant Adolescents: Collective and Personal Self-esteem As Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xuji; Liu, Xia; Shi, Baoguo

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether collective and personal self-esteem serve as mediators in the relationship between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being among Chinese rural-to-urban migrant adolescents. Six hundred and ninety-two adolescents completed a perceived discrimination scale, a collective self-esteem scale, a personal self-esteem scale, and a subjective well-being scale. Structural equation modeling was used to test the mediation hypothesis. The analysis indicated that both collective and personal self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being. The final model also revealed a significant path from perceived discrimination through collective and personal self-esteem to subjective well-being. These findings contribute to the understanding of the complicated relationships among perceived discrimination, collective and personal self-esteem, and subjective well-being. The findings suggest that collective and personal self-esteem are possible targets for interventions aimed at improving subjective well-being. Programs to nurture both the personal and collective self-esteem of migrant adolescents may help to weaken the negative relationships between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being. PMID:28769850

  3. Perceived Discrimination and Subjective Well-being in Chinese Migrant Adolescents: Collective and Personal Self-esteem As Mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuji Jia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine whether collective and personal self-esteem serve as mediators in the relationship between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being among Chinese rural-to-urban migrant adolescents. Six hundred and ninety-two adolescents completed a perceived discrimination scale, a collective self-esteem scale, a personal self-esteem scale, and a subjective well-being scale. Structural equation modeling was used to test the mediation hypothesis. The analysis indicated that both collective and personal self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being. The final model also revealed a significant path from perceived discrimination through collective and personal self-esteem to subjective well-being. These findings contribute to the understanding of the complicated relationships among perceived discrimination, collective and personal self-esteem, and subjective well-being. The findings suggest that collective and personal self-esteem are possible targets for interventions aimed at improving subjective well-being. Programs to nurture both the personal and collective self-esteem of migrant adolescents may help to weaken the negative relationships between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being.

  4. Subjective Well-Being of Children in the Context of Educational Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Krampen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of two empirical studies is the analysis of the development of subjective well-being in kindergarten and elementary school students in the context of the educational transitions (1 from kindergarten to elementary school and (2 from elementary to secondary schools in two different national school systems. Semi-structured interviews on self-esteem and dysthymic mood (i.e., low spirits, feelings of depressiveness and of dejection were administered in 5 cohorts (two kindergarten and the first three elementary school years. Measurements were repeated three times each a year apart. Samples refer to 312 German and 244 Luxembourg children enrolled in educational systems with optional kindergarten, 4-year comprehensive elementary school, and educational placement thereafter (Germany versus obligatory kindergarten and 6-year comprehensive elementary school (Luxembourg. Time- and age-effects point to significant discontinuities in the development of subjective well-being. There are declines of self-esteem and increases of dysthymic mood just after school enrollment (“transition shock” in the Luxembourg sample, whereas quite similar developments are observed in the last elementary school year before educational placement for secondary education in the German sample. School enrollment and educational placement for secondary education are critical life events with significant impact on children’s well-being, which varies between different school systems.

  5. Subjective well-being and time use of brazilian PhD professors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiana Farias Oliveira Nunes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The university professor suffers high pressure to achieve productivity and performs under work conditions that are not always satisfactory. This study seeks to analyze the subjective well-being, the time-use strategies, and the satisfaction with their use of time of PhD-holding professors with and without productivity grants from the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq. A total of 83 professors participated in the study (48 with productivity grants, with an average age of 50 years. A total of 89% of participants were from public institutions. The majority of the participants exhibited high levels of negative affect and low-average levels of satisfaction with their use of time. There was no difference in the subjective well-being or in the satisfaction with the use of time when comparing professors who had received a CNPq grant with professors who had not received a CNPq grant. The most important reason for dissatisfaction with the use of time was an excess of work, whereas peer recognition was the primary achievement obtained with the work. How work demands and conditions influence the well-being of the professors is discussed in this study.

  6. Exploring the socio-emotional factors associated with subjective well-being in the unemployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pilar Berrios

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the relations between dimensions of Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI and classic constructs, such as social support, on depression, stress, and subjective well-being indicators (life satisfaction and happiness. The study also sought to determine whether PEI dimensions accounted for a significant portion of the variance beyond that of classic constructs in the study of depression, stress, and well-being outcomes in a sample of 442 unemployed subjects. Results indicated that social support and all PEI dimensions are found to be significant and negatively related to depression and stress, and these variables were also found to be significant and positively associated with life satisfaction and happiness. Additionally, results using regression analysis indicated that PEI, and specifically use of emotions and regulation of emotions, explain a significant amount of the variance of all outcomes after controlling for socio-demographics and social support dimensions. Finally, theoretical and practical implications of these constructs and their relation with psychological adjustment and well-being in unemployed people are discussed.

  7. Joint physical custody and adolescents' subjective well-being: a personality × environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodermans, An Katrien; Matthijs, Koen

    2014-06-01

    Shared residence after divorce is rising in most Western countries and legally recommended by law in Belgium since 2006. Living with both parents after divorce is assumed to increase children's well-being, through a better parent-child relationship, but may also be stressful, as children live in 2 different family settings. In this study, we investigate whether the association between the residential arrangement of adolescents and 3 measures of subjective well-being (depressive feelings, life satisfaction, and self-esteem) is moderated by the Big Five personality factors. The sample is selected from the national representative Divorce in Flanders study and contains information about 506 children from divorced parents between 14- and 21-years-old. Our findings indicated a consistent pattern of interactions between conscientiousness and joint physical custody for 2 of the 3 subjective well-being indicators. The specific demands of this residential arrangement (making frequent transitions, living at 2 places, adjustment to 2 different lifestyles, etc.) may interfere with the nature of conscientious adolescents: being organized, ordered, and planful. Our results showed support for a Person × Environment interaction, and demonstrate the need for considering the individual characteristics of the child when settling postdivorce residential arrangements. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Facebook use predicts declines in subjective well-being in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan Kross

    Full Text Available Over 500 million people interact daily with Facebook. Yet, whether Facebook use influences subjective well-being over time is unknown. We addressed this issue using experience-sampling, the most reliable method for measuring in-vivo behavior and psychological experience. We text-messaged people five times per day for two-weeks to examine how Facebook use influences the two components of subjective well-being: how people feel moment-to-moment and how satisfied they are with their lives. Our results indicate that Facebook use predicts negative shifts on both of these variables over time. The more people used Facebook at one time point, the worse they felt the next time we text-messaged them; the more they used Facebook over two-weeks, the more their life satisfaction levels declined over time. Interacting with other people "directly" did not predict these negative outcomes. They were also not moderated by the size of people's Facebook networks, their perceived supportiveness, motivation for using Facebook, gender, loneliness, self-esteem, or depression. On the surface, Facebook provides an invaluable resource for fulfilling the basic human need for social connection. Rather than enhancing well-being, however, these findings suggest that Facebook may undermine it.

  9. The Remarkable Changes in the Science of Subjective Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Ed

    2013-11-01

    The science of subjective well-being (SWB) has grown dramatically in the last three decades, moving beyond the early cross-sectional surveys of the demographic correlates of SWB. Stronger methods are frequently used to study a broader set of psychological phenomena, such as the effects on SWB of adaptation, culture, personality, and genetics. One important new research finding is that SWB has beneficial effects on health and longevity, social relationships, and productivity. National accounts of SWB are being created to provide information to policy makers about the psychological well-being of citizens. The SWB accounts represent an opportunity for psychologists to demonstrate the positive effects their interventions can produce in societies. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Travel Mode Use, Travel Mode Shift and Subjective Well-Being: Overview of Theories, Empirical Findings and Policy Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, D.F.; Friman, M.; Gärling, Tommy; Olsson, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses how travel by different travel modes is related to primarily subjective well-being but also to health or physical well-being. Studies carried out in different geographic contexts consistently show that satisfaction with active travel modes is higher than travel by car and

  11. Relationships Between Self-Serving Attributional Bias and Subjective Well-Being Among Danish and Spanish Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanjuán, Pilar; Jensen de López, Kristine M.

    2013-01-01

    samples from Denmark and Spain. SSAB has been inversely associated with psychological distress. However, well-being is not merely the absence of psychological distress. Therefore, positive affect balance and life satisfaction, as components of subjective well-being (SWB), were considered with the aim...

  12. Brief Report : Influence of gender and age on parent reported subjective well-being in children with and without autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begeer, Sander; Ma, Yujie; Koot, Hans M.; Wierda, Marlies; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bartels, Meike

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with reduced Subjective well-being (SWB). To examine the influence of gender and age on well-being we collected parent reported SWB in children with or without ASD (total n = 1030), aged 8–14 years. Parents reported lower SWB for children with ASD

  13. General health assessment vs. job satisfaction : The relationship of indicators of subjective well-being with self-reported absenteeism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sczesny, S; Thau, S; Scesnzy, S.

    2004-01-01

    The present study was based on the assumption that people are motivated to gain or maintain their well-being. Being absent from work is conceptualized as a means to this end. We investigated which one of two indicators of subjective well-being - general health assessment versus job satisfaction - is

  14. Income, personality, and subjective financial well-being: The role of gender in their genetic and environmental relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eZyphur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing levels of financial inequality prompt questions about the relationship between income and well-being. Using a twins sample from the Survey of Midlife Development in the United States and controlling for personality as core self-evaluations, we found that men, but not women, had higher subjective financial well-being when they had higher incomes. This relationship was due to ‘unshared environmental’ factors rather than genes, suggesting that the effect of income on subjective financial well-being is driven by unique experiences among men. Further, for women and men, we found that core self-evaluations influenced income and subjective financial well-being, and that both genetic and environmental factors explained this relationship. Given the relatively small and male-specific relationship between income and subjective financial well-being, and the determination of both income and subjective financial well-being by personality, we propose that policy makers focus on malleable factors beyond merely income in order to increase subjective financial well-being, including financial education and building self-regulatory capacity.

  15. The subjective wellbeing profile of the 'pretiree' demographic: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasco, Julie A; Holloway, Kara L; Stuart, Amanda L; Williams, Lana J; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Berk, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Pretirees are a demographic interposed between the latter stages of working life and old age. We aimed to characterise subjective wellbeing and lifestyle behaviours for individuals aged in their late-fifties and sixties. Cross-sectional study of 233 men and 229 women aged 55-69 yr from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Subjective wellbeing assessed using the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF, Australia). Scores below published population norms for Australia for WHOQOL domains (physical, psychological, social, environmental) were considered low. For men, low WHOQOL scores were evident for 78 (33.5%) of participants regarding physical health, 94 (40.3%) for psychological wellbeing, 89 (38.2%) for social relationships, and 99 (42.5%) for the environment; the respective figures for women were 110 (48.0%), 124 (54.1%), 84 (36.7%), and 95 (41.5%). While there were few smokers (men 10.8%; women 6.5%), 42.5% of men and 17.7% of women exceeded recommended alcohol levels; 6.4% of men and 15.2% of women met the recommendation to consume each day at least two portions of fruit and five of vegetables. In multivariable models, being active was consistently associated with high WHOQOL scores, and low socioeconomic status with low WHOQOL scores. Pain and polypharmacy were associated with increased likelihood of poor scores for physical health, living with a partner increased the likelihood of good social relationships, and body mass index, employment, sleep, and alcohol and fruit/vegetable intakes were associated with WHOQOL scores in at least one domain. There is an opportunity for targeting health promotion to pretirees, particularly in socially disadvantaged regions, in order to optimise transition into old age. Our data highlight lifestyle interventions without which many pretirees might progress to old age at increased risk of diminished wellbeing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Subjective memory impairment and well-being in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Krystle E; Mackenzie, Michael J; Kramer, Arthur; McAuley, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between subjective memory impairment (SMI), future cognitive decline, and negative health status provides an opportunity for interventions to reduce memory complaints in high-risk groups. This study aimed to examine the relationship between SMI and indicators of well-being in older adults enrolled in an exercise trial. Additionally, the study examined whether two different modes of exercise training, aerobic walking and non-aerobic flexibility, toning, and balance, differentially influenced subjective memory across the trial. Community-dwelling older adults (n = 179, mean age = 66.4 years) were randomly assigned to a walking or flexibility, toning, and balance group for 12 months. Subjective memory, happiness, perceived stress, and symptom reporting were measured at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. A main effect of subjective memory indicated that individuals with the fewest memory complaints had lower perceived stress (P happiness levels (P memory complaints in high-risk groups. © 2015 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2015 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  17. Subjective well-being and Citizenship dimensions according to individualism and collectivism beliefs among Polish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Zalewska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of the research is to analyse pleasant (subjective well-being – SWB and meaningful life (Citizenship dimensions in the context of Horizontal and Vertical Individualism (HI, VI or Collectivism (HC, VC values (individual beliefs among adolescents living in the culture “in between individualism and collectivism”. Participants and procedure Second-year high (111 and secondary (98 school students filled in the Horizontal and Vertical Individualism and Collectivism Questionnaire, the Citizenship Behaviour Questionnaire, and SWB (Subjective Happiness Scale, Satisfaction with the Life Scale, Mood Questionnaire, Ladder of Need Scales. Participants were recruited in schools. Results Subjective well-being positively correlated with all Citizenship dimensions except Political Activity. All values predicted SWB, but higher VI predicted lower SWB and was not linked to Citizenship. Citizenship dimensions oriented to general good were predicted by Collectivism values, and those including personal benefits were predicted by HI and Collectivism values. Subjective well-being mediated relations between HC and Social Activity, and between HC, HI and Personal Activity. VC moderated relations between SWB and Passive as well as Semi-active Citizenship. Conclusions Among young Poles, pleasant life is linked with meaningful life. Individualism and Collectivism values are relatively independent, and their relations with SWB and Citizenship are complex. Higher Horizontal values facilitate the achievement of both pleasant and meaningful life, but higher VC can hinder the coherence between them. High SWB, engagement in Citizenship and links between them are required for attaining “authentic happiness” and living a truly full life; thus it is important to study variables that may influence them.

  18. Physical and psychosocial prerequisites of functioning in relation to work ability and general subjective well-being among office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjögren-Rönkä, Tuulikki; Ojanen, Markku T; Leskinen, Esko K; Tmustalampi, Sirpa; Mälkiä, Esko A

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the physical and psychological prerequisites of functioning, as well as the social environment at work and personal factors, in relation to work ability and general subjective well-being in a group of office workers. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional investigation, using path analysis, of office workers. The subjects comprised 88 volunteers, 24 men and 64 women, from the same workplace [mean age 45.7 (SD 8.6) years]. The independent variables were measured using psychosocial and physical questionnaires and physical measurements. The first dependent variable, work ability, was measured by a work ability index. The second dependent variable, general subjective well-being, was assessed by life satisfaction and meaning of life. The variables were structured according to a modified version of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Forward flexion of the spine, intensity of musculoskeletal symptoms, self-confidence, and mental stress at work explained 58% of work ability and had indirect effects on general subjective well-being. Self-confidence, mood, and work ability had a direct effect on general subjective well-being. The model developed explained 68% of general subjective well-being. Age played a significant role in this study population. The prerequisites of physical functioning are important in maintaining work ability, particularly among aging workers, and psychological prerequisites of functioning are of even greater importance in maintaining general subjective well-being.

  19. Emotional Intelligence Mediates the Relationship between Age and Subjective Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiwei; Peng, Yisheng; Fang, Ping

    2016-07-01

    Individuals' Subjective Well-being (SWB) increases as they grow older. Past literature suggests that emotional intelligence may increase with age and lead to higher levels of SWB in older adults. The primary purpose of the present study was to test whether emotional intelligence would mediate the relationship between age and SWB. A total of 360 Chinese adults (age range: 20 to 79 years old) participated in this study. They filled out questionnaires that assessed their age, life satisfaction (The Satisfaction with Life Scale), affective well-being (The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule), and emotional intelligence (The Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale). Using Structural Equation Modeling, the mediation model was supported, χ(2) (75) = 194.21, p Emotional intelligence partially mediated the relationship between age and life satisfaction, and fully mediated the relationship between age and affective well-being. The findings suggest that older adults may use their increased emotional intelligence to enhance their SWB. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Environmental Strategies of Affect Regulation and Their Associations With Subjective Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalevi M. Korpela

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental strategies of affect regulation refer to the use of natural and urban socio-physical settings in the service of regulation. We investigated the perceived use and efficacy of environmental strategies for regulation of general affect and sadness, considering them in relation to other affect regulation strategies and to subjective well-being. Participants from Australia, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, India, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Sweden (N = 507 evaluated the frequency of use and perceived efficacy of affect regulation strategies using a modified version of the Measure of Affect Regulation Styles (MARS. The internet survey also included the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS, emotional well-being items from the RAND 36-Item Health Survey, and a single-item measure of perceived general health. Environmental regulation formed a separate factor of affect regulation in the exploratory structural equation models (ESEM. Although no relations of environmental strategies with emotional well-being were found, both the perceived frequency of use and efficacy of environmental strategies were positively related to perceived health. Moreover, the perceived efficacy of environmental strategies was positively related to life satisfaction in regulating sadness. The results encourage more explicit treatment of environmental strategies in research on affect regulation.

  1. Gender differences of social interactions and their effects on subjective well-being among Japanese elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, Hideki; Hougham, Gavin W

    2014-01-01

    Gender differences of social interactions and their effects on subjective well-being among Japanese elders over three years were examined. Repeated measurements of 498 elders over a three-year survey interval were obtained from a baseline mail survey and two- and three-year follow-up surveys. Outcomes were analyzed using Hierarchical Linear Modeling. Male elders were more likely to have a spouse and work at paid jobs, while female elders were likely to have more frequent contacts with their child/children and more interactions with friends. As the elders aged over three years, life satisfaction decreased, while depression did not show any significant overall trend. There were no beneficial effects of social interactions on change in well-being, although social participation, interaction with friends, and conversation with spouse were beneficially related to baseline levels of both depressive tendency and life satisfaction. Among female elders only, the number of children had beneficial effects on life satisfaction. There are modest gender differences of the impact of social interactions on the well-being of Japanese elders, and the number of children seems to be more important as potential sources of support for female rather than male elders. Spousal conversation and non-obligatory social interaction such as unpaid social activities and friendship seem to be important for both male and female elders in Japan. These findings suggest that social relations among Japanese elders may be moving away from more gender dependent patterns seen in the past.

  2. The age and subjective well-being paradox revisited:A multidimensional perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hansen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study re-examines the much-discussed paradox that although aging is associated with declines in many life domains, overall subjective well-being does not appear to decline sharply with age. We use data from two waves of the Norwegian NorLAG study (age 40-85, n=3,750 and examine age differences in change in well-being outcomes (life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect, and depression and factors that may account for age variations in such change. Outcomes show stability well into older age, but negative changes in advanced age, cross-sectionally or longitudinally. Life satisfaction and negative affect are adversely related to older age longitudinally, whereas positive affect and depression are adversely related to older age in the cross-section. Results are similar for men and women. Loss of health and partner are the main causes of declining well-being in older age. Findings suggest qualifications to the “well-being paradox”, e.g.: only some dimensions of SWB remain stable, while others decline; across dimensions SWB change is more negative in old-old than in young-old age.

  3. Environmental Strategies of Affect Regulation and Their Associations With Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, Kalevi M.; Pasanen, Tytti; Repo, Veera; Hartig, Terry; Staats, Henk; Mason, Michael; Alves, Susana; Fornara, Ferdinando; Marks, Tony; Saini, Sunil; Scopelliti, Massimiliano; Soares, Ana L.; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Ward Thompson, Catharine

    2018-01-01

    Environmental strategies of affect regulation refer to the use of natural and urban socio-physical settings in the service of regulation. We investigated the perceived use and efficacy of environmental strategies for regulation of general affect and sadness, considering them in relation to other affect regulation strategies and to subjective well-being. Participants from Australia, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, India, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Sweden (N = 507) evaluated the frequency of use and perceived efficacy of affect regulation strategies using a modified version of the Measure of Affect Regulation Styles (MARS). The internet survey also included the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), emotional well-being items from the RAND 36-Item Health Survey, and a single-item measure of perceived general health. Environmental regulation formed a separate factor of affect regulation in the exploratory structural equation models (ESEM). Although no relations of environmental strategies with emotional well-being were found, both the perceived frequency of use and efficacy of environmental strategies were positively related to perceived health. Moreover, the perceived efficacy of environmental strategies was positively related to life satisfaction in regulating sadness. The results encourage more explicit treatment of environmental strategies in research on affect regulation. PMID:29720955

  4. Subjective well-being amongst migrant children in China: unravelling the roles of social support and identity integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, S; Chui, C H-K; Ji, X; Jordan, L; Chan, C L-W

    2016-09-01

    Migrant children refer to rural children who accompany one or both parents to urban area. Empirical evidence showed that compared with their urban counterparts, migrant children had poorer developmental, emotional and psychological health. A sample of 1306 migrant children were recruited to examine the characteristics of migrant children and investigate the effects of identity integration, support and socioeconomic factors (e.g. age, gender, type of school, family socioeconomic status, city type) on their subjective wellbeing. Children with higher levels of identity integration, social support, family socioeconomic status, who attended public school and who lived in the third-tiered city of Weihai demonstrated better subjective wellbeing. Social support remained a strong predictor for subjective wellbeing, despite a significant mediating effect of identity integration. These results highlight the need for policymakers and practitioners alike to address individual factors pertaining to psychological adjustments, as well as social determinants of subjective wellbeing in the context of migration. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Does climate undermine subjective well-being? A 58-nation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ronald; Van de Vliert, Evert

    2011-08-01

    The authors test predictions from climato-economic theories of culture that climate and wealth interact in their influence on psychological processes. Demanding climates (defined as colder than temperate and hotter than temperate climates) create potential threats for humans. If these demands can be met by available economic resources, individuals experience challenging opportunities for self-expression and personal growth and consequently will report lowest levels of ill-being. If threatening climatic demands cannot be met by resources, resulting levels of reported ill-being will be highest. These predictions are confirmed in nation-level means of health complaints, burnout, anxiety, and depression across 58 societies. Climate, wealth, and their interaction together account for 35% of the variation in overall subjective ill-being, even when controlling for known predictors of subjective well-being. Further investigations of the process suggest that cultural individualism does not mediate these effects, but subjective well-being may function as a mediator of the impact of ecological variables on ill-being.

  6. Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Okbay, Aysu; Baselmans, B.M.L. (Bart M.L.); Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Turley, Patrick; Nivard, Michel; Fontana, M.A. (Mark Alan); Meddens, S.F.W. (S. Fleur W.); Linnér, R.K. (Richard Karlsson); Rietveld, C.A. (Cornelius A); Derringer, J.; Gratten, Jacob; Lee, James J.; Liu, J.Z. (Jimmy Z); Vlaming, Ronald; SAhluwalia, T. (Tarunveer)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractVery few genetic variants have been associated with depression and neuroticism, likely because of limitations on sample size in previous studies. Subjective well-being, a phenotype that is genetically correlated with both of these traits, has not yet been studied with genome-wide data. We conducted genome-wide association studies of three phenotypes: subjective well-being (n = 298,420), depressive symptoms (n = 161,460), and neuroticism (n = 170,911). We identify 3 variants associ...

  7. Perceived Discrimination and Subjective Well-being in Chinese Migrant Adolescents: Collective and Personal Self-esteem As Mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Xuji; Liu, Xia; Shi, Baoguo

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether collective and personal self-esteem serve as mediators in the relationship between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being among Chinese rural-to-urban migrant adolescents. Six hundred and ninety-two adolescents completed a perceived discrimination scale, a collective self-esteem scale, a personal self-esteem scale, and a subjective well-being scale. Structural equation modeling was used to test the mediation hypothesis. The analysis indicated th...

  8. Psychological capital, subjective well-being, burnout and job satisfaction amongst educators in the Umlazi region in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Hansen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Challenges faced by educators in South Africa are increasing due to their working conditions, which in turn affects the educators’ enthusiasm towards their jobs. Change will likely be witnessed when educators are able to attain a positive and rewarding life, develop and flourish as individuals. Research purpose: This study sought to investigate the relationship between psychological capital (PsyCap, subjective well-being, burnout and job satisfaction and to explore whether PsyCap mediates the relationship between subjective well-being and burnout. Motivation for the study: The study is premised on the fact that enhancing the positive attributes and strengths of educators can have a positive impact not only on their performance and commitment, but also on the satisfaction of students. Research approach, design and method: This cross-sectional study used a biographical questionnaire, PsyCap questionnaire, satisfaction with life scale, burnout inventory and Minnesota job satisfaction questionnaire to collect data from 103 educators. Main findings: Findings indicated statistically significant relationships between PsyCap, subjective well-being, burnout and job satisfaction. PsyCap was found to mediate the relationship between subjective well-being and burnout. Managerial implications: PsyCap mediates the relationship between subjective well-being and burnout. Organisations can minimise burnout through the enhancement of positive capacities inherent in PsyCap and the aiding potential of subjective well-being. Contribution/value-add: The findings highlighted the aiding potential of subjective wellbeing as well as the possible resources PsyCap, subjective well-being and job satisfaction can provide in times of distress.

  9. WORK-LIFE BALANCE AND SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Cosmina-Elena POP

    2014-01-01

    An essential element for children's quality of life is represented by the time spent together with their family, especially with their parents. However, for most of the families, the time spent together is quite limited by the work obligations on one side and on the other hand by the household living arrangements. In this paper I will approach the relationship between work-life balance and subjective well-being. The paper will focus on families from Romania in a comparative perspective with t...

  10. How to Apply Feedback to Improve Subjective Wellbeing of Government Servants Engaged in Environmental Protection in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinmeng; Zhang, Na; Li, Miaomiao

    2018-01-01

    Background In order to improve subjective wellbeing of government servants engaged in environmental protection who work in high power distance in China, it is important to understand the impact mechanism of feedback. This study aims to analyze how feedback environment influences subjective wellbeing through basic psychological needs satisfaction and analyzing the moderating role of power distance. Method The study was designed as a cross-sectional study of 492 government servants engaged in environment protection in Shandong, China. Government servants who agreed to participate answered self-report questionnaires concerning demographic conditions, supervisor feedback environment, basic psychological need satisfaction, and power distance as well as subjective wellbeing. Results Employees in higher levels of supervisor feedback environment were more likely to experience subjective wellbeing. Full mediating effects were found for basic psychological needs satisfaction. Specifically, supervisor feedback environment firstly led to increased basic psychological needs satisfaction, which in turn resulted in increased subjective wellbeing. Additional analysis showed that the mediating effect of basic psychological needs satisfaction was stronger for employees who work in high power distance than in low power distance. Conclusion The results from the study indicate that supervisor feedback environment plays a vital role in improving subjective wellbeing of government servants engaged in environmental protection through basic psychological needs satisfaction, especially in high power distance. PMID:29662901

  11. [Association of job burnout with subjective well-being and health status among employees from 29 provinces in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C J; Xiao, Y; Pan, N; Ye, J; Lin, Q X; Jin, Y

    2017-10-20

    Objective: To investigate the influence of job burnout on subjective well-being and health status among employees in China. Methods: The data from the 2014 China Labor-force Dynamic Survey were used to analyze the association of job burnout with subjective well-being and health status among 7289 employees aged 18-64 years from 29 provinces in China.Some items from the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey were used to investigate job burnout; subjective well-being assessment included life happiness and degree of satisfaction with living condition; the questions for self-evaluation of health status were used to analyze health status. Results: Of all employees,30.5% had low subjective well-being and 4.7% had poor health status based on self-evaluation. The logistic regression analysis showed that emotional exhaustion(two items), reduced sense of personal accomplishment,and cynicism were risk factors for low subjective well-being( OR =1.07,1.11,1.10,and 1.06, P factor for poor health status ( OR =1.10 and 1.07, P influence on health status( P >0.05). Conclusion: Emotional exhaustion is a major influencing factor for health status,and reducing job burnout may be an effective method for improving subjective well-being and health status.

  12. The Evolution of Eupathics: The Historical Roots of Subjective Measures of Wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Angner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper traces the historical roots of subjective measures of wellbeing, that is, measures designed to represent happiness, satisfaction, or other “positive” or desirable mental states. While it is often suggested that these measures are a modern invention, I argue that they have a long and rich history that conforms to Theodore M. Porter’s general account of measurement in social and behavioral science. Subjective measures emerged in marital success studies, educational psychology, and personality psychology in the 1920s and 30s, and were further shaped by the epidemiology of mental health, gerontology, and the social indicator movement in the 1960s and 70s. Consistent with Porter’s account, these measures emerged in applied rather than theoretical branches of social and behavioral science, and they did so not as a result of physics envy, but rather as a result of a moral impulse to improve society; quantification was intended to make up for perceived deficiencies in unaided human judgment; and radical disagreements about the nature of wellbeing did not impede efforts to measure it – indeed, in time, there was considerably more agreement about how to measure wellbeing than about how to define it.

  13. On the incremental validity of irrational beliefs to predict subjective well-being while controlling for personality factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spörrle, Matthias; Strobel, Maria; Tumasjan, Andranik

    2010-11-01

    This research examines the incremental validity of irrational thinking as conceptualized by Albert Ellis to predict diverse aspects of subjective well-being while controlling for the influence of personality factors. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) argues that irrational beliefs result in maladaptive emotions leading to reduced well-being. Although there is some early scientific evidence for this relation, it has never been investigated whether this connection would still persist when statistically controlling for the Big Five personality factors, which were consistently found to be important determinants of well-being. Regression analyses revealed significant incremental validity of irrationality over personality factors when predicting life satisfaction, but not when predicting subjective happiness. Results are discussed with respect to conceptual differences between these two aspects of subjective well-being.

  14. Multicausal systems ask for multicausal approaches: A network perspective on subjective well-being in individuals with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deserno, Marie K; Borsboom, Denny; Begeer, Sander; Geurts, Hilde M

    2017-11-01

    Given the heterogeneity of autism spectrum disorder, an important limitation of much autism spectrum disorder research is that outcome measures are statistically modeled as separate dependent variables. Often, their multivariate structure is either ignored or treated as a nuisance. This study aims to lift this limitation by applying network analysis to explicate the multivariate pattern of risk and success factors for subjective well-being in autism spectrum disorder. We estimated a network structure for 27 potential factors in 2341 individuals with autism spectrum disorder to assess the centrality of specific life domains and their importance for well-being. The data included both self- and proxy-reported information. We identified social satisfaction and societal contribution as the strongest direct paths to subjective well-being. The results suggest that an important contribution to well-being lies in resources that allow the individual to engage in social relations, which influence well-being directly. Factors most important in determining the network's structure include self-reported IQ, living situation, level of daily activity, and happiness. Number of family members with autism spectrum disorder and openness about one's diagnosis are least important of all factors for subjective well-being. These types of results can serve as a roadmap for interventions directed at improving the well-being of individuals with autism spectrum disorder.

  15. Determinants of Subjective Emotional Well-Being and Self-Determination of Employees: Slovene Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarotar Žižek Simona

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Work is a crucial part of human life. One should attain employees’ well-being (WB to support organisational success. In the first phase, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was employed to assess the dimensionality, reliability, and validity of the reflective latent constructs. In the second phase, structural equation modelling was performed to test the research hypotheses. By structural equation modelling we found that physical health (PH statistically significant negatively affects subjective emotional well-being (SEWB. Positive PH and SEWB were negatively connected. Emotional intelligence (EI has a statistically significant impact on SEWB. The last relationship in the model—between spiritual intelligence (SI and self-determination (SD—was negative, but statistically significant. Therefore, human resource management’s activities (HRM must concentrate on optimal physical/mental health, emotional (EI and spiritual (SI intelligence. Employees’ good health supports their emotional WB. Their emotional balance, based on their EI, enhances their subjective emotional WB and SD. The employees ’SI affects their SD.

  16. Changes in subjective well-being following the U.S. Presidential election of 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lench, Heather C; Levine, Linda J; Perez, Kenneth A; Carpenter, Zari Koelbel; Carlson, Steven J; Tibbett, Tom

    2018-03-01

    This investigation examined predictors of changes over time in subjective well-being (SWB) after the 2016 United States presidential election. Two indicators of SWB-general happiness and life satisfaction-were assessed three weeks before the election, the week of the election, three weeks later, and six months later. Partisanship predicted both indicators of SWB, with Trump supporters experiencing improved SWB after the election, Clinton supporters experiencing worsened SWB after the election, and those who viewed both candidates as bad also experiencing worsened SWB after the election. The impact of the election on SWB decreased over time, with all participants returning to baseline life satisfaction six months after the election. Trump supporters and those who viewed both candidates as bad for the country also returned to baseline general happiness six months after the election. Clinton supporters, in contrast, remained below baseline levels of general happiness six months after the election. Moral and political values, and exposure to media inconsistent with those values, predicted lasting change in subjective well-being. National events can affect how people perceive the overall quality of their lives and these effects are exacerbated when moral and political values are involved. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Assessing teachers' positive psychological functioning at work: Development and validation of the Teacher Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Tyler L; Long, Anna C J; Cook, Clayton R

    2015-06-01

    This study reports on the initial development and validation of the Teacher Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire (TSWQ) with 2 samples of educators-a general sample of 185 elementary and middle school teachers, and a target sample of 21 elementary school teachers experiencing classroom management challenges. The TSWQ is an 8-item self-report instrument for assessing teachers' subjective wellbeing, which is operationalized via subscales measuring school connectedness and teaching efficacy. The conceptualization and development processes underlying the TSWQ are described, and results from a series of preliminary psychometric and exploratory analyses are reported to establish initial construct validity. Findings indicated that the TSWQ was characterized by 2 conceptually sound latent factors, that both subscales and the composite scale demonstrated strong internal consistency, and that all scales demonstrated convergent validity with self-reported school supports and divergent validity with self-reported stress and emotional burnout. Furthermore, results indicated that TSWQ scores did not differ according to teachers' school level (i.e., elementary vs. middle), but that they did differ according to unique school environment (e.g., 1 middle school vs. another middle school) and teacher stressors (i.e., general teachers vs. teachers experiencing classroom management challenges). Results also indicated that, for teachers experiencing classroom challenges, the TSWQ had strong short-term predictive validity for psychological distress, accounting for approximately half of the variance in teacher stress and emotional burnout. Implications for theory, research, and the practice of school psychology are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Mindfulness, perceived stress, and subjective well-being: a correlational study in primary care health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanes, Ana C M; Andreoni, Solange; Hirayama, Marcio S; Montero-Marin, Jesús; Barros, Viviam V; Ronzani, Telmo M; Kozasa, Eliza H; Soler, Joaquim; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; Demarzo, Marcelo M P

    2015-09-02

    Primary health care professionals (PHPs) usually report high levels of distress and burnout symptoms related to job strain. Mindfulness, defined as non-judgmental-present-moment awareness, seems to be a moderator in the causal association between life stressors and well-being. This study aimed to verify correlations among self-reported mindfulness, perceived stress (PS), and subjective well-being (SW) in Brazilian PHPs. We performed a correlational cross-sectional study in a purposive sample of Brazilian PHPs (physicians, nurses, nursing assistants, and community health workers), working in community-oriented primary care programs (known locally as "Family Health Programs"). We used validated self-reporting instruments: the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Subjective Well-being Scale (SWS). We performed a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), through regression coefficients (beta) in relation to the professional category (nursing assistant), in addition to the length of time in the same job (under than 6 months) that had indicated the lowest level of PS. Participants (n=450) comprised community health workers (65.8%), nursing assistants (18%), registered nurses (10.0%), and doctors (family physicians) (6.0%); 94% were female and 83.1% had worked in the same position for more than one year. MANOVA regression analysis showed differences across professional categories and length of time in the same job position in relation to mindfulness, PS, and SW. Nurses demonstrated lower levels of mindfulness, higher PS, and SW negative affect, as well as lower SW positive affect. Being at work for 1 year or longer showed a clear association with higher PS and lower SW positive affect, and no significance with mindfulness levels. Pearson's coefficient values indicated strong negative correlations between mindfulness and PS, and medium correlations between mindfulness and SW. In this study, there were clear correlations

  19. Examining relations between locus of control, loneliness, subjective well-being, and preference for online social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yinghua; Lin, Lin

    2015-02-01

    The unprecedented popularity of online communication has raised interests and concerns among the public as well as in scholarly circles. Online communications have pushed people farther away from one another. This study is a further examination of the effects of online communications on well-being, in particular: Locus of control, Loneliness, Subjective well-being, and Preference for online social interaction. Chinese undergraduate students (N = 260; 84 men, 176 women; M age = 20.1 yr., SD = 1.2) were questioned about demographic information and use of social media as well as four previously validated questionnaires related to well-being. Most participants used QQ, a popular social networking program, as the major channel for online social interactions. Locus of control was positively related to Loneliness and Preference for online social interaction, but negatively related to Subjective well-being; Loneliness (positively) and Subjective well-being (negatively) were related to Preference for online social interaction; and Loneliness and Subjective well-being had a full mediating effect between the relationships of Locus of control and Preference for online social interaction. The findings of the study showed that more lonely, unhappy, and externally controlled students were more likely to be engaged in online social interaction. Improving students' locus of control, loneliness, and happiness may help reduce problematic Internet use.

  20. The role of taekwondo training on the subjective wellbeing of adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Emru Tadesse

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of taekwondo (TKD training on the subjective well-being (SWB of adolescents (12-18 years old in Addis Ababa city. A cross-sectional survey method was used; self-administered questionnaire was the main data collection tool. A total number of 162 adolescents (108 TKD adolescents from four randomly selected TKD clubs and 54 non-TKD adolescents from a randomly selected public high school, participated in the study. The study sought to determine TKD adolescents’ level of SWB as measured by the Personal Wellbeing Index – School Children (PWI-SC. Besides, adolescents in different groups (TKD adolescents in three groups according to rank/belt level and TKD adolescents and non-TKD adolescents were compared based on their score of PWI-SC. Results of the study showed that: (1 TKD adolescents had high level (mean points of SWB as measured by the PWI-SC, i.e., 81.95 (95%CI: 79.70 to 84.20; (2 there was no significant difference in SWB among the three groups of TKD adolescents (lower, middle and high level belts (F(2, 81 = 1.58, p > .05.; and (3 when compared with non-TKD adolescents, TKD adolescents were found to have a significantly higher mean points of SWB, (t = 4.25(77.97, p < 0.001; d = 0.79. Overall, the results of this study indicated the training of TKD can have a positive contribution to adolescents’ well-being.

  1. Happier countries, longer lives: an ecological study on the relationship between subjective sense of well-being and life expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Grahame F; Soliman, Elsayed Z

    2017-08-01

    The relationship between sense of well-being and longevity is not well-established across populations of varying levels of socioeconomic status. We sought to examine the relationship between happiness, or subjective sense of well-being and life expectancy using data from 151 countries. This analysis is based on the 2012 Happy Planet Index project conducted by the Center of Well-Being of the New Economics Foundation, based in the United Kingdom. Well-being data for each country were taken from responses to the 'Ladder of Life' question in the 2012 Gallup World Poll in which participants were asked to rate their quality of life on a scale from 1 (worst possible life) to 10 (best possible life). Life expectancy and gross domestic product data were taken from the 2011 United Nations records. Ecological footprint data were taken from Global Footprint Network records. Subjective sense of well-being was highly correlated with life expectancy (Pearson correlation r = 0.71, p ecological footprint, and population, each 1 unit of the well-being scale was associated with an increase in life expectancy of 4.0 years (95% confidence interval = 2.7-5.3). In conclusion, better sense of well-being has a strong relationship with life expectancy regardless of economic status or population size, suggesting that governments should foster happiness in order to support long-living populations.

  2. Relationships between neighborhood attributes and subjective well-being among the Chinese elderly: Data from Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junling; Weaver, Scott R; Fu, Hua; Jia, Yingnan; Li, Jiang

    2017-11-20

    It has been hypothesized that subjective well-being (SWB) is determined by a combination of individual characteristics, social environment, and physical environment. However, few studies have simultaneously examined the relationships of the social and physical attributes of a neighborhood with SWB. Accordingly, the present study aimed to examine these relationships among Chinese elders. A total of 2,719 elders aged 60 years or older were recruited from 47 neighborhoods in the Xinhua subdistrict of Shanghai by two-stage stratified random sampling and interviewed between July and September 2014. The social and physical attributes of each neighborhood were assessed using validated and psychometrically tested measures. The Chinese version of the international Personal Wellbeing Index was used to assess SWB. Control variables included sex, age, marital status, education level, years living in the neighborhood, self-rated health, chronic conditions, and leisure-time physical activity. Multilevel linear regression analysis was conducted to explore whether social and physical attributes were associated with SWB. The average level of SWB was 74.2 ± 15.7% of the scale maximum. After controlling for individual covariates, individual-level social cohesion and social interaction were positively correlated with SWB, and both individual-level and neighborhood-level aesthetic quality was positively correlated with SWB. In conclusion, both social and physical attributes of neighborhoods were associated with SWB among Chinese elderly. These findings suggest that creating aesthetic and cohesive neighborhoods may encourage Chinese elders to participate in social activities and promote their SWB.

  3. Gratefulness and subjective well-being: Social connectedness and presence of meaning as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Weng, Chih-Yuan

    2018-04-01

    The association between gratefulness and well-being is well established; however, few studies have examined the mechanisms that underlie this association. The broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 1998, 2001) posits that positive emotions broaden individuals' momentary thought-action repertoires, which serve to build personal resources that can be drawn upon during future stressful encounters. Based on this theory, the current study examined whether gratefulness, a positive emotion, would build social and cognitive resources in terms of social connectedness and presence of meaning in life (i.e., mediators), which subsequently contribute to subjective well-being (SWB). A total of 232 students participated in an online survey at 2 different time points (3 months apart). The mediational hypothesis was tested by latent change score analyses using structural equation modeling techniques. The results showed that changes in gratefulness predicted changes in social connectedness and presence of meaning in life, which, in turn, predicted changes in SWB. The study's findings provided further support for the broaden-and-build theory and suggested that gratefulness is an important positive emotion that contributes to SWB through increased social connectedness and a greater presence of meaning in life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Constructions of religiosity, subjective well-being, anxiety, and depression in two cultures: Kuwait and USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; Lester, David

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the associations of religiosity with subjective well-being (SWB) and psychopathology (anxiety and depression) among college students recruited from two different cultures, Kuwait (n = 192) and the USA (n = 158). The students responded to the following scales in their native languages, Arabic and English, respectively: the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, the Love of Life Scale, the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale and the Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression Scale. They also responded to six self-rating scales assessing happiness, satisfaction with life, mental health, physical health, religiosity and strength of religious belief. The Kuwaiti students obtained higher mean scores on religiosity, religious belief and depression than did their American counterparts, whereas American students had higher mean scores on happiness and love of life. Two factors were extracted: 'SWB versus psychopathology' and 'Religiosity'. Based on the responses of the present two samples, it was concluded that those who consider themselves as religious experienced greater well-being.

  5. School Achievement and Performance in Chilean High Schools: The Mediating Role of Subjective Wellbeing in School-Related Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Verónica; Oyanedel, Juan C.; Bilbao, Marian; Torres, Javier; Oyarzún, Denise; Morales, Macarena; Ascorra, Paula; Carrasco, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    School achievement gaps and school failure are problematic issues in Latin America, and are mainly explained by the socio-economic status (SES) of the students. What schools can do to improve school achievement and reduce school failure is a critical issue, both for school management and teacher training. In this study, we present the association of individual and school-related socio-emotional variables with school achievement and performance, controlling for the effects of SES. A probabilistic sample of 4,964 students, drawn from 191 schools enrolled in year 10 in urban areas of Chile, answered questionnaires assessing subjective wellbeing, social wellbeing in school, school climate, school social wellbeing and students’ perceptions of teachers’ wellbeing. Using structural equation modeling, and controlling for SES, we modeled subjective wellbeing as a mediator of the relationship between school-related variables, such as school climate and perception of teacher’s wellbeing, and (a) school achievement, and (b) school performance. School achievement was computed as a product of (a) the probability of passing the school year, and (b) the percentage of yearly attendance at school. Data on school achievement was drawn from administrative registries from the Chilean Ministry of Education. School performance was computed as the estimated grade point average (GPA) at the end of the school year, based on the students’ previous 5-year GPAs, and was also obtained through administrative data of the last 5 years. Findings reveal the mediating role of subjective wellbeing in the relationship between school-related evaluations (students’ social wellbeing at school, their perception of teachers’ wellbeing and school climate) and school achievement. For school achievement, two variables were mediated (students’ social wellbeing at school and school climate). However, for school performance, no significant mediations were found. We conclude that, on the one hand

  6. School Achievement and Performance in Chilean High Schools: The Mediating Role of Subjective Wellbeing in School-Related Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Verónica; Oyanedel, Juan C; Bilbao, Marian; Torres, Javier; Oyarzún, Denise; Morales, Macarena; Ascorra, Paula; Carrasco, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    School achievement gaps and school failure are problematic issues in Latin America, and are mainly explained by the socio-economic status (SES) of the students. What schools can do to improve school achievement and reduce school failure is a critical issue, both for school management and teacher training. In this study, we present the association of individual and school-related socio-emotional variables with school achievement and performance, controlling for the effects of SES. A probabilistic sample of 4,964 students, drawn from 191 schools enrolled in year 10 in urban areas of Chile, answered questionnaires assessing subjective wellbeing, social wellbeing in school, school climate, school social wellbeing and students' perceptions of teachers' wellbeing. Using structural equation modeling, and controlling for SES, we modeled subjective wellbeing as a mediator of the relationship between school-related variables, such as school climate and perception of teacher's wellbeing, and (a) school achievement, and (b) school performance. School achievement was computed as a product of (a) the probability of passing the school year, and (b) the percentage of yearly attendance at school. Data on school achievement was drawn from administrative registries from the Chilean Ministry of Education. School performance was computed as the estimated grade point average (GPA) at the end of the school year, based on the students' previous 5-year GPAs, and was also obtained through administrative data of the last 5 years. Findings reveal the mediating role of subjective wellbeing in the relationship between school-related evaluations (students' social wellbeing at school, their perception of teachers' wellbeing and school climate) and school achievement. For school achievement, two variables were mediated (students' social wellbeing at school and school climate). However, for school performance, no significant mediations were found. We conclude that, on the one hand, after

  7. School Achievement and Performance in Chilean High Schools: The Mediating Role of Subjective Wellbeing in School-Related Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica López

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available School achievement gaps and school failure are problematic issues in Latin America, and are mainly explained by the socio-economic status (SES of the students. What schools can do to improve school achievement and reduce school failure is a critical issue, both for school management and teacher training. In this study, we present the association of individual and school-related socio-emotional variables with school achievement and performance, controlling for the effects of SES. A probabilistic sample of 4,964 students, drawn from 191 schools enrolled in year 10 in urban areas of Chile, answered questionnaires assessing subjective wellbeing, social wellbeing in school, school climate, school social wellbeing and students’ perceptions of teachers’ wellbeing. Using structural equation modeling, and controlling for SES, we modeled subjective wellbeing as a mediator of the relationship between school-related variables, such as school climate and perception of teacher’s wellbeing, and (a school achievement, and (b school performance. School achievement was computed as a product of (a the probability of passing the school year, and (b the percentage of yearly attendance at school. Data on school achievement was drawn from administrative registries from the Chilean Ministry of Education. School performance was computed as the estimated grade point average (GPA at the end of the school year, based on the students’ previous 5-year GPAs, and was also obtained through administrative data of the last 5 years. Findings reveal the mediating role of subjective wellbeing in the relationship between school-related evaluations (students’ social wellbeing at school, their perception of teachers’ wellbeing and school climate and school achievement. For school achievement, two variables were mediated (students’ social wellbeing at school and school climate. However, for school performance, no significant mediations were found. We conclude that, on the

  8. Food Insecurity Is Associated with Subjective Well-Being among Individuals from 138 Countries in the 2014 Gallup World Poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frongillo, Edward A; Nguyen, Hoa T; Smith, Michael D; Coleman-Jensen, Alisha

    2017-04-01

    Background: Food insecurity is an aspect of living conditions that is particularly important for quality of life, health, and subjective well-being. The implementation of the 8-item Food Insecurity Experience Scale in 147 countries in the 2014 Gallup World Poll provided an unprecedented opportunity to understand the association of food insecurity with subjective well-being. Objective: We examined how food insecurity relates with measures of living conditions and how food insecurity and other living conditions relate with physical health and, in turn, subjective well-being. Methods: Data were collected from individuals aged ≥15 y by telephone in 38 countries and via face-to-face interviews in 111 others. The available sample was 132,618 (138 countries) and 122,137 (137 countries) for the daily experience and life evaluation indexes of subjective well-being, respectively. Daily experience was a continuous measure and life evaluation was categorized into thriving, struggling, and suffering. We estimated 6 linear or logistic regression models for each index controlling for country as a fixed effect. Results: Food insecurity was associated with the other 3 measures of living conditions: household income, shelter and housing, and employment. Food insecurity explained poor physical health and lower subjective well-being beyond other measures of living conditions. Instrumental and emotional support was associated with higher subjective well-being. The associations of food insecurity with subjective well-being were larger than with other explanatory variables. Food insecurity was associated with subjective well-being within each of the 4 World Bank income classes of countries, with a larger magnitude of differences for the higher-income classes. Conclusions: Food insecurity was strongly and negatively associated with subjective well-being in a large global sample of individuals aged ≥15 y. These results demonstrate the consistency of goal 2 of the Sustainable

  9. Downward social comparison and subjective well-being in late life: the moderating role of perceived control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Tara L; Chipperfield, Judith G; Ruthig, Joelle C; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from Heckhausen and Schulz's Motivational Theory of Life-span Development, this study examined perceived control as a moderator of the protective relationship between downward social comparison and subjective well-being among older adults. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 97, 63% female, ages 79-97) were interviewed in their own homes at three time-points over a nine-year period. Interviews assessed older adults' perceived control over daily tasks, their use of downward social comparison in response to task restriction, and their subjective well-being. Regression analyses yielded a significant interaction between downward social comparison and perceived control for three subjective well-being outcomes: life satisfaction, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms. Follow-up analyses revealed that downward social comparison was associated with greater subjective well-being at low levels of perceived control; but was unrelated to subjective well-being at high levels of perceived control. These findings corroborate Heckhausen and Schulz's theorized goal-opportunity congruence premise and have implications for quality-of-life interventions to assist community-dwelling older adults.

  10. A work-family conflict/subjective well-being process model: a test of competing theories of longitudinal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Russell A; Wayne, Julie Holliday; Ford, Michael T

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, we examine competing predictions of stress reaction models and adaptation theories regarding the longitudinal relationship between work-family conflict and subjective well-being. Based on data from 432 participants over 3 time points with 2 lags of varying lengths (i.e., 1 month, 6 months), our findings suggest that in the short term, consistent with prior theory and research, work-family conflict is associated with poorer subjective well-being. Counter to traditional work-family predictions but consistent with adaptation theories, after accounting for concurrent levels of work-family conflict as well as past levels of subjective well-being, past exposure to work-family conflict was associated with higher levels of subjective well-being over time. Moreover, evidence was found for reverse causation in that greater subjective well-being at 1 point in time was associated with reduced work-family conflict at a subsequent point in time. Finally, the pattern of results did not vary as a function of using different temporal lags. We discuss the theoretical, research, and practical implications of our findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. (Un)happy transition? Subjective Well-being in European Countries in 1991-2008 and Beyond

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Večerník, Jiří; Mysíková, Martina

    -, č. 467 (2014), s. 1-24 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP404/11/1521 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : subjective well-being * life satisfaction * transition Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography http://www.wifo.ac.at/jart/prj3/wifo/resources/person_dokument/person_dokument.jart?publikationsid=47205&mime_type=application/pdf

  12. Examining the Relations between Subjective Social Class, Academics, and Well-Being in First-Generation College Student Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbow, Alexander James

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relations between aspects of subjective social class, academic performance, and subjective wellbeing in first-generation and veteran students. In recent years, both student veterans and first-generation students have become topics of interest for universities, counselors, and researchers, as they are…

  13. Cross-cultural aging in cognitive and affective components of subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethtel, Olivia; Chen, Yiwei

    2010-09-01

    The present study examined age and cultural differences in cognitive and affective components of subjective well-being. A sample of 188 American and Chinese young and older adults completed surveys measuring self-life satisfaction, perceived family's life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect. Across cultures, older adults reported lower negative affect than did young adults. Americans reported higher self-life satisfaction, perceived family's life satisfaction, and positive affect than did Chinese. In addition, perceived family's life satisfaction was more related to self-life satisfaction for Chinese than for Americans. Findings are discussed in light of socioemotional selectivity theory and theories on culture and self-construal. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. "Cultural fit": individual and societal discrepancies in values, beliefs, and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Luo

    2006-04-01

    The author examined the relationship between cultural values, beliefs, and subjective well-being (SWB) in the context of the "cultural fit" proposition with 3 diverse Chinese samples from Taiwan and Mainland China (N = 581). The author found that beliefs regarding the independent self, the interdependent self, active control, and relationship harmony as forming individual-level culture were consistently related to SWB. Furthermore, the author found that the magnitude of cultural fit was associated with SWB for certain groups of the Chinese people. It is most interesting that the direction of cultural fit regarding independent self was also important for SWB. Specifically, people who endorsed higher independent self but expected lower societal endorsement of such views were better off in SWB than those of the opposite combination.

  15. The local-ladder effect: social status and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cameron; Kraus, Michael W; Galinsky, Adam D; Keltner, Dacher

    2012-07-01

    Dozens of studies in different nations have revealed that socioeconomic status only weakly predicts an individual's subjective well-being (SWB). These results imply that although the pursuit of social status is a fundamental human motivation, achieving high status has little impact on one's SWB. However, we propose that sociometric status-the respect and admiration one has in face-to-face groups (e.g., among friends or coworkers)-has a stronger effect on SWB than does socioeconomic status. Using correlational, experimental, and longitudinal methodologies, four studies found consistent evidence for a local-ladder effect: Sociometric status significantly predicted satisfaction with life and the experience of positive and negative emotions. Longitudinally, as sociometric status rose or fell, SWB rose or fell accordingly. Furthermore, these effects were driven by feelings of power and social acceptance. Overall, individuals' sociometric status matters more to their SWB than does their socioeconomic status.

  16. Personality, Emotional Qualities of Leisure, and Subjective Well-Being in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlbaugh, Patricia; Huffman, Loreen

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we examined personality traits of older adults and their emotional experiences associated with engaging in specific leisure activities. Older individuals (17 males, 32 females), ages ranging from 65 to 97 years (mean age 74), completed measures of Big Five personality traits, positive and negative affect, subjective well-being (SWB), independent functioning, and an emotion-activity inventory. As expected, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness to experience were related to positive affect, while Neuroticism was related to negative affect. Openness and Agreeableness were related to positive emotions experienced in social and cognitive domains, and Agreeableness was related to greater SWB, greater positive affect, and more positively experienced activities. Neuroticism was related to lower SWB and fewer positively experienced activities. These findings suggest that assessing the fit between personality and emotions experienced during activities should be considered when creating programs tailored to elderly individuals, with the goal of encouraging more active and rewarding lives.

  17. Know thyself: misperceptions of actual performance undermine achievement motivation, future performance, and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Chiu, Chi-Yue; Zou, Zhimin

    2010-09-01

    Contrary to the popular assumption that self-enhancement improves task motivation and future performance, the authors propose that both inflated and deflated self-assessments of performance are linked to an increased likelihood of practicing self-handicapping and having relatively poor performance in future tasks. Consistent with this proposal, we found that irrespective of the level of actual performance, compared with accurate self-assessment, both inflated and deflated self-assessments of task performance are associated with a greater tendency to (a) practice self-handicapping (Study 1: prefer to work under distraction; Study 2: withhold preparatory effort), (b) perform relatively poorly in a subsequent task (Study 3), (c) have relatively low academic achievement (Study 4), and (d) report a relatively low level of subjective well-being (Study 5). The authors discuss these results in terms of their educational implications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Big Five personality traits: are they really important for the subjective well-being of Indians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanksale, Deepa

    2015-02-01

    This study empirically examined the relationship between the Big Five personality traits and subjective well-being (SWB) in India. SWB variables used were life satisfaction, positive affect and negative affect. A total of 183 participants in the age range 30-40 years from Pune, India, completed the personality and SWB measures. Backward stepwise regression analysis showed that the Big Five traits accounted for 17% of the variance in life satisfaction, 35% variance in positive affect and 28% variance in negative affect. Conscientiousness emerged as the strongest predictor of life satisfaction. In line with the earlier research findings, neuroticism and extraversion were found to predict negative affect and positive affect, respectively. Neither openness to experience nor agreeableness contributed to SWB. The research emphasises the need to revisit the association between personality and SWB across different cultures, especially non-western cultures. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  19. Subjective well-being and national satisfaction: findings from a worldwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Mike; Tay, Louis; Diener, Ed

    2011-02-01

    We examined the relationship between satisfaction with one's country (national satisfaction) and subjective well-being utilizing data from a representative worldwide poll. National satisfaction was a strong positive predictor of individual-level life satisfaction, and this relationship was moderated by household income, household conveniences, residential mobility, country gross domestic product per capita, and region (Western vs. non-Western country). When individuals are impoverished or more bound to their culture and surroundings, national satisfaction more strongly predicts life satisfaction. In contrast, reverse trends were found in analyses predicting life satisfaction from satisfaction in other domains (health, standard of living, and job). These patterns suggest that people are more likely to use proximate factors to judge life satisfaction where conditions are salutary, or individualism is salient, but are more likely to use perceived societal success to judge life satisfaction where life conditions are difficult, or collectivism predominates. Our findings invite new research directions and can inform quality-of-life therapies.

  20. [Status of subjective well-being for medical staff in a tertiary hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yunlong; Liu, Yan; Xu, Shaorong; Zhao, Min; Li, Junping; Xiong, Yan

    2016-06-28

    To investigate the status of subjective well-being (SWB) for medical staffs who contact with patients directly in a tertiary hospital.
 Staffs from a tertiary hospital in Hunan province were investigated the SWB Scale (SWBS-cc20) from 2012 to 2014.
 The scores of SWB for medical staffs are high (81.67±12.33). Among the 10 sub-dimensions of SWB, medical staffs performed the best in family atmosphere, personal growth, and interpersonal adaptation, while performed the worst in physical health, mental health and material contentment. Title, job nature, education and occupation significantly affected the status of SWB. Staffs who directly connected with patients have less scores of SWB than those who do not (t=-4.80, Pmental health (OR=1.315, 95% CI 1.023 to 1.690, Phealth (OR=1.313, 95% CI 1.029 to 1.677, Pmental health and physical health.

  1. The effects of job crafting on subjective well-being amongst South African high school teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Peral

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Job crafting can result in a number of positive outcomes for teachers, such as increased meaningfulness and engagement at work. Increased work engagement and psychological meaningfulness may yield positive benefits for the practice of teaching, thus highlighting the pivotal role of job crafting. Research purpose: The study’s aim was to investigate the relationship between job crafting and subjective well-being amongst South African high school teachers. Subjective well-being comprises psychological meaningfulness and work engagement. The potential mediating effect that psychological meaningfulness had on this relationship was further explored. Motivation for the study: Being in a highly stressful occupation, teachers need to continuously find ways to craft their working practices in order to deal effectively with their job demands and to capitalise on their available job resources. Furthermore, South Africa’s current education system calls for serious proactive measures to be taken to improve and rectify the current status, such as job crafting. Research approach, design and method: A quantitative, cross-sectional survey design was used and administered to a sample of South African high school teachers situated in Gauteng, South Africa (N = 251. Main findings: A positive relationship was found between job crafting (increasing structural resources and challenging job demands and work engagement. Furthermore, psychological meaningfulness mediated the relationship between job crafting and work engagement amongst the sampled high school teachers. Practical/managerial implications: Teachers who craft their work to better suit their preferences and needs will obtain greater meaning in their work and experience increased levels of work engagement. Training programmes and/or group-based interventions targeted around job crafting techniques may be particularly useful in the South African teaching context. Contribution/value-add: This

  2. Religiousness, social support and subjective well-being: An exploratory study among adolescents in an Asian atheist country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Chengting; Zhang, Baoshan; You, Xuqun; Alterman, Valeria; Li, Yongkang

    2018-04-01

    Few studies have focused on the relationships among religiousness, social support and subjective well-being in Chinese adolescent populations. This study tries to fill this gap. Using cluster sampling, we selected two groups: Group A, which included 738 Tibetan adolescents with a formal religious affiliation and represented adolescents from a religious culture, and Group B, which included 720 Han adolescents without a religious affiliation and represented adolescents from an irreligious culture. Structural equation modelling showed that only in Group A did social support mediate (partially) the relationship between religious experience and subjective well-being; furthermore, the results of a hierarchical regression analysis showed that only in Group A did social support moderate the relationship between religious ideology and subjective well-being. Possible explanations for the discrepancies between the findings obtained in this study and those obtained in previous studies are discussed. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  3. The Subjective Well-Being of School Children. The First Findings from the Children's Worlds Study in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strózik, Dorota; Strózik, Tomasz; Szwarc, Krzysztof

    The paper presents the first findings of the children's subjective well-being survey in Poland, which was conducted among representative sample of over 3000 pupils aged 8, 10 and 12 years from Wielkopolska region in spring 2014. The study is a part of International Survey of Children's Well-being (ISCWeB) - Children's Worlds, developed by the International Society for Child Indicators (ISCI). The main purpose of the ISCWeB project is to gain a broad knowledge of children's lives, their relationships with family members and friends, daily activities, time use and, in particular, their own perceptions and evaluations of their well-being. A particular attention in this paper is paid to the children's subjective well-being including overall satisfaction with life, measured with use of different psychometric scales, eg. the single item scale on Overall Life Satisfaction (OLS) or the five-item Students Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS5). Along with overall well-being of the children, it is very important to study various domains of their well-being. In the paper we took into consideration children's evaluation of their five important life domains: family, school, friends, living environment and self.

  4. The effect of holiday haemodialysis treatments on patient mood, adverse symptoms and subjective wellbeing using the Big Red Kidney Bus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Jane; Bennett, Paul N; Ockerby, Cherene; Ludlow, Marie; Fairbairn, Jo; Wilson, Anne; Kerr, Peter G

    2017-02-01

    People with end-stage kidney disease receiving haemodialysis are restricted to holidays where dialysis services are readily available. Holiday dialysis in regional, rural and remote areas is particularly challenging. The aims of this study were to evaluate the wellbeing of those who received dialysis in a holiday haemodialysis bus and to measure patient well-being with that of a comparable cohort of haemodialysis patients. A three machine haemodialysis bus, the Big Red Kidney Bus, was built to enable people, their families and carers to take holidays across a range of tourist destinations in Victoria, Australia. Measures included pre-post subjective well-being, dialysis symptoms and mood questionnaires complemented by post semi-structured telephone interviews. Participating holidaymakers were positive about the haemodialysis bus service and the standard of care experienced. They reported decreased dialysis side effects of fatigue, muscle cramp and dry skin. The overall number of reported symptoms decreased, and the perceived level of bother associated with symptoms also decreased. No changes in subjective well-being and mood were detected. Mean Personal Wellbeing Index scores were significantly higher than in a comparative haemodialysis sample. The Big Red Kidney Bus provided a safe and feasible holiday dialysis service. Holidaymakers' well-being was reflected by the decreased dialysis patient side effects. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  5. Violence Exposure, Posttraumatic Stress, and Subjective Well-Being in a Sample of Russian Adults: A Facebook-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogolyubova, Olga; Tikhonov, Roman; Ivanov, Victor; Panicheva, Polina; Ledovaya, Yanina

    2017-03-01

    Exposure to violence has been shown to negatively affect mental health and well-being. The goal of this Facebook-based study was to describe the rates of exposure to violence in a sample of Russian adults and to assess the impact of these experiences on subjective well-being and victimization-related psychological distress. Three types of victimization were assessed: physical assault by a stranger, physical assault by someone known to victim, and nonconsensual sexual experiences. The 5-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5) was used to assess subjective well-being, and Primary Care PTSD Screen (PC-PTSD) was employed as an indicator of victimization-related psychological distress. Data were obtained from 6,724 Russian-speaking Facebook users. Significant levels of lifetime victimization were reported by the study participants. Lifetime physical assault by a stranger, physical assault by someone known to victim, and sexual assault were reported by 56.9%, 64.2%, and 54.1% of respondents, respectively. Respondents exposed to violence were more likely to report posttraumatic stress symptoms and lower levels of subjective well-being. Participants who were exposed to at least one type of violence were more likely to experience symptoms of traumatic stress ( U = 1,794,250.50, p violence was associated with more severe traumatic stress symptoms ( r s = .257, p violence ( t = 8.37, p violence exposure is associated with reduced well-being among Russian adults. Our findings highlight the negative impact of violence exposure on subjective well-being and underscore the necessity to develop programs addressing violence exposure in Russian populations.

  6. The role of cultural identity clarity for self-concept clarity, self-esteem, and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usborne, Esther; Taylor, Donald M

    2010-07-01

    Knowing oneself and experiencing oneself as clearly defined has been linked to positive self-esteem and psychological well-being; however, this association has been tested only at the level of personal identity. The authors propose that a clear cultural identity provides the individual with a clear prototype with which to engage the processes necessary to construct a clear personal identity and, by extension, to achieve self-esteem and well-being. For samples of undergraduate students, Anglophone Quebecers, Francophone Québécois, Chinese North Americans, and Aboriginal Canadians, cultural identity clarity was positively related to self-concept clarity, self-esteem, and markers of subjective well-being. The relationship between cultural identity clarity and both self-esteem and well-being was consistently mediated by self-concept clarity. Interventions designed to clarify cultural identity might have psychological benefits for individuals facing cultural identity challenges.

  7. Socio-economic position and subjective health and well-being among older people in Europe: a systematic narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Sanna; Grundy, Emily; Foverskov, Else

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of older European populations have established that disability and morbidity vary with indicators of socio-economic position (SEP). We undertook a systematic narrative review of the literature to ascertain to what extent there is evidence of similar inequalities in the subjective health and well-being of older people in Europe. Relevant original research articles were searched for using Medline, Global Health, Embase, Social Policy and Practice, Cinahl, Web of Science and International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS). We included studies of SEP and indicators of subjective health and well-being (self-rated health; life satisfaction; quality of life) conducted since 1991 using population-based samples of older people in Europe and published 1995-2013. A total of 71 studies were identified. Poorer SEP was associated with poorer subjective health and well-being. Associations varied somewhat depending on the SEP measure and subjective health and well-being outcome used. Associations were weaker when social support and health-related behaviours were adjusted for suggesting that these factors mediate the relationship between SEP and subjective health and well-being. Associations tended to be weaker in the oldest age groups. The patterns of associations by gender were not consistent and tended to diminish after adjusting for indicators of health and life circumstances. The results of this systematic narrative review of the literature demonstrate the importance of social influences on later life subjective health and well-being and indicate areas which need further investigation, such as more studies from Eastern Europe, more longitudinal studies and more research on the role of mediating factors.

  8. Assessment of subjective well-being and quality of life in patients with intestinal stoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Magela Salomé

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the subjective well-being and quality of life in patients with intestinal stoma. Method: This study was conducted at Ostomized People's Pole of Pouso Alegre. Data were collected in the period between December 2012 and May 2013, after approval by the Ethics Committee of the Universidade do Vale do Sapucaí under opinion No. 23,277. The participants were selected by a convenience non-probability sampling. The following instruments were used: a questionnaire on demographics and stoma; a Subjective Well-being Scale; and a Quality Outcome Scale. Results: Regarding the Flanagan Quality of Life Scale, 16–22 points were obtained, indicating that these patients suffered changes in their quality of life. Regarding the scale of subjective well-being in three domains: positive affect – 43 (61.40% individuals; negative affect – 31 (44.30% individuals; and life satisfaction – 54 (77.10%, all subjects obtained a score of 3, characterizing a negative change in these domains. The mean Flanagan Quality of Life Scale score was 26.16, and the means for the domains included in the Subjective Well-being Scale were: positive affect: 2.51; negative affect: 2.23 and life satisfaction: 2.77, indicating that the intestinal stoma users who participated in the study had negative feelings related to their own self-esteem and to the loss of quality of life. Conclusion: Patients with intestinal stoma who participated in this study had a change in their quality of life and in subjective well-being. Resumo: Objetivo: Avaliar o bem-estar subjetivo e qualidade de vida nos pacientes com estoma intestinal. Método: Este estudo foi realizado no Polo dos Estomizados de Pouso Alegre. Os dados foram coletados no período compreendido entre dezembro de 2012 e maio de 2013, após aprovação pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Universidade do Vale do Sapucaí sob parecer n° 23.277. A amostra foi selecionada de forma não probabilística, por conveni

  9. Sexual Health and Positive Subjective Well-Being in Partnered Older Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David M; Vanhoutte, Bram; Nazroo, James; Pendleton, Neil

    2016-07-01

    We examine the associations between different patterns of sexual behavior and function and three indicators of subjective well-being (SWB) covering eudemonic, evaluative, and affective well-being in a representative sample of partnered older people. Using data from a Sexual Relationships and Activities Questionnaire (SRA-Q) in Wave 6 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, latent class analysis identified groups characterized by distinctive patterns of sexual behavior and function and then examined their link to SWB. Eudemonic SWB was measured using a revised 15-item version of the CASP-19, evaluative SWB using the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and affective SWB using the 8-item version of the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. Sexual behavior and function was best described by six classes among men and five classes among women. These ranged from high sexual desire, frequent partnered sexual activities, and few sexual problems (Class 1) to low sexual desire, infrequent/no sexual activity, and problems with sexual function (Class 5([women])/6([men])). Men and women who reported either infrequent/no sexual activity, or were sexually active but reported sexual problems, generally had lower SWB than those individuals identified in Class 1. Poorer SWB in men was more strongly associated with sexual function difficulties, whereas in women desire and frequency of partnered activities appeared more important in relation to SWB. Within the context of a partnered relationship continuing sexual desire, activity and functioning are associated with higher SWB, with distinctive patterns for women and men. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Subjective Well-Being and Adaptation to Life Events: A Meta-Analysis on Differences Between Cognitive and Affective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Maike; Hofmann, Wilhelm; Eid, Michael; Lucas, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that major life events can have short- and long-term effects on subjective well-being (SWB). The present meta-analysis examines (a) whether life events have different effects on cognitive and affective well-being and (b) how the rate of adaptation varies across different life events. Longitudinal data from 188 publications (313 samples, N = 65,911) were integrated to describe the reaction and adaptation to four family events (marriage, divorce, bereavement, child birth) and four work events (unemployment, reemployment, retirement, relocation/migration). The findings show that life events have very different effects on affective and cognitive well-being, and that for most events the effects of life events on cognitive well-being are stronger and more consistent across samples. Different life events differ in their effects on SWB, but these effects are not a function of the alleged desirability of events. The results are discussed with respect to their theoretical implications, and recommendations for future studies on adaptation are given. PMID:22059843

  11. Believing Is Doing: Emotion Regulation Beliefs Are Associated With Emotion Regulation Behavioral Choices and Subjective Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Catherine Nicole Marie; Briner, Esther Lydia; Marjanovic, Zdravko

    2017-03-01

    Research in emotion regulation has begun to examine various predictors of emotion regulation choices, including individual differences and contextual variables. However, scant attention has been paid to the extent to which people's beliefs about the specific consequences of emotion regulation strategies for the components of an emotional response and long-term well-being predict their behavioral regulatory choices and, in turn, their subjective well-being. Participants completed measures to assess their beliefs about the consequences of functional and dysfunctional strategies, behavioral choices of emotion regulation strategies in negative scenarios, and subjective well-being. The model that fit the data indicated partial mediation whereby beliefs were associated with approximately 9% of the variance in choices. Emotion regulation choices were related to subjective well-being, with an additional direct effect between beliefs and well-being. This suggests beliefs play a role in people's regulatory choices. Future research should explore how beliefs interact with individual differences and contextual variables to better understand why people regulate their emotions in different ways and, ultimately, to help individuals make healthy emotion regulation choices.

  12. Believing Is Doing: Emotion Regulation Beliefs Are Associated With Emotion Regulation Behavioral Choices and Subjective Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Nicole Marie Ortner

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Research in emotion regulation has begun to examine various predictors of emotion regulation choices, including individual differences and contextual variables. However, scant attention has been paid to the extent to which people’s beliefs about the specific consequences of emotion regulation strategies for the components of an emotional response and long-term well-being predict their behavioral regulatory choices and, in turn, their subjective well-being. Participants completed measures to assess their beliefs about the consequences of functional and dysfunctional strategies, behavioral choices of emotion regulation strategies in negative scenarios, and subjective well-being. The model that fit the data indicated partial mediation whereby beliefs were associated with approximately 9% of the variance in choices. Emotion regulation choices were related to subjective well-being, with an additional direct effect between beliefs and well-being. This suggests beliefs play a role in people’s regulatory choices. Future research should explore how beliefs interact with individual differences and contextual variables to better understand why people regulate their emotions in different ways and, ultimately, to help individuals make healthy emotion regulation choices.

  13. Life-threatening event reduces subjective well-being through activating avoidance motivation: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Dina; Seger-Guttmann, Tali; Heller, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Drawing on the approach-avoidance theory, we have examined the role of avoidance motivation in explaining the negative effects of a life-threatening event on subjective well-being (SWB). Residents of the south of Israel were surveyed during heavy missile attacks in January 2009 (T1; n = 283), and again after 6 months (T2; n = 212) and 1 year (T3; n = 154). During the missile attacks, we also surveyed a group from the center of the country (T1; n = 102), not exposed to the attacks. The results indicate that avoidance motivation was activated by the life threat and further mediated its detrimental influence on SWB measures (positive/negative affects, anxiety, and subjective health). Moreover, within the southern sample, the drop in avoidance motivation over time mediated the parallel drop in SWB. In contrast to avoidance motivation, approach motivation remained stable over time and was related to positive emotions. The role of avoidance and approach motivations in life-threatening situations is further discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Future time perspective: opportunities and limitations are differentially associated with subjective well-being and hair cortisol concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozik, Pavel; Hoppmann, Christiane A; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Future time perspective has been associated with subjective well-being, though depending on the line of research considered either an open-ended future time perspective or a limited future time perspective has been associated with high well-being. Most of this research however has conceptualized future time perspective as a one-dimensional construct, whereas recent evidence has demonstrated that there are likely at least two different underlying dimensions, a focus on opportunities and a focus on limitations. This project first seeks to replicate the two-dimensional structure of the Future Time Perspective Scale, and then examines the associations these dimensions may have with different measures of subjective well-being and a biological index of chronic stress. To test if the two dimensions of the Future Time Perspective Scale, a focus on opportunities and a focus on limitations, differentially associate with two measures of subjective well-being and a biological indicator of chronic stress, namely hair cortisol. Sixty-six community-dwelling participants with a mean age of 72 years (SD = 5.83) completed the Future Time Perspective Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale. Participants also provided a 3-cm-long hair strand to index cortisol accumulation over the past 3 months. Following the results of a factor analysis, a mediation model was created for each dimension of the Future Time Perspective Scale, and significance testing was done through a bootstrapping approach to harness maximal statistical power. Factor analysis results replicated the two-dimensional structure of the Future Time Perspective Scale. Both dimensions were then found to have unique associations with well-being. Specifically, a high focus on opportunities was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and higher morale, whereas a low focus on limitations was associated with reduced hair cortisol, though this association was

  15. Neurocognitive performance, subjective well-being, and psychosocial functioning after benzodiazepine withdrawal in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Glenthoj, Birte

    2017-01-01

    -tapering compared with normative data. Neither benzodiazepine withdrawal nor treatment group affected subjective well-being or psychosocial functioning. In conclusion, add-on melatonin does not seem to affect cognition, well-being, or psychosocial functioning in patients with severe mental illness. The observed......Chronic benzodiazepine use is common in patients with mental illness and is associated with cognitive impairment. It is unclear whether benzodiazepine-induced cognitive impairment is reversible. Amelioration of cognitive dysfunction may be facilitated during benzodiazepine tapering by add......-on melatonin due to its anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. We examined how melatonin and benzodiazepine withdrawal affect cognition, subjective well-being, and psychosocial functioning. Eighty patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder were randomized to add-on treatment once daily...

  16. Determinants of subjective well-being in people with psychosis referred for psychological therapy in South London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyd, Annabel; Jolley, Suzanne; Johns, Louise

    2016-11-01

    Improving subjective well-being (SWB) for people with mental health problems is a United Kingdom national health priority and is increasingly important in justifying funding of mental health services. Aside from the economic advantages, maximizing SWB confers obvious individual and clinical benefits for people with severe mental illness, such as psychosis. Gaining a better understanding of well-being and its determinants will enable current evidence-based interventions to be targeted and refined appropriately. This study therefore sought to identify the cross-sectional correlates of SWB in an Improving Access to Psychological Therapies for people with Severe Mental Illness psychosis demonstration site, to inform a future longitudinal investigation. Participants with a psychosis or bipolar spectrum diagnosis referred to the demonstration site (n = 410) rated SWB as part of their initial assessment before starting psychological therapy. Potential influencing factors including age, gender, ethnicity, employment status, illness duration, perceived social support, perceived coping, and psychotic symptoms (voices and beliefs) were also assessed. Regression analyses showed that unemployment (β = -.16, p therapy to meet national requirements to prioritize well-being outcomes. Average well-being in people with psychosis was lower than SWB previously reported for the general population. Unemployment, lack of social support, poorer coping, and distressing beliefs were all associated with lower levels of well-being in people with psychosis. Psychological interventions targeting the positive symptoms of psychosis may impact on well-being. Greater focus on promoting social contact and inclusion and facilitating a return to employment may further improve well-being outcomes following psychological intervention. The cross-sectional design of the study does not allow for firm conclusions about the causal relationship between well-being and associated factors in psychosis. The

  17. Relative Standing and Subjective Well-Being in South Africa: The Role of Perceptions, Expectations and Income Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posel, Dorrit Ruth; Casale, Daniela Maria

    2011-01-01

    Most studies that explore the impact of relative standing on subjective well-being use objective measures of the individual's relative position, such as the mean income of the reference group or the individual's ranking in the relevant income distribution. In this paper, using a new household survey from South Africa, we are able to derive…

  18. Authenticity as a Mediator of the Relationship Between Power Contingent Self-Esteem and Subjective Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi’nan Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on Eastern wisdom and Self-Determination Theory (Deci and Ryan, 1995, the current study conceptualized a new form of maladaptive self-esteem, the power contingent self-esteem, which is extremely contingent on one’s sense of power, and posits it is related to low subjective well-being by making people experience less authenticity. In Study 1, we found that general power contingent self-esteem was consistently linked to low subjective well-being. More importantly, the negative relationship between power contingent self-esteem and subjective well-being was mediated by authenticity. Study 2 further confirmed the mediation effect between power contingent self-esteem role and satisfaction through authenticity across four different roles (work, romance, friendship, and parent–child relationships. The finding of the negative relationship between power contingent self-esteem and subjective well-being via authenticity contributes to understanding the complicated association between power, self-esteem, and life satisfaction.

  19. The Impact of Employment and Self-Rated Economic Condition on the Subjective Well-Being of Older Korean Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bum Jung; Lee, Yura; Sangalang, Cindy; Harris, Lesley M

    2015-09-01

    Extensive research has demonstrated a relationship between socioeconomic factors and health among older adults, yet fewer studies have explored this relationship with older immigrants. This study aims to examine the influence of employment and self-rated economic condition on the subjective well-being of older Korean immigrants in the United States. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional study of 205 older Korean immigrants, aged 65 to 90, in Los Angeles County. Hierarchical regression was employed to explore the independent and interactive effects of employment status and self-rated economic condition. The study found that employment and self-rated economic status were positively associated with subjective well-being. Also, the interaction between employment and self-rated economic status was significantly associated with higher levels of subjective well-being, such that the influence of self-rated economic condition was stronger for unemployed older Korean immigrants compared with those who were employed. This population-based study provides empirical evidence that employment and self-rated economic condition are directly associated with subjective well-being for older Korean immigrants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Efficacy of Positive Thinking Training on the Family Process and Subjective Wellbeing of Female Heads of Household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    محمد خدایاری فرد

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of positive thinking training on family process and subjective wellbeing of female heads of household. The method was a semi-experimental with pretest-posttest and control group; and the study population included all female heads of household residing in Chaharbagh, Alborz province, who have at least one primary school-kid.  Using available sampling method, 50 women were selected among school-students’ mothers, and were randomly assigned into two equal groups of experimental and control groups. Both groups filled Self-Report Family Process Scale (SFPS and Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire (SWQ. The experimental group received positive thinking training for eight 2-hours-sessions. Then, all participants were assessed again as the posttest. The data were analyzed by covariance analysis method. Findings showed that after the intervention family process scores of experimental group had been significantly improved, while subjective wellbeing scores had not significantly enhanced. Therefore, it can be told that the present program was effective in increasing the family process, though it went ineffective in improving subjective wellbeing in these irritable individuals. Thus, altering and enriching the program and conducting further investigations seems necessary.

  1. Self-related and other-related pathways to subjective well-being in Japan and the United States.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novin, S.; Tso, I.F.; Konrath, S.

    2013-01-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons demonstrate that subjective well-being (SWB) is rated lower among East Asian than Western individuals. Regardless of such cultural differences, however, factors that predict SWB among people from various cultures may be similar. In the current study we demonstrate the

  2. The Beck depression inventory as a measure of subjective well-being : A cross-national study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemert, D.A.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Poortinga, Y.H.

    2002-01-01

    The present study examined the question whether the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), which is one of the most widely used instruments to assess depression, can be used to measure differences in subjective well-being at national level. In order to establish the meaning of depression scores at country

  3. Structural Relations of Personal and Collective Self-Esteem to Subjective Well-Being: Attachment as Moderator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Omer Faruk

    2013-01-01

    A model indicating that the relationship between collective self-esteem and indicators of subjective well-being, happiness and life satisfaction, was mediated by personal self-esteem was tested by structural equation modeling. The model, including all participants, fitted well to the data. The results suggested that the relationship of collective…

  4. Overt and subtle discrimination, subjective well-being and physical health-related quality of life in an obese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magallares, Alejandro; Benito de Valle, Pilar; Irles, Jose Antonio; Jauregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2014-10-27

    Obesity represents a serious health issue affecting millions of people in Western industrialized countries. The severity of the medical problems it causes is paralleled by the fact that obesity has become a social stigma that affects the psychological health-related quality of life of individuals with weight problems. Our study, with 111 obese patients of a Spanish hospital, focused specifically on how overt and subtle discrimination is related to subjective well-being (affect balance and life satisfaction) and physical health-related quality of life. It was shown that overt (r = -.28, p life satisfaction) and subtle discrimination (r = -.28, p life satisfaction) were negatively linked with subjective well-being, and that there was a negative correlation between overt discrimination and physical health-related quality of life (r = -.26, p quality of life and subjective well-being using the Baron and Kenny procedure. Finally, it is discussed the relationship between discrimination, subjective well-being and physical health-related quality of life in obese people.

  5. Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Okbay (Aysu); Baselmans, B.M.L. (Bart M.L.); J.E. de Neve (Jan-Emmanuel); P. Turley (Patrick); M. Nivard (Michel); Fontana, M.A. (Mark Alan); Meddens, S.F.W. (S. Fleur W.); Linnér, R.K. (Richard Karlsson); Rietveld, C.A. (Cornelius A); J. Derringer; J. Gratten (Jacob); J.J. Lee (James J.); Liu, J.Z. (Jimmy Z); R. de Vlaming (Ronald); SAhluwalia, T. (Tarunveer); Buchwald, J. (Jadwiga); A. Cavadino (Alana); A.C. Frazier-Wood (Alexis C.); Furlotte, N.A. (Nicholas A); Garfield, V. (Victoria); Geisel, M.H. (Marie Henrike); J.R. Gonzalez (Juan R.); Haitjema, S. (Saskia); R. Karlsson (Robert); Der Laan, S.W. (Sander Wvan); K.-H. Ladwig (Karl-Heinz); J. Lahti (Jari); S.J. van der Lee (Sven); P.A. Lind (Penelope); Liu, T. (Tian); Matteson, L. (Lindsay); E. Mihailov (Evelin); M. Miller (Mike); CMinica, C. (Camelia); MNolte, I. (Ilja); D.O. Mook-Kanamori (Dennis); P.J. van der Most (Peter); C. Oldmeadow (Christopher); Y. Qian (Yong); O. Raitakari (Olli); R. Rawal (R.); A. Realo; Rueedi, R. (Rico); Schmidt, B. (Börge); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); E. Stergiakouli (Evangelia); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); K.D. Taylor (Kent); Wedenoja, J. (Juho); Wellmann, J. (Juergen); H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); MWillems, S. (Sara); Zhao, W. (Wei); L.C. Study (LifeLines Cohort); N. Amin (Najaf); Bakshi, A. (Andrew); P.A. Boyle (Patricia); Cherney, S. (Samantha); Cox, S.R. (Simon R); G. Davies (Gail); O.S.P. Davis (Oliver S.); J. Ding (Jun); N. Direk (Nese); Eibich, P. (Peter); R. Emeny (Rebecca); Fatemifar, G. (Ghazaleh); J.D. Faul; L. Ferrucci (Luigi); A.J. Forstner (Andreas); C. Gieger (Christian); Gupta, R. (Richa); T.B. Harris (Tamara); J.M. Harris (Juliette); E.G. Holliday (Elizabeth); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); P.L. de Jager (Philip); M. Kaakinen (Marika); E. Kajantie (Eero); Karhunen, V. (Ville); I. Kolcic (Ivana); M. Kumari (Meena); L.J. Launer (Lenore); L. Franke (Lude); Li-Gao, R. (Ruifang); Koini, M. (Marisa); A. Loukola (Anu); P. Marques-Vidal; G.W. Montgomery (Grant); M. Mosing (Miriam); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); A. Pattie (Alison); K. Petrovic (Katja); Pulkki-R'back, L. (Laura); L. Quaye (Lydia); R'ikkönen, K. (Katri); I. Rudan (Igor); R. Scott (Rodney); J.A. Smith (Jennifer A); A.R. Sutin; Trzaskowski, M. (Maciej); Vinkhuyze, A.E. (Anna E.); L. Yu (Lei); D. Zabaneh (Delilah); J. Attia (John); D.A. Bennett (David A.); Berger, K. (Klaus); L. Bertram (Lars); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); H. Snieder (Harold); Chang, S.-C. (Shun-Chiao); F. Cucca (Francesco); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); K. Hagen (Knut); U. Bültmann (Ute); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); T. Hansen (T.); Hartman, C.A. (Catharine A); C.M.A. Haworth (Claire M.); C. Hayward (Caroline); A.C. Heath (Andrew C.); D.A. Hinds (David A.); E. Hypponen (Elina); W.G. Iacono (William); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); K.-H. JöCkel (Karl-Heinz); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); S.L.R. Kardia (Sharon); Keltikangas-J'rvinen, L. (Liisa); P. Kraft (Peter); Kubzansky, L.D. (Laura D.); Lehtim'ki, T. (Terho); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M. McGue (Matt); A. Metspalu (Andres); M. Mills (Melinda); R. de Mutsert (Reneé); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); G. Pasterkamp (Gerard); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy); R. Plomin (Robert); O. Polasek (Ozren); C. Power (Christopher); S.S. Rich (Stephen); F.R. Rosendaal (Frits); H.M. den Ruijter (Hester ); Schlessinger, D. (David); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); R. Svento (Rauli); R. Schmidt (Reinhold); B.Z. Alizadeh (Behrooz); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); DSpector, T. (Tim); Steptoe, A. (Andrew); A. Terracciano; A.R. Thurik (Roy); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P. Vollenweider (Peter); Wagner, G.G. (Gert G.); D.R. Weir (David); J. Yang (Joanna); Conley, D.C. (Dalton C.); G.D. Smith; Hofman, A. (Albert); M. Johannesson (Magnus); D. Laibson (David); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); M.N. Meyer (Michelle N.); Pickrell, J.K. (Joseph K.); Esko, T. (T'nu); R.F. Krueger; J.P. Beauchamp (Jonathan); Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp); D.J. Benjamin (Daniel J.); M. Bartels (Meike); D. Cesarini (David)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractVery few genetic variants have been associated with depression and neuroticism, likely because of limitations on sample size in previous studies. Subjective well-being, a phenotype that is genetically correlated with both of these traits, has not yet been studied with genome-wide data.

  6. Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okbay, Aysu; Baselmans, Bart M L; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Turley, Patrick; Nivard, Michel G; Fontana, Mark Alan; Meddens, S Fleur W; Linnér, Richard Karlsson; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Derringer, Jaime; Gratten, Jacob; Lee, James J; Liu, Jimmy Z; de Vlaming, Ronald; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Buchwald, Jadwiga; Cavadino, Alana; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Furlotte, Nicholas A; Garfield, Victoria; Geisel, Marie Henrike; Gonzalez, Juan R; Haitjema, Saskia; Karlsson, Robert; van der Laan, Sander W; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Lahti, Jari; van der Lee, Sven J; Lind, Penelope A; Liu, Tian; Matteson, Lindsay; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Michael B; Minica, Camelia C; Nolte, Ilja M; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis; van der Most, Peter J; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Qian, Yong; Raitakari, Olli; Rawal, Rajesh; Realo, Anu; Rueedi, Rico; Schmidt, Börge; Smith, Albert V; Stergiakouli, Evie; Tanaka, Toshiko; Taylor, Kent; Wedenoja, Juho; Wellmann, Juergen; Westra, Harm-Jan; Willems, Sara M; Zhao, Wei; Amin, Najaf; Bakshi, Andrew; Boyle, Patricia A; Cherney, Samantha; Cox, Simon R; Davies, Gail; Davis, Oliver S P; Ding, Jun; Direk, Nese; Eibich, Peter; Emeny, Rebecca T; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Faul, Jessica D; Ferrucci, Luigi; Forstner, Andreas; Gieger, Christian; Gupta, Richa; Harris, Tamara B; Harris, Juliette M; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; De Jager, Philip L; Kaakinen, Marika A; Kajantie, Eero; Karhunen, Ville; Kolcic, Ivana; Kumari, Meena; Launer, Lenore J; Franke, Lude; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Koini, Marisa; Loukola, Anu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Montgomery, Grant W; Mosing, Miriam A; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pattie, Alison; Petrovic, Katja E; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Quaye, Lydia; Räikkönen, Katri; Rudan, Igor; Scott, Rodney J; Smith, Jennifer A; Sutin, Angelina R; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Vinkhuyzen, Anna E; Yu, Lei; Zabaneh, Delilah; Attia, John R; Bennett, David A; Berger, Klaus; Bertram, Lars; Boomsma, Dorret I; Snieder, Harold; Chang, Shun-Chiao; Cucca, Francesco; Deary, Ian J; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Eriksson, Johan G; Bültmann, Ute; de Geus, Eco J C; Groenen, Patrick J F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hansen, Torben; Hartman, Catharine A; Haworth, Claire M A; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Andrew C; Hinds, David A; Hyppönen, Elina; Iacono, William G; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kardia, Sharon L R; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Kraft, Peter; Kubzansky, Laura D; Lehtimäki, Terho; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Martin, Nicholas G; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Mills, Melinda; de Mutsert, Renée; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Pedersen, Nancy L; Plomin, Robert; Polasek, Ozren; Power, Christine; Rich, Stephen S; Rosendaal, Frits R; den Ruijter, Hester M; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Helena; Svento, Rauli; Schmidt, Reinhold; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Spector, Tim D; Steptoe, Andrew; Terracciano, Antonio; Thurik, A Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tiemeier, Henning; Uitterlinden, André G; Vollenweider, Peter; Wagner, Gert G; Weir, David R; Yang, Jian; Conley, Dalton C; Smith, George Davey; Hofman, Albert; Johannesson, Magnus; Laibson, David I; Medland, Sarah E; Meyer, Michelle N; Pickrell, Joseph K; Esko, Tõnu; Krueger, Robert F; Beauchamp, Jonathan P; Koellinger, Philipp D; Benjamin, Daniel J; Bartels, Meike; Cesarini, David

    Very few genetic variants have been associated with depression and neuroticism, likely because of limitations on sample size in previous studies. Subjective well-being, a phenotype that is genetically correlated with both of these traits, has not yet been studied with genome-wide data. We conducted

  7. Increasing Elementary School Students' Subjective Well-Being through a Classwide Positive Psychology Intervention: Results of a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Hearon, Brittany V.; Bander, Bryan; McCullough, Mollie; Garofano, Jeffrey; Roth, Rachel A.; Tan, Sim Yin

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in school-based programs to promote students' subjective well-being (SWB). Students with greater SWB tend to have stronger relationships with their teachers and classmates, as well as behave in more positive ways. Drawing from theory and research pertinent to promoting children's SWB, we developed an 11-session classwide…

  8. Subjective Well-Being of Hong Kong Chinese Teachers: The Contribution of Gratitude, Forgiveness, and the Orientations to Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, David W.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether gratitude and forgiveness contribute to subjective well-being (life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) above the contribution of the three orientations to happiness in a sample of 143 Hong Kong Chinese teachers. Gratitude and forgiveness correlated substantially and significantly with each other,…

  9. Different Things Make Different People Happy: Examining Social Capital and Subjective Well-Being by Gender and Parental Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses a number of key challenges in current subjective well-being (SWB) research: A new wave of studies should take into account that different things may make different people happy, thus going beyond a unitary "happiness formula". Furthermore, empirical results need to be connected to broader theoretical narratives.…

  10. An Examination of Culturally Relevant Stressors, Coping, Ethnic Identity, and Subjective Well-Being in Urban, Ethnic Minority Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Vacek, Kimberly; Coyle, Laura D.; Stinson, Jennifer; Mull, Megan; Doud, Katherine; Buchheit, Christine; Gorman, Catherine; Hewitt, Amber; Keene, Chesleigh; Blackmon, Sha'kema; Langrehr, Kimberly J.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored relations between culturally relevant stressors (i.e., urban hassles, perceived discrimination) and subjective well-being (SWB; i.e., positive/ negative affect, life satisfaction) to examine whether ethnic identity and/or coping strategies would serve as moderators of the relations between stress and SWB for 157 urban, ethnic…

  11. Turkish College Students' Subjective Wellbeing in Regard to Psychological Strengths and Demographic Variables: Implications for College Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivis-Cetinkaya, Rahsan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated Turkish college students' subjective wellbeing in regard to psychological strength and demographic variables. A sample of Turkish college students (N?=?1,052) aged 17-32 (mean age = 21, SD = 1.79) was administered various psychological strength instruments--the Gratitude Scale, the Rosenberg Self Esteem Inventory, the…

  12. Visiting Again? Subjective Well-Being of Children in Elementary School and Repeated Visits to School Health Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with vague complaints are without chronic illness, and who repeatedly visit the school nurse may be at risk for limited academic success. This study compares student reports of subjective well-being between children who do and do not repeatedly visit the school nurse with vague complaints. Methods: Children in grades 4 through…

  13. Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okbay, A.; Baselmans, B.M.L.; de Neve, J.E.; Turley, P.; Nivard, M.G.; Fontana, M.A.; Meddens, S.F.W.; Karlsson Linnér, R.; Rietveld, C.A.; Derringer, J.; de Vlaming, R.; Minica, C.C.; Hottenga, J.J.; Vinkhuyzen, A.A.E.; Boomsma, D.I.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Medland, S.E.; Meyer, M.N.; Pickrell, J.K.; Esko, T.; Krueger, R.F.; Beauchamp, J.; Koellinger, P.D.; Benjamin, D.J.; Bartels, M.; Cesarini, D.

    2016-01-01

    Very few genetic variants have been associated with depression and neuroticism, likely because of limitations on sample size in previous studies. Subjective well-being, a phenotype that is genetically correlated with both of these traits, has not yet been studied with genome-wide data. We conducted

  14. Attitude and subjective wellbeing of non-compliant mothers to childhood oral polio vaccine supplemental immunization in Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, Gregory C; Nomhwange, Terna Ignatius; Shamang, Anthony F; Zakari, Furera; Musa, Audu I; Dogo, Paul M; Gugong, Victor; Iliyasu, Neyu

    2018-02-08

    Attitude and subjective well-being are important factors in mothers accepting or rejecting Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) supplemental immunization. The purpose of the study was to determine the role of mothers' attitude and subjective wellbeing on non-compliance to OPV supplemental immunization in Northern Nigeria. The study utilized a cross-sectional design to assess attitude and subjective well-being of mothers using previously validated VACSATC (Vaccine Safety, Attitudes, Training and Communication-10 items) & SUBI (Subjective Well-being Inventory-40 items) measures. A total of 396 participants (equal number of non-compliant and compliant mothers) from 94 non-compliant settlements were interviewed, after informed consent. T-test was run to assess difference in mean scores between the non-compliant and compliant mothers on VACSATC and SUBI measures. The research showed a significant difference in mean scores between the non-compliant and compliant groups on VACSATC measure of mothers' attitude (M = 18.9 non-compliant, compared to 26.5 compliant; p  0.05). The research has shown that negative attitude is more commonly present in non-compliant mothers and may be a factor in vaccine refusal in Northern Nigeria.

  15. The Role of Senior University Students' Career Adaptability in Predicting Their Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirdök, Oguzhan; Bölükbasi, Ayten

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether career adaptability and career adaptability subscales of senior undergraduates could predict subjective well-being. The research was a descriptive correlational study which was conducted on 310 senior students (173 women, 137 men) in a state-funded university on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey and…

  16. Subjective Wellbeing and Its Meaning for Young People in a Rural Australian Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Lisa; Geldens, Paula M.

    2007-01-01

    In Australia, wellbeing has been used as an assessment of how young people are doing by health researchers, youth researchers and psychologists. The concept "wellbeing" is increasingly applied to young people in their late teens and early twenties with little discussion of young people's perspectives. Using quantitative measures of…

  17. Do Climate Change Policies Promote or Conflict with Subjective Wellbeing: A Case Study of Suzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaomiao Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As public expectations for health rise, health measurements broaden from a focus on death, disease, and disability to wellbeing. However, wellbeing hasn’t been incorporated into the framework of climate change policy decision-making in Chinese cities. Based on survey data (n = 763 from Suzhou, this study used Generalized Estimation Equation approach to model external conditions associated with wellbeing. Then, semi-quantitative analyses were conducted to provide a first indication to whether local climate change policies promote or conflict with wellbeing through altering these conditions. Our findings suggested: (i Socio-demographic (age, job satisfaction, health, psychosocial (satisfaction with social life, ontological security/resilience and environmental conditions (distance to busy road, noise annoyance and range hoods in the kitchen were significantly associated with wellbeing; (ii None of existing climate change strategies in Suzhou conflict with wellbeing. Three mitigation policies (promotion of tertiary and high–tech industry, increased renewable energy in buildings, and restrictions on car use and one adaption policy (increasing resilience brought positive co–benefits for wellbeing, through the availability of high-satisfied jobs, reduced dependence on range hoods, noise reduction, and valuing citizens, respectively. This study also provided implications for other similar Chinese cities that potential consequences of climate change interventions for wellbeing should be considered.

  18. Do Climate Change Policies Promote or Conflict with Subjective Wellbeing: A Case Study of Suzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miaomiao; Huang, Yining; Hiscock, Rosemary; Li, Qin; Bi, Jun; Kinney, Patrick L; Sabel, Clive E

    2016-03-21

    As public expectations for health rise, health measurements broaden from a focus on death, disease, and disability to wellbeing. However, wellbeing hasn't been incorporated into the framework of climate change policy decision-making in Chinese cities. Based on survey data (n = 763) from Suzhou, this study used Generalized Estimation Equation approach to model external conditions associated with wellbeing. Then, semi-quantitative analyses were conducted to provide a first indication to whether local climate change policies promote or conflict with wellbeing through altering these conditions. Our findings suggested: (i) Socio-demographic (age, job satisfaction, health), psychosocial (satisfaction with social life, ontological security/resilience) and environmental conditions (distance to busy road, noise annoyance and range hoods in the kitchen) were significantly associated with wellbeing; (ii) None of existing climate change strategies in Suzhou conflict with wellbeing. Three mitigation policies (promotion of tertiary and high-tech industry, increased renewable energy in buildings, and restrictions on car use) and one adaption policy (increasing resilience) brought positive co-benefits for wellbeing, through the availability of high-satisfied jobs, reduced dependence on range hoods, noise reduction, and valuing citizens, respectively. This study also provided implications for other similar Chinese cities that potential consequences of climate change interventions for wellbeing should be considered.

  19. Relations between longitudinal trajectories of subjective financial wellbeing with self-rated health among elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Piumatti

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions: Results suggest that in late life longitudinal negative changes in perceptions of financial wellbeing may occur together with decreases levels of self-reported health. Future research on health inequalities in elderly should pay specific attention to the link between financial wellbeing and health from a self-reported perspective.

  20. Subjective wellbeing and its relationship with academic achievement and multilinguality among Lebanese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyash-Abdo, Huda; Sánchez-Ruiz, María-José

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated three subjective wellbeing (SWB) components, namely positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), and life satisfaction (LS), along with optimism and self-esteem and their association with academic achievement and multilinguality in a sample of 1401 Lebanese university students. As predicted, optimism and self-esteem correlated positively with LS and PA, and negatively with NA. Optimism, self-esteem and each of the SWB components jointly predicted academic achievement (GPA), with PA being an individually significant positive predictor. There were differences in the five key variables across language groups, specifically between Arabic-only speakers and some other groups: Compared Arabic-only speakers, bilingual speakers of Arabic and either English or French scored higher on self-esteem, PA and optimism, and lower on NA, while trilingual speakers of Arabic, English, and French scored higher on self-esteem, PA and LS. Language grouping was a significant predictor of the SWB components, optimism, and self-esteem even when controlling for GPA, socioeconomic status (SES), and religion. Lastly, the relevance of SES and religion for the prediction of SWB is discussed, and implications and future research questions are advanced.

  1. The Subjective Well-Being Method of Valuation: An Application to General Health Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Timothy T

    2015-12-01

    To introduce the subjective well-being (SWB) method of valuation and provide an example by valuing health status. The SWB method allows monetary valuations to be performed in the absence of market relationships. Data are from the 1975-2010 General Social Survey. The value of health status is determined via the estimation of an implicit derivative based on a happiness equation. Two-stage least-squares was used to estimate happiness as a function of poor-to-fair health status, annual household income adjusted for household size, age, sex, race, marital status, education, year, and season. Poor-to-fair health status and annual household income are instrumented using a proxy for intelligence, a temporal version of the classic distance instrument, and the average health status of individuals who are demographically similar but geographically separated. Instrument validity is evaluated. Moving from good/excellent health to poor/fair health (1 year of lower health status) is equivalent to the loss of $41,654 of equivalized household income (2010 constant dollars) per annum, which is larger than median equivalized household income. The SWB method may be useful in making monetary valuations where fundamental market relationships are not present. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  2. Occupational experiences and subjective well-being of mothers of children with ASD in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ya-Lin; Lo, Jin-Ling

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the relationship between mothers' daily occupational experiences of productivity, restoration and pleasure with their subjective well-being (SWB) and with their child's developmental skills. Forty caregivers parenting young children with autism spectrum disorders served as a convenience sample in this study. Participants rated their occupational experience in a time diary for a 1-week period and rated their SWB on the Positive and Negative Affect Scale and Satisfaction with Life Scale. Their child's occupational performance and development were evaluated using the Pediatric Daily Occupation Scale and Chinese Child Development Inventory. Spearman rank correlations were used to examine the relationship of SWB to these maternal and child factors. Mothers' pleasure levels were associated with two SWB measures: the positive affect and Satisfaction With Life Scale. Restoration levels related to positive affect only. Productivity levels and child factors were not significantly correlated with any of the SWB measures. A larger heterogeneous sample and a longitudinal study design to explore the fluctuation and stability of occupational experiences across time are recommended to examine caregivers' adaptation and/or alterations in SWB while adapting to their child's diagnosis and special needs. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Subjective well-being in times of social change: congruence of control strategies and perceived control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grümer, Sebastian; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the association between perceptions of broader changes in the social-ecological context and individuals' subjective well-being (SWB). Macro-level societal changes such as globalization or demographic change give rise to new demands for individual functioning at work and/or in the family. Such new demands associated with social change are stressful and likely to be related to lower levels of SWB. Being active agents, individuals attempt to deal with social change and its increasing demands to protect their SWB. The present study investigates which kinds of control strategies are most effective in protecting one's SWB. Specifically, we predicted that control strategies of goal engagement will be most effective under conditions of perceived high control, and control strategies of goal disengagement will be most effective under conditions of perceived low control. In a large sample of 2537 German adults, work- and family-related demands associated with social change were found to be negatively linked to SWB. Moreover and in line with the motivational theory of lifespan development, control strategies of goal engagement and disengagement were beneficial for SWB to the extent that they matched the perceived control of the demands associated with social change.

  4. Culture, personality, and subjective well-being: integrating process models of life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmack, Ulrich; Radhakrishnan, Phanikiran; Oishi, Shigehiro; Dzokoto, Vivian; Ahadi, Stephan

    2002-04-01

    The authors examined the interplay of personality and cultural factors in the prediction of the affective (hedonic balance) and the cognitive (life satisfaction) components of subjective well-being (SWB). They predicted that the influence of personality on life satisfaction is mediated by hedonic balance and that the relation between hedonic balance and life satisfaction is moderated by culture. As a consequence, they predicted that the influence of personality on life satisfaction is also moderated by culture. Participants from 2 individualistic cultures (United States, Germany) and 3 collectivistic cultures (Japan, Mexico, Ghana) completed measures of Extraversion, Neuroticism, hedonic balance, and life satisfaction. As predicted, Extraversion and Neuroticism influenced hedonic balance to the same degree in all cultures, and hedonic balance was a stronger predictor of life satisfaction in individualistic than in collectivistic cultures. The influence of Extraversion and Neuroticism on life satisfaction was largely mediated by hedonic balance. The results suggest that the influence of personality on the emotional component of SWB is pancultural, whereas the influence of personality on the cognitive component of SWB is moderated by culture.

  5. Passion for a Cause: How It Affects Health and Subjective Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Louis, Ariane C; Carbonneau, Noémie; Vallerand, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    Using the dualistic model of passion (Vallerand et al., 2003), this research investigated how harmonious passion (HP) or obsessive passion (OP) for a cause can affect volunteers' health and subjective well-being. Three studies with volunteers for local (local emergency crises and community help) and international (humanitarian missions) causes assessed physical and psychological health using cross-sectional and longitudinal designs. Study 1 (N = 108) showed that HP was positively related to satisfaction with one's involvement in the cause and unrelated to physical injuries due to cause involvement. OP was unrelated to satisfaction but positively associated with injuries. Findings were replicated in Study 2 (N = 83). Moreover, self-neglect mediated the positive and negative effects of HP and OP, respectively, on injuries. Study 3 (N = 77) revealed that HP predicted an increase in satisfaction and health over a 3-month mission. OP predicted an increase in physical symptoms and a decrease in health. Furthermore, OP before a mission was positively related to self-neglect that was positively associated with physical symptoms after a mission. OP also positively predicted rumination that was conducive to posttraumatic stress disorder. HP was unrelated to these variables. Findings underscore the role of passion for a cause in predicting intrapersonal outcomes of volunteers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Variability in impact of air pollution on subjective well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guodong; Shin, Kong Joo; Managi, Shunsuke

    2018-06-01

    This paper examines the impact of variability in impact of air pollution on life satisfaction (LS). Previous studies have shown robust negative impact of air pollution on subjective well-being (SWB). However, empirical studies that consider variability in air pollution effects through comparative city study are limited. This study provides comparative evaluation of two major Chinese cities: Beijing and Shanghai. We apply a geo-statistical spatial interpolation technique on pollution data from monitoring sites to estimate the Sulfur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), coarse particles with a diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm (PM10) and fine particles with a diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) pollution exposure of respondents of a survey conducted in 2016. The results show that all pollutants have robust negative impacts on LS for Beijing residents, whereas only SO2 and NO2 have significant negative impacts on LS for Shanghai residents; Per unit impact of SO2 is greater in Shanghai, and that of NO2 is greater in Beijing. Beijing and Shanghai residents have almost same monetary valuation for SO2 reduction but Beijing residents place approximately 1.5 times valuation on NO2 reduction compared to Shanghai residents. Moreover, the LS of Beijing residents is sensitive to temporal changes in the pollution level, whereas Shanghai residents are unaffected by such changes.

  7. Subjective Well-Being, Test Anxiety, Academic Achievement: Testing for Reciprocal Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmayr, Ricarda; Crede, Julia; McElvany, Nele; Wirthwein, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In the context of adolescents' subjective well-being (SWB), research has recently focused on a number of different school variables. The direction of the relationships between adolescents' SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety is, however, still open although reciprocal causation has been hypothesized. The present study set out to investigate to what extent SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety influence each other over time. A sample of N = 290 11th grade students (n = 138 female; age: M = 16.54 years, SD = 0.57) completed measures of SWB and test anxiety in the time span of 1 year. Grade point average (GPA) indicated students' academic achievement. We analyzed the reciprocal relations using cross-lagged structural equation modeling. The model fit was satisfactory for all computed models. Results indicated that the worry component of test anxiety negatively and GPA positively predicted changes in the cognitive component of SWB (life satisfaction). Worry also negatively predicted changes in the affective component of SWB. Moreover, worry negatively predicted changes in students' GPA. Directions for future research and the differential predictive influences of academic achievement and test anxiety on adolescents' SWB are discussed with regard to potential underlying processes.

  8. Subjective Well-Being, Test Anxiety, Academic Achievement: Testing for Reciprocal Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricarda eSteinmayr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of adolescents’ subjective well-being (SWB, research has recently focused on a number of different school variables. The direction of the relationships between adolescents’ SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety is however still open although reciprocal causation has been hypothesized. The present study set out to investigate to what extent SWB, academic achievement, and test anxiety influence each other over time. A sample of N = 290 11th grade students (n = 138 female; age: M = 16.54 years, SD = 0.57 completed measures of SWB and test anxiety in the time span of one year. Grade Point Average (GPA indicated students’ academic achievement. We analyzed the reciprocal relations using cross-lagged structural equation modeling. The model fit was satisfactory for all computed models. Results indicated that the worry component of test anxiety negatively and GPA positively predicted changes in the cognitive component of SWB (life satisfaction. Worry also negatively predicted changes in the affective component of SWB. Moreover, worry negatively predicted changes in students’ GPA. Directions for future research and the differential predictive influences of academic achievement and test anxiety on adolescents’ SWB are discussed with regard to potential underlying processes.

  9. Moderation of genetic factors by parental divorce in adolescents' evaluations of family functioning and subjective wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Aa, Niels; Boomsma, Dorret I; Rebollo-Mesa, Irene; Hudziak, James J; Bartels, Meike

    2010-04-01

    Adolescents' evaluations of family functioning may have a significant impact on their subjective well-being and adjustment. The aim of the study was to investigate the degree to which genetic and environmental influences affect variation in evaluations of general family functioning, family conflict, and quality of life and the overlap between them. We assessed whether genetic and environmental influences are moderated by parental divorce by analyzing self-report data from 6,773 adolescent twins and their non-twin siblings. Genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental influences accounted for variation in general family functioning and family conflict, with genetic influences being relatively more important in girls than boys in general family functioning. Genetic and nonshared environmental influences accounted for variation in quality of life, with genetic influences being relatively more important in girls. Evidence was found for interaction between genetic factors and parental divorce: genetic influence on general family functioning was larger in participants from divorced families. The overlap between general family functioning and quality of life, and family conflict and quality of life was accounted for the largest part by genetic effects, with nonshared environmental effects accounting for the remaining part. By examining the data from monozygotic twins, we found evidence for interaction between genotype and nonshared, non-measured, environmental influences on evaluations of general family functioning, family conflict, and quality of life.

  10. Predictors of subjective well-being among college youth in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyash-Abdo, Huda; Alamuddin, Rayane

    2007-06-01

    The authors investigated the prevalence and predictors of subjective well-being (SWB) in a particular Middle Eastern culture: that of Lebanon. The authors examined personality constructs of self-esteem, optimism, and positive affect in relation to SWB. The authors surveyed a sample of 689 individuals between the ages of 17 and 24 by using four instruments with established cross-cultural validity: (a) the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; E. Diener, R. Emmons, R. J. Larsen, & S. Griffin, 1985), (b) the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; D. Watson, L. A. Clark, & A. Tellegen, 1988), (c) the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE; M. Rosenberg, 1965), and (d) the revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R; M. F. Scheier, C. S. Carver, & M. W. Bridges, 1994). The results indicated that college youth's SWB was positively correlated with self-esteem, optimism, and positive affect. Examining the demographic variable of gender, the authors found that men had higher scores on positive affect than did women. A trend emerged that suggested that language dominance and socioeconomic status were associated with SWB levels. The results suggest that internal personality constructs are more predictive of satisfaction with life than are demographic variables.

  11. Metacognitive aspects influence subjective well-being in parents of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffalini, Enrico; Veltri, Alessia; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2015-02-01

    Research suggests that metacognitive beliefs may be involved in psychological distress and even in the pathogenesis of emotional disorders. The present research is a first attempt to investigate how certain metacognitive aspects operate as favorable or adverse factors influencing subjective wellbeing (SWB) in the parents of children with cancer. Thirty parents of children being treated for cancer completed questionnaires on their metacognitive beliefs (Metacognition Questionnaire), sensitivity to autobiographical memory, and self-reported measures of positive and negative affect (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule). Results in the study group were compared with those obtained from 36 control parents of children being treated for acute, not life-threatening illnesses (hospitalized control group) and from 30 control parents of healthy children (healthy control group). Parents in both the study group and the hospitalized control group reported less SWB than the healthy control group. Most important, metacognitive aspects explained up to 77% of the variance in SWB in parents of children with cancer, as opposed to only 23% in hospitalized control group and 33% in the healthy control group. Differentmetacognitive aspects have a crucial role—both negative and positive—inSWB of parents of children with cancer. It is suggested that the psychological support for parents copingwith a child suffering from oncological disease should assess such aspects and try to address them in clinical practice.

  12. Original article Agentic and communal narcissism and subjective well-being: are narcissistic individuals unhappy? A research report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The communal/agentic model of narcissism is well accepted in the current research literature (Gebauer, Sedikides, Verplanken & Maio, 2012. This model could be particularly useful in examining the relation between narcissism and hedonistic and eudaimonic subjective well-being (SWB; Deci & Ryan, 2008. Participants and procedure In an effort to examine the relationship between narcissism and SWB, correlational analyses of survey responses obtained from students (n = 138 were conducted. Agentic narcissism was measured using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Terry, 1988 and communal narcissism by the Communal Narcissism Inventory (CNI; Gebauer et al., 2012. Subjective well-being measures included the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen & Griffin, 1985, Positive And Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson, Clark & Tegellen, 1988, and the Social Well-being Scale (SWBS; Keyes, 1998. Self-esteem was included in the study in order to examine the potential mediating role of self-esteem in the relationship between narcissism and subjective well-being. Results Agentic narcissism was positively related to the affective component of SWB whereas communal narcissism was positively related to the cognitive component of SWB. Both forms of narcissism were positively related to social well-being. All relationships were mediated by the participant’s self-esteem level. Conclusions The results indicate that both agentic narcissism and communal narcissism are positively related to SWB. The results are discussed in the context of the agentic/communal model of narcissism (Gebauer et al., 2012 and hedonistic/eudaimonic well-being (Deci & Ryan, 2008.

  13. Influence of adjunctive classical homeopathy on global health status and subjective wellbeing in cancer patients - A pragmatic randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frass, Michael; Friehs, Helmut; Thallinger, Christiane; Sohal, Narinderjit Kaur; Marosi, Christine; Muchitsch, Ilse; Gaertner, Katharina; Gleiss, Andreas; Schuster, Ernst; Oberbaum, Menachem

    2015-06-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine has increased over the past decade. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether homeopathy influenced global health status and subjective wellbeing when used as an adjunct to conventional cancer therapy. In this pragmatic randomized controlled trial, 410 patients, who were treated by standard anti-neoplastic therapy, were randomized to receive or not receive classical homeopathic adjunctive therapy in addition to standard therapy. The study took place at the Medical University Vienna, Department of Medicine I, Clinical Division of Oncology. The main outcome measures were global health status and subjective wellbeing as assessed by the patients. At each of three visits (one baseline, two follow-up visits), patients filled in two different questionnaires. 373 patients yielded at least one of three measurements. The improvement of global health status between visits 1 and 3 was significantly stronger in the homeopathy group by 7.7 (95% CI 2.3-13.0, p=0.005) when compared with the control group. A significant group difference was also observed with respect to subjective wellbeing by 14.7 (95% CI 8.5-21.0, p<0.001) in favor of the homeopathic as compared with the control group. Control patients showed a significant improvement only in subjective wellbeing between their first and third visits. Results suggest that the global health status and subjective wellbeing of cancer patients improve significantly when adjunct classical homeopathic treatment is administered in addition to conventional therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The subjective well-being of day labourers in South Africa: The role of income and geographical location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip F. Blaauw

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The informal economy in South Africa provides employment to large numbers of people who would otherwise have no opportunity to earn a living. Yet informal activities, such as day labouring, generate highly uncertain returns. Although it seems reasonable to conclude that day labourers would be dissatisfied with their lives, this is not necessarily the case as several factors contribute to people’s subjective well-being.   Aim: This study is in response to a call for more research on the subjective well-being of marginalised groups in South Africa’s informal labour market.   Setting: The day labour market in South Africa, whose members congregate at hiring sites hoping to be picked up by passers-by in need of temporary, casual workers.   Methods: Using Sen’s Capability Approach, the study builds on earlier research conducted on the general well-being of day labourers in South Africa, with specific focus on their subjective well-being and geographical location. The results from a countrywide survey of 3830 day labourers were used in a regression analysis to compare the subjective well-being among day labourers across the nine provinces of South Africa.   Results: There are statistically significant differences in the well-being of day labourers across the nine provinces. Economic variables play a role in both objective and subjective measures of well-being, while attitudinal and comparison variables are significant for the objective and subjective measures, respectively.   Conclusions: Although they have to operate in harsh conditions, day labourers in South Africa display agency by choosing to migrate to richer provinces in search of greater economic opportunity and reward. However, these potential gains are often negated by increased levels of competition and thus depressed wage levels. How to nurture marginalised groups’ abilities to exercise agency and take more control of their lives represents fertile ground for

  15. Happy and healthy: The hypothesis of correlation between subjective well-being and psychological health and its role in late adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Horbal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Subjective well-being as an emotional-cognitive assessment of person’s life is an important aspect of psychological health and positive functioning in general. The hypothesis of connection between subjective well-being, psychological well-being and psychological health is presented. This correlation is very important in late adulthood for ensuring happy obsolescence but has some specifi c peculiarities due to the elderly people’s age and individual traits. Subjective well-being is a background for effective inner work of summarizing person’s previous life that is the main purpose in old age.

  16. Self-esteem and subjective well-being revisited: The roles of personal, relational, and collective self-esteem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfei Du

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE, relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE, and relationships with larger groups (collective self-esteem, CSE. The current research investigated whether RSE and CSE can predict subjective well-being beyond PSE among Chinese college students. With four cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study (N = 847, we found that, when controlling for PSE, RSE was associated with greater life satisfaction, positive affect, meaning in life, happiness, and subjective vitality (Studies 1-5, but CSE was not (Studies 2-5. Implications are discussed.

  17. Self-esteem and subjective well-being revisited: The roles of personal, relational, and collective self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongfei; King, Ronnel B; Chi, Peilian

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE), relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE), and relationships with larger groups (collective self-esteem, CSE). The current research investigated whether RSE and CSE can predict subjective well-being beyond PSE among Chinese college students. With four cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study (N = 847), we found that, when controlling for PSE, RSE was associated with greater life satisfaction, positive affect, meaning in life, happiness, and subjective vitality (Studies 1-5), but CSE was not (Studies 2-5). Implications are discussed.

  18. Self-esteem and subjective well-being revisited: The roles of personal, relational, and collective self-esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongfei; King, Ronnel B.; Chi, Peilian

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE), relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE), and relationships with larger groups (collective self-esteem, CSE). The current research investigated whether RSE and CSE can predict subjective well-being beyond PSE among Chinese college students. With four cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study (N = 847), we found that, when controlling for PSE, RSE was associated with greater life satisfaction, positive affect, meaning in life, happiness, and subjective vitality (Studies 1–5), but CSE was not (Studies 2–5). Implications are discussed. PMID:28841716

  19. Early Childhood Electronic Media Use as a Predictor of Poorer Well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinkley, Trina; Verbestel, Vera; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    , and Social networks subscales from the KINDLR (Questionnaire for Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents–Revised Version). Each scale was dichotomized to identify those children at risk for poorer outcomes. Indicators of electronic media use (weekday and weekend television......Importance Identifying associations between preschool-aged children’s electronic media use and their later well-being is essential to supporting positive long-term outcomes. Objective To investigate possible dose-response associations of young children’s electronic media use with their later well......-being. Design, Setting, and Participants The IDEFICS (Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-Induced Health Effects in Children and Infants) study is a prospective cohort study with an intervention component. Data were collected at baseline from September 1, 2007, through June 30, 2008...

  20. Work-life balance and subjective well-being: the mediating role of need fulfilment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröpel, Peter; Kuhl, Julius

    2009-05-01

    The relationship between work-life balance (WLB) (i.e. the perceived sufficiency of the time available for work and social life) and well-being is well-documented. However, previous research failed to sufficiently explain why this relationship exists. In this research, the hypothesis was tested that a sufficient amount of the time available increases well-being because it facilitates satisfaction of personal needs. Using two separate samples (students and employees), the mediating role of need fulfilment in the relationship between WLB and well-being was supported. The results suggest that perceived sufficiency of the time available for work and social life predicts the level of well-being only if the individual's needs are fulfilled within that time.

  1. What is the problem? A taxonomy of life problems and their relation to subjective well-being in middle and late adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, G.J.; Thissen, A.J.C.; Dittmann-Kohli, F.; Stevens, N.L.

    2006-01-01

    Research on subjective well-being has focused mainly on positive values and goals. This article studies the structure and content of life problems from a theory of personal meaning as well as the relation of these problems to subjective well-being. Data from the German Aging Survey, a representative

  2. The Happiness Analyzer : a New Technique for Measuring Subjective Well-Being : The Happiness Analyzer : een nieuwe techniek voor het meten van subjectief welbevinden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Ludwigs (Kai)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractIn 2013 the OECD published a guideline that represents the gold standard for measuring subjective well-being in greater detail to collect data in the quality needed as a basis for efficient decisions to improve subjective well-being and the evaluation of those decisions to enable

  3. Independent and combined association of overall physical fitness and subjective well-being with fibromyalgia severity : the al-Ándalus project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estévez-López, Fernando; Gray, Cindy M; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Arrayás-Grajera, Manuel J; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Aparicio, Virginia A; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Pulido-Martos, Manuel

    PURPOSE: The present study aimed: (1) to test the associations of overall physical fitness and subjective well-being with fibromyalgia severity and (2) to determine whether the combination of overall physical fitness and subjective well-being is associated with fibromyalgia severity among adult

  4. Income inequality and subjective well-being: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamaba, Kayonda Hubert; Panagioti, Maria; Armitage, Christopher J

    2018-03-01

    Reducing income inequality is one possible approach to boost subjective well-being (SWB). Nevertheless, previous studies have reported positive, null and negative associations between income inequality and SWB. This study reports the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between income inequality and SWB, and seeks to understand the heterogeneity in the literature. This systematic review was conducted according to guidance (PRISMA and Cochrane Handbook) and searches (between January 1980 and October 2017) were carried out using Web of Science, Medline, Embase and PsycINFO databases. Thirty-nine studies were included in the review, but poor data reporting meant that only 24 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The narrative analysis of 39 studies found negative, positive and null associations between income inequality and SWB. The meta-analysis confirmed these findings. The overall association between income inequality and SWB was almost zero and not statistically significant (pooled r = - 0.01, 95% CI - 0.08 to 0.06; Q = 563.10, I 2  = 95.74%, p country economic development (i.e. developed countries: r = - 0.06, 95% CI -0.10 to -0.02 versus developing countries: r = 0.16, 95% CI 0.09-0.23). The association between income inequality and SWB was not influenced by: (a) the measure used to assess SWB, (b) geographic region, or (c) the way in which income inequality was operationalised. The association between income inequality and SWB is weak, complex and moderated by the country economic development.

  5. Economic Strain and Subjective Well-Being in Married Couples With Children: A Dyadic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialena Kostouli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this dyadic study was to investigate whether the economic strain (i.e., perceived deterioration of the financial situation and difficulty to respond to family obligations experienced by married couples with children relates to their satisfaction with life, and whether marital satisfaction and parental self-efficacy mediate this relationship. To this end, we took both actor (i.e., partners' economic strain was expected to relate to their own life satisfaction via their own marital satisfaction and parental self-agency, as well as partner (i.e., partners' economic strain was expected to relate to their spouses' life satisfaction via their spouse's marital satisfaction and parental self-agency effects into account. A total of 134 married couples with children participated in the study. Dyadic analyses revealed that wives’ perceived difficulty to respond to family obligations related to their husbands’ life satisfaction, via their husbands’ parental self-agency. Moreover, annual family income related negatively to wives’ life satisfaction, via wives’ difficulty to respond to their family obligations. In addition, husbands’ deterioration of their financial situation related negatively to their life satisfaction, via their marital satisfaction. Last but not least, husbands’ deterioration of their financial situation related negatively to their wives’ marital satisfaction and parental self-agency. These findings have important implications for counseling because they suggest that married couples' subjective well-being suffers in times of financial turmoil, while gender differences determine the psychological processes through which economic strain relates to husbands' and wives' life satisfaction.

  6. Motivation toward Physical Exercise and Subjective Wellbeing: The Mediating Role of Trait Self-Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Briki

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Motivation toward physical exercise (MPE and trait self-control (TSC were identified as key predictors of subjective wellbeing (SWB. However, there has not been any research designed to examine the mediating role of TSC in the relationship between MPE and SWB. The present study utilizes self-determination theory, control-process theory of self-regulation, and theory of multiple pathways of TSC in order to examine whether TSC mediates the relationships of autonomous MPE (A-MPE, controlled MPE (C-MPE, and impersonal MPE (NO-MPE with SWB using structural equation modeling (XLSTAT PLS. Three hundred seventeen adult American individuals (Mage = 32.97, SDage = 11.30, who reported to be regular exercisers, voluntarily answered questionnaires assessing MPE, TSC, and SWB. Correlational analyses revealed positive relationships between A-MPE, TSC, and SWB, and negative relationships of C-MPE and NO-MPE with TSC and SWB. Mediation analyses revealed that TSC mediated the relationships of A-MPE (partial mediation and C-MPE (full mediation with SWB, but did not mediate the relationship between NO-MPE and SWB. The estimates of the quality of the hypothesized model were acceptable (outer model GoF = .935; absolute GoF = .330; relative GoF = .942; inner model GoF = 1.008; R2 = 36.947%. Finally, this study supports the view that MPE can influence SWB through TSC, and incites to pursue the examination of the relationships between self-determined motivation, self-regulation mechanisms, and health-related outcomes.

  7. The relationship between intensity and duration of physical activity and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicker, Pamela; Frick, Bernd

    2015-10-01

    Previous research documented a positive effect of physical activity on subjective well-being (SWB). Yet, mainly broad activity measures (e.g. resulting from yes-no questions) were used and the effect of different participation intensities and durations has been largely neglected. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of physical activity on SWB by focusing on participation intensity and duration. Survey data from 28 European countries are used for the analysis (n = 22 971). Two regression models (Generalized Method of Moments) are estimated which analyze the effect of participation intensity and duration on SWB (measured by life satisfaction). Given the endogeneity of the participation measures, instrumental variables are used (sport opportunities, club membership, time spent sitting). The models also control for other factors that could affect SWB (e.g. age, occupation). The results for participation intensity show that the number of days people practised at moderate intensity in the week prior to the interview have a significant and positive effect on SWB, while the number of days with vigorous-intensity activity has a significant and negative impact. Similarly, the models for duration indicate that the minutes spent on moderate-intensity activity significantly add to SWB, while the minutes spent on vigorous-intensity activity significantly reduce the level of SWB. The findings challenge the World Health Organization's recommendation in the sense that activity at moderate and vigorous intensity is not interchangeable if the aim is to also improve SWB (and not only physical health). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Subjective well-being: gender differences in Holocaust survivors-specific and cross-national effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Sara; King, David B; O'Rourke, Norm; Bachner, Yaacov G

    2017-06-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB) has become an important concept in evaluating older adults' quality of life. The cognitive and emotional evaluations which are used to appraise it differ in structure, characteristics, and effects on life. The purpose of this study was to support hypotheses regarding expected Holocaust survivors-specific effects and cross-cultural differences on three indicators of SWB. We recruited samples of 50 male and female Israeli Holocaust survivors, other older Israelis, and older Canadians (N = 300) for allowing us to distinguish survivors-specific effects from cross-national differences. State anxiety, depressive symptoms, and life-satisfaction were compared across groups of men and women. Where univariate differences were detected, post hoc comparisons were computed to determine which of the groups significantly differed. In general, a higher level of SWB was found among Canadians in comparison to both comparative Israeli groups. Level of depressive symptoms was significantly higher among women survivors than in the other two groups. Both groups of Israeli women had higher scores on anxiety than Canadian Women; less apparent were differences across groups of men. Life-satisfaction did not differ among the groups. Our findings regarding depression support the survivor-specific effect hypothesis for women, and a national effect on anxiety, but not any effect on life-satisfaction. These findings suggest significant differences in impacts of traumatic life events on cognitive versus emotional indicators of SWB. This issue should be further investigated due to its practical implications in use of various measures of SWB with people who experienced traumatic events.

  9. Big Five personality traits, job satisfaction and subjective wellbeing in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Qingguo; Willis, Mike; O'Shea, Bob; Zhai, Yubo; Yang, Yuwen

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of the Big Five personality traits on job satisfaction and subjective wellbeing (SWB). The paper also examines the mediating role of job satisfaction on the Big Five-SWB relationship. Data were collected from a sample of 818 urban employees from five Chinese cities: Harbin, Changchun, Shenyang, Dalian, and Fushun. All the study variables were measured with well-established multi-item scales that have been validated both in English-speaking populations and in China. The study found only extraversion to have an effect on job satisfaction, suggesting that there could be cultural difference in the relationships between the Big Five and job satisfaction in China and in the West. The study found that three factors in the Big Five--extraversion, conscientiousness, and neuroticism--have an effect on SWB. This finding is similar to findings in the West, suggesting convergence in the relationship between the Big Five and SWB in different cultural contexts. The research found that only the relationship between extraversion and SWB is partially mediated by job satisfaction, implying that the effect of the Big Five on SWB is mainly direct, rather than indirect via job satisfaction. The study also found that extraversion was the strongest predictor of both job satisfaction and SWB. This finding implies that extraversion could be more important than other factors in the Big Five in predicting job satisfaction and SWB in a "high collectivism" and "high power distance" country such as China. The research findings are discussed in the Chinese cultural context. The study also offers suggestions on the directions for future research.

  10. Subjective Well-Being in Older Chinese and Korean Immigrants in the United States: Effects of Self-Rated Health and Employment Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bum Jung; Jun, Hyeyoun; Lee, Jisun; Linton, Kristen; Kim, Meehye; Browne, Colette

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of association between self-rated health and employment status on subjective well-being among older Chinese and Korean immigrants in the United States. Data were collected from 171 Chinese and 205 Korean older adult immigrants living in Los Angeles County. The primary variables included demographic data, subjective index of well-being, self-rated health, and employment status. Data support the association between self-rated health and subjective well-being for both groups. Employment, education, and age were associated with the level of subjective well-being only for older Korean immigrants. Similarities and differences were noted in these two Asian American subgroups. Findings suggest the need to develop health promotion services for both populations and employment opportunities targeted more so for Korean older immigrants to further support their subjective well-being. Results may have implications for other for older immigrants.

  11. Informal Caregiving and Subjective Well-Being: Evidence of a Population-Based Longitudinal Study of Older Adults in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, André; König, Hans-Helmut

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether informal caregiving affects subjective well-being (SWB) of the caregivers in the long run. The German Ageing Survey (DEAS) is a nationwide, representative longitudinal study of community-dwelling individuals living in Germany aged 40 and older. The surveys in 2002, 2008, and 2011 were used (11,264 observations). Several components of SWB were used, covering functional and mental health, and affective (positive affect and negative affect) as well as cognitive well-being. Although functional health was quantified by the subscale "physical functioning" of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), mental health was assessed by using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Life satisfaction (cognitive well-being) was quantified by using the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) and positive and negative affect (affective well-being) was assessed using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Longitudinal regressions revealed that informal care affected (1) mental health in the total sample and in both sexes as well as (2) cognitive well-being in women. The effect of informal care on mental health was significantly moderated by self-efficacy in the total sample. Our findings emphasize the role of informal caregiving for mental health and cognitive well-being (women). Moreover, our findings highlight the role of self-efficacy in the relation between informal care and mental health. Thus, to prevent declines in mental health due to informal care, it might be a fruitful approach to strengthen self-efficacy. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic variants associated with subjective well-being, depressive symptoms and neuroticism identified through genome-wide analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derringer, Jaime; Gratten, Jacob; Lee, James J; Liu, Jimmy Z; de Vlaming, Ronald; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Buchwald, Jadwiga; Cavadino, Alana; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Davies, Gail; Furlotte, Nicholas A; Garfield, Victoria; Geisel, Marie Henrike; Gonzalez, Juan R; Haitjema, Saskia; Karlsson, Robert; van der Laan, Sander W; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Lahti, Jari; van der Lee, Sven J; Miller, Michael B; Lind, Penelope A; Liu, Tian; Matteson, Lindsay; Mihailov, Evelin; Minica, Camelia C; Nolte, Ilja M; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; van der Most, Peter J; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Qian, Yong; Raitakari, Olli; Rawal, Rajesh; Realo, Anu; Rueedi, Rico; Schmidt, Börge; Smith, Albert V; Stergiakouli, Evie; Tanaka, Toshiko; Taylor, Kent; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Wedenoja, Juho; Wellmann, Juergen; Westra, Harm-Jan; Willems, Sara M; Zhao, Wei; Amin, Najaf; Bakshi, Andrew; Bergmann, Sven; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Boyle, Patricia A; Cherney, Samantha; Cox, Simon R; Davis, Oliver S P; Ding, Jun; Direk, Nese; Eibich, Peter; Emeny, Rebecca T; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Faul, Jessica D; Ferrucci, Luigi; Forstner, Andreas J; Gieger, Christian; Gupta, Richa; Harris, Tamara B; Harris, Juliette M; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; De Jager, Philip L; Kaakinen, Marika A; Kajantie, Eero; Karhunen, Ville; Kolcic, Ivana; Kumari, Meena; Launer, Lenore J; Franke, Lude; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Liewald, David C; Koini, Marisa; Loukola, Anu; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Montgomery, Grant W; Mosing, Miriam A; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pattie, Alison; Petrovic, Katja E; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Quaye, Lydia; Räikkönen, Katri; Rudan, Igor; Scott, Rodney J; Smith, Jennifer A; Sutin, Angelina R; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Vinkhuyzen, Anna E; Yu, Lei; Zabaneh, Delilah; Attia, John R; Bennett, David A; Berger, Klaus; Bertram, Lars; Boomsma, Dorret I; Snieder, Harold; Chang, Shun-Chiao; Cucca, Francesco; Deary, Ian J; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Eriksson, Johan G; Bültmann, Ute; de Geus, Eco J C; Groenen, Patrick J F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hansen, Torben; Hartman, Catharine A; Haworth, Claire M A; Hayward, Caroline; Heath, Andrew C; Hinds, David A; Hyppönen, Elina; Iacono, William G; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kardia, Sharon L R; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Kraft, Peter; Kubzansky, Laura D; Lehtimäki, Terho; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Martin, Nicholas G; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Mills, Melinda; de Mutsert, Renée; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Pedersen, Nancy L; Plomin, Robert; Polasek, Ozren; Power, Christine; Rich, Stephen S; Rosendaal, Frits R; den Ruijter, Hester M; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Helena; Svento, Rauli; Schmidt, Reinhold; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Spector, Tim D; Starr, John M; Stefansson, Kari; Steptoe, Andrew; Terracciano, Antonio; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thurik, A Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tiemeier, Henning; Uitterlinden, André G; Vollenweider, Peter; Wagner, Gert G; Weir, David R; Yang, Jian; Conley, Dalton C; Smith, George Davey; Hofman, Albert; Johannesson, Magnus; Laibson, David I; Medland, Sarah E; Meyer, Michelle N; Pickrell, Joseph K; Esko, Tõnu; Krueger, Robert F; Beauchamp, Jonathan P; Koellinger, Philipp D; Benjamin, Daniel J; Bartels, Meike; Cesarini, David

    2016-01-01

    We conducted genome-wide association studies of three phenotypes: subjective well-being (N = 298,420), depressive symptoms (N = 161,460), and neuroticism (N = 170,910). We identified three variants associated with subjective well-being, two with depressive symptoms, and eleven with neuroticism, including two inversion polymorphisms. The two depressive symptoms loci replicate in an independent depression sample. Joint analyses that exploit the high genetic correlations between the phenotypes (|ρ^| ≈ 0.8) strengthen the overall credibility of the findings, and allow us to identify additional variants. Across our phenotypes, loci regulating expression in central nervous system and adrenal/pancreas tissues are strongly enriched for association. PMID:27089181

  13. Objective confirmation of subjective measures of human well-being: evidence from the U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Andrew J; Wu, Stephen

    2010-01-29

    A huge research literature, across the behavioral and social sciences, uses information on individuals' subjective well-being. These are responses to questions--asked by survey interviewers or medical personnel--such as, "How happy do you feel on a scale from 1 to 4?" Yet there is little scientific evidence that such data are meaningful. This study examines a 2005-2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System random sample of 1.3 million U.S. citizens. Life satisfaction in each U.S. state is measured. Across America, people's answers trace out the same pattern of quality of life as previously estimated, from solely nonsubjective data, in one branch of economics (so-called "compensating differentials" neoclassical theory, originally from Adam Smith). There is a state-by-state match (r = 0.6, P < 0.001) between subjective and objective well-being. This result has some potential to help to unify disciplines.

  14. Sleep duration and subjective psychological well-being in adolescence: a longitudinal study in Switzerland and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, Serge; Lemola,Sakari; Holsboer-Trachsler,Edith; Grob,Alexander; Kalak,Nadeem

    2014-01-01

    Nadeem Kalak,1 Sakari Lemola,2 Serge Brand,1,3 Edith Holsboer–Trachsler,1 Alexander Grob21Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorder, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, Basel, Switzerland; 2Department of Psychology, 3Department of Sport and Health Science, Division of Sport Science, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: Adolescents’ sleep duration and subjective psychological well-being are...

  15. Achievement Goal Orientations and Adolescents’ Subjective Well-Being in School: The Mediating Roles of Academic Social Comparison Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E. Scott

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males;...

  16. Self-esteem and subjective well-being revisited: The roles of personal, relational, and collective self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Hongfei; King, Ronnel B.; Chi, Peilian

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE), relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE), and relationships with larg...

  17. Socio-emotional selectivity in elderly and old age as a factor of subjective well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Melehin A.I.

    2016-01-01

    The article shows that the presence of social support, сonfidant network is associated with positive subjective well-being in elderly (55 - 74 years) and old age (75-90 years). However, certain types of social interaction can be considered as predictors of affective disorders and chronic somatic disorders in later ages as in normal aging and in neurodegenerative disorders. The purpose of this article is to familiarize professionals in the mental health of people of later ages with the theory ...

  18. Influences on happiness and subjective well-being of entrepreneurs and labour: KwaZulu-Natal case study

    OpenAIRE

    Mahadea, Darma; Ramroop, Shaun

    2015-01-01

    Globally, individuals seek happiness, but not everybody is happy.  Economic reasoning suggests that rising incomes with expansions in GDP enhance the quality of life and subjective well-being.  This paper examines the influences on individual happiness, using ordinal logistic regression and chi-square analyses.  Based on the findings of a small case study, the chi-square test indicated that a significant relationship exists between gender, education, ethnicity, children, marital status, emplo...

  19. Moving up and sliding down: An empirical assessment of the effect of social mobility on subjective wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Dolan, P.; Lordan, G.

    2013-01-01

    Many people remain in the same income group as their parents and this is a cause of much discussion and some concern. In this work, we examine how intergenerational mobility affects subjective wellbeing (SWB) using the British Cohort Study. Our SWB measures encapsulate life satisfaction and mental health. We find that relative income mobility is a significant predictor of life satisfaction and mental health whether people move upward or downward. For absolute income, mobility is only a predic...

  20. Does psychological strengths and subjective well-being predicting parental involvement and problem solving among Malaysian and Indian students?

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Aqeel; Ahmad, Roslee; Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Mustaffa, Mohamed Sharif; Tahir, Lokman Mohd

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the predictors of psychological strengths and subjective well-being for dealing with academic stress perceived by university engineering students. Sample of 400 Malaysian (N?=?180 boys and N?=?220 girls) age varies 18 to 25?years and 400 Indian students (N?=?240 boys and N?=?160 girls) age varies 18 to 25?years from public universities were participated. Quantitative method was used for data analysis. Findings shows that gender, religiosity and socioeconomic status ...

  1. Subjective Well-being and Family Functioning among Adolescents Left Behind by Migrating Parents in Jiangxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jia; Hu, Fang; Wu, Jing; Zou, Zhi Yong; Wang, Yi Xin; Peng, Hua Can; Vermund, Sten H; Hu, Yi Fei; Ma, Ying Hua

    2018-05-01

    We sought to identify the differences between adolescents left behind in their home villages/towns (LBA) and non-left behind adolescents (NLB) on subjective well-being and family functioning due to parental migration in south China. We used a stratified cluster sampling method to recruit middle school students in a city experiencing population-emigration in Jiangxi Province in 2010. Participants included adolescents from families with: (1) one migrant parent, (2) both parents who migrated, or (3) non-left behind adolescents (i.e., no migrant parent). To determine predictors of subjective well-being, we used structural equation models. Adolescents left behind by both parents (LBB) were less likely to express life satisfaction (P = 0.038) in terms of their environments (P = 0.011) compared with NLB. A parent or parents who migrated predicts lower subjective well-being of adolescents (P = 0.051) and also lower academic performance. Being apart from their parents may affect family functioning negatively from an adolescent's viewpoint. Given the hundreds of millions of persons in China, many who are parents, migrating for work, there may be mental health challenges in some of the adolescents left behind. Copyright © 2018 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  2. Caring for frail elders with musculoskeletal conditions and family caregivers' subjective well-being: The role of multidimensional caregiver burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Nan; Liu, Jinyu; Lou, Vivian W Q

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the unique set of correlates of each dimension of the burden experienced by family caregivers of frail elders with musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions in China, and the role of caregiver burden in between caregiver stressors and subjective well-being. The data was derived from a community sample of 494 elder-caregiver dyads from six urban districts of Shanghai (China). The elders were aged 75 or above, needed assistance in activities of daily living (ADL) and had MSK conditions. The family caregivers were these elders' primary caregivers and at the age of 18 or older. Path analysis was used to examine the proposed model. Care recipients' functional health, cognitive status and behavioral problems affected the multiple dimensions of caregiver burden differently. These three stressors also indirectly affected caregivers' subjective well-being through physical, social and developmental burden. The findings highlighted the mediator role of caregiver burden in between caregiver stressors and subjective well-being, which supported burden-as-mediator theory in understanding family caregiving for frail elders with musculoskeletal conditions in a Chinese context. The focus of intervention should be varied according to the levels of the primary stressors. Policy and intervention implications with regard to the ways of helping Chinese families care for their frail elders with MSK conditions were discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Explaining Differences in Subjective Well-Being Across 33 Nations Using Multilevel Models: Universal Personality, Cultural Relativity, and National Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cecilia; Cheung, Mike W-L; Montasem, Alex

    2016-02-01

    This multinational study simultaneously tested three prominent hypotheses--universal disposition, cultural relativity, and livability--that explained differences in subjective well-being across nations. We performed multilevel structural equation modeling to examine the hypothesized relationships at both individual and cultural levels in 33 nations. Participants were 6,753 university students (2,215 men; 4,403 women; 135 did not specify), and the average age of the entire sample was 20.97 years (SD = 2.39). Both individual- and cultural-level analyses supported the universal disposition and cultural relativity hypotheses by revealing significant associations of subjective well-being with Extraversion, Neuroticism, and independent self-construal. In addition, interdependent self-construal was positively related to life satisfaction at the individual level only, whereas aggregated negative affect was positively linked with aggregate levels of Extraversion and interdependent self-construal at the cultural level only. Consistent with the livability hypothesis, gross national income (GNI) was related to aggregate levels of negative affect and life satisfaction. There was also a quadratic relationship between GNI and aggregated positive affect. Our findings reveal that universal disposition, cultural self-construal, and national income can elucidate differences in subjective well-being, but the multilevel analyses advance the literature by yielding new findings that cannot be identified in studies using individual-level analyses alone. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Bright versus dim ambient light affects subjective well-being but not serotonin-related biological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemer, Bettina; Melmer, Andreas; Fuchs, Dietmar; Ebenbichler, Christoph; Kemmler, Georg; Deisenhammer, Eberhard A

    2015-10-30

    Light falling on the retina is converted into an electrical signal which stimulates serotonin synthesis. Previous studies described an increase of plasma and CNS serotonin levels after bright light exposure. Ghrelin and leptin are peptide hormones which are involved in the regulation of hunger/satiety and are related to serotonin. Neopterin and kynurenine are immunological markers which are also linked to serotonin biosynthesis. In this study, 29 healthy male volunteers were exposed to bright (5000lx) and dim (50lx) light conditions for 120min in a cross-over manner. Subjective well-being and hunger as well as various serotonin associated plasma factors were assessed before and after light exposure. Subjective well-being showed a small increase under bright light and a small decrease under dim light, resulting in a significant interaction between light condition and time. Ghrelin concentrations increased significantly under both light conditions, but there was no interaction between light and time. Correspondingly, leptin decreased significantly under both light conditions. Hunger increased significantly with no light-time interaction. We also found a significant decrease of neopterin, tryptophan and tyrosine levels, but no interaction between light and time. In conclusion, ambient light was affecting subjective well-being rather than serotonin associated biological factors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. On "feeling right" in cultural contexts: how person-culture match affects self-esteem and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, C Ashley; Gelfand, Michele J; Kruglanski, Arie W; Kim-Prieto, Chu; Diener, Ed; Pierro, Antonio; Higgins, E Tory

    2010-11-01

    Whether one is in one's native culture or abroad, one's personality can differ markedly from the personalities of the majority, thus failing to match the "cultural norm." Our studies examined how the interaction of individual- and cultural-level personality affects people's self-esteem and well-being. We propose a person-culture match hypothesis that predicts that when a person's personality matches the prevalent personalities of other people in a culture, culture functions as an important amplifier of the positive effect of personality on self-esteem and subjective well-being at the individual level. Across two studies, using data from more than 7,000 individuals from 28 societies, multilevel random-coefficient analyses showed that when a relation between a given personality trait and well-being or self-esteem exists at the individual level, the relation is stronger in cultures characterized by high levels of that personality dimension. Results were replicated across extraversion, promotion focus, and locomotive regulatory mode. Our research has practical implications for the well-being of both cultural natives and migrants.

  6. Factors Associated with the Anxiety, Subjective Psychological Well-Being and Self-Esteem of Parents of Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola-Carmona, Juan Jesús; López-Liria, Remedios; Padilla-Góngora, David; Daza, María Teresa; Aguilar-Parra, José Manuel; Salido-Campos, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to examine the connection of the personal, social and family context, educational variables with the levels of anxiety, subjective psychological well-being and self-esteem in a sample of 61 parents of blind children. Results suggest that parents present less anxiety when they have only one child, possess a technical degree, receive remuneration for their work, their child's visual impairment is not progressive, their knowledge about their child's disability is appropriate, and their leisure and labour possibilities have not been affected. Their psychological well-being is higher when they are married in first nuptials and perceive that their health is good. Their well-being is negatively related to reduced leisure, and self-esteem is lower when labour possibilities have been affected. In order for these families to achieve a more pleasant life, with greater psychological well-being, lower anxiety and higher self-esteem, professionals should be aware of the aspects with a negative impact.

  7. Fear of happiness predicts subjective and psychological well-being above the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) model of personality

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Yildirim; Hacer Belen

    2018-01-01

    Fear of happiness is an important psychological construct and has a significant effect on life outcomes such as well-being. This study sought to examine whether fear of happiness could explain variance in subjective well-being and psychological well-being domains after controlling for Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and Behavioral Activation System (BAS) Model of Personality. A total of 243 participants (189 males and 54 females) completed Fear of Happiness Scale, Positive-Negative Affect ...

  8. Social Network Type and Subjective Well-Being in a National Sample of Older Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Howard; Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The study considers the social networks of older Americans, a population for whom there have been few studies of social network type. It also examines associations between network types and well-being indicators: loneliness, anxiety, and happiness. Design and Methods: A subsample of persons aged 65 years and older from the first wave of…

  9. Enhancing the Educational Subject: Cognitive Capitalism, Positive Psychology and Well-Being Training in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, James

    2013-01-01

    Positive psychology is influencing educational policy and practice in Britain and North America. This article reveals how this psychological discourse and its offshoot school-based training programs, which stress happiness, self-improvement and well-being, align with an emergent socio-economic formation: cognitive capitalism. Three key points are…

  10. Efficacy of yoga therapy on subjective well-being and basic living skills of patients having chronic schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Paikkatt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scientific studies demonstrate efficacy of yogic treatment methods in stress and anxiety related disorders, psychosomatic disorders and physical illness. Very few studies have been conducted on schizophrenic patients. Aims: This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of yoga therapy on subjective well-being, basic living skills, self-care, interpersonal, communicational and routine functions of schizophrenic patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty chronic schizophrenic hospitalized patients were selected from Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry and Allied Sciences, Ranchi and were randomly assigned to the experimental group (yoga therapy along with Pharmacotherapy, n=15, and to control group (Pharmacotherapy alone, n=15. Baseline assessment was done using Post Graduate Institute general well-being measure (GWBM, Checklist for basic living skills and Indian disability evaluation and assessment scale (IDEAS. The experimental group attended yoga therapy every day for about 1΍ h including motivational and feedback session. After 1 month post-assessment was done for both the groups. Statistical Analysis: Pearson Chi-square test was used for comparing the results. Results: At the end of 1 month experimental group showed better rating in comparison to control group in PGI GWBM, basic living skills and IDEAS. Conclusion: Yoga could improve patients′ subjective well-being, their daily basic living functioning, personal hygiene, self-care, interpersonal activities and communication, and prompted more involvement in routine work.

  11. Resilient family processes, personal reintegration, and subjective well-being outcomes for military personnel and their family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Malissa A; O'Neal, Catherine W; Conley, Kate M; Mancini, Jay A

    2018-01-01

    Deployment affects not just the service members, but also their family members back home. Accordingly, this study examined how resilient family processes during a deployment (i.e., frequency of communication and household management) were related to the personal reintegration of each family member (i.e., how well each family member begins to "feel like oneself again" after a deployment), as well as several indicators of subjective well-being. Drawing from the family attachment network model (Riggs & Riggs, 2011), the present study collected survey data from 273 service members, their partners, and their adolescent children. Resilient family processes during the deployment itself (i.e., frequency of communication, household management), postdeployment positive and negative personal reintegration, and several indicators of well-being were assessed. Frequency of communication was related to personal reintegration for service members, while household management was related to personal reintegration for nondeployed partners; both factors were related to personal reintegration for adolescents. Negative and positive personal reintegration related to a variety of subjective well-being outcomes for each individual family member. Interindividual (i.e., crossover) effects were also found, particularly between adolescents and nondeployed partners. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The Pursuit of Happiness in China: Individualism, Collectivism, and Subjective Well-Being during China's Economic and Social Transformation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Liza G; Lynch, Scott M

    2013-11-01

    This paper examines the consequences of China's dramatic socioeconomic and political transformations for individual subjective well-being (SWB) from 1990 to 2007. Although many still consider China to be a collectivist country, and some scholars have argued that collectivist factors would be important predictors of individual well-being in such a context, our analysis demonstrates that the Chinese are increasingly prioritizing individualist factors in assessments of their own happiness and life satisfaction thus substantiating descriptions of their society as increasingly individualistic. While the vast majority of quality of life studies have focused on Westerners, this study contributes findings from the unique cultural context of China. Moreover, concentration on this particular period in Chinese history offers insight into the relationship between SWB and rapid socioeconomic and political change.

  13. Effect of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship on Adolescent Boys' Body Image and Subjective Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Ofra; Shenaar-Golan, Vered

    2017-07-01

    Adolescent boys must cope with physical changes that hamper their ability to form a positive body image. Sociocultural messages influence the concepts of body image, personal appearance, and weight, encouraging men to develop lean and muscular bodies. The current study examined adolescent boys' body image and its relationship to their subjective well-being (SWB) and the effect of the parent-adolescent relationship on body image and SWB. Participating in the research were 107 adolescent boys in Israel, aged 13 to 18 years. Four questionnaires were utilized: demographic, body mass index, Body Investment Scale, and Personal Well-Being Index. The findings indicate a significant, medium positive correlation between SWB and body image. After controlling for the variable of parent-adolescent relationship, the correlation weakened, indicating that the parent-adolescent relationship has no effect on adolescent boys' SWB and body image. Body image was reported to be a predictor of SWB.

  14. What matters to the rich and the poor? Subjective well-being, financial satisfaction, and postmaterialist needs across the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Weiting; Diener, Ed

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the importance of financial satisfaction versus postmaterialist needs for subjective well-being (SWB). Using the Gallup World Poll, we examined whether financial satisfaction and postmaterialist needs (pertaining to autonomy, social support, and respect) were universal predictors of the different components of SWB across the world, and whether their effects were moderated by national affluence. Results showed that financial satisfaction was the strongest predictor of life evaluation, whereas respect was the strongest predictor of positive feelings. Both measures predicted negative feelings to some extent. Multilevel analyses also revealed moderating effects of societal wealth. The association between financial satisfaction and SWB and that between postmaterialist needs and SWB were stronger in richer nations compared with poorer ones. This suggests that developed economies should continue to focus on both material and psychological aspects, and not disregard economic gains, as both measures are essential to well-being.

  15. Path Analysis of Work Family Conflict, Job Salary and Promotion Satisfaction, Work Engagement to Subjective Well-Being of the Primary and Middle School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chun-mei; Cui, Shu-jing; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the path analysis of work family conflict, job salary and promotion satisfaction, work engagement to subjective well-being of the primary and middle school principals, and provide advice for enhancing their well-being. Methods: Using convenient sampling, totally 300 primary and middle school principals completed the WFC,…

  16. Differences in the association of subjective wellbeing measures with health, socioeconomic status, and social conditions among residents of an Eastern Cape township

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Cramm (Jane); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe use of variably self-reported measures of wellbeing may produce differing outcomes. This study examined the differences in association with health, socioeconomic status, and social conditions (marital status, social capital) of two widely used cognitive subjective wellbeing

  17. Predicting changes in posttraumatic growth and subjective well-being among breast cancer survivors: the role of social support and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Meghan H; Sabiston, Catherine M; Wrosch, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Social support is theoretically expected to be positively associated with posttraumatic growth (PTG) and subjective well-being, and stress is expected to be positively associated with PTG and negatively associated with subjective well-being among breast cancer (BC) survivors. However, empirical evidence is mixed, predominantly cross-sectional, and few studies have examined the unique effects of these predictors on positive changes in psychological experiences post cancer diagnosis and systemic treatment. This study examined both general and BC-specific social support and stress as predictors of change in PTG and subjective well-being among BC survivors. Women (N = 173, Mage  = 55.40, SD = 10.99) who had recently finished treatment completed demographic and treatment measures at baseline (T1); general and cancer-specific social support and stress, PTG and subjective well-being at 3 months (T2); and PTG and subjective well-being again at 6 months (T3). Longitudinal predictors of change in PTG and subjective well-being were examined using hierarchical multiple regression. The BC-specific social support (β = .12) and stress (cancer worry; β = .10) predicted increasing levels of PTG. Improvements in subjective well-being were predicted by higher levels of general social support (β = .21) and lower levels of general stress (β = -.59). There are distinct predictors of change in PTG and subjective well-being among BC survivors, supporting the distinction between the trauma-specific process of PTG and well-being. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Determinants of subjective emotional well-being and self-determination of employees

    OpenAIRE

    Šarotar Žižek, Simona; Mulej, Matjaž; Milfelner, Borut

    2018-01-01

    Work is a crucial part of human life. One should attain employees’ well-being (WB) to support organisational success. In the first phase, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was employed to assess the dimensionality, reliability, and validity of the reflective latent constructs. In the second phase, structural equation modelling was performed to test the research hypotheses. By structural equation modelling we found that physical health (PH) statistically significant negatively affects sub...

  19. Determinants of Subjective Emotional Well-Being and Self-Determination of Employees: Slovene Case

    OpenAIRE

    Šarotar Žižek Simona; Mulej Matjaž; Milfelner Borut

    2017-01-01

    Work is a crucial part of human life. One should attain employees’ well-being (WB) to support organisational success. In the first phase, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was employed to assess the dimensionality, reliability, and validity of the reflective latent constructs. In the second phase, structural equation modelling was performed to test the research hypotheses. By structural equation modelling we found that physical health (PH) statistically significant negatively affects sub...

  20. Comparing subjective well-being and health-related quality of life of Australian drug users in treatment in regional and rural Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter G; Hyder, Shannon; Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Droste, Nicolas; Harris, Jane B

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the self-reported subjective well-being and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of alcohol and other drug users and to examine whether subjective well-being in this sample would be predicted by either HRQOL and/or severity of dependence. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 201 Victorian substance users in individual targeted outpatient treatment for a variety of types of substance use. Participants were administered an interview, including the personal well-being index, the SF-8 health survey and the severity of dependence scale, in order to assess subjective well-being, the mental health component of HRQOL and severity of drug dependence respectively. Subjective well-being was predicted by mental health aspects of HRQOL (sr(2)  = 0.03) and by employment (sr(2)  = 0.05), rather than by severity of dependence [F(5, 146) = 5.60, P well-being than do the general population. Subjective well-being was predicted by mental aspects of HRQOL and not by severity of drug dependence or by physical aspects of HRQOL. Treatment which aims to improve substance users' well-being should include mental health interventions and pathways to employment. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  1. Fear of happiness predicts subjective and psychological well-being above the behavioral inhibition system (BIS and behavioral activation system (BAS model of personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yildirim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fear of happiness is an important psychological construct and has a significant effect on life outcomes such as well-being. This study sought to examine whether fear of happiness could explain variance in subjective well-being and psychological well-being domains after controlling for Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS and Behavioral Activation System (BAS Model of Personality. A total of 243 participants (189 males and 54 females completed Fear of Happiness Scale, Positive-Negative Affect Schedule, Psychological Well-being Scales and BIS/BAS personality scales. In terms of correlational analyses, fear of happiness revealed significant negative correlations with positive affect, all domains of psychological well-being except purpose in life (autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations with others, and self-acceptance and BAS fun seeking dimension while a significant positive correlation was found with negative affect. With regard to hierarchical multiple regression analyses, fear of happiness accounted for a unique variance in both affective aspects of subjective well-being, namely positive and negative affect and three aspects of psychological well-being (autonomy, positive relations and self-acceptance after controlling for BIS/BAS personality model. These results suggested that fear of happiness is uniquely useful to both subjective and psychological well-being beyond the effect of the aspects of BIS/BAS personality.

  2. Using Exponential Random Graph Models to Analyze the Character of Peer Relationship Networks and Their Effects on the Subjective Well-being of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Can; Wang, Ting; Liu, Jianxin; Wu, Huanjie; Cui, Fang; Peng, Xiaozhe

    2017-01-01

    The influences of peer relationships on adolescent subjective well-being were investigated within the framework of social network analysis, using exponential random graph models as a methodological tool. The participants in the study were 1,279 students (678 boys and 601 girls) from nine junior middle schools in Shenzhen, China. The initial stage of the research used a peer nomination questionnaire and a subjective well-being scale (used in previous studies) to collect data on the peer relationship networks and the subjective well-being of the students. Exponential random graph models were then used to explore the relationships between students with the aim of clarifying the character of the peer relationship networks and the influence of peer relationships on subjective well being. The results showed that all the adolescent peer relationship networks in our investigation had positive reciprocal effects, positive transitivity effects and negative expansiveness effects. However, none of the relationship networks had obvious receiver effects or leaders. The adolescents in partial peer relationship networks presented similar levels of subjective well-being on three dimensions (satisfaction with life, positive affects and negative affects) though not all network friends presented these similarities. The study shows that peer networks can affect an individual's subjective well-being. However, whether similarities among adolescents are the result of social influences or social choices needs further exploration, including longitudinal studies that investigate the potential processes of subjective well-being similarities among adolescents.

  3. Eating habits and subjective well-being. A typology of students in Chilean state universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda, Horacio; Lobos, Germán; Orellana, Ligia; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela; Etchebarne, Soledad; Mora, Marcos; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to distinguish and characterize university student typologies according to their life satisfaction and satisfaction with their food-related life. An online survey was applied between June and August 2013 in five state universities in Chile, to 369 university students (mean age = 20.9 years, SD = 2.27). The survey included the Health-related Quality of Life Index-4 (HRQOL), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life Scale (SWFL), as well as questions about the place of residence, importance of food for well-being, frequency of meals in the place of residence and the frequency of consumption of eight food groups. A cluster analysis was used to determine student typologies. Three typologies of students were distinguished with significant differences in the average scores of the SWLS and SWFL scales, self-perception of health, days with mental health problems, number of days of health-related incapacity, place of residence, socioeconomic status, importance of food for well-being, frequency of breakfast and dinner in the place of residence, frequency of consumption of meat, milk, fruits and vegetables. It was found that most students with higher levels of life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life live with their parents, eat at home more frequently, report fewer health problems, have healthful eating habits and consider food very important for their well-being. Although it is necessary to promote or improve the campaigns that foster healthful eating in the entire university population, these campaigns must be specifically targeted to students who do not receive direct support from their families. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analyzing Trends in Subjective Well-Being in 15 European Countries, 1973-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Pedersen, Peder J.

    2008-01-01

    by exploiting a long and complete time-series from the Eurobarometer Survey, 1973-2002 allowing an examination of trends in life satisfaction across 15 European countries employing a modified version of Kendall's Tau. Our results show that while current GDP growth does not affect trends in well......-being, accelerations in GDP growth do. In addition, faster GDP growth and faster growth of government consumption than in neighbouring countries induces positive trends in life satisfaction. Our findings are consistent with the predictions of aspirations theory and the theory of reference group comparisons.  ...

  5. Stress management interventions: Improving subjective psychological well-being in the workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Holman, David; Johnson, Sheena; O'Connor, Elinor

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter we provide an overview of stress management interventions (SMI) and review the evidence for their effects on employee stress and well-being. We start by setting out a typology of SMI that classes SMI according to level (i.e., the individual-level or organisation-level) and focus (i.e., a ‘primary’ focus on altering the causes of stress or a ‘secondary’ or ‘tertiary’ focus on reducing stress itself). We then use this typology to describe key types of SMI, after which we review ...

  6. Subjective well-being and minimum wages: Evidence from U.S. states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Masanori

    2018-02-01

    This paper investigates whether increases in minimum wages are associated with higher life satisfaction by using monthly-level state minimum wages and individual-level data from the 2005-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The magnitude I find suggests that a 10% increase in the minimum wage is associated with a 0.03-point increase in life satisfaction for workers without a high school diploma, on a 4-point scale. Contrary to popular belief that higher minimum wages hurt business owners, I find little evidence that higher minimum wages lead to the loss of well-being among self-employed people. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. An examination of personality, emotional intelligence, coping, gender and subjective well-being with perceived stress (trait and state) in undergraduate students.

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Shona Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This multivariate study aimed to further understand student stress. Associations between personality, emotional intelligence, coping and subjective well-being with perceived stress (trait and state) were examined in 238 undergraduate students, using self-report measures. Gender differences in these variables were also investigated. The results showed that students low in emotional stability, extraversion, emotional intelligence, subjective well-being and those with a tendency to use emotion...

  8. Downsides of an overly context-sensitive self: implications from the culture and subjective well-being research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Eunkook M

    2007-12-01

    The self becomes context sensitive in service of the need to belong. When it comes to achieving personal happiness, an identity system that derives its worth and meaning excessively from its social context puts itself in a significantly disadvantageous position. This article integrates empirical findings and ideas from the self, subjective well-being, and cross-cultural literature and tries to offer insights to why East Asian cultural members report surprisingly low levels of happiness. The various cognitive, motivational, behavioral, and affective characteristics of the overly relation-oriented self are discussed as potential explanations. Implications for the study of self and culture are offered.

  9. The moderating and mediating roles of self-acceptance and tolerance to others in the relationship between mindfulness and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Oei, Tian Ps; Liu, Xinghua; Wang, Xiaoming; Ding, Chen

    2016-07-01

    This study explored the moderating and mediating influences of self-acceptance and tolerance to others in the relationship between mindfulness and subjective well-being. In total, 301 (130 males) university students completed the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, Index of Well-being, Self-acceptance Questionnaire, and Tolerance Scale. The results showed that the positive link between mindfulness and subjective well-being was significantly mediated by self-acceptance only. Tolerance played a moderating role. The implications of the results for relevant research and mindfulness training were discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. The Half-Life of Happiness: Hedonic Adaptation in the Subjective Well-Being of Poor Slum Dwellers to a Large Improvement in Housing

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Galiani; Paul J. Gertler; Raimundo Undurraga

    2015-01-01

    Subjective well-being may not improve in step with increases in material well-being due to hedonic adaptation, a psychological process that attenuates the long-term emotional impact of a favorable or unfavorable change in circumstances, such that people’s happiness eventually returns to a stable reference level. We use a multi-country field experiment to examine the impact of the provision of improved housing to extremely poor populations on subjective measures of well-being to test whether p...

  11. Economic and cultural correlates of subjective wellbeing in countries using data from the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaygisiz, Esma

    2010-06-01

    The correlations among indicators of objective well-being, cultural dimensions, and subjective well-being were investigated using Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) data from 35 countries. The subjective well-being measures included life satisfaction as well as six positive and six negative indexes of experience. Positive and negative experience scores were subjected to principal component analysis, and two positive experience components (labeled as "positive experiences" and "time management") and two negative experience components (labeled as "pain, worry, and sadness" and "anger and boredom") were extracted. Objective well-being included economic indicators, education, and health. The cultural variables included Hofstede's and Schwartz's cultural dimensions, national Big Five personality scores, and national IQs. High life satisfaction was positively related to Gross Domestic Product, life expectancy, education, individualism, affective and intellectual autonomy, egalitarianism, and conscientiousness, whereas low life satisfaction was related to unemployment, unequal income distribution, power distance, masculinity uncertainty avoidance, embeddedness, hierarchy, and neuroticism.

  12. Psychological need-satisfaction and subjective well-being within social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Kennon M; Bettencourt, B Ann

    2002-03-01

    Five candidate measures of psychological need-satisfaction were evaluated as predictors of high positive and low negative mood within the group, intrinsic motivation for group activities, and high commitment to the group. Consistent with self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1991), personal autonomy and interpersonal relatedness both predicted positive outcomes. Consistent with optimal distinctiveness theory (Brewer, 1991), feeling included within the group, feeling personally distinctive within the group, and feeling that the group is distinctive compared to other groups, also predicted positive outcomes. Simultaneous regression analyses indicated that the five needs were differentially related to the different well-being indicators, and also suggested that group inclusion may be the most important need to satisfy within group contexts. Supplementary analyses showed that members of formal groups felt less personal autonomy, but more group distinctiveness, compared to informal group members.

  13. Self-esteem mediates the relationship between spirituality and subjective well-being in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshanloo, Mohsen; Daemi, Fatemeh

    2015-03-01

    Self-esteem appears to play a central role in the spiritual life and ethical behaviour of the typical Iranian. For example, for many Iranians, humankind is believed to be the crown of creation, and each person is believed to be individually valued by God. Previous empirical studies also indicate that in Iran spirituality is positively associated with self-esteem. On this basis, it was hypothesised that self-esteem would be one of the mechanisms through which spirituality leads to increased mental well-being. Mediation analysis showed that self-esteem was a partial mediator of the spirituality-well-being relationship. Moreover, results of moderated mediation analysis revealed that this mediation was not significantly moderated by gender, and that the indirect path through self-esteem was significant in both genders. Implications of the results and their relevance to other western and eastern religions (e.g. Christianity and Buddhism) are discussed. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  14. Subjective well-being and cardiometabolic health: An 8-11year study of midlife adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Julia K; Chen, Ying; Williams, David R; Ryff, Carol D; Kubzansky, Laura D

    2016-06-01

    Individuals who are satisfied and experience frequent positive emotions tend to have reduced risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, conflicting evidence exists and little research has investigated whether well-being is associated with early-warning indicators of biological risk that precede CHD. We investigated whether life satisfaction and positive emotions longitudinally predicted reduced risk of incident cardiometabolic conditions and healthier cardiometabolic risk scores, which may provide insight into underlying mechanisms and novel prevention targets. Initially healthy men and women (N=754-854) reported their baseline life satisfaction and positive emotions. During follow-up, presence of manifest cardiometabolic conditions was assessed and a separate cardiometabolic risk score was constructed from eight biomarkers. Poisson and linear regression analyses tested whether life satisfaction and positive emotions were associated with reduced incident disease risk and lower cardiometabolic risk scores 8-11years later. Life satisfaction and positive emotions were each prospectively associated with reduced risk of manifest conditions, controlling for demographics and family history of CHD. Associations were attenuated for positive emotions after adjusting for depressive symptoms and for life satisfaction after adjusting for health behaviors. Life satisfaction was associated with lower cardiometabolic risk scores until adding health behaviors, but positive emotions were not (regardless of the included covariates). Well-being, particularly life satisfaction, is associated with reduced risk for incident cardiometabolic conditions in minimally-adjusted models. However, accounting for underlying behavioral pathways attenuates the association. Low levels of life satisfaction (but not positive emotions) may also provide early warning of cardiometabolic risk prior to disease development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of Subjective Well-Being and Personality Assessments in the Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), Snow Leopard (Panthera uncia), and African Lion (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Marieke Cassia; Powell, David M; Weiss, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The study of subjective well-being in nonhuman animals is growing in the field of psychology, but there are still only a few published studies and the focus is on primates. To consider whether the construct of subjective well-being could be found in another mammal, this study aimed to assess subjective well-being in felids and to examine its association with personality. Personality is one of the strongest and most consistent predictors of well-being in humans. This relationship could have important implications for other species, because personality has also been shown to affect health outcomes including stress, morbidity, and mortality. As in previous studies in nonhuman animals, the study results revealed that subjective well-being was related to agreeableness/openness and neuroticism in clouded leopards, neuroticism in snow leopards, and impulsiveness and neuroticism in African lions. The implications of these results for health outcomes and the welfare of animals in captivity are discussed. More research on any direct links among personality, subjective well-being, and these outcomes is important to advancing this field and adding another tool for improving captive animals' lives.

  16. Objective Indicators of Physical Activity and Sedentary Time and Associations with Subjective Well-Being in Adults Aged 70 and Over

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Withall

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the associations of the volume and intensity of physical activity and the volume of sedentary time with subjective well-being in a diverse group of 228 older adults in the UK (111 female, mean age 78.2 years (SD 5.8. Physical activity (PA and sedentary behaviour were assessed by accelerometry deriving mean steps per day, mean moderate/vigorous PA minutes per hour (MVPA min·h−1 and minutes of sedentary time per hour (ST min·h−1. Lower limb function was assessed by the Short Physical Performance Battery. Subjective well-being was assessed using the SF-12 health status scale, the Ageing Well Profile and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Linear regressions were used to investigate associations between the independent variables which included physical activity (steps and MVPA, sedentary time, participant characteristics (gender, age, BMI, education, number of medical conditions, and lower limb function and dependent variables which included mental and physical well-being. Steps, MVPA and lower limb function were independently and moderately positively associated with perceived physical well-being but relationships with mental well-being variables were weak. No significant associations between sedentary behaviours and well-being were observed. The association between objectively evaluated physical activity and function and subjective evaluations of physical well-being suggest that improving perceptions of physical health and function may provide an important target for physical activity programmes. This in turn may drive further activity participation.

  17. Examining the incremental impact of long-standing health conditions on subjective well-being alongside the EQ-5D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mengjun; Brazier, John; Relton, Clare; Cooper, Cindy; Smith, Christine; Blackburn, Joanna

    2014-04-29

    Generic preference-based measures such as the EQ-5D and SF-6D have been criticised for being narrowly focused on a sub-set of dimensions of health. Our study aims to explore whether long-standing health conditions have an incremental impact on subjective well-being alongside the EQ-5D. Using data from the South Yorkshire Cohort study (N = 13,591) collected between 2010 and 2012 on the EQ-5D, long-standing health conditions (self-reported), and subjective well-being measure--life satisfaction using a response scale from 0 (completely dissatisfied) to 10 (completely satisfied), we employed generalised logit regression models. We assessed the impact of EQ-5D and long-standing health conditions together on life satisfaction by examining the size and significance of their estimated odds ratios. The EQ-5D had a significant association with life satisfaction, in which anxiety/depression and then self-care had the largest weights. Some long-standing health conditions were significant in some models, but most did not have an independent impact on life satisfaction. Overall, none of the health conditions had a consistent impact on life satisfaction alongside the EQ-5D. Out study suggests that the impact of long-standing health conditions on life satisfaction is adequately captured by the EQ-5D, although the findings are limited by reliance on self-reported conditions and a single item life satisfaction measure.

  18. Impact of depressive symptoms on subjective well-being: the importance of patient-reported outcomes in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haro JM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Jorge Mauriño1, Julio Sanjúan2, Josep Maria Haro3, Teresa Díez1, Javier Ballesteros41AstraZeneca Medical Department, Madrid, Spain; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Valencia, CIBERSAM, Valencia, Spain; 3Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu, CIBERSAM, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Spain; 4Department of Neuroscience-Psychiatry, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, CIBERSAM, Leioa, SpainObjective: The subjective experience of psychotic patients toward treatment is a key factor in medication adherence, quality of life, and clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to assess the subjective well-being in patients with schizophrenia and to examine its relationship with the presence and severity of depressive symptoms.Methods: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted with clinically stable outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia. The Subjective Well-Being under Neuroleptic Scale – short version (SWN-K and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS were used to gather information on well-being and the presence and severity of depressive symptoms, respectively. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to assess the associations between the SWN-K total score, its five subscales, and the CDSS total score. Discriminative validity was evaluated against that criterion by analysing the area under the curve (AUC.Results: Ninety-seven patients were included in the study. Mean age was 35 years (standard deviation = 10 and 72% were male. Both the total SWN-K scale and its five subscales correlated inversely and significantly with the CDSS total score (P < 0.0001. The highest correlation was observed for the total SWN-K (Spearman’s rank order correlation [rho] = –0.59, being the other correlations: mental functioning (–0.47, social integration (–0.46, emotional regulation (–0.51, physical functioning (–0.48, and self-control (–0.41. A total of 33 patients (34% were classified as depressed. Total SWN-K showed the highest AUC

  19. The Role of Basic Needs Fulfillment in Prediction of Subjective Well-Being among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkdogan, Turgut; Duru, Erdinc

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the role of fulfillment level of university students' basic needs in predicting the level of their subjective well being. The participants were 627 students (56% female, 44% male) attending different faculties of Pamukkale University. In this study, subjective well being was measured with Life Satisfaction Scale…

  20. Rural men's subjective well-being and the role of social support and sense of community: evidence for the potential benefit of enhancing informal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutek, Stephanie M; Turnbull, Deborah; Fairweather-Schmidt, A Kate

    2011-02-01

    To examine the effects of social support and sense of community on rural men's subjective well-being, considering the main effects and stress-buffer models. Cross-sectional population-based survey, non-probability sampling frame primarily convenience sampling. Community-based setting. A total of 185 men aged 18+ years from rural South Australia. Subjective well-being, measured by the Satisfaction With Life Scale. Two-step hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted, with subjective well-being as the dependent variable, controlling for independent variables of age, living alone and farm employment. Social support was the most effective predictor of well-being, followed by stress, and only a very modest contribution from sense of community; total variance explained was 56% (F(6,178) = 37.77, P well-being and sense of community/well-being relationships (mediation analysis). Results demonstrated the benefits of social support on well-being using the stress-buffer and main effects models, within a sample of rural men, and explored the relatively unexamined relationship between sense of community and well-being. Rural men have considerable stress impacting their well-being. This study identifies that it is critical for individuals, organisations and policy makers to be aware of the capacity of both social supports and sense of community to buffer stress and promote well-being within rural men. Furthermore, structural, community-based approaches might have greater capacity to cost-effectively provide this support, contrasting with the growing trend towards individual-based approaches for mental health. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  1. The Subjective Well-Being of Children in Transnational and Non-Migrant Households: Evidence from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jampaklay, Aree; Vapattanawong, Patama

    2013-12-01

    To date, research that includes children's views on parental migration has been insufficient. Based on the children's assessment of well-being, we use a case study of Thailand to ask whether children of overseas migrant parents are less or more resilient compared to children of non-migrant parents. We make use of data from the Child Health and Migrant Parents in South-East Asia (CHAMPSEA) Project, one of the few studies that provide space for children, both of migrant and non-migrant parents, to voice their views. Our sample includes 496 children aged 9 to 11 years old. The outcome variable captures children's subjective well-being as an indicator of whether they are a resilient child. Our multivariate analysis controls for other potential contributing factors, including the children's individual attributes, carer's mental health, parents' education, family functioning as reported by the children, and household economic status in order to investigate the effects of parental migration. Qualitative information from in-depth interviews with selected carers and group interviews with community leaders are also used to explain the results. Our findings highlight the importance of taking into account children's own perceptions. Compared to children of non-migrant parents, those of migrant parents are more likely to give a positive assessment of their own well-being. The other contributing factors include whether the child sees their family as functioning well. In Thailand, international migration is predominantly undertaken by fathers while childcare remains the responsibility of mothers, and public attitudes towards overseas migration, especially paternal migration, is generally favorable. This may help explain the positive perception of children of migrants towards themselves.

  2. Predictors of subjective well-being in patients with paranoid symptoms: is insight necessarily advantageous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Carmen; Provencio, María; Espinosa, Regina; Chaves, Covadonga; Fuentenebro, Filiberto

    2011-09-30

    In schizophrenia, poor insight has been associated with negative outcome. In fact, some studies have found insight to be associated with greater treatment adherence and lower levels of symptomatology, as well as better psychosocial functioning. However, others have found that insight into illness is associated with an increase in depression, low self-esteem, and possibly higher risk of suicide. We investigated the relationship between insight and well-being in a sample of 40 people presenting paranoid symptoms and diagnosed with schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder. Independent-samples t-tests revealed that compared to a paranoid group with high insight, paranoid participants with low insight had more self-acceptance, higher sense of autonomy and personal growth, and greater orientation towards gratification. Moderation analyses showed that when experiential avoidance was high, insight into paranoia had a detrimental effect on self-acceptance. Overall, our results support the need to explore which psychological variables moderate insight in patients with persecutory beliefs. We discuss the implications of these results for the research of paranoia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Eating habits and subjective well-being among university students in southern Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Orellana, Ligia; Paiva, Galo; Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-11-01

    To distinguish typologies of university students in southern Chile on the basis of their level of satisfaction with life and food-related life, and to characterize them according to their eating habits inside and outside the place of residence, aspects associated with health and demographic characteristics. A structured questionnaire was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 347 students at the Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile. The instruments for collecting information included the SWLS (Satisfaction with Life Scale), SWFL (Satisfaction with Food-related Life) and the HRQOL (Health-related Quality of Life Index). Questions were asked about eating habits inside and outside the place of residence, weight and approximate height, and variables for demographic classification. Using a cluster analysis, three student typologies were distinguished, with significant differences in the SWLS and SWFL scores. The typologies differed in the number of days affected by emotional health problems, classification of their nutritional status (BMI), self-perception of their state of health, importance of food to personal well-being, place of residence during the period of studies, frequency of eating in the place of residence and frequency of meals at inconvenient times. The possibility of living with parents during the period of university studies is associated with better eating habits, better emotional health and self-perception of health, lower prevalence of overweight and obesity, and greater satisfaction with the life and food-related life. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Valuing Urban Landscape Using Subjective Well-Being Data: Empirical Evidence from Dalian, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erda Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been well recognized that the urban landscape ecosystem is able to make a great contribution to the quality of life for people who live in the city and beyond, thus it can potentially accrue a significant economic value to the human well-being. However, due to its public good nature, it is difficult to monetizing its values in a systematic manner. In this paper, we attempt to assess the economic value of the urban landscape through people’s life satisfaction approach utilizing a large sample of dataset complied from the general public survey in Dalian City which is one of the well-known tourism cities in China. The results indicate that most of the urban landscape attributes impose significant effects on people’s life satisfaction, thus accruing a considerable amount of value to the local residents. Taking a 10-point ranking scale for the urban landscape quality as an example, the household willingness to pay on average reaches ¥24,579 per annum for one point of ranking level increase. Relative to the low level of household income, those high-income households are much keener to the changes of the landscape quality. If the urban landscape quality is disaggregated into five levels, household’s marginal willingness-to-pay diminishes as the urban landscape’s rank level is improved.

  5. The Impact of Road Construction on Subjective Well-Being in Communities in Madre de Dios, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley-Powell, Amy R; Lee, Gwenyth O; Naik, Nehal S; Jensen, Kelly E; O'Neal, Christina; Salmón-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Hartinger, Stella M; Bausch, Daniel G; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A

    2018-06-15

    The interoceanic highway (IOH) in Madre de Dios, Peru has driven dramatic change in the Peruvian Amazon basin. We conducted a mixed methods study to examine the impact of these changes on the subjective well-being (SWB) of four communities on the IOH. Themes that emerged qualitatively included changing health threats, environmental degradation, and the impact of increased migration. To achieve a higher level of SWB, respondents emphasized the need for higher incomes, opportunities to learn new skills, and a better education for their children. Potential threats to SWB included marital problems and poorer health. Quantitative analyses suggested that social support and a sense of security impacted reported SWB scores based on life satisfaction, and the impact of income on life satisfaction was mediated by food security. Although long-term residents felt that specific determinants of SWB had both increased (food variety, transport and access to work) and decreased (access to natural resources and hunting), the majority reported that their lives had improved overall. Health had been affected by the IOH in both negative ways (increased dengue and road accidents) and positive ways (improved access to health services). Our results suggest that the rapidly-changing communities near the IOH link well-being to health, income, community, and the environment.

  6. When does meaning making predict subjective well-being? Examining young and older adults in two cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alea, Nicole; Bluck, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Two studies in different cultures (Study 1: USA, N=174, Study 2: Trinidad, N=167) examined whether meaning making, (i.e., both searching for meaning, and directing behaviour) is positively related to subjective well-being (SWB) by age (younger, older adults). In both studies, participants self-reported engagement in meaning making, and SWB (e.g., affect, future time perspective, psychological well-being). In Study 1, young Americans (compared to older) more frequently used their past to direct behaviour but doing so was unrelated to SWB. In older Americans, both types of meaning making were positively associated with SWB. In Study 2, Trinidadian younger adults were again more likely than older adults to engage in meaning making. Unlike in the American sample, however, directing behaviour was positively related to SWB for both young and older adults. The studies demonstrate that whether meaning making shows benefits for SWB may depend on type of meaning, age and culture. Note that although meaning making was sometimes unrelated to SWB, no detrimental relations to meaning making were found. The discussion focuses on the role of moderators in understanding when meaning making should lead to benefits versus costs to SWB.

  7. The Impact of Road Construction on Subjective Well-Being in Communities in Madre de Dios, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy R. Riley-Powell

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The interoceanic highway (IOH in Madre de Dios, Peru has driven dramatic change in the Peruvian Amazon basin. We conducted a mixed methods study to examine the impact of these changes on the subjective well-being (SWB of four communities on the IOH. Themes that emerged qualitatively included changing health threats, environmental degradation, and the impact of increased migration. To achieve a higher level of SWB, respondents emphasized the need for higher incomes, opportunities to learn new skills, and a better education for their children. Potential threats to SWB included marital problems and poorer health. Quantitative analyses suggested that social support and a sense of security impacted reported SWB scores based on life satisfaction, and the impact of income on life satisfaction was mediated by food security. Although long-term residents felt that specific determinants of SWB had both increased (food variety, transport and access to work and decreased (access to natural resources and hunting, the majority reported that their lives had improved overall. Health had been affected by the IOH in both negative ways (increased dengue and road accidents and positive ways (improved access to health services. Our results suggest that the rapidly-changing communities near the IOH link well-being to health, income, community, and the environment.

  8. Subjective well-being and satisfaction with food-related life in university students in southern Chile: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Denegri Coria

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe the experience of subjective well-being and self-assessment of dietary practices in university students in southern Chile. The sample was made up of 40 students of both genders, enrolled in undergraduate programs at a Chilean state university. Data was collected through a semi-structured interview. The results show that these university students are mostly satisfied with life, and spending time with family and friends, maintaining a good academic performance, having time for themselves and achieving their goals and objectives are reported as elements that make them happy. As to the assessment made by the participants about their current food-related life, more than half of the respondents reported dissatisfaction, while their degree of happiness when they eat is in relation to pleasurable sensations, social contact during the meal and meeting basic needs. This study explores issues on eating habits and well-being rarely addressed in Latin American university population so far, suggesting that interventions and strategies on healthful eating for this population must transcend nutrition information and take into account motivation and social factors that influence students’ food choices.

  9. The effects of counting blessings on subjective well-being: a gratitude intervention in a Spanish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martí, María Luisa; Avia, María Dolores; Hernández-Lloreda, María José

    2010-11-01

    This study examined a gratitude intervention repeating Emmons and McCullough study (2003) in a Spanish sample, Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (gratitude, hassles and any event) and kept daily records during 2 weeks of gratitude, affect, quality of relationships, physical and subjective well-being. We added design features to assess the intervention long-term impact (follow-up measures), and to improve the design control (pre-treatment measures). Following the cited authors' analysis, i.e., comparing groups only in the post-test, we replicated their results, finding differences in positive affect and gratitude between the gratitude condition and the hassles condition. However, when including both the pre and the follow-up measures in the analysis, results were replicated only partially, as the difference in gratitude disappeared. Moreover, the difference in positive affect between groups in the post-test seemed to be influenced mainly by a decrease in positive affect in the hassles group. Post-test differences between groups in positive affect disappeared in the follow-up. Gratitude interventions may have an effect on well-being, but we consider other methods to promote gratitude besides gratitude journals should be tested.

  10. What shapes 7-year-olds? subjective well-being? Prospective analysis of early childhood and parenting using the Growing Up in Scotland study

    OpenAIRE

    Parkes, Alison; Sweeting, Helen; Wight, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Research on predictors of young children?s psychosocial well-being currently relies on adult-reported outcomes. This study investigated whether early family circumstances and parenting predict 7-year-olds? subjective well-being. Methods Information on supportive friendships, liking school and life satisfaction was obtained from 7-year-olds in one Growing Up in Scotland birth cohort in 2012?2013 (N?=?2869). Mothers provided information on early childhood factors from 10 to 34?months, p...

  11. The Pursuit of Happiness in China: Individualism, Collectivism, and Subjective Well-Being during China’s Economic and Social Transformation*

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, Liza G.; Lynch, Scott M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the consequences of China’s dramatic socioeconomic and political transformations for individual subjective well-being (SWB) from 1990 to 2007. Although many still consider China to be a collectivist country, and some scholars have argued that collectivist factors would be important predictors of individual well-being in such a context, our analysis demonstrates that the Chinese are increasingly prioritizing individualist factors in assessments of their own happiness and li...

  12. School, peer and family relationships and adolescent substance use, subjective wellbeing and mental health symptoms in Wales: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Graham; Cox, Rebecca; Evans, Rhiannon; Hallingberg, Britt; Hawkins, Jemma; Littlecott, Hannah; Long, Sara; Murphy, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Positive relationships with family, friends and school staff are consistently linked with health and wellbeing during adolescence, though fewer studies explore how these micro-systems interact to influence adolescent health. This study tests the independent and interacting roles of family, peer and school relationships in predicting substance use, subjective wellbeing and mental health symptoms among 11–16 year olds in Wales. It presents cross-sectional analyses of the 2013 Health Behaviour i...

  13. Dynamics of context and psychological well-being : the role of subjective health perceptions, personality factors and spirituality / Qambeshile Michael Temane

    OpenAIRE

    Temane, Qambeshile Michael

    2006-01-01

    There is a lacuna in the field of positive psychology as far as the conceptualisation of influences of environmental contexts on psychological well-being is concerned, and there is also a lack of credible empirical findings on the dynamics of processes involved. The aim of the current study was to test various models on the possible mediating role of subjective perceptions of health, personality factors and spirituality in the dynamics of context and psychological well-being. ...

  14. How Search for Meaning Interacts with Complex Categories of Meaning in Life and Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damásio, Bruno Figueiredo; Koller, Sílvia Helena

    2015-03-03

    This study sought to assess how the search for meaning interacts with crisis of meaning and with different categories of meaning in life (meaningfulness, crisis of meaning, existential indifference, and existential conflict). Furthermore, the moderation role of search for meaning between the relation of categories of meaning and subjective well-being (SWB) was also evaluated. Participants included 3,034 subjects (63.9% women) ranging in age from 18 to 91 (M = 33.90; SD = 15.01) years old from 22 Brazilian states. Zero-order correlations and a factorial MANOVA were implemented. Positive low correlations were found for search for meaning and crisis of meaning (r = .258; p < .001). Search for meaning presented a small-effect size moderation effect on the relation of the different categories of meaning with subjective happiness, F(6, 3008) = 2.698, p < .05; η2 = .004, but not for satisfaction with life, F(6, 3008) = .935, p = .47; η2 = .002. The differences on the levels of subjective happiness of those inserted in existential indifferent and conflicting categories differ depending on the levels of search for meaning. Further directions for future studies are proposed.

  15. Modeling subjective well-being in individuals with chronic pain and a physical disability: the role of pain control and pain catastrophizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrer, Angela; Michel, Gisela; Terrill, Alexandra L; Jensen, Mark P; Müller, Rachel

    2017-10-23

    To investigate the associations between subjective well-being and pain intensity, pain interference, and depression in individuals with physical disabilities. We hypothesized that (1) pain control and (2) pain catastrophizing mediate the effects of subjective well-being on pain intensity, pain interference, and depression. Analyses of cross-sectional data from 96 individuals diagnosed with spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, neuromuscular disease, or post-polio syndrome, with average pain intensity of ≥4 (0-10) on at least half the days in the past month. Two models tested study hypotheses using structural equation. Both models showed acceptable model fit. Pain catastrophizing significantly mediated the effect of subjective well-being on pain intensity and pain interference, but not on depression. Pain control did not significantly mediate the effect of subjective well-being on pain intensity, pain interference, or depression. Path coefficients showed significant direct effects of subjective well-being on pain control (β = 0.39), pain catastrophizing (β = -0.61), pain interference (β = -0.48; -0.42), and depression (β = -0.75; -0.78). This study supports the potential of enhancing subjective well-being and lowering pain catastrophizing for reducing pain intensity, pain interference, and depressive symptoms in individuals with chronic pain and a physical disability. The findings indicate that true experiments to test for causal associations are warranted. Implications for rehabilitation The majority of individuals with physical disabilities report having persistent moderate-to-severe pain that may negatively limit daily activities and quality of life. The present cross-sectional study indicates that individuals who reported greater subjective well-being showed significantly lower pain intensity via the mediating effect of lower pain catastrophizing. Since sample size and respective power are low, these findings should be taken as first

  16. A study of the relationship between variables from the model of human occupation and subjective well-being among university students in jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Farzaneh; Jibril, Musa; Kielhofner, Gary

    2008-01-01

    The occupational role of a university student can create challenges that negatively affect subjective well-being. Cultural factors can make these problems particularly acute for students from Arab backgrounds. This study examined the relationship between variables derived from the Model of Human Occupation (MOHO) and Jordanian university students' subjective well-being. Using cluster sampling, a total of 670 participants were recruited from the undergraduate student body at the University of Jordan. Data were collected from these students using the Role checklist, the Occupational Self-Assessment, the Affectometer 2, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. As hypothesized, reported roles, valuation of roles, perceived competence in volition, habituation, performance capacity/skills, and the environment were significantly correlated with subjective well-being. A discriminant analysis using the most strongly correlated items significantly classified students into known groups of high and low subjective well-being. Overall, MOHO-based variables offered an effective explanation of factors that influence subjective well-being in Jordanian university students.

  17. The Facebook paths to happiness: effects of the number of Facebook friends and self-presentation on subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junghyun; Lee, Jong-Eun Roselyn

    2011-06-01

    The current study investigates whether and how Facebook increases college-age users' subjective well-being by focusing on the number of Facebook friends and self-presentation strategies (positive vs. honest). A structural equation modeling analysis of cross-sectional survey data of college student Facebook users (N=391) revealed that the number of Facebook friends had a positive association with subjective well-being, but this association was not mediated by perceived social support. Additionally, we found that there was a negative curvilinear (inverted U-shape curve) relationship between Facebook friends and perceived social support. As for self-presentation strategies, whereas positive self-presentation had a direct effect on subjective well-being, honest self-presentation had a significant indirect effect on subjective well-being through perceived social support. Our study suggests that the number of Facebook friends and positive self-presentation may enhance users' subjective well-being, but this portion of happiness may not be grounded in perceived social support. On the other hand, honest self-presentation may enhance happiness rooted in social support provided by Facebook friends. Implications of our findings are discussed in light of affirmation of self-worth, time and effort required for building and maintaining friendships, and the important role played by self-disclosure in signaling one's need for social support.

  18. Relationship between Humor and Subjective Well-Being with regard to Mediating Role of Resilience in Caregivers of Patients with Spinal Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abbasi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Family members are the main components of the care system for injured spinal cord patients. Taking care of such patients is a tense responsibility. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between humor and subjective well-being with regard to the mediating role of resilience in caregivers of patients with spinal cord injury. Instruments & Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 219 caregivers of spinal cord injured patients referred to Borna Scientific-Sport Institute in Isfahan in 2016 were selected using available sampling. Data were collected using Subjective Well-Being Scale (SWBS, Resilience Scale and Sense of Humor Questionnaire (SHQ. Data analysis was performed by Amos 18 software, using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM and Bootstrap test. Finding: Correlation between humor and resilience with subjective well-being was significant (p<0.001. The proposed model was good-fitting model (p<0.05. There was also a significant indirect relationship between humor and subjective well-being through resilience (β=0.22; p<0.006. Conclusion: Psychological resilience in relationship between humor and subjective well-being as mediator plays an important role in improving the psychological state of caregivers of patients with spinal cord injury.

  19. School-related social support and subjective well-being in school among adolescents: The role of self-system factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lili; Zhao, Jie; Huebner, E Scott

    2015-12-01

    This 6-week longitudinal study aimed to examine a moderated mediation model that may explain the link between school-related social support (i.e., teacher support and classmate support) and optimal subjective well-being in school among adolescents (n = 1316). Analyses confirmed the hypothesized model that scholastic competence partially mediated the relations between school-related social support and subjective well-being in school, and social acceptance moderated the mediation process in the school-related social support--> subjective well-being in school path and in the scholastic competence--> subjective well-being in school path. The findings suggested that both social contextual factors (e.g., school-related social support) and self-system factors (e.g., scholastic competence and social acceptance) are crucial for adolescents' optimal subjective well-being in school. Limitations and practical applications of the study were discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Top-down versus bottom-up theories of subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Headey; R. Veenhoven (Ruut); A.J. Wearing

    1991-01-01

    textabstractThis paper addresses issues of causal direction in research on subjective well being (SWB). Previous researchers have generally assumed that such variables as domain satisfactions, social support, life events, and levels of expectation and aspiration are causes of SWB. Critics have

  1. Electronic cigarettes: abuse liability, topography and subjective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sarah E; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-05-01

    To review the available evidence evaluating the abuse liability, topography, subjective effects, craving and withdrawal suppression associated with e-cigarette use in order to identify information gaps and provide recommendations for future research. Literature searches were conducted between October 2012 and January 2014 using five electronic databases. Studies were included in this review if they were peer-reviewed scientific journal articles evaluating clinical laboratory studies, national surveys or content analyses. A total of 15 peer-reviewed articles regarding behavioural use and effects of e-cigarettes published between 2010 and 2014 were included in this review. Abuse liability studies are limited in their generalisability. Topography (consumption behaviour) studies found that, compared with traditional cigarettes, e-cigarette average puff duration was significantly longer, and e-cigarette use required stronger suction. Data on e-cigarette subjective effects (such as anxiety, restlessness, concentration, alertness and satisfaction) and withdrawal suppression are limited and inconsistent. In general, study data should be interpreted with caution, given limitations associated with comparisons of novel and usual products, as well as the possible effects associated with subjects' previous experience/inexperience with e-cigarettes. Currently, very limited information is available on abuse liability, topography and subjective effects of e-cigarettes. Opportunities to examine extended e-cigarette use in a variety of settings with experienced e-cigarette users would help to more fully assess topography as well as behavioural and subjective outcomes. In addition, assessment of 'real-world' use, including amount and timing of use and responses to use, would clarify behavioural profiles and potential adverse health effects.

  2. Examining coping style and the relationship between stress and subjective well-being in Australia's 'sandwich generation'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Jade E; Crisp, Dimity A

    2017-09-01

    The sandwich generation represents adults, often in midlife, who care for both children and ageing parents/relatives. While the stress they experience has received some attention, little research has investigated the subjective well-being (SWB) of this population. This study examined the relationship between perceived stress and SWB and the moderating effect of coping style. Ninety-three participants (80 women), aged 23-63 years, completed an online survey measuring perceived stress, coping strategies, life satisfaction and positive and negative affect. Stress was negatively associated with SWB. While emotion- and problem-focused coping were directly associated with SWB outcomes, the only moderating effect found was for avoidance-focused coping (AFC). Specifically, AFC was associated with higher positive affect for those reporting lower stress. This study highlights the need to recognise the distinct circumstances that exist for the sandwich generation. Limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed. © 2017 AJA Inc.

  3. What constitutes a good life? Cultural differences in the role of positive and negative affect in subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Derrick; Chiu, Chi-yue; Diener, Ed; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2009-08-01

    East Asians and Asian Americans report lower levels of subjective well-being than Europeans and European Americans. Three studies found support for the hypothesis that such differences may be due to the psychological meanings Eastern and Western cultures attach to positive and negative affect. Study 1 demonstrated that the desire to repeat a recent vacation was significantly predicted by recalled positive affect-but not recalled negative affect-for European Americans, whereas Asian Americans considered both positive and negative affect. Study 2 replicated this effect in judging satisfaction with a personal friendship. Study 3 linked changes in European Americans' life satisfaction to everyday positive events caused by the self (vs. others) and changes in Japanese life satisfaction to everyday negative events caused by others (vs. the self). Positive affect appears particularly meaningful for European Americans and negative affect for Asian Americans and Japanese when judging a satisfying vacation, friendship, or life.

  4. What Constitutes a Good Life? Cultural Differences in the Role of Positive and Negative Affect in Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Derrick; Chiu, Chi-yue; Diener, Ed; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2009-01-01

    East Asians and Asian Americans report lower levels of subjective well-being than Europeans and European Americans. Three studies found support for the hypothesis that such differences may be due to the psychological meanings Eastern and Western cultures attach to positive and negative affect. Study 1 demonstrated that the desire to repeat a recent vacation was significantly predicted by recalled positive affect—but not recalled negative affect—for European Americans, whereas Asian Americans considered both positive and negative affect. Study 2 replicated this effect in judging satisfaction with a personal friendship. Study 3 linked changes in European Americans’ life satisfaction to everyday positive events caused by the self (vs. others) and changes in Japanese life satisfaction to everyday negative events caused by others (vs. the self). Positive affect appears particularly meaningful for European Americans and negative affect for Asian Americans and Japanese when judging a satisfying vacation, friendship, or life. PMID:19558439

  5. Socio-emotional selectivity in elderly and old age as a factor of subjective well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melehin A.I.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that the presence of social support, сonfidant network is associated with positive subjective well-being in elderly (55 - 74 years and old age (75-90 years. However, certain types of social interaction can be considered as predictors of affective disorders and chronic somatic disorders in later ages as in normal aging and in neurodegenerative disorders. The purpose of this article is to familiarize professionals in the mental health of people of later ages with the theory of socio-emotional selectivity (Socioemotional Selectivity Theory L.L. Carstensen, who makes a significant contribution to the understanding of the specificity and mechanisms of selection in social interaction in elderly and old age. Central mechanisms of socio-emotional selection in the later ages are the awareness of time and limited future time perspective, which enhances the awareness of mortality.

  6. Gratitude and Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being in School: The Multiple Mediating Roles of Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction at School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lili; Pi, Luyang; Huebner, E S; Du, Minmin

    2016-01-01

    Based on the relation between gratitude and general subjective well-being (SWB), and Basic Psychological Needs Theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000), the present study's aim was to use structural equation modeling to test the multiple mediational roles of the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs at school in accounting for the association between gratitude and SWB in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescents. A total of 881 Chinese adolescents (427 males; Mean age = 12.97) completed a multi-measure questionnaire that tapped the targeted variables. Findings revealed that gratitude related significantly, positively to adolescents' SWB in school. Moreover, a multiple-mediators analysis suggested that relatedness and competence needs satisfaction at school mediated the relation between gratitude and SWB in school. Lastly, a multiple-mediators analysis also indicated that autonomy needs satisfaction mediated the relation between relatedness and competence needs and SWB in school. Limitations and practical applications of the study were discussed.

  7. Gratitude and Adolescents’ Subjective Well-Being in School: The Multiple Mediating Roles of Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lili; Pi, Luyang; Huebner, E. S.; Du, Minmin

    2016-01-01

    Based on the relation between gratitude and general subjective well-being (SWB), and Basic Psychological Needs Theory (Ryan and Deci, 2000), the present study’s aim was to use structural equation modeling to test the multiple mediational roles of the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs at school in accounting for the association between gratitude and SWB in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescents. A total of 881 Chinese adolescents (427 males; Mean age = 12.97) completed a multi-measure questionnaire that tapped the targeted variables. Findings revealed that gratitude related significantly, positively to adolescents’ SWB in school. Moreover, a multiple-mediators analysis suggested that relatedness and competence needs satisfaction at school mediated the relation between gratitude and SWB in school. Lastly, a multiple-mediators analysis also indicated that autonomy needs satisfaction mediated the relation between relatedness and competence needs and SWB in school. Limitations and practical applications of the study were discussed. PMID:27708601

  8. Relationships between Flow Experience, Life Meaningfulness and Subjective Well-being in Music Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sedlár

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examines relationships between flow experience in musical activities, life meaningfulness and subjective well – being. Life meaningfulness belongs to eudaimonic good life, subjective well–being belongs to hedonic good life and flow seems to be combination of both approaches. It is supposed that flow experience in musical activity and life meaningfulness should have positive impact on subjective well –being. The research sample consisted of 96 university music students (37 males, 59 females from the Music and Dance Faculty, Academy of Performing Arts in Bratislava, Slovakia. Dispositional Flow Scale–2, which measures nine dimension of flow, was used for measuring frequency o f flow experience. Life Meaningfulness Scale, which measures three dimensions of life meaningfulness, was used for measuring meaningfulness of life. Positive and Negative Affect Schedule measured affective components of subjective well–being, and Satisfaction with Life Scale measured cognitive component of subjective well–being. Categorization revealed that the most favourite performing musical activities are creative musical activities, such as reproduction and production, during which music students relatively often experience flow. The results of correlation analysis showed that total scores of flow experience, life meaningfulness and components of subjective well–being, significantly correlate each other. Aspects of flow, clear goals and autotelic experience are positively related to cognitive and motivational dimension of life meaningfulness and also to positive affectivity. Loss of self–consciousness and autotelic experience are positively related to emotional dimension of life meaningfulness. Challenge–skill balance, action–awareness merging, clear goals, concentration on task at hand, sense of control and autotelic experience are negatively related to negative affectivity. Challenge–skill balance and autotelic experience are related to

  9. Regional Cultures and the Psychological Geography of Switzerland: Person-Environment-Fit in Personality Predicts Subjective Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Friedrich M; Ebert, Tobias; Rentfrow, Peter J

    2018-01-01

    The present study extended traditional nation-based research on person-culture-fit to the regional level. First, we examined the geographical distribution of Big Five personality traits in Switzerland. Across the 26 Swiss cantons, unique patterns were observed for all traits. For Extraversion and Neuroticism clear language divides emerged between the French- and Italian-speaking South-West vs. the German-speaking North-East. Second, multilevel modeling demonstrated that person-environment-fit in Big Five, composed of elevation (i.e., mean differences between individual profile and cantonal profile), scatter (differences in mean variances) and shape (Pearson correlations between individual and cantonal profiles across all traits; Furr, 2008, 2010), predicted the development of subjective wellbeing (i.e., life satisfaction, satisfaction with personal relationships, positive affect, negative affect) over a period of 4 years. Unexpectedly, while the effects of shape were in line with the person-environment-fit hypothesis (better fit predicted higher subjective wellbeing), the effects of scatter showed the opposite pattern, while null findings were observed for elevation. Across a series of robustness checks, the patterns for shape and elevation were consistently replicated. While that was mostly the case for scatter as well, the effects of scatter appeared to be somewhat less robust and more sensitive to the specific way fit was modeled when predicting certain outcomes (negative affect, positive affect). Distinguishing between supplementary and complementary fit may help to reconcile these findings and future research should explore whether and if so under which conditions these concepts may be applicable to the respective facets of person-culture-fit.

  10. Regional Cultures and the Psychological Geography of Switzerland: Person–Environment–Fit in Personality Predicts Subjective Wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich M. Götz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study extended traditional nation-based research on person–culture–fit to the regional level. First, we examined the geographical distribution of Big Five personality traits in Switzerland. Across the 26 Swiss cantons, unique patterns were observed for all traits. For Extraversion and Neuroticism clear language divides emerged between the French- and Italian-speaking South-West vs. the German-speaking North-East. Second, multilevel modeling demonstrated that person–environment–fit in Big Five, composed of elevation (i.e., mean differences between individual profile and cantonal profile, scatter (differences in mean variances and shape (Pearson correlations between individual and cantonal profiles across all traits; Furr, 2008, 2010, predicted the development of subjective wellbeing (i.e., life satisfaction, satisfaction with personal relationships, positive affect, negative affect over a period of 4 years. Unexpectedly, while the effects of shape were in line with the person–environment–fit hypothesis (better fit predicted higher subjective wellbeing, the effects of scatter showed the opposite pattern, while null findings were observed for elevation. Across a series of robustness checks, the patterns for shape and elevation were consistently replicated. While that was mostly the case for scatter as well, the effects of scatter appeared to be somewhat less robust and more sensitive to the specific way fit was modeled when predicting certain outcomes (negative affect, positive affect. Distinguishing between supplementary and complementary fit may help to reconcile these findings and future research should explore whether and if so under which conditions these concepts may be applicable to the respective facets of person–culture–fit.

  11. How is subjective well-being related to quality of life? Do we need two concepts and both measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skevington, S M; Böhnke, J R

    2018-06-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB) and subjective quality of life (QoL) are key concepts describing experience, capacities, states, behaviours, appraisals, and emotional reactions to circumstances. Used widely in public discourse, policy, and research, their theoretical and empirical relations remain little explored. The present research aimed to develop an integrated model of SWB and QoL through empirically testing its overlapping and exclusive dimensions. Survey data was obtained from N = 2533 in 11 countries. Adults completed the WHOQOL Spirituality, Religion and Personal Beliefs (SRPB) instrument which assesses 33 QoL facets in 6 domains. The facets operationalize components of the hedonic SWB model, extended with eudaimonia, as SWB+. Network analyses, and regression models with random effect for cultural centre, assessed the differential contributions of SWB+ and QoL in predicting general QoL, explanatory power, and model parsimony. When all SWB+ and QoL variables are assessed together, the final model explains more variance in general QoL than either of the competing models; also it shows the most parsimonious fit. This fully integrated model contains only positive feelings from SWB+, with 13 other QoL facets drawn from all six domains, when adjusted for health status and educational level. These findings provide the foundation for a new Life Quality and Well-being (LQW) model that awaits confirmation. The LQW model improves on existing models of SWB+ and QoL by better explaining general QoL than facets of either model on its own. The 14 selected facets potentially offer a new, single measure with considerable conceptual breadth, and international foundations. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Income and Subjective Well-Being: New Insights from Relatively Healthy American Women, Ages 49-79.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Wyshak

    Full Text Available The interests of economists, psychologists, social scientists and others on the relations of income, demographics, religion and subjective well-being, have generated a vast global literature. It is apparent that biomedical research has focused on white with men. The Women's Health Initiative and Observational Study (WHI OS was initiated in 1992. The OS represents the scientific need for social priorities to improve the health and welfare of women; it includes 93.676 relatively healthy postmenopausal women, 49 to 79, from diverse backgrounds. The objective of this study is to examine how lifestyle and other factors influence women's health. Data from the WHI OS questionnaire were analyzed. Statistical methods included descriptive statistics square, correlations, linear regression and analyses of covariance (GLM. New findings and insights relate primarily to general health, religion, club attendance, and likelihood of depression. The most important predictor of excellent or very good health is quality of life and general health is a major predictor of quality of life. A great deal of strength and comfort from religion was reported by 62.98% of the women, with little variation by denomination. More from religion related to poorer health, and less likelihood of depression. Religion and lower income are in accord with of across country studies. Attendance at clubs was associated with religion and with all factors associated with religion, except income. Though general health and likelihood of depression are highly correlated, better health is associated with higher income; however, likelihood of depression is not associated with income--contrary to conventional wisdom about socioeconomic disparities and mental health. Subjective well-being variables, with the exception of quality of life, were not associated with income. Social networks--religion and clubs--among a diverse population, warrant further attention from economists, psychologists

  13. Life role salience and subjective well-being among Macedonian employees: Does family-supportive organization perception moderate this relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaževska Stoilkovska, Biljana; Šurbanovska, Orhideja; Fritzhand, Ana; Stojanoska Ivanova, Tatjana

    2018-01-15

    As many studies have shown, one of the most important tendencies of employees nowadays is to achieve work- life balance. Organizations should develop various activities and create supportive climate, within the framework of which employees will have opportunities to realize aforementioned goals which in turn would increase work productivity and work motivation. The aim of this paper was to examine how subjective well-being (life satisfaction and exhaustion) is associated with commitment to work and family roles under the conditions of strongly and weakly perceived organizational support for family life among health care professionals, teachers and bankers in Macedonia. Marriage duration and the number of children were introduced as control variables. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 198 full-time employed doctors, nurses, teachers and bankers. Research variables were assessed using self-reported measures/ questionnaires. Hierarchical multiple linear regression was performed for data analysis. It was revealed that occupational role commitment contributed to highly expressed life satisfaction, while exhaustion was predicted by marital role commitment. These relationships were stronger among surveyed employees who reported positive family-supportive organization perception, but tested moderation effect of this variable was not statistically significant. Findings demonstrated that family-supportive organization perception moderated association of the number of children with life satisfaction, that is, participants who perceived an organization as family-supportive and had more children were more satisfied with their life in general. Results highlighted the importance of organizational orientation toward employees, their commitment to work and family roles, and their subjective well-being, as characteristics that might contribute to higher work engagement, success and family satisfaction. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2018;31(3):281-291. This

  14. Regional Cultures and the Psychological Geography of Switzerland: Person–Environment–Fit in Personality Predicts Subjective Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Friedrich M.; Ebert, Tobias; Rentfrow, Peter J.

    2018-01-01

    The present study extended traditional nation-based research on person–culture–fit to the regional level. First, we examined the geographical distribution of Big Five personality traits in Switzerland. Across the 26 Swiss cantons, unique patterns were observed for all traits. For Extraversion and Neuroticism clear language divides emerged between the French- and Italian-speaking South-West vs. the German-speaking North-East. Second, multilevel modeling demonstrated that person–environment–fit in Big Five, composed of elevation (i.e., mean differences between individual profile and cantonal profile), scatter (differences in mean variances) and shape (Pearson correlations between individual and cantonal profiles across all traits; Furr, 2008, 2010), predicted the development of subjective wellbeing (i.e., life satisfaction, satisfaction with personal relationships, positive affect, negative affect) over a period of 4 years. Unexpectedly, while the effects of shape were in line with the person–environment–fit hypothesis (better fit predicted higher subjective wellbeing), the effects of scatter showed the opposite pattern, while null findings were observed for elevation. Across a series of robustness checks, the patterns for shape and elevation were consistently replicated. While that was mostly the case for scatter as well, the effects of scatter appeared to be somewhat less robust and more sensitive to the specific way fit was modeled when predicting certain outcomes (negative affect, positive affect). Distinguishing between supplementary and complementary fit may help to reconcile these findings and future research should explore whether and if so under which conditions these concepts may be applicable to the respective facets of person–culture–fit. PMID:29713299

  15. Self-regulatory mode (locomotion and assessment), well-being (subjective and psychological), and exercise behavior (frequency and intensity) in relation to high school pupils' academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Danilo; Jimmefors, Alexander; Mousavi, Fariba; Adrianson, Lillemor; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Background. Self-regulation is the procedure implemented by an individual striving to reach a goal and consists of two inter-related strategies: assessment and locomotion. Moreover, both subjective and psychological well-being along exercise behaviour might also play a role on adolescents academic achievement. Method. Participants were 160 Swedish high school pupils (111 boys and 49 girls) with an age mean of 17.74 (sd = 1.29). We used the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire to measure self-regulation strategies (i.e., locomotion and assessment). Well-being was measured using Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales short version, the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. Exercise behaviour was self-reported using questions pertaining to frequency and intensity of exercise compliance. Academic achievement was operationalized through the pupils' mean value of final grades in Swedish, Mathematics, English, and Physical Education. Both correlation and regressions analyses were conducted. Results. Academic achievement was positively related to assessment, well-being, and frequent/intensive exercise behaviour. Assessment was, however, negatively related to well-being. Locomotion on the other hand was positively associated to well-being and also to exercise behaviour. Conclusions. The results suggest a dual (in)direct model to increase pupils' academic achievement and well-being-assessment being directly related to higher academic achievement, while locomotion is related to frequently exercising and well-being, which in turn, increase academic achievement.

  16. Motivational deficits in major depressive disorder: Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships with functional impairment and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fervaha, Gagan; Foussias, George; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Agid, Ofer; Remington, Gary

    2016-04-01

    Many individuals with major depressive disorder present with prominent motivational deficits; however, the effect of these symptoms on functional outcomes in the illness remains unclear. Individuals with major depression who participated in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression study were included in the present investigation (N=1563). Motivational deficits were evaluated using a derived measure from the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, while functioning was assessed using the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. Subjective outcomes were also evaluated using the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire. After treatment with citalopram, over 70% of participants continued to experience some degree of motivational deficits. These deficits were significantly associated with greater functional impairments both globally and in each domain of functioning evaluated. These symptoms were also linked to worse subjective outcomes such as overall life satisfaction and quality of life. Change in the severity of motivational deficits over time was significantly linked with changes in outcome. Motivational deficits continued to demonstrate a significant association with outcomes, even after controlling for potentially confounding variables such as duration of depressive episode and severity of other depressive symptoms. Motivational deficits are significantly linked to the functional impairment present in many people with major depression, just as they are in other psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia. A greater understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these motivational deficits in particular, beyond other depressive symptoms, is critical to the development of strategies aimed at enhancing functional recovery and improved subjective well-being. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Socio-demographic characteristics, subjective well-being, and homophobia experienced by a sample of gay men from three cities in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos-Delgado, Jaime; Cárdenas-Castro, Manuel; Gómez-Ojeda, Fabiola

    2014-06-01

    This article describes the socio-demographic characteristics of a sample of gay men in three cities in Chile, as well as experience with homophobia and subjective well-being. Snowball sampling was used to interview 325 gay men. The main findings included high levels of perceived discrimination and victimization, but interviewees reported higher levels of social well-being compared to studies elsewhere in the country. Age was related to differences in levels of social well-being, but not other variables. Individuals with university education reported higher levels of victimization and greater impact of discrimination on their lives. Gay men in Santiago reported a higher relative impact from incidents of aggression, but better levels of social well-being and happiness compared to those in other regions of Chile.

  18. Perceived social support as a moderator between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being among people with physical disabilities in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzick, Michal; Kagan, Maya; Tal-Katz, Patricia

    2017-05-26

    Perceived social support has gained importance as a significant preventive factor of depressive symptoms and as helpful for rebuilding feelings of self-worth and subjective well-being among people with physical disabilities. The current study examined whether perceived social support moderates the association between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being among people with physical disabilities in Israel. Data were collected by means of structured questionnaires among a convenience sample of 433 people with physical disabilities in Israel and hierarchical multiple regression was performed. The findings reveal that perceived social support has a moderating role in the association between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being among people with physical disabilities, such that those with low and moderate levels of perceived social support showed a negative association between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being, while those with high levels of perceived social support showed no association between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being. Findings are discussed in light of the social model of disability, and practical implications are suggested. Implications for Rehabilitation A negative association was found between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being among people with physical disabilities with low and moderate levels of perceived social support. Professionals working with people with physical disabilities must acknowledge the importance of social support for people with physical disabilities and for their families. Professionals working with people with physical disabilities should take a proactive approach to locating disabled people who do not receive or do not have adequate social support and offer them assistance. Professionals working with people with physical disabilities should engage in wide social activities aimed at providing resources and opportunities to service beneficiaries. Society

  19. The relative importance of health, income and social relations for subjective well-being: An integrative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamu, Admassu N; Olsen, Jan Abel

    2016-03-01

    There is much evidence that health, income and social relationships are important for our well-being, but little evidence on their relative importance. This study makes an integrative analysis of the relative influence of health related quality of life (HRQoL), household income and social relationships for subjective well-being (SWB), where SWB is measured by the first three of the five items on the satisfaction with life scale (SWLS). In a comprehensive 2012 survey from six countries, seven disease groups and representative healthy samples (N = 7933) reported their health along several measures of HRQoL. A Shapley value decomposition method measures the relative importance of health, income and social relationships, while a quantile regression model tests how the effects of each of the three predictors vary across different points of SWB distributions. Results are compared with the standard regression. The respective marginal contribution of social relationships, health and income to SWB (as a share of goodness-of-fit) is 50.2, 19.3 and 7.3% when EQ-5D-5L is used as a measure of health. These findings are consistent across models based on five alternative measures of HRQoL. The influence of the key determinants varied significantly between low and high levels of the SWB distribution, with health and income having stronger influence among those with relatively lower SWB. Consistent with several studies, income has a significantly positive association with SWB, but with diminishing importance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Proficiency in Positive versus Negative Emotion Identification and Subjective Well-being among Long-term Married Elderly Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca ePetrican

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is accruing that positive emotions play a crucial role in shaping a healthy interpersonal climate. Inspired by this research, the current investigation sought to shed light on the link between proficiency in identifying positive versus negative emotions and a close partner’s well-being. To this end, we conducted two studies with neurologically intact elderly married couples (Study 1 and an age-matched clinical sample, comprising married couples in which one spouse had been diagnosed with Parkinson’s Disease (Study 2, which tends to hinder emotional expressivity. To assess proficiency in identifying emotions from whole body postures, we had participants in both studies complete a pointlight walker task, featuring four actors (two male, two female expressing one positive (i.e., happiness and three negative (i.e., sadness, anger, fear basic emotions. Participants also filled out measures of subjective well-being. Among Study 1’s neurologically intact spouses, greater expertise in identifying positive (but not negative emotions was linked to greater partner life satisfaction (but not hedonic balance. Spouses of PD patients exhibited increased proficiency in identifying positive emotions relative to controls, possibly reflective of compensatory mechanisms. Complementarily, relative to controls, spouses of PD patients exhibited reduced proficiency in identifying negative emotions and a tendency to underestimate their intensity. Importantly, all of these effects attenuated with longer years from PD onset. Finally, there was evidence that it was increased partner expertise in identifying negative (rather than positive emotional states that predicted greater life satisfaction levels among the PD patients and their spouses. Our results thus suggest that positive versus negative emotions may play distinct roles in close relationship dynamics as a function of neurological status and disability trajectory.

  1. Proficiency in positive vs. negative emotion identification and subjective well-being among long-term married elderly couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrican, Raluca; Moscovitch, Morris; Grady, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is accruing that positive emotions play a crucial role in shaping a healthy interpersonal climate. Inspired by this research, the current investigation sought to shed light on the link between proficiency in identifying positive vs. negative emotions and a close partner's well-being. To this end, we conducted two studies with neurologically intact elderly married couples (Study 1) and an age-matched clinical sample, comprising married couples in which one spouse had been diagnosed with Parkinson's Disease (Study 2), which tends to hinder emotional expressivity. To assess proficiency in identifying emotions from whole body postures, we had participants in both studies complete a pointlight walker task, featuring four actors (two male, two female) expressing one positive (i.e., happiness) and three negative (i.e., sadness, anger, fear) basic emotions. Participants also filled out measures of subjective well-being. Among Study 1's neurologically intact spouses, greater expertise in identifying positive (but not negative) emotions was linked to greater partner life satisfaction (but not hedonic balance). Spouses of PD patients exhibited increased proficiency in identifying positive emotions relative to controls, possibly reflective of compensatory mechanisms. Complementarily, relative to controls, spouses of PD patients exhibited reduced proficiency in identifying negative emotions and a tendency to underestimate their intensity. Importantly, all of these effects attenuated with longer years from PD onset. Finally, there was evidence that it was increased partner expertise in identifying negative (rather than positive) emotional states that predicted greater life satisfaction levels among the PD patients and their spouses. Our results thus suggest that positive vs. negative emotions may play distinct roles in close relationship dynamics as a function of neurological status and disability trajectory.

  2. Self-compassion matters: The relationships between perceived social support, self-compassion, and subjective well-being among LGB individuals in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplu-Demirtaş, Ezgi; Kemer, Gülşah; Pope, Amber L; Moe, Jeffry L

    2018-04-01

    Research on the well-being of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people has predominately focused on Western (-ized) societies where individualism, and not collectivism, is emphasized. In the present study, we utilized a mediator model via Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to examine the relationships between self-compassion (i.e., self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness), perceived social support (i.e., family, friends, and significant others), and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) in a sample of LGB-identified individuals living in Turkey, a traditionally collectivistic culture (Hofstede, 2001). A sample of 291 LGB individuals (67 lesbian, 128 gay, and 96 bisexual) completed an online survey including the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Scale, and Self-kindness, Common Humanity, and Mindfulness subscales of the Self-Compassion Scale. The results of SEM for the hypothesized mediator model revealed that self-compassion mediated the relationships between perceived social support from family and significant others and subjective well-being, explaining the 77% of the variance in subjective well-being. Implications for the literature base on LGB well-being are discussed, with a focus on the cross-cultural applications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Subjective well-being amongst community-dwelling elders: what determines satisfaction with life? Findings from the Dublin Healthy Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ní Mhaoláin, Aine M; Gallagher, Damien; O Connell, Henry; Chin, A V; Bruce, Irene; Hamilton, Fiona; Teehee, Erin; Coen, Robert; Coakley, Davis; Cunningham, Conal; Walsh, J B; Lawlor, Brian A

    2012-02-01

    Life satisfaction is a subjective expression of well-being and successful aging. Subjective well-being is a major determinant of health outcomes in older people. The aim of this study was to determine which factors predicted well-being in older people living in the community as measured by their satisfaction with life. The relationship between life satisfaction, as measured by the Life Satisfaction Index (LSI-A) and physical, cognitive and demographic variables was examined in 466 older people living in the community using a stepwise regression model. Depression, loneliness, neuroticism, extraversion, recent participation in physical activity, age and self-reported exhaustion, were the independent predictors of life satisfaction in our elderly cohort. Subjective well-being, as measured by the Life Satisfaction Scale, is predicted by depression, loneliness, personality traits, recent participation in physical activity and self-reported exhaustion. The mental and emotional status of older individuals, as well as their engagement in physical activity, are as important as physical functionality when it comes to life satisfaction as a measure of well-being and successful aging. These areas represent key targets for intervention.

  4. Plastic modulation of PTSD resting-state networks and subjective wellbeing by EEG neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluetsch, R C; Ros, T; Théberge, J; Frewen, P A; Calhoun, V D; Schmahl, C; Jetly, R; Lanius, R A

    2014-08-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) neurofeedback training has been shown to produce plastic modulations in salience network and default mode network functional connectivity in healthy individuals. In this study, we investigated whether a single session of neurofeedback training aimed at the voluntary reduction of alpha rhythm (8-12 Hz) amplitude would be related to differences in EEG network oscillations, functional MRI (fMRI) connectivity, and subjective measures of state anxiety and arousal in a group of individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Twenty-one individuals with PTSD related to childhood abuse underwent 30 min of EEG neurofeedback training preceded and followed by a resting-state fMRI scan. Alpha desynchronizing neurofeedback was associated with decreased alpha amplitude during training, followed by a significant increase ('rebound') in resting-state alpha synchronization. This rebound was linked to increased calmness, greater salience network connectivity with the right insula, and enhanced default mode network connectivity with bilateral posterior cingulate, right middle frontal gyrus, and left medial prefrontal cortex. Our study represents a first step in elucidating the potential neurobehavioural mechanisms mediating the effects of neurofeedback treatment on regulatory systems in PTSD. Moreover, it documents for the first time a spontaneous EEG 'rebound' after neurofeedback, pointing to homeostatic/compensatory mechanisms operating in the brain. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. How French subjects describe well-being from food and eating habits? Development, item reduction and scoring definition of the Well-Being related to Food Questionnaire (Well-BFQ©).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, I; Marrel, A; Arnould, B; Capuron, L; Dupuy, A; Ginon, E; Layé, S; Lecerf, J-M; Prost, M; Rogeaux, M; Urdapilleta, I; Allaert, F-A

    2016-01-01

    Providing well-being and maintaining good health are main objectives subjects seek from diet. This manuscript describes the development and preliminary validation of an instrument assessing well-being associated with food and eating habits in a general healthy population. Qualitative data from 12 groups of discussion (102 subjects) conducted with healthy subjects were used to develop the core of the Well-being related to Food Questionnaire (Well-BFQ). Twelve other groups of discussion with subjects with joint (n = 34), digestive (n = 32) or repetitive infection complaints (n = 30) were performed to develop items specific to these complaints. Five main themes emerged from the discussions and formed the modular backbone of the questionnaire: "Grocery shopping", "Cooking", "Dining places", "Commensality", "Eating and drinking". Each module has a common structure: items about subject's food behavior and items about immediate and short-term benefits. An additional theme - "Eating habits and health" - assesses subjects' beliefs about expected benefits of food and eating habits on health, disease prevention and protection, and quality of ageing. A preliminary validation was conducted with 444 subjects with balanced diet; non-balanced diet; and standard diet. The structure of the questionnaire was further determined using principal component analyses exploratory factor analyses, with confirmation of the sub-sections food behaviors, immediate benefits (pleasure, security, relaxation), direct short-term benefits (digestion and satiety, energy and psychology), and deferred long-term benefits (eating habits and health). Thirty-three subscales and 14 single items were further defined. Confirmatory analyses confirmed the structure, with overall moderate to excellent convergent and divergent validity and internal consistency reliability. The Well-BFQ is a unique, modular tool that comprehensively assesses the full picture of well-being related to food and eating habits in

  6. Question order sensitivity of subjective well-being measures: focus on life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy in survey instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghee; McClain, Colleen; Webster, Noah; Han, Saram

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the effect of question context created by order in questionnaires on three subjective well-being measures: life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy. We conducted two Web survey experiments. The first experiment (n = 648) altered the order of life satisfaction and self-rated health: (1) life satisfaction asked immediately after self-rated health; (2) self-rated health immediately after life satisfaction; and (3) two items placed apart. We examined their correlation coefficient by experimental condition and further examined its interaction with objective health. The second experiment (n = 479) asked life expectancy before and after parental mortality questions. Responses to life expectancy were compared by order using ANOVA, and we examined interaction with parental mortality status using ANCOVA. Additionally, response time and probes were examined. Correlation coefficients between self-rated health and life satisfaction differed significantly by order: 0.313 (life satisfaction first), 0.508 (apart), and 0.643 (self-rated health first). Differences were larger among respondents with chronic conditions. Response times were the shortest when self-rated health was asked first. When life expectancy asked after parental mortality questions, respondents reported considering parents more for answering life expectancy; and respondents with deceased parents reported significantly lower expectancy, but not those whose parents were alive. Question context effects exist. Findings suggest placing life satisfaction and self-rated health apart to avoid artificial attenuation or inflation in their association. Asking about parental mortality prior to life expectancy appears advantageous as this leads respondents to consider parental longevity more, an important factor for true longevity.

  7. Height, socioeconomic and subjective well-being factors among U.S. women, ages 49-79.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Wyshak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A vast literature has associated height with numerous factors, including biological, psychological, socioeconomic, anthropologic, genetic, environmental, and ecologic, among others. The aim of this study is to examine, among U.S. women, height factors focusing on health, income, education, occupation, social activities, religiosity and subjective well-being. METHODS/FINDINGS: Data are from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI Observational Study. Participants are 93,676 relatively healthy women ages 49-79; 83% of whom are White, 17% Non-White. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, chi-square and multivariable covariance analyses. The mean height of the total sample is 63.67 inches. White women are significantly taller than Non-White women, mean heights 63.68 vs. 63.63 inches (p= 0.0333. Among both Non-White and White women height is associated with social behavior, i.e. attendance at clubs/lodges/groups. Women who reported attendance 'once a week or more often' were taller than those who reported 'none' and 'once to 3 times a month'. Means in inches are respectively for: White women-63.73 vs. 63.67 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, p = 0.0027. p = 0.0298; Non-White women: 63.77 vs. 63.61 and 63.77 vs. 63.60, p = 0.0050, P = 0.0094. In both White and Non-White women, income, education and subjective well-being were not associated with height. However, other factors differed by race/ethnicity. Taller White women hold or have held managerial/professional jobs-yes vs. no-63.70 vs. 63.66 inches; P = 0.036; and given 'a little' strength and comfort from religion' compared to 'none' and 'a great deal', 63.73 vs. 63.66 P = 0.0418 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, P = 0.0130. Taller Non-White women had better health-excellent or very good vs. good, fair or poor-63.70 vs. 63.59, P = 0.0116. CONCLUSIONS: Further research in diverse populations is suggested by the new findings: being taller is associated with social activities -frequent attendance clubs

  8. Height, socioeconomic and subjective well-being factors among U.S. women, ages 49-79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyshak, Grace

    2014-01-01

    A vast literature has associated height with numerous factors, including biological, psychological, socioeconomic, anthropologic, genetic, environmental, and ecologic, among others. The aim of this study is to examine, among U.S. women, height factors focusing on health, income, education, occupation, social activities, religiosity and subjective well-being. Data are from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Participants are 93,676 relatively healthy women ages 49-79; 83% of whom are White, 17% Non-White. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, chi-square and multivariable covariance analyses. The mean height of the total sample is 63.67 inches. White women are significantly taller than Non-White women, mean heights 63.68 vs. 63.63 inches (p= 0.0333). Among both Non-White and White women height is associated with social behavior, i.e. attendance at clubs/lodges/groups. Women who reported attendance 'once a week or more often' were taller than those who reported 'none' and 'once to 3 times a month'. Means in inches are respectively for: White women-63.73 vs. 63.67 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, p = 0.0027. p = 0.0298; Non-White women: 63.77 vs. 63.61 and 63.77 vs. 63.60, p = 0.0050, P = 0.0094. In both White and Non-White women, income, education and subjective well-being were not associated with height. However, other factors differed by race/ethnicity. Taller White women hold or have held managerial/professional jobs-yes vs. no-63.70 vs. 63.66 inches; P = 0.036; and given 'a little' strength and comfort from religion' compared to 'none' and 'a great deal', 63.73 vs. 63.66 P = 0.0418 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, P = 0.0130. Taller Non-White women had better health-excellent or very good vs. good, fair or poor-63.70 vs. 63.59, P = 0.0116. Further research in diverse populations is suggested by the new findings: being taller is associated with social activities -frequent attendance clubs/lodges/groups", and with 'a little' vs. 'none' or 'great deal

  9. Height, Socioeconomic and Subjective Well-Being Factors among U.S. Women, Ages 49–79

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyshak, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Background A vast literature has associated height with numerous factors, including biological, psychological, socioeconomic, anthropologic, genetic, environmental, and ecologic, among others. The aim of this study is to examine, among U.S. women, height factors focusing on health, income, education, occupation, social activities, religiosity and subjective well-being. Methods/Findings Data are from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Participants are 93,676 relatively healthy women ages 49–79; 83% of whom are White, 17% Non-White. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, chi-square and multivariable covariance analyses. The mean height of the total sample is 63.67 inches. White women are significantly taller than Non-White women, mean heights 63.68 vs. 63.63 inches (p = 0.0333). Among both Non-White and White women height is associated with social behavior, i.e. attendance at clubs/lodges/groups. Women who reported attendance ‘once a week or more often’ were taller than those who reported ‘none’ and ‘once to 3 times a month’. Means in inches are respectively for: White women–63.73 vs. 63.67 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, p = 0.0027. p = 0.0298; Non-White women: 63.77 vs. 63.61 and 63.77 vs. 63.60, p = 0.0050, P = 0.0094. In both White and Non-White women, income, education and subjective well-being were not associated with height. However, other factors differed by race/ethnicity. Taller White women hold or have held managerial/professional jobs–yes vs. no–63.70 vs. 63.66 inches; P = 0.036; and given ‘a little’ strength and comfort from religion’ compared to ‘none’ and ‘a great deal’, 63.73 vs. 63.66 P = 0.0418 and 63.73 vs. 63.67, P = 0.0130. Taller Non-White women had better health—excellent or very good vs. good, fair or poor–63.70 vs. 63.59, P = 0.0116. Conclusions Further research in diverse populations is suggested by the new findings: being taller is associated

  10. Disentangling the relationships among self-reflection, insight, and subjective well-being: the role of dysfunctional attitudes and core self-evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Daniel; Grant, Anthony M

    2014-01-01

    Central to many psychological schools of thought is the notion that self-reflection leads to self-insight which, in turn, leads to enhanced well-being. However, empirical research has found that although self-insight is typically associated with well-being, self-reflection is frequently not associated with self-insight or well-being. Past attempts to understand this conundrum have tended to focus on the role of ruminative self-refection. Using a different approach this study investigates the roles of dysfunctional attitudes and positive core self-evaluations. Using data from 227 participants, two key findings are reported: first, dysfunctional attitudes suppress the relationship between self-reflection and self-insight; and second, positive core self-evaluations mediate the relationship between self-insight and subjective well-being. These two findings imply that a path exists from self-reflection to subjective well-being through self-insight and positive core self-evaluations. This path model was found to be a good fit. Implications for future research and positive psychological practice are discussed.

  11. Perceived Personality Traits and Types of Teachers and Their Relationship to the Subjective Well-Being and Academic Achievements of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryilmaz, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of the perceived types of teachers (liked, disliked and neutral) with the subjective well-being and academic success of their students, and to determine how students come to categorize their liked, disliked and neutral teachers considering the Big-Five Personality Model. The quantitative…

  12. Positive Psychology in the Class: The Effectiveness of a Teaching Method Based on Subjective Well-Being and Engagement Increasing Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryilmaz, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is investigate that the effectiveness of a teaching method which is based on subjective well-being increasing activities and engagement increasing activities, has been developed for university students in the present study. The method of the present study is a mixed method. Thus, the most important feature of it has…

  13. Does Variation in the Extent of Generalized Trust, Individual Education and Extensiveness of Social Security Policies Matter for Maximization of Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, Rania F.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I examine whether generalized trust and education, as well as social security policies of welfare state institutions matter for cross-national differences in subjective well-being (SWB), because knowledge on this issue is still lacking. For this purpose I integrated the insights of two sociological theories: Social Function…

  14. Self-Esteem as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship between Social Support and Subjective Well-Being among Chinese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feng; Zhao, Jingjing; You, Xuqun

    2013-01-01

    This study examined both the mediating and moderating effects of global self-esteem on the relationship between social support and subjective well-being among Chinese university students. Three hundred and ninety-one university students (260 males and 131 females) from two different Chinese universities completed the social support scale, the…

  15. Looking beyond health-related quality of life: predictors of subjective well-being among people living with HIV in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberjé, E.J.M.; Dima, A.L.; van Hulzen, A.G.W.; Prins, J.M.; de Bruin, M.

    2015-01-01

    Health care interventions are increasingly expected to improve subjective well-being (SWB) rather than health-related quality of life (HRQOL) only. However, little is known about how HRQOL and other relevant quality of life (QOL) domains relate to SWB among people living with HIV. People living with

  16. Beyond chronological age. Examining perceived future time and subjective health as age-related mediators in relation to work-related motivations and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, D.T.A.M.; Lange, A.H. de; Jansen, P.G.W.; Dikkers, J.S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Since workforces across the world are aging, researchers and organizations need more insight into how and why occupational well-being, together with work-related attitudes and motivations, change with age. Lifespan theories point to subjective health and future time perspective (i.e. an individual's

  17. Beyond chronological age : Examining perceived future time and subjective health as age-related mediators in relation to work-related motivations and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, T.A.M.; de Lange, A.H.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Dikkers, J.S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Since workforces across the world are aging, researchers and organizations need more insight into how and why occupational well-being, together with work-related attitudes and motivations, change with age. Lifespan theories point to subjective health and future time perspective (i.e. an individual's

  18. A Multilevel Analysis of the Compositional and Contextual Association of Social Capital and Subjective Well-Being in Seoul, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sehee; Kim, Heaseung; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association between social capital and subjective well-being (life satisfaction) by using multilevel analysis considering both individual and area-level social capital while adjusting for various control variables at multiple-levels in Seoul, South Korea. The data was from the 2010 (Wave 2) Seoul Welfare…

  19. Income inequality and subjective well-being: : A cross-national study on the conditional effects of individual and national characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rözer, J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338041494; Kraaykamp, G.

    In this study we raise the question how a nation’s income inequality affects subjective well-being. Using information on 195,091 individuals from 85 different countries from the World Value Surveys and the European Value Surveys, we established that in general, people living in more unequal

  20. Examining the Effects of Perceived Relevance and Work-Related Subjective Well-Being on Individual Performance for Co-Op Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewery, Dave; Pretti, T. Judene; Barclay, Sage

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between co-op students' perceived relevance of their work term, work-related subjective well-being (SWB), and individual performance at work. Data were collected using a survey of co-op students (n = 1,989) upon completion of a work term. Results of regression analyses testing a…

  1. The Mediating Role of Self-Esteem: The Effects of Social Support and Subjective Well-Being on Adolescents' Risky Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi Çakar, Firdevs; Tagay, Özlem

    2017-01-01

    This research is a descriptive study based on the testing of a structural model developed by considering the effects of perceived social support and subjective well-being on adolescents' risky behaviors, and the possible mediating role of self-esteem. Participants consisted of 676 high school students attending formal education institutions,…

  2. Tamoxifen effects on subjective and psychosexual well-being, in a randomised breast cancer study comparing high-dose and standard-dose chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, MJ; Bockermann, [No Value; de Vries, EG; van der Zee, AG; ten Hoor, KA; van der Graaf, WT; Sluiter, WJ; Willemse, PH

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of tamoxifen on subjective and psychosexual well-being in breast cancer patients in relation to type of prior chemotherapy and menopausal status. Longitudinal interview study in breast cancer patients during and after adjuvant tamoxifen use. Menopausal status was defined by

  3. Early childhood electronic media use as a predictor of poorer well-being: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, Trina; Verbestel, Vera; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Lissner, Lauren; Molnár, Dénes; Moreno, Luis A; Pigeot, Iris; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Reisch, Lucia A; Russo, Paola; Veidebaum, Toomas; Tornaritis, Michael; Williams, Garrath; De Henauw, Stefaan; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2014-05-01

    Identifying associations between preschool-aged children's electronic media use and their later well-being is essential to supporting positive long-term outcomes. To investigate possible dose-response associations of young children's electronic media use with their later well-being. The IDEFICS (Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-Induced Health Effects in Children and Infants) study is a prospective cohort study with an intervention component. Data were collected at baseline from September 1, 2007, through June 30, 2008, and at follow-up from September 1, 2009, through May 31, 2010, in 8 European countries participating in the IDEFICS study. This investigation is based on 3604 children aged 2 to 6 years who participated in the longitudinal component of the IDEFICS study only and not in the intervention. Early childhood electronic media use. The following 6 indicators of well-being from 2 validated instruments were used as outcomes at follow-up: Peer problems and Emotional problems subscales from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and Emotional well-being, Self-esteem, Family functioning, and Social networks subscales from the KINDLR (Questionnaire for Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents-Revised Version). Each scale was dichotomized to identify those children at risk for poorer outcomes. Indicators of electronic media use (weekday and weekend television and electronic game [e-game]/computer use) from baseline were used as predictors. Associations varied between boys and girls; however, associations suggested that increased levels of electronic media use predicted poorer well-being outcomes. Television viewing on weekdays or weekends was more consistently associated with poorer outcomes than e-game/computer use. Across associations, the likelihood of adverse outcomes in children ranged from a 1.2- to 2.0-fold increase for emotional problems and poorer family functioning for each additional hour of

  4. Reinforcing the "Diminished" Subject? the Implications of the "Vulnerability Zeitgeist" for Well-Being in Educational Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecclestone, K.; Rawdin, C.

    2016-01-01

    Pessimistic discourses about crises in youth and children's well-being, mental health and vulnerability permeate English educational policy and practice. These generate vague and slippery elisions of wellbeing and mental health, and the related rise of an ad hoc, confusing market of psycho-emotional interventions promoted by new types of…

  5. Achievement Goal Orientations and Adolescents’ Subjective Well-Being in School: The Mediating Roles of Academic Social Comparison Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E. Scott

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males; Mean age = 12.99) completed a multi-measure questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypotheses. Results indicated that (1) mastery goal orientations and performance-approach goal orientations both showed a statistically significant, positive correlation with SWB in school whereas performance-avoidance goal orientations showed a statistically significant, negative correlation with SWB in school among adolescents; (2) upward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between the three types of achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and SWB in school; (3) downward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between mastery goal orientations and SWB in school as well as the relation between performance-avoidance goal orientations and SWB in school. The findings suggest possible important cultural differences in the antecedents of SWB in school in adolescent students in China compared to adolescent students in Western nations. PMID:28197109

  6. Achievement Goal Orientations and Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being in School: The Mediating Roles of Academic Social Comparison Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E Scott

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males; Mean age = 12.99) completed a multi-measure questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypotheses. Results indicated that (1) mastery goal orientations and performance-approach goal orientations both showed a statistically significant, positive correlation with SWB in school whereas performance-avoidance goal orientations showed a statistically significant, negative correlation with SWB in school among adolescents; (2) upward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between the three types of achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and SWB in school; (3) downward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between mastery goal orientations and SWB in school as well as the relation between performance-avoidance goal orientations and SWB in school. The findings suggest possible important cultural differences in the antecedents of SWB in school in adolescent students in China compared to adolescent students in Western nations.

  7. Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction Mediates the Association between Self-Control Skills and Subjective Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hod Orkibi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although studies have shown that self-control skills (SCSs are positively linked to both personal and interpersonal outcomes in adolescent students, studies on the putative mechanisms underlying this relationship are scarce. Drawing on Self-Determination Theory and previous studies, we theorized that the association between students’ SCSs and their subjective well-being (SWB in school may be mediated by students’ perceived satisfaction of their basic psychological needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy. The sample consisted of 1576 Israeli adolescent students (54% girls in grades 10–12 (mean age 16 enrolled in 20 schools. A mediation model was tested with structural equation modeling and a robust bootstrap method for testing indirect effects, controlling for school-level variance. The findings supported the hypothesized model and a post hoc multi-group comparison analysis yielded gender invariance in the model. The findings suggest that both girls and boys with high SCSs may perceive themselves as having greater needs satisfaction in school and consequently higher school-related SWB. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  8. Cybercrime Victimization and Subjective Well-Being: An Examination of the Buffering Effect Hypothesis Among Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakinen, Markus; Keipi, Teo; Räsänen, Pekka; Oksanen, Atte

    2018-02-01

    The wealth of beneficial tools for online interaction, consumption, and access to others also bring new risks for harmful experiences online. This study examines the association between cybercrime victimization and subjective well-being (SWB) and, based on the buffering effect hypothesis, tests the assumption of the protective function of social belonging in cybercrime victimization. Cross-national data from the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, and Finland (N = 3,557; Internet users aged 15-30 years; 49.85 percent female) were analyzed using descriptive statistics and main and moderation effect models. Results show that cybercrime victimization has a negative association with SWB after adjusting for a number of confounding factors. This association concerns both general cybercrime victimization and subcategories such as victimization to offensive cybercrime and cyberfraud. In line with the buffering effect hypothesis, social belonging to offline groups was shown to moderate the negative association between SWB and cybercrime victimization. The same effect was not found in the social belonging to online groups. Overall, the study indicates that, analogously to crime victimization in the offline context, cybercrime is a harmful experience whose negative effects mainly concern those users who have weak social ties offline to aid in coping with such stressors.

  9. The relationship between subjective well-being and mortality within discordant twin pairs from two independent samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Gretchen R B; Elkins, Irene J; Christensen, Kaare

    2018-01-01

    Prior research has shown robust associations between greater subjective well-being (SWB) and reduced mortality. Whether this observed association is causal in nature or due instead to confounding genetic or environmental factors affecting both SWB and mortality is not well understood. We used a c...... when accounting for demographic factors, physical health, and cognitive functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record...... a combined sample of 6,802 twins drawn from two cohorts: the Longitudinal Study of Middle-Aged Danish Twins (MADT; N = 2,815, baseline age between 45 and 69 years, M = 56.8, SD = 6.4) and the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins (LSADT; N = 3,987, baseline age between 70 and 97 years, M = 76.6, SD = 4...... of SWB on reduced mortality remained significant within both MZ and DZ pairs, suggesting that the association is independent of genetic and nonshared environmental confounding factors. These findings, which generalized across both younger (MADT) and older (LSADT) cohorts of adults, remained significant...

  10. The Interaction of Same-Sex Marriage Access With Sexual Minority Identity on Mental Health and Subjective Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, Alexander K

    2017-01-01

    Previous psychological and public health research has highlighted the impact of legal recognition of same-sex relationships on individual identity and mental health. Using a sample of U.S. sexual minority (N = 313) and heterosexual (N = 214) adults, participants completed a battery of mental health inventories prior to the nationwide legalization of same-sex marriage. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) examining identity revealed sexual minority participants living in states where same-sex marriage was banned experienced significantly higher levels of internalized homonegativity than sexual minority participants living in states where same-sex marriage was legal, even after controlling for state-level political climate. Mental health ANCOVAs revealed sexual minority participants residing in states without same-sex marriage experienced greater anxiety and lower subjective wellbeing compared to sexual minority participants residing in states with same-sex marriage and heterosexual participants residing in states with or without same-sex marriage. Implications for public policy and future research directions are discussed.

  11. "Ikigai", Subjective Wellbeing, as a Modifier of the Parity-Cardiovascular Mortality Association - The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukawa, Sumiyo; Eguchi, Eri; Ogino, Keiki; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2018-04-25

    Nulliparity is associated with an excess risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). "Ikigai", subjective wellbeing in Japan, is associated with reduced risk of CVD. The impact of ikigai on the association between parity and the risk of CVD, however, has not been reported.Methods and Results:A total of 39,870 Japanese women aged 40-79 years without a history of CVD, cancer or insufficient information at baseline in 1988-1990, were enrolled and followed until the end of 2009. They were categorized into 7 groups according to parity number 0-≥6. Using Cox regression hazard modeling, the associations between parity and mortality from stroke, coronary artery disease, and total CVD were investigated. During the follow-up period, 2,121 total CVD deaths were documented. No association was observed between parity and stroke and CVD mortality in women with ikigai, but there was an association in those without ikigai. The multivariable hazard ratios of stroke and total CVD mortality for nulliparous women without ikigai vs. those with 1 child were 1.87 (95% CI: 1.15-3.05) and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.07-2.01), respectively, and that for stroke mortality in high parity women without ikigai was 1.56 (95% CI: 1.00-2.45). Nulliparous or high parity women without ikigai had higher mortality from stroke and/or total CVD, suggesting that ikigai attenuated the association between parity and CVD mortality in Japanese women.

  12. Influences on happiness and subjective well-being of entrepreneurs and labour: Kwazulu-Natal case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darma Mahadea

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Globally, individuals seek happiness, but not everybody is happy.  Economic reasoning suggests that rising incomes with expansions in GDP enhance the quality of life and subjective well-being.  This paper examines the influences on individual happiness, using ordinal logistic regression and chi-square analyses.  Based on the findings of a small case study, the chi-square test indicated that a significant relationship exists between gender, education, ethnicity, children, marital status, employment relations, income and self-reported happiness. The study also found that, on average, happier people tended to be educated, married with children, and treated fairly at work.  But having too many children produced a decrement in individual happiness.   The ordinal regression results indicate that an individual’s education, gender, age distribution and work environment are influential in producing higher levels of happiness.  Entrepreneurs were found to have a significantly higher mean level of happiness than employees.  In the workplace, individuals who experienced personal growth and were able to contribute their ideas tended to be happier, relative to others who perceived themselves to be ‘restricted’.

  13. Volunteering and subjective well-being in midlife and older adults: the role of supportive social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Pamela D; Windsor, Tim D; Crisp, Dimity A

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the extent to which associations between volunteering and subjective well-being (SWB) could be related to volunteers having more supportive social networks relative to nonvolunteers. The sample consisted of 561 midlife and older adults (aged 55-94 years) from the TRAnsitions In Later Life study. Multiple mediation analyses examined associations between hours spent volunteering per week; availability of social support from friends, relatives, and neighbors; positive and negative social exchanges; and SWB. The results indicated that the higher life satisfaction and positive affect reported by those who volunteer at moderate levels (up to 7 hr per week) are related to their higher levels of positive social exchanges and greater availability of social support from friends and family, relative to nonvolunteers. Those who volunteer at higher levels (7 hr or more per week) also reported greater levels of positive affect in comparison to nonvolunteers, and this was related to their greater availability of social support from friends. Availability of support from friends accounted for the greatest proportion of the volunteering-SWB associations. The findings suggest that the positive SWB associated with volunteering is related to volunteers' more extensive friend and family networks.

  14. How subjective well-being is associated with material deprivation and social exclusion in Israeli 12-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross-Manos, Daphna; Ben-Arieh, Asher

    2017-01-01

    The literature examining the relations between economic situation and happiness has focused almost exclusively on a household's income as a proxy for economic situation and, accordingly, also focused chiefly on the adult population, excluding children and adolescents. To fill this gap, this study examines the relation between economic deprivation and happiness by using 2 alternative proxies: material deprivation and social exclusion. The study tests the relation of these measures to the most common measure for happiness-subjective well-being (SWB)-in a sample of Israeli 12-year-olds (N = 1,081). The study also examines the effects of culture and life circumstances on these complex relations. Findings show that both material deprivation and social exclusion are negatively associated with children's SWB. Social exclusion explained a much larger percentage of children's SWB, adding up to 20%. Furthermore, children who were identified as materially deprived and socially excluded were found to be at much greater risk for unhappiness. Material deprivation was found to be significantly more important to the SWB of males compared with females, and for Jews compared with Arabs. Finally, some implications for social policy and regarding the relation of economic situation and happiness are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Is All Well?: Relationship of Media Consumption of Filipino Out of School Youth with their Subjective Wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika S. Deveza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies on youth media consumption and its effects on their being have always been the interest of many studies all over the globe. It is because of youth’s importance in the society and the roles they will play in the future, most specifically the educated ones. However, in the Philippines, there is only little information about the out of school youth. This study aims to determine the media consumption of the out of school youth since they are one of the most deprived individuals on having sufficient knowledge about media and its effects on individuals. Among other types of media, television has the highest percentage of consumption among the Filipino out of school youth more than the Internet and radio. Using statistical methods, we relate the relationship of consuming a specific media to their subjective wellbeing. Findings revealed that not all media affects the out of school youth’s feelings of being contented, joyful, and relaxed, only specific media types affects such feelings. Overall, the study shows that the out of school youth and their consumption of media are indeed related with each other.

  16. Subjective well-being, body image, and functional capacity in people candidate for or undergoing bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Juliana Galvis-Aparicio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two studies that aimed (1 at assessing and comparing the subjective well-being (SWB, and functional capacity and body image of people with morbid obesity, candidate for or undergoing bariatric surgery (BS, and (2 at identifying the relationship among the components of SWB, BMI, functional capacity, and body image. The sample was composed by 48 patients in pre-surgery period, and 29 in post-surgery. Instruments used were the Life Satisfaction Scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, WHODAS 2.0, the Brazilian scale of figures and silhouettes, and thebateria fatorial da personalidade. Statistically significant differences were found between both groups in all the variables, except positive affect, comprehension and communication, and relationships with others. FC was correlated to all the components of SWB and contributed to explaining the variance of life satisfaction and negative affect. Personality traits turned out to be more important than other variables for explaining the variance of positive affect.

  17. Does the Use of WeChat Lead to Subjective Well-Being?: The Effect of Use Intensity and Motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhengbao; Geng, Xiaowei; Ye, Yinghua

    2016-10-01

    Recently, WeChat has been widely used in China. The positive and negative effects of WeChat on users have received attention from researchers gradually. Using the questionnaire method, we recruited 339 undergraduates and graduates as participants, and tested the effects of WeChat on their subjective well-being (SWB) in terms of intensity. In addition, we confirmed the mediating effects of WeChat with respect to motivation. The results showed that the participants' WeChat use intensity was at a mid-level, 85.3 percent of them spending no more than 2 hours on WeChat every day. Furthermore, there have been no demographic differences in the variables of gender, place of residence, or grade. Participants' WeChat use intensity can significantly predict their use motivation and life satisfaction, and intrinsic use motivation was the mediator between the use intensity and SWB, while the other three types of motivation (external, introjection, and identification) cannot predict SWB significantly. The user's ultimate emotional experience is primarily derived from why and how they use it. We also tested whether the use motivation can be shaped.

  18. Aerobic exercise improves quality of life, psychological well-being and systemic inflammation in subjects with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Kader, Shehab M; Al-Jiffri, Osama H

    2016-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease has a destructive drawbacks on the patient and his/her entire family as this disease badly af fects the behavior, cognition and abilities to do activities of daily living (ADL). The physical and mental benefits of exercise are widely known but seldom available to persons suffering from Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study was to measure quality of life, systemic inflammation and psychological well-being response to aerobic exercises in Alzheimer's. Forty Alzheimer elderly subjects were enrolled in two groups; the first group received treadmill aerobic exercise, while the second group was considered as a control group and received no training intervention for two months. Assessment of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES),Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Profile of Mood States(POMS) and SF-36 health quality of life (SF-36 HRQL) were taken before and at the end of the study. There was a 25.2%, 19.4%, 23.5%, 21.3%, 17.7% , 11.7%, 12.5% and 10.1 % reduction in mean values of TNF-α, IL-6, BDI, POMS, health transition SF-36 subscale, bodily pain SF-36 subscale, role functioning: emotional SF-36 subscale and mental health SF-36 subscale respectively in addition to 15.7%, 13.1%, 12.6%, 11.1%, 13.2% and 11.2 % increase in mean values of RSES, physical functioning SF-36 subscale, role functioning:physical SF-36 subscale, general health SF-36 subscale, Vitality SF-36 subscale and Social functioning SF-36 subscale respectively in group (A) received aerobic exercise training, so that there was a significant reduction in the mean values of TNF-α, IL-6, BDI & POMS and increase in the mean values of SF-36 HRQL subscale scores, RSES in group (A) as a result of aerobic exercise training, while the results of group (B) who received no training intervention were not significant. Also, there were significant differences between mean levels of the investigated parameters in group (A) and group (B) at

  19. Effect of Radiological Countermeasures on Subjective Well-Being and Radiation Anxiety after the 2011 Disaster: The Fukushima Health Management Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Murakami

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in 2011, concerns about radiation exposure and decline in subjective well-being have been reported. To tackle these problems, various countermeasures in relation to radiation have been implemented. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the effects of radiological countermeasures on subjective well-being (e.g., satisfaction with life (SWL and emotional well-being and radiation anxiety, through a questionnaire survey targeting Fukushima residents (N = 1023. Propensity scores matching was applied to evaluate significant effects of radiological countermeasures on subjective well-being and radiation anxiety. Among the radiological countermeasures, thyroid examination, whole body counter, and air dose monitoring showed the highest proportions of participation, utilization, and useful evaluation, suggesting a high degree of public attention focused on these countermeasures. The basic survey was associated with significant increases in SWL and self-rated health (SH. Thyroid examination was significantly associated with not only a reduction in radiation anxiety but also an increase of emotional stress, suggesting the importance of careful design of system and detailed communication. Food inspection was associated with deterioration in SH. Those who utilized explanatory meetings showed increases in sadness, worry, and radiation anxiety, indicating that additional attention is required of the experts and authorities involved in explanatory meetings.

  20. Effect of Radiological Countermeasures on Subjective Well-Being and Radiation Anxiety after the 2011 Disaster: The Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio; Takebayashi, Yoshitake; Takeda, Yoshihito; Sato, Akiko; Igarashi, Yasumasa; Sano, Kazumi; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Naito, Wataru; Hirota, Sumire; Goto, Aya; Ohira, Tetsuya; Yasumura, Seiji; Tanigawa, Koichi

    2018-01-12

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in 2011, concerns about radiation exposure and decline in subjective well-being have been reported. To tackle these problems, various countermeasures in relation to radiation have been implemented. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the effects of radiological countermeasures on subjective well-being (e.g., satisfaction with life (SWL) and emotional well-being) and radiation anxiety, through a questionnaire survey targeting Fukushima residents ( N = 1023). Propensity scores matching was applied to evaluate significant effects of radiological countermeasures on subjective well-being and radiation anxiety. Among the radiological countermeasures, thyroid examination, whole body counter, and air dose monitoring showed the highest proportions of participation, utilization, and useful evaluation, suggesting a high degree of public attention focused on these countermeasures. The basic survey was associated with significant increases in SWL and self-rated health (SH). Thyroid examination was significantly associated with not only a reduction in radiation anxiety but also an increase of emotional stress, suggesting the importance of careful design of system and detailed communication. Food inspection was associated with deterioration in SH. Those who utilized explanatory meetings showed increases in sadness, worry, and radiation anxiety, indicating that additional attention is required of the experts and authorities involved in explanatory meetings.

  1. Well-being, problematic alcohol consumption and acute subjective drug effects in past-year ayahuasca users: a large, international, self-selecting online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Will; Hallak, Jaime E; Crippa, Jose A; Dos Santos, Rafael; Porffy, Lilla; Barratt, Monica J; Ferris, Jason A; Winstock, Adam R; Morgan, Celia J A

    2017-11-09

    Ayahuasca is a natural psychedelic brew, which contains dimethyltryptamine (DMT). Its potential as a psychiatric medicine has recently been demonstrated and its non-medical use around the world appears to be growing. We aimed to investigate well-being and problematic alcohol use in ayahuasca users, and ayahuasca's subjective effects. An online, self-selecting, global survey examining patterns of drug use was conducted in 2015 and 2016 (n = 96,901). Questions were asked about: use of ayahuasca, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and magic mushrooms; demographics, current well-being and past-year problematic alcohol use of past-year ayahuasca users and comparison drug users; and subjective effects of ayahuasca and comparison drugs. Ayahuasca users (n = 527) reported greater well-being than both classic psychedelic users (n = 18,138) and non-psychedelic drug-using respondents (n = 78,236). Ayahuasca users reported less problematic drinking than classic psychedelic users, although both groups reported greater problematic drinking than the other respondents. Ayahuasca's acute subjective effects usually lasted for six hours and were most strongly felt one hour after consumption. Within our online, self-selecting survey, ayahuasca users reported better well-being than comparison groups and less problematic drinking than classic psychedelic users. Future longitudinal studies of international samples and randomised controlled trials are needed to dissect the effects of ayahuasca on these outcomes.

  2. "I'm afraid I have bad news for you…" Estimating the impact of different health impairments on subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Martin; Coad, Alex

    2013-06-01

    Bad health decreases individuals' happiness, but few studies measure the impact of specific illnesses. We apply matching estimators to examine how changes in different (objective) conditions of bad health affect subjective well-being for a sample of 100,265 observations from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) database (1996-2006). The strongest effect is for alcohol and drug abuse, followed by anxiety, depression and other mental illnesses, stroke and cancer. Adaptation to health impairments varies across health impairments. There is also a puzzling asymmetry: strong adverse reactions to deteriorations in health appear alongside weak increases in well-being after health improvements. In conclusion, our analysis offers a more detailed account of how bad health influences happiness than accounts focusing on how bad self-assessed health affects individual well-being. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Becoming disabled: The association between disability onset in younger adults and subsequent changes in productive engagement, social support, financial hardship and subjective wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Eric; Kariuki, Maina; Honey, Anne; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth

    2014-10-01

    Very few population-based studies have investigated the association between the onset of health conditions/impairments associated with disability and subsequent well-being. To examine the association between the onset of disability and four indicators of well-being (full-time engagement in employment or education, financial hardship, social support, subjective well-being) among a nationally representative sample of Australian adolescents and young adults. Secondary analysis of the first eight waves (2001-2008) of the survey of Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia. For financial hardship and subjective well-being, the majority of participants belonged to trajectory classes for which there was no evidence that the onset of disability was associated with a subsequent lowering of well-being. For participation in employment and education, the majority of participants belonged to trajectory classes for which there was evidence of a modest immediate reduction in participation rates followed by subsequent stability. For social support, the majority of participants belonged to trajectory classes for which there was evidence of a modest temporary reduction in support followed by rebound back to initial levels. Membership of classes associated with poorer outcomes was associated with a number of covariates including: male gender; younger age of disability onset; being born overseas; not living with both parents at age 14; lower proficiency in the English language; and parental education being year 12 or below. The results of our analyses illustrate the existence of clear empirically defined trajectory classes following the onset of disability across a range of indicators of well-being. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Silver linings and candles in the dark: differences among positive coping strategies in predicting subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Michelle N

    2006-05-01

    Ideal coping strategies enhance positive aspects of well-being as well as reduce distress. Although researchers have identified several "positive coping" strategies, it is unclear which are most strongly associated with well-being or whether all strategies are equally appropriate for all kinds of stressors. Participants completed well-being measures, and described the most negative event of the day and their emotion regulation strategies for the next 7 days. Dispositional use of positive emotion-inducing coping strategies was most strongly associated with positive aspects of well-being. Use of positive coping did not decrease with increased objective stress during the week, and use of particular strategies was partly predicted by the types of stressors that were reported. Implications for theories of positive coping are discussed. 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Psychological well-being and social participation assessment in visually impaired subjects playing Torball: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cagno, A; Iuliano, E; Aquino, G; Fiorilli, G; Battaglia, C; Giombini, A; Calcagno, G

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in psychological well-being, symptomatic psychological disorders and social participation, between blind Torball players and non-players. Thirty blind male participants were recruited, 17 Torball players (aged 36.27±3.46) and 13 non-players (aged 34.80±2.53), and evaluated for social participation level, psychological well-being and symptomatic psychological disorders, using three validated self-report questionnaires: Participation Scale (PS), Psychological Well-Being Scale (PWBS) and Symptom Checklist 90 R (SCL-90-R) respectively. ANOVA showed significant overall differences between the two groups. The social restriction score in the non-player group was significantly higher (ppsychological well-being and social skills of visually impaired people and their Torball practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Association of Lower Spiritual Well-Being, Social Support, Self-Esteem, Subjective Well-Being, Optimism and Hope Scores With Mild Cognitive Impairment and Mild Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Sabrina B; Rocha, Gabrielli P; Fernandez, Liana L; de Padua, Analuiza C; Reppold, Caroline T

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Positive psychology (PP) constructs contribute significantly to a better quality of life for people with various diseases. There are still few studies that have evaluated the evolution of these aspects during the progression of dementia. Objective: To compare the scores for self-esteem, life satisfaction, affect, spirituality, hope, optimism and perceived support network between elderly people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), mild dementia and moderate dementia and control group. Methods: Cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 66 healthy controls, 15 elderly people with MCI, 25 with mild dementia and 22 with moderate dementia matched by age, gender, and schooling. The instruments used were: Spirituality Self Rating Scale (SSRS), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Medical Outcomes Study's Social Support Scale, Life Satisfaction Scale (LSS), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R), and Adult Dispositional Hope Scale (ADHS). Results: The scores for spiritual well-being, social support, self-esteem, life satisfaction, positive affect, optimism, negative affect, and hope differed significantly between the groups ( p spiritual well-being, social support, self-esteem, life satisfaction, positive affect, optimism and hope scores, and higher negative affect scores compared with the controls. The scores for PP constructs did not differ between the group of people with moderate dementia and the control group. Conclusion: Dementia was found to impact several PP constructs in the early stages of the disease. For individuals with greater cognitive impairment, anosognosia appears to suppress the disease's impact on these constructs.

  7. Comprehensively Measuring Health-Related Subjective Well-Being: Dimensionality Analysis for Improved Outcome Assessment in Health Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Marieke; Emons, Wilco H M; Plantinga, Arnoud; Pietersma, Suzanne; van den Hout, Wilbert B; Stiggelbout, Anne M; van den Akker-van Marle, M Elske

    2016-01-01

    Allocation of inevitably limited financial resources for health care requires assessment of an intervention's effectiveness. Interventions likely affect quality of life (QOL) more broadly than is measurable with commonly used health-related QOL utility scales. In line with the World Health Organization's definition of health, a recent Delphi procedure showed that assessment needs to put more emphasis on mental and social dimensions. To identify the core dimensions of health-related subjective well-being (HR-SWB) for a new, more comprehensive outcome measure. We formulated items for each domain of an initial Delphi-based set of 21 domains of HR-SWB. We tested these items in a large sample (N = 1143) and used dimensionality analyses to find a smaller number of latent factors. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a five-factor model, which explained 65% of the total variance. Factors related to physical independence, positive affect, negative affect, autonomy, and personal growth. Correlations between the factors ranged from 0.19 to 0.59. A closer inspection of the factors revealed an overlap between the newly identified core dimensions of HR-SWB and the validation scales, but the dimensions of HR-SWB also seemed to reflect additional aspects. This shows that the dimensions of HR-SWB we identified go beyond the existing health-related QOL instruments. We identified a set of five key dimensions to be included in a new, comprehensive measure of HR-SWB that reliably captures these dimensions and fills in the gaps of the existent measures used in economic evaluations. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The independent effects of match location, match result and the quality of opposition on subjective wellbeing in under 23 soccer players: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Will; Brownlee, Thomas E; Harper, Liam D; Naughton, Robert J; Clifford, Tom

    2018-03-04

    This study examined if subjective wellbeing in soccer players was affected by match location, match result and opposition quality before a match (PRE), 1 day after (POST-1), and 3 days after a match (POST-3). Eleven professional male soccer players from the under 23 squad playing in the Premier League 2 division completed a wellbeing questionnaire before and after 17 matches. Match training load (session-rating perceived exertion) was not different, regardless of the location, result, or quality of opposition faced (P > 0.05). Subjective wellbeing was not different at PRE (P > 0.05); however, at POST-1 and POST-3, stress and mood were ≥20% lower after playing away from home or losing (P sleep were ≥12% worse after playing against a higher-level opposition at POST-1. Coaches need to be aware that match location, match result and the quality of the opposition can influence post-match wellbeing, irrespective of match load.

  9. Short term (14 days) consumption of insoluble wheat bran fibre-containing breakfast cereals improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function in a dose dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Clare L; Walton, Jenny; Hoyland, Alexa; Howarth, Elaine; Allan, Peter; Chesters, David; Dye, Louise

    2013-04-22

    This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran) fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline) monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention) period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran) for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation) and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort). Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches). In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran) per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption.

  10. Short Term (14 Days Consumption of Insoluble Wheat Bran Fibre-Containing Breakfast Cereals Improves Subjective Digestive Feelings, General Wellbeing and Bowel Function in a Dose Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Dye

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (<15 g/day AOAC 985.29 completed a daily symptom diary for 14 days after which they consumed one bowl of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort. Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches. In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption.

  11. Short Term (14 Days) Consumption of Insoluble Wheat Bran Fibre-Containing Breakfast Cereals Improves Subjective Digestive Feelings, General Wellbeing and Bowel Function in a Dose Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Clare L.; Walton, Jenny; Hoyland, Alexa; Howarth, Elaine; Allan, Peter; Chesters, David; Dye, Louise

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran) fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline) monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention) period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (<15 g/day AOAC 985.29) completed a daily symptom diary for 14 days after which they consumed one bowl of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran) for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation) and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort). Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches). In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran) per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption. PMID:23609776

  12. Association of Lower Spiritual Well-Being, Social Support, Self-Esteem, Subjective Well-Being, Optimism and Hope Scores With Mild Cognitive Impairment and Mild Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina B. dos Santos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Positive psychology (PP constructs contribute significantly to a better quality of life for people with various diseases. There are still few studies that have evaluated the evolution of these aspects during the progression of dementia.Objective: To compare the scores for self-esteem, life satisfaction, affect, spirituality, hope, optimism and perceived support network between elderly people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, mild dementia and moderate dementia and control group.Methods: Cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 66 healthy controls, 15 elderly people with MCI, 25 with mild dementia and 22 with moderate dementia matched by age, gender, and schooling. The instruments used were: Spirituality Self Rating Scale (SSRS, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Medical Outcomes Study’s Social Support Scale, Life Satisfaction Scale (LSS, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS, Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R, and Adult Dispositional Hope Scale (ADHS.Results: The scores for spiritual well-being, social support, self-esteem, life satisfaction, positive affect, optimism, negative affect, and hope differed significantly between the groups (p < 0.05. The individuals with MCI and mild dementia had lower spiritual well-being, social support, self-esteem, life satisfaction, positive affect, optimism and hope scores, and higher negative affect scores compared with the controls. The scores for PP constructs did not differ between the group of people with moderate dementia and the control group.Conclusion: Dementia was found to impact several PP constructs in the early stages of the disease. For individuals with greater cognitive impairment, anosognosia appears to suppress the disease’s impact on these constructs.

  13. Compulsive buying in university students: its prevalence and relationships with materialism, psychological distress symptoms, and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villardefrancos, Estíbaliz; Otero-López, José Manuel

    2016-02-01

    Compulsive buying has become a severe problem among young people. The prominent role that psychological variables play in this phenomenon support their consideration in establishing a risk profile for compulsive buying that serves as a guide for the development of prevention and treatment programs with guarantees of effectiveness. However, there are only a small number of studies in existence which have explored the compulsive buying prevalence among students, and none of them have been conducted in a Mediterranean country. This study aims to estimate the compulsive buying prevalence in a sample of university students from the region of Galicia (Spain). We also intend to determine if statistically significant differences exist between compulsive buyers and non-compulsive buyers in relation with gender, materialistic values, psychological distress symptoms and subjective well-being. Lastly, the clarification of which of the determinants examined represent risk or protection factors for compulsive buying constitutes another important objective of this paper. A total sample of 1448 university students participated in this study. They answered a battery of self-reports assessing gender, compulsive buying propensity, materialism, distress symptomatology, and well-being. Participants were initially classified as either compulsive buyers or non-compulsive buyers. Both groups were compared for the aforementioned variables through chi-square testing or variance analyses. Then, a multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine which of these determinants make up a risk profile for compulsive buying. The estimated prevalence of compulsive buying in the sample of university students considered was 7.4%. Statistically significant differences between compulsive buyers and non-compulsive buyers were detected for gender, and each and every one of the psychological variables explored. Specifically, it was confirmed that compulsive buyers obtained significantly

  14. Examining the independent protective effect of subjective well-being on severe psychological distress among Canadian adults with a history of child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiden, Philip; Tarshis, Sarah; Antwi-Boasiako, Kofi; den Dunnen, Wendy

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the independent protective effect of subjective well-being on severe psychological distress among adult Canadians with a history of child maltreatment. Data for this study were obtained from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (CCHS-MH). A sample of 8126 respondents aged 20-69 years old who experienced at least one child maltreatment event was analyzed using binary logistic regression with severe psychological distress as the outcome variable. Of the 8126 respondents with a history of child maltreatment, 3.9% experienced severe psychological distress within the past month. Results from the multivariate logistic regression revealed that emotional and psychological well-being each had a significant effect on severe psychological distress. For each unit increase in emotional well-being, the odds of a respondent having severe psychological distress were predicted to decrease by a factor of 28% and for each unit increase in psychological well-being, the odds of a respondent having severe psychological distress were predicted to decrease by a factor of 10%, net the effect of demographic, socioeconomic, and health factors. Other factors associated with psychological distress included: younger age, poor self-perceived physical health, and chronic condition. Having post-secondary education, having a higher income, and being non-White predicted lower odds of severe psychological distress. Although, child maltreatment is associated with stressful life events later in adulthood, subjective well-being could serve as a protective factor against severe psychological distress among adults who experienced maltreatment when they were children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Resilience among Urban American Indian Adolescents: Exploration into the Role of Culture, Self-Esteem, Subjective Well-Being, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumblingbear-Riddle, Glenna; Romans, John S. C.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of enculturation, self-esteem, subjective well-being, and social support on resilience among urban American Indian (AI) adolescents from a South Central region of the U.S. were explored. Of the 196 participants, 114 (58.2%) were female and 82 (41.8%) were male (ages 14-18 years). Thirty-three percent of the variance in resilience was…

  16. Self-regulatory mode (locomotion and assessment), well-being (subjective and psychological), and exercise behavior (frequency and intensity) in relation to high school pupils’ academic achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Danilo Garcia; Alexander Jimmefors; Fariba Mousavi; Lillemor Adrianson; Patricia Rosenberg; Trevor Archer

    2015-01-01

    Background. Self-regulation is the procedure implemented by an individual striving to reach a goal and consists of two inter-related strategies: assessment and locomotion. Moreover, both subjective and psychological well-being along exercise behaviour might also play a role on adolescents academic achievement. Method. Participants were 160 Swedish high school pupils (111 boys and 49 girls) with an age mean of 17.74 (sd = 1.29). We used the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire to measure self-regulat...

  17. Dietary quality and its structural relationships among equivalent income, emotional well-being, and a five-year subjective health in Japanese middle-aged urban dwellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Sayuri; Fujii, Nobuya; Furuhata, Tadashi; Sakurai, Naoko; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Hoshi, Tanji

    2015-01-01

    Although dietary quality in middle-age and the prime age of a person's work career might be determined by positive emotional well-being based on socioeconomic status (SES), causation among determinants of dietary quality still remains unclear. Our purpose was to elucidate the structural relationships among five-year prior dietary quality, equivalent income, emotional well-being, and a five-year subjective health by sex and age group separately. In 2003, 10,000 middle-aged urban dwellers aged 40-64 years, who lived in ward A in the Tokyo metropolitan area, were randomly selected and a questionnaire survey was conducted by mail. In 2008, we made a follow-up survey for dwellers, and were able to gather their survival status. A total of 2507, middle-aged men (n = 1112) and women (n = 1395), were examined at baseline. We created three latent variables for a structural equation modeling (SEM), five-year subjective health reported in 2003 and in 2008, dietary quality of principle food groups diversity and eating behavior in 2003, and emotional well-being constructed by enjoyment & ikigai (meaning of life) and by close people in 2003. Equivalent income in 2003 was calculated as SES indicator. In the SEM analysis of both men and women, there was an indirect effect of the equivalent income on dietary quality and on five-year subjective health, via emotional well-being explained by ikigai and having comforting people close to the individuals, significantly. There tended to be a larger direct effect of emotional well-being on the dietary quality in men than in women, and also a larger effect accompanying with aging. In women, there was a large direct effect of equivalent income on dietary quality than in men. When examined comprehensively, there appeared to be a larger effect of five-year prior equivalent income on subjective health during five-year in men than in women. This study suggests that it is necessary to support the improvement of dietary quality in middle

  18. A short-term, comprehensive, yoga-based lifestyle intervention is efficacious in reducing anxiety, improving subjective well-being and personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the efficacy of a short-term comprehensive yoga-based lifestyle intervention in reducing anxiety, improving subjective well-being and personality. Materials and Methods: The study is a part of an ongoing larger study at a tertiary care hospital. Participants (n=90 included patients with chronic diseases attending a 10-day, yoga-based lifestyle intervention program for prevention and management of chronic diseases, and healthy controls (n=45 not attending any such intervention. Primary Outcome Measures: Change in state and trait anxiety questionnaire (STAI-Y; 40 items, subjective well-being inventory (SUBI; 40 items, and neuroticism extraversion openness to experience five factor personality inventory revised (NEO-FF PI-R; 60 items at the end of intervention. Results: Following intervention, the STAI-Y scores reduced significantly (P0.01 at Day 10 versus Day 1. Similarly NEO-FF PI-R scores improved significantly (P<0.001 at Day 10 versus Day 1. Control group showed an increase in STAI-Y while SUBI and NEO-FF PI-R scores remained comparable at Day 10 versus Day 1. Conclusions: The observations suggest that a short-term, yoga-based lifestyle intervention may significantly reduce anxiety and improve subjective well-being and personality in patients with chronic diseases.

  19. Electronic Rubrics to Assess Competences in ICT Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Manuela Raposo; De La Serna, Manuel Cebrian; Martinez-Figueira, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Helping students to acquire specific competences is nowadays one of the basic pillars of university teaching; therefore its evaluation and accreditation is of key importance. As of late, rubrics and in particular electronic rubrics (e-rubrics) have become an important resource to assess competences and guide students in their learning processes.…

  20. Sense of Coherence, Sociodemographic, Lifestyle, and Health-related Factors in Older Adults' Subjective Well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia von Humboldt

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Self-reported spirituality is the strongest predictor of SWB. Other predictors are sense of coherence, social support, living setting, household, perceived health, and medication. Results emphasize that health care approaches may benefit from clearly understanding SWB and its predictors, as essential for promoting older adults' health and well-being.

  1. Does Migration Make You Happy? A Longitudinal Study of Internal Migration and Subjective Well-Being (discussion paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nowok, B.; Van Ham, M.; Findlay, A.; Gayle, V.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of modelling studies on consequences of internal migration focus almost exclusively on the labour market outcomes and the material well-being of migrants. We investigate whether individuals who migrate within the UK become happier after the move than they were before it and whether the

  2. How do post-divorce paternal and maternal family trajectories relate to adolescents' subjective well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastaits, Kim; Pasteels, Inge; Mortelmans, Dimitri

    2018-04-01

    Previous research on adolescents' well-being has focused mainly on the differences between married and divorced families. Recently, interest has shifted towards the cumulative effects of the various family transitions experienced by children. To contribute to this literature, we investigate the relationship of maternal and paternal family trajectories following divorce with adolescents' well-being by analyzing two dyadic subsamples of the 'Divorce in Flanders' study: mothers-adolescents (n = 515) and fathers-adolescents (n = 365). Results from the sequence analyses and structural equation models show that adolescents' well-being was lower if their mothers were in less stable partnership situations, namely if they had never repartnered, were in a LAT (living apart together) relationship or had had several relationships since their divorce. For fathers, the opposite result was found: adolescents' well-being was lower when their fathers were in seemingly stable partnership situations, i.e. if they had remarried or begun living with a new partner since their divorce. Copyright © 2018 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. What shapes 7-year-olds' subjective well-being? Prospective analysis of early childhood and parenting using the Growing Up in Scotland study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Alison; Sweeting, Helen; Wight, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Research on predictors of young children's psychosocial well-being currently relies on adult-reported outcomes. This study investigated whether early family circumstances and parenting predict 7-year-olds' subjective well-being. Information on supportive friendships, liking school and life satisfaction was obtained from 7-year-olds in one Growing Up in Scotland birth cohort in 2012-2013 (N = 2869). Mothers provided information on early childhood factors from 10 to 34 months, parenting (dysfunctional parenting, home learning and protectiveness) from 46 to 70 months, and 7-year-olds' adjustment. Multivariable path models explored associations between early childhood factors, parenting and 7-year-olds' subjective well-being. Supplementary analyses compared findings with those for mother-reported adjustment. In a model of early childhood factors, maternal distress predicted less supportive friendships and lower life satisfaction (coefficients -0.12), poverty predicted less supportive friendships (-0.09) and remote location predicted all outcomes (-0.20 to -0.27). In a model with parenting added, dysfunctional parenting predicted all outcomes (-10 to -0.16), home learning predicted liking school (0.11) and life satisfaction (0.08), and protectiveness predicted life satisfaction (0.08). Effects of maternal distress were fully mediated, largely via dysfunctional parenting, while home learning mediated negative effects of low maternal education. Direct effects of poverty and remote location remained. Findings for mother-reported child adjustment were broadly similar. Unique prospective data show parenting and early childhood impact 7-year-olds' subjective well-being. They underline the benefits for children of targeting parental mental health and dysfunctional parenting, and helping parents develop skills to support children at home and school.

  4. Psychosocial job quality, mental health, and subjective wellbeing: a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline wave of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMontagne, Anthony D; Milner, Allison; Krnjacki, Lauren; Schlichthorst, Marisa; Kavanagh, Anne; Page, Kathryn; Pirkis, Jane

    2016-10-31

    Employment status and working conditions are strong determinants of male health, and are therefore an important focus in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men). In this paper, we describe key work variables included in Ten to Men, and present analyses relating psychosocial job quality to mental health and subjective wellbeing at baseline. A national sample of males aged 10 to 55 years residing in private dwellings was drawn using a stratified multi-stage cluster random sample design. Data were collected between October 2013 and July 2014 for a cohort of 15,988 males, representing a response fraction of 35 %. This analysis was restricted to 18-55 year old working age participants (n = 13,456). Work-related measures included employment status, and, for those who were employed, a number of working conditions including an ordinal scale of psychosocial job quality (presence of low job control, high demand and complexity, high job insecurity, and low fairness of pay), and working time-related stressors such as long working hours and night shift work. Associations between psychosocial job quality and two outcome measures, mental ill-health and subjective wellbeing, were assessed using multiple linear regression. The majority of participants aged 18-55 years were employed at baseline (85.6 %), with 8.4 % unemployed and looking for work, and 6.1 % not in the labour force. Among employed participants, there was a high prevalence of long working hours (49.9 % reported working more than 40 h/week) and night shift work (23.4 %). Psychosocial job quality (exposure to 0/1/2/3+ job stressors) prevalence was 36 %/ 37 %/ 20 %/ and 7 % of the working respondents. There was a dose-response relationship between psychosocial job quality and each of the two outcome measures of mental health and subjective wellbeing after adjusting for potential confounders, with higher magnitude associations between psychosocial job quality and subjective wellbeing

  5. Psychosocial job quality, mental health, and subjective wellbeing: a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline wave of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. LaMontagne

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Employment status and working conditions are strong determinants of male health, and are therefore an important focus in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men. In this paper, we describe key work variables included in Ten to Men, and present analyses relating psychosocial job quality to mental health and subjective wellbeing at baseline. Methods A national sample of males aged 10 to 55 years residing in private dwellings was drawn using a stratified multi-stage cluster random sample design. Data were collected between October 2013 and July 2014 for a cohort of 15,988 males, representing a response fraction of 35 %. This analysis was restricted to 18–55 year old working age participants (n = 13,456. Work-related measures included employment status, and, for those who were employed, a number of working conditions including an ordinal scale of psychosocial job quality (presence of low job control, high demand and complexity, high job insecurity, and low fairness of pay, and working time-related stressors such as long working hours and night shift work. Associations between psychosocial job quality and two outcome measures, mental ill-health and subjective wellbeing, were assessed using multiple linear regression. Results The majority of participants aged 18–55 years were employed at baseline (85.6 %, with 8.4 % unemployed and looking for work, and 6.1 % not in the labour force. Among employed participants, there was a high prevalence of long working hours (49.9 % reported working more than 40 h/week and night shift work (23.4 %. Psychosocial job quality (exposure to 0/1/2/3+ job stressors prevalence was 36 %/ 37 %/ 20 %/ and 7 % of the working respondents. There was a dose–response relationship between psychosocial job quality and each of the two outcome measures of mental health and subjective wellbeing after adjusting for potential confounders, with higher magnitude associations

  6. Subjective evaluation of psychosocial well-being in children and youths with overweight or obesity: the impact of multidisciplinary obesity treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Hamann, Sophie Amalie; Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Johansen, Mia Østergaard; Grønbæk, Helle Nergaard; Mollerup, Pernille Maria; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effects of a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment programme on subjective evaluations of psychosocial well-being and quality of life. This longitudinal observational study included 1291 children, adolescents and young adults, 6-22 years of age, with overweight or obesity. At entry and after 2-82 months of obesity treatment, the patients evaluated the following domains of psychosocial well-being on a visual analogue scale: quality of life, mood, appetite, bullying, motivation for weight loss and body image satisfaction. The degree of overweight was calculated using a body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) at each visit. At entry, the mean BMI SDS was 2.81 (range: 1.35-6.65, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.44-3.18). After a median of 14 months of treatment, the median reduction in BMI SDS was 0.29 (95% CI: 0.26-0.31, p bullying and body image satisfaction (p < 0.0001). Larger reductions in BMI SDS were associated with greater improvements in the domains of quality of life (p = 0.001), mood (p = 0.04) and body image satisfaction (p < 0.0001), independent of BMI SDS at entry. However, improvements in psychosocial well-being were also observed in those increasing their BMI SDS (n = 315). In a large group of children and youths, psychosocial well-being improved during a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment programme, irrespective of the degree of obesity at treatment entry. Greater reductions in BMI SDS were associated with greater improvements in psychosocial well-being, but even in the group increasing their BMI SDS improvements were observed.

  7. Goal Adjustment Capacities, Coping, and Subjective Well-Being: The Sample Case of Caregiving For a Family Member With Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrosch, Carsten; Amir, Ella; Miller, Gregory E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the associations between goal adjustment capacities, coping, and indicators of subjective well-being in two waves of data from individuals who provide care for a family member with mental illness. We hypothesized that goal adjustment capacities would predict higher levels of subjective well-being by facilitating coping with caregiving stress. Results showed that goal disengagement was associated with effective care-specific coping (e.g., less self-blame and substance use). Goal reengagement was also associated with effective care-specific coping (e.g., positive reframing), but at the same time it predicted the use of less useful strategies (e.g., venting and self-distraction). Moreover, goal disengagement predicted lower levels of caregiver burden and depressive symptoms, and buffered the longitudinal effect of caregiver burden on increases in depressive symptoms. Goal reengagement, by contrast, predicted higher levels of caregiver burden and purpose in life, and buffered the cross-sectional association between caregiver burden and depressive symptoms. Finally, effective (and less useful) care-specific coping statistically explained the adaptive (and maladaptive) effects of goal adjustment capacities on participants’ well-being. PMID:21381855

  8. The good, the bad (and the ugly): The role of curiosity in subjective well-being and risky behaviors among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Veljko; Gavrilov-Jerković, Vesna

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that enhanced trait curiosity has positive influence on well-being. It remains an open question, however, whether curiosity has any detrimental effects on behavioral outcomes in adolescence. The main aim of this research was to investigate the role of trait curiosity in the prediction of risky behavior engagement and subjective well-being (SWB) among adolescents. A total of 371 Serbian adolescents (mean age 15.5, SD = 0.57) participated in the 5-month follow up study. The results showed that the embracing component of curiosity (but not stretching) predicted risky behavior engagement, while the stretching component of curiosity (but not embracing) predicted positive affect. In addition, neither embracing nor stretching was a significant predictor of negative affect and life satisfaction. The results of this study call into question the conceptualization of curiosity as a completely positive emotional-motivational system, and suggest that curiosity can contribute to negative outcomes in adolescence.

  9. The potential of the Global Person Generated Index for evaluating the perceived impacts of conservation interventions on subjective well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasolofoson, Ranaivo Andriarilala; Nielsen, Martin Reinhardt; Jones, Julia P.G.

    2018-01-01

    a subjective measure), and impacts (requiring a participatory approach), but very few, if any, conservation evaluations live up to these standards. We used a participatory impact evaluation approach with the Global Person Generated Index (GPGI) to investigate the relative impacts of strict protection......There is growing interest in the importance of ensuring that biodiversity conservation is not achieved at the expense of local people’s well-being. It has been suggested that when evaluating the impact of an intervention, the affected population should be allowed to define well-being (requiring......, and the relative importance of the five identified domains. Participatory impact evaluation establishes local perceptions of the cause-effect relationship between an intervention and respondents’ performance in each domain. Over half the respondents perceived no positive or negative impacts from the conservation...

  10. The Happy Culture: A Theoretical, Meta-Analytic, and Empirical Review of the Relationship Between Culture and Wealth and Subjective Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Piers; Taras, Vasyl; Uggerslev, Krista; Bosco, Frank

    2018-05-01

    Do cultural values enhance financial and subjective well-being (SWB)? Taking a multidisciplinary approach, we meta-analytically reviewed the field, found it thinly covered, and focused on individualism. In counter, we collected a broad array of individual-level data, specifically an Internet sample of 8,438 adult respondents. Individual SWB was most strongly associated with cultural values that foster relationships and social capital, which typically accounted for more unique variance in life satisfaction than an individual's salary. At a national level, we used mean-based meta-analysis to construct a comprehensive cultural and SWB database. Results show some reversals from the individual level, particularly masculinity's facet of achievement orientation. In all, the happy nation has low power distance and low uncertainty avoidance, but is high in femininity and individualism, and these effects are interrelated but still partially independent from political and economic institutions. In short, culture matters for individual and national well-being.

  11. Experiential Learning of Electronics Subject Matter in Middle School Robotics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihtaršic, David; Avsec, Stanislav; Kocijancic, Slavko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the experiential learning of electronics subject matter is effective in the middle school open learning of robotics. Electronics is often ignored in robotics courses. Since robotics courses are typically comprised of computer-related subjects, and mechanical and electrical engineering, these…

  12. Proficiency in Positive versus Negative Emotion Identification and Subjective Well-being among Long-term Married Elderly Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca ePetrican; Morris eMoscovitch; Cheryl eGrady

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is accruing that positive emotions play a crucial role in shaping a healthy interpersonal climate. Inspired by this research, the current investigation sought to shed light on the link between proficiency in identifying positive versus negative emotions and a close partner’s well-being. To this end, we conducted two studies with neurologically intact elderly married couples (Study 1) and an age-matched clinical sample, comprising married couples in which one spouse had been diagnosed...

  13. Working out in the workplace and subjective well-being : a survey of employees in a Norwegian company

    OpenAIRE

    Harjang, Bjørnar Cornelius

    2015-01-01

    English abstract: Background: Physical activity and well-being in everyday life are major themes in Norway currently. More recently, attention has been given to the link between physical activity and better mental health. Alongside this have been arguments for using settings, such as the workplace, for implementing strategies to create healthier workplaces. However, research on the topic of workplace physical activity and mental health among employees has not been extensively studied, particu...

  14. Somatic influences on subjective well-being and affective disorders: the convergence of thermosensory and central serotonergic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L Raison

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current theories suggest that the brain is the sole source of mental illness. However, affective disorders, and major depressive disorder (MDD in particular, may be better conceptualized as brain-body disorders that involve peripheral systems as well. This perspective emphasizes the embodied, multifaceted physiology of well-being, and suggests that afferent signals from the body may contribute to cognitive and emotional states. In this review, we focus on evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggesting that afferent thermosensory signals contribute to well-being and depression. Although thermoregulatory systems have traditionally been conceptualized as serving primarily homeostatic functions, increasing evidence suggests neural pathways responsible for regulating body temperature may be linked more closely with emotional states than previously recognized, an affective warmth hypothesis. Human studies indicate that increasing physical warmth activates brain circuits associated with cognitive and affective functions, promotes interpersonal warmth and prosocial behaviour, and has antidepressant effects. Consistent with these effects, preclinical studies in rodents demonstrate that physical warmth activates brain serotonergic neurons implicated in antidepressant-like effects. Together, these studies suggest that 1 thermosensory pathways interact with brain systems that control affective function, 2 these pathways are dysregulated in affective disorders, and 3 activating warm thermosensory pathways promotes a sense of well-being and has therapeutic potential in the treatment of affective disorders.

  15. Quantum dynamical phenomena of independent electrons in semiconductor superlattices subject to a uniform electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Bloch oscillations and other dynamical phenomena of electrons in semiconductor superlattices; solvable dynamical model of an electron in a one-dimensional aperiodic lattice subject to a uniform electric field; and quantum dynamical phenomena of electrons in aperiodic semiconductor superlattices

  16. Subjective assessment of acute mountain sickness: investigating the relationship between the Lake Louise Self-Report, a visual analogue scale and psychological well-being scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frühauf, Anika; Burtscher, Martin; Pocecco, Elena; Faulhaber, Martin; Kopp, Martin

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing discussion how to assess acute mountain sickness (AMS) in real life conditions. Next to more-item scales with a cut off like the Lake Louise Self-Report (LLS), some authors suggested to use visual analog scales (VAS) to assess AMS. This study tried to contribute to this question using VAS items used for the Subjective Ratings of Drug Effects, including an additional single item for AMS. Furthermore, we investigated if instruments developed to assess psychological well-being might predict AMS assessed via LLS or VAS. 32 (19 Female) adult persons with known AMS susceptibility filled in questionnaires (Feeling Scale, Felt Arousal Scale, Activation Deactivation Check List, LLS, VAS) at a height of 3650 m above sea level. Correlation and regression analysis suggest a moderate to high relationship between the LLS score and the VAS items, including one VAS item asking for the severity of AMS, as well as psychological well-being. In conclusion, using VAS items to assess AMS can be a more precise alternative to questionnaires like LLS, for people knowledgeable with AMS. Furthermore, researchers should be aware that psychological well-being might be an important parameter influencing the assessment of AMS.

  17. Beş Faktör Kişilik Özellikleri ve Öznel İyi Oluş = The Five Factor Personality Traits and Subjective Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun DOĞAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze the relations between personality traits and subjective well-being. The number of the participants of the research was 234 (98 women/136 men. The age range of the study group was 18-61. The Oxford Happiness Scale-Short Form and the Big Five Personality Scale were used. Findings showed that there was a significantly negative relationship between neurotic personality trait and subjective well-being. Findings also revealed that there were positive relationships between subjective well-being and extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness, openness. Besides, it was found that neurotic personality trait was a negative and extraversion was a positive predictor of subjective well-being.

  18. Subjective effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) extract on well-being and sexual performances in patients with mild erectile dysfunction: a randomised, double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenico, T; Cicero, A F G; Valmorri, L; Mercuriali, M; Bercovich, E

    2009-04-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is a cultivated root belonging to the brassica family used in the Andean region for its supposed aphrodisiac properties. We carried out a double-blind clinical trial on 50 Caucasian men affected by mild erectile dysfunction (ED), randomised to treatment with Maca dry extract, 2400 mg, or placebo. The treatment effect on ED and subjective well-being was tested administrating before and after 12 weeks the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and the Satisfaction Profile (SAT-P). After 12 weeks of treatment, both Maca- and placebo-treated patients experienced a significant increase in IIEF-5 score (P Maca experienced a more significant increase than those taking placebo (1.6 +/- 1.1 versus 0.5 +/- 0.6, P Maca- and placebo-treated subjects experienced a significant improvement in psychological performance-related SAT-P score, but the Maca group higher than that of placebo group (+9 +/- 6 versus +6 +/- 5, P Maca-treated patients experienced a significant improvement in physical and social performance-related SAT-P score compared with the baseline (+7 +/- 6 and +7 +/- 6, both P Maca supplementation on subjective perception of general and sexual well-being in adult patients with mild ED.

  19. The influence of perceived discrimination, sense of control, self-esteem and multiple discrepancies on the mental health and subjective well-being in Serbian immigrants in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukojević Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on the mental health and subjective well-being (SWB of Serbian immigrants of the first generation in Canada. We wanted to examine if perceived discrimination, sense of control, self-esteem and perceived multiple discrepancy affect their mental health and SWB. Our results indicate that self-esteem and sense of control have a positive effect on mental health and all aspects of the SWB, while the perceived discrimination and perceived multiple discrepancy negatively affect SWB and mental health. Self-esteem was the most salient predictor of mental health, while the perceived multiple discrepancy was the most salient predictor of life satisfaction of Serbian immigrants.

  20. Well-being, problematic alcohol consumption and acute subjective drug effects in past-year ayahuasca users: a large, international, self-selecting online survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lawn, Will; Hallak, Jaime E.; Crippa, Jose A.; Dos Santos, Rafael; Porffy, Lilla; Barratt, Monica J.; Ferris, Jason A.; Winstock, Adam R.; Morgan, Celia J. A.

    2017-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a natural psychedelic brew, which contains dimethyltryptamine (DMT). Its potential as a psychiatric medicine has recently been demonstrated and its non-medical use around the world appears to be growing. We aimed to investigate well-being and problematic alcohol use in ayahuasca users, and ayahuasca’s subjective effects. An online, self-selecting, global survey examining patterns of drug use was conducted in 2015 and 2016 (n = 96,901). Questions were asked about: use of ayahuasca...

  1. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  2. Visual impairment, but not hearing impairment, is independently associated with lower subjective well-being among individuals over 95 years of age: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zuyun; Wu, Di; Huang, Jiapin; Qian, Degui; Chen, Fei; Xu, Jun; Li, Shilin; Jin, Li; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Sensory impairment affects an increasing number of elderly adults, with a negative psychological impact. Our objective was to examine the associations of visual and hearing impairment with subjective well-being (SWB), an important psychological concept defined by life satisfaction [LS], positive affect [PA], negative affect [NA], and affect balance [AB] among long-lived individuals (LLIs) over 95 years of age. Data on 442 LLIs from the Rugao longevity cohort, a population-based study in Rugao, China, were analyzed. Graded classifications of visual and hearing impairment (none, mild, moderate, and severe) were constructed from self-reported items. Bivariate correlation and multiple regression analysis were performed to test the associations. Approximately 66.1% and 87.3% of the subjects reported varying degrees of visual and hearing impairment. Following the degree of vision impairment, LS, PA, and AB decreased linearly, whereas NA increased linearly (all p for trendimpairment with LS, NA, and AB, while diminished, still existed. Visual impairment, but not hearing impairment, was independently associated with low SWB among LLIs, and functional ability may play a mediating role in the observed relationship. The findings indicate that rehabilitation targeted for those with reduced vision and functioning in long-lived populations may be important for promoting well-being and quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Role of Family Orientations in Shaping the Effect of Fertility on Subjective Well-being: A Propensity Score Matching Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbo, Nicoletta; Arpino, Bruno

    2016-08-01

    This article investigates whether and how having a child impacts an individual's subjective well-being, while taking into account heterogeneity in family attitudes. People with different family orientations have different values, gender attitudes, preferences toward career and family, and expectations about how childbearing can affect their subjective well-being. These differences impact fertility decisions and the effect of parenthood on an individual's life satisfaction. We define three groups of people based on their family orientations: Traditional, Mixed, and Modern. Applying propensity score matching on longitudinal data (British Household Panel Survey), we create groups of individuals with very similar socioeconomic characteristics and family orientations before childbearing. We then compare those who have one child with those who are childless, and those who have two children with those who have only one child. We show that parents are significantly more satisfied than nonparents, and this effect is stronger among men than among women. For men, we do not find significant differences across family orientations groups in the effect of the birth of the first child on life satisfaction. Among women, only Traditional mothers seem to be more satisfied than their childless counterparts. Women who have a second child are never more satisfied than those who have only one child, regardless of their family orientations. Traditional and Mixed men experience a gain in life satisfaction when they have a second child, but this effect is not found for Modern men.

  4. The effect of personal and group discrimination on the subjective well-being of people with mental illness: the role of internalized stigma and collective action intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Garín, Daniel; Molero, Fernando; Bos, Arjan E R

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this study is to test a model in which personal discrimination predicts internalized stigma, while group discrimination predicts a greater willingness to engage in collective action. Internalized stigma and collective action, in turn, are associated to positive and negative affect. A cross-sectional study with 213 people with mental illness was conducted. The model was tested using path analysis. Although the data supported the model, its fit was not sufficiently good. A respecified model, in which a direct path from collective action to internalized stigma was added, showed a good fit. Personal and group discrimination appear to impact subjective well-being through two different paths: the internalization of stigma and collective action intentions, respectively. These two paths, however, are not completely independent, as collective action predicts a lower internalization of stigma. Thus, collective action appears as an important tool to reduce internalized stigma and improve subjective well-being. Future interventions to reduce the impact of stigma should fight the internalization of stigma and promote collective action are suggested.

  5. Satisfaction with dietary life affects oral health-related quality of life and subjective well-being in very elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iinuma, Toshimitsu; Arai, Yasumichi; Takayama, Midori; Takayama, Michiyo; Abe, Yukiko; Osawa, Yusuke; Fukumoto, Motoko; Fukui, Yusuke; Shioda, Yohei; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Komiyama, Kazuo; Gionhaku, Nobuhito

    2017-01-01

    Age-related deterioration in physical and oral health reduces healthy life expectancy and is thus an important problem for very elderly people. We investigated the effects of satisfaction with dietary life (SDL) in everyday life on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and subjective well-being and examined associations between these factors. We evaluated 426 elders aged 85 years or older. All participants completed a questionnaire that inquired about age, gender, drinking status, body mass index, cognitive function, disability, and comorbidities, among other covariates. Oral, physical, and mental health conditions were also examined. Associations of questionnaire results for SDL with items on subjective well-being (Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale [PGC] and World Health Organization-5 [WHO-5]) and OHRQoL (Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index [GOHAI]) were confirmed with multiple logistic regression analysis. In a multivariate model adjusted for various confounders, participants with self-reported "enjoyable" SDL had significantly lower risks for having the lowest scores on the GOHAI, PGC, and WHO-5 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.460, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.277-0.762; OR = 0.589, 95% CI = 0.348-0.996; and OR = 0.452, 95% CI = 0.263-0.775, respectively). These associations remained after further adjustment for number of teeth.

  6. Fractal structure formation on the surfaces of solids subjected to high intensity electron and ion treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altajskij, M.V.; Ivanov, V.V.; Korenev, S.A.; Orelovich, O.L.; Puzynin, I.V.; Chernik, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the results of scanning electron microscopy of surfaces of the solids subjected to high intensity electron and ion beam treatment. The appearance of fractal structures on the modified surfaces is shown. The fractal dimensions of these structures were estimated by box-counting algorithm

  7. An Investigation of the Acute Effects of Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin on Subjective Wellbeing, Mood and Cognitive Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Smith

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Inulin is a natural food component found in many plants that are part of the human diet (e.g., leeks, onions, wheat, garlic, chicory and artichokes. It is added to many foods and is used to increase dietary fibre, replace fats or carbohydrates, and as a prebiotic (a stimulant of beneficial bacteria in the colon. Oligofructose, which is also present in these foods, produces similar effects and most research has used a combination of these products. A previous study (Smith, 2005 investigated the effects of regular consumption of oligofructose-enriched inulin on wellbeing, mood, and cognitive performance in humans. The results showed that oligofructose-enriched inulin had no negative effects but that it did not improve wellbeing, mood, or performance. The aim of the present study was to examine the acute effects of oligofructose-enriched inulin (5 g over a 4 h period during which the participants remained in the laboratory. A double blind placebo (maltodextrin controlled study (N = 47 was carried out with the order of conditions being counterbalanced and the two sessions a week apart. On each test day mood and cognitive performance were assessed at baseline (at 8:00 and then following inulin or placebo (at 11:00. Prior to the second test session (at 10:30 participants completed a questionnaire assessing their physical symptoms and mental health during the test morning. The inulin and placebo were provided in powder form in 5 g sachets. Volunteers consumed one sachet in decaffeinated tea or decaffeinated coffee with breakfast (9:00. Questionnaire results showed that on the day that the inulin was consumed, participants felt happier, had less indigestion and were less hungry than when they consumed the placebo. As for performance and mood tasks, the most consistent effects were on the episodic memory tasks where consumption of inulin was associated with greater accuracy on a recognition memory task, and improved recall performance (immediate and

  8. An Investigation of the Acute Effects of Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin on Subjective Wellbeing, Mood and Cognitive Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P; Sutherland, David; Hewlett, Paul

    2015-10-28

    Inulin is a natural food component found in many plants that are part of the human diet (e.g., leeks, onions, wheat, garlic, chicory and artichokes). It is added to many foods and is used to increase dietary fibre, replace fats or carbohydrates, and as a prebiotic (a stimulant of beneficial bacteria in the colon). Oligofructose, which is also present in these foods, produces similar effects and most research has used a combination of these products. A previous study (Smith, 2005) investigated the effects of regular consumption of oligofructose-enriched inulin on wellbeing, mood, and cognitive performance in humans. The results showed that oligofructose-enriched inulin had no negative effects but that it did not improve wellbeing, mood, or performance. The aim of the present study was to examine the acute effects of oligofructose-enriched inulin (5 g) over a 4 h period during which the participants remained in the laboratory. A double blind placebo (maltodextrin) controlled study (N = 47) was carried out with the order of conditions being counterbalanced and the two sessions a week apart. On each test day mood and cognitive performance were assessed at baseline (at 8:00) and then following inulin or placebo (at 11:00). Prior to the second test session (at 10:30) participants completed a questionnaire assessing their physical symptoms and mental health during the test morning. The inulin and placebo were provided in powder form in 5 g sachets. Volunteers consumed one sachet in decaffeinated tea or decaffeinated coffee with breakfast (9:00). Questionnaire results showed that on the day that the inulin was consumed, participants felt happier, had less indigestion and were less hungry than when they consumed the placebo. As for performance and mood tasks, the most consistent effects were on the episodic memory tasks where consumption of inulin was associated with greater accuracy on a recognition memory task, and improved recall performance (immediate and delayed

  9. Explaining Differences in Subjective Well-Being Across 33 Nations Using Multilevel Models: Universal Personality, Cultural Relativity, and National Income

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cheng, C.; Cheung, M. W.-L.; Montasem, A.; Awang-Hashim, R.; Bačová, V.; Baumane, I.; Chan, R.; Christou, M.; Chun, W. Y.; Clemena, R. M.; Comunian, A.L.; Czapinski, J.; Dayan, N.; Loving, R.D.; Duarte-Silva, M. E.; Falzon, A.; Falzon, R.; Gan, Y.; Golden, D. L.; de Zavala Golec, A.; Guil-Bozal, A.; Hadiyono, J. E. P.; Hadjar, A.; Hertel, J.; Ines Alcalay, S. L.; Jose, P. E.; Dzuka, J.; Kafetsios, K.; Lawal, O. A.; Liu, J.-T.; Neto, F.; Opre, A.; Panayiotou, A.; Raudsepp, M.; Roth, R.; Sheldon, K. M.; Sideridis, G.; Šolcová, Iva; Spyrou, S.; Suhail, K.; Tam, W.-Ch. C.; Tanti-Burlo, E.; Tao, V. Y.; Tonon, G.; Tiliouine, H.; Tsaousis, I.; Uglanova, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 1 (2016), s. 46-58 ISSN 0022-3506 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : life satisfaction * self - esteem * individualism * collectivism * happiness * extroversion Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 3.590, year: 2016

  10. Explaining Differences in Subjective Well-Being Across 33 Nations Using Multilevel Models: Universal Personality, Cultural Relativity, and National Income

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cheng, C.; Cheung, M. W.-L.; Montasem, A.; Awang-Hashim, R.; Bačová, V.; Baumane, I.; Chan, R.; Christou, M.; Chun, W. Y.; Clemena, R. M.; Comunian, A.L.; Czapinski, J.; Dayan, N.; Loving, R.D.; Duarte-Silva, M. E.; Falzon, A.; Falzon, R.; Gan, Y.; Golden, D. L.; de Zavala Golec, A.; Guil-Bozal, A.; Hadiyono, J. E. P.; Hadjar, A.; Hertel, J.; Ines Alcalay, S. L.; Jose, P. E.; Dzuka, J.; Kafetsios, K.; Lawal, O. A.; Liu, J.-T.; Neto, F.; Opre, A.; Panayiotou, A.; Raudsepp, M.; Roth, R.; Sheldon, K. M.; Sideridis, G.; Šolcová, Iva; Spyrou, S.; Suhail, K.; Tam, W.-Ch. C.; Tanti-Burlo, E.; Tao, V. Y.; Tonon, G.; Tiliouine, H.; Tsaousis, I.; Uglanova, E.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 1 (2016), s. 46-58 ISSN 0022-3506 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : life satisfaction * self-esteem * individualism * collectivism * happiness * extroversion Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 3.590, year: 2016

  11. The Happy Culture: A Theoretical, Meta-Analytic, and Empirical Review of the Relationship Between Culture and Wealth and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Piers; Taras, Vasyl; Uggerslev, Krista; Bosco, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Do cultural values enhance financial and subjective well-being (SWB)? Taking a multidisciplinary approach, we meta-analytically reviewed the field, found it thinly covered, and focused on individualism. In counter, we collected a broad array of individual-level data, specifically an Internet sample of 8,438 adult respondents. Individual SWB was most strongly associated with cultural values that foster relationships and social capital, which typically accounted for more unique variance in life satisfaction than an individual’s salary. At a national level, we used mean-based meta-analysis to construct a comprehensive cultural and SWB database. Results show some reversals from the individual level, particularly masculinity’s facet of achievement orientation. In all, the happy nation has low power distance and low uncertainty avoidance, but is high in femininity and individualism, and these effects are interrelated but still partially independent from political and economic institutions. In short, culture matters for individual and national well-being. PMID:28770649

  12. Preliminary data concerning the reliability and psychometric properties of the Greek translation of the 20-item Subjective Well-Being Under Neuroleptic Treatment Scale (SWN-20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arapidis Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 20-item Subjective Well-Being Under Neuroleptic Treatment Scale (SWN-20 is a self-report scale developed in order to assess the well-being of patients receiving antipsychotic medication independent of the improvement in their psychotic symptoms. The current study reports on the reliability and the psychometric properties of the Greek translation of the SWN-20. Methods A total of 100 inpatients or outpatients with schizophrenia (79 males and 21 females, aged 42.6 ± 11.35 years old from 3 different facilities were assessed with the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS, the Calgary Depression Scale and the Simpson-Angus Scale, and completed the SWN-20. The statistical analysis included the calculation of Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, the Cronbach α and factor analysis with Varimax normalised rotation. Results The SWN-20 had an α value equal to 0.79 and all the items were equal. The factor analysis revealed the presence of seven factors explaining 66% of total variance. The correlation matrix revealed a moderate relationship of the SWN-20 and its factors with the PANSS-Negative (PANSS-N, PANSS-General Psychopathology (PANSS-G, the Simpson-Angus and the Calgary scales, and no relationship to age, education and income class. Discussion The Greek translation of the SWN-20 is reliable, with psychometric properties close to the original scale.

  13. Temperamental predictors of subjective well-being from early adolescence to mid-life: The role of temporal and energetic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanowska, Agnieszka; Zalewska, Anna M

    2017-02-14

    We investigated links between temperament traits described in Strelau's Regulative Theory of Temperament (Emotional Reactivity, Briskness, Activity, Endurance, Perseveration and Sensory Sensitivity) and subjective well-being (SWB)-Positive Affect, Negative Affect and Life Satisfaction as conceptualised by Diener. Participants representing early (n = 166) and late adolescence (n = 199), early (n = 195) and mid-adulthood (n = 156) filled out Formal Characteristics of Behaviour-Temperament Inventory, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and Satisfaction with Life Scale. Results showed that higher Briskness, Endurance, Activity, lower Perseveration and Emotional Reactivity corresponded with higher SWB. They predicted 16% of affective components' and 7% of satisfaction variance. Each well-being component had a unique set of predictors; however, predictors of affective components varied across age groups. Higher Positive Affect was predicted by traits responsible for energetic regulation (higher Endurance and Activity and lower Emotional Reactivity) and by higher Perseveration, but their role (excluding Emotional Reactivity) was age-dependent. Higher Negative Affect was predicted by higher Emotional Reactivity and dimensions expressing temporal characteristics, lower Briskness and higher Perseveration (Perseveration was not significant among younger adolescents). Higher Satisfaction was steadily predicted by lower Emotional Reactivity and higher Activity. To conclude, the functions of temperament traits are mostly in line with theoretical expectations, but more complex than indicated by previous research. © 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Union of Psychological Science.

  14. The Scandinavian Solutions for Wellness study - a two-arm observational study on the effectiveness of lifestyle intervention on subjective well-being and weight among persons with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsdal, Vibeke; Beal, Catherine; Kleivenes, Ole Kristian; Martinsen, Egil W; Lindström, Eva; Nilsson, Harriet; Svanborg, Pär

    2010-06-10

    Solutions for Wellness (SfW) is an educational 3-month program concerning nutrition and exercise for persons with psychiatric disorders on psychotropic medication, who have weight problems. This observational study assessed the impact of SfW on subjective well-being, weight and waist circumference (WC). Data was collected at 49 psychiatric clinics. Where the SfW program was offered patients could enter the intervention group; where not, the control group. Subjective well-being was measured by the Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptics scale (SWN), at baseline, at the end of SfW participation, and at a follow-up 6 months after baseline. Demographic, disease and treatment data was also collected. 314 patients enrolled in the SfW group, 59 in the control group. 54% of the patients had schizophrenia, 67% received atypical antipsychotics, 56% were female. They averaged 41 +/- 12.06 years and had a BMI of 31.4 +/- 6.35. There were significant differences at baseline between groups for weight, SWN total score and other factors. Stepwise logistic models controlling for baseline covariates yielded an adjusted non-significant association between SfW program participation and response in subjective well-being (SWN increase). However, statistically significant associations were found between program participation and weight-response (weight loss or gain weight and WC but not with improved subjective well-being as measured with the SWN scale.

  15. Perception of parents as demonstrating the inherent merit of their values: relations with self-congruence and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shi; Assor, Avi; Liu, Xiangping

    2015-02-01

    This study focuses on the parenting practice of inherent value demonstration (IVD), involving parents' tendency to express their values in behaviours and appear satisfied and vital while doing so. Data from Chinese college students (n = 89) confirmed the hypothesis that offspring's perception of their parents as engaged in IVD predicts offspring's subjective well-being (SWB) through sense of self-congruence. Importantly, these relations emerged also when controlling for fundamental autonomy-supportive (FAS) parenting practices such as taking children's perspective, minimising control and allowing choice. These findings are consistent with the view that parents concerned with their children's sense of autonomy may do well to engage in IVD in addition to more fundamental autonomy-supportive practices. Future research may examine the role of IVD in promoting authentic values that serve as an internal compass that guides children to act in ways that feel self-congruent. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  16. Gambling cognition and subjective well-being as mediators between perceived stress and problem gambling: a cross-cultural study on White and Chinese problem gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Oei, Tian Po

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to delineate various pathways whereby cognitive and emotional vulnerabilities triggered by stress would lead to disruptive gambling. A multiple mediation framework was proposed to specify that gambling cognition and subjective well-being would mediate the influence of perceived stress on problem gambling. The cross-cultural validity of the proposed framework was examined with 132 White gamblers in Australia and 154 Chinese gamblers in China. They completed psychological scales on perceived stress, gambling expectancy bias, gambling refusal efficacy, negative affect, life satisfaction, and problem gambling. Compared to Chinese gamblers, White gamblers reported higher levels of perceived stress, gambling expectancy bias, and problem gambling as well as more pervasive negative affect and lower levels of life satisfaction. Results showed that the proposed multiple mediation framework fit the data better than two alternative plausible models. Life satisfaction and gambling refusal efficacy were two consistent mediators across White and Chinese gamblers. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Subjective well-being among family caregivers of individuals with developmental disabilities: the role of affiliate stigma and psychosocial moderating variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Shirli; Shulman, Cory

    2013-11-01

    Studies have shown that stigmatization is linked to lower quality of life; however, only scant research has examined the association between family caregivers' internalization of stigma (affiliate stigma) and their subjective quality of life (subjective well-being, SWB). Furthermore, studies have rarely examined this association via comparison between caregivers of individuals with different developmental disabilities in addition to examining the influence of psychosocial protective factors. These were the aims of the current study. Family caregivers (N=176) of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), intellectual disabilities (ID), and physical disabilities (PD) completed a self-report structured questionnaire including scales measuring SWB, affiliate stigma, burden, positive meaning in caregiving, social support and self-esteem. Results showed that SWB of family caregivers was below the average normative level and especially low for caregivers of individuals with ASD. The strongest predictors of SWB were caregivers' self-esteem, social support, positive meaning in caregiving, and affiliate stigma. Furthermore, an interaction was found between affiliate stigma and diagnosis, showing that among caregivers of individuals with ASD, greater levels of stigma were associated with lower ratings of SWB, whereas such an association was not found among caregivers of individuals with ID or PD. Findings from this study point to the importance of supporting caregivers across the life-span in order to decrease stigma, improve social support and self-esteem and improve SWB. Further, findings point to the need to respond differentially to the various developmental disabilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Autonomy Support and Intrinsic Goal Progress Expectancy and Its Links to Longitudinal Study Effort and Subjective Wellbeing: The Differential Mediating Effect of Intrinsic and Identified Regulations and the Moderator Effects of Effort and Intrinsic Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaler, Rune; Halvari, Halgeir; Skjesol, Knut; Bagoien, Tor Egil

    2013-01-01

    The authors tested a self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) process model of subjective wellbeing among students at Norwegian Folk High Schools. In this model the authors hypothesized that students' intrinsic goal progress expectancy in the chosen study activity and perceived autonomy support from teachers would be positively associated…

  19. The Mediating Roles of Upward Social Comparison and Self-esteem and the Moderating Role of Social Comparison Orientation in the Association between Social Networking Site Usage and Subjective Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Liang; Wang, Hai-Zhen; Gaskin, James; Hawk, Skyler

    2017-01-01

    The increased pervasiveness of social media use has raised questions about potential effects on users' subjective well-being, with studies reaching contrasting conclusions. To reconcile these discrepancies and shed new light on this phenomenon, the current study examined: (1) whether upward social comparison and self-esteem mediate the association between social networking site (SNS) usage and users' subjective well-being, and (2) whether the association between SNS usage and upward social comparison is moderated by users' social comparison orientation. Data from 696 participants were collected. Structural equation modeling revealed that upward social comparison and self-esteem mediated the relationship between SNS usage and users' subjective well-being. We found that social comparison orientation moderated the association between passive SNS usage and users' upward social comparison. Specifically, social comparison orientation strengthened the association between passive SNS usage and upward social comparison. The results might suggest a process through which passive SNS usage is related to subjective well-being, and identify a context under which these associations may differ.

  20. Migrants’ pursuit of happiness : An analysis of the effects of adaptation, social comparison and economic integration on subjective well-being on the basis of German panel data for 1990–2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melzer, Silvia; Muffels, R.J.A.

    2017-01-01

    German reunification provides a unique opportunity to investigate the effects of migration on subjective well-being (SWB) on the basis of longitudinal pre- and post-migration data. Our main goal is to assess the effects of adaptation, social comparison and economic integration on the change in SWB

  1. The Mediating Roles of Upward Social Comparison and Self-esteem and the Moderating Role of Social Comparison Orientation in the Association between Social Networking Site Usage and Subjective Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Liang Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The increased pervasiveness of social media use has raised questions about potential effects on users’ subjective well-being, with studies reaching contrasting conclusions. To reconcile these discrepancies and shed new light on this phenomenon, the current study examined: (1 whether upward social comparison and self-esteem mediate the association between social networking site (SNS usage and users’ subjective well-being, and (2 whether the association between SNS usage and upward social comparison is moderated by users’ social comparison orientation. Data from 696 participants were collected. Structural equation modeling revealed that upward social comparison and self-esteem mediated the relationship between SNS usage and users’ subjective well-being. We found that social comparison orientation moderated the association between passive SNS usage and users’ upward social comparison. Specifically, social comparison orientation strengthened the association between passive SNS usage and upward social comparison. The results might suggest a process through which passive SNS usage is related to subjective well-being, and identify a context under which these associations may differ.

  2. The Mediating Roles of Upward Social Comparison and Self-esteem and the Moderating Role of Social Comparison Orientation in the Association between Social Networking Site Usage and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Liang; Wang, Hai-Zhen; Gaskin, James; Hawk, Skyler

    2017-01-01

    The increased pervasiveness of social media use has raised questions about potential effects on users’ subjective well-being, with studies reaching contrasting conclusions. To reconcile these discrepancies and shed new light on this phenomenon, the current study examined: (1) whether upward social comparison and self-esteem mediate the association between social networking site (SNS) usage and users’ subjective well-being, and (2) whether the association between SNS usage and upward social comparison is moderated by users’ social comparison orientation. Data from 696 participants were collected. Structural equation modeling revealed that upward social comparison and self-esteem mediated the relationship between SNS usage and users’ subjective well-being. We found that social comparison orientation moderated the association between passive SNS usage and users’ upward social comparison. Specifically, social comparison orientation strengthened the association between passive SNS usage and upward social comparison. The results might suggest a process through which passive SNS usage is related to subjective well-being, and identify a context under which these associations may differ. PMID:28553256

  3. Parents' Discord and Divorce, Parent-Child Relationships and Subjective Well-Being in Early Adulthood: Is Feeling Close to Two Parents Always Better than Feeling Close to One?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolewski, Juliana M.; Amato, Paul R.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the associations between parents' marital discord and divorce, patterns of parent-child relationships, and adult children's subjective well-being. Parental divorce and marital conflict appeared to increase the odds that children were close to neither parent in adulthood. Parental divorce (but not marital conflict) appeared to increase…

  4. Individual- and Neighbourhood-Level Indicators of Subjective Well-Being in a Small and Poor Eastern Cape Township: The Effect of Health, Social Capital, Marital Status, and Income

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, J. M.; Moller, V.; Nieboer, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Our study used multilevel regression analysis to identify individual- and neighbourhood-level factors that determine individual-level subjective well-being in Rhini, a deprived suburb of Grahamstown in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The Townsend index and Gini coefficient were used to investigate whether contextual neighbourhood-level…

  5. Gender differences in subjective well-being, self-esteem and psychosocial functioning in adolescents with symptoms of anxiety and depression: findings from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derdikman-Eiron, Ruth; Indredavik, Marit S; Bratberg, Grete H; Taraldsen, Gunnar; Bakken, Inger Johanne; Colton, Matthew

    2011-06-01

    Gender differences in the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression during adolescence are well documented. However, little attention has been given to differences in subjective well-being, self-esteem and psychosocial functioning between boys and girls with symptoms of anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the associations between such symptoms and subjective well-being, self-esteem, school functioning and social relations in adolescents. Data were taken from a major population-based Norwegian study, the Nord-Trøndelag Health study (HUNT), in which 8984 (91% of all invited) adolescents, aged 13-19 years, completed an extensive self-report questionnaire. Although prevalence rates of symptoms of anxiety and depression were higher in girls than in boys, a significant interaction between gender and symptoms of anxiety and depression was found in respect of each of the following outcome variables: subjective well-being, self-esteem, academic problems, frequency of meeting friends and the feeling of not having enough friends. These interactions indicate that the associations between symptoms of anxiety and depression and lower subjective well-being and self-esteem, more academic problems in school and lower social functioning were stronger for boys than for girls. Our findings may contribute to an earlier assessment and more efficient treatment of male adolescent anxiety and depression. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  6. The Impact of Affiliate Stigma on the Psychological Well-Being of Mothers of Children with Specific Learning Disabilities in India: The Mediating Role of Subjective Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banga, Gazal; Ghosh, Subharati

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of the impact of affiliate stigma on the wellbeing of caregivers to children with specific learning disability (SLD) in India is limited. To fill in this gap in knowledge a cross-sectional quantitative study was undertaken to assess the impact of affiliate stigma on the psychological well-being of mothers with children with…

  7. Wellbeing Perception of Institutional Caregivers Working for People with Disabilities: Use of Subjective Happiness Scale and Satisfaction with Life Scale Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Pei-Ying; Wu, Chia-Ling

    2010-01-01

    Little scientific research has focused on the measure of how positive wellbeing of people caring for people with disabilities. The purposes of the present study are to explore the wellbeing perception and its determinants of caregivers who caring for people with disability. We employed a cross-sectional, self-administrative structured…

  8. The Value of a Well-Being Improvement Strategy: Longitudinal Success across Subjective and Objective Measures Observed in a Firm Adopting a Consumer-Driven Health Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaobo; Coberley, Carter; Pope, James E; Wells, Aaron

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate effectiveness of a firm's 5-year strategy toward improving well-being while lowering health care costs amidst adoption of a Consumer-Driven Health Plan. Repeated measures statistical models were employed to test and quantify association between key demographic factors, employment type, year, individual well-being, and outcomes of health care costs, obesity, smoking, absence, and performance. Average individual well-being trended upward by 13.5% over 5 years, monthly allowed amount health care costs declined 5.2% on average per person per year, and obesity and smoking rates declined by 4.8 and 9.7%, respectively, on average each year. The results show that individual well-being was significantly associated with each outcome and in the expected direction. The firm's strategy was successful in driving statistically significant, longitudinal well-being, biometric and productivity improvements, and health care cost reduction.

  9. [Is subjective well-being perceived by non-health care workers different from that perceived by nurses? Relation with personality and resilience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrogante, O; Pérez-García, A M

    2013-01-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB), usually called 'happiness', is influenced directly by psychological factors. Personality and resilience (capacity of recover from adversity) are included among these factors. Empirical evidence has demonstrated that resilience is an essential and inherent characteristic for the nursery staff. This study has aimed to analyze personality factors (including resilience) related with SWB (satisfaction with life, positive and negative affect) in a nursery staff sample (n=59) of intensive care and cardiological units, and a non-health care workers sample (n=50) mainly made up of government employees and teachers. Multiple regression analyses showed that SWB was associated with more resilience and less neuroticism in the nursery staff. Extraversion and conscientiousness (positively related), and neuroticism (negatively related) were the significant predictors of SWB in the non-health care workers group. Finally, mediational analyses revealed that resilience measured the relationships between extraversion (total mediation) and neuroticism (partial mediation) with SWB in the nursery staff group, but not in the group of non-health care workers. The results show the importance of resilience for nursery staff of intensive care units, since they are constantly exposed to human suffering and to a continually adverse occupational environment. Likewise, the discussion stresses that resilience is a means for nursing staff to cope with the occupational stress and that resilient nurses are a crucial element in our health care system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  10. The psychological portrait as a tool to improve the subjective well-being of the client in the context of personal sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiseleva Elena S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The definition of the concept of relationship marketing is discussed. The notion of personal sale, which emphasizes the importance of knowing the psychology of customers, the ability to demonstrate significant competence and knowledge of modern techniques in sales by the seller is represented. The theory of marketing introduced by the concept of a "personal agent", most accurately reflects the activity of the seller in the context of relationship marketing. The necessity of the application of psychology in marketing is proved. This brief description of the four basic psychological concepts, which are the basis of the marketing strategy, is clarified by leading marketers. The three areas of application of differential psychology in marketing are suggested. The basis of the psychological techniques is represented by the typical characteristics of a person. The first point of the customer portrait is showed by the theory of spirits. The second point of psychological portrait is based on the theory of Socionics. The third point of the customer portrait refers to the theory of the types of perception of the world. Three stages of the process of building a psychological portrait of the client are proposed and described. Recommendations for dealing with clients of different psychological types are discussed. A technique of creation a psychological portrait of the client allows improving subjective well-being of customers and promotes the growth of the main indicators characterizing the effectiveness of personal sales.

  11. The Mediating Roles of Primary and Secondary Control in the Relationship between Body Satisfaction and Subjective Well-Being Among Middle-Aged and Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Ashli D; Konnert, Candace A; Speirs, Calandra E C

    2017-07-01

    This study examined primary and secondary control as mediators in the relationship between body satisfaction and subjective well-being (SWB) and explored age differences in the mediation model. Data from 362 women, aged 40-91 years, assessed (i) the relationships between body satisfaction, age, primary and secondary control strategies (body-specific social comparison, acceptance, and positive reappraisal), and three indices of SWB (positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction), (ii) the mediation effects of primary and secondary control on the relationship between body satisfaction and SWB, and (iii) whether mediational relationships were moderated by age. Body satisfaction was unrelated to age but positively related to positive affect and life satisfaction and negatively related to negative affect. Body satisfaction was also related to primary and secondary control strategies. There were significant indirect (mediated) effects of body satisfaction on all outcome variables through acceptance and positive reappraisal. These mediators were significant at all age levels, but exerted their strongest influence among younger women. This study provides new information about the mechanisms that influence the relationship between body satisfaction and SWB among a broad age range of women who are experiencing physical changes that are inconsistent with Western beauty standards. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. [The role of cognitive emotional self-regulation in adolescence in levels of depression, psychosomatic symptoms and subjective well-being].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriston, Pálma; Pikó, Bettina

    More and more studies suggest that mental health may be determined by processes of emotional self-regulation. Emotion regulation is a complex concept which can be explicit and implicit and includes different cognitive and behavioral processes: evaluation, modifying of emotional reaction to accomplish goals. Our research aim was to explore the use of cognitive emotional self-regulation strategies related to mental health indicators among adolescents. The youth study was performed with a sample size of 1245 participants in Makó, in 2016. Data collection was based on self-administrated questionnaries that contained items on mental health, subjective well-being and background of sociodemographics. The data were compared on the basis of gender differences and tested by multiple linear regression analysis to map associations between the regulation strategies and mental health indicators: depression, psychosomatic symptoms, satisfaction with life. Girls reported higher levels of depression and psychosomatic symptoms and lower satisfaction with life than boys. Significant differences were observed between boys and girls in using rumination, positive refocusing, selfblame, others-blame and putting into perspective regulation strategy. In addition the nonadaptive strategies were proved to be related to higher depression and psychosomatic symptom scores, whereas adaptive strategies to higher level of satisfaction with life in both boys and girls. The study draws attention to the importance of cognitive emotion regulation strategies from the point of view of mental health and to explore the background factors of cognitive processes of emotional self-regulation.

  13. Memories of Holocaust-related traumatic experiences, sense of coherence, and survivors' subjective well-being in late life: some puzzling findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidner, Moshe; Aharoni-David, Eynat

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the nexus of relationships between memories of Holocaust-related early traumatic events, survivors' sense of coherence (SOC), and subjective well-being (SWB) in late life. The basic design of this study, based 106 survivors (54% female), was cross-sectional. Participants underwent an extensive in-depth clinical interview relating to their Holocaust experiences and responded to measures of SOC and SWB. These data provided no evidence for the moderating or "buffering" effect of SOC but showed support for indirect effects of SOC in the relationship between memory traces of specific traumatic experiences and adaptive outcomes. The results of the present study provide support for Antonovsky's salutogenic perspective. It is highly plausible that survivors who underwent severe experiences during the Holocaust period were forced to call upon all their inner strengths and coping resources,and that their success in doing so and also surviving this horrendous period, might have contributed to the development of a stronger sense of meaning and coherence, which, in turn lead to a better sense of mental health as they approach the final season of their lives.

  14. The Scandinavian Solutions for Wellness study - a two-arm observational study on the effectiveness of lifestyle intervention on subjective well-being and weight among persons with psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Harriet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solutions for Wellness (SfW is an educational 3-month program concerning nutrition and exercise for persons with psychiatric disorders on psychotropic medication, who have weight problems. This observational study assessed the impact of SfW on subjective well-being, weight and waist circumference (WC. Methods Data was collected at 49 psychiatric clinics. Where the SfW program was offered patients could enter the intervention group; where not, the control group. Subjective well-being was measured by the Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptics scale (SWN, at baseline, at the end of SfW participation, and at a follow-up 6 months after baseline. Demographic, disease and treatment data was also collected. Results 314 patients enrolled in the SfW group, 59 in the control group. 54% of the patients had schizophrenia, 67% received atypical antipsychotics, 56% were female. They averaged 41 ± 12.06 years and had a BMI of 31.4 ± 6.35. There were significant differences at baseline between groups for weight, SWN total score and other factors. Stepwise logistic models controlling for baseline covariates yielded an adjusted non-significant association between SfW program participation and response in subjective well-being (SWN increase. However, statistically significant associations were found between program participation and weight-response (weight loss or gain Conclusions SfW program participation was associated with maintaining or decreasing weight and WC but not with improved subjective well-being as measured with the SWN scale.

  15. Methods of Information Subjects and Objects Interaction Rules Formalization in the Electronic Trading Platform System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Emanuilova Yandybaeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The methods of information subjects and objects interaction rules formalization in the electronic trading platform system has been developed. They are based on mathematical model of mandatory role-based access control. As a result of the work we have defined set of user roles and constructed roles hierarchy. For the roles hierarchy restrictions have been imposed to ensure the safety of the information system.

  16. The use of audiovisual media in adolescence and its relationship with subjective well-being: A qualitative analysis from an intergenerational and gender perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Malo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a qualitative research that explores, from an intergenerational and gender perspective, how the use of audiovisual media influences to personal well-being in adolescence. Three, semi-structured group interviews were used with adolescent girls (aged 12 to 18 years, and two with mothers of boys and girls of those ages. The results show that interpersonal relationships are one of the factors that greatly contribute to the adolescents’ well-being. Girls said that the use of technology generates personal well-being because it allows them to maintain interpersonal relationships with their peers. The mothers, however, question whether overuse of technology can contribute to their personal well-being. On the other hand, girls and mothers agree to comment that the use of technology hinders the relationships that adolescents have with their parents. 

  17. Participant experiences from chronic administration of a multivitamin versus placebo on subjective health and wellbeing: a double-blind qualitative analysis of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarris Jerome

    2012-12-01

    group having minor digestive complaints. Conclusion This represents the first documented qualitative investigation of participants’ experience of chronic administration of a multivitamin. Results uncovered a range of subjective beneficial effects that are consistent with quantitative data from previously published randomised controlled trials examining the effects of multivitamins and B vitamin complexes on mood and well-being. Trial registration Prior to commencement this trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (http://www.anzctr.org.au ACTRN12611000092998

  18. The control processes and subjective well-being of Chinese teachers: Evidence of convergence with and divergence from the key propositions of the motivational theory of life-span development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Chi eWong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An analytical review of the motivational theory of life-span development reveals that this theory has undergone a series of elegant theoretical integrations. Its claim to universality nonetheless brings forth unresolved controversies. With the purpose of scrutinizing the key propositions of this theory, an empirical study was designed to examine the control processes and subjective well-being of Chinese teachers (N = 637. The OPS-Scales (Optimization in Primary and Secondary Control Scales for the Domain of Teaching were constructed to assess patterns of control processes. Three facets of subjective well-being were investigated with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Life Satisfaction Scale, and the Subjective Vitality Scale. The results revealed certain aspects of alignment with and certain divergences from the key propositions of the motivational theory of life-span development. Neither primacy of primary control nor primacy of secondary control was clearly supported. Notably, using different criteria for subjective well-being yielded different subtypes of primary and secondary control as predictors. The hypothesized life-span trajectories of primary and secondary control received limited support. To advance the theory in this area, we recommend incorporating Lakatos’ ideas about sophisticated falsification by specifying the hard core of the motivational theory of life-span development and articulating new auxiliary hypotheses.

  19. Personality correlates of the Five-Factor Model for a sample of business owners/managers: associations with scores on Self-Monitoring, Type A Behavior, Locus of Control, and Subjective Well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, K A

    1997-02-01

    Bivariate relationships were examined between scores on the Five-Factor Model of personality and four personality dimensions including Self-monitoring, Locus of Control, Type A Behavior, and Subjective Well-being. Data were collected from 307 franchise business owner/managers from four different industries. Scores for Self-monitoring were positively related to those on Extraversion; Self-monitoring was the only personality measure significantly correlated with scores on Openness to Experience. Scores for Type A Behavior, measured by the Jenkins Activity Survey, were negatively correlated with Agreeableness and positively correlated with those for Extraversion. Somewhat surprisingly, the score for Type A Behavior had a relatively low correlation with the score for Conscientiousness. Scores for Subjective Well-being and Locus of Control were most strongly correlated with the positive pole of Neuroticism (Emotional Stability), Conscientiousness, and Extraversion. Possible explanations for the observed relationships are discussed.

  20. The impact of night work on subjective reports of well-being: an exploratory study of health care workers from five nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald I Tepas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To carry out a survey data collection from health care workers in Brazil, Croatia, Poland, Ukraine and the USA with two primary goals: (1 to provide information about which aspects of well-being are most likely to need attention when shiftwork management solutions are being developed, and (2 to explore whether nations are likely to differ with respect to the impacts of night work on the well-being of workers involved in health care work. METHODS: The respondents from each nation were sorted into night worker and non-night worker groups. Worker perceptions of being physically tired, mentally tired, and tense at the end of the workday were examined. Subjective reports of perceived felt age were also studied. For each of these four dependent variables, an ANCOVA analysis was carried out. Hours worked per week, stability of weekly work schedule, and chronological age were the covariates for these analyses. RESULTS: The results clearly support the general proposal that nations differ significantly in worker perceptions of well-being. In addition, perceptions of physical and mental tiredness at the end of the workday were higher for night workers. For the perception of being physically tired at the end of a workday, the manner and degree to which the night shift impacts the workers varies by nation. CONCLUSIONS: Additional research is needed to determine if the nation and work schedule differences observed are related to differences in job tasks, work schedule structure, off-the-job variables, and/or other worker demographic variables.OBJETIVO: Coletar dados de pesquisa de profissionais da saúde no Brasil, Croácia, Polônia, Ucrânia e Estados Unidos com duas metas principais: (1 proporcionar informações quanto a aspectos do bem-estar que mais provavelmente precisam de atenção durante a elaboração de soluções administrativas para os turnos de trabalho e (2 examinar a existência de possíveis diferenças entre os países quanto ao